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Sample records for temporally separate traction

  1. Traction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BD, Jupiter JB, Krettek C, Anderson PA, eds. Skeletal Trauma: Basic Science, Management, and Reconstruction . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 33. Catapang G. Traction. In: Lennard TA, Walkowski S, Singla AK, Vivian DG, ...

  2. Spatial and temporal traction response in human airway smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolic-Norrelykke, Iva Marija; Butler, James P.; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Ning

    2002-01-01

    Tractions that cells exert on their substrates are essential in cell spreading, migration, and contraction. These tractions can be determined by plating the cells on a flexible gel and measuring the deformation of the gel by using fluorescent beads embedded just below the surface of the gel. In this article we describe the image correlation method (ICM) optimized for determining the displacement field of the gel under a contracting cell. For the calculation of the traction field from the displacement field we use the recently developed method of Fourier transform traction cytometry (FTTC). The ICM and FTTC methods are applied to human airway smooth muscle cells during stimulation with the contractile agonist histamine or the relaxing agonist isoproterenol. The overall intensity of the cell contraction (the median traction magnitude, the energy transferred from the cell to the gel, and the net contractile moment) increased after activation with histamine, and decreased after treatment with isoproterenol. Cells exhibited regional differences in the time course of traction during the treatment. Both temporal evolution and magnitude of traction increase induced by histamine varied markedly among different cell protrusions, whereas the nuclear region showed the smallest response. These results suggest that intracellular mediators of cell adhesion and contraction respond to contractile stimuli with different rates and intensities in different regions of the cell.

  3. Evaluation of plasticity and radiopacity of elastic separators by means of traction tests and radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Frota Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Elastic separators are widely used in the orthodontic clinic, in different sizes and thicknesses. Their function is to promote the separation between the teeth that will receive orthodontic bands, however, when subgingivally lost, they may cause periodontal problems and, ultimately, cause tooth extraction. OBJECTIVE: Concerned not only about their function but also about their properties, this experimental work was performed in order to evaluate, with a clinical perspective, the plasticity and radiopacity of the elastic separators, usually used in orthodontic clinic, through physical traction tests and radiographs. METHODS: Six different brands were analyzed and divided in two groups: extruded separators (American Orthodontics, GH, Morelli Blue and Morelli Green and modular separators (Abzil, Dentaurum, GAC, Blue Modular Morelli and Green Modular Morelli. The plasticity was evaluated after physical traction tests, stretching the separators to 3 times their initial diameter. While the radiopacity was assessed using x-rays. RESULTS: When stretched to three times their inner diameter (ID, the extruded separators American Orthodontics, GH, Morelli Blue and Morelli Green and the modular ones Dentaurum, Morelli Blue Modular and Morelli Green Modular, presented elastic deformation, recovering their original inner diameter. The modular separators from Abzil and GAC showed permanent plastic deformation. With respect to radiopacity, the Abzil, American Orthodontics, Dentaurum, GAC and GH separators were radiopaque. CONCLUSION: Correlating the results concerning the plasticity and radiopacity, the separators which showed the most satisfactory results on both tests were, among the extruded separators, American Orthodontics and GH, and among the modular separators, GAC and Dentaurum.INTRODUÇÃO: os separadores elásticos são amplamente usados na clínica ortodôntica, em diferentes tamanhos e espessuras. Sua função é promover a separa

  4. Blind source separation using temporal predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J V

    2001-07-01

    A measure of temporal predictability is defined and used to separate linear mixtures of signals. Given any set of statistically independent source signals, it is conjectured here that a linear mixture of those signals has the following property: the temporal predictability of any signal mixture is less than (or equal to) that of any of its component source signals. It is shown that this property can be used to recover source signals from a set of linear mixtures of those signals by finding an un-mixing matrix that maximizes a measure of temporal predictability for each recovered signal. This matrix is obtained as the solution to a generalized eigenvalue problem; such problems have scaling characteristics of O(N3), where N is the number of signal mixtures. In contrast to independent component analysis, the temporal predictability method requires minimal assumptions regarding the probability density functions of source signals. It is demonstrated that the method can separate signal mixtures in which each mixture is a linear combination of source signals with supergaussian, subgaussian, and gaussian probability density functions and on mixtures of voices and music.

  5. Skeletal traction versus external fixation in the initial temporization of femoral shaft fractures in severely injured patients.

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    Scannell, Brian P; Waldrop, Norman E; Sasser, Howell C; Sing, Ronald F; Bosse, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    : Damage control with external fixation (DC-EF) of femoral shaft fractures in polytrauma patients is becoming standard treatment in many trauma centers. However, skeletal traction (ST) has long been used in the temporization of fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the major physiologic clinical outcomes of provisional ST with DC-EF of femoral shaft fractures in severely injured patients. : We retrospectively reviewed 205 patients sustaining blunt trauma, a femoral shaft fracture, and an Injury Severity Score > or =17 from 2001 to 2007 at a level I trauma center. Patients underwent definitive fixation in the first 24 hours with intramedullary nailing (IMN) (N = 126), initial DC-EF with delayed definitive treatment (N = 19), or initial ST with delayed definitive treatment (N = 60). Incidences of adult respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure, sepsis, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and deep vein thrombosis were evaluated. Length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit LOS, days of mechanical ventilation, and mortality were also compared. : There were no significant differences between ST and DC-EF groups in age, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale score on arrival, mean time to definitive fixation (4.1 days versus 5.0 days, respectively), or Abbreviated Injury Scale for chest. However, the ST group had a higher Abbreviated Injury Scale-head (2.5 versus 1.0, p = 0.0026). There were no significant differences in subsequent rates of adult respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, pneumonia, mechanical ventilation days, intensive care unit LOS, and death. However, the ST group had a lower rate of sepsis (8.3% versus 31.6%, p = 0.0194) and a shorter LOS (26.5 days versus 36.2 days, p = 0.0237) than the EF group. : DC-EF of femur fractures in severely injured patients offers no significant advantage in clinical outcomes compared with ST. Unless initially subjected to

  6. Review of Lower Extremity Traction in Current Orthopaedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matullo, Kristofer S; Gangavalli, Anup; Nwachuku, Chinenye

    2016-09-01

    Although methods of traction for temporizing and definitive treatment of orthopaedic injuries are described in dated textbooks, current literature and recommendations on the use of skin and skeletal traction in orthopaedic trauma are lacking. Elaborate traction schemas have been described, but few of them have been retained in practice and even fewer have been supported by scientific data. Several options exist for traction modalities that involve the pelvis and lower extremities, including portable traction devices and traction pins.

  7. Griffiths phase and temporal effects in phase separated manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivoruchko, V.N., E-mail: krivoruc@krivoruc.fti.ac.donetsk.ua; Marchenko, M.A.

    2016-08-15

    . - Highlights: • Non equilibrium phenomena near the magnetic transition temperature are discussed. • Temporal effects can be considered as a key feature of the Griffiths phase existence. • Time relaxation effects are able to unveil a dynamic nature of phase separated state.

  8. Evaluation of Interlaminar Stresses in Composite Laminates with a Bolt-Filled Hole Using a Linear Elastic Traction-Separation Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the local interlaminar stress distribution in a laminate with a bolt-filled hole is helpful for optimal bolted joint design, due to the three-dimensional (3D nature of the stress field near the bolt hole. A new interlaminar stress distribution phenomenon induced by the bolt-head and clamp-up load, which occurs in a filled-hole composite laminate, is investigated. In order to efficiently evaluate interlaminar stresses under the complex boundary condition, a calculation strategy that using zero-thickness cohesive interface element is presented and validated. The interface element is based on a linear elastic traction-separation description. It is found that the interlaminar stress concentrations occur at the hole edge, as well as the interior of the laminate near the periphery of the bolt head. In addition, the interlaminar stresses near the periphery of the bolt head increased with an increase in the clamp-up load, and the interlaminar normal and shear stresses are not at the same circular position. Therefore, the clamp-up load cannot improve the interlaminar stress distribution in the laminate near the periphery of the bolt head, although it can reduce the magnitude of the interlaminar shear stress at the hole edge. Thus, the interlaminar stress distribution phenomena may lead to delamination initiation in the laminate near the periphery of the bolt head, and should be considered in composite bolted joint design.

  9. Autonomous signal separation microphone system based on the spatio-temporal gradient analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Kenbu; Tsuruta, Kosuke

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a novel autonomous directivity microphone system based on the newly proposed spatio-temporal blind source separation. Recently, the methods of blind source separation and multi-deconvolution of source signals have been proposed in various fields, especially, acoustic applications including the cocktail-party problem. The blind source separation principally uses no a priori knowledge about parameters of convolution, filtering and mixing. In the simplest case of the blind source separation problems, observed mixed signals are linear combinations of unknown mutually statistically independent, zero-mean source signals. The spatio-temporal blind signal separation algorithm utilizes the linearity among the four signals: (1) temporal gradient, (2) x; (3) y; and (4) z-directional spatial gradients of the sound-pressure, all of which are governed by the equation of advection. The proposed method, therefore, has an ability to simplify the convolution blind source separation problems into the instantaneous blind source separation over the spatio-temporal gradient space. The acoustical experiments are performed with the particle velocity microphone (Microflown) successfully instead of sound pressure microphones. Because, x; y; and z-directional gradients of the sound pressure are equivalent the temporal derivatives of the corresponding directional particle velocities theoretically.

  10. Feeling better: Separate pathways for targeted enhancement of spatial and temporal touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jeffrey M.; Celnik, Pablo; Hsiao, Steven S.; Desmond, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We perceive spatial form and temporal frequency by touch. Although distinct somatosensory neurons represent spatial and temporal information, these neural populations are intermixed throughout the somatosensory system. Here, we show that spatial and temporal touch can be dissociated and separately enhanced via cortical pathways that are normally associated with vision and audition. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over visual cortex, but not auditory cortex, enhances tactile perception of spatial orientation. In Experiments 3 and 4, we found that anodal tDCS over auditory cortex, but not visual cortex, enhances tactile perception of temporal frequency. This double-dissociation reveals separate cortical pathways that selectively support spatial and temporal channels. These results bolster the emerging view that sensory areas process multiple modalities and suggest that supramodal domains may be more fundamental to cortical organizational. PMID:24390826

  11. Effect of temporal separation on synchronization in rhythmic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Chris; Cáceres, Juan-Pablo; Gurevich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A variety of short time delays inserted between pairs of subjects were found to affect their ability to synchronize a musical task. The subjects performed a clapping rhythm together from separate sound-isolated rooms via headphones and without visual contact. One-way time delays between pairs were manipulated electronically in the range of 3 to 78 ms. We are interested in quantifying the envelope of time delay within which two individuals produce synchronous performances. The results indicate that there are distinct regimes of mutually coupled behavior, and that 'natural time delay'--delay within the narrow range associated with travel times across spatial arrangements of groups and ensembles--supports the most stable performance. Conditions outside of this envelope, with time delays both below and above it, create characteristic interaction dynamics in the mutually coupled actions of the duo. Trials at extremely short delays (corresponding to unnaturally close proximity) had a tendency to accelerate from anticipation. Synchronization lagged at longer delays (larger than usual physical distances) and produced an increasingly severe deceleration and then deterioration of performed rhythms. The study has implications for music collaboration over the Internet and suggests that stable rhythmic performance can be achieved by 'wired ensembles' across distances of thousands of kilometers.

  12. Anterior temporal artery tap to identify systemic interference using short-separation NIRS measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sood, Mehak; Jindal, Utkarsh; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy

    2015-01-01

    that are also affected by tDCS. An approach may be to use short optode separations to measure systemic hemodynamic fluctuations occurring in the superficial layers which can then be used as regressors to remove the systemic contamination. Here, we demonstrate that temporal artery tap may be used to better...... change in the mean rSO2 better correlated with the corresponding percent change in log-transformed mean-power of EEG within 0.5 Hz-11.25 Hz frequency band after removing the systemic contamination using the temporal artery tap method. Based on our findings, we propose that anterior temporal artery tap...

  13. Regression analysis of traction characteristics of traction fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Rohn, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Traction data for Santotrac 50 and TDF-88 over a wide range of operating conditions were analyzed. An eight term correlation equation to predict the maximum traction coefficient and a six term correlation equation to predict the initial slope of the traction curve were developed. The slope correlation was corrected for size effect considering the compliance of the disks. The effects of different operating conditions on the traction performance of each traction fluid were studied. Both fluids exhibited a loss in traction with increases in spin, but the losses with the TDF-88 fluid were not as severe as those with Santotrac 50. Overall, both fluids exhibited similar performance, showing an increase in traction with contact pressure up to about 2.0 GPa, and a reduction in traction with higher surface speeds up to about 100 m/sec. The apparent stiffness of the traction contact, that is, film disk combination, increases with contact pressure and decreases with speed.

  14. A Separation Algorithm for Sources with Temporal Structure Only Using Second-order Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike conventional blind source separation (BSS deals with independent identically distributed (i.i.d. sources, this paper addresses the separation from mixtures of sources with temporal structure, such as linear autocorrelations. Many sequential extraction algorithms have been reported, resulting in inevitable cumulated errors introduced by the deflation scheme. We propose a robust separation algorithm to recover original sources simultaneously, through a joint diagonalizer of several average delayed covariance matrices at positions of the optimal time delay and its integers. The proposed algorithm is computationally simple and efficient, since it is based on the second-order statistics only. Extensive simulation results confirm the validity and high performance of the algorithm. Compared with related extraction algorithms, its separation signal-to-noise rate for a desired source can reach 20dB higher, and it seems rather insensitive to the estimation error of the time delay.

  15. [Acute effects of mechanical lumbar traction with different intensities on stature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S; Ribeiro, F

    2011-01-01

    to compare the efficacy of mechanical lumbar traction with low (10% of body weight) and high traction force (50% of body weight) on the separation of the vertebrae in vivo using stature variations as criterion. Additionally, we aimed to determine the time that the effects of traction last. Thirty apparently healthy subjects (age: 20.9 ± 1.7 years old), 14 male and 16 female, were submitted to two protocols of 15 minutes of continuous traction (with intensity of 10% and 50% of body weight), in two sessions one week apart. The protocol order was determined randomly. Stature was assessed before and immediately after the traction and every five minutes for 30 minutes after traction ceased. Immediately after the traction both protocols induced a significant increase in stature, however the magnitude of the increase was significantly superior in the traction with 50% of body weight (0.567 ± 0.049 vs. 0.298 ± 0.041 cm, p>0.001). After the traction with 50% of body weight the increase in the stature was maintained until ten minutes after the end of the traction, while after the traction with 10% of body weight the effects on stature disappeared after five minutes. The mechanical vertebral traction of the lumbar region performed continuously with 50% of body weight during 15 minutes induced an increase in stature superior and longer in time than that observed with a traction force of 10% of body weight.

  16. Skeletal versus skin traction before definitive management of pediatric femur fractures: a comparison of patient narcotic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlaningham, Cameron J; Schaller, Thomas M; Wise, Christopher

    2009-09-01

    Pediatric patients with femoral shaft fractures are often placed in traction as a temporizing measure before definitive management. The purpose of our study was to compare narcotic use in pediatric patients with isolated femoral shaft fractures that were initially treated with skeletal traction with similar patients that were initially treated with skin traction. The hypothesis was that narcotic use would not be significantly different between the groups. Chart review at 2 institutions was carried out to identify pediatric patients with isolated femoral shaft fractures treated with either skeletal traction or skin traction. The patients' age, weight, and the amount and duration of narcotic use were recorded. A 2-sample t test was used for the comparison. Fifty-one patients were treated with skin traction and 24 patients were treated with skeletal traction. Patients in the skeletal traction group used more pain medication (0.0177 mg/kg/h in traction) than those in the skin traction group (0.0137 mg/kg/h in traction), but this was not statistically significant (P=0.1031). The findings support our hypothesis that the amount of narcotics used between the skeletal traction group and skin traction group would not be significantly different. In using narcotic requirement as a gross measure of patient comfort while in traction, it seems there may be no benefit to the patient to have invasive skeletal traction while awaiting definitive management of their fracture. Retrospective comparative study, level III.

  17. Understanding the principles of traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, D

    As the use of traction has declined in recent years, nurses' skills in this area have consequently decreased. Standards of care for patients in traction might now be called into question. This article attempts to redress this imbalance by describing the principles behind safe and effective traction.

  18. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  19. Adaptive Vehicle Traction Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyeongcheol; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    1995-01-01

    This report presents two different control algorithms for adaptive vehicle traction control, which includes wheel slip control, optimal time control, anti-spin acceleration and anti-skid control, and longitudinal platoon control. The two control algorithms are respectively based on adaptive fuzzy logic control and sliding mode control with on-line road condition estimation. Simulations of the two control methods are conducted using a complex nonlinear vehicle model as well as a simple linear ...

  20. Amplitude spectrum modulation technique for analog data processing in fiber optic sensing system with temporal separation of channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory

    1988-01-01

    A novel technique to analyze analog data in fiber optic sensing systems with temporal separation of channels is proposed. A theoretical explanation of the process is presented and an experimental setup that was used to obtain data is described.

  1. Interaction Mechanisms of Cavitation Bubbles Induced by Spatially and Temporally Separated fs-Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinne, Nadine; Kaune, Brigitte; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    The emerging use of femtosecond lasers with high repetition rates in the MHz regime together with limited scan speed implies possible mutual optical and dynamical interaction effects of the individual cutting spots. In order to get more insight into the dynamics a time-resolved photographic analysis of the interaction of cavitation bubbles is presented. Particularly, we investigated the influence of fs-laser pulses and their resulting bubble dynamics with various spatial as well as temporal separations. Different time courses of characteristic interaction effects between the cavitation bubbles were observed depending on pulse energy and spatio-temporal pulse separation. These ranged from merely no interaction to the phenomena of strong water jet formation. Afterwards, the mechanisms are discussed regarding their impact on the medical application of effective tissue cutting lateral to the laser beam direction with best possible axial precision: the mechanical forces of photodisruption as well as the occurring water jet should have low axial extend and a preferably lateral priority. Furthermore, the overall efficiency of energy conversion into controlled mechanical impact should be maximized compared to the transmitted pulse energy and unwanted long range mechanical side effects, e.g. shock waves, axial jet components. In conclusion, these experimental results are of great importance for the prospective optimization of the ophthalmic surgical process with high-repetition rate fs-lasers. PMID:25502697

  2. Interaction mechanisms of cavitation bubbles induced by spatially and temporally separated fs-laser pulses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Tinne

    Full Text Available The emerging use of femtosecond lasers with high repetition rates in the MHz regime together with limited scan speed implies possible mutual optical and dynamical interaction effects of the individual cutting spots. In order to get more insight into the dynamics a time-resolved photographic analysis of the interaction of cavitation bubbles is presented. Particularly, we investigated the influence of fs-laser pulses and their resulting bubble dynamics with various spatial as well as temporal separations. Different time courses of characteristic interaction effects between the cavitation bubbles were observed depending on pulse energy and spatio-temporal pulse separation. These ranged from merely no interaction to the phenomena of strong water jet formation. Afterwards, the mechanisms are discussed regarding their impact on the medical application of effective tissue cutting lateral to the laser beam direction with best possible axial precision: the mechanical forces of photodisruption as well as the occurring water jet should have low axial extend and a preferably lateral priority. Furthermore, the overall efficiency of energy conversion into controlled mechanical impact should be maximized compared to the transmitted pulse energy and unwanted long range mechanical side effects, e.g. shock waves, axial jet components. In conclusion, these experimental results are of great importance for the prospective optimization of the ophthalmic surgical process with high-repetition rate fs-lasers.

  3. Temporal separation of two fin whale call types across the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirović, Ana; Williams, Lauren N; Kerosky, Sara M; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2013-01-01

    Fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) produce a variety of low-frequency, short-duration, frequency-modulated calls. The differences in temporal patterns between two fin whale call types are described from long-term passive acoustic data collected intermittently between 2005 and 2011 at three locations across the eastern North Pacific: the Bering Sea, off Southern California, and in Canal de Ballenas in the northern Gulf of California. Fin whale calls were detected at all sites year-round, during all periods with recordings. At all three locations, 40-Hz calls peaked in June, preceding a peak in 20-Hz calls by 3-5 months. Monitoring both call types may provide a more accurate insight into the seasonal presence of fin whales across the eastern North Pacific than can be obtained from a single call type. The 40-Hz call may be associated with a foraging function, and temporal separation between 40- and 20-Hz calls may indicate the separation between predominately feeding behavior and other social interactions.

  4. Interaction mechanisms of cavitation bubbles induced by spatially and temporally separated fs-laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinne, Nadine; Kaune, Brigitte; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    The emerging use of femtosecond lasers with high repetition rates in the MHz regime together with limited scan speed implies possible mutual optical and dynamical interaction effects of the individual cutting spots. In order to get more insight into the dynamics a time-resolved photographic analysis of the interaction of cavitation bubbles is presented. Particularly, we investigated the influence of fs-laser pulses and their resulting bubble dynamics with various spatial as well as temporal separations. Different time courses of characteristic interaction effects between the cavitation bubbles were observed depending on pulse energy and spatio-temporal pulse separation. These ranged from merely no interaction to the phenomena of strong water jet formation. Afterwards, the mechanisms are discussed regarding their impact on the medical application of effective tissue cutting lateral to the laser beam direction with best possible axial precision: the mechanical forces of photodisruption as well as the occurring water jet should have low axial extend and a preferably lateral priority. Furthermore, the overall efficiency of energy conversion into controlled mechanical impact should be maximized compared to the transmitted pulse energy and unwanted long range mechanical side effects, e.g. shock waves, axial jet components. In conclusion, these experimental results are of great importance for the prospective optimization of the ophthalmic surgical process with high-repetition rate fs-lasers.

  5. Instrumental evaluation of traction machines sparking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolobashkin Nikita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors considered the possibility of the sparking monitoring at a commutator of a traction motor under operating conditions. The authors developed a method for the evaluation of sparking level at the commutator by means of the current flowing through separate, isolated parts of the split brush recording. The relationship between an auxiliary commutation current and the sparkling level is revealed.

  6. Herniated Lumbar Disks: Real-time MR Imaging Evaluation during Continuous Traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Sub; Yang, Hea-Eun; Ahn, Sung Jun; Park, Jung Hyun

    2015-06-01

    To assess the morphologic changes in herniated lumbar intervertebral disks and surrounding structures during lumbar traction by using real-time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Forty-eight consecutive patients with lumbar disk herniation (13 men and 35 women) were treated with continuous lumbar traction by using a nonmagnetic traction device. Real-time MR imaging of the lumbar spine was performed before the initiation of traction and at 10-minute intervals during 30 minutes of 30 kg of continuous traction. Sagittal and axial MR images were analyzed to determine qualitative changes during lumbar traction. Quantitative changes caused by traction on the lumbar spine were determined by measurement of lumbar vertebral column elongation and the disk reduction ratio. Continuous traction on herniated lumbar disks and surrounding structures resulted in change in disk shape, disk reduction with opening in the intervertebral disk, reduction of herniated disk volume, separation of the disk and adjoining nerve root, and widening of the facet joint. Both the mean lumbar vertebral column length (elongation of 1.45% after 30 minutes, P traction, respectively) increased with time of traction. The results of this study demonstrated that the real-time effects of continuous traction on herniated lumbar intervertebral disks and their surrounding structures can be visualized by using MR imaging. RSNA, 2015

  7. Vitreomacular Traction Syndrome

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    Juliana Bottós

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of new technologies such as high definition optical coherence tomography (OCT has not only provided unprecedented imaging capabilities, but also raised the need to define concepts not yet settled and often confusing such as the vitreomacular traction (VMT syndrome. While technological advances drive us into the future by clarifying the pathophysiology of many diseases and enabling novel therapeutic options, it is at the same time necessary to review basic disease concepts in addition to definitions and classifications. VMT syndrome is implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of macular disorders, translating into a variety of anatomical and functional consequences underscoring the complexity of the condition. These macular changes are closely related to the VMT configuration and have led to proposing classification of this syndrome based on OCT findings. The size and severity of the remaining vitreomacular attachment may define the specific maculopathy. Focal VMT usually leads to macular hole formation, tractional cystoid macular edema and foveal retinal detachment, while broad VMT is associated with epiretinal membranes, diffuse retinal thickening and impaired foveal depression recovery. Despite similar postoperative visual acuity (VA in focal and broad VMT subgroups, visual improvement is greater with focal VMT because preoperative VA is frequently lower. Surgical procedures are effective to relieve VMT and improve VA in most eyes; outcomes vary with VMT morphology and the duration of symptoms.

  8. Advanced Integrated Traction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Smith; Charles Gough

    2011-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy elaborates the compelling need for a commercialized competitively priced electric traction drive system to proliferate the acceptance of HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in the market. The desired end result is a technically and commercially verified integrated ETS (Electric Traction System) product design that can be manufactured and distributed through a broad network of competitive suppliers to all auto manufacturers. The objectives of this FCVT program are to develop advanced technologies for an integrated ETS capable of 55kW peak power for 18 seconds and 30kW of continuous power. Additionally, to accommodate a variety of automotive platforms the ETS design should be scalable to 120kW peak power for 18 seconds and 65kW of continuous power. The ETS (exclusive of the DC/DC Converter) is to cost no more than $660 (55kW at $12/kW) to produce in quantities of 100,000 units per year, should have a total weight less than 46kg, and have a volume less than 16 liters. The cost target for the optional Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter is $375. The goal is to achieve these targets with the use of engine coolant at a nominal temperature of 105C. The system efficiency should exceed 90% at 20% of rated torque over 10% to 100% of maximum speed. The nominal operating system voltage is to be 325V, with consideration for higher voltages. This project investigated a wide range of technologies, including ETS topologies, components, and interconnects. Each technology and its validity for automotive use were verified and then these technologies were integrated into a high temperature ETS design that would support a wide variety of applications (fuel cell, hybrids, electrics, and plug-ins). This ETS met all the DOE 2010 objectives of cost, weight, volume and efficiency, and the specific power and power density 2015 objectives. Additionally a bi-directional converter was developed that provides charging and electric power take-off which is the first step

  9. Gaussian process based independent analysis for temporal source separation in fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Ditte Høvenhoff; Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2017-01-01

    temporal nature. fMRI source signals, biological stimuli and non-stimuli-related artifacts are all smooth over a time-scale compatible with the sampling time (TR). We therefore propose Gaussian process ICA (GPICA), which facilitates temporal dependency by the use of Gaussian process source priors. On two f......MRI data sets with different sampling frequency, we show that the GPICA-inferred temporal components and associated spatial maps allow for a more definite interpretation than standard temporal ICA methods. The temporal structures of the sources are controlled by the covariance of the Gaussian process......, specified by a kernel function with an interpretable and controllable temporal length scale parameter. We propose a hierarchical model specification, considering both instantaneous and convolutive mixing, and we infer source spatial maps, temporal patterns and temporal length scale parameters by Markov...

  10. Structural and functional correlates of behavioral pattern separation in the hippocampus and medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxey, Christopher R; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-04-01

    Structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) are known to be involved in declarative memory processes. However, little is known about how age-related changes in MTL structures, white matter integrity, and functional connectivity affect pattern separation processes in the MTL. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the volumes of MTL regions of interest, including hippocampal subfields (dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, and subiculum) in healthy older and younger adults. Additionally, we used diffusion tensor imaging to measure white matter integrity for both groups. Finally, we used functional MRI to acquire resting functional connectivity measures for both groups. We show that, along with age, the volume of left CA3/dentate gyrus predicts memory performance. Differences in fractional anisotropy and the strength of resting functional connections between the hippocampus and other cortical structures implicated in memory processing were not significant predictors of performance. As previous studies have only hinted, it seems that the size of left CA3/dentate gyrus contributes more to successful discrimination between similar mnemonic representations than other hippocampal sub-fields, MTL structures, and other neuroimaging correlates. Accordingly, the implications of aging and atrophy on lure discrimination capacities are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Footwear traction and lower extremity noncontact injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannop, John W; Luo, Geng; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2013-11-01

    Football is the most popular high school sport; however, it has the highest rate of injury. Speculation has been prevalent that foot fixation due to high footwear traction contributes to injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the athlete's specific footwear traction (measured with their own shoes on the field of play) and lower extremity noncontact injury in high school football. For 3 yr, 555 high school football athletes had their footwear traction measured on the actual field of play at the start of the season, and any injury the athletes suffered during a game was recorded. Lower extremity noncontact injury rates, grouped based on the athlete's specific footwear traction (both translational and rotational), were compared. For translational traction, injury rate reached a peak of 23.3 injuries/1000 game exposures within the midrange of translational traction, before decreasing to 5.0 injuries/1000 game exposures in the high range of traction. For rotational traction, there was a steady increase in injury rate as footwear traction increased, starting at 4.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at low traction and reaching 19.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at high traction. A relationship exists between footwear traction and noncontact lower extremity injury, with increases in rotational traction leading to a greater injury rate and increases in translational traction leading to a decrease in injury. It is recommended that athletes consider selecting footwear with the lowest rotational traction values for which no detriment in performance results.

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography in Spontaneous Resolution of Vitreomacular Traction Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsuan Hung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitreomacular traction syndrome (VTS is a vitreoretinal interface abnormality. The disorder is caused by incomplete posterior vitreous detachment with persistent traction on the macula that produces symptoms and decreased vision. Most symptomatic eyes with VTS undergo a further decrease in visual acuity. Spontaneous complete vitreomacular separation occurs infrequently in eyes with VTS. Surgical intervention may be considered if severe metamorphopsia and decreased visual quality occur. Herein, we report 2 typical cases of idiopathic VTS with spontaneous resolution of vitreo-retinal traction demonstrated by optical coherence tomography. Optical coherence tomography is a sensitive and useful tool for the confirmation of diagnosis and for the serial anatomical evaluation of patients with VTS.

  13. Bitemporal hair loss related to traction alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Moreno-Arrones, Oscar; Vañó-Galván, Sergio

    2016-09-15

    We present a 24-year-old woman that had received a diagnosis of alopecia areata in the past and was treated with topical 19 corticosteroids with little improvement. Instead, the patient exhibited bitemporal alopecia of one year of evolution related to 20 traction alopecia. Traction alopecia is characterized by localized hair loss related to persistent excessive traction. Although it is 21 initially a reversible condition, if this excessive traction is not removed permanent alopecia may develop.

  14. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  15. Effect of lumbar traction on stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, R S; Ossey, S; Fourie, G

    1990-06-01

    Ten subjects were given lumbar traction for each of three time periods. Traction forces of one third of body weight were used. Stature was measured before and after traction and before and after three control periods of crook lying (lying supine with the knees flexed at 90 degrees and the feet resting on the traction table). ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses that traction and time in traction were significantly related to stature increase. Traction had significant effects on stature. The mean stature increase was 8.94 mm after 25 minutes traction compared with 3.33 mm after 25 minutes crook lying. Time in traction also had significant effects on stature increase which was most rapid during the first 15 minutes of traction. These findings can be related to the use of stature measurement as an index of spinal loading and the possible implications for treatment. However, since only healthy, young subjects were used and only one magnitude of traction was applied, the findings should be interpreted with caution. Further investigations would overcome these limitations.

  16. Lumbar spine traction: evaluation of effects and recommended application for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, M; Refshauge, K M; Dessen, M; Boland, R

    2000-05-01

    Despite the widespread use of traction, little is known of the mode of effect, and application remains largely anecdotal. The efficacy of traction is also unclear because of generally poor design of the clinical trials to date, and because subgroups of patients most likely to benefit have not been specifically studied. These observations prompted this review, the purposes of which are to evaluate the mechanisms by which traction may provide benefit and to provide rational guidelines for the clinical application of traction. Traction has been shown to separate the vertebrae and it appears that large forces are not required. Vertebral separation could provide relief from radicular symptoms by removing direct pressure or contact forces from sensitised neural tissue. Other mechanisms proposed to explain the effects of traction (e.g. reduction of disc protrusion or altered intradiscal pressure) have been shown not to occur. We conclude that traction is most likely to benefit patients with acute (less than 6 weeks' duration) radicular pain with concomitant neurological deficit. The apparent lack of a dose-response relationship suggests that low doses are probably sufficient to achieve benefit. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  17. Plica neuropathica causing traction alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pavithran

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged woman developed matting of the hairs of the scalp following use of a home made shampoo that contained leaves of Hibiscus rosasiensis. The entangled and matted hair mass in the occipital region pulled hairs of the vertex region of the scalp, resulting in a patch of traction alopecia. Release of tension on the hairs by cutting them with scissors prevented further extension of alopecia.

  18. Dynamics of Traction Force Reinforcement in Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chia; Kramer, Corinne; Chen, Christopher; Reich, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Mechanical forces influence cell function in various ways. For instance, the force-induced contraction or relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is critical to regulating the properties of blood vessels. Here, we study the dynamics of cellular traction forces in SMCs using micro-scale magnetic nanowires together with flexible PDMS micropost arrays. We use dual magnetic tweezers to apply a sinusoidal magnetic torque on nickel nanowires which are internalized by the SMCs. The spatial and temporal responses of the SMCs cultured on the tips of the microposts are recorded by the deflected posts. We observe a global reinforcement of the cells' traction forces upon applying a localized torque via the nanowires. Interestingly, we also find that the contractile response depends on the frequency of the applied stimulation, with a greater percentage of the SMCs showing enhanced reinforcement at lower frequencies.

  19. A joint protocol for home skeletal traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, C R; McBryde, A M

    1997-01-01

    Cost-effective delivery of quality patient care is a major focus of the orthopaedic advanced practice nurse's practice. Long-term skeletal traction therapy for select fractures of the pelvis remains a treatment option for certain patients. The purposes of this article are to describe the development of a joint proposal for home skeletal traction therapy and to analyze the cost savings involved by reviewing a case study of a home traction patient.

  20. Traction Control System for Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardinale Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traction control is a widely used control system to increase stability and safety of four wheel vehicles. Automatic stability control is used in the BMW K1200R motorcycle and in motoGP competition, but not in other motorcycles. This paper presents an algorithm and a low-cost real-time hardware implementation for motorcycles. A prototype has been developed, applied on a commercial motorcycle, and tested in a real track. The control system that can be tuned by the driver during the race has been appreciated by the test driver.

  1. Age-dependent alterations of glucose clearance and homeostasis are temporally separated and modulated by dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads T F; Pærregaard, Simone I; Søgaard, Ida

    2017-01-01

    -sucrose diets based on either fish oil (FOD) or soybean oil (SOD), rich in ω3- and ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively, to closely monitor the age-dependent development in glucose regulation in both obese (SOD-fed) and lean (LFD- and FOD-fed) mice. We assessed glucose homeostasis and glucose clearance...... at week 8, 12, 16, 24, 31, and 39 and performed an insulin tolerance test at week 40. We further analyzed correlations between the gut microbiota and key metabolic parameters. Interestingly, alterations in glucose homeostasis and glucose clearance were temporally separated, while 16S ribosomal gene...... amplicon sequencing revealed that gut microbial alterations formed correlation clusters with fat mass and either glucose homeostasis or glucose clearance, but rarely both. Importantly, effective glucose clearance was maintained in FOD- and even increased in LFD-fed mice, whereas SOD-fed mice rapidly...

  2. Spatial registration of temporally separated whole breast 3D ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Ganesh; LeCarpentier, Gerald L; Roubidoux, Marilyn; Fowlkes, J Brian; Schott, Anne F; Carson, Paul L

    2009-09-01

    patients with suspicious masses and three undergoing chemotherapy. Spatial alignment of the 3D blood vessel data from the Doppler studies provided independent measures for the validation of registration. In 15 Doppler image volume pairs scanned with differing breast compression, the mean centerline separation value was 1.5 +/- 0.6 mm, while MRE based on a few identifiable structural points common to the two grayscale image volumes was 1.1 +/- 0.6 mm. Another measure, the overlap ratio of blood vessels, was shown to increase from 0.32 to 0.59 (+84%) with IVBaR for pairs at various compression levels. These results show that successful registration of ABU scans may be accomplished for comparison and integration of information.

  3. Low Incidence of Neurovascular Complications After Placement of Proximal Tibial Traction Pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Garret; Gibson, Peter; Patel, Param; Koury, Kenneth; Sirkin, Michael; Reilly, Mark; Adams, Mark

    2017-10-20

    Skeletal tibial traction is a temporizing measure used preoperatively for femoral fractures to improve the length and alignment of the limb and provide pain relief. The goal of this study was to identify possible neurovascular morbidity associated with the use of bedside skeletal tibial traction to treat femur fractures. All femoral fractures treated with proximal tibial traction during a 10-year period at an urban level I trauma center were retrospectively reviewed. The medical record was reviewed to determine whether a pin-related complication had occurred. Records also were reviewed to identify ipsilateral multi-ligamentous knee injuries that were not diagnosed until after the application of traction. In total, 303 proximal tibial traction pins were placed. A total of 7 (2.3%; 95% confidence interval, 0.60%-4.0%) pin-related neurologic complications and zero vascular complications were noted. All complications involved motor and/or sensory deficits in the distribution of the peroneal nerve. Of the 7 complications, 6 resolved fully after surgery and removal of the pin. After traction placement, 6 (2.0%) ipsilateral multiligamentous knee injuries were diagnosed. None of these patients had a neurovascular complication. This study suggests that bedside placement of proximal tibial traction for femoral fractures is associated with a low incidence of neurovascular complications and that traction can be safely placed at the bedside by residents. A thorough neurovascular examination should be performed before insertion, and care should be taken to identify the proper starting point and reduce soft tissue trauma during pin placement. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Distraction of lumbar vertebrae in gravitational traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeoglu, I; Adak, B; Bozkurt, M; Gürbüzoglu, N

    1998-05-01

    Experimental study of 30 patients diagnosed with low back pain resulting from lumbar disc herniation, disc degeneration, and segmental instability. Patients underwent gravitational traction, and widening of the intervertebral space and posterior facets was measured on radiographs. This same procedure was performed with a group of 30 healthy individuals. To determine the effect of gravitational traction on the widening of the intervertebral space and the other vertebral structures in patients with low back pain and in healthy individuals. Gravitational traction is performed by suspending the patient in a hanging, upright position for an extended period of time. In spite of disagreement among authors about the effect of lumbar traction, recent innovations have enabled the distraction of vertebrae. A specially designed apparatus was used to apply gravitational traction. Pre- and post-traction radiographs were obtained to study the changes in the L2-L3, L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 intervertebral spaces; Ferguson's angle; L1-S1 total distance; and blood pressure. Distraction was more than approximately 3 mm in each intervertebral space in both groups. Gravitational traction had a very apparent effect on intervertebral space and was found to be an effective method to distract lumbar vertebrae. Discomfort experienced by the patient during suspension may be overcome by making biomedical changes to the suspension corset.

  5. Preoperative traction for hip fracture: a randomized comparison between skin and skeletal traction in 78 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, S; Thorngren, K G

    1998-06-01

    153 consecutive patients with displaced cervical and trochanteric hip fractures were considered for inclusion in this study. 75 were excluded because of senile confusion and the remaining 78 were randomized to skeletal or skin traction preoperatively. The effect on pain alleviation was evaluated with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and by the number of doses of analgesics administered. The processing time through the emergency department, radiographic department and to the ward, as well as time to operation, was registered. No significant difference in the VAS pain evaluation was found. There was a small significant increase in consumption of analgesics of no clinical importance in patients with skin traction, and no effect of traction type on the processing time or time to operation. Fracture type did not affect the outcome. Since half of the patients found the application of skeletal traction painful, compared to one fifth with skin traction, skeletal traction should not be routinely used to alleviate pain preoperatively in these patients.

  6. Diagnostic performance of direct traction MR arthrography of the hip: detection of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaranzer, Florian; Klauser, Andrea; Kogler, Michael; Henninger, Benjamin; Forstner, Thomas; Reichkendler, Markus; Schmaranzer, Ehrenfried

    2015-06-01

    To assess diagnostic performance of traction MR arthrography of the hip in detection and grading of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison. Seventy-five MR arthrograms obtained ± traction of 73 consecutive patients (mean age, 34.5 years; range, 14-54 years) who underwent arthroscopy were included. Traction technique included weight-adapted traction (15-23 kg), a supporting plate for the contralateral leg, and intra-articular injection of 18-27 ml (local anaesthetic and contrast agent). Patients reported on neuropraxia and on pain. Two blinded readers independently assessed femoroacetabular cartilage and labrum lesions which were correlated with arthroscopy. Interobserver agreement was calculated using κ values. Joint distraction ± traction was evaluated in consensus. No procedure had to be stopped. There were no cases of neuropraxia. Accuracy for detection of labral lesions was 92 %/93 %, 91 %/83 % for acetabular lesions, and 92 %/88 % for femoral cartilage lesions for reader 1/reader 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.58) for grading of labrum lesions and substantial (κ = 0.7, κ = 0.68) for grading of acetabular and femoral cartilage lesions. Joint distraction was achieved in 72/75 and 14/75 hips with/without traction, respectively. Traction MR arthrography safely enabled accurate detection and grading of labral and chondral lesions. • The used traction technique was well tolerated by most patients. • The used traction technique almost consistently achieved separation of cartilage layers. • Traction MR arthrography enabled accurate detection of chondral and labral lesions.

  7. Local production of skeletal traction pins to improve access to skeletal traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhum, Murtaza; Mannion, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Femoral fractures represent a substantial orthopaedic injury. In the developed world, closed reduction and locked intramedullary nailing is recognized as the optimal treatment. In the less developed world, the use of skeletal traction remains limited by cost and availability of traction pins, which are obtained from orthopaedic companies in the UK or Indian subcontinent. This study aimed to establish whether traction pins may be manufactured locally in resource-limited countries from cut down stainless steel rods. The overall costs for traction pins were obtained from five UK, Indian subcontinent-based companies and metal fabrication shops in Africa. Strict design specifications were provided. The mean price for 100 Steinmann pins was$428 in the Indian subcontinent,$96 in Malawi,$105 in Kenya and$244 in Tanzania. Our results indicate that Steinmann pins may be manufactured locally in resource-limited countries at a significantly cheaper price, which may increase the access to skeletal traction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Removal of clouds, dust and shadow pixels from hyperspectral imagery using a non-separable and stationary spatio-temporal covariance model

    KAUST Repository

    Angel, Yoseline

    2016-09-26

    Hyperspectral remote sensing images are usually affected by atmospheric conditions such as clouds and their shadows, which represents a contamination of reflectance data and complicates the extraction of biophysical variables to monitor phenological cycles of crops. This paper explores a cloud removal approach based on reflectance prediction using multi-temporal data and spatio-temporal statistical models. In particular, a covariance model that captures the behavior of spatial and temporal components in data simultaneously (i.e. non-separable) is considered. Eight weekly images collected from the Hyperion hyper-spectrometer instrument over an agricultural region of Saudi Arabia were used to reconstruct a scene with the presence of cloudy affected pixels over a center-pivot crop. A subset of reflectance values of cloud-free pixels from 50 bands in the spectral range from 426.82 to 884.7 nm at each date, were used as input to fit a parametric family of non-separable and stationary spatio-temporal covariance functions. Applying simple kriging as an interpolator, cloud affected pixels were replaced by cloud-free predicted values per band, obtaining their respective predicted spectral profiles at the same time. An exercise of reconstructing simulated cloudy pixels in a different swath was conducted to assess the model accuracy, achieving root mean square error (RMSE) values per band less than or equal to 3%. The spatial coherence of the results was also checked through absolute error distribution maps demonstrating their consistency.

  9. F-deformations and f-tractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, M

    1973-06-01

    Let M(n) be a compact, connected topological manifold and F a continuous mapping of M(n) into R that is "topologically nondegenerate" in the sense of (Morse, M. (1959) J. d'Analyse Math., 7, 189-208). Let c be a value of F and set F(c) = {pinM(n)|F(p) differentiable case. F-Deformations and F-tractions make this possible. F-Tractions are here defined and replace retracting deformations used in the differentiable case. The final relations will serve as a model for similar relations between critical extremals of Weierstrass integrals on Riemannian manifolds.

  10. The setup and care of a patient in Buck's traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, T

    1999-01-01

    Buck's traction is certainly one of the more common traction setups seen in orthopaedic patient care today. However, just because it is common doesn't mean we can take it for granted. Specific setup techniques as well as patient evaluation methods must be understood if the traction is to accomplish its task. The goal of this article is to go through some of the basics in techniques and perhaps explain why this traction is so commonly used.

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CONVERTER STRUCTURES OF THE TRACTION DRIVE PROSPECTIVE MULTI-SYSTEM ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES WITH DC TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Muha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the structured schemes of steady-state converter are offered for traction drive of promising multisystem electric locomotives with traction engines of direct current and their comparative analysis is conducted.

  12. Facial nerve paralysis after cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Edmund Cheung

    2010-10-01

    Cervical traction is a frequently used treatment in rehabilitation clinics for cervical spine problems. This modality works, in principle, by decompressing the spinal cord or its nerve roots by applying traction on the cervical spine through a harness placed over the mandible (Olivero et al., Neurosurg Focus 2002;12:ECP1). Previous reports on treatment complications include lumbar radicular discomfort, muscle injury, neck soreness, and posttraction pain (LaBan et al., Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:295-6; Lee et al., J Biomech Eng 1996;118:597-600). Here, we report the first case of unilateral facial nerve paralysis developed after 4 wks of intermittent cervical traction therapy. Nerve conduction velocity examination revealed a peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis. Symptoms of facial nerve paralysis subsided after prednisolone treatment and suspension of traction therapy. It is suspected that a misplaced or an overstrained harness may have been the cause of facial nerve paralysis in this patient. Possible causes were (1) direct compression by the harness on the right facial nerve near its exit through the stylomastoid foramen; (2) compression of the right external carotid artery by the harness, causing transient ischemic injury at the geniculate ganglion; or (3) coincidental herpes zoster virus infection or idiopathic Bell's palsy involving the facial nerve.

  13. Inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity and temporal information processing in ADHD and ADHD plus ODD: Evidence of a separate entity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luman, M.; van Noesel, S.J.P.; Papanikolau, A.; Oostenbruggen-Scheffer, J.; Veugelers, D.; Sergeant, J.A.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared children with ADHD-only, ADHD+ODD and normal controls (age 8-12) on three key neurocognitive functions: response inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity, and temporal information processing. The goal was twofold: (a) to investigate neurocognitive impairments in children with

  14. Inhibition, Reinforcement Sensitivity and Temporal Information Processing in ADHD and ADHD+ODD: Evidence of a Separate Entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luman, Marjolein; van Noesel, Steffen J. P.; Papanikolau, Alky; Van Oostenbruggen-Scheffer, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    This study compared children with ADHD-only, ADHD+ODD and normal controls (age 8-12) on three key neurocognitive functions: response inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity, and temporal information processing. The goal was twofold: (a) to investigate neurocognitive impairments in children with ADHD-only and children with ADHD+ODD, and (b) to test…

  15. Surgical Management of Symptomatic Olecranon Traction Spurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Hasham M; Kalainov, David M; Biswas, Debdut; Soneru, Alexander P; Cohen, Mark S

    2014-07-01

    There is a paucity of information pertaining to the pathoanatomy and treatment of symptomatic olecranon traction spurs. To describe the pathoanatomy of olecranon traction spur formation, a technique for spur resection, and a series of patients who failed conservative care and underwent operative treatment. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eleven patients (12 elbows) with a mean age of 42 years (range, 27-62 years) underwent excision of a painful olecranon traction spur after failing conservative care. Charts and imaging studies were reviewed. All patients returned for evaluation and new elbow radiographs at an average of 34 months (range, 10-78 months). Outcome measures included the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire; the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS); visual analog scales (VAS) for pain and patient satisfaction; elbow motion; elbow strength; and elbow stability. The traction spur was found in the superficial fibers of the distal triceps tendon in all cases. The mean QuickDASH score was 3 (range, 0-23), the mean MEPS score was 96 (range, 80-100), the mean VAS pain score was 0.8 (range, 0-3), and the mean VAS satisfaction score was 9.6 (range, 7-10). Average elbow motion measured 3° to 138° (preoperative average, 5°-139°). All patients exhibited normal elbow flexion and extension strength, and all elbows were deemed stable. Early postoperative complications involved a wound seroma in 1 case and olecranon bursitis in 1 case: both problems resolved without additional surgery. Two patients eventually developed a recurrent traction spur, 1 of whom underwent successful repeat spur excision 48 months after the index operation. Short- to mid-term patient and examiner-determined outcomes after olecranon traction spur resection were acceptable in our experience. Early postoperative complications and recurrent enthesophyte formation were uncommon. This study provides the treating physician with an improved understanding of

  16. Removal of clouds, dust and shadow pixels from hyperspectral imagery using a non-separable and stationary spatio-temporal covariance model

    KAUST Repository

    Angel, Yoseline

    2016-10-25

    Hyperspectral remote sensing images are usually affected by atmospheric conditions such as clouds and their shadows, which represents a contamination of reflectance data and complicates the extraction of biophysical variables to monitor phenological cycles of crops. This paper explores a cloud removal approach based on reflectance prediction using multitemporal data and spatio-Temporal statistical models. In particular, a covariance model that captures the behavior of spatial and temporal components in data simultaneously (i.e. non-separable) is considered. Eight weekly images collected from the Hyperion hyper-spectrometer instrument over an agricultural region of Saudi Arabia were used to reconstruct a scene with the presence of cloudy affected pixels over a center-pivot crop. A subset of reflectance values of cloud-free pixels from 50 bands in the spectral range from 426.82 to 884.7 nm at each date, were used as input to fit a parametric family of non-separable and stationary spatio-Temporal covariance functions. Applying simple kriging as an interpolator, cloud affected pixels were replaced by cloud-free predicted values per band, obtaining their respective predicted spectral profiles at the same time. An exercise of reconstructing simulated cloudy pixels in a different swath was conducted to assess the model accuracy, achieving root mean square error (RMSE) values per band less than or equal to 3%. The spatial coherence of the results was also checked through absolute error distribution maps demonstrating their consistency.

  17. Removal of clouds, dust and shadow pixels from hyperspectral imagery using a non-separable and stationary spatio-temporal covariance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Yoseline; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing images are usually affected by atmospheric conditions such as clouds and their shadows, which represents a contamination of reflectance data and complicates the extraction of biophysical variables to monitor phenological cycles of crops. This paper explores a cloud removal approach based on reflectance prediction using multitemporal data and spatio-temporal statistical models. In particular, a covariance model that captures the behavior of spatial and temporal components in data simultaneously (i.e. non-separable) is considered. Eight weekly images collected from the Hyperion hyper-spectrometer instrument over an agricultural region of Saudi Arabia were used to reconstruct a scene with the presence of cloudy affected pixels over a center-pivot crop. A subset of reflectance values of cloud-free pixels from 50 bands in the spectral range from 426.82 to 884.7 nm at each date, were used as input to fit a parametric family of non-separable and stationary spatio-temporal covariance functions. Applying simple kriging as an interpolator, cloud affected pixels were replaced by cloud-free predicted values per band, obtaining their respective predicted spectral profiles at the same time. An exercise of reconstructing simulated cloudy pixels in a different swath was conducted to assess the model accuracy, achieving root mean square error (RMSE) values per band less than or equal to 3%. The spatial coherence of the results was also checked through absolute error distribution maps demonstrating their consistency.

  18. Temporal changes of diffusion patterns in mild traumatic brain injury via group-based semi-blind source separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Min; McGinnity, T Martin; Coleman, Sonya; Fuchs, Armin; Kelso, J A Scott

    2015-07-01

    Despite the emerging applications of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), very few investigations have been reported related to temporal changes in quantitative diffusion patterns, which may help to assess recovery from head injury and the long term impact associated with cognitive and behavioral impairments caused by mTBI. Most existing methods are focused on detection of mTBI affected regions rather than quantification of temporal changes following head injury. Furthermore, most methods rely on large data samples as required for statistical analysis and, thus, are less suitable for individual case studies. In this paper, we introduce an approach based on spatial group independent component analysis (GICA), in which the diffusion scalar maps from an individual mTBI subject and the average of a group of controls are arranged according to their data collection time points. In addition, we propose a constrained GICA (CGICA) model by introducing the prior information into the GICA decomposition process, thus taking available knowledge of mTBI into account. The proposed method is evaluated based on DTI data collected from American football players including eight controls and three mTBI subjects (at three time points post injury). The results show that common spatial patterns within the diffusion maps were extracted as spatially independent components (ICs) by GICA. The temporal change of diffusion patterns during recovery is revealed by the time course of the selected IC. The results also demonstrate that the temporal change can be further influenced by incorporating the prior knowledge of mTBI (if available) based on the proposed CGICA model. Although a small sample of mTBI subjects is studied, as a proof of concept, the preliminary results provide promising insight for applications of DTI to study recovery from mTBI and may have potential for individual case studies in practice.

  19. Energy efficiency analysis of two-sided feed scheme of DC traction network with high asymmetry of feeders parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Sopov, V. I.

    2017-10-01

    In a given research using the example of traction network area with high asymmetry of power supply parameters, the sequence of comparative assessment of power losses in DC traction network with parallel and traditional separated operating modes of traction substation feeders was shown. Experimental measurements were carried out under these modes of operation. The calculation data results based on statistic processing showed the power losses decrease in contact network and the increase in feeders. The changes proved to be critical ones and this demonstrates the significance of potential effects when converting traction network areas into parallel feeder operation. An analytical method of calculation the average power losses for different feed schemes of the traction network was developed. On its basis, the dependences of the relative losses were obtained by varying the difference in feeder voltages. The calculation results showed unreasonableness transition to a two-sided feed scheme for the considered traction network area. A larger reduction in the total power loss can be obtained with a smaller difference of the feeders’ resistance and / or a more symmetrical sectioning scheme of contact network.

  20. Effect of combining traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhen; Zhao, Meiya; Ma, Jian; Tian, Shan; Xiang, Pin; Yao, Wei; Fan, Yubo

    2014-11-01

    Eighty-five percent of the population has experienced low back pain (LBP), which may result in decreasing muscle strength and endurance, functional capacity of the spine, and so on. Traction and vibration are commonly used to relieve the low back pain. The effect of the combing traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) was investigated in this study. Thirty healthy subjects participated in 12 trials lying supine on the spine-combing bed with different tilt angle (0°, 10°, 20° and 30°) and vibration modes (along with the sagittal and coronal axis with 0 Hz, 2 Hz and 12 Hz separately). EMG was recorded during each trial. Power spectral frequency analysis was applied to evaluate muscle fatigue by the shift of median power frequency (MPF). Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated from BP. HR and PP were used to estimate the effect of the combination of traction and vibration on the cardio-vascular system. It was shown that vibration could increase HR and decrease PP. The combination of traction and vibration (2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis) had no significant effect on the cardio-vascular system. The MPF of lumbar erector spinae (LES) and upper trapezius (UT) decreased significantly when the angle reached 20° under the condition of 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis compared with it of 0°. Furthermore, the MPF also decreased significantly compared with it of static mode at 20° for LES and at 30° for UT. However at 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis, the MPF had significant increase when the angle reached 20° in LES and 30° in UT compared to 0°. For LES, the MPF also had significant difference when the angle was increased from 10° to 20°. Therefore, combining 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and traction (tilt angles that less than 20°) may to reduce muscle fatigue both for LES and UT compared with either vibration or traction alone. The combination of 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis and traction (tilt angles

  1. Odebode-Agaja adult cervical traction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebode, T O; Agaja, S B

    2011-01-01

    This technical note describes a new simple, cheap and affordable adult cervical traction device that is especially suitable for use in resource-poor third world countries because of its cost-effectiveness. While the widely used imported Gardner-Wells tongs cost over N250,000 (Nigerian) naira (approximately $1630 USD), the new equally effective, durable and locally readily available Odebode-Agaja traction device sells for N35,000 naira (approximately $220 USD). The device does not require scalp incision or skull drilling. It is designed for bedside application in patients with cervical spine injuries, including subluxation and fracture-dislocation of the cervical spine from the atlanto-occipital joint to T1.

  2. Confocal reference free traction force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bergert, Martin; Lendenmann, Tobias; Z?ndel, Manuel; Ehret, Alexander E.; Panozzo, Daniele; Richner, Patrizia; Kim, David K.; Kress, Stephan J. P.; Norris, David J.; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Mazza, Edoardo; Poulikakos, Dimos; Ferrari, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical wiring between cells and their surroundings is fundamental to the regulation of complex biological processes during tissue development, repair or pathology. Traction force microscopy (TFM) enables determination of the actuating forces. Despite progress, important limitations with intrusion effects in low resolution 2D pillar-based methods or disruptive intermediate steps of cell removal and substrate relaxation in high-resolution continuum TFM methods need to be overcome. Here ...

  3. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS FOR ROLLING STOCK TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Pasko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rolling stock on the railways of Ukraine has not been updated for many years, which has led to significant wear of the country electric and diesel locomotive fleet. A way out of the existing situation is execution of major overhaul with extension of locomotive life to allow their operation for several more years. Repair or upgrading as well as putting new rolling stock into operation must be accompanied by implementation of state-of-the-art traction electric drives.

  4. Nursing care about child with traction

    OpenAIRE

    HEIMLICHOVÁ, Blanka

    2010-01-01

    This bachleor work being titled ?Nursing care of children with traction? consists of two sections. The first section deals with theory, i.e. it represents a theoretical part which focuses on anatomy of bones, specific fractures of children?s fractures, children's accident frequency rate, diagnostics and fracture therapy, nursing process, hospital schools and volunteers at children?s wards. The second section deals with research. For the purpose of the research two goals have been established ...

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of myopic traction maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Bo Ouyang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the broad application of optical coherence tomography and vitrectomy, combined with research efforts in maculopathy in high myopia have provided many achievements, such as the new classification of myopic traction maculopathy (MTM. Here, we review the latest developments in the diagnosis and treatment of MTM, including its conception, clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical stages, and the options for surgical treatment.

  6. Traction in smooth muscle cells varies with cell spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolic-Norrelykke, Iva Marija; Wang, Ning

    2005-01-01

    Changes in cell shape regulate cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been suggested that the regulation of cell function by the cell shape is a result of the tension in the cytoskeleton and the distortion of the cell. Here we explore the association between cell-generated mechanical forces and the cell morphology. We hypothesized that the cell contractile force is associated with the degree of cell spreading, in particular with the cell length. We measured traction fields of single human airway smooth muscle cells plated on a polyacrylamide gel, in which fluorescent microbeads were embedded to serve as markers of gel deformation. The traction exerted by the cells at the cell-substrate interface was determined from the measured deformation of the gel. The traction was measured before and after treatment with the contractile agonist histamine, or the relaxing agonist isoproterenol. The relative increase in traction induced by histamine was negatively correlated with the baseline traction. On the contrary, the relative decrease in traction due to isoproterenol was independent of the baseline traction, but it was associated with cell shape: traction decreased more in elongated than in round cells. Maximum cell width, mean cell width, and projected area of the cell were the parameters most tightly coupled to both baseline and histamine-induced traction in this study. Wide and well-spread cells exerted larger traction than slim cells. These results suggest that cell contractility is controlled by cell spreading.

  7. Pre-operative traction for fractures of the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M J; Handoll, H H G

    2003-01-01

    Pre-operative traction following an acute hip fracture remains standard practice in some hospitals. To evaluate the effects of traction applied to the injured limb prior to surgery for a fractured hip. Different methods of applying traction (skin or skeletal) were considered. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group's specialised register (February 2003), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2003), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2003), EMBASE (1988 to 2003 Week 8), CINAHL (1982 to February 2003), the National Research Register Issue 1, 2003, conference proceedings and reference lists of articles. Date of most recent search: February 2003. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing either skin or skeletal traction with no traction, or skin with skeletal traction for patients with an acute hip fracture prior to surgery. Both reviewers independently assessed trial quality, using a nine item scale, and extracted data. Additional information was sought from all trialists. Wherever appropriate and possible, the data are presented graphically. Eight randomised trials, mainly of moderate quality, involving a total of 1349 predominantly elderly patients, were identified and included in the review. The inclusion in this review update of a newly available trial resulted in no important change in the results or conclusions. Seven trials compared traction with no traction. Although no data pooling was possible, overall these provided no evidence of benefit from traction, either in the relief of pain, ease of fracture reduction or quality of fracture reduction at time of surgery. One of these trials included both skin and skeletal traction groups. This trial and one other compared skeletal traction with skin traction and found no important differences between these two methods, although the initial application of skeletal traction was noted as being more painful and more costly. From the evidence available, the routine use of

  8. Traction forces at solid-lubricated rolling/sliding contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, B. B.; Bovenkerk, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A single-element traction rig was used to measure the traction forces at a solid-lubricated contact of a ball against a flat disk at room temperature under combine rolling and sliding. The load and speed conditions were selected to match those anticipated for bearing applications in adiabatic diesel engines. Traction vs slide/roll ratio curves were similar to those for liquid lubricants but the traction forces were an order of magnitude higher. The test data were used to derive equations to predict traction force as a function of contact stress and rolling speed. The data showed that the magnitude of traction forces were almost the same for all the lubricants tested. The lubricants, should, therefore, be selected on the basis of their ability to limit the wear of contact surfaces.

  9. TRACTION-EXTENDED THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH LUMBAR DEGENERATIVE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zhirnov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the survey of 148 patients with an lumbar degenerative disease, there have been studied immediate and medium-term results of the comprehensive conservative treatment of the patients with and without application of traction exposure on the spine. It was found out that the traction of the spine leads to a quicker and more durable relief of symptoms in comparison with the control groups where traction therapy wasn't carried out. Application of the traction-extended therapy in three planes with a usage of robotized set for dry skeletal traction of a new generation KinetracKNX-7000 is proved to increase the effectiveness of treatment for the patients with stated pathology, fasten regress of the pain syndrome and clinical symptomatology, lead to more durable and lasting remission of the desease, in comparison with the patients that had traction of the spine in one plane only during the treatment.

  10. Research of the multipolar induction traction frequency regulated motor

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ia. Bespalov; A. B. Krasovskii; M. V. Panihin; V. G. Fisenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers the application features of traction induction electric motors in transmissions of vehicles. It shows that one of important stages in their designing is to choose the number of poles. In traction electric drives engines with the raised number of poles without comprehensive assessment of such solution are often applied. The paper investigates dynamic and power characteristics of the multi-polar traction asynchronous engine (TAE) designed and made for using in the individual...

  11. [Potentialities of traction therapy for diskogenic compressive radicular syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziniakov, N N; Ziniakov, N T

    2009-01-01

    This study included 78 patients with lumbar subligamentary herniation. Based on their clinical and functional examination, several variants of diskogenic radiculopathies were distinguished. Special emphasis was laid on the evaluation of efficiency of underwater vertical traction in these patients. The proposed method was shown to produce better effect than underwater horizontal traction when used for the treatment of both axonopathies and axonomyelinopathies. The efficiency of underwater vertical traction applied to the treatment of axonopathies appears to be higher than in patients with axonomyelinopathies.

  12. Modernised DC traction substation recuperating energy of braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction substation composed of the 3-phase transformer and the output diode rectifier is still the fundamental device for DC traction supply. In this paper two technical solutions (power electronic converters allowing for braking energy recuperation to the AC mains are discussed. This has been thought as the modernisation of the existing traction substations allowing for high speed trains regenerative braking and braking of heavy train hollers. Such a solution brings some profits: energy recuperation, mechanical brakes saving and enhanced quality of traction vehicle control. For the proposed converters technical and economical advantages and drawbacks are indicated.

  13. TRACTION-EXTENDED THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH LUMBAR DEGENERATIVE DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Zhirnov; D. P. Krest'yanov; A. K. Vasil'kin

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey of 148 patients with an lumbar degenerative disease, there have been studied immediate and medium-term results of the comprehensive conservative treatment of the patients with and without application of traction exposure on the spine. It was found out that the traction of the spine leads to a quicker and more durable relief of symptoms in comparison with the control groups where traction therapy wasn't carried out. Application of the traction-extended therapy in three plan...

  14. Intraoperative skeletal traction in the dog: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovesti, G L; Margini, A; Cappellari, F; Peirone, B

    2006-01-01

    A standard skeletal traction technique was applied to each major segment of the appendicular skeleton of ten fresh dog cadavers. Opposition points and anchorage points for the application of traction were determined for each skeletal segment. Traction was exerted by means of a micrometric traction stand, connected to the limb by bands or a stirrup. Traction was applied to the antebrachium and the tibia through nylon traction bands anchored to the metacarpus and metatarsus, respectively. A traction stirrup applied to the condylar region was used as the anchorage point to load the humerus and femur. Once a peak force of 25 kg weight was achieved, the load was monitored for half an hour to check for any variation. After that, each skeletal segment was osteotomized in the mid-diaphyseal region, and evaluated for any angular malalignment due to a mismatch between the axis of the bone and the applied loading. Any ensuing angular malalignment was successfully corrected by manoeuvres using the traction stand. The technique used in this study to perform intraoperative skeletal traction proved to be reliable and consistent for each segment of the appendicular skeleton.

  15. Severe Intraoperative Shock Related to Mesenteric Traction Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Alfredo Haack; Siqueira, Hugo; Brasileiro, Pablo Pulcheira; Cavalcanti, Ismar Lima; Videira, Rogério Luiz da Rocha

    2017-02-01

    Mesenteric traction syndrome is defined as arterial hypotension, facial flushing, and tachycardia related to mesenteric traction. We describe a case of mesenteric traction syndrome refractory to catecholamine and vasopressin infusions. The patient, who had Crohn disease, developed severe distributive shock after mesenteric traction while undergoing resection of an intestinal inflammatory mass, accompanied by facial flushing and unaltered readings for pulse oximetry, capnography, and bispectral index monitoring. The absence of tachycardia in this case was attributed to long-term use of timolol. Arterial pressure returned to baseline level after approximately 30 minutes, and the postoperative period was uneventful.

  16. Temporal separation of aggregation and ubiquitination during early inclusion formation in transgenic mice carrying the Huntington's disease mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belvin Gong

    Full Text Available Abnormal insoluble ubiqitinated protein aggregates are found in the brains of Huntington's disease (HD patients and in mice transgenic for the HTT mutation. Here, we describe the earliest stages of visible NII formation in brains of R6/2 mice killed between 2 and 6 weeks of age. We found that huntingtin-positive aggregates formed rapidly (within 24-48 hours in a spatiotemporal manner similar to that we described previously for ubiquitinated inclusions. However, in most neurons, aggregates are not ubiquitinated when they first form. It has always been assumed that mutant huntingtin is recognised as 'foreign' and consequently ubiquitinated and targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system pathway. Our data, however, suggest that aggregation and ubiquitination are separate processes, and that mutant huntingtin fragment is not recognized as 'abnormal' by the ubiquitin-proteasome system before aggregation. Rather, mutant Htt appears to aggregate before it is ubiquitinated, and then either aggregated huntingtin is ubiquitinated or ubiquitinated proteins are recruited into aggregates. Our findings have significant implications for the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the formation of aggregates, as they suggest that this system is not involved until after the first aggregates form.

  17. Pre-rain green-up is ubiquitous across southern tropical Africa: implications for temporal niche separation and model representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Casey M; Williams, Mathew; Grace, John; Woollen, Emily; Lehmann, Caroline E R

    2017-01-01

    Tree phenology mediates land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange and is a determinant of ecosystem structure and function. In the dry tropics, including African savannas, many trees grow new leaves during the dry season - weeks or months before the rains typically start. This syndrome of pre-rain green-up has long been recognized at small scales, but the high spatial and interspecific variability in leaf phenology has precluded regional generalizations. We used remote sensing data to show that this precocious phenology is ubiquitous across the woodlands and savannas of southern tropical Africa. In 70% of the study area, green-up preceded rain onset by > 20 d (42% > 40 d). All the main vegetation formations exhibited pre-rain green-up, by as much as 53 ± 18 d (in the wet miombo). Green-up showed low interannual variability (SD between years = 11 d), and high spatial variability (> 100 d). These results are consistent with a high degree of local phenological adaptation, and an insolation trigger of green-up. Tree-tree competition and niche separation may explain the ubiquity of this precocious phenology. The ubiquity of pre-rain green-up described here challenges existing model representations and suggests resistance (but not necessarily resilience) to the delay in rain onset predicted under climate change. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Temporal and Spatial Separation of Water Use Averts Competition for Soil Water Resources in a Sahelian Agroforestry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Diedhiou, I.; Dick, R.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Large differences in crop success have been observed even during drough stress in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs, Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively. We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Research plots at Keur Matar Arame and Nioro du Rip with no fertilizer added were monitored from 2012-2015 using two soil moisture sensor networks at depths of 10, 20, 40, 60, 100, 200, and 300cm. Our data show that there is more water available to crops in the shallow soil layers as a result of a temporal and spatial shift of shrub soil moisture use to deeper layers and the presence of hydraulic redistribution. At the beginning of the dry season just after the crop harvest, maximum weekly transpirational water use descends from 100 to 300cm over the course of one to two months. We hypothesize that after early February, 2-3 months into the dry season, the majority of water use by shrubs comes from below 3m depth. As the first rains come in June-July, the shrubs continue to use deep soil moisture until a significant portion of the soil profile undergoes infiltration. It is during this time that a large difference in hydraulic head can drive hydraulic redistribution, which, in addition to surface shading by the shrub canopy, can help to maintain higher soil moisture in the shallow soil layers near the shrubs. This builds on previous work at the site investigating growing season

  19. Mathematical framework for traction force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Traction Force Microscopy (TFM problem. It consists in obtaining stresses by solving an inverse problem in an elastic medium, from known experimentally measured displacements. In this article, the application is the determination of the stresses exerted by a living cell at the surface of an elastic gel. We propose an abstract framework which formulates this inverse problem as a constrained minimization one. The mathematical constraints express the biomechanical conditions that the stress field must satisfy. From this framework, two methods currently used can be derived, the adjoint method (AM and the Fourier Transform Traction Cytometry (FTTC method. An improvement of the FTTC method is also derived using this framework. The numerical results are compared and show the advantage of the AM, in particular its ability to capture details more accurately. Cet article est consacré au problème de la Microscopie à Force de Traction (TFM. Ce problème consiste à déterminer les contraintes exercées par une cellule lors de sa migration sur un substrat élastique à partir d’une mesure expérimentale des déplacements induits dans ce substrat. Mathématiquement, il s’agit de résoudre un problème inverse pour lequel nous proposons une formulation abstraite de type optimisation sous contraintes. Les contraintes mathématiques expriment les constraintes biomécaniques que doit satisfaire le champ de contraintes exercé par la cellule. Ce cadre abstrait permet de retrouver deux des méthodes de résolution utilisées en pratique, à savoir la méthode adjointe (AM et la méthode de Cytométrie de Traction par Transformée de Fourier (FTTC. Il permet aussi d’ameliorer la méthode FTTC. Les résultats numériques obtenus sont ensuite comparés et démontrent l’avantage de la méthode adjointe, en particulier par sa capacité à capturer des détails avec une meilleure précision.

  20. Traction force microscopy in physics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; German, Guy K; Hyland, Callen; MacMinn, Christopher W; Mertz, Aaron F; Wilen, Larry A; Xu, Ye; Dufresne, Eric R

    2014-06-21

    Adherent cells, crawling slugs, peeling paint, sessile liquid drops, bearings and many other living and non-living systems apply forces to solid substrates. Traction force microscopy (TFM) provides spatially-resolved measurements of interfacial forces through the quantification and analysis of the deformation of an elastic substrate. Although originally developed for adherent cells, TFM has no inherent size or force scale, and can be applied to a much broader range of mechanical systems across physics and biology. In this paper, we showcase the wide range of applicability of TFM, describe the theory, and provide experimental details and code so that experimentalists can rapidly adopt this powerful technique.

  1. Rectus femoris muscle atrophy and recovery caused by preoperative pretibial traction in femoral shaft fractures-comparison between traction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, D-G; Kwon, T-Y; Lee, K-B

    2017-09-01

    Skeletal traction is performed to temporarily stabilize fracture sites before surgery in patients with femoral fracture. To date, however, there is no study evaluating the difference in the degree of the recovery, of the muscle strength, as well as muscle atrophy following skeletal traction. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of recovery of rectus femoris muscle strength after surgery in association with muscle atrophy by analyzing the duration of preoperative tibial traction, age and sex in patients with femoral fracture. Rectus femoris muscle atrophy will progress depending on the duration of preoperative tibial traction, age and sex in patients with femoral fracture. Thirty-one patients who underwent preoperative pretibial skeletal traction and intramedullary nailing were divided into two groups according to the traction period: group A (n=12) with a duration of traction of traction using ultrasound. The degree of muscle recovery was evaluated by the Q-setting and heel off time. Clinical outcome was evaluated by the non-union rate and Lysholm score. The degree of muscle atrophy was 0.99±0.14mm in group A and 2.22±0.11mm in group B (Pskeletal traction indicates not only that the resulting disuse atrophy would progress further but also that the muscle atrophy would be accelerated more rapidly for shorter periods of time, based on a cut-off value of 7 days. In addition, the rate of rectus femoris muscle recovery and clinical outcomes were lower in patients undergoing traction for longer periods of time. This indicates that it would be effective for increasing the rate of the recovery and minimizing the occurrence of post surgical complications if surgeons could perform surgery at the earliest possible opportunity following traction, within seven days after the onset of trauma. IV, retrospective cohort study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvised Bryant's traction in the treatment of neonatal femoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Femoral fractures in the neonatal period could occur in vaginal or caesarean deliveries. Options of treatment in the neonate include hip spica cast application, use of Pavlik harness and Bryant's traction. Aim: To report our experience utilizing improvised Bryant's traction in the treatment of neonatal femoral ...

  3. Development of 12-Pulse Regulated Rectifier Circuit for Traction Substation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. N. Nasirov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a power circuit of a regulated 12-pulse direct current converter and a thyristor control impulse diagram for traction substations providing the best electric power supply of a rolling stock, train traction efficiency,  smooth direction regulation.

  4. Microtubule depolymerization induces traction force increase through two distinct pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rape, Andrew; Guo, Wei-hui; Wang, Yu-li

    2011-01-01

    Traction forces increase after microtubule depolymerization; however, the signaling mechanisms underlying this, in particular the dependence upon myosin II, remain unclear. We investigated the mechanism of traction force increase after nocodazole-induced microtubule depolymerization by applying traction force microscopy to cells cultured on micropatterned polyacrylamide hydrogels to obtain samples of homogeneous shape and size. Control cells and cells treated with a focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor showed similar increases in traction forces, indicating that the response is independent of FAK. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition of myosin II did not prevent the increase of residual traction forces upon nocodazole treatment. This increase was abolished upon pharmacological inhibition of FAK. These results suggest two distinct pathways for the regulation of traction forces. First, microtubule depolymerization activates a myosin-II-dependent mechanism through a FAK-independent pathway. Second, microtubule depolymerization also enhances traction forces through a myosin-II-independent, FAK-regulated pathway. Traction forces are therefore regulated by a complex network of complementary signals and force-generating mechanisms. PMID:22193960

  5. The Effect of Cervical Traction on the Cardiovascular System in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings suggest that clinicians should monitor the blood pressure of patients during cervical traction rehabilitation especially those with unstable cardiorespiratory system. KEY WORDS: Cervical traction, blood pressure, ECG, mean arterial pressure, rate pressure product. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical ...

  6. Comparison of closed femur fracture: Skeletal traction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the operative group 24 patients had union with one delayed union while in the traction group 12 patients had union, 9 with mal union and 4 delayed union. Conclusion: Intramedullary nailing is more cost-effective than skeletal traction. It met the dominant strategy, because it was significantly less costly than skeletal ...

  7. Traction in elastohydrodynamic line contacts for two synthesized hydrocarbon fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachman, E. G.; Cheng, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The paper describes the disk machine designed and constructed for the investigation of the traction in elastohydrodynamic line contacts for two synthesized hydrocarbon fluids. The results of this experimental study are presented and compared with the theoretical predictions of traction according to the thermal and non-Newtonian theory recently presented by the authors.

  8. The measurement, modelling and prediction of traction forces in a rocket propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaarwerk, J. L.; Woods, C.

    1990-01-01

    Traction tests were performed on RPI, a common kerosene-based rocket propellant. Traction data on this fluid are required for purposes of turbopump bearing design, using such codes as SHABERTH. To obtain the traction data, an existing twin disk machine was used, operating under the side slip mode and using elliptical contacts. The resulting traction curves were reduced to fundamental fluid property parameters using the Johnson and Tevaarwerk traction model. Theoretical traction predictions were performed by back substitution of the fundamental properties into the traction model. Comparison of the predicted with the measured curves gives a high degree of confidence in the correctness of the traction model.

  9. Traction for low-back pain with or without sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Inge; Widyahening, Indah S; van Tulder, Maurits W; Blomberg, Stefan E I; de Vet, Henrica Cw; Brønfort, Gert; Bouter, Lex M; van der Heijden, Geert J

    2013-08-19

    Traction has been used to treat low-back pain (LBP), often in combination with other treatments. We included both manual and machine-delivered traction in this review. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1995, and previously updated in 2006. To assess the effects of traction compared to placebo, sham traction, reference treatments and no treatment in people with LBP. We searched the Cochrane Back Review Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2012, Issue 8), MEDLINE (January 2006 to August 2012), EMBASE (January 2006 to August 2012), CINAHL (January 2006 to August 2012), and reference lists of articles and personal files. The review authors are not aware of any important new randomized controlled trial (RCTs) on this topic since the date of the last search. RCTs involving traction to treat acute (less than four weeks' duration), subacute (four to 12 weeks' duration) or chronic (more than 12 weeks' duration) non-specific LBP with or without sciatica. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. As there were insufficient data for statistical pooling, we performed a descriptive analysis. We did not find any case series that identified adverse effects, therefore we evaluated adverse effects that were reported in the included studies. We included 32 RCTs involving 2762 participants in this review. We considered 16 trials, representing 57% of all participants, to have a low risk of bias based on the Cochrane Back Review Group's 'Risk of bias' tool.For people with mixed symptom patterns (acute, subacute and chronic LBP with and without sciatica), there was low- to moderate-quality evidence that traction may make little or no difference in pain intensity, functional status, global improvement or return to work when compared to placebo, sham traction or no treatment. Similarly, when comparing the combination of physiotherapy plus traction with

  10. [Correction of claw hand deformity after burns by elastic traction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chun-Sheng; Hao, Zhen-Ming; Lei, Jin

    2011-03-01

    To investigate a new method for correction of claw hand deformity after burns. From May 2006 to Jul. 2010, 12 patients with claw hands deformities after burns were treated with skin grafts (11 hands) and skin flap (1 hand) with unsatisfactory results. Then elastic traction (skin traction or skeletal traction) were performed with individual functional brace. All patients were followed up for 0.5 to 2 years. Elastic traction was effective in the correction of metacarpophalangeal joint deformity, buttonhole deformity, thumb-in-palm deformity, scar contracture, and palmar arch deformity. Elastic traction is a simple and effective way for the correction of claw hand deformity after burns with less morbidity and stable results.

  11. Computed tomographic evaluation of lumbar spinal structures during traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Hidayet; Akarirmak, Ulkü; Karacan, Ilhan; Akman, Haluk

    2005-01-01

    In the previous studies, it is reported that traction diminishes the compressive load on intervertebral discs, reduces herniation, stretches lumbar spinal muscle and ligaments, decreases muscle spasm, and widens intervertebral foramina. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of horizontal motorized static traction on spinal anatomic structures (herniated area, spinal canal area, intervertebral disc heights, neural foraminal diameter, and m.psoas diameter) by quantitative measures in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). At the same time the effect of traction in different localizations (median and posterolateral herniation) and at different levels (L4-L5 and L5-S1) was assessed. Thirty two patients with acute LDH participated in the study. A special traction system was used to apply horizontally-motorized static lumbar traction. Before and during traction a CT- scan was made to observe the changes in the area of spinal canal and herniated disc material, in the width of neural foramina, intervertebral disc heights, and in the thickness of psoas muscle. During traction, the area of protruded disc area, and the thickness of psoas muscle decreased 24.5% (p = 0.0001), and 5.7% (p = 0.0001), respectively. The area of the spinal canal and the width of the neural foramen increased 21.6% (p = 0.0001) and 26.7% (p = 0.0001), respectively. The anterior intervertebral disc height remained unchanged with traction however the posterior intervertebral disc height was significantly expanded. This study is the first to evaluated in detail and quantitatively the effect of motorized horizontal lumbar spinal traction on spinal structures and herniated area. According to detailed measures it was concluded that during traction of individuals with acute LDH there was a reduction of the size of the herniation, increased space within the spinal canal, widening of the neural foramina, and decreased thickness of the psoas muscle.

  12. Pre-operative traction for hip fractures in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoll, Helen Hg; Queally, Joseph M; Parker, Martyn J

    2011-12-07

    Following a hip fracture, traction may be applied to the injured limb before surgery. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1997, and previously updated in 2006. To evaluate the effects of traction applied to the injured limb prior to surgery for a fractured hip. Different methods of applying traction (skin or skeletal) were considered. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (April 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (in The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to April week 2 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 week 16), and CINAHL (1982 to 1 April 2011), conference proceedings, trials registries and reference lists of articles. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing either skin or skeletal traction with no traction, or skin with skeletal traction for patients with an acute hip fracture prior to surgery. At least two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Additional information was sought from all trialists. Wherever appropriate and possible, data were pooled. One new trial was included in this update. In all, 11 trials (six were randomised and five were quasi-randomised), involving a total of 1654 predominantly elderly patients with hip fractures, are included in the review. Most trials were at risk of bias, particularly that resulting from inadequate allocation concealment, lack of assessor blinding and incomplete outcome assessment. Only very limited data pooling was possible.Ten trials compared predominantly skin traction with no traction. The available data provided no evidence of benefit from traction either in the relief of pain (pain soon after immobilisation (visual analogue score 0: none to 10: worst pain): mean difference 0.11, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.50; 3 trials), ease of fracture reduction or quality of fracture reduction at time of surgery. There were inconclusive data for pressures sores and other complications, including fracture

  13. Wheel Slip Control for Improving Traction-Ability and Energy Efficiency of a Personal Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghyun Nam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a robust wheel slip control system based on a sliding mode controller is proposed for improving traction-ability and reducing energy consumption during sudden acceleration for a personal electric vehicle. Sliding mode control techniques have been employed widely in the development of a robust wheel slip controller of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles due to their application effectiveness in nonlinear systems and robustness against model uncertainties and disturbances. A practical slip control system which takes advantage of the features of electric motors is proposed and an algorithm for vehicle velocity estimation is also introduced. The vehicle velocity estimator was designed based on rotational wheel dynamics, measurable motor torque, and wheel velocity as well as rule-based logic. The simulations and experiments were carried out using both CarSim software and an experimental electric vehicle equipped with in-wheel-motors. Through field tests, traction performance and effectiveness in terms of energy saving were all verified. Comparative experiments with variations of control variables proved the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed control design.

  14. Loads in the lumbar spine during traction therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R Y; Evans, J H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the loads acting on the lumbar spine when traction therapy was given in the Fowler's position. The study had two parts: a theoretical analysis which showed that traction produced a flexion moment on the spine as well as axial distraction; and an experimental study which measured the flexion moment induced by the adoption of the Fowler's position. The Fowler's position is clinically essential in that it flexes the spine and takes up the slack of the posterior tissues before the traction force is applied. Hence the axial tension and flexion moment generated by the traction force are more effective in stretching the posterior tissues. The angle of pull on the traction harness influences the friction between the body and the couch. However, this consideration is not necessary if a split traction table is used. The mechanical effects of traction are compared with those produced by postero-anterior mobilisation. The relative magnitude and direction of loads produced, and their variation with segmental level should be considered by therapists when choosing a technique for treating low back pain.

  15. Challenges of traction in critical care: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, C V

    1998-08-01

    Traction can sometimes seem like an overwhelming challenge in the critical care setting not only to the patient and family, but also to the nurse. Critical care nurses must know the principles, purposes, methods, and patient care considerations necessary to be able to provide appropriate care and teaching for the patient in traction. This article describes these principles and then illustrates them through a case study. The case describes a patient who experiences multiple trauma and focuses on the nurse's role in the care of this patient in traction.

  16. Targeted traction of impacted teeth with C-tube miniplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim, Yong; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Lee, Dongjoo; Yang, Dong-Min; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-09-01

    Orthodontic traction of impacted teeth has typically been performed using full fixed appliance as anchorage against the traction force. This conventional approach can be difficult to apply in the mixed dentition if the partial fixed appliance offers an insufficient anchor unit. In addition, full fixed appliance can induce unwanted movement of adjacent teeth. This clinical report presents 3 cases where impacted teeth were recovered in the mixed or transitional dentition with skeletal anchorage on the opposite arch without full fixed appliance. Instead, intermaxillary traction was used to bring the impacted teeth into position. With this approach, side effects on teeth and periodontal tissues adjacent to the impaction were minimized.

  17. Intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane for the treatment of vitreomacular traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Wan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane(C3F8in releasing vitreomacular traction. METHODS: Twelve eyes of 12 consecutive patients with vitreomacular traction received a single intravitreal injection of 0.3mL 100%(C3F8were retrospectively analyzed. The best corrected vision acuity and the neural epithelium thickness of central macular were observed. RESULTS: One month following treatment, vitreomacular traction was released in 5 eyes(42%, mean final visual acuity(VAimproved 0.04 and mean central foveal thickness decreased by 69μm. The vision acuity before and after treatment were 0.20±0.07, 0.25±0.04 respectively.CONCLUSION: Intravitreal C3F8 injection could offer a minimally invasive alternative to pars plana vitrectomy in patients with vitreomacular traction.

  18. Mechanical Lumbar Traction: What Is Its Place in Clinical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Summary evidence concludes that mechanical lumbar traction is not effective for treating acute or chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP). However, many physical therapists continue to use it, primarily as an additional modality. Indeed, expert clinical opinion, theoretical models, and some research evidence suggest that certain patients with LBP respond positively to traction. A study published in the March 2016 issue of JOSPT investigates the effectiveness of traction in prone as an adjunct to an extension-oriented exercise program in patients with LBP and leg pain and explores whether a previously identified set of patient characteristics is associated with better outcomes from traction. In this Perspectives for Practice, the authors explain the impact of their findings for clinicians treating these patients.

  19. INTELLIGENT DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM OF EMERGENCY SITUATIONS IN TRACTION SUBSTATIONS DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. N. Nasyrov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the architecture and algorithm of operating an expert system providing the efficiency of functioning the electric equipment for traction substation as well as the four-parameter belonging function are determined.

  20. Improvised skeletal traction in the management of ballistic femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, M C; Mountain, A J C; Clasper, J C

    2009-09-01

    Penetrating limb injuries are common during conflict, and in many there will be an associated fracture. Treatment of ballistic femoral fractures would usually be with by intramedullary nail; however, within the resource-constrained environment during conflict this is rarely possible. This report illustrates what can be achieved at a Role 2 facility to provide skeletal traction with the equipment and skills available. We discuss the history of skeletal traction and its use in ballistic femoral fractures, and believe that skeletal traction is still a valuable technique that we shouldn't ignore. Military surgeons should be able to use skeletal traction to manage ballistic femoral fractures in the spartan environment of a deployed forward hospital.

  1. Genu recurvatum: a complication of prolonged femoral skeletal traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H; Abrahan, L M; Hirohata, K

    1984-01-01

    Genu recurvatum is a rare complication of prolonged skeletal traction. The literature reports very few cases, the majority secondary to wire traction applied to the tibia in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. A case of genu recurvatum in a 12-year-old girl as a complication of prolonged femoral skeletal traction was treated at the Kobe University Hospital. A proximal open wedge tibial osteotomy using iliac bone grafts was the surgical treatment initiated at the time of diagnosis. Follow-up after 1 year showed recurrence of the genu recurvatum. Early surgical intervention, prolonged casting and application of knee orthosis were all contributory factors in the recurrence of genu recurvatum in our patient. It should be emphasized that extreme care should be taken in treating femoral shaft fractures in children, especially those requiring wire traction in the tibia or femur, in order to prevent genu recurvatum.

  2. Adhesion energy, surface traction and surface tension in liquid xenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We calculated the adhesion energy, the surface traction and the surface energy of liquid xenon using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The value of the adhesion energy for liquid xenon at a reduced density of 0.630 was found to be 0.591 J/m2 and the surface traction has a peak at z = 3.32 Å. It was observed ...

  3. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike today’s large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldor’s motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  4. Traction Forces exerted by crawling cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero; Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Aliseda, Alberto; Meili, Rudolph; Firtel, Richard; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2006-11-01

    We measure the forces exerted by Dictyostelium discoideum cells crawling over a deformable substrate from the displacements of fluorescent beads embedded in it. A particle tracking technique similar to PIV is used to obtain the displacements. From them, forces are computed by solving the elasto-static equation in a finite thickness slab. We will show that the finite thickness of the substrate and the distance of the beads to its surface affect substantially the results, although previous traction cytometry techniques neglected them. The measured forces are correlated to the different stages of the crawling cycle for various cell strains. It has been observed that a large fraction of the forces measured on the substrate are originated by the cell's internal tension through all the stages of motion, including the protrusion of pseudopods. This result suggests that the viscous drag exerted by the fluid in which the cells are immersed is very small compared to the forces applied by the cytoskeleton on the substrate.

  5. TRACTION RESISTANCE IN CHITOSAN TREATED COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOX Wouter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural products interest has increased. However, when some products are included on textile fibers, they have no affinity and need some binders or other kind of auxiliaries to improve the yeld of the process, and some of them are not so natural as the product which are binding and consequently the “bio” definition is missed as some of them can be considered as highly pollutant. Chitosan is a common used bonding agent for cotton. It improves the antimicrobial and antifungal activity, improves wound healing and is a non-toxic bonding agent. The biopolymer used in this work is chitosan, which is a deacetylated derivative of chitin. These properties depend on the amount of deacetylation (DD and the Molecular weight (MW. Along with these improving properties, as it requires some acid pH to ve solved the treatment with chitosan can have some decreasing mechanical properties. The aim of that paper is to evaluate the change in breaking force of the treated samples and a change in elongation of those samples. It compared different amounts of concentration of chitosan with non treated cotton. The traction resistance test were performed on a dynamometer. The test was conducted according to the UNE EN ISO 13934-1 standard.

  6. Direct skeletal traction for Le Fort I halo distraction replacing an intraoral dental splint and connecting traction hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kaneshige; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Kadomatsu, Kohichi; Tosa, Yasuyoshi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki

    2004-10-01

    To obviate dental inconveniences after Le Fort I halo distraction using an intraoral dental splint and connecting traction hook, the authors initiated direct skeletal traction using an traction wire at the parapyriformis buttress area. Halo distraction using this procedure was conducted for 11 cleft lip and palate patients (age range, 13-21 years; 6 females and 5 males). Distraction amount ranged from 11 to 15 mm. A satisfactory occlusion was obtained in all patients. All 11 patients complained of pain during the distraction period, but it was controlled by regular oral intake of the usual amount of analgesics. No other particular complications were encountered during the postoperative follow-up of 8 to 18 months. This form of direct skeletal traction proves effective for Le Fort I halo distraction.

  7. Evaluation of Strategies to Reducing Traction Energy Consumption of Metro Systems Using an Optimal Train Control Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Su

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid to the energy efficiency in metro systems to reduce the operational cost and to advocate the sustainability of railway systems. Classical research has studied the energy-efficient operational strategy and the energy-efficient system design separately to reduce the traction energy consumption. This paper aims to combine the operational strategies and the system design by analyzing how the infrastructure and vehicle parameters of metro systems influence the operational traction energy consumption. Firstly, a solution approach to the optimal train control model is introduced, which is used to design the Optimal Train Control Simulator(OTCS. Then, based on the OTCS, the performance of some important energy-efficient system design strategies is investigated to reduce the trains’ traction energy consumption, including reduction of the train mass, improvement of the kinematic resistance, the design of the energy-saving gradient, increasing the maximum traction and braking forces, introducing regenerative braking and timetable optimization. As for these energy-efficient strategies, the performances are finally evaluated using the OTCS with the practical operational data of the Beijing Yizhuang metro line. The proposed approach gives an example to quantitatively analyze the energy reduction of different strategies in the system design procedure, which may help the decision makers to have an overview of the energy-efficient performances and then to make decisions by balancing the costs and the benefits.

  8. The Simulation of the Traction Drive with Middle-Frequency Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Drabek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research motivated by industrial demand for special traction drive topology devoted to minimization of traction transformer weight against topology with classical 50Hz traction transformer. The special traction drive topology for AC power systems consists of input high voltage trolley converter (single phase matrix converter –middle frequency transformer - output converter - traction motor has been described. The main attention has been given tothe control algorithm of the traction topology (inserting of NULL vector of matrix converter and Two-value control ofsecondary active rectifier.

  9. Axial traction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the glenohumeral joint in healthy volunteers: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Elisabeth R; Souza, Richard B; Zhang, Amy; Zhang, Alan L; Ma, C Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Motamedi, Daria

    Evaluate technical feasibility and potential applications of glenohumeral (GH) joint axial traction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in healthy volunteers. Eleven shoulders were imaged in neutral and with 4kg axial traction at 3T. Quantitative measurements were assessed. Axial traction was well tolerated. There was statistically significant widening of the superior GH joint space (p=0.002) and acromial angle (p=0.017) with traction. Inter-rater agreement was high. GH joint axial traction MRI is technically feasible and well tolerated in volunteers. Traction of the capsule, widening of the superior GH joint space and acromial angle were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Traction reveals mechanisms of wall effects for microswimmers near boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinhui; Marcos, Fu, Henry C.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of a plane boundary on low-Reynolds-number swimmers has frequently been studied using image systems for flow singularities. However, the boundary effect can also be expressed using a boundary integral representation over the traction on the boundary. We show that examining the traction pattern on the boundary caused by a swimmer can yield physical insights into determining when far-field multipole models are accurate. We investigate the swimming velocities and the traction of a three-sphere swimmer initially placed parallel to an infinite planar wall. In the far field, the instantaneous effect of the wall on the swimmer is well approximated by that of a multipole expansion consisting of a force dipole and a force quadrupole. On the other hand, the swimmer close to the wall must be described by a system of singularities reflecting its internal structure. We show that these limits and the transition between them can be independently identified by examining the traction pattern on the wall, either using a quantitative correlation coefficient or by visual inspection. Last, we find that for nonconstant propulsion, correlations between swimming stroke motions and internal positions are important and not captured by time-averaged traction on the wall, indicating that care must be taken when applying multipole expansions to study boundary effects in cases of nonconstant propulsion.

  11. Flow mechanotransduction regulates traction forces, intercellular forces, and adherens junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lucas H.; Jahn, Jessica R.; Jung, Joon I.; Shuman, Benjamin R.; Feghhi, Shirin; Han, Sangyoon J.; Rodriguez, Marita L.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to fluid shear stress through mechanotransduction responses that affect their cytoskeleton and cell-cell contacts. Here, endothelial cells were grown as monolayers on arrays of microposts and exposed to laminar or disturbed flow to examine the relationship among traction forces, intercellular forces, and cell-cell junctions. Cells under laminar flow had traction forces that were higher than those under static conditions, whereas cells under disturbed flow had lower traction forces. The response in adhesion junction assembly matched closely with changes in traction forces since adherens junctions were larger in size for laminar flow and smaller for disturbed flow. Treating the cells with calyculin-A to increase myosin phosphorylation and traction forces caused an increase in adherens junction size, whereas Y-27362 cause a decrease in their size. Since tugging forces across cell-cell junctions can promote junctional assembly, we developed a novel approach to measure intercellular forces and found that these forces were higher for laminar flow than for static or disturbed flow. The size of adherens junctions and tight junctions matched closely with intercellular forces for these flow conditions. These results indicate that laminar flow can increase cytoskeletal tension while disturbed flow decreases cytoskeletal tension. Consequently, we found that changes in cytoskeletal tension in response to shear flow conditions can affect intercellular tension, which in turn regulates the assembly of cell-cell junctions. PMID:22447948

  12. Maximum Safety Regenerative Power Tracking for DC Traction Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifu Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct current (DC traction power systems are widely used in metro transport systems, with running rails usually being used as return conductors. When traction current flows through the running rails, a potential voltage known as “rail potential” is generated between the rails and ground. Currently, abnormal rises of rail potential exist in many railway lines during the operation of railway systems. Excessively high rail potentials pose a threat to human life and to devices connected to the rails. In this paper, the effect of regenerative power distribution on rail potential is analyzed. Maximum safety regenerative power tracking is proposed for the control of maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption during the operation of DC traction power systems. The dwell time of multiple trains at each station and the trigger voltage of the regenerative energy absorbing device (READ are optimized based on an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to manage the distribution of regenerative power. In this way, the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption of DC traction power systems can be reduced. The operation data of Guangzhou Metro Line 2 are used in the simulations, and the results show that the scheme can reduce the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption effectively and guarantee the safety in energy saving of DC traction power systems.

  13. Trunk muscle response to various protocols of lumbar traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Jacek; Lee, Angela S; Reeves, N Peter; Calle, Elizabeth A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare trunk muscle activity, spinal decompression force, and trunk flexibility resulting from various protocols of spinal traction. Four experiments explored the effects of (1) sinusoidal, triangular, square, and continuous distraction-force waveforms, (2) 0, 10, 20, and 30 degrees of pull angle, (3) superimposed low, medium and high frequency force oscillations, and (4) sham traction. Nineteen healthy subjects volunteered for this study. Surface EMG was recorded during traction and later used in a biomechanical model to estimate spine decompression force. Trunk flexibility was measured before and after each treatment. There were no differences in muscle activity between any of the experimental conditions except the thoracic erector spinae muscle, which had lower EMG during continuous compared to sinusoidal distraction-force waveform (p=0.02). Thoracic and lumbar erector spinae muscles were significantly less active during sham than real traction (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively). The estimated L4-L5 spine compression force was 25N. Trunk flexibility decreased after each experimental session (p=0.01), and there were no differences between sessions. Our results suggest that the trunk muscle activity is minimal and point toward fluid exchange in the disc as one of the key biomechanical effects of spinal traction.

  14. Clinical application of intraoperative skeletal traction in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovesti, G L; Margini, A; Cappellari, F; Peirone, B

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of a method for pre-operative and intra-operative traction for reduction of fractures of the appendicular skeleton. Traction was used in 24 diaphyseal fractures in 21 dogs. For each dog, the data pertaining to signalment, limb circumference, fracture type, interval between fracture and surgery, and the traction modalities were recorded. In patients with a latency between trauma and surgery of less than three days, the duration of traction required to realign the bone segments was shorter than that required for older fractures (P = 0.02). Intraoperative malalignments were corrected by manoeuvres performed with the traction stand. Once realigned, fracture segments were kept stable for prolonged periods, without the need for a surgical assistant. Postoperative radiographs were evaluated for fracture reduction and axial alignment. Postoperative alignment was judged excellent in 21 fractures and good in three fractures. Fractures were stabilized using external skeletal fixation (n = 10), plates (n = 11) or locked nails (n = 3), depending on the fracture type. The use of the technique was straight-forward and easily applied in a surgical setting. However, its use requires careful application because of the potential for iatrogenic tissue damage.

  15. Traction sheave elevator, hoisting unit and machine space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Harri; Mustalahti, Jorma; Aulanko, Esko

    2000-01-01

    Traction sheave elevator consisting of an elevator car moving along elevator guide rails, a counterweight moving along counterweight guide rails, a set of hoisting ropes (3) on which the elevator car and counterweight are suspended, and a drive machine unit (6) driving a traction sheave (7) acting on the hoisting ropes (3) and placed in the elevator shaft. The drive machine unit (6) is of a flat construction. A wall of the elevator shaft is provided with a machine space with its open side facing towards the shaft, the essential parts of the drive machine unit (6) being placed in the space. The hoisting unit (9) of the traction sheave elevator consists of a substantially discoidal drive machine unit (6) and an instrument panel (8) mounted on the frame (20) of the hoisting unit.

  16. Local antibiotics: panacea for long term skeletal traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Vishal; Jaiswal, Anuj; Dhaon, B K

    2005-01-01

    Long periods of skeletal traction are frequently needed in busy tertiary centres due to long waiting lists for surgery. A frequent complication is pin track infection, which leads to revision of pin insertion or switching over to skin traction. A prospective study was conducted on sixty patients with upper tibial pin insertion for various causes. Antibiotic (injection Cephazolin 0.5 g after sensitivity testing--250 mg on each side) was injected on thirty patients at the site of pin insertion and no antibiotic was injected in 30 controls. Only one stage one pin track infection was seen in the study group (3% cases), where as six cases had stage 1 infection, one case had stage 2 infection and two cases had stage 3 infections in the control group (30% cases). This study showed the usefulness of this modification in preventing morbidity in patients who are planned for long-term skeletal traction by temporarily suppressing the local flora.

  17. [Preoperative management with skeletal traction in distal tibial fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Otero, Alejandro; Mafara Flores, Gerardo; Rodríguez Ramírez, Sixto; Martínez Flores, Lucio

    2007-01-01

    To describe the immediate management of distal tibial fractures as well as the complications of soft and bony tissues. Prospective review of 45 patients with distal tibial fractures during an 8-month period (August 1st 2005 to March 31st 2006). They were classified according to Rüedi and Allgöwer. Seventy-one percent were managed with transcalcaneal skeletal traction and 28% with Jones bandage. The neovascular status of the affected anatomical segment was reviewed and analyzed before and after the surgical procedure. Type II distal fractures were the most frequent ones, with the left size and the male gender as predominant. Skeletal traction was used in 32 patients (71%); osteosynthesis was performed in all cases. When compared with Jones bandage, transcalcaneal skeletal traction improved the clinical conditions of the distal segment of the leg before and after the surgical procedure.

  18. Gas Gangrene as a Result of Femoral Traction Pin Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of adult femoral shaft fractures typically involves operative stabilization with intramedullary implants, external fixation, or a plate and screw construct. However, when stabilization is delayed for any reason, use of a traction pin is recommended to stabilize the fracture, prevent significant shortening, as well as to help with pain control. In this paper, we present the rare complication of a severe gas gangrene infection caused by Clostridium perfringens that led to several amputations and ultimately death. We also discuss risks of temporary skeletal traction and techniques to overcome the morbidity of such a procedure.

  19. Traction as conservative management of lower back pain: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Al-Sadek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of traction on lower back pain. METHODS: a prospective study of 100 patients with lower back pain with straight leg raising test positive and with decrease in disc space on X-ray. RESULTS: 83.6% of the patients got relief. Patients who got relief were evaluated radiologically and clinically. CONCLUSION: We conclude that traction is cost effective and very effective method for relieving low back pain due to disc pathology and stable lumbar fractures.

  20. Fault Location in Power Electrical Traction Line System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Zhou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, methods of fault location are discussed in electrical traction single-end direct power supply network systems. Based on the distributed parameter model of the system, the position of the short-circuit fault can be located with the aid of the current and voltage value at the measurement end of the electrical traction line. Furthermore, the influence of the transient resistance, the position of the locomotive, locomotive load for fault location are also discussed. MATLAB simulation tool is used for the simulation experiments. Simulation results are proved the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  1. Quality of care for patients with traction in shahid beheshti hospital in 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adib Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Moradi, Tayebeh

    2013-01-01

    ..., and for whom skeletal or skin traction was performed. Data were collected using a checklist including questions about the personal characteristics and 23 items related to care for patients with tractions...

  2. CALCULATION OF A MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTOR OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Phuong Le Ngo; G. I. Gulkov

    2017-01-01

    The traction characteristic of an electric vehicle is the main characteristic of mechanical system that reflects its key performance indicators. Implementation of the traction characteristic is based on controlling angular speed and torque of electric traction motor in an automatic control system. The static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor in an automatic control system is the most important characteristic that determines weight, size and operating characteristics of a...

  3. Microscale evidence of liquefaction and its potential triggers during soft-bed deformation within subglacial traction tills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Emrys R.; Evans, David J. A.; van der Meer, Jaap J. M.; Lee, Jonathan R.

    2018-02-01

    Published conceptual models argue that much of the forward motion of modern and ancient glaciers is accommodated by deformation of soft-sediments within the underlying bed. At a microscale this deformation results in the development of a range of ductile and brittle structures in water-saturated sediments as they accommodate the stresses being applied by the overriding glacier. Detailed micromorphological studies of subglacial traction tills reveal that these polydeformed sediments may also contain evidence of having undergone repeated phases of liquefaction followed by solid-state shear deformation. This spatially and temporally restricted liquefaction of subglacial traction tills lowers the shear strength of the sediment and promotes the formation of "transient mobile zones" within the bed, which accommodate the shear imposed by the overriding ice. This process of soft-bed sliding, alternating with bed deformation, facilitates glacier movement by way of 'stick-slip' events. The various controls on the slip events have previously been identified as: (i) the introduction of pressurised meltwater into the bed, a process limited by the porosity and permeability of the till; and (ii) pressurisation of porewater as a result of subglacial deformation; to which we include (iii) episodic liquefaction of water-saturated subglacial traction tills in response to glacier seismic activity (icequakes), which are increasingly being recognized as significant processes in modern glaciers and ice sheets. As liquefaction operates only in materials already at very low values of effective stress, its process-form signatures are likely indicative of glacier sub-marginal tills.

  4. The Assessment of Working Conditions of Traction Substation for Power and Reactive Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lukasik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, problems concerning the management of reactive power of DC traction substation have been discussed. The structure of traction system and its main elements has been sketched. Reactive power issue with respect to rectifier sets has been presented. The case of generating reactive power of capacitive character in the traction supplying systemand taken precautions has been also described.

  5. 21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5850 Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories. (a) Identification. A nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus...

  6. Vitreopapillary Traction in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Soltan Sanjari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To describe the association between vitreous traction on the optic disc and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION. METHODS: Eighty three eyes of 83 patients with NAION were evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT for detecting vitreous adhesion to the optic nerve head with separation from the adjacent retina (partial posterior vitreous detachment. Eyes which were negative for such adhesion underwent ultrasonography to detect complete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD. RESULTS: Fifty male and 33 female subjects with mean age of 51.9±10 years were studied. Partial PVD with optic nerve head adhesion was found in 54 patients (65.1% using OCT. Ultrasonography detected complete PVD in all other eyes with optically empty spaces on OCT. CONCLUSION: Vitreous traction on the optic nerve head from partial PVD may play a causative role in some cases of NAION. This traction may impair vascular supply and/or axoplasmic flow leading to signs and symptoms of NAION.

  1. Severe Postoperative Complications may be Related to Mesenteric Traction Syndrome during Open Esophagectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, R; Svendsen, L B; Secher, N H

    2017-01-01

    .036). For patients who developed flushing, heart rate and plasma 6-keto-PGF1α also increased ( p = 0.001 and p severe postoperative complications were related to Grade II flushing ( p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Mesenteric traction syndrome manifests more frequently during open than...... robotically assisted esophagectomy, and postoperative complications appear to be associated with severe mesenteric traction syndrome.......BACKGROUND: During abdominal surgery, traction of the mesenterium provokes mesenteric traction syndrome, including hypotension, tachycardia, and flushing, along with an increase in plasma prostacyclin (PGI2). We evaluated whether postoperative complications are related to mesenteric traction...

  2. Structural strength analysis and fatigue life prediction of traction converter box in high-speed EMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qin; Li, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The method of building the FEA model of traction converter box in high-speed EMU and analyzing the static strength and fatigue strength of traction converter box based on IEC 61373-2010 and EN 12663 standards is presented in this paper. The load-stress correlation coefficients of weak points is obtained by FEA model, applied to transfer the load history of traction converter box to stress history of each point. The fatigue damage is calculated based on Miner's rule and the fatigue life of traction converter box is predicted. According to study, the structural strength of traction converter box meets design requirements.

  3. [Effect of preoperative skeletal traction and skin traction on operative indicators and functional outcome of patients with femur fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiao-hui; Yan, Jie

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effect on surgical indicators and functional outcome between preoperative skeletal traction and skin traction for adult femoral fracture and guide the choice of preoperative traction method of adult femoral fractures. From February 2008 to September 2012, 68 patients aged greater than 18-year-old with femoral fractures were treated and randomly divided into two groups according hospitalization order,the odd with skeletal traction of tibial tubercle (group A) and the even with skin traction (group B). In group A, there were 25 males and 9 females with an average age of (36.3±9.9) years old,including 11 cases with transverse fracture, 15 cases with oblique fracture, 8 cases with spiral fracture. In group B, there 26 males and 8 females with an average age of (37.1±11.0) years old,including 10 cases with transverse fracture, 13 cases with oblique fracture,11 cases with spiral fracture. The operative time,blood loss,the number and amount of blood transfusion ,fracture healing time, hemoglobin, pain scores and functional scores between two groups were analyzed and compared. Results:All patients were followed up, the follow-up time was (33.5±6.5) months in group A, (31.3±7.5) months in groupB. In group A,the operation time was (108.8±14.2) min and the intraoperative blood loss was (383.1±117.1) ml and the postoperative blood transfusion was 14 cases and the blood transfusion was (350.0±122.5) ml and the average bone healing time was(15.0±3.3) weeks. In group B, the operation time was (111.6±12.7) min and the intraoperative blood loss was (392.0± 116.7) ml and the blood transfusion was 11 cases and the blood transfusion was(327.3±129.1) ml and the average healing time was (15.5±3.4) weeks. These obseration indicators had no significant difference between two groups. There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of Hemoglobin, the pain scores before and after traction, the femoral fractures efficacy score,knee function score and

  4. The effect of intraoperative traction during posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Hubert; Poitras, Benoit; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire; Joncas, Julie

    2004-07-15

    A retrospective study comparing patients having traction and a control group not having traction during posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion (PSIF) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To evaluate the effect of intraoperative traction on surgical correction of AIS. When the Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation system was introduced, the use of intraoperative traction was advocated. However, there is no specific report documenting the effect of intraoperative traction on the correction of AIS. The medical and radiologic records of 140 AIS patients treated by PSIF were reviewed. Forty of these patients had intraoperative traction using a head halter associated with lower extremity skin traction. The radiologic outcome was compared between the two groups intraoperatively (before instrumentation with the first rod) and after surgery using Student t tests (level of significance = 0.05). The intraoperative and postoperative corrections of the coronal primary Cobb angle were similar for both groups, although the patients in the traction group had smaller preoperative Cobb angles and more flexible curves and were instrumented with more screws. The postoperative thoracic kyphosis was significantly increased in both groups. The lumbar lordosis at the 1-year follow-up was maintained in the control group, but it was significantly decreased in the traction group. The authors do not recommend the routine use of intraoperative traction using a head halter combined with skin traction for all AIS patients undergoing PSIF. However, it could be helpful in selected cases, such as in patients having pelvic obliquity and requiring instrumentation of the pelvis.

  5. Research of the multipolar induction traction frequency regulated motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ia. Bespalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the application features of traction induction electric motors in transmissions of vehicles. It shows that one of important stages in their designing is to choose the number of poles. In traction electric drives engines with the raised number of poles without comprehensive assessment of such solution are often applied. The paper investigates dynamic and power characteristics of the multi-polar traction asynchronous engine (TAE designed and made for using in the individual electric drive of heavy-load wheeled cars. The basic functional elements of the model to simulate the electric drive in Matlab environment with the Simulink and SimPower Systems applications in the structure with vector control are described, and the simulation modeling results of its dynamic mechanical characteristics are provided. It is established that because of increased alternating frequency of currents of the multi-polar engine in the range of high speeds there is an excessive decrease in the torque and the requirement for constancy of the target capacity, corresponding to the specified traction characteristic is not fulfilled. It is a consequence of the waveform distortion of engine phase current in the range of high speeds because of incapability of the power source to compensate an increasing EMF of movement as the speed continues to grow.The paper studies the influence of increased current frequencies on the additional losses in the engine. The analysis of electromagnetic field penetration depth in the copper conductor of stator winding at high frequency allowed us to establish a significant skin – effect. The quantitative assessment is given to this phenomenon by results of numerical calculation of electromagnetic field distribution in a stator groove. Significant increase in additional losses in the engine is established, and estimates of flow loss extent because of damping actions of eddy currents in the laminated steel of stator at

  6. Separate Colors, Separate Minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael; Nidiry, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Explains that racial separation causes cultural separation, and the way to improve race relations is to continue to move toward integration. Discusses the need to debunk race, examining racial issues in education. Highlights the importance of actively supporting integration and opposing separatism, explaining that for there to be social progress,…

  7. Friction-Controlled Traction Force in Cell Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompe, Tilo; Kaufmann, Martin; Kasimir, Maria; Johne, Stephanie; Glorius, Stefan; Renner, Lars; Bobeth, Manfred; Pompe, Wolfgang; Werner, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The force balance between the extracellular microenvironment and the intracellular cytoskeleton controls the cell fate. We report a new (to our knowledge) mechanism of receptor force control in cell adhesion originating from friction between cell adhesion ligands and the supporting substrate. Adherent human endothelial cells have been studied experimentally on polymer substrates noncovalently coated with fluorescent-labeled fibronectin (FN). The cellular traction force correlated with the mobility of FN during cell-driven FN fibrillogenesis. The experimental findings have been explained within a mechanistic two-dimensional model of the load transfer at focal adhesion sites. Myosin motor activity in conjunction with sliding of FN ligands noncovalently coupled to the surface of the polymer substrates is shown to result in a controlled traction force of adherent cells. We conclude that the friction of adhesion ligands on the supporting substrate is important for mechanotransduction and cell development of adherent cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22004739

  8. Cellular traction stresses increase with increasing metastatic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey M Kraning-Rush

    Full Text Available Cancer cells exist in a mechanically and chemically heterogeneous microenvironment which undergoes dynamic changes throughout neoplastic progression. During metastasis, cells from a primary tumor acquire characteristics that enable them to escape from the primary tumor and migrate through the heterogeneous stromal environment to establish secondary tumors. Despite being linked to poor prognosis, there are no direct clinical tests available to diagnose the likelihood of metastasis. Moreover, the physical mechanisms employed by metastatic cancer cells to migrate are poorly understood. Because metastasis of most solid tumors requires cells to exert force to reorganize and navigate through dense stroma, we investigated differences in cellular force generation between metastatic and non-metastatic cells. Using traction force microscopy, we found that in human metastatic breast, prostate and lung cancer cell lines, traction stresses were significantly increased compared to non-metastatic counterparts. This trend was recapitulated in the isogenic MCF10AT series of breast cancer cells. Our data also indicate that increased matrix stiffness and collagen density promote increased traction forces, and that metastatic cells generate higher forces than non-metastatic cells across all matrix properties studied. Additionally, we found that cell spreading for these cell lines has a direct relationship with collagen density, but a biphasic relationship with substrate stiffness, indicating that cell area alone does not dictate the magnitude of traction stress generation. Together, these data suggest that cellular contractile force may play an important role in metastasis, and that the physical properties of the stromal environment may regulate cellular force generation. These findings are critical for understanding the physical mechanisms of metastasis and the role of the extracellular microenvironment in metastatic progression.

  9. Skeletal pin traction: guidelines on postoperative care and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Peter

    Orthopaedic pins and wires have been used to apply skeletal traction for many years, and there has been an increase in the use of external fixators (Santy, 2000; Sims and Saleh, 2000). Multiple pins are frequently used and, as such, create potential portals for infection. Infection rates for these pins are reported to be as high as 85 per cent (Sims and Saleh, 2000). However, pin-site management practices are diverse, contradictory and lack consistency.

  10. skeletal traction and intramedullary nailing cost-effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    form of tables, and figures. Results: Males were more affected than females, with a mean age of 31.5 years. The mean length of hospital stay was 11.48 days for the operative group and 66.7 days for the skeletal traction group. The average total hospital cost for the operative group was Kshs 54, 380.44 (US$640) compared ...

  11. Creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Юрьевич Зубенко

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction are considered in the article. The aim of creation this design are the replacement of the internal combustion engine on electromechanical device. For this electromechanical device are constructed model, which describe processes that occur in the electric drive of electromechanical device. Characteristics of the main modes of motion were recorded. The introduction of electromechanical device will reduce the level of emissions and reduce noise in the cities

  12. REACTIVE POWER DEVICES IN SYSTEMS OF ELECTRIC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative characteristic of different concepts and expressions for determination of reactive power in the circuits with non-sinusoidal electric values has been given. For the first Ukrainian electric locomotives of DE1 type with the system of DC electric traction, the values of reactive power after Budeany, Fryze, and also the differential, integral and generalized reactive powers have been determined. Some measures on reducing its consumption by the DC electric rolling stock have been suggested.

  13. Modern Solutions for Automation of Electrical Traction Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihaela Andreica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modern solutions for the automation of the electrical traction power supply system used in urban public transport (trams, trolleybuses and subway trains. The monitoring and control of this process uses SCADA distributed architectures, grouped around a central point (dispatcher who controls all field sensors, transmitters and actuators using programmable logical controllers. The presented applications refer to the Bucharest electrical transport infrastructure.

  14. Soft Magnetic Composites in Novel Designs of Electrical Traction Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the manufacturing of electrical machines based on electrical steel laminations has been well established worldwide. Compared with the electrical steel, the soft magnetic composites (SMC) shows magnetic isotropy and lower eddy current losses. Thus, it becomes an important impulse promoting the development of new topologies of electrical machine. The application of SMC in the electrical traction machine for hybrid electrical vehicle or electrical vehicle has been researched in the work.

  15. 3D Traction forces in cancer cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten M Koch

    Full Text Available Cell invasion through a dense three-dimensional (3D matrix is believed to depend on the ability of cells to generate traction forces. To quantify the role of cell tractions during invasion in 3D, we present a technique to measure the elastic strain energy stored in the matrix due to traction-induced deformations. The matrix deformations around a cell were measured by tracking the 3D positions of fluorescent beads tightly embedded in the matrix. The bead positions served as nodes for a finite element tessellation. From the strain in each element and the known matrix elasticity, we computed the local strain energy in the matrix surrounding the cell. We applied the technique to measure the strain energy of highly invasive MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma and A-125 lung carcinoma cells in collagen gels. The results were compared to the strain energy generated by non-invasive MCF-7 breast and A-549 lung carcinoma cells. In all cases, cells locally contracted the matrix. Invasive breast and lung carcinoma cells showed a significantly higher contractility compared to non-invasive cells. Higher contractility, however, was not universally associated with higher invasiveness. For instance, non-invasive A-431 vulva carcinoma cells were the most contractile cells among all cell lines tested. As a universal feature, however, we found that invasive cells assumed an elongated spindle-like morphology as opposed to a more spherical shape of non-invasive cells. Accordingly, the distribution of strain energy density around invasive cells followed patterns of increased complexity and anisotropy. These results suggest that not so much the magnitude of traction generation but their directionality is important for cancer cell invasion.

  16. Traction Force and Tension Fluctuations During Axon Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamison ePolackwich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Actively generated mechanical forces play a central role in axon growthand guidance, but the mechanisms that underly force generation andregulation in growing axons remain poorly understood. We reportmeasurements of the dynamics of traction stresses from growth cones ofactively advancing axons from postnatal rat DRG neurons. By tracking themovement of the growth cone and analyzing the traction stress field froma reference frame that moves with it, we are able to show that there isa clear and consistent average stress field that underlies the complexspatial stresses present at any one time. The average stress field hasstrong maxima on the sides of the growth cone, directed inward towardthe growth cone neck. This pattern represents a contractile stresscontained within the growth cone, and a net force that is balanced bythe axon tension. Using high time-resolution measurements of the growthcone traction stresses, we show that the stress field is composed offluctuating local stress peaks, with a large number peaks that live fora short time, a population of peaks whose lifetime distribution followsan exponential decay, and a small number of very long-lived peaks. Weshow that the high time-resolution data also reveal that the tensionappears to vary randomly over short time scales, roughly consistent withthe lifetime of the stress peaks, suggesting that the tensionfluctuations originate from stochastic adhesion dynamics.

  17. Design study of toroidal traction CVT for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynard, A. E.; Kraus, J.; Bell, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The development, evaluation, and optimization of a preliminary design concept for a continuously variable transmission (CVT) to couple the high-speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle is discussed. An existing computer simulation program was modified and used to compare the performance of five CVT design configurations. Based on this analysis, a dual-cavity full-toroidal drive with regenerative gearing is selected for the CVT design configuration. Three areas are identified that will require some technological development: the ratio control system, the traction fluid properities, and evaluation of the traction contact performance. Finally, the suitability of the selected CVT design concept for alternate electric and hybrid vehicle applications and alternate vehicle sizes and maximum output torques is determined. In all cases the toroidal traction drive design concept is applicable to the vehicle system. The regenerative gearing could be eliminated in the electric powered vehicle because of the reduced ratio range requirements. In other cases the CVT with regenerative gearing would meet the design requirements after appropriate adjustments in size and reduction gearing ratio.

  18. Effect of continuous lumbar traction on the size of herniated disc material in lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Bulent; Gunduz, Osman Hakan; Ozoran, Kursat; Bostanoglu, Sevinc

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the effects of continuous lumbar traction in patients with lumbar disc herniation on clinical findings, and size of the herniated disc measured by computed tomography (CT). In this prospective, randomized, controlled study, 46 patients with lumbar disc herniation were included, and randomized into two groups as the traction group (24 patients), and the control group (22 patients). The traction group was given a physical therapy program and continuous lumbar traction. The control group was given the same physical therapy program without traction, for the same duration of time. Data for the clinical symptoms and signs were collected before and after the treatment together with calculation of a herniation index, from the CT images that showed the size of the herniated disc material. In the traction group, most of the clinical findings significantly improved with treatment. Size of the herniated disc material in CT decreased significantly only in the traction group. In the traction group the herniation index decreased from 276.6+/-129.6 to 212.5+/-84.3 with treatment (p0.05). Patients with greater herniations tended to respond better to traction. In conclusion, lumbar traction is both effective in improving symptoms and clinical findings in patients with lumbar disc herniation and also in decreasing the size of the herniated disc material as measured by CT.

  19. The measurement, modeling, and prediction of traction for rocket propellant 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaarwerk, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Traction tests were performed on RP-1, a common kerosene based rocket propellant. Traction data on this fluid are required for purposes of turbopump bearing design, using codes such as SHABERTH. To obtain the traction data, an existing twin disc machine was used, operating under the side slip mode and using elliptical contacts. The range of test variables were: contact peak Hertz stress from 1.0 to 2.0 GPa, disc surface speed from 10 to 50 m/s, fluid inlet temperature from 30 to 70 C, and with a contact aspect ratio of 1.7. The resulting traction curves were reduced to fundamental fluid property parameters using the Johnson and Tevaarwerk traction model. Theoretical traction predictions were performed by back substitution of the fundamental properties into the traction model. Comparison of the predicted with the measured curves gives a high degree of confidence in the correctness of the traction model. For purposes of input to the NASA SHABERTH program, the traction model was next used to predict the expected traction of RP-1 under line contact conditions.

  20. [Acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-zhen; Chen, Hai-yong; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Nong-yu

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation, providing the basis for future research strategies. Randomized control trials. (RCT) of acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumber disc herniation at home and abroad from 2000 to 2013 were searched, analysis and evaluation of literature and strength of evidence were based on the principles and methods of Evidence-based Medicine. The total effective rate and curative rate were considered as primary outcome measures; pain improvement, quality of life, relapse rate and adverse effects were considered as secondary outcome measures. Seventeen RCTs were identified, Meta-analysis showed that (1) total effective rate and curative rate: acupuncture combined with traction therapy was better than single therapy (acupuncture or traction); (2) pain improvement: acupuncture combined with traction therapy was better than traction therapy; (3) relapse rate: current evidence could not support the conclusion that acupuncture combined with traction therapy was better than traction therapy. Acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation was effective. However, the included studies were with high risk of bias, important outcome measures such as quality of life, relapse rate and adverse effects were not found in most of the studies. Current evidence has not yet been able to fully reflect acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation is better than single therapy, so more RCTs of higher quality are needed to further confirm its efficacy and safety.

  1. Biomechanical analysis of two-step traction therapy in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won Man; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2014-12-01

    Traction therapy is one of the most common conservative treatments for low back pain. However, the effects of traction therapy on lumbar spine biomechanics are not well known. We investigated biomechanical effects of two-step traction therapy, which consists of global axial traction and local decompression, on the lumbar spine using a validated three-dimensional finite element model of the lumbar spine. One-third of body weight was applied on the center of the L1 vertebra toward the superior direction for the first axial traction. Anterior translation of the L4 vertebra was considered as the second local decompression. The lordosis angle between the superior planes of the L1 vertebra and sacrum was 44.6° at baseline, 35.2° with global axial traction, and 46.4° with local decompression. The fibers of annulus fibrosus in the posterior region, and intertransverse and posterior longitudinal ligaments experienced stress primarily during global axial traction, these stresses decreased during local decompression. A combination of global axial traction and local decompression would be helpful for reducing tensile stress on the fibers of the annulus fibrosus and ligaments, and intradiscal pressure in traction therapy. This study could be used to develop a safer and more effective type of traction therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preoperative skeletal versus cutaneous traction for femoral shaft fractures treated within 24 hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Jesse L; Richards, Justin E; Crosby, Colin G; Kregor, Philip J; Mitchell, Erika J; Jahangir, Alex A; Tressler, Marc A; Obremskey, William T

    2012-10-01

    To compare the advantages and disadvantages of preoperative cutaneous traction versus skeletal traction in adults with diaphyseal femur fractures amenable to fixation within 24 hours. Randomized prospective trial. Level I trauma center in a major metropolitan area. Sixty-five patients with 66 femur fractures were prospectively enrolled and randomized to a traction group from July 2009 to July 2010. Time of application for on call physicians/practitioners, pain relief after application of traction; time of reduction in the operating room theater, and evaluation of pain medication consumption before stabilization. Thirty-seven patients received cutaneous femoral traction, whereas 29 patients received skeletal traction. There was a significant reduction in time of application for the cutaneous traction (24.30 ± 24.74 minutes) compared with skeletal traction (57.10 ± 33.60 minutes) (P ≤ 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in visual analog scale (VAS) scores when compared with pretraction application pain assessment and posttraction pain assessment between the cutaneous and skeletal traction groups with a decrease in the VAS of (0.56 ± 3.73 and 0.54 ± 2.76), respectively (P = 0.99). There was no difference in pain medication requirements between groups (0.12 ± 0.17 mg/kg for cutaneous versus 0.09 ± 0.14 mg/kg for skeletal, P = 0.39). There was no significant difference in reduction time of the fracture (skin incision or opening reamer to guide wire passage) in the operating room between cutaneous traction versus skeletal traction (P = 0.59). Use of cutaneous traction for diaphyseal femur fractures when compared with skeletal traction results in a statistically significant reduction in time of application to the on call practitioner with no complications or detrimental change in operative time and no difference in VAS pain scores or narcotic usage.

  3. A Traction Three-Phase to Single-Phase Cascade Converter Substation in an Advanced Traction Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The advanced traction power supply system (ATPSS is a new directional development for traction power supply systems, which can totally remove the neutral sections and effectively promote power quality. However, the existing converters suffer from small substation capacity. In this paper, a new configuration based on a three-level neutral point clamped (3L-NPC three-phase to single-phase cascade converter in a substation is proposed for ATPSS, which can be used to match the capacity of the converter for high voltage and large power applications. The control strategy of the proposed converter is analyzed in depth, and the phase disposition sinusoidal pulse width modulation (PD-SPWM with phase shift carrier SPWM (PSC-SPWM is employed in the inverters. Then, the inductance equalizing circuit is applied for the voltage balance on the DC-link. Besides, a LC filter circuit is designed to eliminate the double line-frequency ripple of DC voltage. Afterwards, a simulation model and an experimental prototype are developed, respectively. The simulation results show that the proposed converter in this paper can not only meet the requirements of voltage and capacity for the traction network, but also improve power quality. Finally, the experimental results verify the correctness and feasibility of the proposed control strategy.

  4. Pre-operative traction for fractures of the proximal femur in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M J; Handoll, H H G

    2006-07-19

    Following a hip fracture, traction may be applied to the injured limb before surgery. To evaluate the effects of traction applied to the injured limb prior to surgery for a fractured hip. Different methods of applying traction (skin or skeletal) were considered. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (March 2006), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2006), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2006), EMBASE (1988 to 2006 Week 11), CINAHL (1982 to March 2006), the UK National Research Register (Issue 1, 2006), conference proceedings and reference lists of articles. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing either skin or skeletal traction with no traction, or skin with skeletal traction for patients with an acute hip fracture prior to surgery. Both authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Additional information was sought from all trialists. Wherever appropriate and possible, data were pooled. Ten randomised trials, mainly of moderate quality, involving a total of 1546 predominantly elderly patients with hip fractures, were identified and included in the review. Nine trials compared traction with no traction. Although limited data pooling was possible, overall this provided no evidence of benefit from traction, either in the relief of pain before surgery or ease of fracture reduction or quality of fracture reduction at time of surgery. One of these trials included both skin and skeletal traction groups. This trial and one other compared skeletal traction with skin traction and found no important differences between these two methods, although the initial application of skeletal traction was noted as being more painful and more costly. From the evidence available, the routine use of traction (either skin or skeletal) prior to surgery for a hip fracture does not appear to have any benefit. However, the evidence is also insufficient to rule out the potential

  5. Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Modern High-Speed Trains with Traction Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive systems are used with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF inverters and traction induction motors, these machines with appropriate controls can realize both traction and electric braking regimes for electric traction vehicles. In line with this idea, this paper addresses the operation sustainability of electric railway vehicles highlighting the chain of interactions among the main electric equipment on an electrically driven railway system supplied from an a.c. contact line: The contact line-side converter, the machine-side converter and the traction induction motor. The paper supports the findings that electric traction drive systems using induction motors fed by network-side converters and VVVF inverters enhance the sustainable operation of railway trains.

  6. Microfabricated tissues for investigating traction forces involved in cell migration and tissue morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerger, Bryan A; Siedlik, Michael J; Nelson, Celeste M

    2017-05-01

    Cell-generated forces drive an array of biological processes ranging from wound healing to tumor metastasis. Whereas experimental techniques such as traction force microscopy are capable of quantifying traction forces in multidimensional systems, the physical mechanisms by which these forces induce changes in tissue form remain to be elucidated. Understanding these mechanisms will ultimately require techniques that are capable of quantifying traction forces with high precision and accuracy in vivo or in systems that recapitulate in vivo conditions, such as microfabricated tissues and engineered substrata. To that end, here we review the fundamentals of traction forces, their quantification, and the use of microfabricated tissues designed to study these forces during cell migration and tissue morphogenesis. We emphasize the differences between traction forces in two- and three-dimensional systems, and highlight recently developed techniques for quantifying traction forces.

  7. DEFINITION OF LOCOMOTIVE TRACTION FORCE WITH REGARD TO UNEVEN LOADING OF WHEEL-MOTOR BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ye. Bodnar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article describes the most common methods for determining the locomotive traction force. Solving the tasks of traction calculations involves determination of the forces influencing the train at every point of the way. When choosing a rational trajectory of the train motion and the development of operational regulations of train driving it is necessary to determine the actual value of the locomotive traction force. Considering various factors, power value of traction electric motor of locomotive may have significant differences. Advancement of the operational definition system of the locomotive traction force during the calculations by electrical parameters of traction electric motor with regard to uneven load of wheel-motor block is the purpose of the article. Methodology. The method of determining the traction force of locomotives and diesel locomotives with electric transmission, which is based on primary data acquisition of traction electric engines of direct current behavior, was proposed. Sensors and their integration into the electrical circuitry of the locomotive in order to get the data in digital form and for operational calculation of the each traction motor mode and the definition of locomotive traction force are presented. Findings. The experimental investigation of the system of locomotive traction force determination with the electric traction motor ED-105 was offered. A comparison of electrical and mechanical power of the electric motor was conducted. Originality. The system of locomotives power operational definition, which takes into account the variable electro-mechanical factors of wheel and motor blocks and increases the accuracy of the calculations, was proposed. Practical value. The system is a part of an onboard complex in definition of energy-efficient regimes for trains movement and provides the definition of accelerating and decelerating forces.

  8. Orthodontic traction of a transmigrated mandibular canine using mini-implant: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Sonia Patricia

    2016-12-01

    The patient in this case is an 11-year-old girl, whose mandibular left canine was transmigrated. The traction to the arch was assisted by using a temporary skeletal anchorage device. After 5 months of poor response to traction, the biomechanics were re-adjusted, obtaining effective traction in to the arch in 12 months. After this period, the treatment was completed with fixed orthodontic appliances.

  9. Quality of Care for Patients With Traction in Shahid Beheshti Hospital in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Adib Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Moradi, Tayebeh

    2013-01-01

    Background With increasing incidence of traumatic fractures, the use of orthopedic intervention such as traction has increased. Inappropriate traction care may cause substantial morbidity and delay the patient rehabilitation. Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of care for patients with traction in the orthopedic unit of Kashan's Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods This observational study was conducted on 100 patients with traumatic fractures ...

  10. Manual Therapy, Exercise, and Traction for Patients With Cervical Radiculopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ian A. Young; Lori A. Michener; Joshua A. Cleland; Arnold J. Aguilera; Alison R. Snyder

    2009-01-01

    .... Preliminary evidence suggests that a multimodal treatment program consisting of manual therapy, exercise, and cervical traction may result in positive outcomes for patients with cervical radiculopathy...

  11. Effect of traction on wrist joint space and cartilage visibility with and without MR arthrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryan K L; Griffith, James F; Tang, W K; Ng, Alex W H; Yeung, David K W

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effect of traction during non-arthrographic and arthrographic MR examination of the wrist with regard to joint space width, joint fluid dispersion and cartilage surface visibility. Prospective 3-T MRI study of 100 wrists in 96 patients. The first 50 wrists underwent MR arthrography first without traction and then with traction. The following 50 wrists underwent standard MR first without traction and then with traction. On these examinations, two radiologists independently measured (i) joint space width, semi-quantitatively graded (ii) joint fluid dispersion between opposing cartilage surfaces and (iii) articular cartilage surface visibility. The three parameters were compared between the two groups. Traction led to an increase in joint space width at nearly all joints in all patients (p wrist although the effect was not as great as that seen with MR arthography or MR arthrography with traction. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study to show the beneficial effect of traction during standard non-arthrography MRI of the wrist and compare the effect of traction between non-arthrographic and arthrographic MRI of the wrist.

  12. The investigation of reverse traction current influence on tone track circuit modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I.Jasсhuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the introduction of high-speed traffic there is an increased consumption of traction current by new types of rolling stock. This issue is important, as high levels of traction currents can have not only prevents, but also a dangerous impact on the equipment of railway automation devices. It is necessary to investigate the propagation of traction currents and potentials along the rails. Objective: Investigate the propagation of traction currents and potentials along the rails, the determination of critical currents, which not executed tone track circuits modes. Methods: In order to investigate the mathematical model, and the method of calculation tone track circuits modes was used. Results: By means of mathematical model, which includes being several rolling-stocks at the feeder zone, different rail resistance and isolation, the diagrams of currents and potentials propagations for DC and AC electric traction have been obtained. A comparative analysis of the experimental data and the results of the investigation has been realized. Based on received levels of reverse traction current their influence on track circuit modes has been investigated. Conclusions: The reverse traction current level near the substation and rolling-stock can be more than 600A. Great reverse traction current levels have an influence on tonal track circuit functioning, namely normal and shunt modes. When the traction current arrives 200 A there is a reduction criteria of tonal track circuits.

  13. A Skeletal Traction Technique for Proximal Femur Fracture Management in an Austere Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwell, David; Meghoo, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal traction is a useful technique for managing proximal femur fractures in austere environments where fracture stabilization for this injury is difficult. We present a technique and a construct appropriate for field use that facilitates patient evacuation, and we provide guidelines for the use of this technique by an advanced medical provider managing these injuries. The objectives of this article are to enable to reader to (1) recognize the role of skeletal traction in managing proximal femur fractures in an austere environment, (2) identify the key steps in placing transfemoral skeletal traction pins, and (3) identify options and requirements for building a traction construct in resource-limited environments. 2016.

  14. The effect of cavernous nerve traction on erectile function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Chen, Liping; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shaogang; Liu, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the effect of cavernous nerve (CN) traction on erectile function in rats. Thirty-two 8- week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, 1-minute CN traction, 2-minute CN traction, and 2-minute CN crush. CN traction was performed using a glass hook with a tensile force of 0.2 Newton. One month later, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in response to CN stimulation were measured to assess erectile function. The penis and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) were harvested to explore the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and neurofilament, fibrosis and apoptosis. The ICP/MAP ratio was reduced in the 2-minute CN traction group compared with the control group (P dorsal penile nerve was lower in the CN traction group than in the control group, but was higher than in the CN crush group (P Nerve fiber number in the dorsal penile nerve was reduced by 2-minute CN traction (P < 0.05). The ratios of collagen to smooth muscle content and the apoptosis were both increased the in 2-minute CN traction group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that CN traction is an effective CN injury model and the injury it caused is relatively mild compared with the CN crush model.

  15. The effect of cavernous nerve traction on erectile function in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hao; Chen, Liping; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shaogang; Liu, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the effect of cavernous nerve (CN) traction on erectile function in rats. Thirty-two 8- week-old Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, 1-minute CN traction, 2-minute CN traction, and 2-minute CN crush. CN traction was performed using a glass hook with a tensile force of 0.2 Newton. One month later, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in response to CN stimulation were measured to assess erectile function...

  16. The Effect of 2 Forms of Talocrural Joint Traction on Dorsiflexion Range of Motion and Postural Control in Those With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powden, Cameron J; Hogan, Kathleen K; Wikstrom, Erik A; Hoch, Matthew C

    2017-05-01

    Talocrural joint mobilizations are commonly used to address deficits associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Examine the immediate effects of talocrural joint traction in those with CAI. Blinded, crossover. Laboratory. Twenty adults (14 females; age = 23.80 ± 4.02 y; height = 169.55 ± 12.38 cm; weight = 78.34 ± 16.32 kg) with self-reported CAI participated. Inclusion criteria consisted of a history of ≥1 ankle sprain, ≥2 episodes of giving way in the previous 3 mo, answering "yes" to ≥4 questions on the Ankle Instability Instrument, and ≤24 on the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Subjects participated in 3 sessions in which they received a single treatment session of sustained traction (ST), oscillatory traction (OT), or a sham condition in a randomized order. Interventions consisted of four 30-s sets of traction with 1 min of rest between sets. During ST and OT, the talus was distracted distally from the ankle mortise to the end-range of accessory motion. ST consisted of continuous distraction and OT involved 1-s oscillations between the mid and end-range of accessory motion. The sham condition consisted of physical contact without force application. Preintervention and postintervention measurements of weight-bearing dorsiflexion, dynamic balance, and static single-limb balance were collected. The independent variable was treatment (ST, OT, sham). The dependent variables included pre-to-posttreatment change scores for the WBLT (cm), normalized SEBTAR (%), and time-to-boundary (TTB) variables(s). Separate 1-way ANOVAs examined differences between treatments for each dependent variable. Alpha was set a priori at P dorsiflexion range of motion or postural control in individuals with CAI. Future research should investigate the effects of repeated talocrural traction treatments and the effects of this technique when combined with other manual therapies.

  17. Manual unloading of the lumbar spine: can it identify immediate responders to mechanical traction in a low back pain population? A study of reliability and criterion referenced predictive validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Brian T; Riley, Sean P; Cote, Mark P; Leger, Robin R; Moss, Isaac L; Carlos, John

    2016-05-01

    To date, no research has examined the reliability or predictive validity of manual unloading tests of the lumbar spine to identify potential responders to lumbar mechanical traction. To determine: (1) the intra and inter-rater reliability of a manual unloading test of the lumbar spine and (2) the criterion referenced predictive validity for the manual unloading test. Ten volunteers with low back pain (LBP) underwent a manual unloading test to establish reliability. In a separate procedure, 30 consecutive patients with LBP (age 50·86±11·51) were assessed for pain in their most provocative standing position (visual analog scale (VAS) 49·53±25·52 mm). Patients were assessed with a manual unloading test in their most provocative position followed by a single application of intermittent mechanical traction. Post traction, pain in the provocative position was reassessed and utilized as the outcome criterion. The test of unloading demonstrated substantial intra and inter-rater reliability K = 1·00, P = 0·002, K = 0·737, P = 0·001, respectively. There were statistically significant within group differences for pain response following traction for patients with a positive manual unloading test (P0·05). There were significant between group differences for proportion of responders to traction based on manual unloading response (P = 0·031), and manual unloading response demonstrated a moderate to strong relationship with traction response Phi = 0·443, P = 0·015. The manual unloading test appears to be a reliable test and has a moderate to strong correlation with pain relief that exceeds minimal clinically important difference (MCID) following traction supporting the validity of this test.

  18. Model-based efficiency evaluation of combine harvester traction drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Häberle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the research the drive train of the combine harvesters is investigated in detail. The focus on load and power distribution, energy consumption and usage distribution are explicitly explored on two test machines. Based on the lessons learned during field operations, model-based studies of energy saving potential in the traction train of combine harvesters can now be quantified. Beyond that the virtual machine trial provides an opportunity to compare innovative drivetrain architectures and control solutions under reproducible conditions. As a result, an evaluation method is presented and generically used to draw comparisons under local representative operating conditions.

  19. Effective Maxillary Protraction with Tandem Traction Bow Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar S Marure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA promotes patient compliance, because it is more esthetic and comfortable than extraoral appliances. TTBA should be used only in case where maxillary deficiency and normal mandible is present. Advantages of it includes good oral hygiene, early treatment of any Class III malocclusion, optimal retention, distribution of the forces for protraction to all maxillary teeth, free mandibular movement. It can be used in conjunction with fixed appliances if necessary. This paper includes two case reports. The treatment results in both the cases demonstrated significant skeletal and dental response to TTBA therapy. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior movement of the maxilla.

  20. APPROXIMATION OF UNIVERSAL MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTIC FOR MODELLING ELECTRIC TRACTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Drubetskyi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific work is aimed to obtain an analytic expression describing universal magnetic characteristic and enabling to take into account the demagnetizing effect of the armature. On the basis of the universal magnetic characteristics one need to obtain universal expressions for inductive parameters of electric traction machines of direct and pulsating currents. Methodology. A universal magnetic characteristic (UMC is the dependence of the relative units of the magnetic flux on the magnetomotive force (MMF of the excitation winding. Since MMF was built for machines operating under load, therefore, in fact it is a dependency on the MMF and on the MMF of the armature reaction. For the calculation of electromechanical characteristics at constant excitation one can use one of the well-known expressions approximating the UMC. However, during modeling the electric traction engine operation in wide ranges of excitation change it is necessary the expression, in which there is a second variable in the form of MMF of the anchor reaction. Such an expression is also necessary to determine the inductive parameters of electric traction engine, to a large extent dependent on the current. The expression for the approximation of the UMC with two variables can be obtained by analyzing the magnetic field distribution in the air gap at the calculated pole arc. Findings. The author obtained expression for approximation of the UMC, which depends on two variables: MMF of excitation and MMF of armature reaction. For a particular mode of excitation weakening it is possible to convert the expression into the function of one variable, for example, the anchor current. Also, the MMF of excitation winding can be the argument. Originality. For the UMC approximation it was proposed a methodology that makes it possible to record into approximating expression the second variable in the form of the anchor reaction MMF. Practical value. Due to the presence of speed

  1. Subtalar arthroscopy with calcaneal skeletal traction in a hanging position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyong Nyun; Ryu, Seung Ryol; Park, Jung Min; Park, Yong Wook

    2012-01-01

    Several arthroscopic approaches to the subtalar joint have been developed in the supine, lateral, or prone position. However, it is difficult to use the posteromedial portal with the patient in the supine or lateral position and the anterolateral portal with the patient prone. Furthermore, obtaining joint distraction in the lateral or prone position is difficult. We present a technique that enables the combination of 2 posterior portals and lateral portals to the subtalar joint with calcaneal skeletal traction in a hanging position for better visualization and instrumentation of the joint. Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower extremity traction pins: indications, technique, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althausen, Peter L; Hak, David J

    2002-01-01

    The placement of pins in the lower extremity for the purpose of skeletal traction is a basic skill required by an orthopedic surgeon. These pins are primarily used for the management of fractures and dislocations. Although simple, the insertion and care of these pins can be accompanied by severe complications including damage to neurovascular structures, physeal injury, ligamentous insult, fracture, and infection. We review the techniques of pin insertion at the distal femur, proximal tibia, and calcaneus to provide a foundation for residents and attendings alike so that unnecessary complications may be avoided and proper placement ensured.

  3. FreedomCAR Advanced Traction Drive Motor Development Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Josh (UQM Technologies, Inc.); Lutz, Jon (UQM Technologies, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to design and develop an advanced traction motor that will meet the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) 2010 goals and the traction motor technical targets. The motor specifications are given in Section 1.3. Other goals of the program include providing a cost study to ensure the motor can be developed within the cost targets needed for the automotive industry. The program has focused on using materials that are both high performance and low costs such that the performance can be met and cost targets are achieved. In addition, the motor technologies and machine design features must be compatible with high volume manufacturing and able to provide high reliability, efficiency, and ruggedness while simultaneously reducing weight and volume. Weight and volume reduction will become a major factor in reducing cost, material cost being the most significant part of manufacturing cost at high volume. Many motor technology categories have been considered in the past and present for traction drive applications, including: brushed direct current (DC), PM (PM) brushless dc (BLDC), alternating current (AC) induction, switched reluctance and synchronous reluctance machines. Of these machine technologies, PM BLDC has consistently demonstrated an advantage in terms of power density and efficiency. As rare earth magnet cost has declined, total cost may also be reduced over the other technologies. Of the many different configurations of PM BLDC machines, those which incorporate power production utilizing both magnetic torque as well as reluctance torque appear to have the most promise for traction applications. There are many different PM BLDC machine configurations which employ both of these torque producing mechanisms; however, most would fall into one of two categories--some use weaker magnets and rely more heavily on reluctance torque (reluctance-dominant PM machines), others use strong PMs and supplement with reluctance torque

  4. MONITORING OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUALITY ON THE TRACTION SUBSTATION INPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Gryb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the implementation of measures to maintain the quality of the energy industrial enterprises have to spend a significant material and monetary assets. In this regard, significant is the feasibility study of the allocation of such funds and, primarily, the determination of the economic damage arising from low quality of electricity. The reliability of the electricity metering system, relay protection and automation of modern digital substations depends on the quality of electrical energy. At the present time to improve the reliability of the substation operation it is necessary to monitor indicators of quality of electric energy, allowing you to take organizational and technical solutions for their improvement. Monitoring the power quality at the input traction substation has shown that indicators such as the coefficient of the n-th harmonic component of the voltage does not meet the standards GOST 13109-97. The source of higher harmonics is a voltage Converter used on the locomotive. To eliminate higher harmonics in the supply network for traction substations will need to install power filters. Today, the USB-analyzer of power quality «Digital measurement system of power quality» type of CSICE of accuracy class 0.2. Work energy requires reliable and quality electricity supply to consumers. The new model of balancing energy market are bilateral contracts. The main task of this market, it ensure the stable and reliable operation of the unified energy system of Ukraine, that is, transmission and supply of electricity of appropriate quality.

  5. Effects of Intermittent Traction in Patients With Cervical Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akbari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Osteoarthritis(OA is the most common joint disease occuring after middle age.Because of the high mobility of the neck, OA is common in the cervical spine. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the effects of intermittent traction on patients with mild and moderate cervical OA. Therefore, 32 patients with cervical OA were recruited.Methods:Aclinical trial study was designed for patients with cervical OA that were randomly assigned in two equal groups.Control group received a routine physical therapy protocol which included moist heat, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, and an exercise for neck and shoulder girdle. Experimental group received a routine physical therapy protocol plus intermittent traction (IT.Results: Pain and mobility improved in both groups.There was significant difference in interaction of the improvement of cervical pain between the two groups,the rate of pain reduction; sleep ease, medicine taking and range of motion (ROM improvement in the experimental group were higher than that of the control group.Conclusion: The results justify the efficacy of IT, therefore it can be concluded that the IT is an effective modality for patients with mild and moderate cervical OA.  

  6. High-Voltage Converter for the Traction Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Volskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-voltage converter employing IGCT switches (VDC=2800 V for traction application is presented. Such a power traction drive operates with an unstable input voltage over 2000⋯4000 V DC and with an output power up to 1200 kW. The original power circuit of the high-voltage converter is demonstrated. Development of the attractive approach to designing the low-loss snubber circuits of the high-frequency IGCT switches is proposed. It is established on the complex multilevel analysis of the transient phenomena and power losses. The essential characteristics of the critical parameters under transient modes and the relation between the snubber circuit parameters and the losses are discussed. Experimental results for the prototype demonstrate the properties of new power circuit. The test results confirm the proposed high-voltage converter performance capability as well as verifying the suitability of the conception for its use in the Russian suburban train power system and other high-voltage applications.

  7. Enzymatic vitreolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for vitreomacular traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raczyńska D

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Raczyńska,1 Paweł Lipowski,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Andrzej Skorek,3 Paulina Glasner1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland; 2Department of Immunobiology and Environment Microbiology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland Aims: The aim of our research was to gain data about the efficacy of intravitreal injections of a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA in dissolving vitreoretinal tractions (VRTs.Materials and methods: The study group consisted of patients of our Ophthalmology Clinic who had received an injection of rTPA (TPA Group for an existent vitreomacular traction confirmed by optical coherence tomography and stereoscopic examinations. The control group consisted of patients who had declined treatment despite the existence of a vitreomacular traction confirmed by the same diagnostic methods. Each group consisted of 30 people (30 eyes. The observation period was 6 months.Conclusion: In both groups some of the VRTs had dissolved. In the TPA group the traction dissolved in 10 patients (33.33% and in the control group only in 5 (16.67%. It is also important to point out that the mean baseline membrane thickness was higher in the TPA group than in the control group. Observing patients in both groups we noticed that the dissolution of vitreoretinal membrane occurred most frequently in those cases where the membrane was thin. In the TPA group, the mean membrane thickness after 6 months decreased considerably. At the same time, no significant change in the membrane thickness could be observed in the control group. Observation of the retinal thickness allows us to draw the following conclusion: in the TPA group, the retinal thickness in the macular area (edema had decreased over the study period, whereas in the control group it had increased. In those cases where the traction had dissolved, the edema of the retina decreased by the end

  8. The Harmonoise/IMAGINE model for traction noise of powered railway vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Zhang, X.

    2006-01-01

    Traction noise is one of the noise sources of powered railway vehicles such as locomotives, electric- and diesel-powered multiple unit trains and high-speed trains. Especially at speeds below 60 km/h and at idling, but also at acceleration conditions for a wide range of speeds, traction noise can be

  9. Changes in dynamics processes of the muscles’ traction under influence of stress-factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Change of fibers’ dynamic parameters of the frog Rana temporaria skeletal muscle m. tibialis traction under influence of modulated stimulation and aluminium chloride solutions was studied. At 10-4,5·10-4 and 10‑3 M·l-1 concentrations of aluminium chloride the nonlinear decrease of the muscle fibers’ traction parameters was observed.

  10. Efficacy of Six Weeks Skin Traction in the Management of Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traction is widely used for the treatment of lumbar spine conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of 6-weeks skin traction in the management of pain in patients presenting with lumbar spondylosis. Materials and Methods: The study was a repeated measures (pretest-posttest) design.

  11. Novel use of ear sockets as points of traction in partial foetotomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traction was used to deliver the dead foetuses while guarding the points of amputation in the birth canals. It was concluded that the ear socket can be used as a new point of traction along with or in place of the eye socket in partial foetotomy for relieving dystocia with non-viable foetus in Bunaji cows. Keywords: Bunaji cow ...

  12. Influence of locomotive traction drive design on main forms of self-oscillations during spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Izmerov, O. V.; Kopyilov, S. O.

    2017-10-01

    The problem of the effect of the locomotive traction drive design on the main forms of self-oscillations during spinning is considered. It is established that in most cases it is sufficient to carry out a simulation for 2-3 prevailing self-oscillation modes, which simplifies the analysis of the results and selects the best variant of the traction drive.

  13. Skull traction for cervical spinal injury in Enugu: A 5‑year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty‑one had the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Grade A whereas 64 had incomplete cord injury of ASIA Grades B–E. Forty‑eight had Crutchfield traction whereas 57 had Gardner‑Wells traction. At the end of treatment, no patient improved among those with ASIA Grades A and B. All the 12 cases of mortality ...

  14. Introducing the inbed spinal traction kit for use on patients with low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim is to reduce cost, shorten period of Hospital stay and immobilization encountered when skin Traction Devices are used in our environment. It compares favorably with the standard spinal Traction Machine and does not require Electric or pneumatic powering. It has no known side effect when used properly under ...

  15. THE ENERGY SPECTRA OF RANDOM PROCESSES OF TRACTION VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS OF ELECTRIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectral analysis of traction voltages and currents are the basis for assessing energy electromagnetic processes in systems of electric traction, in particular, DC. The latter is due to the fact that the DC system is not in consequence of nonstationary random character of change of traction voltage and current. Nonperiodic stochastic nature of the change of voltage and current calls for study of their spectral composition using probabilistic methods based on spectral correlation theory of random processes. The theoretical assumptions and the relations of connection of the energy spectrum of a random process with his correlating function are set out. The results of the numerical calculations of the spectra of traction voltages and currents actually operating electrical subsystems transport are given; they are: feeder voltage at the traction substation; currents in modes of traction and recuperation of electric locomotives in accordance with DE 1 and VL 8; the voltage on the current collector of the city tram. It is established that energy spectra of random processes traction and recuperative voltages and currents are probabilistic in nature, depending on technological factors of the system, and the energy of the random process is numerically greater in traction mode than in the regenerative braking modes

  16. Applications of Traction Force Microscopy in Measuring Adhesion Molecule Dependent Cell Contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Cynthia Marie

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the use of polyacrylamide hydrogels as controlled elastic modulus substrates for single cell traction force microscopy studies. The first section describes the use of EDC/NHS chemistry to convalently link microbeads to the hydrogel matrix for the purpose of performing long-term traction force studies (7 days). The final study…

  17. To compare the effect of Active Neural Mobilization during Intermittent Lumbar Traction and Intermittent Lumbar Traction followed by Active Neural Mobilization in cases of Lumbar Radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Jaywant Nagulkar; Kalyani Nagulkar

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of Active neural mobilization (ANM) during intermittent lumbar traction (ILT) and intermittent lumbar traction followed by active neural mobilization treatment in patients of low back pain (LBP) with radiculopathy.. To study the effect of ANM during ILT and ILT followed by ANM in patients of LBP with radiculopathy on VAS scale, P1 angle of SLR, P2 angle of SLR and Oswestry disability index(ODI). To compare the effect of ANM during ILT and ILT followed ...

  18. REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION OF THE TRACTION NETWORK OF THE ELECTRIFIED RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.P.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The method of the parametrical analysis of reactive power compensation of traction network depending on load-ing position on stage between two traction substations is offered. Problem solutions are received in an explicit form at a unilateral and bilateral supplying of complex loading by traction network. The parametrical analysis of active loading influence on characteristics of the compensating devices mounted on low voltage bars of traction substations depending on a site of this loading between power supplies and the loading is made. It is shown, that depending on point of joining of active loading to network and its values the compensating device generally should generate both inductive, and capacitive reactive power for maintenance of power factor value of traction network .

  19. Indications and anatomic landmarks for the application of lower extremity traction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFroda, S F; Gil, J A; Born, C T

    2016-12-01

    Fractures of the lower extremity, particularly of the femur and acetabulum, may be difficult to immobilize with splinting alone. These injuries may be best stabilized with the application of various types of skeletal traction. Often, traction is applied percutaneously in an emergent setting, making the knowledge of both superficial and deep anatomy crucial to successful placement. Review was performed via PubMed search as well as referencing the Orthopaedic literature. Relevant articles to the anatomy of the knee, ankle and calcaneus as they pertain to traction placement were referenced in compiling the optimal recommendations for traction placement. By palpating and marking superficial landmarks and observing specific anatomic relationships, safe application of traction pins can be performed while minimizing iatrogenic injury to vital anatomic structures, and avoiding intra-articular placement which could potentially lead to joint infection.

  20. Comparison of the environmental performance of light mechanization and animal traction using a modular LCA approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerutti, Alessandro K.; Calvo, Angela; Bruun, Sander

    2014-01-01

    operations. This achievement completely changed food production systems for all populations able to access such technology. Nowadays, animal traction is mainly used in the developing countries, in specific contexts such as mountainous areas due to the difficulties in using tractors, and within farm tourism......Animal traction has supported humans in most field operations since the origin of agriculture. With the introduction of mechanization, humans gained access to much more work power at similar management costs and were able to significantly increase the productivity and time efficiency of field...... in the developed countries. Although the consumption of non-renewable resources is clearly higher in crop production systems that use mechanized traction, tractor traction may involve low consumption of fuel relative to that needed for feed production for equivalent draught animals. Mechanical traction can also...

  1. Quality of care for patients with traction in shahid beheshti hospital in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Moradi, Tayebeh

    2013-08-01

    With increasing incidence of traumatic fractures, the use of orthopedic intervention such as traction has increased. Inappropriate traction care may cause substantial morbidity and delay the patient rehabilitation. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of care for patients with traction in the orthopedic unit of Kashan's Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, Iran. This observational study was conducted on 100 patients with traumatic fractures of hip and femur bones who were admitted to Kashan Shahid-Beheshti Hospital during the first 6 months of 2012, and for whom skeletal or skin traction was performed. Data were collected using a checklist including questions about the personal characteristics and 23 items related to care for patients with tractions. These items were in three domains including caring while establishing traction, recording care and patient's education. Descriptive statistics were calculated and data were analyzed using the independent sample t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. The mean age of patients was 51.16 ± 23.28 years and 66% of them were male. In total, 47% of the patients were treated by skin traction and 53% by skeletal traction. The overall mean score of quality of care was 10.20 ± 2.64. Quality of establishing traction was good in 55% of patients, but the quality of care was poor in the domains of recording care (88%) and patient education (96%). Total mean of quality of care was significantly different between male and female patients (P traction was not optimal. Therefore it is necessary to improve measures in this area.

  2. Traction for low back pain with or without sciatica: an updated systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, J.; van Tulder, M.; Blomberg, S; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Heijden, G; Bronfort, G.

    2006-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Systematic review. OBJECTIVE. To determine if traction is more effective than reference treatments, placebo/sham traction, or no treatment for low back pain (LBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Various types of traction are used in the treatment of LBP, often in conjunction with other

  3. Traction control of an electric vehicle based on nonlinear observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Aligia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A traction control strategy for a four-wheel electric vehicle is proposed in this paper. The strategy is based on nonlinear observers which allows estimating the maximum force that can be transmitted to the road. Knowledge of the maximum force allows controlling the slip of the driving wheels, preventing the wheel’s slippage in low-grip surfaces. The proposed strategy also allows to avoid the undesired yaw moment in the vehicle which occurs when road conditions on either side of it are dierent. This improves the eciency and the control of the vehicle, avoiding possible losses of stability that can result in risks for its occupants. Both the proposed observer and the control strategy are designed based on a dynamic rotational model of the wheel and a brush force model. Simulation results are obtained based on a complete vehicle model on the Simulink/CarSim platform.

  4. Subdural abscess associated with halo-pin traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, S R; Botte, M J; Triggs, K J; Nickel, V L

    1988-10-01

    Osteomyelitis and intracranial abscess are among the most serious complications that have been reported in association with the use of the halo device. The cases of five patients who had formation of an intracranial abscess related to the use of a halo cervical immobilizer are described. All of the infections resolved after drainage of the abscess, débridement, and parenteral administration of antibiotics. Meticulous care of the pin sites is essential to avoid this serious complication. Additionally, since all of the infections were associated with prolonged halo-skeletal traction, this technique should be used with caution and with an awareness of the possible increased risks of pin-site infection and of formation of a subdural abscess.

  5. Single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy with innovative gastric traction suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is now the gold standard for patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP undergoing splenectomy. There are a few reports in literature on single-incision laparoscopic (SIL splenectomy. Herein, we describe a patient undergoing SIL splenectomy for ITP without the use of a disposable port device. We report a 20-year-old female patient with steroid-refractory ITP having a platelet count of 14,000/cmm who underwent a SIL splenectomy. Dissection was facilitated by the use of a single articulating grasper and a gastric traction suture and splenic vessels were secured at the hilum with an endo-GIA stapler. She made an uneventful postoperative recovery and was discharged on the second postoperative day. She is doing well with no visible scar at 8-month follow-up.

  6. Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Z.; Ahmed, A.; Husain, I.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-02

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction applications using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to the Halbach array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite-element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from finite element analysis (FEA) show that the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet (PM) machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct-drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  7. Microfluidic traction force microscopy to study mechanotransduction in angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldock, Luke; Wittkowske, Claudia; Perrault, Cecile M

    2017-07-01

    The formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, angiogenesis, is driven by coordinated endothelial cell migration and matrix remodeling in response to local signals. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that mechanotransduction, along with chemotransduction, is a major regulator of angiogenesis. Mechanical signals, such as fluid shear stress and substrate mechanics, influence sprouting and network formation, but the mechanisms behind this relationship are still unclear. Here, we present cellular traction forces as possible effectors activated by mechanosensing to mediate matrix remodeling, and encourage the use of TFM to study mechanotransduction in angiogenesis. We also suggest that deciphering the response of EC to mechanical signals could reveal an optimal angiogenic mechanical environment, and provide insight into development, wound healing, the initiation and growth of tumors, and new strategies for tissue engineering. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A rare case of bilateral tractional retinal detachment following snakebite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicey Roy; Das, Debmalya; Saurabh, Kumar; Roy, Rupak

    2017-01-01

    A 13-year-old female presented with diminution of vision in both eyes for 3 months following snakebite. Best-corrected visual acuities were hand movement in both eyes. Fundoscopy showed vitreous hemorrhage, and B-scan ultrasonography revealed an underlying tractional retinal detachment (TRD) involving the macula in both eyes. Patient underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in conjunction with belt buckling, endolaser, and silicone oil tamponade in the left eye. At 6 weeks postoperatively, best-corrected visual acuity of the left eye was noted to be 20/200 with settled TRD and attached retina. Bilateral proliferative retinopathy with TRD is a hitherto unreported complication of snake bite. PMID:29133665

  9. A rare case of bilateral tractional retinal detachment following snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicey Roy Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old female presented with diminution of vision in both eyes for 3 months following snakebite. Best-corrected visual acuities were hand movement in both eyes. Fundoscopy showed vitreous hemorrhage, and B-scan ultrasonography revealed an underlying tractional retinal detachment (TRD involving the macula in both eyes. Patient underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in conjunction with belt buckling, endolaser, and silicone oil tamponade in the left eye. At 6 weeks postoperatively, best-corrected visual acuity of the left eye was noted to be 20/200 with settled TRD and attached retina. Bilateral proliferative retinopathy with TRD is a hitherto unreported complication of snake bite.

  10. Modeling of traction-coupling properties of wheel propulsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    In conditions of operation of aggregates on soils with low bearing capacity, the main performance indicators of their operation are determined by the properties of retaining the functional qualities of the propulsor. Therefore, the parameters of the anti-skid device can not be calculated by only one criterion. The equipment of propellers with anti-skid devices, which allow to reduce the compaction effect of the propulsion device on the soil, seems to be a rational solution to the problem of increasing traction and coupling properties of the driving wheels. The mathematical model is based on the study of the interaction of the driving wheel with anti-skid devices and a deformable bearing surface, which takes into account the wheel diameter, skid coefficient, the parameters of the anti-skid device, the physical and mechanical properties of the soil. As a basic mathematical model that determines the dependence of the coupling properties on the wheel parameters, the model obtained as a result of integration and reflecting the process of soil deformation from the shear stress is adopted. The total value of the resistance forces will determine the force of the hitch pressure on the horizontal soil layers, and the value of its deformation is the degree of wheel slippage. When the anti-skid devices interact with the soil, the traction capacity of the wheel is composed of shear forces, soil shear and soil deformation forces with detachable hooks. As a result of the interaction of the hook with the soil, the latter presses against the walls of the hook with the force equal to the sum of the hook load and the resistance to movement. During operation, the linear dimensions of the hook will decrease, which is not taken into account by the safety factor. Abrasive wear of the thickness of the hook is approximately proportional to the work of friction caused by the movement of the hook when inserted into the soil and slipping the wheel.

  11. Penile traction therapy for Peyronie's disease-what's the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mustafa Faruk; Ipekci, Tumay

    2016-06-01

    Penile traction therapy (PTT) is a new therapeutic option for men with Peyronie's disease (PD). However, it has a long history of use in other fields of medicine including bone, skin, skeletal muscle, and Dupuytren's. Mechanotransduction, or gradual expansion of tissue by traction, leads to the formation of new collagen tissue by cellular proliferation. As a molecular result, continuous extension of the fibrous plaque causes significant increases in collagenase and metalloproteinases, and, ultimately, to fibrous plaque softening and extension. This hypothetical knowledge has been supported by recent well designed experimental studies. Furthermore, several clinical papers have provided promising results on the use of PTT in PD patients. It has been shown in some series that the use of PTT significantly increases flaccid and stretched penile lengths and results in significant penile curvature improvement when compared to baseline. Furthermore, the use of PTT concomitantly with either verapamil or interferon α-2b has also been shown to be an effective therapy. Additionally, the beneficial effect of PTT on penile length before or after penile surgery in men with corporal fibrosis has been described. Finally, as a minimally invasive alternative treatment option to penile augmentation surgery in men with dysmorphophobia, PTT use has shown promising results by several experts. Studies have shown that PTT provides an acceptable, minimally invasive method that can produce effective and durable lengthening of the penis in men complaining of a small/short penis. There are, however, several criticisms related to the designs of the reported studies, such as small sample size and selection bias. Well-designed studies with larger numbers of patients and longer follow-up periods are, however, needed to establish the true benefits of PTT.

  12. Analysis methods of stochastic transient electro–magnetic processes in electric traction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mishchenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The essence and basic characteristics of calculation methods of transient electromagnetic processes in the elements and devices of non–linear dynamic electric traction systems taking into account the stochastic changes of voltages and currents in traction networks of power supply subsystem and power circuits of electric rolling stock are developed. Methodology. Classical methods and the methods of non–linear electric engineering, as well as probability theory method, especially the methods of stationary ergodic and non–stationary stochastic processes application are used in the research. Findings. Using the above-mentioned methods an equivalent circuit and the system of nonlinear integra–differential equations for electromagnetic condition of the double–track inter-substation zone of alternating current electric traction system are drawn up. Calculations allow obtaining electric traction current distribution in the areas of feeder zones. Originality. First of all the paper is interesting and important from scientific point of view due to the methods, which allow taking into account probabilistic character of change for traction voltages and electric traction system currents. On the second hand the researches develop the most efficient methods of nonlinear circuits’ analysis. Practical value. The practical value of the research is presented in application of the methods to the analysis of electromagnetic and electric energy processes in the traction power supply system in the case of high-speed train traffic.

  13. Analysis of electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae caused by inversion traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Yoo; Kang, Jong Ho

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae caused by inversion traction in order to verify the relaxation effect. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 60 healthy male adults who were equally and randomly assigned to a 30-30° group, a 30-60° group, and a 60-60° group. Inversion traction was performed for six minutes, and the electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae (L2, L4) were measured before and after inversion traction. [Results] The root mean square values at the L2 and L4 levels on both sides were statistically significantly higher after inversion traction compared with before inversion traction. Before inversion traction, the root mean square values at the L2 and L4 levels on both sides in the 30-60° group and 60-60° group were significantly higher than those in the 30-30° group, while the root mean square values at the L2 and L4 levels on both sides showed no significant differences between the groups before inversion traction. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicated that IT is more likely to elicits an increase in muscle tension and prevent relaxation of the lumbar erector spinae.

  14. Extension traction treatment for patients with discogenic lumbosacral radiculopathy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Diab, Aliaa A

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of lumbar extension traction in patients with unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy due to L5-S1 disc herniation. A randomized controlled study with six-month follow-up. University research laboratory. Sixty-four patients with confirmed unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy due to L5-S1 disc herniation and a lumbar lordotic angle less than 39°, randomly assigned to traction or control group. The control group (n = 32) received hot packs and interferential therapy, whereas the traction group (n = 32) received lumbar extension traction in addition to hot packs and interferential therapy. Absolute rotatory angle, back and leg pain rating scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Modified Schober test, H-reflex (latency and amplitude) and intervertebral movements were measured for all patients three times (before treatment, after 10 weeks of treatment and at six-month follow-up). There was a significant difference between the traction group and the control group adjusted to baseline values at 10 weeks post treatment with respect to: absolute rotatory angle (P traction group receiving lumbar extension traction in addition to hot packs and interferential therapy had better effects than the control group with regard to pain, disability, H-reflex parameters and segmental intervertebral movements.

  15. Halo Gravity Traction Is Associated with Reduced Bone Mineral Density of Patients with Severe Kyphoscoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Sun, Weixiang; Qiu, Yong; Xu, Leilei; Sha, Shifu; Shi, Benlong; Yan, Huang; Liu, Zhen; Zhu, Zezhang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Halo gravity traction (HGT) is one of the most commonly used perioperative techniques for the treatment of severe kyphoscoliosis. This study was to explore the influence of HGT on the BMD of these patients. Methods. Patients with severe kyphoscoliosis treated by preoperative HGT for at least 2 months were included. Patients' BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine (LS, L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) of the nondominant side. The weight and duration of traction, as well as baseline characteristics, were recorded. Results. Twenty patients were recruited. The average traction duration was 77.9 ± 13.0 days while the mean traction weight was 39.9% ± 11.1% of total body weight. Remarkable decrease of BMD was observed at LS of 17 (85%) patients and at FN of 18 (90%) patients. After HGT, 75% of patients were found to have osteoporosis, the incidence of which was significantly higher than that before HGT (35%). The correlation analysis revealed BMD reduction was only significantly correlated with the traction duration. Conclusions. The current study showed that preoperative HGT can have obvious impact on the BMD. The BMD reduction is associated with traction duration, suggesting that long traction duration may bring more bone mineral loss.

  16. Halo Gravity Traction Is Associated with Reduced Bone Mineral Density of Patients with Severe Kyphoscoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Halo gravity traction (HGT is one of the most commonly used perioperative techniques for the treatment of severe kyphoscoliosis. This study was to explore the influence of HGT on the BMD of these patients. Methods. Patients with severe kyphoscoliosis treated by preoperative HGT for at least 2 months were included. Patients’ BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine (LS, L2–L4 and femur neck (FN of the nondominant side. The weight and duration of traction, as well as baseline characteristics, were recorded. Results. Twenty patients were recruited. The average traction duration was 77.9±13.0 days while the mean traction weight was 39.9%±11.1% of total body weight. Remarkable decrease of BMD was observed at LS of 17 (85% patients and at FN of 18 (90% patients. After HGT, 75% of patients were found to have osteoporosis, the incidence of which was significantly higher than that before HGT (35%. The correlation analysis revealed BMD reduction was only significantly correlated with the traction duration. Conclusions. The current study showed that preoperative HGT can have obvious impact on the BMD. The BMD reduction is associated with traction duration, suggesting that long traction duration may bring more bone mineral loss.

  17. CALCULATION OF A MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTOR OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le Ngo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristic of an electric vehicle is the main characteristic of mechanical system that reflects its key performance indicators. Implementation of the traction characteristic is based on controlling angular speed and torque of electric traction motor in an automatic control system. The static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor in an automatic control system is the most important characteristic that determines weight, size and operating characteristics of an electric traction motor and serves as the basis for design. The most common variants of constructive implementation of a traction electric drive are analyzed, and a scheme is chosen for further design. Lagrange’s equation for electric mechanical system with one degree of freedom is written in generalized coordinates. In order to determine the generalized forces, elementary operation of all moments influencing on a moving car has been calculated. The resulting equation of motion of the electric vehicle corresponding to the design scheme, as well as the expressions for calculation of characteristic points of static mechanical characteristics of traction motor (i.e. the maximum and minimum time, minimum power are obtained. In order to determine the nominal values of the angular velocity and the power of electric traction motor, a method based on ensuring the movement of the vehicle in the standard cycle has been developed. The method makes it possible to calculate characteristic points of the mechanical characteristic with the lowest possible power rating. The algorithm for calculation of mechanical characteristics of the motor is presented. The method was applied to calculate static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor for a small urban electric truck.

  18. The Use of Intraoperative Traction in Pediatric Scoliosis Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMothe, J M; Al Sayegh, S; Parsons, D L; Ferri-de-Barros, F

    2015-01-01

    Systematic review. To study the morbidity and the potential benefits of using intraoperative skeletal traction as an adjunct method for correcting scoliosis. Cotrel et al., used intraoperative skeletal traction in all patients in their original series of segmental spinal instrumentation for scoliosis correction (Cotrel et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 1988;227:10-23). However, the use of intraoperative traction may introduce other forms of surgical morbidity, which has not been systematically studied. Two independent reviewers searched MEDLINE (1948-current) and EMBASE (1980-current) using the keywords scoliosis, intraoperative, and traction in all fields, combined with AND. Studies were subject to full-text assessment against specific inclusion and exclusion criteria; discrepancies between the reviewers were resolved by a third independent reviewer. Data were extracted into standardized extraction tables and papers were critically appraised papers with regards to their relative strengths and weaknesses, with particular attention to the study objective. Nine papers were included: case report (n = 1), retrospective case series (n = 2), retrospective case-control (n = 6), and studies included both adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and neuromuscular scoliosis. Seven studies reported positive effects of intraoperative skeletal traction on diverse outcome measures, such as correction of pelvic obliquity, Cobb angle, and axial plane deformity, as well as precluding the need for an anterior release preceding posterior instrumentation for large curves. Overall, there was only one reported postoperative traction-related complication (anterosuperior iliac spine pressure sore). One paper reported that intraoperative traction may evoke neuromonitoring signal changes in a large proportion of patients undergoing AIS surgery. These changes were responded to intraoperatively by decreasing or removing weight and none of the patients had postoperative neurologic deficits. Isolated

  19. The effect of cavernous nerve traction on erectile function in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    Full Text Available We performed this study to evaluate the effect of cavernous nerve (CN traction on erectile function in rats. Thirty-two 8- week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, 1-minute CN traction, 2-minute CN traction, and 2-minute CN crush. CN traction was performed using a glass hook with a tensile force of 0.2 Newton. One month later, the mean arterial pressure (MAP and intracavernosal pressure (ICP in response to CN stimulation were measured to assess erectile function. The penis and major pelvic ganglion (MPG were harvested to explore the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and neurofilament, fibrosis and apoptosis. The ICP/MAP ratio was reduced in the 2-minute CN traction group compared with the control group (P < 0.05. The ICP/MAP ratio in the CN crush group was lower than in the other three groups (P < 0.05, for each. Expression of nNOS in both MPG and dorsal penile nerve was lower in the CN traction group than in the control group, but was higher than in the CN crush group (P < 0.05. Nerve fiber number in the dorsal penile nerve was reduced by 2-minute CN traction (P < 0.05. The ratios of collagen to smooth muscle content and the apoptosis were both increased the in 2-minute CN traction group compared with the control group (P < 0.05. The findings indicate that CN traction is an effective CN injury model and the injury it caused is relatively mild compared with the CN crush model.

  20. The effect of intra-operative skeletal (skull femoral) traction on apical vertebral rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Subir N; Zeller, Reinhard; Miller, Stephen; Lewis, Stephen J

    2009-03-01

    The study design is a retrospective review of consecutive case series. Our goal was to identify and quantify the effect of skeletal traction on the apical vertebral rotation (AVR). Intra-operative skeletal traction has been used for the correction of large magnitude idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis. The ability of skeletal traction to correct the rotational deformity of the spine has not been characterized. Following REB approval, retrospective analysis of 22 (AIS = 14, neuromuscular = 8) consecutive pediatric patients having surgical posterior instrumented correction and fusion for their scoliosis was performed. Intra-operative skeletal traction with approximately 50% body weight was achieved with smooth distal femoral pins. Counter-traction up to 25% was used through Gardner-Wells tongs. The AVR of the major curve was assessed using the Nash-Moe grading system by a radiologist and a senior spine surgeon not involved in the treatment of these cases. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the significance. The overall mean AVR of the major structural curve was 3.1 +/- 0.8 and reduced to 2.4 +/- 0.6 (p = 0.0001) following traction. The AVR decreased by one or more Nash-Moe grades with traction in 14/22 (64%) patients. The Cobb angle corrected from a mean of 88.2 degrees to 49.1 degrees (44.3%, p = 0.00001) with traction. The decrease in AVR correlated with the higher magnitude Cobb angles (correlation 0.53, p = 0.014). Patients with pre-traction AVR > or = 3 showed the largest change with traction (3.4-2.5, p = 0.000004). There was very good association between the radiologist and the spine surgeon, 0.72(standing films) and 0.63(traction films). The minor structural curve corrected from a mean Cobb of 53.5 degrees to 33.8 degrees (37.8%) with AVR decreasing from a mean of 1.9 to 1.4 (p = 0.014). Significant apical derotation occurs with the use of intra-operative skull-skeletal traction in the correction of high magnitude scoliotic curves. This

  1. Surgical management of retinal diseases: proliferative diabetic retinopathy and traction retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Iñigo, Yousef J; Acabá, Luis A; Berrocal, Maria H

    2014-01-01

    Current indications for pars plana vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) include vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment (TRD), combined tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (CTRRD), diabetic macular edema associated with posterior hyaloidal traction, and anterior segment neovascularization with media opacities. This chapter will review the indications, surgical objectives, adjunctive pharmacotherapy, microincision surgical techniques, and outcomes of diabetic vitrectomy for PDR, TRD, and CTRRD. With the availability of new microincision vitrectomy technology, wide-angle microscope viewing systems, and pharmacologic agents, vitrectomy can improve visual acuity and achieve long-term anatomic stability in eyes with severe complications from PDR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Maharun Mui’nuddin; Mohd Nor Mohamad Noor Iman

    2014-01-01

    Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV) in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control...

  3. New model of inverting substation for DC traction with regenerative braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Abdul Malek Saidina; Samat, Ahmad Asri Abd; Isa, Siti Sarah Mat; Shamsuddin, Sarah Addyani; Jamaludin, Nur Fadhilah; Khyasudeen, Muhammad Farris

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a power electronic devices application focus on modeling, analysis, and control of switching power converter in the inverting DC substation with regenerative braking system which is used to recycle the surplus regenerative power by feed it back to the main AC grid. The main objective of this research is to improve the switching power electronic converter of the railway inverting substation and optimize the maximum kinetic energy recovery together with minimum power losses from the railway braking system. Assess performance including efficiency and robustness will be evaluated in order to get the best solution for the design configuration. Research methodology included mathematical calculation, simulation, and detail analysis on modeling of switching power converter on inverting substation. The design stage separates to four main areas include rectification mode, regenerative mode, control inverter mode and filtering mode. The simulation result has shown that the regenerative inverter has a capability to accept a maximum recovery power on the regeneration mode. Total energy recovery has increase and power losses have decreases because inverter abilities to transfer the surplus energy back to the main AC supply. An Inverter controller with PWM Generator and PI Voltage Regulator has been designed to control voltage magnitude and frequency of the DC traction system.

  4. An Assessment of Vitreous Degeneration in Eyes with Vitreomacular Traction and Macular Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Sarwar; Tan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the stages of vitreous degeneration in patients with vitreomacular traction (VMT) and macular holes (MH). Methods. A retrospective study was performed analyzing stages of vitreous degeneration of eyes with VMT or MH using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). An analogous review was performed on a control group of eyes with contralateral posterior vitreous detachments. Thirty-four eyes with VMT/MH and 39 control eyes were reviewed. Results. Twenty-seven VMT/MH eyes and 31 control eyes were included. Eyes with VMT/MH demonstrated significantly earlier stages of vitreous degeneration when compared to the control group (p = 0.048) despite significantly greater age (p = 0.032). Conclusions. Vitreoretinal interface disease is more often associated with a formed vitreous and an intact premacular bursa. This is contrary to previous assumptions implicating degeneration of vitreous as a precipitating factor of interface disease when in conjunction with abnormal vitreomacular separation. PMID:28133544

  5. Study of the strategies and controls of fuel cell systems associated with traction; Etude des strategies et des structures de commande pour le pilotage des systemes energetiques a Pile a Combustible (PAC) destines a la traction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachaize, J.

    2004-09-15

    This work falls into project COPPACE (Contribution to the Control of Embedded Fuel cell) carried out by ALSTOM in partnership with the LEEI-INPT and the CEA and supported by the ADEME. The study deals with the modelling and the control of a Fuel Cell system (flow, pressure, temperature) and the definition of the control laws for the static inverters associated with the traction of power train. We develop then a strategy of management of energy by taking into account the criteria of the hydrogen consumption or energy stored in the ultracaps. Each step is verified by total simulation according to a specific profile of mission and a precise model of fuel cells which has been simplified to reduce the computing time. The control of this system is defined by a separate treatment of the components, to finalize the total function objective. The results of simulations show that the system can follow the requested power while controlling the critical elements. (author)

  6. Application on forced traction test in surgeries for orbital blowout fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Han

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the application of forced traction test in surgeries for orbital blowout fracture.METHODS: The clinical data of 28 patients with reconstructive surgeries for orbital fracture were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated with forced traction test before/in/after operation. The eyeball movement and diplopia were examined and recorded pre-operation, 3 and 6mo after operation, respectively.RESULTS: Diplopia was improved in all 28 cases with forced traction test. There was significant difference between preoperative and post-operative diplopia at 3 and 6mo(PCONCLUSION: Forced traction test not only have a certain clinical significance in diagnosis of orbital blowout fracture, it is also an effective method in improving diplopia before/in/after operation.

  7. Demonstrating Cell Traction--Using Hens' Egg Vitelline Membrane as Substratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Roger

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways in which hens' egg vitelline membranes can be used to demonstrate cell traction effects. Reviews procedures for using and culturing the membranes and identifies topic areas for student projects. (ML)

  8. Myopic traction maculopathy: Study with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidaris, V; Androudi, S; Brazitikos, P

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To describe the tomographic findings of a case of myopic traction maculopathy using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) and present the results of its surgical intervention. Design: Observational case report and review of the literature. Methods: A 61-year-old male with metamorphopsia was examined clinically and with the use of SD-OCT. The diagnosis of myopic traction maculopathy was made. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the vitreomacular adhesions, the epiretinal and the internal limiting membrane. Results: Visual acuity increased by two Snellen lines, metamorphopsia disappeared, macular morphology was improved and myopic traction maculopathy was resolved. Conclusions: Imaging with SD-OCT is capable of documentation and measurement of the early stages of myopic traction maculopathy. Moreover, vitrectomy was beneficial for the visual and anatomic outcome of the patient. PMID:19561782

  9. The use of Saunders lumbar traction in physiotherapy of patients with chronic lower back pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pingot, Julia; Pingot, Mariusz; Łabecka, Monika; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Saunders lumbar tractions in patients with chronic lower back pain in comparison with the group of patients undergoing pharmacological treatment...

  10. Sensorless start-up of traction switched reluctance motors of the railway rolling stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim TCHAVYCHALOV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of SRM sensorless start is described. The new algorithm of traction switched reluctance motor sensorless start-up in a course is adduced. Results of physical modeling of the described method are given.

  11. Massive perineal wound slough after treatment of complex pelvic and acetabular fractures using a traction table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammit, Matthew D; Cole, Peter A; Kregor, Philip J

    2002-09-01

    An operating table with the capacity for skeletal traction against a pudendal post is a helpful and commonly used piece of equipment for certain pelvic and acetabular fracture patterns. Perineal soft tissue trauma and urogenital injuries are associated with some pelvic and acetabular fractures. The perineal region is vulnerable to compromise after such injuries. There is little documentation available in the literature that addresses intraoperative complications of the perineum after the use of a traction table for pelvic fractures. We present here a case in which prolonged traction against a pudendal post during operative fixation of complex pelvic and acetabular fractures resulted in massive perineal wound slough. This case should heighten surgeons' awareness of the vulnerability of the perineum to injury with the use of a traction table and should prompt measures to prevent complications.

  12. Preoperative short-term traction prior to posterior vertebral column resection: procedure and role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingsong; Xie, Jingming; Zhao, Zhi; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yin; Bi, Ni; Shi, Zhiyue; Cai, Yunhua; Zhang, Yuhao

    2016-03-01

    Severe rigid spine deformity with sharp curve can be effectively corrected by posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR). Meanwhile, high risk of this procedure also has been recognized generally. The aim of this study is to review and evaluate the role of preoperative skull-femoral traction prior to PVCR for extremely severe rigid spinal deformity with sharp angular curve >150°. Twelve cases with extremely severe rigid deformities and sharp curves were treated by skull-femoral traction before operation. For them, the mean preoperative major scoliotic curve and kyphosis were 153° (110°-168°) and 109° (61°-180°). Continuous skull-femoral traction in supine position was started 4 weeks before operation. In the process of traction, tolerance, neurologic status, deformity changes, etc., were reviewed and documented for analysis. PVCR were performed in all these patients for final and main correction. The final traction force in the 12 cases was 63% of body weight. After 4-week traction, the main scoliotic curve and kyphosis were decreased by 34 and 31%. In 1 week, main scoliotic curve and kyphosis were decreased by 19 and 15%. In 2 weeks, the major scoliosis curve was decreased by 11%, but kyphosis was unexpectedly increased by 4%. Deformity in the last 2 weeks was less significant than the first 2 weeks. After PVCR, the main scoliotic curve and kyphosis were improved 69 and 66%. No permanent neurological damage occurred. Preoperative skull-femoral traction effectively mitigates the neurological risks of PVCR for extremely severe rigid spinal deformity with sharp curve. During traction, scoliosis can be improved more significantly and easily than kyphosis.

  13. Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Modern High-Speed Trains with Traction Induction Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A. Rosen; Doru A. Nicola; Cornelia A. Bulucea; Daniel C. Cismaru

    2015-01-01

    Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive systems are used with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) inverters and traction induction motors, these machines with appropriate controls can realize both tra...

  14. Natural course of myopic traction maculopathy and factors associated with progression or resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Noriaki; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Tokoro, Takashi; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the natural course of myopic traction maculopathy and to identify the factors associated with its progression or resolution in 207 highly myopic eyes. Retrospective, consecutive case series. We investigated 207 highly myopic eyes with myopic traction maculopathy by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and followed the patients for at least 24 months. The size of the macular retinoschisis was categorized according to its extent and location relative to the fovea. The clinical data, status of the myopic traction maculopathy, and changes in the posterior vitreous and inner limiting membrane (ILM) were analyzed during the natural course of the disease process. During a mean follow-up of 36.2 ± 6.2 months, 8 of 207 eyes (3.9%) showed a decrease or complete resolution of the macular retinoschisis. Of these 8 eyes, 6 had release of retinal traction in the OCT images, and 4 of the 6 eyes developed posterior vitreous detachment. A spontaneous disruption of the ILM occurred in 2 eyes before the improvement of the myopic traction maculopathy. Of the 207 eyes, 24 (11.6%) experienced progression of the myopic traction maculopathy. The eyes with more extensive macular retinoschisis showed progression significantly more commonly (42.9%) than the eyes having less extensive macular retinoschisis areas (6.7%). The natural course of myopic traction maculopathy varies, and eyes with more extensive macular retinoschisis tend to progress more commonly. A complete resolution of macular retinoschisis can occur after a release of traction on the retina. These findings can be used to determine whether surgery should be performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical effects of traction on lumbar intervertebral discs: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel H K; Yuen, Ernest M K; Xiao, L; Leung, Mason C P

    2017-06-01

    Although traction has long been used for treating patients with low back pain (LBP), its effects are still inconclusive mainly because of limited high-quality evidence. To provide evidence of the mechanism of traction on lumbar intervertebral discs. A quantitative approach with a repeated measurement protocol. Nine participants (mean age = 22.1 ± 0.8 years) without any LBP history were recruited. Magnetic Resonance Images of the lumbar spine of each participant were recorded before and after 30 min of horizontal lying and directly after 30 min of horizontal traction of 42% body weight. The average, anterior, central, and posterior disc height and tilt angle of each lumbar disc and lumbar lordosis were measured. A significant increase in the average disc height for all lumbar discs, a significant reduction of lumbar lordosis and changes in tilt angle were observed after the application of 30 min of resting followed by 30 min of traction. A significant increase in the average disc height was observed only in lower lumbar discs after 30 min of traction. The increase in the posterior disc height was more apparent than that in the anterior disc height. Horizontal traction was evidently effective in increasing the disc height of lower lumbar levels, particularly in the posterior regions of the discs. Further evidence of the effects of traction of different modes, magnitudes, and durations on the change in disc height is required for proper control of traction applied to specific disc levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnosis of traction electric motor at irregularity in speed of anchor rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Cyernyayev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To offer a complex diagnostic parameter (or system of parameters that would allow determining the fault of electric traction motor as well as electromagnetic and mechanical nature. Methodology. Technology transition to maintenance and repair of equipment in accordance with its actual condition are developed rapidly in the world practice in recent years. Control of equipment and forecasting of its technical condition with the use of non-destructive testing and diagnosis in-place methods is the basis of such technologies. In operation the reliability level of electrical machines including traction electric motor is very difficult to maintain. Analyzing failures of rolling stock, which arise from the operation, we can see that traction electric motors are the least reliable nodes. Diagnostics of traction electric motor at irregularity in speed of anchor rotation is proposed. A measurement device for irregularity in speed of anchor rotation was developed. Findings. An experimental research in order to determine the irregularity in speed of anchor armature shaft rotation and coupling of irregularity in speed of anchor rotation with traction electric motors nodes failures was executed. The experimental dependence of the waveform uneven rotation anchor for engines with different technical conditions. Originality. A method for diagnosis of traction electric motors at irregularity in speed of anchor armature shaft rotation was first proposed. This method after further improvement can be used at bench test of engines in their work without load and for the quality of the repair. Practical value. The device for detecting defects of the traction electric motor nodes as well as electromagnetic and mechanical nature without engine disassembly may be used for control of engine assembly after repair, and at testing of traction electric motor without load.

  17. Separated Shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an injury to the ligaments that hold your collarbone (clavicle) to your shoulder blade. In a mild separated ... tenderness or pain near the end of your collarbone. Causes The most common cause of a separated ...

  18. Study on the Characteristics of Traction Forces Difference Asymmetric Steering Bogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article comes up with a new concept of applying the difference between traction forces on front and rear wheelsets to guiding control, as well as the design of a new type of structurally simple asymmetrical radial bogies, which lead to the proposition of traction forces difference-steering asymmetric radial bogies. The traction forces difference-steering asymmetric radial bogies are referred to as TFDA-bogies, in which the difference of longitudinal creep forces between front and rear wheels produces radial steering of both wheelsets. The concept of traction difference is incorporated into guiding control and bogie structure is also simplified in the form of asymmetrical radial bogies. Angle sensors are mounted to facilitate the change of electric currents of the front and rear traction motors to control the guiding mechanism so that wheelsets can adopt the radial position. With SIMPACK, the multibody dynamics analysis software, three whole vehicle models of TFDA-bogies, radial bogies, and conventional bogies are set up and comparative analyses are made on the lead wheel angle of attack, lead wheel lateral force, lead wheel friction power, and total vehicle friction power under idle running condition and traction condition, respectively. Results show that TFDA-bogies are radial bogies with simplified structure.

  19. Simplified and advanced modelling of traction control systems of heavy-haul locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Wolfs, Peter; Szanto, Frank; Cole, Colin

    2015-05-01

    Improving tractive effort is a very complex task in locomotive design. It requires the development of not only mechanical systems but also power systems, traction machines and traction algorithms. At the initial design stage, traction algorithms can be verified by means of a simulation approach. A simple single wheelset simulation approach is not sufficient because all locomotive dynamics are not fully taken into consideration. Given that many traction control strategies exist, the best solution is to use more advanced approaches for such studies. This paper describes the modelling of a locomotive with a bogie traction control strategy based on a co-simulation approach in order to deliver more accurate results. The simplified and advanced modelling approaches of a locomotive electric power system are compared in this paper in order to answer a fundamental question. What level of modelling complexity is necessary for the investigation of the dynamic behaviours of a heavy-haul locomotive running under traction? The simulation results obtained provide some recommendations on simulation processes and the further implementation of advanced and simplified modelling approaches.

  20. Comparative Effects of Portable and Stationary Traction in the Management of Mechanical Neck Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajediran I. Bello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the therapeutic effects of portable and stationary tractions on treatment outcomes in patients with mechanical neck disorders (MNDs. Methods Forty-one participants with MNDs were randomly assigned to either portable traction or stationary traction. Participants' pain level, activity limitation, disability, and neck range of motion were measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention. Inferential statistics for comparing the treatment outcome involved paired t -test and two-way analysis of variance at P < 0.05. Results The mean age of participants was 47.3 ± 10.5 years. After intervention, there were significant improvements in both groups. However, the portable traction group had significantly higher score on neck flexion than the stationary traction group at baseline (portable: 27.1 ± 6.0, stationary: 22.1 ± 6.8; P = 0.009 and after intervention ( F -ratio = 15.0; P = 0.001. Conclusion Inclusion of both portable and stationary tractions to usual physiotherapy provided comparable treatment outcomes in patients with MNDs.

  1. Influence of basketball shoe mass, outsole traction, and forefoot bending stiffness on three athletic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobets, Jay; Wannop, John William

    2015-09-01

    Prior research has shown that footwear can enhance athletic performance. However, public information is not available on what basketball shoe properties should be selected to maximise movement performance. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of basketball shoe mass, outsole traction, and forefoot bending stiffness on sprinting, jumping, and cutting performance. Each of these three basketball shoe properties was systematically varied by ± 20% to produce three shoe conditions of varying mass, three conditions of varying traction, and three conditions of varying bending stiffness. Each shoe was tested by 20 recreational basketball players completing maximal effort sprints, vertical jumps, and a cutting drill. Outsole traction had the largest influence on performance, as the participants performed significantly worse in all tests when traction was decreased by 20% (p < 0.001), and performed significantly better in the cutting drill when traction was increased by 20% (p = 0.005). Forefoot bending stiffness had a moderate effect on sprint and cutting performance (p = 0.013 and p = 0.016 respectively) and shoe mass was found to have no effect on performance. Therefore, choosing a shoe with relatively high outsole traction and forefoot bending stiffness should be prioritised, and less concern should be focused on selecting the lightest shoe.

  2. Duration of preoperative traction associated with sciatic neuropathy after hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Marius A; de Vries, Mattijs; van der Tol, Anno

    2006-04-01

    An unknown percentage of patients who have internal fixation for hip fractures have sciatic neuropathy develop. In most cases, the cause for this complication is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed 2202 consecutive patients treated in our hospital for hip fractures to ascertain whether there was any relationship between duration of preoperative traction and postoperative sciatic neuropathy, and to determine the incidence of sciatic neuropathy after surgery for hip fractures. All patients had preoperative skin traction. Patients with and without sciatic neuropathy were compared using nonparametric tests. The median duration of traction was 2.6 days in the group that had sciatic neuropathy develop and 0.9 days in the group that did not. Also, patients in the group that had sciatic palsy develop were older. There seemed to be no other difference between the groups for any of the studied variables. Sixteen patients (0.7 %) had postoperative sciatic neuropathy. Our data suggest sciatic neuropathy after surgery for hip fractures may be related to the duration of preoperative traction. Some investigators have reported that there seems to be no evidence of benefit from skeletal or skin traction. A potential for damage to the sciatic nerve may be an argument to stop routine use of preoperative traction. Diagnostic study, Level III (study of nonconsecutive patients; without consistently applied reference "gold" standard).

  3. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharun Mui’nuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control algorithm will be developed for best performance to minimize energy losses using MATLAB/Simulink software. Furthermore, to prove the effectiveness of the all-wheel drive electric, the torque and traction control simulation of the all-wheel drive electric vehicle will be compared with uncontrolled electric vehicle model. According to the result, torque vectoring and traction control of in-wheel motor in all wheel drive EV can help to increase the performance of the electric vehicle during cornering manoeuver. In conclusion, this study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle will help researchers to improve the design of the future electric vehicle in term of the vehicle performance during cornering manoeuvre.

  4. Traction suture modification to tongue-in-groove caudal septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indeyeva, Y A; Lee, T S; Gordin, E; Chan, D; Ducic, Y

    2018-02-01

    Caudal septal deviation leads to unfavorable esthetic as well as functional effects on the nasal airway. A modification to the tongue-in-groove (TIG) technique to correct these caudal septal deformities is described. With placement of a temporary suspension suture to the caudal septum, manual traction is applied, assuring that the caudal septum remains in the midline position while it is being secured with multiple through-and-through, trans-columellar and trans-septal sutures. From 2003 to 2016, 148 patients underwent endonasal septoplasty using this modified technique, with excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes and a revision rate of 1.4%. This modified TIG technique replaces the periosteal suture that secures the caudal septum to the midline nasal crest in the original TIG technique. This simplifies the procedure and minimizes the risk of securing the caudal septum off-midline when used in endonasal septoplasty. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dentofacial effects of a modified tandem traction bow appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Zeynep; Tortop, Tuba

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentofacial effects of a modified tandem traction bow appliance (modified TTBA) in skeletal Class III subjects, and the effect of age on treatment response. The material consisted of the pre-treatment/pre-observation and post-treatment/post-observation lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films of 45 children with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusions. Thirty patients were treated with a modified TTBA. Two treatment groups of 15 patients each were formed: an early (nine girls, six boys; mean skeletal age: 8.18 ± 0.50 years) and a late treatment (5 girls, 10 boys; mean skeletal age: 11.75 ± 1.00 years) group. The remaining 15 children (5 girls, 10 boys; mean skeletal age: 7.90 ± 0.62 years) were observed without treatment for 8 months and served as a control for the early treatment group. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for statistical analysis. Significant forward maxillary movement was determined in both treatment groups (P skeletal correction of the Class III malocclusion was achieved.

  6. Vertical instability in spondylolisthesis: a traction radiographic assessment technique and the principle of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Keith D K; Chow, Daniel H K; Holmes, Andrew

    2003-04-15

    Lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine were taken of 40 patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. These radiographs were taken in the neutral, flexion, and extension positions for both erect and recumbent postures, and also in the prone and supine positions with traction applied via a traction table. To define and demonstrate the presence of "vertical instability" in spondylolisthesis, and to determine the most useful radiographic views for clinical purposes and analysis of the surgical principle. Lateral radiographs of patients in flexion and extension are widely used to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on lumbar spondylolisthesis. Changes in lumbar disc height and segmental translation in a group of patients with spondylolisthesis have been demonstrated with the addition of traction and compression. Lateral and flexion extension radiographs of the lumbosacral spine in 37 patients with spondylolisthesis taken in standing and recumbent positions and under pelvic traction in the prone or supine positions were suitable for analysis. The changes in disc area, intervertebral kyphotic slip angle, and amount of anteroposterior shift (olisthesis) were measured from the radiographs using a computer digitizer. The disc area was normalized against the area of the superior vertebra, and the amount of anteroposterior shift was normalized against the anteroposterior width of the superior vertebra. Inter- and intraobserver error was found to be negligible, and results were analyzed by paired t test. Maximum slip angle, maximum olisthesis, and minimum normalized disc area were found with the subject under erect flexion. Conversely, prone traction and recumbent extension produced minimum slip angle, whereas the lowest anteroposterior shifts were seen with the subject under prone and supine traction. Prone traction also resulted in a significantly larger normalized disc area than any other posture. The change in kyphotic slip angle between erect flexion and prone traction is

  7. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  8. To compare the effect of Active Neural Mobilization during Intermittent Lumbar Traction and Intermittent Lumbar Traction followed by Active Neural Mobilization in cases of Lumbar Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaywant Nagulkar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To compare the effectiveness of Active neural mobilization (ANM during intermittent lumbar traction (ILT and intermittent lumbar traction followed by active neural mobilization treatment in patients of low back pain (LBP with radiculopathy.. To study the effect of ANM during ILT and ILT followed by ANM in patients of LBP with radiculopathy on VAS scale, P1 angle of SLR, P2 angle of SLR and Oswestry disability index(ODI. To compare the effect of ANM during ILT and ILT followed by ANM in patients of LBP with radiculopathy on visual analog scale (VAS scale, P1 angle of SLR, P2 angle of SLR and Oswestry disability index. In this study 107 patients of LBP with radiculopathy were randomly assigned into two different groups. Group A containing 54 patients received active neural mobilization during intermittent lumber traction and group B received intermittent lumber traction followed by active neural mobilization. The data on all the outcome measures were recorded on day 0 pre-treatment and on 10th day post treatment. Data were analyzed using statistical software Intercorted STATA VERSION 9.0. Patients in both the groups showed improvement in all 4 outcome measures as compared to baseline assessment values. Patients treated in group A showed more improvement as compared to group B. This study concluded that ANM during ILT gives more relief and yields better responses in patients of LBP with radiculopathy and may help person to resume his daily activities.

  9. Partial-thickness macular hole in vitreomacular traction syndrome: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Sabti Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vitreomacular traction syndrome has recently been recognized as a distinct clinical condition. It may lead to many complications, such as cystoid macular edema, macular pucker formation, tractional macular detachment, and full-thickness macular hole formation. Case presentation We report a case of vitreomacular traction syndrome with eccentric traction at the macula and a partial-thickness macular hole in a 63-year-old Pakistani Punjabi man. The patient was evaluated using optical coherence tomography, and he underwent a successful pars plana vitrectomy. After the operation, his foveal contour regained normal configuration, and his visual acuity improved from 20/60 to 20/30. Conclusions Pars plana vitrectomy prevents the progression of a partial thickness macular hole in vitreomacular traction syndrome. The relief of traction by vitrectomy restores foveal anatomy and visual acuity in this condition.

  10. Traction versus supine side-bending radiographs in determining flexibility: what factors influence these techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Kawakami, Noriaki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Goto, Manabu; Tsuji, Taichi; Obara, Tetsuya; Imagama, Shiro; Matsumoto, Morio

    2007-11-01

    Prospective clinical, radiologic study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). We evaluated a Cobb angle in standing position, patient age, the level of the apex, and the number of involved vertebrae in patients with AIS to determine whether the corrective ability of traction or side-bending radiographs was superior. Side-bending and traction radiographs are used to evaluate curve flexibility during corrective surgery for AIS despite notable differences in the flexibilities of identical curves. Thus, interpretation for the differences among these techniques should be investigated. A total of 229 consecutive patients with AIS who were surgically treated were evaluated. Standing, supine side-bending, and traction radiographs were obtained before surgery. Curves were divided into main thoracic (MT) or thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curves, and proximal thoracic (PT) curves. We evaluated the Cobb angle in standing position, the level of the apex, the number of involved vertebrae, kyphosis angle of main thoracic curve, and patient age in patients with AIS to determine whether the corrective ability of traction or side-bending radiographs was superior. A total of 219 curves were observed in MT lesions. The traction flexibility rate (FR) was higher than the side-bending FR at angle of > or = 60 degrees (P = 0.02), in patients younger than 15 years (P = 0.02), in curves whose apex was located at T4-T8/T9 (P = 0.01), in curves whose involved vertebrae were 6 or 7 (P = 0.02), and at kyphosis angle between 10 degrees and 39 degrees (P = 0.02). In 96 TL/L curves, side-bending FR was higher at angle of traction FR was higher at angles of > or = 40 degrees (P = 0.02). In addition to a Cobb angle, patient age, the level of the apex, and the number of involved vertebrae also influence the conditions under which the corrective ability of traction radiographs is superior to that of side-bending radiographs.

  11. IMPLEMENTATION MODEL OF MOTOR TRACTION FORCE OF MAGLEV TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Polyakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Traction force implementation (TFI by the motor of magnetic levitation train (MLT occurs in the process of electric-to-kinetic energy transformation at interaction of inductor and armature magnetic fields. Ac-cordingly, the aim of this study is to obtain a correct description of such energy transformation. Methodology. At the present stage, a mathematical and, in particular, computer simulation is the main and most universal tool for analysis and synthesis of processes and systems. At the same time, radical advantages of this tool make the precision of selection of a particular research methodology even more important. It is especially important for such a large and complex system as MLT. Therefore the special attention in the work is given to the rationale for choosing the research paradigm selective features. Findings. The analysis results of existing TFI process model versions indicate that each of them has both advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, one of the main results of this study was the creation of a mathematical model for such process that would preserve the advantages of previous versions, but would be free from their disadvantages. The work provides rationale for application (for the purposes of research of train motor TFI of the integrative holistic paradigm, which assimilates the advantages of the theory of electric circuit and magnetic field. Originality. The priority of creation of such paradigm and corresponding version of FI model constitute the originality of the research. Practical value. The main manifestation of practical value of this research in the opportunity, in case of use of its results, for significant increase in efficiency of MLT dynamic studies, on the condition that their generalized costs will not rise.

  12. Comparison between effectiveness of Mechanical and Manual Traction combined with mobilization and exercise therapy in Patients with Cervical Radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhari, Syed Rehan Iftikhar; Shakil-ur-Rehman, Syed; Ahmad, Shakeel; Naeem, Aamer

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Cervical radiculopathy is a common neuro-musculo-skeletal disorder causing pain and disability. Traction is part of the evidence based manual physical therapy management due to its mechanical nature, type of traction and parameters related to its applicability and are still to be explored more through research. Our objective was to determine the Effects of Mechanical versus Manual Traction in Manual Physical Therapy combined with segmental mobilization and exercise t...

  13. Rupture dynamics along bimaterial interfaces: a parametric study of the coupling between interfacial sliding and normal traction perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake ruptures often develop along faults separating materials with dissimilar elastic properties. Due to the broken symmetry, the propagation of the rupture along the bimaterial interface is driven by the coupling between interfacial sliding and normal traction perturbations. We numerically investigate in-plane rupture growth along a planar interface, under slip weakening friction, separating two dissimilar isotropic linearly elastic half-spaces. We perform a parametric study of the classical Prakash-Clifton regularisation for different material contrasts. In particular mesh-dependence and regularisation-dependence of the numerical solutions are analysed in this parameter space. When regularisation involves a slip-rate dependent relaxation time, a characteristic sliding distance is identified below which numerical solutions no longer depend on the regularisation parameter, i.e. they are consistent solutions of the same physical problem. Such regularisation provides an adaptive high-frequency filter of the slip-induced normal traction perturbations, following the dynamic shrinking of the dissipation zone during the acceleration phase. In contrast, regularisation involving a constant relaxation time leads to numerical solutions that always depend on the regularisation parameter since it fails adapting to the shrinking of the process zone. Dynamic regularisation is further investigated using a non-local regularisation based on a relaxation time that depends on the dynamic length of the dissipation zone. Such reformulation is shown to provide similar results as the dynamic time scale regularisation proposed by Prakash-Clifton when slip rate is replaced by the maximum slip rate along the sliding interface. This leads to the identification of a dissipative length scale associated with the coupling between interfacial sliding and normal traction perturbations, together with a scaling law between the maximum slip rate and the dynamic size of the process zone during

  14. Supracondylar skeletal traction and open interlocking nailing for neglected fracture of the shaft of femur - Retrospective study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnakumar, R; Thiruvenkitaprasad, G; Kaliaperumal, Dayanand; Sundaram, Nandkumar

    2013-01-01

    .... Careful preoperative evaluation is mandatory for good results. Preoperative skeletal traction and two stage surgical procedure may be required to avoid limb length discrepancy and neurovascular complication.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS OF CALCULATION OF TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS AND ENERGY SYSTEMS FEEDING THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Domanskyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the cause deterioration of quality rating of electricity on tire traction substations AC can be either how mode of operation of power systems, industrial loads so and the impact of electric traction. The experience of energy surveys show that the loss from flow potential equalization currents in each the third plot between traction substations AC is amount to not less than 250 thousand kW∙h per year. To select the optimum power and places location of the device longitudinal capacitive of compensation and decision other tasks it is necessary methodology of systems of calculation that takes into account the complex nature of the mutual influence of the quality of the electricity coming from the energy system of and the transportation process. In the paper proposed three options for calculation algorithms modes work of existing and perspective systems, traction power supply AC jointly with power supply their by energy systems, including the algorithm for calculating networks of different nominal voltages using the transformations; decomposition and synthesis of networks with different voltage levels; the iterations and probabilistic assessment of the impact of power mains. Developed the schemes formalization of graphs and the matrices of portions of the outer and traction power supply and method of selecting parameters and places location of the devices longitudinal capacitive of compensation, which are based on direct methods solving systems of linear algebraic equations with a dense banded and profile-sparse the matrix. Are generalized ways of formation and transformation of graphs of schemes traction power supply and feeding them energy systems and proposed the method of calculation the complex the moment of schemes, which increases the accuracy of calculating of flows power on traction networks to 1-2 % and allows you to select the optimal parameters and places location of the devices longitudinal capacitive of compensation

  16. Neurophysiological changes in deformity correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with intraoperative skull-femoral traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen J; Gray, Randolph; Holmes, Laura M; Strantzas, Samuel; Jhaveri, Subir; Zaarour, Christian; Magana, Sofia

    2011-09-15

    Retrospective review of 36 consecutive patients undergoing coronal plane deformity correction with intraoperative skull-femoral traction between 2005 and 2008 with motor evoked potential (MEP)/somatosensory evoked potential monitoring. To determine the prevalence and significance of neurophysiological changes with intraoperative skull-femoral traction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Intraoperative skeletal traction can be associated with spinal cord stretching and ischemia with resultant electrophysiological changes. The prevalence and risks of such changes and their clinical significance is unknown. Thirty-seven procedures involving 36 patients (27 females and 9 males) with a mean age of 14.8 (12-18) years were divided into two groups on the basis of the presence (group 1, n = 18 procedures) or absence (group 2, n = 19) of significant MEP changes with surgery. They were compared with patients undergoing correction without traction (group 3). Significant differences among the groups were observed in mean preoperative Cobb angle (86° vs. 70° vs. 59°), mean intraoperative posttraction Cobb angle (50.0° vs. 34.6°), traction index (0.41 vs. 0.50), flexibility index (0.14 vs. 0.27 vs. 0.25), and presence of primary lumbar curves (0% vs. 32% vs. 14%). Initial onset of MEP amplitude loss (group 1) occurred at a mean of 94 (1-257) minutes from the onset of surgery, was bilateral in 13 procedures, and improved at a mean of 5.5 (1-29) minutes after decreasing or removing the traction. At closure, complete bilateral recovery to baseline was observed in 10 procedures, recovery to >50% baseline in five, and recovery to traction is associated with frequent changes in MEP monitoring. The thoracic location of the major curve, increasing Cobb angle, and rigidity of major curve are significant risk factors for changes in MEP with traction. The presence of any MEP recordings irrespective of its amplitude at closure was associated with normal neurological function

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF NEURODYNAMICS IN COMPARISON TO MANUAL TRACTION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoona Anwar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical radiculopathy is a condition of pain and sensorimotor deficits due to cervical nerve root compression. The symptoms may include weakness, tingling, numbness and pain. C6, C7 nerve roots are most involved in cervical radiculopathy. Various modalities and therapeutic interventions are used and recommended for management of cervical radiculopathy including cervical collars, immobilization, manipulation, cervical traction TENS and therapeutic exercises.The aimof this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neurodynamics in comparison to manual traction in the management of cervical radiculopathy. Methods: An Interventional research was performed in the Department of Physiotherapy, Mayo hospital Lahore, Pakistan. 40 subjects aged between 18-60 years participated in the study. They were divided into two groups namely Group A and Group B with 20 subjects in each group. The duration of the study was 4 weeks with 4 sessions per week. GroupA received neurodynamics along with strengthening exercises while Group B received manual traction along with strengthening exercises. Neck Disability Index (NDI scale was used as an outcome measure andpaired sample t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: A significant improvement was found in both neurodynamics group and manual traction group for pain and functional status with p value< 0.05. Conclusion: This study concluded that the treatment techniques, neurodynamics and manual traction were effective in alleviating the symptoms associated with cervical radiculopathy in terms of decreasing pain intensity, increasing ranges of motion and improving functional capacity.

  18. Solid-state transformer-based new traction drive system and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianghua; Shang, Jing; Zhang, Zhixue; Liu, Huadong; Huang, Zihao

    2017-11-01

    A new type of traction drive system consisting of solid-state traction transformer (SSTT), inverter unit, auxiliary inverter, traction motor and other key components is built in order to suit the demand of developing the next-generation electric traction system which will be efficient and lightweight, with high power density. For the purpose of reducing system volume and weight and improving efficiency and grid-side power quality, an efficient SSTT optimized topology combining high-voltage cascaded rectifiers with high-power high-frequency LLC resonant converter is proposed. On this basis, an integrated control strategy built upon synchronous rotating reference frame is presented to achieve unified control over fundamental active, reactive and harmonic components. The carrier-interleaving phase shift modulation strategy is proposed to improve the harmonic performance of cascaded rectifiers. In view of the secondary pulsating existing in a single-phase system, the mathematical model of secondary power transfer is built, and the mechanism of pulsating voltage resulting in beat frequency of LLC resonant converter is revealed, so as to design optimum matching of system parameters. Simulation and experimental results have verified that the traction system and control scheme mentioned in this paper are reasonable and superior and that they meet the future application requirements for rail transit.

  19. Vitrectomy in eyes with peripheral retinal angioma associated with traction macular detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, H R; Schatz, H; Johnson, R N; Abrams, G W; Brown, G C; Brucker, A J; Han, D P; Lewis, H; Mieler, W F; Meyers, S

    1996-02-01

    Peripheral angiomas have been associated with epiretinal membranes and traction retinal detachment. The authors investigated the timing, results, and complications of vitreous surgery to remove the retinal traction and treat the peripheral vascular tumor. The authors reviewed the results of ten eyes that had undergone vitrectomy for macular pucker and/or traction retinal detachment. These eyes had either preoperative or intraoperative treatment of the peripheral tumor. Patients were followed 4 to 95 months. Six eyes had nonfamilial peripheral acquired retinal hemangioma, three had von Hippel angiomas, and one had multiple large peripheral retinal angiomas associated with extensive retinal telangiectasis. Four eyes received cryotherapy and/or laser photocoagulation 2 to 3 months before surgery. In the remaining six eyes, initial treatment to the peripheral angioma was performed at the time of vitreous surgery. At final follow-up, all eyes were attached without retinal traction. Vision improved in all eyes; six (60%) achieved 20/50 or better visual acuity. Complications included recurrent epiretinal membrane (n=3); nonregressed angiomas (n=3); increased nuclear sclerosis (n=2); and retinal detachment (n=1). Vitreous surgery, when applied to epiretinal membranes or traction retinal detachments associated with peripheral vascular tumors, has a good chance of improving vision. Treatment of the hemangioma, before or during vitrectomy, usually results in tumor regression.

  20. Reducing Shoulder by Vertical Traction: A One-Man Method for Shoulder Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Ahmad Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty percent of joint dislocations reported to the emergency department are of shoulder joint. Various techniques are used to reduce the shoulder and Spaso technique is the least known to the orthopaedic residents which is a simple one-man vertical traction method of shoulder reduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of vertical traction method for anterior shoulder dislocation by orthopaedic residents. Sixty consecutive patients of anterior glenohumeral dislocation attending the emergency department of our hospital were taken up for the study. The reduction was done using Spaso technique. Right shoulder was dislocated in 40 patients and 31 patients had recurrent shoulder dislocation. In 55 patients, shoulder was reduced without the use of any anaesthesia. In patients where no anaesthesia was used, the time of traction ranged from 45 seconds to 5 minutes, while under anaesthesia the time of traction ranged from 1 to 4 minutes. Twenty-one patients had associated greater tuberosity fracture which did not affect the method of reduction and all of them were reducible. No complication was reported, and all the patients were satisfied with the method. In conclusion vertical traction method is a good technique for reducing anterior shoulder dislocation with an easy learning curve among the residents and no complication has been reported so far.

  1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY DETERMINATION OF LOADING-BACK SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Acceptance post-repair testsof electric traction machinesare conducted onloading-backstandsthat reducethe overall power costsfor the tests.Currentlya numberof possiblecircuit designs of loading-backsystems of electric machines are known, but there is nomethod of determiningtheir energy efficiency. This in turn makes difficult the choiceof rationaloptions. The purpose of the article is the development of the corresponding methodo-logy to make easier this process. Methodology. Expressions for determining theenergy efficiency ofa stand for testingof electric traction machineswere obtained using the generalizedscheme analysisof energy transformationsin the loading-backsystems of universal structure. Findings.Thetechnique wasoffered and the analytical expressions for determining the energy efficiency of loading-backsystemsof electric traction machines wereobtained. Energy efficiency coefficientofloading-backsystemisproposed to consider as the ratio of the total actionenergy of the mechanical and electromotive forces, providing anchors rotation and flowof currents in electric machines, which are being tested,to the total energy, consumed during the test from the external network. Originality. The concept was introduced and the analytical determination method of the energy efficiency of loading-backsystem in electric traction machines was offered. It differs by efficiency availability of power sources and converters, as well as energy efficiency factors of indirect methods of loss compensation. Practical value. The proposed technique of energy efficiency estimation of a loading-backsystemcan be used in solving the problem of rational options choice of schematics stands decisions for electric traction machines acceptance tests of main line and industrial transport.

  2. Free Form Deformation–Based Image Registration Improves Accuracy of Traction Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge-Peñas, Alvaro; Izquierdo-Alvarez, Alicia; Aguilar-Cuenca, Rocio; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Garcia-Aznar, José Manuel; Van Oosterwyck, Hans; de-Juan-Pardo, Elena M.; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate

    2015-01-01

    Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) is a widespread method used to recover cellular tractions from the deformation that they cause in their surrounding substrate. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is commonly used to quantify the substrate’s deformations, due to its simplicity and efficiency. However, PIV relies on a block-matching scheme that easily underestimates the deformations. This is especially relevant in the case of large, locally non-uniform deformations as those usually found in the vicinity of a cell’s adhesions to the substrate. To overcome these limitations, we formulate the calculation of the deformation of the substrate in TFM as a non-rigid image registration process that warps the image of the unstressed material to match the image of the stressed one. In particular, we propose to use a B-spline -based Free Form Deformation (FFD) algorithm that uses a connected deformable mesh to model a wide range of flexible deformations caused by cellular tractions. Our FFD approach is validated in 3D fields using synthetic (simulated) data as well as with experimental data obtained using isolated endothelial cells lying on a deformable, polyacrylamide substrate. Our results show that FFD outperforms PIV providing a deformation field that allows a better recovery of the magnitude and orientation of tractions. Together, these results demonstrate the added value of the FFD algorithm for improving the accuracy of traction recovery. PMID:26641883

  3. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  4. Preoperative halo-gravity traction with and without thoracoscopic anterior release for skeletal dysplasia patients with severe kyphoscoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtaheri, Sina; Shah, Suken A; Ditro, Colleen P; Holmes, Laurens; Mackenzie, William G

    2016-04-01

    Recent work has shown the safety and efficacy of halo-gravity traction as an operative adjunct. However, there are no reports specifically looking at halo-gravity traction in patients with skeletal dysplasia. Our purpose was to assess the safety and efficacy of traction in children with skeletal dysplasia who present with severe kyphoscoliosis. We retrospectively reviewed eight consecutive children with skeletal dysplasia who were treated with halo-gravity traction preoperatively. Six of the patients had a thoracoscopic anterior release prior to the halo-gravity traction. All patients were ambulatory and presented with severe, rigid kyphoscoliosis. The mean duration of traction was 32 days. There were no neurologic complications with traction or after posterior spinal instrumentation. The majority of kyphoscoliosis correction was with the halo-gravity traction alone: major curve (MC) Cobb angle improved 41 %; C7-center sacral vertical line, 75 %; C7-MC apex, 21 %; and T2-T12 kyphosis, 35 %. Trunk height increased 37 % and thoracic height 44 %. An additional amount of correction was obtained with posterior spinal instrumentation (±fusion), decreasing MC Cobb angle an additional 23 %; C7-apex, 16 %; and T2-T12 kyphosis, 10 %. There was no additional correction of thoracic height. Two years after posterior spinal instrumentation (±fusion), a mild-to-moderate amount of correction was lost: MC Cobb angle decreased 23 %; compensatory Cobb angle, 28 %; C7-CSVL, 24 %; C7-S1, 22 %; regional kyphosis, 31 %; thoracic kyphosis, 29 %; and trunk height, 27 %. Among children with skeletal dysplasia and severe kyphosis, halo-gravity traction is well tolerated and safe. Most of the corrections in radiographic parameters were achieved with traction alone. Traction improves coronal balance, apical translation, thoracic height, and kyphosis. In this specific population, the potential for neurologic injury during corrective surgery is high. However, preoperative halo

  5. Halo-gravity traction in the treatment of severe spinal deformity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changsheng; Wang, Huafeng; Zheng, Zhaomin; Zhang, Zhongmin; Wang, Jianru; Liu, Hui; Kim, Yongjung Jay; Cho, Samuel

    2017-07-01

    Halo-gravity traction has been reported to successfully assist in managing severe spinal deformity. This is a systematic review of all studies on halo-gravity traction in the treatment of spinal deformity to provide information for clinical practice. A comprehensive search was conducted for articles on halo-gravity traction in the treatment of spinal deformity according to the PRISMA guidelines. Appropriate studies would be included and analyzed. Preoperative correction rate of spinal deformity, change of pulmonary function and prevalence of complications were the main measurements. Sixteen studies, a total of 351 patients, were included in this review. Generally, the initial Cobb angle was 101.1° in the coronal plane and 80.5° in the sagittal plane, and it was corrected to 49.4° and 56.0° after final spinal fusion. The preoperative correction due to traction alone was 24.1 and 19.3%, respectively. With traction, the flexibility improved 6.1% but postoperatively the patients did not have better correction. Less aggressive procedures and improved pulmonary function were observed in patients with traction. The prevalence of traction-related complications was 22% and three cases of neurologic complication related to traction were noted. The prevalence of total complications related to surgery was 32% and that of neurologic complications was 1%. Partial correction could be achieved preoperatively with halo-gravity traction, and it may help decrease aggressive procedures, improve preoperative pulmonary function, and reduce neurologic complications. However, traction could not increase preoperative flexibility or final correction. Traction-related complications, although usually not severe, were not rare.

  6. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, E.

    2005-03-01

    transient presentation of DRS. For both sustained and transient presentations of the stimuli, the results show that: (i) stereopsis has similar temporal properties at coarse and fine spatial scales; (ii) interaction between spatial scales depends on their relative sizes. The results indicate a strong inhibitory influence of rivalry at a coarse scale on stereopsis at a fine scale, and just a weak inhibitory influence of rivalry at a fine scale on stereopsis at a coarse scale. This study provides experimental evidence for a hierarchical organisation of spatial scales in stereoscopic vision based on neural interaction instead of vergence eye movements. In chapter 4 we examined how binocular visual system interprets the depth of monocular random-dots superimposed on stereoscopic surfaces, when disparity and monocular depth result from elements of different size. We also examine the perceptual effects of dot density. We found that depth of monocular surfaces was affected by the disparity-defined surfaces and it changed gradually with dot density. Strength of the effect depended on dot density and relative angular size of the dots. In chapter 5 we examined how visual perception changes over time in the presence or absence of perceived stereoscopic depth in rivalrous images. We found that the presence of disparity-defined depth did not influence significantly the perceptual dominance durations of binocular rivalry. This indicates that stereopsis and binocular rivalry at the level of textured surfaces follow from separate processes.

  7. Observer Based Traction/Braking Control Design for High Speed Trains Considering Adhesion Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchuan Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Train traction/braking control, one of the key enabling technologies for automatic train operation, literally takes its action through adhesion force. However, adhesion coefficient of high speed train (HST is uncertain in general because it varies with wheel-rail surface condition and running speed; thus, it is extremely difficult to be measured, which makes traction/braking control design and implementation of HSTs greatly challenging. In this work, force observers are applied to estimate the adhesion force or/and the resistance, based on which simple traction/braking control schemes are established under the consideration of actual wheel-rail adhesion condition. It is shown that the proposed controllers have simple structure and can be easily implemented from real applications. Numerical simulation also validates the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  8. Rapid, efficient charging of lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells. [for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells were rapidly and efficiently charged using a high rate taped dc charge (HRTDC) method which could possibly be used for on-the-road service recharge of electric vehicles. The HRTDC method takes advantage of initial high cell charge acceptance and uses cell gassing rate and temperature as an indicator of charging efficiency. On the average, 300 amp-hour nickel-zinc traction cells were given a HRTDC to 78% of rated amp-hour capacity within 53 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 92% and an energy efficiency of 52%. Three-hundred amp-hour lead-acid traction cells were charged to 69% of rated amp-hour capacity within 46 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 91% with an energy efficiency of 64%.

  9. Clinical study on Laksha Guggulu, Snehana, Swedana & Traction in Osteoarthritis (Knee joint).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoria, Kshipra; Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Sharma, R S; Sharma, S N

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the efficacy of Laksha Guggulu, Snehana, Swedana & Traction in the management of Osteoarthritis (Knee joint). For the present work, 30 clinically diagnosed patients were selected and randomly divided into three groups. Group A treated with Laksha Guggulu orally, Group B treated with snehana & swedana traction, Group C treated with Laksha Guggulu, Snehana, Swedana & Knee Joint Traction. The various criteria worked upon were joint pain, oedema, tenderness, restriction of joint movement, stiffness, local crepitation, walking distance. Significant results were obtained on pain in joint movement, restriction in joint movement, joint stiffness , local crepitation nearly in all the groups with best result in combined group or group C.

  10. A model-based traction control strategy non-reliant on wheel slip information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deur, Joško; Pavković, Danijel; Burgio, Gilberto; Hrovat, Davor

    2011-08-01

    A traction control system (TCS) for two-wheel-drive vehicles can conveniently be realised by means of slip control. Such a TCS is modified in this paper in order to be applicable to four-wheel-drive vehicles and anti-lock braking systems, where slip information is not readily available. A reference vehicle model is used to estimate the vehicle velocity. The reference model is excited by a saw-tooth signal in order to adapt the slip for maximum tyre traction performance. The model-based TCS is made robust to vehicle modelling errors by extending it with (i) a superimposed loop of tyre static curve gradient control or (ii) a robust switching controller based on a bi-directional saw-tooth excitation signal. The proposed traction control strategies are verified by experiments and computer simulations.

  11. Bayesian Network Based Fault Prognosis via Bond Graph Modeling of High-Speed Railway Traction Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunkai Wu

    2015-01-01

    component-level faults accurately for a high-speed railway traction system, a fault prognosis approach via Bayesian network and bond graph modeling techniques is proposed. The inherent structure of a railway traction system is represented by bond graph model, based on which a multilayer Bayesian network is developed for fault propagation analysis and fault prediction. For complete and incomplete data sets, two different parameter learning algorithms such as Bayesian estimation and expectation maximization (EM algorithm are adopted to determine the conditional probability table of the Bayesian network. The proposed prognosis approach using Pearl’s polytree propagation algorithm for joint probability reasoning can predict the failure probabilities of leaf nodes based on the current status of root nodes. Verification results in a high-speed railway traction simulation system can demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Halo-pelvic traction for severe kyphotic deformity secondary to spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Ma, Yuan; Ma, Yong; Ma, Junyi; Cheng, Junjie; Xie, Jiang

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Halo-pelvic ring traction in the treatment of severe kyphotic deformity secondary to spinal tuberculosis.Eighty patients with severe kyphotic deformity due to spinal tuberculosis were included in the study. Forty of those patients (experimental group) received Halo- pelvic ring traction before surgery and the rest (control group) received surgical treatment directly. Two groups were compared by means of the duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, correction of Cobb angle, change in patient height, and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale.Halo-pelvic traction group achieved significantly (P spinal kyphotic deformity due to spinal tuberculosis to increase efficacy and safety of surgical treatment.

  13. Surgical management of radial head luxation in a dog using an external skeletal traction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, N; Yeadon, R; Farrell, M

    2013-01-01

    A five-month-old Airedale Terrier was presented with a history of right thoracic limb lameness. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed caudolateral luxation of the right radial head. Surgical intervention involved an oblique proximal radial osteotomy and gradual craniomedial traction of the radial head using an external skeletal fixator (ESF) incorporating a traction device. The radial head was gradually reduced over 16 days. After radiographic confirmation of appropriate radial head reduction, a consolidation phase followed, with removal of the traction ESF after 24 days. Follow-up radiographs documented remodelling of the radial head. Clinical follow-up three years postoperatively revealed nearly normal ground reaction forces. Activity was unrestricted and there was no requirement for analgesic medications.

  14. Non-regularised Inverse Finite Element Analysis for 3D Traction Force Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz, Jose J

    2016-01-01

    The tractions that cells exert on a gel substrate from the observed displacements is an increasingly attractive and valuable information in biomedical experiments. The computation of these tractions requires in general the solution of an inverse problem. Here, we resort to the discretisation with finite elements of the associated direct variational formulation, and solve the inverse analysis using a least square approach. This strategy requires the minimisation of an error functional, which is usually regularised in order to obtain a stable system of equations with a unique solution. In this paper we show that for many common three-dimensional geometries, meshes and loading conditions, this regularisation is unnecessary. In these cases, the computational cost of the inverse problem becomes equivalent to a direct finite element problem. For the non-regularised functional, we deduce the necessary and sufficient conditions that the dimensions of the interpolated displacement and traction fields must preserve in ...

  15. Ulnar nerve injury due to lateral traction device during shoulder arthroscopy: Was it avoidable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Pandey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the nerve injuries reported during shoulder arthroscopy in a beach chair, or lateral position is related to inappropriate patient positioning or excess traction. The lateral decubitus position is more vulnerable for traction-related neuropraxia. The present case serves as an important lesson from an avoidable situation of “having a one track mind” of the surgical team during the arthroscopic repair of shoulder instability performed in the lateral decubitus position. The operating surgeon must supervise the appropriate positioning of the patient on operation table and adequate padding of vulnerable bony points before beginning of shoulder arthroscopy to prevent any position-related nerve injuries. This is probably the first case to illustrate an unusual cause of ulnar nerve compression particularly related to the use of an additional traction device in the arthroscopic repair of shoulder instability performed in lateral decubitus position, which has not been previously defined.

  16. Traction endurance biomechanical study of metallic suture anchors at different insertion angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azato Flávia Namie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The suture anchors' insertion angle and its traction resistance are the main subjects of this study. Twenty trials were realized using threaded suture anchors in four diferents angulations (30º /45º /60º /90º in human bone (distal femur and another twenty trials in artificial bone (SawboneTM. The anchors were pulled out being tractioned uprightly from its bone surface by a Kratos Universal test machine. The human bone results found no relation between the main subjects of this study, so whithout statistical value. On the other hand at the artificial bone the insertion angle of 90º beared more traction, being statistically significant compared to the other angles.

  17. Temporal integration and instrumental conditioned reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcement for instrumental behavior are widely believed to acquire the capacity to function as conditioned reinforcers via Pavlovian conditioning. Some Pavlovian conditioning studies suggest that animals learn the important temporal relations between stimuli and integrate such temporal information over separate experiences to form a temporal map. The present experiment examined whether Pavlovian conditioning can establish a positive instrumental conditioned...

  18. [Efficacy of cervical fixed-point traction manipulation for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong-Bo; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhi-Xin; Hou, Jing-Shan; Ma, Ling; Sun, Tong

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy is a commonly encountered and frequently occurring disease. Traditional Chinese osteopathic manipulations may have better therapeutic efficacy than that of other methods in treating patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. To evaluate the clinical therapeutic effects of cervical fixed-point traction manipulation in treating patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was adopted. Eighty-four patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy were randomly divided into treatment group (n=42) and control group (n=42). All patients were enrolled from the outpatient service of Department of Rehabilitation of Chinese PLA General Hospital of China. Patients received oral and written information about clinical procedures before giving their written informed consent. The patients were treated with cervical fixed-point traction manipulation (treatment group) or cervical computer traction (control group). Cervical fixed-point traction was performed once every other day for a total of seven treatment periods and cervical computer traction was performed 30 min, once per day for 14 d. Before and after treatment, visual analogue scale (VAS) score and temperature of upper limb skin (normal limb and abnormal limb) detected by infrared thermal imaging system were contrastively analyzed. Five patients were lost to follow-up, one patient in the treatment group and four patients in the control group. There were significant differences in VAS score and temperature difference between the normal and abnormal upper limbs of infrared thermal imaging in the treatment group (t=28.652, Pmanipulation has better efficacy than cervical computer traction in treating patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy.

  19. Fusion criteria for posterior lumbar interbody fusion with intervertebral cages : the significance of traction spur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Park, Jeong Yoon; Chin, Dong Kyu

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish new fusion criteria to complement existing Brantigan-Steffee fusion criteria. The primary purpose of intervertebral cage placement is to create a proper biomechanical environment through successful fusion. The existence of a traction spur is an essential predictable radiologic factor which shows that there is instability of a fusion segment. We studied the relationship between the existence of a traction spur and fusion after a posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedure. This study was conducted using retrospective radiological findings from patients who underwent a PLIF procedure with the use of a cage without posterior fixation between 1993 and 1997 at a single institution. We enrolled 183 patients who were followed for a minimum of five years after the procedure, and used the Brantigan-Steffee classification to confirm the fusion. These criteria include a denser and more mature bone fusion area than originally achieved during surgery, no interspace between the cage and the vertebral body, and mature bony trabeculae bridging the fusion area. We also confirmed the existence of traction spurs on fusion segments and non-fusion segments. The PLIF procedure was done on a total of 251 segments in 183 patients (71 men and 112 women). The average follow-up period was 80.4 +/- 12.7 months. The mean age at the time of surgery was 48.3 +/- 11.3 years (range, 25 to 84 years). Among the 251 segments, 213 segments (84.9%) were fused after five years. The remaining 38 segments (15.1%) were not fused. An analysis of the 38 segments that were not fused found traction spur formation in 20 of those segments (52.6%). No segments had traction spur formation with fusion. A new parameter should be added to the fusion criteria. These criteria should be referred to as 'no traction spur formation' and should be used to confirm fusion after a PLIF procedure.

  20. Head-Down Tilt with Balanced Traction as a Model for Simulating Spinal Acclimation to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, R. E.; Styf, J. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Fechner, K.; Haruna, Y.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts experience total body height increases of 4 to 7 cm in microgravity. Thus, stretching of the spinal cord, nerve roots, and muscular and ligamentous tissues may be responsible for the hyperreflexia, back pain, and muscular atrophy associated with exposure to microgravity. Axial compression of the spine makes 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT) an unsuitable model for spinal acclimation to microgravity. However, this axial compression may be counteracted by balanced traction consisting of 10% body weight (sin 6 deg. = 0.1) applied to the legs. Six healthy male subjects underwent 3 days each of 60 HDT with balanced traction and horizontal bed rest (HBR), with a 2 week recovery period between treatments. Total body and spine length, lumbar disc height, back pain, erector spinae intramuscular pressure, and ankle joint torque were measured before, during and after each treatment. Total body and spine (processes of L5 - C7) lengths increased significantly more during HDT with balanced traction (22 +/- 8 mm and 25 +/- 8 mm, respectively) than during HBR (16 +/- 4 mm and 14 +/- 9 mm, respectively). Back and leg pain were significantly greater during HDT with balanced traction than during HBR. The distance between the lower end plate of L4 and the upper endplate of S1, as measured by sonography, increased significantly in both treatments to the same degree (2.9 +/- 1.9 mm, HDT with balanced traction; 3.3 +/- 1.5 mm, HBR). Intramuscular pressure of the erector spinae muscles and maximal ankle joint torque were unaltered with both models. While neither model increased height to the magnitude observed in microgravity, HDT with balanced traction may be a better model for simulating the body lengthening and back pain experienced in microgravity.

  1. Fractional-Slot Surface Mounted PM Motors with Concentrated Windings for HEV Traction Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.M.

    2005-10-24

    High-power density and efficiency resulting from elimination of rotor windings and reduced magnetic-flux losses have made the rare earth permanent magnet (PM) motor a leading candidate for the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVTs) traction drive motor. These traction drives are generally powered by radial-gap motors, having the magnets on or embedded in a rotating cylinder separated from the inside surface of a slotted cylindrical stator by an annular gap. The two main types of radial-gap PM rotors are those with magnets mounted on the surface of a supporting back iron, called PM surface mounted (PMSM) motors, and those with magnets mounted in slots in the rotor, called interior PM (IPM) motors. Most early PM motor research was on the PMSM motor, which was thought to have an inherently low stator inductance. A low stator inductance can lead to currents dangerously exceeding rated current as the back-emf across the inductance increases with speed; consequently, part of the attempted solution has been to increase the stator inductance to reduce the rate of current rise. Although analysis suggested that there should be no problem designing sufficiently high stator inductance into PMSMs, attempts to do so were often not successful and a motor design was sought that would have a higher intrinsic inductance. Commercial research at Toyota has focused on IPM motors because they can achieve a high-saliency ratio, which helps them operate over a high constant power speed ratio (CPSR), but they are more difficult to fabricate. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) position has been to continue research on brushless direct current (dc) motors (BDCMs) because of ease of fabrication and increased power output. Recently there has been a revival of interest in a fractional-slot PMSMs [15] made with concentrated windings because they possess three important features. First, they can increase the motor's inductance

  2. Simulation of Trolleybus Traction Induction Drive With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazis, V.; Latkovskis, L.; Grigans, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the possibilities of saving the regenerative braking energy in Škoda 24Tr type trolleybuses by installing the onboard supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS) and improving its performance with automated switching to the autonomous traction mode. Proposed is an ESS control system with constant DC bus voltage in the supercapacitor charging mode and supercapacitor current proportional to the AC drive current in the discharging mode. The authors investigate stability of the trolleybus ESS control system operating together with AC traction drive in various overhead voltage failure modes. The co-simulation of ESS operation was done by Matlab/Simulink AC drive and PSIM ESS continuous models.

  3. Halo skeletal traction pin site care: toward developing a standard of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R S

    1996-01-01

    Halo skeletal traction may be used to immobilize a patient's head and neck following a cervical fracture. Prevention of infectious reactions around the pin sites of halo traction is a priority in rehabilitation nursing practice. Although prophylactic treatment of skeletal pin sites is a generally accepted practice, there is great diversity of opinion and very limited systematic investigation as to how the sites should be treated. In this article, the author reviews the literature on pin site care and suggests a protocol based on the current literature.

  4. Traction power converter Karlsfeld of Bayernwerk; Bahnstromumrichter Karlsfeld der Bayernwerk AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fister, V.; Kreitmayer, S. [Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Netzbetrieb und Elektrotechnik; Jergas, E. [DB Energieversorgung GmbH und Co. KG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Abt. Netzbetriebsfuehrung und Kraftwerke; Niessen, M. [DB Energieversorgung GmbH und Co. KG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Bereich Energieanlagentechnik/Bahnstromleitungen; Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [ABB Daimler-Benz Transportation (Deutschland) GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    To ensure today`s traction power demand of Deutsche Bahn in greater Munich area, but also to cover future power demands there, Bayernwerk is going to construct a 100 MW traction power converter at Karlsfeld near Munich. Basic network operational situation, demands and technical features of this converter are described. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Absicherung des heutigen Bedarfs an Traktionsleistung der Deutschen Bahn im Grossraum Muenchen, aber auch zur Deckung des zukuenftigen Leistungszuwachses, wird von Bayernwerk in Karlsfeld bei Muenchen ein 100-MW-Bahnstromumrichter errichtet. Die netzbetriebliche Ausgangslage, die Anforderungen an den Umrichter und seine technischen Merkmale werden beschrieben. (orig.)

  5. THEORETICAL ASPECTS AND METHODS OF PARAMETERS IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRIC TRACTION SYSTEM DEVICES. METHOD OF WEIGHT FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Mishchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development and substantiation of a new method of structural identification of electrical devices of electric traction systems for both DC and AC current. Methodology. To solve this problem the following methods are used: the methods and techniques of the linear electrical engineering, in particular, the Laplace operator method; the numerical method for solving the integral equation, which is based on the representation of the Wiener-Hopf linear equations system (this allows forming the solutions of the problem in a mathematical form of the correlation and weight functions; the factorization method, which provides certain partition of the correlation functions of the stochastic processes. Findings. It was developed the method of weight function of the electrical devices identification, which can be fully used in the systems of electric traction. As the use example of the developed method it was considered a feeder section of DC electric traction with the single power supply. On this section move two electric locomotives of the type DE 1, they have been identified by the weighting functions. The required currents and voltages of electric locomotives are also formulated in the electric traction network in probabilistic and statistical form, that is, the functions of mathematical expectation and the correlation functions are determined. At this, it is taken into account that the correlation function of the sum of random functions is equal to the sum of the correlation functions of additives, and the correlation function of the integral of a random function is defined as the double integral of the correlation function of the output of a random function. Originality. Firstly, originality consists of the adaption of the developed method of structural identification for the devices of electric traction system. Secondly, it lies in the proper development of the new method of weight function. And finally, it lies in the solution of the Wiener

  6. CRITERES DE RUPTURE DE MATERIAUX FRAGILES INTEGRANT LA DISSYMETRIE EN TRACTION ET COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G PLUVINAGE

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Nous proposons une approche générale des critères de résistance à la rupture pour des matériaux présentant une dissymétrie de comportement en traction et compression. Elle est basée sur l’égalité des énergies de rupture en traction et compression et repose sur le concept d’endommagement associé à un formalisme énergétique.

  7. Analysis of electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae caused by inversion traction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chung Yoo; Kang, Jong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae caused by inversion traction in order to verify the relaxation effect. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 60 healthy male adults who were equally and randomly assigned to a 30?30? group, a 30?60? group, and a 60?60? group. Inversion traction was performed for six minutes, and the electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae (L2, L4) were measured b...

  8. Three-staged correction of severe rigid idiopathic scoliosis using limited halo-gravity traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptan, Wael; ElMiligui, Yasser

    2012-06-01

    Despite the advantages of modern instrumentation techniques, the treatment of severe rigid idiopathic scoliosis could be very demanding. Traction can provide better, safer correction and minimize complications related to forceful intra-operative maneuvers; however, several side effects are associated with prolonged periods of traction. The aim of this work is to review the clinical and radiographic results of limited perioperative halo-gravity traction in severe rigid curves analyzing its efficacy, advantages and possible complications and comparing it to classic two staged corrections performed without traction. A retrospective case control study including 47 adolescents with severe rigid idiopathic scoliosis divided into two groups; a consecutive series of 21 patients who had a three-staged correction by an anterior release, 2 weeks of halo-gravity traction then posterior instrumentation (TRN group); compared to an earlier series of 26 consecutive patients treated without traction (SAP group). The average age was 18 years + 1 month and 16 years + 2 months, respectively. The average preoperative dorsal and lumbar curves for (TRN) group were 106.5° and 87°, respectively, and for (SAP) group were 102° and 81°, respectively. Patients were followed up for an average of 6 years (range 3-8 years). A significantly better correction was achieved in (TRN) group (average 59%) compared to (SAP) group (average 47%). At final follow-up, the loss of correction had an average of 8° for (TRN) group and 11° for (SAP) group. A shorter hospital stay was found in (SAP) group; a shorter operative time was found in (TRN) group and there was no significant difference in blood loss, early or delayed complications. Limited halo-gravity traction is an efficient, safe modality in the treatment of severe rigid adolescent scoliosis. The application of gradual traction over a limited period of 2 weeks led to better correction, shorter operative time with no significant

  9. Injury to neurovascular structures with insertion of traction pins around the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jason A; Rister, Jamie; Eastman, Jonathan; Freind, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Identify risk to neurovascular structures around the knee with placement of skeletal traction pins. Kirchner wires were inserted into cadaveric limbs followed by layer dissecting of each leg. Correlations between weight, height, BMI, and distance were determined after calculating the average distance with deviation between each anatomic structure and the Kirschner wire. Insertion of traction pins around the knee did not result in injury to neurovascular structures. Both weight and BMI positively correlated with distance between implants and neurovascular structure. Data collected suggests similar trends for all other anatomic structures.

  10. Traction injury of the brachial plexus confused with nerve injury due to interscalene brachial block: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferrero-Manzanal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: When postoperative brachial plexus palsy appears, nerve block is a confusing factor that tends to be attributed as the cause of palsy by the orthopedic surgeon. The beach chair position may predispose brachial plexus traction injury. The head and neck position should be regularly checked during long procedures, as intraoperative maneuvers may cause eventual traction of the brachial plexus.

  11. THE SMART RELAY PROTECTION SYSTEM OF TRACTION ENERGY IS BASED ON A NEW CRITERION. 1. THE THEORY OF WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article a new indication of emergency conditions detection for the traction DC power supply system, namely the rate of decreasing the traction substation feeder voltage is suggested. The indication considered allows determining a kind of short circuit. In addition, the circuit design decisions for realization of the protection system based on this indication are proposed.

  12. ONCE AGAIN ABOUT DETERMINATION OF SAVING OF ENERGY FOR TRACTION DUE TO PARTIAL CUT–OFF OF TRACTION ENGINES OF ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Getman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In general the well known methods for determination of energy saving due to the partial traction engines cut-off based on their comparison to efficiency coefficient or to the power of energy losses do not allow objective estimation of efficiency of these measures and in a number of cases result in erroneous results and errors. The search for new more advanced methods for determination of energy saving at the partial cut-off of the traction engines is needed. Methodology. The method of calculation determination of energy saving when partial cutting-off of the traction engines is offered. It is based on the use of rationality coefficient as the loading mode of the electric power consumption for the measuring instrument of transportation activity. Findings. Using the given mathematical expressions it is possible to determine the energy saving in both the relative and absolute values and set the terms (motion speed and route gradient, under which the energy saving will take place. Originality. The method of the task solving, which is based on the evaluation of energy consumption differences for the compared variants (not on the comparison of efficiency coefficient or differences of power of energy losses is offered. Practical value. The given methodology allows obtaining more exact conclusions in relation to the electric power consumption, as the comparison of energy losses power or the efficiency coefficient does not determine precisely the electric power consumption for traction. Therefore the conclusions based on the comparison of power of energy losses or efficiency coefficient can appear inexact.

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERMITTENT PELVIC TRACTION VS INTERMITTENT PELVIC TRACTION WITH SELF NEURAL MOBILIZATION ON LOW BACK PAIN – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    S.Dinesh Kumar, MPT Sports

    2013-01-01

    Background:Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice.Very few author has so far documented the efficacy of self neural mobilization ,but no literature available SNMduring Intermittent Pelvic Traction. Hence to find out the effect of same this study is done.Materials andMethods:Pre & Post Test Experimental Design, Physiotherapy Out Patient Department, MADHA Medical Col-lege Hospital and Research Centre, Kundrathur – 600069.Participants and In...

  14. Evidence against the mucosal traction theory in cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauna, Henrique F; Monsanto, Rafael C; Schachern, Patricia; Paparella, Michael M; Chole, Richard A; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2017-10-08

    To investigate the distribution of ciliated epithelium in the human middle ear and its potential role in the formation of cholesteatoma. Comparative human temporal bone study. We selected temporal bones from 14 donors with a diagnosis of cholesteatoma, 15 with chronic otitis media without retraction pockets, 14 with chronic otitis media with retraction pockets, 14 with cystic fibrosis (CF), and 16 controls. We mapped the distribution of the ciliated cells in the mucosal lining of the middle ear and tympanic membrane using three-dimensional reconstruction analysis, and counted the number of ciliated cells in the middle ear mucosa. Ciliated cells are extremely sparse in the epithelial lining of the lateral surface of the ossicles in the epitympanum and the medial surface of the tympanic membrane. Furthermore, there is a significant decrease in the number of ciliated cells in these areas in temporal bones with cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media, chronic otitis media with retraction pockets, and CF compared to controls. Ciliated cells most commonly are located at the hypotympanum and the Eustachian tube opening but not the tympanic membrane or epitympanum. The paucity of ciliated epithelial cells on the medial side of the tympanic membrane and the lateral surface of the ossicles in the epitympanum in cases with cholesteatoma and/or chronic otitis media do not support the mucosal migration theory of cholesteatoma formation. NA. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  16. A cost analysis of three methods of treating femoral shaft fractures in children: a comparison of traction in hospital, traction in hospital/home and external fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Hanne; Borgquist, Lars; Larsson, Sune

    2004-06-01

    There is no consensus as to which is best treatment of femoral fractures in children. We performed a cost analysis comparing three treatments of femoral shaft fractures in children aged 3-15 years at 3 hospitals during the same period (1993-2000). The analysis included total medical costs and costs for the care provider and were calculated from the time of injury up to 1 year. At hospital 1, treatment consisted of external fixation and early mobilization. At hospital 2, the treatment was skin or skeletal traction in hospital for 1-2 weeks, followed by home traction. At hospital 3, treatment was skin or skeletal traction in hospital until the fracture healed. The average total costs per patient were EUR 10,000 at hospital 1, EUR 23,000 at hospital 2, and EUR 38,000 at hospital 3. The main factor for determining the cost of treatment was the number of days in hospital, which was lower in children treated with external fixation.

  17. Isotope separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.

  18. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.G.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  19. A prospective study of pain reduction and knee dysfunction comparing femoral skeletal traction and splinting in adult trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpass, David B; Ricci, William M; McAndrew, Christopher M; Gardner, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    To determine if distal femoral traction pins result in knee dysfunction in patients with femoral or pelvic fracture, and to determine if skeletal traction relieves pain more effectively than splinting for femoral shaft fractures. Prospective cohort trial. Level I urban trauma center. One hundred twenty adult patients with femoral shaft, acetabular, and unstable pelvic fractures. Patients with femoral shaft fractures were placed into distal femoral skeletal traction or a long-leg splint, based on an attending-specific protocol. Patients with pelvic or acetabular fractures with instability or intraarticular bone fragments were placed into skeletal traction. An initial Lysholm knee survey was administered to assess preinjury knee pain and function; the survey was repeated at 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. Also, a 10-point visual analog scale was used to document pain immediately before, during, and immediately after fracture immobilization with traction or splinting. Thirty-five patients (29%) were immobilized with a long-leg splint, and 85 (71%) were immobilized with a distal femoral traction pin. Eighty-four patients (70%) completed a 6-month follow-up. Lysholm scores decreased by a mean 9.3 points from preinjury baseline to 6 months postinjury in the entire cohort (P traction pin groups. During application of immobilization, visual analog scale pain scores were significantly lower in traction patients as compared with splinted patients (mean, 1.9 points less, P Traction pins caused no infections, neurovascular injuries, or iatrogenic fractures. Distal femoral skeletal traction does not result in detectable knee dysfunction at 6 months after insertion, and results in less pain during and after immobilization than long-leg splinting. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. BACKGROUNDS OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY OF TRACTION ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC DRIVES IN THE STRUCTURE OF DC TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. S. Bondarenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Application of physical modeling as a tool for research of any events or systems is becoming more widespread, including the field of railway transport. At the same time the adequacy of results that can be obtained, depends largely on the similarity degree of the physical model to real system. From the standpoint of the traction asynchronous electric drive (TAED research together with the traction power supply system research, the similarity can not be determined by the direct proportion of the parameters, because the processes nature accompanying the operation of these systems is non-linear. These features should be taken into account in the experimental setup, the basis for constructing of which is establishing of the system similarity that defines the purpose of this paper. Methodology. At the heart of the experimental setup creation laid reproduction of processes of energy transformation in the system of the DC traction power supply. Determination of the similarity degree of the proposed facility to the real system was carried out using the basic theorems of the similarity theory, their additional provisions on the complexity and nonlinear systems, as well as elements of mathematical analysis. Findings. According to the results of work: 1 The block diagram, the energy conversion mechanism of which is similar to the real system was received. This scheme is the basis of experimental setup, built in the future for the study of electromagnetic compatibility of TAED in the structure of DC traction electric power supply system. 2 Similarity of obtained structural scheme with the real system with the mechanism definition of calculating the scaling relations was established. Originality. In the process of establishing the similarity a simplified method for determining the scaling relations for nonlinear systems was suggested. They are identical in their structure components, but have different capacities. Practical value. Experimental

  1. MUPET-Mouse Ultrasonic Profile ExTraction: A Signal Processing Tool for Rapid and Unsupervised Analysis of Ultrasonic Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Segbroeck, Maarten; Knoll, Allison T; Levitt, Pat; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2017-05-03

    Vocalizations play a significant role in social communication across species. Analyses in rodents have used a limited number of spectro-temporal measures to compare ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which limits the ability to address repertoire complexity in the context of behavioral states. Using an automated and unsupervised signal processing approach, we report the development of MUPET (Mouse Ultrasonic Profile ExTraction) software, an open-access MATLAB tool that provides data-driven, high-throughput analyses of USVs. MUPET measures, learns, and compares syllable types and provides an automated time stamp of syllable events. Using USV data from a large mouse genetic reference panel and open-source datasets produced in different social contexts, MUPET analyzes the fine details of syllable production and repertoire use. MUPET thus serves as a new tool for USV repertoire analyses, with the capability to be adapted for use with other species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distributed Active Traction Control System Applied to the RoboCup Middle Size League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Almeida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the problem of traction control in mobile wheeled robots in the particular case of the RoboCup Middle Size League (MSL. The slip control problem is formulated using simple friction models for ISePorto Team Robots with a differential wheel configuration. Traction was also characterized experimentally in the MSL scenario for relevant game events. This work proposes a hierarchical traction control architecture which relies on local slip detection and control at each wheel, with relevant information being relayed to a higher level responsible for global robot motion control. A dedicated one axis control embedded hardware subsystem allowing complex local control, high frequency current sensing and odometric information procession was developed. This local axis control board is integrated in a distributed system using CAN bus communications. The slipping observer was implemented in the axis control hardware nodes integrated in the ISePorto Robots and was used to control and detect loss of traction. An external vision system was used to perform a qualitative analysis of the slip detection and observer performance results are presented.

  3. traction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Jou.

  4. traction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Journal.

  5. Operation analysis of AC traction motors in terms of electromagnetic torque capability on sustainable railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulucea Cornelia A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable operation of electric railway systems represents a significant purpose nowadays in the development of high power and high speed locomotives and trains. At present, high speed electric vehicles mostly work with three-phase induction motors or three-phase synchronous motors as traction motors. The two electric machine types have different efficiencies at different operation points, and experience differences with respect to safety, speed and power, energy use and exergy efficiency. An important issue that correlates these aspects is the electromagnetic torque developed by an electric traction motor. In order to provide an overview of the technical performance of the operation of sustainable railway systems, a detailed analysis is carried out of the electromagnetic torque capability of AC electric motors utilized as traction motors in modern locomotives of high power and/or high speed. The results of this work may help in enhancing the main criteria for optimising the safe and sustainable operation of electric railway traction systems.

  6. Removing the specimen with traction during robotic radical prostatectomy does not cause a positive surgical margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınova, Serkan; İşgören, Abidin Egemen; Akbulut, Ziya; Özcan, Muhammet Fuat; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to gauge whether removal of a specimen with traction during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy causes a positive surgical margin or not. One hundred and sixty-nine patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy from 2009 to 2011 were included in the study. After dividing the patients into two groups, we recorded their characteristics and pre-op/post-op evaluations. There were 111 and 58 patients in groups 1 (with traction) and 2 (without traction), respectively. We evaluated the patients' ages, follow-up time, body mass index (BMI), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values, pre-op and post-op Gleason score values, pathological stage, positive surgical margin rates, and biochemical PSA recurrence rates. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for age, pre-op PSA values, BMI, pre-op and post-op Gleason scores, positive surgical margin rates and biochemical recurrence rates. There was a significant difference between prostate weight, tumor volume, and clinical stage. Removing the specimen with traction during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy does not cause a positive surgical margin. The incision should be as small as possible for cosmetic appearance.

  7. Analysis and Comparison of Modular Railway Power Conditioner for High-Speed Railway Traction System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qianming; Ma, Fujun; He, Zhixing

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern electrified railway, negative sequence current (NSC) minimization is one of the most important considerations in the high-speed railway traction system. In the past, many multiple or multilevel topologies with high compensation capacity have been introduced fo...

  8. Performance Availability Assessment of Combined Multi Power Source Traction Drive Considering Real Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenkel Ilia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the vehicle’s traction electric drive, consisting of several various electric power sources. One of the main requirements for such systems are the safety and sustainable operations, achieved largely the implementation of an uninterrupted supply of the vehicle’s propulsion system with an electric power.

  9. Wavelet Entropy-Based Traction Inverter Open Switch Fault Diagnosis in High-Speed Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keting Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a diagnosis plan is proposed to settle the detection and isolation problem of open switch faults in high-speed railway traction system traction inverters. Five entropy forms are discussed and compared with the traditional fault detection methods, namely, discrete wavelet transform and discrete wavelet packet transform. The traditional fault detection methods cannot efficiently detect the open switch faults in traction inverters because of the low resolution or the sudden change of the current. The performances of Wavelet Packet Energy Shannon Entropy (WPESE, Wavelet Packet Energy Tsallis Entropy (WPETE with different non-extensive parameters, Wavelet Packet Energy Shannon Entropy with a specific sub-band (WPESE3,6, Empirical Mode Decomposition Shannon Entropy (EMDESE, and Empirical Mode Decomposition Tsallis Entropy (EMDETE with non-extensive parameters in detecting the open switch fault are evaluated by the evaluation parameter. Comparison experiments are carried out to select the best entropy form for the traction inverter open switch fault detection. In addition, the DC component is adopted to isolate the failure Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT. The simulation experiments show that the proposed plan can diagnose single and simultaneous open switch faults correctly and timely.

  10. Preoperative position splint versus skin traction in patients with hip fracture: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Betul; Aslan, Ozlem; Tunay, Servet

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a preoperative position splint and skin traction on pain, comfort, complications, and satisfaction with the treatment and care for patients with hip fracture. This randomized trial was conducted with a total of 68 patients with hip fracture in a tertiary care hospital in Turkey. Preoperatively, a position splint was applied to the patients in the intervention group (n = 34) and skin traction was applied to patients (n = 34) in the control group. Outcomes studied were pain, comfort, satisfaction and complications. Mann-Whitney U Test showed a significant difference between the position splint group and skin traction group regarding pain severity after the application (p < .05). A significant difference was demonstrated between the two groups concerning comfort levels after the application (p < .05). The position splint group was significantly more satisfied with the treatment and care than the control group in the later period after the application (p < .05). The number of preoperative complications in the position splint group was significantly fewer than that of the skin traction group in the preoperative period (p < .05). Preoperative position splint application in patients with hip fracture relieved pain and complications and increased comfort and satisfaction with treatment and care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of oxen yoke and donkey collar on traction force and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The realization of mechanized zaï with draft animal encounters the weakness of hitch traction capabilities. To overcome this issue, a study was conducted in three villages in the northern Burkina Faso with the aim at evaluating the effect of improved yoke and improved collar respectively with oxen and donkey harnessing on ...

  12. Quantifying the Traction Force of a Single Cell by Aligned Silicon Nanowire Array

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhou

    2009-10-14

    The physical behaviors of stationary cells, such as the morphology, motility, adhesion, anchorage, invasion and metastasis, are likely to be important for governing their biological characteristics. A change in the physical properties of mammalian cells could be an indication of disease. In this paper, we present a silicon-nanowire-array based technique for quantifying the mechanical behavior of single cells representing three distinct groups: normal mammalian cells, benign cells (L929), and malignant cells (HeLa). By culturing the cells on top of NW arrays, the maximum traction forces of two different tumor cells (HeLa, L929) have been measured by quantitatively analyzing the bending of the nanowires. The cancer cell exhibits a larger traction force than the normal cell by ∼20% for a HeLa cell and ∼50% for a L929 cell. The traction forces have been measured for the L929 cells and mechanocytes as a function of culture time. The relationship between cells extending area and their traction force has been investigated. Our study is likely important for studying the mechanical properties of single cells and their migration characteristics, possibly providing a new cellular level diagnostic technique. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. The bond-graph design of a motor used for electrical traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the asynchronous motorwith cage, used for electrical traction is studied andanalyzed. For this motor we realized the associatedbond-graph, we pointed out the equations thatdescribe this motor, and we analyzed the electricaland mechanical features of this motor, by using thesimulation program 20 SIM, in order to improve theperformances of this motor even from the early stageof design.

  14. Promising results after vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleif, Jakob; Fabricius, Rasmus; Bertelsen, Claus Anders

    2012-01-01

    -mediated fascial traction (VAWCM) is a novel technique recently introduced for late fascial closure of the OA. In previous studies, the disease aetiologies were mainly vascular and visceral surgical disease and trauma. We report our results using VAWCM in a non-trauma patient population treated with an OA due...

  15. [Observation on therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture under continuous traction for treatment of lumbar disc herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Yang, Ai-tang; Dai, Mei-tang; Fu, Qin-li

    2009-12-01

    To observe the clinical effect of electroacupuncture under continuous traction in prone position for treatment of lumbar disc herniation, to search a better clinical treatment for lumbar disc herniation. The patients were randomly divided into group A (42 cases), group B (39 cases) and group C (38 cases). The acupuncture methods of three groups were the same, Jiaji (EX B 2), Weizhong (BL 40) and Chengshan (BL 57) etc. were selected, and the electroacupuncture was applied as a basic treatment. Continuous traction in prone position and electroacupuncture treatment were used at the same time in group A, group B was treated with supine position traction first and then electroacupuncture treatment, while group C was treated with electroacupuncture only, the therapeutic effects were observed and compared. The effective rate of 95.2% in group A was superior to that of 79.5% in group B and 65.8% in group C (P traction in prone position is a better treatment for lumbar disc herniation.

  16. [Mobilization and traction therapy for lumbar dorsopathies in obese individuals working in sedentary conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, V A; Strepetov, O M; Gerasomenko, O N

    2014-01-01

    Obese individuals working in sedentary conditions, if having neurologic symptoms in lumbar dorsopathies, when subjected to mobilization and traction therapy in rehabilitation complex, demonstrated less pain, increased spine mobility and prospective observations proved longer clinical remission, if compared to standard treatment.

  17. Linear booster designs for electric traction; Lineare Booster-Konzepte fuer die elektrische Traktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt, Inst. fuer Elektrische Energiewandlung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hofmann, M. [Shanghai Maglev Transrapid Project, Shanghai, SH (China); Werle, T. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    With electric traction based on the wheel-rail system tractive effort transmission depends on adhesion conditions in wheel contact points, bad rail conditions reducing transmissable tractive effort. Different booster designs can generate additional effort components thus compensating tractive effort loss. (orig.)

  18. Skull traction for cervical spinal injury in Enugu: A 5‑year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-05

    Nov 5, 2015 ... Background: Treatment of cervical spine injury is the most challenging of all the injuries of the spine, and there is yet no agreement on the best method of care. Objective: We studied the complications and outcome of two skull traction devices used to treat cases of cervical spine injury in three centers in ...

  19. Infection of the fracture hematoma from skeletal traction in an asymptomatic HIV-positive patient

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Sven; Beniyasi, Fletcher J; Munthali, Boston; Banza, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    ... broken down. As would be the case for femoral fractures in most hospitals in the region, proximal tibial skeletal traction was applied. The brachial plexus injury was treated with a sling only. Figure 1. The day after admission to hospital. At KCH, more often than not, the lack of films and chemicals prevents getting a second view. Th...

  20. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF OPERATING MODES OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS WITH THE TRACTION LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Bondarenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative scenarios of reliable energy supply of transportation process aimed at reducing the specific energy consumption and increase energy efficiency of the systems of electric traction. The paper suggests innovative energy saving directions in traction networks of railways and new circuit solutions accessing traction substations in energy systems networks, ensure energy security of the transportation process. To ensure the energy security of rail transport special schemes were developed to propose the concept of external power traction substations, which would increase the number of connections to the networks of 220 – 330 kV, as well as the creation of transport and energy corridors, development of its own supply of electric networks of 110 kV substations and mobile RP-110 kV of next generation. Therefore, the investment program of the structures owned by the Ukrainian Railways (Ukrzaliznytsia need to be synchronized in their technological characteristics, as well as the criteria of reliability and quality of power supply with the same external energy investment programs. It is found that without any load on left or right supplying arm one of two less loaded phases of traction transformer begins generating specific modes in the supplying three-phase line. Thus, modes of mobile substation cause leakage in one of the phases of the supply line of traction transformers of active-capacitive current, and as a result generating energy in the main power line of 154 kV, which is fixed and calculated by electricity meters. For these three phase mode supply network is necessary to use 1st algorithm, i.e. taking into account the amount of electricity as the energy in all phases. For effective application of reactive power compensation devices in the AC traction power supply systems it is proposed to develop regulatory documentation on necessity of application and the order of choice of parameters and placement of compensation systems taking into

  1. J-splint use for temporizing management of pediatric femur fractures: a review of 18 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterman, Scott A; Daniels, Alan H; Kane, Patrick M; Eberson, Craig P; Born, Christopher T

    2014-08-01

    Pediatric femoral fractures are common injuries encountered in the field and in emergency departments. Currently described temporizing management strategies include skeletal traction, skin traction, traction splinting, and posterior splinting, all of which are suboptimal in some instances. J-splinting femur fractures may be advantageous in temporizing management of pediatric femur fractures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of J-splint use for temporizing management of pediatric femur fractures. This study used a retrospective review of 18 pediatric patients with femur fractures treated with J-splinting in the emergency department. Patient age, weight, and presplinting and postsplinting pain scale ratings were recorded, as well as presplint and postsplint anteroposterior and lateral radiographic fracture angulation. Pain before and after J-splinting was compared using a paired t test. The mean age of this cohort was 5.4 years (range, 6 months-13 y), with a mean weight of 21.1 kg (range, 7.7-57 kg). In this cohort, there was a significant reduction in pain after reduction and splinting from a mean of 6 to a mean of 1 (P < 0.001). No significant difference in fracture alignment was noted after J-splinting. No complications were noted. The J-splint is a reliable, simple, and rapidly applied splint that prevents many of the complications and downfalls of other described temporizing measures and helps to provide excellent pain management in the acute setting.

  2. Abnormal traction of the vitreous detected by swept-source optical coherence tomography is related to the maculopathy associated with optic disc pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Tadashi; Nakayama, Yuri; Nishina, Sachiko; Azuma, Noriyuki

    2016-04-01

    Maculopathy associated with optic disc pits (ODP), which sometimes causes severe visual loss, usually appears in late childhood or early adulthood. However, it has long been unclear how the disease begins to develop at these ages. We evaluated the relationship between vitreous structure and maculopathy associated with ODP. Six patients (seven eyes) with ODP were diagnosed between July 1990 and May 2013. Fundus photographs and swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images were evaluated retrospectively, and the vitreous at the vitreoretinal interface was visualized by reconstructing three-dimensional SS-OCT images. Vitrectomy was performed in the eyes with maculopathy. Among the six patients, five had ODP in one eye each and one patient had bilateral ODP. The pits were mainly located in the temporal quadrant, and maculopathy, including retinoschisis and retinal detachment, was detected in five eyes associated only with the temporal pits. A flat retinal detachment was observed in four eyes and identified within the vascular arcade except in one eye. A posterior precortical vitreous pocket (PPVP) was observed in all eyes except in one eye without maculopathy. Reconstructing images from SS-OCT showed the vitreoretinal interface abnormalities around the optic disc and the macular area in all eyes, which was completely different from the vitreoretinal interface in the normal pediatric eye. Vitrectomy was performed in four eyes with retinal detachment to resect the abnormal vitreous traction. Posterior vitreous detachment was created in two eyes. Retinal reattachment was achieved in three eyes, and subretinal fluid receded in one eye. The visual acuity improved in all four eyes. Abnormal traction of the vitreous due to an abnormality of the vitreoretinal interface, which may be strengthened by the development of a PPVP, generates the maculopathy associated with ODP.

  3. ELECTRODYNAMICS OF TRANSMISSION AND LOSSES OF POWER IN THE DEVICES OF ELECTRIC TRACTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Theoretical justification of the "field" approach (based on electromagnetic field to the transmission and losses of power in the devices of traction power supply systems and electric rolling stock. Methodology. The methods of electromagnetic field theory and, in particular, the theory and practice of electromagnetic energy transmission based on the concept of the Poynting vector and elements of the theory of propagation, reflection and refraction of plane electromagnetic waves were used. Findings. Theoretical studies of electromagnetic energy transmission from the traction substation to the electric rolling stock through dielectric (air surrounding traction network: between the contact wire and the rail were carried out. It is proposed strategic designing "squat" (low types of electric rolling stock. The components of electric energy flow through the roof of electric rolling stock and its frontal part of the body were estimated. This allows reliable etimating active power losses in electric traction system. To compensate the reactive power consumed by electric rolling stock, which is conditioned by standing waves, it is proposed (for extinction of the the last to develop and put in front of electric rolling stock the layer of particular environment with the necessary parameters. Originality. The "field" principle of the power transmission analysis and its losses arising in electric traction system was first proposed. The laws of motion of electromagnetic energy flows through the roof and the frontal part of the body of electric rolling stock were established. Practical value. An expression of the absolute value of the Poynting vector in the points of dielectric (air between the contact wire and the rail was obtained. This allows assessing the highest density of energy, which is transferred to the time unit and predicting the main dimensions of the unit of electric rolling stock. The energy indices of the roof of electric rolling stock

  4. Efficacy of the technique of piezoelectric corticotomy for orthodontic traction of impacted mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhigui; Xu, Guangzhou; Yang, Chi; Xie, Qianyang; Shen, Yuqing; Zhang, Shanyong

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess the efficacy of piezoelectric corticotomy for orthodontic traction of mandibular third molars close to the inferior alveolar nerve. Thirty patients with impacted third molars close to the nerve were included in the study, 15 of whom were treated with conventional orthodontic traction and 15 with piezoelectric corticotomy. We recorded duration of treatment including exposure and orthodontic traction, and time to the final extraction. Postoperative complications including trismus, swelling, and pain were also noted. Alveolar bone levels mesial and distal to the second molars were evaluated on cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) images. Student's t test was used to assess the significance of differences between the groups. After orthodontic treatments all impacted third molars were successfully removed from the inferior alveolar nerve without neurological damage. The mean (SD) duration of surgical exposure in the piezoelectric corticotomy group was significantly longer than that in the conventional group (p=0.01). The mean (SD) duration of traction was 4 (2.3) months after piezoelectric corticotomy, much shorter than the 7.5 (1.3) months in the conventional group (p=0.03). There were no significant differences in postoperative complications between the groups. There was a significant increase in the distal alveolar height of second molars after treatment in both groups (ppiezoelectric corticotomy allows more efficient and faster traction of third molars with a close relation between the root and the inferior alveolar nerve, although it took longer than the traditional technique. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitreomacular traction as a consequence of posterior hyaloidal contraction after transpupillary thermotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Amir H; Aaberg, Thomas M; Capone, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    To describe the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients in whom vitreomacular traction evolved pursuant to treatment of choroidal melanoma with transpupillary thermotherapy. Retrospective, uncontrolled, observational, interventional case series. Vitreomacular traction with macular distortion, macular edema, and vision loss developed in 6 eyes of 6 patients after successful transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal melanoma. Clinical examination, fluorescein angiography, fundus photography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed. Symptomatic patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Primary outcome measures include visual acuity and resolution of macular distortion by clinical examination, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, or both. In all 6 patients, the malignant lesions were treated successfully. The posterior hyaloid was attached in all eyes before transpupillary thermotherapy. All eyes demonstrated focal hyaloidal contraction and vitreomacular traction between the transpupillary thermotherapy scar and the macula. Mean time from transpupillary thermotherapy to PPV for treatment of vitreomacular traction was 23 ± 18 months. Mean length of follow-up was 11 months. Mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution visual acuity before transpupillary thermotherapy was 0.23 ± 0.38. Mean visual acuity after transpupillary thermotherapy was 0.53 ± 0.42. Mean visual acuity before membrane peel was 0.65 ± 0.34. Mean visual acuity after membrane peel was 0.44 ± 0.21. All patients undergoing PPV showed visual improvement. Hyaloidal contraction can occur after transpupillary thermotherapy and is a reversible cause of vision loss. The mechanism of vision loss resulting from hyaloidal contraction is flat vitreomacular traction. PPV and membrane peeling are effective in improving macular anatomic features and visual function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of lumbar traction with routine conservative treatment in acute herniated disc syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanatharn, Rattana; Sanjaroensuttikul, Nopawan; Anadirekkul, Preeyanuch; Chaivisate, Rungtip; Wannasetta, Wanthanee

    2004-09-01

    To assess the effectiveness of lumbar traction with routine conservative treatment in acute herniated disc syndrome. Randomized double-blind controlled trial. Outpatient clinic of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 120 participants who met the diagnostic criteria of acute herniated disc syndrome were randomized into two groups. The study group received treated traction, and the control group received sham traction. All patients had routine conservative treatments (consisting of NSAIDs, instruction of proper back activity and precaution, back exercise, and heat modality). The main outcome measurement was the Oswestry score, which was collected on the first day and at the 4th week of the treatment. At the end of the study, all patients recorded global improvement and satisfaction. Of 120 patients divided into two groups equally, 12 and 6 cases in the control and intervention groups dropped out of the study. The mean (SD) change of the Oswestry score were 19.25 (15.9) and 25.25 (16.68) in control and intervention groups respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups with the p-value of 0.067 and 95%CI of - 0.42-12.43. Approximately 89% of patients in each group had improvement of their symptoms, and 90% in each group were satisfied with lumbar traction. Co-intervention with heat modality, NSAIDs use and back exercise did not differ between the two groups. The data do not support the benefit of traction for patients with acute herniated disc syndrome. The patient can be conservatively treated at home with proper instruction.

  7. Changes in sagittal lumbar configuration with a new method of extension traction: nonrandomized clinical controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Deed E; Cailliet, Rene; Harrison, Donald D; Janik, Tadeusz J; Holland, Burt

    2002-11-01

    To determine if a new method of lumbar extension traction can increase lordosis in chronic low back pain (LBP) subjects with decreased lordosis. Nonrandomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3 months and 1(1/2) years. Primary care spine clinic in Nevada. Beginning in mid-1998, the first 48 consecutive patients, who met the inclusion criteria of chronic LBP with decreased lordosis and who completed the treatment program were matched for sex, age, height, weight, and pain scores to 30 control subjects with chronic LBP, who received no treatment. A new form of 3-point bending lumbar extension traction was provided in-office 3 to 4 times a week for 12+/-4 weeks. Per session, traction duration was started at 3 minutes and was increased to a maximum of 20 minutes. For short-term pain relief, torsion lumbar spinal manipulation was provided in the initial 3 weeks. Pain as measured on a visual analog scale (VAS) and standing lateral lumbar radiographic measurements. Pain scales and radiographic measurements did not change in the control subjects. In the traction group, VAS ratings decreased from mean +/- standard deviation of 4.4+/-1.9 pretreatment to 0.6+/-0.9 posttreatment (Plumbar extension traction is the first nonsurgical rehabilitative procedure to show increases in lumbar lordosis in chronic LBP subjects with hypolordosis. The fact that there was no change in control subjects' lumbar lordosis indicates the stability of the lumbar lordosis and the repeatability of x-ray procedures. Because, on average, chronic LBP patients have hypolordosis, additional randomized trials should be performed to evaluate the clinical significance of restoration of the lumbar lordosis in chronic LBP subjects. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  8. The biomechanics of gravity-dependent traction of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, A W; Kerkow, T A; Griffiths, H J; Sparrow, E M; Iaizzo, P A

    1997-02-01

    This study evaluated the biomechanical responses evoked by the use of a gravity-dependent, self-operated traction device. These responses were determined by radiographs and were correlated with the body weight of the patient who was supported by a seat strap. To examine the biomechanical effectiveness of the LTX 3000 Lumbar Rehabilitation System. The LTX 3000 Lumbar Rehabilitation System (Spinal Designs International, Minneapolis, MN) was used to administer the lumbar fraction. No previous study has been conducted on this device. For each of the 14 healthy male patients (age range, 19-69 years), lumbar lengthening, alterations in spinal curvature, and thoracic spine movement were assessed using radiographs taken: 1) before traction; 2) at 2, 10, and 15 minutes after the onset of traction; and 3) 2 minutes after traction was completed. Strain on the buttocks-supporting seat strap was recorded continuously during study sessions. The entire patient pool displayed an average maximal lumbar lengthening of 6.39 +/- 4.21 mm. The amount of lumbar lengthening was influenced by the degree of thoracic immobilization and by the amount of prior LTX 3000 (Spinal Designs International) use. Significant curvature reduction was observed during and after traction for the entire patient pool. Strain measurements correlated well with the measured response in the radiographs. Proper use of the LTX 3000 (Spinal Designs International) induces significant lumbar lengthening and curvature reduction in healthy patients. Measurements of body weight supported by the seat strap could help determine if thoracic immobilization has been achieved and if the patient is responding to the lumbar unloading.

  9. Posterior-only surgery with preoperative skeletal traction for management of severe scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Saeedreza; Sorbi, Reza; Rezaei, Reza; Mazda, Keyvan

    2017-04-01

    The surgical treatment of severe adolescent spinal deformities is challenging and carries substantial risks of mortality and morbidity. To mitigate this risk, surgeons have employed various methods as this study designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of preoperative halo-femoral or halo gravity traction (HGT) followed by posterior-only surgery in the management of severe scoliosis. A total number of 23 patients with severe scoliosis treated by preoperative skeletal traction (halo gravity or halo femoral) followed by posterior fusion and instrumentation in one stage. All patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years after surgery. The average age of the patients was 12.7 years at the time of surgery. Mean of the Cobb angle improved from 99.9° ± 8.2° preoperatively to 75.3° ± 8° post-traction and 49.5° ± 7.7° postoperatively. Kyphosis angle corrected from 56.4° ± 9.5° to 38.6° ± 5.8°. The preop-FVC% was 41 ± 6.1% and after 1 year follow-up FVC% was 45.7 ± 7.7%. No patients required an anterior release due to amount of their deformity. Despite the benefits of modern instrumentation procedures, the treatment of severe scoliosis can be very competing. We think that by applying preoperative halo femoral traction and halo-gravity traction, managing severe scoliosis will be in safe and easy manner and can lead to better deformity correction and less neurological complications and facilitate to avoid anterior operation for severe scoliosis and its related complications.

  10. HRS Separator

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 90 and 60 degree ISOLDE HRS separator magnets in the HRS separator zone. In the two vacuum sectors HRS20 and HRS30 equipment such as the HRS slits SL240, the HRS faraday cup FC300 and wiregrid WG210 can be spotted. Vacuum valves, turbo pumps, beamlines, quadrupoles, water and compressed air connections, DC and signal cabling can be seen throughout the video. The HRS main and user beamgate in the beamline between MAG90 and MAG60 and its switchboxes as well as all vacuum bellows and flanges are shown. Instrumentation such as the HRS scanner unit 482 / 483, the HRS WG470 wiregrid and slits piston can be seen. The different quadrupoles and supports are shown as well as the RILIS guidance tubes and installation at the magnets and the different radiation monitors.

  11. GPS Separator

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 70 degree ISOLDE GPS separator magnet MAG70 as well as the switchyard for the Central Mass and GLM (GPS Low Mass) and GHM (GPS High Mass) beamlines in the GPS separator zone. In the GPS20 vacuum sector equipment such as the long GPS scanner 482 / 483 unit, faraday cup FC 490, vacuum valves and wiregrid piston WG210 and WG475 and radiation monitors can also be seen. Also the RILIS laser guidance and trajectory can be seen, the GPS main beamgate switch box and the actual GLM, GHM and Central Beamline beamgates in the beamlines as well as the first electrostatic quadrupoles for the GPS lines. Close up of the GHM deflector plates motor and connections and the inspection glass at the GHM side of the switchyard.

  12. Separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leslie S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  13. Decoupling Substrate Stiffness, Spread Area, and Micropost Density: A Close Spatial Relationship between Traction Forces and Focal Adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangyoon J.; Bielawski, Kevin S.; Ting, Lucas H.; Rodriguez, Marita L.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical cues can influence the manner in which cells generate traction forces and form focal adhesions. The stiffness of a cell’s substrate and the available area on which it can spread can influence its generation of traction forces, but to what extent these factors are intertwined is unclear. In this study, we used microcontact printing and micropost arrays to control cell spreading, substrate stiffness, and post density to assess their effect on traction forces and focal adhesions. We find that both the spread area and the substrate stiffness influence traction forces in an independent manner, but these factors have opposite effects: cells on stiffer substrates produce higher average forces, whereas cells with larger spread areas generate lower average forces. We show that post density influences the generation of traction forces in a manner that is more dominant than the effect of spread area. Additionally, we observe that focal adhesions respond to spread area, substrate stiffness, and post density in a manner that closely matches the trends seen for traction forces. This work supports the notion that traction forces and focal adhesions have a close relationship in their response to mechanical cues. PMID:22947925

  14. Skeletal traction versus external fixation for pediatric femoral shaft fractures: a comparison of hospital costs and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nork, S E; Hoffinger, S A

    1998-01-01

    To compare the hospital costs, charges, and reimbursement for treatment of pediatric femur fractures by two treatment methods: external fixation and 90-90 traction with spica casting. Retrospective clinical review. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children's Hospital Oakland, regional pediatric trauma center. Twenty-nine consecutive patients between the ages of five and ten with a fracture of the femoral shaft were treated by one of two methods: external fixation (sixteen patients) or 90-90 skeletal traction followed by spica casting (thirteen patients). External fixation or 90-90 traction followed by spica casting. Hospital billing data including costs, charges, reimbursement for the initial inpatient hospitalization, and outpatient financial data until fracture union and cessation of treatment. There was no difference in age, total treatment time, mechanism of injury, or number of associated injuries between the two groups. The average charge for treatment with skeletal traction and spica casting was $32,094 per patient versus $21,439 for external fixation (p traction and spica casting was $22,396 per patient versus $11,520 for external fixation (p traction group than for the external fixation group (22.3 days versus 4.7 days, p skeletal traction followed by spica casting.

  15. Study of the asynchronous traction drive's operating modes by computer simulation. Part 1: Problem formulation and computer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel KOLPAHCHYAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problems arising from the design of electric locomotives with asynchronous traction drive (with three-phase AC induction motors are considered as including the debugging of control algorithms. The electrical circuit provides the individual (by axle control of traction motors. This allows realizing the operational disconnection/connection of one or more axles in the automatic mode, with account of actual load. In perspective, the evaluation of locomotive's energy efficiency at the realization of various control algorithms must be obtained. Another objective is to research the dynamic processes in various modes of the electric locomotive operation (start and acceleration, traction regime, coasting movement, wheel-slide protection, etc. To solve these problems, a complex computer model based on the representation of AC traction drive as controlled electromechanical system, is developed in Part 1. The description of methods applied in modeling of traction drive elements (traction motors, power converters, control systems, as well as of mechanical part and of "wheel-rail" contact, is given. The control system provides the individual control of the traction motors. Part 2 of the paper focuses on the results of dynamic processes modeling in various modes of electric locomotive operation.

  16. Diagnostic performance of direct traction MR arthrography of the hip: detection of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmaranzer, Florian; Klauser, Andrea; Henninger, Benjamin [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Kogler, Michael; Schmaranzer, Ehrenfried [District Hospital St. Johann in Tyrol, Department of Radiology, St. Johann in Tyrol (Austria); Forstner, Thomas [Johannes Keppler University, Department for Applied Systems Research and Statistics, Linz (Austria); Reichkendler, Markus [District Hospital St. Johann in Tyrol, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, St. Johann in Tyrol (Austria)

    2015-06-01

    To assess diagnostic performance of traction MR arthrography of the hip in detection and grading of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison. Seventy-five MR arthrograms obtained ± traction of 73 consecutive patients (mean age, 34.5 years; range, 14-54 years) who underwent arthroscopy were included. Traction technique included weight-adapted traction (15-23 kg), a supporting plate for the contralateral leg, and intra-articular injection of 18-27 ml (local anaesthetic and contrast agent). Patients reported on neuropraxia and on pain. Two blinded readers independently assessed femoroacetabular cartilage and labrum lesions which were correlated with arthroscopy. Interobserver agreement was calculated using κ values. Joint distraction ± traction was evaluated in consensus. No procedure had to be stopped. There were no cases of neuropraxia. Accuracy for detection of labral lesions was 92 %/93 %, 91 %/83 % for acetabular lesions, and 92 %/88 % for femoral cartilage lesions for reader 1/reader 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.58) for grading of labrum lesions and substantial (κ = 0.7, κ = 0.68) for grading of acetabular and femoral cartilage lesions. Joint distraction was achieved in 72/75 and 14/75 hips with/without traction, respectively. Traction MR arthrography safely enabled accurate detection and grading of labral and chondral lesions. (orig.)

  17. RATIONAL MODES DETERMINATION OF TRACTION MOTORS LOADING-BACK FOR ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK IN MAINLINE AND INDUSTRIAL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Loading-back systems are used for post-maintenance acceptance tests of electric traction motors of electric rolling stock (ERS in mainline and industrial transport. The aim of the research is justification of choice method of the rational loading-back parameters of traction electric motors during the tests for heating. Methodology. At the heart of the choice method justification of the rational loading-back parameters is a theory of heating the homogeneous solid body and well-known methods of heating calculations of traction electric machines. Findings. Expediency of heating tests for electric traction motors at load currents equal to the starting current (for ERS of mainline transport or fifteen minutes current (for ERS of industrial transport was substantiated. It was shown that this increase of load current will reduce the electricity costs of the tests for 20–30% and shorten the tests duration for three–four times while ensuring the corrected power minimum of energy sources in loading-back system. Originality. It is shown that the energy costs for heating tests of the traction motors can be reduced by both the increasing the energy efficiency of the loading-back system and by the optimizing of loading mode of traction electric machines. Choice technique of rational modes of loading-back for electric traction motors of rolling stock in mainline and industrial transport was grounded. Practical value. Load current increase of traction electric motors during their tests for heating will reduce the total electricity consumption for the acceptance tests, reduce test time and total material costs for repair of the electric traction motors of rolling stock in mainline and industrial transport.

  18. Modification of the SHABERTH bearing code to incorporate RP-1 and a discussion of the traction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Claudia M.

    1990-01-01

    Recently developed traction data for Rocket Propellant 1 (RP-1), a hydrocarbon fuel of the kerosene family, was used to develop the parameters needed by the bearing code SHABERTH in order to include RP-1 as a lubricant choice. The procedure for inputting data for a new lubricant choice is reviewed, and the theoretical fluid traction model is discussed. Comparisons are made between experimental traction data and those predicted by SHABERTH for RP-1. All data needed to modify SHABERTH for use with RP-1 as a lubricant are specified.

  19. Transient common peroneal nerve palsy following skeletal tibial traction in a morbidly obese patient - case report of a preventable complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liporace Frank A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today, skeletal tibial traction remains a mainstay of initial management following high-energy, major orthopaedic lower extremity trauma. Historically utilized as definitive fracture management, recent advances in surgical technology have moved skeletal tibial traction into the realm of temporary management, with benefits including fracture reduction, pain relief, and restoration of disturbed surrounding soft tissues, lowering wound complication and compartment syndrome rates. However, no procedure is without its risks. Here, we present a case of common peroneal palsy following skeletal tibial traction placement, which resolved with subsequent pin removal. Indications, proper placement, potential etiologies, and a review of the literature are also discussed.

  20. Transient common peroneal nerve palsy following skeletal tibial traction in a morbidly obese patient - case report of a preventable complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liporace, Frank A; Yoon, Richard S; Kesani, Anil K

    2012-02-21

    Today, skeletal tibial traction remains a mainstay of initial management following high-energy, major orthopaedic lower extremity trauma. Historically utilized as definitive fracture management, recent advances in surgical technology have moved skeletal tibial traction into the realm of temporary management, with benefits including fracture reduction, pain relief, and restoration of disturbed surrounding soft tissues, lowering wound complication and compartment syndrome rates. However, no procedure is without its risks. Here, we present a case of common peroneal palsy following skeletal tibial traction placement, which resolved with subsequent pin removal. Indications, proper placement, potential etiologies, and a review of the literature are also discussed.

  1. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  2. Flow Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    perfomanoas que oette oirconstance peut entrainer, soit encore, d’un point de vue plus fondamental par la recherche dM phenomknas qui caracterisent 1M...dtfoolleoent, dont le m^canlsme de formation eat en tout point sen- blable h celui qui a etc döcrit § 2.2. XL se caracterise par la presence d’une onde...during orbital maneuvers with the Reaction Control System (RCS) and later plume induced separation leading to aerodynamic heating and control problems

  3. Integrated Cooling System for Induction Motor Traction Drives, CARAT Program Phase Two Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Charles E. [VPT, Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2002-12-03

    This Program is directed toward improvements in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle traction systems, and in particular, the development of a low cost, highly efficient, compact traction motor-controller system targeted for high volume automotive use. Because of the complex inter-relationships between the motor and the controller, the combination of motor and controller must be considered as a system in the design and evaluation of overall cost and performance. The induction motor is ideally suited for use as a traction motor because of its basic ruggedness, low cost, and high efficiency. As one can see in Figure 1.1, the induction motor traction drive has been continually evolving through a succession of programs spanning the past fifteen years. VPT marketed an induction motor-based traction drive system, the EV2000, which proved to be a reliable, high performance system that was used in a wide range of vehicles. The EV2000 drives evolved from the Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) and has been used in vehicles ranging in size from 3,000 lb. autos and utility vans, to 32,000 lb. city transit buses. Vehicles powered by the EV2000 induction motor powertrain have accumulated over 2 million miles of service. The EV2000 induction motor system represents 1993 state-of-the-art technology, and evolved from earlier induction motor programs that drove induction motor speeds up to 15,000 rpm to reduce the motor size and cost. It was recognized that the improvements in power density and motor cost sought in the PNGV program could only be achieved through increases in motor speed. Esson’s Rule for motor power clearly states that the power obtainable from a given motor design is the product of motor speed and volume. In order to meet the CARAT Program objectives, the maximum speed goal of the induction motor designed in this Program was increased from 15,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm while maintaining the efficiency and durability demonstrated by lower speed designs done in

  4. Traction power supply of Oeresund railway link; Bahnenergieversorgung der Oeresundverbindung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bawer, A.; Larsson, K.; Urbanek, U. [Balfour Beatty Rail AB, Power Systems, Vaesterass (Sweden). Abt. Technik fuer Bahnstromversorgung; Schuette, T. [Balfour Beatty Rail AB, Power Systems, Vaesterass (Sweden). Abt. Technik fuer Bahnstromversorgung; Univ. Uppsala (Sweden). Inst. fuer Hochspannungsforschung

    2002-10-01

    The combined railway and road connection between Danmark and Sweden crossing the Oeresund demanded special solutions for catenary installations thus for the separation section between both networks. The line is supplied with 1 AC 25 kV 50 Hz from two substations one of them being equipped with harmonic filter. (orig.) [German] Die kombinierte Eisenbahn- und Strassenverbindung zwischen Daenemark und Schweden ueber den Oeresund erforderte Sonderloesungen fuer die Oberleitungsanlagen, so fuer die Trennstelle zwischen den beiden Bahnnetzen. Die Strecke wird aus zwei Unterwerken mit 1 AC 25 kV 50 Hz versorgt, davon eines mit einem Oberschwingungsfilter. (orig.)

  5. SELECTION OF RATIONAL PARAMETERS OF THE NOMINAL MODE ELECTRIC TRAINS WITH ASYNCHRONOUS TRACTION DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Hetman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Parameters of the nominal mode are related to the most important performance indicators of traction means, therefore, the problems of choosing their optimal values always inevitably arise when forming technical requirements for a new rolling stock. The paper describes the features of solving the above-mentioned problems for electric trains with an asynchronous traction drive in the case of two-zone and three-zone frequency control of power. Methodology. Power of nominal mode of the rolling stock should be chosen in such a way that it would be possible to realize a predetermined travel time along in the section or the movement speed. On that basis, and also taking into account the fact that the important operational characteristics of electric trains include the acceleration value during the start-up and acceleration at the design speed, we will formulate the problem of determining the nominal power. In the task for a given range of traction, it is necessary to find such a value of the nominal mode power and the corresponding force value to ensure the ability to carry out transportations with the given level of average speed with minimal energy consumption for traction. At the same time, it is necessary to fulfill the following conditions: a the speed of the electric train on the section does not exceed the established limits; b it is possible to realize the given values of accelerations. A more detailed consideration of the problem shows that in real conditions, when the starting acceleration and the mass of the train are given, the problem of determining electric train power is practically reduced to determining the optimal value of the nominal mode speed. Findings. The task of choosing the optimal values of the nominal mode speed is solved by determining the electric power consumption with the variation of the possible values of starting speed. Therefore, only those values that ensure the implementation of the given starting and

  6. Exercise only, exercise with mechanical traction, or exercise with over-door traction for patients with cervical radiculopathy, with or without consideration of status on a previously described subgrouping rule: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Julie M; Thackeray, Anne; Brennan, Gerard P; Childs, John D

    2014-02-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To examine the effectiveness of cervical traction in addition to exercise for specific subgroups of patients with neck pain. Cervical traction is frequently used, but its effectiveness has not been adequately examined. Existing studies have failed to target patients most likely to respond. Traction is typically recommended for patients with cervical radiculopathy. A prediction rule has been described to identify a narrower subgroup of patients likely to respond to cervical traction. Patients with neck pain and signs of radiculopathy were randomized to 4 weeks of treatment with exercise, exercise with mechanical traction, or exercise with over-door traction. Baseline assessment included subgrouping-rule status. The primary outcome measure (Neck Disability Index, scored 0-100) and secondary outcome measure (neck and arm pain intensity) were assessed at 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after enrollment. The primary analyses examined 2-way treatment-by-time interactions. Secondary analyses examined validity of the subgrouping rule by adding 3-way interactions. Eighty-six patients (53.5% female; mean age, 46.9 years) were enrolled in the study. Intention-to-treat analysis found lower Neck Disability Index scores at 6 months in the mechanical traction group compared to the exercise group (mean difference between groups, 13.3; 95% confidence interval: 5.6, 21.0) and over-door traction group (mean difference between groups, 8.1; 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 15.3), and at 12 months in the mechanical traction group compared to the exercise group (mean difference between groups, 9.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 19.4). Secondary outcomes favored mechanical traction at several time points. The validity of the subgrouping rule was supported on the Neck Disability Index at the 6-month time point only. Adding mechanical traction to exercise for patients with cervical radiculopathy resulted in lower disability and pain, particularly at long-term follow

  7. Active management of the third stage of labour without controlled cord traction: a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derman Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The third stage of labour refers to the period between birth of the baby and complete expulsion of the placenta. Some degree of blood loss occurs after the birth of the baby due to separation of the placenta. This period is a risky period because uterus may not contract well after birth and heavy blood loss can endanger the life of the mother. Active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL reduces the occurrence of severe postpartum haemorrhage by approximately 60–70%. Active management consists of several interventions packaged together and the relative contribution of each of the components is unknown. Controlled cord traction is one of those components that require training in manual skill for it to be performed appropriately. If it is possible to dispense with controlled cord traction without losing efficacy it would have major implications for effective management of the third stage of labour at peripheral levels of health care. Objective The primary objective is to determine whether the simplified package of oxytocin 10 IU IM/IV is not less effective than the full AMTSL package. Methods A hospital-based, multicentre, individually randomized controlled trial is proposed. The hypothesis tested will be a non-inferiority hypothesis. The aim will be to determine whether the simplified package without CCT, with the advantage of not requiring training to acquire the manual skill to perform this task, is not less effective than the full AMTSL package with regard to reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour. The simplified package will include uterotonic (oxytocin 10 IU IM injection after delivery of the baby and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The full package will include the uterotonic injection (oxytocin 10 IU IM, controlled cord traction following observation of uterine contraction and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The primary outcome

  8. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  9. Treatment of adult femoral shaft fractures using the Perkins traction at addis Ababa Tikur Anbessa University Hospital: the Ethiopian experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bezabeh, Bahiru; Wamisho, Biruk L; Coles, Maxime Jm

    2012-01-01

    This is a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of the Perkins traction in the treatment of adult femoral shaft fractures from October 1, 2007, to the present at the Black Lion Hospital in Addis...

  10. Long-Life, Oil-Free, Light-Weight, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A multi-roller "oil free" traction drive is under development for use on vehicles used in hostile environments like those that will be encountered on planetary...

  11. Long-Life, Oil-Free Polymeric, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-roller traction drives have several advantages relative to geared units for aerospace and commercial drive applications. Among these are zero backlash, low...

  12. Analysis of patients with nonambulatory neuromuscular scoliosis surgically treated to the pelvis with intraoperative halo-femoral traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Katsushi; Lenke, Lawrence G; Bridwell, Keith H; Kim, Yongjung J; Sides, Brenda; Hensley, Marsha

    2006-09-15

    Retrospective case-control study. To compare patients treated with and without intraoperative halo-femoral traction to assess neuromuscular spinal deformity correction as well as the safety of the technique. Optimal sitting balance can be achieved in nonambulatory neuromuscular patients with pelvic obliquity by maneuvering a Galveston-type rod or inserting screws into the iliac wings; however, this is often clinically challenging because of the small, soft bone-stock in the pelvis of these patients. A total of 40 patients with nonambulatory neuromuscular scoliosis were treated surgically with a T2 or T3-sacrum instrumented posterior spinal fusion. There were 20 patients (12 who underwent posterior spinal fusion-alone and 8 anterior/posterior spinal fusion) who had intraoperative halo-femoral traction performed unilaterally on the high side iliac wing compared to a control group of 20 patients (15 who underwent posterior spinal fusion-alone and 5 anterior/posterior spinal fusion) operatively treated without halo-femoral traction. Each group had 14 patients with spastic (cerebral palsy) scoliosis, and 6 with flaccid (muscular dystrophy) scoliosis deformities. Minimum follow-up for all patients was 2 years (range 3-12). Preoperative lumbar scoliosis averaged 87 degrees (range 30 degrees-141 degrees) in the halo-femoral traction group and 67 degrees (range 28 degrees-108 degrees) in the control group (P = 0.012). Postoperative lumbar Cobb decreased to 35 degrees (range 15 degrees-60 degrees) in the halo-femoral traction group and 32 degrees (range 4 degrees-66 degrees) in the control group (P = 0.181). Preoperative pelvic obliquity averaged 26 degrees (range 8 degrees-47 degrees) in the halo-femoral traction group and 17 degrees (range 8 degrees-44 degrees) in the control group (P = 0.017); postoperative averaged 6 degrees (range 1 degrees-23 degrees) in the halo-femoral traction group and 7 degrees (range 0 degrees-27 degrees) in the control group. Average pelvic

  13. Tire-road friction estimation and traction control strategy for motorized electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Qiang; Ling, Mingze; Yue, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal longitudinal slip ratio system for real-time identification of electric vehicle (EV) with motored wheels is proposed based on the adhesion between tire and road surface. First and foremost, the optimal longitudinal slip rate torque control can be identified in real time by calculating the derivative and slip rate of the adhesion coefficient. Secondly, the vehicle speed estimation method is also brought. Thirdly, an ideal vehicle simulation model is proposed to verify the algorithm with simulation, and we find that the slip ratio corresponds to the detection of the adhesion limit in real time. Finally, the proposed strategy is applied to traction control system (TCS). The results showed that the method can effectively identify the state of wheel and calculate the optimal slip ratio without wheel speed sensor; in the meantime, it can improve the accelerated stability of electric vehicle with traction control system (TCS).

  14. Algorithm for Choosing Traction Rolling-Stock for Railway Line Rail Baltica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Steišūnas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses traction rolling-stock for freight transportation presently used by AB Lietuvos geležinkeliai. The paper explores and compares technical data on the above mentioned rolling-stock and estimates exploitation expenses. Following an assessment of forecasting freight flows on the future railway line Rail Baltica, an algorithm for selecting traction rolling-stock is proposed. The efficiency of locomotives operating on the railway is determined taking into account three multi-criteria evaluation methods: the sum of ratings, simple additive weighting and geometric mean method. Locomotives are estimated in accordance with technical, economic and ecological aspects. The results of possible performance efficiency of rolling stock have been determined changing weight coefficient values of the criteria.

  15. Application of a High-Power Reversible Converter in a Hybrid Traction Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-power reversible converter can achieve a variety of functions, such as recovering regenerative braking energy, expanding traction power capacity, and improving an alternating current (AC grid power factor. A new hybrid traction power supply scheme, which consists of a high-power reversible converter and two 12-pulse diode rectifiers, is proposed. A droop control method based on load current feed-forward is adopted to realize the load distribution between the reversible converter and the existing 12-pulse diode rectifiers. The direct current (DC short-circuit characteristics of the reversible converter is studied, then the relationship between the peak fault current and the circuit parameters is obtained from theoretical calculations and validated by computer simulation. The first two sets of 2 MW reversible converters have been successfully applied in Beijing Metro Line 10, the proposed hybrid application scheme and coordinated control strategy are verified, and 11.15% of average energy-savings is reached.

  16. Does a traction-internal rotation radiograph help to better evaluate fractures of the proximal femur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Kenneth J; Oh, Chong K; Egol, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    The standard radiographic series for evaluation of a suspected hip fracture in most centers includes an anteroposterior (AP) radiograph of the pelvis, as well AP and cross-table lateral views of the hip. The natural femoral neck anteversion, as well as the fracture deformity, however, may make accurate fracture classification difficult. We have noted that inexperienced physicians sometimes misclassify hip fractures based on the initial radiographic series, which may lead to errors both in surgical planning and implant choice. At our institution, we routinely obtain a physician-assisted traction-internal rotation radiograph of the affected hip in all fractures of the proximal femur. The purpose of the current study was to examine the usefulness of the traction-internal rotation radiograph for the classification of hip fractures by junior residents in our department. Forty-seven sets of complete radiographs (AP pelvis, AP hip, cross-table lateral, traction- internal rotation views) of patients who sustained a proximal femur fracture were identified. Fifteen first year orthopaedic residents (PGY2) individually reviewed the cases and classified them as one of six possible choices: 1. nondisplaced femoral neck fracture, 2. displaced femoral neck fracture, 3. stable intertrochanteric fracture, 4. unstable intertrochanteric fracture, 5. intertrochanteric fracture with subtrochanteric extension, or 6. subtrochanteric fracture. Each fracture case was classified after first reviewing the standard hip series (AP pelvis, AP hip, and cross-table lateral). A traction-internal rotation radiograph was then added to each case, and any changes in the initial classification were noted. The resident's classification was then compared with those of the senior investigators (KJK, KAE), who used all four views for classification. Reviewing a traction-internal rotation radiograph led to a statistically significant increase in agreement between the resident and senior investigators

  17. A Study of Coordinated Vehicle Traction Control System Based on Optimal Slip Ratio Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under complicated situations, such as the low slippery road surface and split-μ road surface, traction control system is the key issue to improve the performance of vehicle acceleration and stability. In this paper, a novel control strategy with engine controller and active pressure controller is presented. First and foremost, an ideal vehicle model is proposed for simulation; then a method for the calculation of optimal slip ratio is also brought. Finally, the scheme of control method with engine controller and active brake controller is presented. From the results of simulation and road tests, it can be concluded that the acceleration performance and stability of a vehicle equipped with traction control system (TCS can be improved.

  18. Experimental Research of Harmonic Spectrum of Currents at Traction Drive with PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the significant results of the experimental research of current harmonic spectrum of traction drive with permanent magnet synchronous motor. The experiments were done on a special workplace with a real traction drive for wheel vehicles. Current harmonic spectrum was analyzed by a specialized device on the base of central measuring station. The knowledge of current marked subharmonic components of stator winding is the most significant finding of experiments. The frequencies of these components are given by multiples of frequency of mechanical speeds. The subharmonic components also pass to input DC current of drive. This fact is important in particular from the point of view of legislative requirements to electromagnetic compatibility of drive with railway interlocking devices.

  19. PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF SURGICAL OUTCOMES IN VITRECTOMY FOR MYOPIC TRACTION MACULOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kyoko; Kataoka, Keiko; Takeuchi, Jun; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-11-07

    To assess predictive factors and surgical outcomes for myopic traction maculopathy. This retrospective observational case study enrolled 73 patients who underwent vitrectomy for myopic traction maculopathy. The 79 eyes obtained from our study sample were divided into 4 types: retinoschisis, lamellar macular hole (lamellar MH), foveal retinal detachment (FRD), and FRD + lamellar MH, or into 2 types according to the presence of FRD preoperatively. Dependent variables of interest were age, sex, pre- and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 6 months, and axial length. All the four types showed moderately strong-to-strong positive correlations with pre- and postoperative BCVA (retinochisisi: r = 0.61; lamellar MH: r = 0.62; FRD: r = 0.51; FRD + lamellar MH; r = 0.83). Preoperative BCVA was associated with postoperative BCVA (P maculopathy.

  20. Concept for a Differential Lock and Traction Control Model in Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukul, A. K.; Hansra, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    The automobile is a complex integration of electronics and mechanical components. One of the major components is the differential which is limited due to its shortcomings. The paper proposes a concept of a cost effective differential lock and traction for passenger cars to sports utility vehicles alike, employing a parallel braking mechanism coming into action based on the relative speeds of the wheels driven by the differential. The paper highlights the employment of minimum number of components unlike the already existing systems. The system was designed numerically for the traction control and differential lock for the world's cheapest car. The paper manages to come up with all the system parameters and component costing making it a cost effective system.

  1. Treatment of supracondylar fracture of the humerus in children by skeletal traction in a brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, K; Nakatani, N; Harada, M; Tamaki, T

    2004-03-01

    In 1980, we developed a specially designed brace for treating supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children, along with an easy and safe technique of reduction by skeletal traction. This method, which takes into consideration only the medial tilting and anterior angulation of the distal fragment, achieves complete reduction, ignoring any lateral, posterior and minor rotational displacements of the fragment. Skeletal traction is applied through a screw inserted into the olecranon and the angulation at the fracture site is reduced regardless of the anatomical position without manipulation. We treated 193 children with displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus using this method between 1980 and 2001. Only four children (2%) developed cubitus varus. The majority obtained an excellent range of movement at the elbow; one had a 25 degree limitation of flexion. This technique is an effective and easy method of treating supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children.

  2. Use of traction in cervical spine fractures during interhospital transfer by aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, S; Watts, C; Loos, L; Cope, M

    1990-03-01

    Despite significant improvement in the organization and function of the nation's emergency medical services and the increasing sophistication of initial providers of critical care, there has apparently been no reduction in the incidence of neurological deficits suffered by patients with unstable cervical spine injuries during management prior to intervention by the spine surgeon. In analyzing the techniques used to stabilize patients with suspected unstable cervical spine injuries during this phase, we conclude that present standard techniques are either insufficient or potentially destabilizing. We have developed a system that will permit the use of cervical traction, applied with a halter or the standard Gardner-Wells tongs, during the prehospital phase of management of patients with cervical spine injuries. Based on our experience with the system, we recommend that patients with such injuries be stabilized with skeletal traction when transferred between hospitals by air ambulance. Logic permits consideration of the concept even earlier in the prehospital phase of management and in ground ambulances.

  3. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ELECTROTECHNIC TRACTION COMPLEX OF VEHICLE WITH ENERGY STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kurys

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the existing means of improving the energy efficiency of vehicles with electric transmission, on its basis the special place of electricity storage is allocated. The scheme of transistor converter for implementation of the DC motor traction characteristics by consistent or independent excitation modes of acceleration movement and braking is given. Additionally, the scheme is introduced for the controlled capacitor drive for accumulation of excess braking energy and use it during acceleration. To study the transition process in operation mode of transistor converter the mathematical model of electro-technical traction complex is developed. The model realizes the dynamic (acceleration and stationary (weakening magnetic flux modes of DC motor with capacitor energy storage

  4. A mathematical model of tumour angiogenesis incorporating cellular traction and viscoelastic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M J; Sleeman, B D

    2000-01-21

    Angiogenesis is defined as the outgrowth and formation of new vessels from a pre-existing vascular network (Rakusan, In: Cardiac Growth and Regeneration. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1995), and is of fundamental importance in understanding the processes by which a tumour achieves vascularization. Diffusible substances, collectively called tumour angiogenesis factors are released from the tumour to elicit a variety of responses from the surrounding tissues, most importantly the migration of endothelial cells (lining neighbouring vessels) towards the tumour. To facilitate locomotion, the cells exert appreciable traction forces upon the interstitial extracellular matrix which, in turn, influences the resulting direction of their migration. In this paper, we examine the role played by cellular traction during cell migration and the corresponding viscoelastic effects of the extracellular matrix. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. COMPARISON BETWEEN POSTERIOR TO ANTERIOR MOBILIZATION AND TRACTION SLR ON PAIN AND NEURODYNAMIC MOBILITY IN PATIENTS OF LOW BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Varun; Malik Manoj; Malik Jaspreet; Ganer Naveen

    2014-01-01

    Background : Low back pain is one of the most prevalent condition . According to the American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons about 80 percent of people will have at least one bout with back pain during their lifetime . Various treatments methods have been used like traction SLR , posterior to anterior mobilization etc, but no study was done to compare the effects of posterior to anterior mobilization and traction SLR technique in reducing pain and increasing neurodynamic mobility in p...

  6. Use of Bivector Traction for Stabilization of the Head and Maintenance of Optimal Cervical Alignment in Posterior Cervical Fusions

    OpenAIRE

    Karikari, Isaac O.; Bumpass, David B.; Gum, Jeffrey; Sugrue, Patrick; Chapman, Todd M.; Elsamadicy, Aladine A.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective analysis of consecutive case series. Objective: To introduce a novel method of stabilizing the cranium using bivector traction in posterior cervical fusions. Methods: A retrospective review of 50 consecutive patients undergoing instrumented posterior cervical arthrodesis was performed. All patients had at least 3 levels of subaxial fusion using the bivector traction apparatus. Patients? demographic data was recorded for the following: pre- and postoperative cervica...

  7. Metal-enclosed, air-insulated traction switchgear - developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Offenbach (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    TracFeed {sup registered} TA switchgear series has been extended and successfully type tested under exceptional conditions for the requirements of 15 kV 16,7 Hz traction power supply systems. Therefore, air-insulated, metal-enclosed prefabricated switchgear systems are available for AC power supply with 15 kV 16,7 Hz in one- and two-pole configurations. The new switchgears are now in use in several installations. (orig.)

  8. The Berlin Aussenring - electrification and traction power supply; Berliner Aussenring - Elektrifizierung und Bahnenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeltzsch, W.

    2006-07-01

    The Berlin Aussenring, step by step completed from 1945 to 1989, was electrified with AC 15 kV 16 2/3Hz in the year 1983 to 1985. Power supply was realized from six decentral converter stations and overhead contact line network was normally coupled via switch boards and coupling posts. Conversion to central traction power supply started in 1997 and shall be finished in 2007. (orig.)

  9. CD28 and CD3 have complementary roles in T-cell traction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashour, Keenan T; Gondarenko, Alexander; Chen, Haoqian; Shen, Keyue; Liu, Xin; Huse, Morgan; Hone, James C; Kam, Lance C

    2014-02-11

    Mechanical forces have key roles in regulating activation of T cells and coordination of the adaptive immune response. A recent example is the ability of T cells to sense the rigidity of an underlying substrate through the T-cell receptor (TCR) coreceptor CD3 and CD28, a costimulation signal essential for cell activation. In this report, we show that these two receptor systems provide complementary functions in regulating the cellular forces needed to test the mechanical properties of the extracellular environment. Traction force microscopy was carried out on primary human cells interacting with micrometer-scale elastomer pillar arrays presenting activation antibodies to CD3 and/or CD28. T cells generated traction forces of 100 pN on arrays with both antibodies. By providing one antibody or the other in solution instead of on the pillars, we show that force generation is associated with CD3 and the TCR complex. Engagement of CD28 increases traction forces associated with CD3 through the signaling pathway involving PI3K, rather than providing additional coupling between the cell and surface. Force generation is concentrated to the cell periphery and associated with molecular complexes containing phosphorylated Pyk2, suggesting that T cells use processes that share features with integrin signaling in force generation. Finally, the ability of T cells to apply forces through the TCR itself, rather than the CD3 coreceptor, was tested. Mouse cells expressing the 5C.C7 TCR exerted traction forces on pillars presenting peptide-loaded MHCs that were similar to those with α-CD3, suggesting that forces are applied to antigen-presenting cells during activation.

  10. A comparative study on OCT before and after the operation for vitreomacular traction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qi Song

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To make a contrast and then analyze the difference of optical coherence tomography(OCTbefore and after vitreomacular traction syndrome(VTSwas performed. METHODS: The clinical date of 11 evaluable eyes of 11 patients with VTS who were diagnosed by OCT and underwent 25G vitreous surgery from January 2013 to January 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up for an average of 6mo, to observe the visual acuity and OCT examination of the patient before and after operation. We compared the changes of retinal thickness and local morphology before and after operation.RESULTS: After vitreous retraction, 6 eyes improved, 2 eyes do not improve. One eye received macular membrane traction, in the operation the macular epiretinal membrane peeling, retrial membrane stripping and the triamcinolone acetonide intravitreal injection were given, but after the operation, the vision does not improve. Two eyes received vitreous combined with retinal macular membrane traction. In the operation, macular epiretinal membrane stripping was given, after the operation, visual acuity improved. The proportion of those with visual acuity of 0.1 or more increased from 46% before to 73% after the operation. Before operations, the mean central macular thickness was 619.27±195.13μm, 239.12±143.84μm after, which decreased significantly(PCONCLUSION: Vitrectomy can effectively relieve the vitreous traction of the macula, and can prevent further decline in visual acuity and reduce macular edema as well as improve the visual acuity of some patients. So, OCT has important guiding significance on the diagnosis and prognosis of this group.

  11. Lateral femoral traction pin entry: risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleton Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral skeletal traction assists in the reduction and transient stabilization of pelvic, acetabular, hip, and femoral fractures when splinting is ineffective. Traditional teaching has recommended a medial entry site for insertion of the traction pin in order to minimize injury to the femoral artery as it passes through Hunter's canal. The present anatomical study evaluates the risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures using a lateral entry approach. Methods Six embalmed cadavers (twelve femurs were obtained for dissection. Steinman pins were drilled from lateral to medial at the level of the superior pole of the patella, at 2 cm, and at 4 cm proximal to this point. Medial superficial dissection was then performed to identify the saphenous nerve, the superior medial geniculate artery, the adductor hiatus, the tendinous insertion of the adductor magnus and the femoral artery. Measurements localizing these anatomic structures relative to the pins were obtained. Results The femoral artery was relatively safe and was no closer than 29.6 mm (mean from any of the three Steinman pins. The superior medial geniculate artery was the medial structure at most risk. Conclusions Lateral femoral traction pin entry is a safe procedure with minimal risk to the saphenous nerve and femoral artery. Of the structures examined, only the superior medial geniculate artery is at a risk of iatrogenic injury due to its position. The incidence of such injury in clinical practice and its clinical significance is not known. Lateral insertion facilitates traction pin placement since it minimizes the need to move the contralateral extremity out of the way of the drilling equipment or the need to elevate or externally rotate the injured extremity relative to the contralateral extremity.

  12. A locking-free nonconforming triangular element for planar elasticity with pure traction boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongqin; Chen, Shaochun

    2010-03-01

    A new nonconforming triangular element for the equations of planar linear elasticity with pure traction boundary conditions is considered. By virtue of construction of the element, the discrete version of Korn's second inequality is directly proved to be valid. Convergence rate of the finite element methods is uniformly optimal with respect to [lambda]. Error estimates in the energy norm and L2-norm are O(h2) and O(h3), respectively.

  13. The new generation of Alstom's CORADIA trademark Lint and its diesel traction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindorff, Konrad; Don, Rainer [Alstom Transport Deutschland GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Easy, convenient boarding, a comfortable journey and passengers who feel relaxed when they arrive - those are the characteristics of the successful family of Coradia multiple units. These trains, which are intended for local and regional services, can be flexibly customised to suit each operating location and number of passengers. It is also possible to chose different vehicle lengths and the traction outputs that are optimally suited to them. (orig.)

  14. [The use of Saunders lumbar traction in physiotherapy of patients with chronic lower back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingot, Julia; Pingot, Mariusz; Łabecka, Monika; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Pain of the lower back is one of the most common ailments in modem society. Such frequent occurrence of back pain syndromes is a serious medical and social problem. Despite numerous attempts, there have not been comprehensive or decisive publications on the therapeutic standard for back pain syndromes that would cover all the aspects of the ailment. Partial report can change the attitude and shed new light on the treatment of these syndromes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Saunders lumbar tractions in patients with chronic lower back pain in comparison with the group of patients undergoing pharmacological treatment. The study included 140 patients with chronic lower back pain who were divided into two groups. Each group consisted of 70 persons of mixed gender (the age mean value was 45). Group I were treated with the use of Saunders lumbar traction and Group II (control group) were treated pharmacologically. The following scales were used to assess pain and mobility of the lumbar part of the vertebral column (before treatment, in-treatment, right after treatment and 30 days after treatment): Laitinen, VAS, Rolland-Morris questionnaire and Schober functional test. The statistical analysis was performed with Greenhouse-Geisser test of within-subjects effects. In both the groups, a significant analgesic action and an improvement to spinal mobility were observed. Significantly better results were obtained in Group I where the patients had been treated with the use of Saunders lumbar traction. The pharmacological treatment applied in Group II showed an analgesic action and influenced positively the functional parameters of the patients. The effects, however, were much worse than in Group 1 where axial Saunders traction was applied to the lumbar part of the vertebral column.

  15. Intraoperative Distal Femoral Fine Wire Traction to Facilitate Intramedullary Nailing of the Femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githens, Michael; Alton, Timothy B; Firoozabadi, Reza; Bishop, Julius A

    2016-01-01

    Many techniques have been employed to facilitate intramedullary nailing of femur fractures. Maintaining limb length during the operation can be difficult. The authors describe the use of distal femoral fine wire skeletal traction as a technique to maintain reduction while allowing intramedullary nailing of femur fractures. This technique is safe, is effective, and negates the need for a fracture table or an assistant. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. le traitement chirurgical des poches de rétraction tympaniques

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    16 juin 2006 ... Nombres de cas. Pourcentage. Attique antérieure. 24. 18. Attique postérieure. 83. 62. Hypotympanum. 4. 3. Région des fenêtres. 67. 50. Sinus tympanum. 30. 22. Recessus facial. 73. 55. Tableau I : Extension des poches de rétraction. Résultat anatomique. Guérison. Récidive. Perforation. Résultat global.

  17. Lateral traction of laminar flow between sliding pair with heterogeneous slip/no-slip surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenpeng; Zeng, Liangcai; Chen, Xiaolan; Chen, Keying; Ding, Xianzhong

    2017-11-01

    The problem of shaft axial motion which significantly affects the lubrication performance has been a common phenomenon in journal bearing systems. The existing work involved in the solution of shaft axial motion is also very rare. In this study, we choose to examine the flow between sliding pair in which regard we present a unique heterogeneous surface consisting of a slip zone and a no-slip zone. The results reveal the following points: 1) By appropriately arranging the slip zone to change the angle between the borderline and the moving direction of the upper plate, it is possible to control the direction of the lateral traction in which the liquid film acts on the upper plate. 2) Exponent of the power function of the borderline and aspect ratio of the computational domain are large or small are not conducive to increasing the effect of lateral traction. For the object of this study, the final results of the optimization are shown that the lateral traction can account for 20% of the resistance.

  18. Traction Converting Substation from Viewpoint of Feeding Interlocking Plant at Czech Railwayes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Dolecek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analyses current and voltage harmonic in traction converting substation 3 kV. It researches their rise and influence to three-phase cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz that is used for feeding interlocking plant. Processing of this task is arisen from requirement practice for line Pěčky - Poříčany - Rostoklaty where happened to adverse ratio in particular transmission line of feeding system. It is meant especially about backward influence traction substation rectifier Pečky to three - phase cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz. At the determinate lenght of the cable line, when resonace frequency of circuit transformer 22 kV/6 kV and the cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz is approached frequency 550 Hz and 650 Hz (i.e. 11 and 13 harmonic are happened to socalled "annulations input reactance of this circuit". That is caused by the leakage of current resonace frequency from traction converting substation to cable line. That proceduces additional losses and deformation waveform of voltage too. This deformation can be reflected on how interlocking plant is working. 

  19. Morphostructural characterization of soil conventionally tilled with mechanized and animal traction with and without cover crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ralisch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural stability and restructuring ability of a soil are related to the methods of crop management and soil preparation. A recommended strategy to reduce the effects of soil preparation is to use crop rotation and cover crops that help conserve and restore the soil structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the homogeneous morphological units in soil under conventional mechanized tillage and animal traction, as well as to assess the effect on the soil structure of intercropping with jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.. Profiles were analyzed in April of 2006, in five counties in the Southern-Central region of Paraná State (Brazil, on family farms producing maize (Zea mays L., sometimes intercropped with jack bean. The current structures in the crop profile were analyzed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and subsequently principal component analysis (PCA to generate statistics. Morphostructural soil analysis showed a predominance of compact units in areas of high-intensity cultivation under mechanized traction. The cover crop did not improve the structure of the soil with low porosity and compact units that hamper the root system growth. In areas exposed to animal traction, a predominance of cracked units was observed, where roots grew around the clods and along the gaps between them.

  20. The wall traction induced by flowing red blood cells in model microvessels and its potential mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Jonathan; Vermot, Julien

    2013-11-01

    There is evidence in early embryonic development, even well before advective oxygen transport is important, that the presence of red bloods cells per se trigger essential steps of normal vascular development. For example, showed that sequestration of blood cells early in the development of a mouse, such that the hematocrit is reduced, suppresses normal vascular network development. Vascular development also provides a model for remodeling and angiogenesis. We consider the transient stresses associated with blood cells flowing in model microvessels of comparable diameter to those at early stages of development (6 μm to 12 μm). A detailed simulation tool is used to show that passing blood cells present a significant fluctuating traction signature on the vessel wall, well above the mean stresses. This is particularly pronounced for slow flows (<= 50 μm/s) or small diameters (<= 7 μm), for which root-mean-square wall traction fluctuations can exceed their mean. These events potentially present mechanotranduction triggers that direct development or remodeling. Attenuation of such fluctuating tractions by a viscoelastic endothelial glycocalyx layer is also considered. NSF supported.

  1. Traction performance simulation for mechanical front wheel drive tractors: towards a practical computer tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Battiato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model to simulate the traction performance of mechanical front wheel drive MFWD tractors was developed at the Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon ART. The model was validated via several field tests in which the relationship between drawbar pull and slip was measured for four MFWD tractors of power ranging between 40 and 123 kW on four arable soils of different texture (clay, clay loam, silty loam, and loamy sand. The pulling tests were carried out in steady-state controlling the pulling force along numerous corridors. Different configurations of tractors were considered by changing the wheel load and the tyre pressure. Simulations of traction performance matched experimental results with good agreement (mean error of 8% with maximum and minimum values of 17% and 1% respectively. The model was used as framework for developing a new module for the excel application TASCV3.0.xlsm, a practical computer tool which compares different tractor configurations, soil textures and conditions, in order to determine variants which make for better traction performance, this resulting in saving fuel and time, i.e. reducing the costs of tillage management.

  2. Distinct impacts of substrate elasticity and ligand affinity on traction force evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christina; Pompe, Tilo

    2016-01-07

    Cell adhesion is regulated by the mechanical characteristics of the cell environment. The influences of different parameters of the adhesive substrates are convoluted in the cell response leading to questions on the underlying mechanisms, like biochemical signaling on the level of adhesion molecules, or viscoelastic properties of substrates and cell. By a time-resolved analysis of traction force generation during early cell adhesion, we wanted to elucidate the contributions of substrate mechanics to the adhesion process, in particular the impact of substrate elasticity and the molecular friction of adhesion ligands on the substrate surface. Both parameters were independently adjusted by (i) an elastic polyacrylamide hydrogel of variable crosslinking degree and (ii) a thin polymer coating of the hydrogel surface controlling the affinity (and the correlated substrate-ligand friction) of the adhesion ligand fibronectin. Our analysis showed two sequential regimes of considerable force generation, whose occurrence was found to be independent of substrate properties. The first regime is characterized by spreading of the cell and a succeeding force increase. After spreading cells enter the second regime with saturated forces. Substrate elasticity and viscosity, namely hydrogel elasticity and ligand affinity, were both found to affect the kinetics and absolute levels of traction force quantities. A faster increase and a higher saturation level of traction forces were observed for a higher substrate stiffness and a higher ligand affinity. The results complement recent modeling approaches on the evolution of forces in cell spreading and contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of cell adhesion on viscoelastic substrates.

  3. MODEL CALCULATING THE INSTANTANEOUS MODE PARAMETER A TRACTION POWER SYSTEM MOVING ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.O. Slobodenjuk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the methods of analysis for calculating the electrical parameters of the mode of the traction power supply systems identified deficiencies related to the readability of the calculation and use of non-sinusoidal currents difficulties in that peculiar modern traction complexes with semiconductor converters. Using the methods of electrical engineering theory developed a model for calculating a continuous instantaneous mode parameters of the traction power supply systems, is different from the calculation methods that have been used previously by the fact that the original data is not averages, and pre-defined instantaneous values of electric current and speed. The model, in contrast to these methods is not large discreteness calculations, which greatly improves the quality of the calculation of the sudden change between the different modes of operation of electric and informative value in the calculation of power quality. The possibility of continuous operation for the entire simulation interval based on the location of the place of electric locomotives that move count distribution of voltage drop, loss of power and non-sinusoidal voltage coefficient for each of the electric contacts in place.

  4. [Effectiveness of manual therapy and traction for lumbar disc herniation: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Jiang-Hui; Kong, Ling-Jun; Guo, Chao-Qing; Yang, Xiao-Cun; Cheng, Ying-Wu

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of manual therapy and traction for lumbar disc herniation and analyze the current status of this kind of randomized clinical trial (RCT). Database of CNKI, VIP, WANFANG, PubMed and OVID were searched. Some relevant journals were manually retrieved. A total of 2 874 literatures on manual therapy and traction for lumbar disc herniation were collected, of which 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. The Jadad score scale was used to evaluate the quality,and RevMan5.0 was used for meta-analysis of literatures. The results of the meta-analysis of all trials involved were as followed:the combined effect of the effective rate was RR = 1.10, 95% CI [1.06, 1.14], the combined effect of the cure rate was RR = 1.36, 95% CI [1.21,1.52], the combined effect of the VAS was RR = 1.37, 95% CI [1.28, 1.45], the combined effect of the JOA was RR = 4.75, 95% CI [4.40, 5.09]. The overall quality of the current RCT researches about manual therapy for lumbar disc herniation was lower,and did not support the conclusion that manual therapy was more effective than traction for lumbar disc herniation.

  5. Conventional physical therapy with lumbar traction; clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging for lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, A; Karaca-Acet, G; Kaya, A; Koc, M; Yildirim, H

    2010-01-01

    This study measures and compares the outcome of conservative physical therapy with traction, by using magnetic resonance imaging and clinical parameters in patients presenting with low back pain caused by lumbar disc herniation. A total of 26 patients with LDH (14F, 12M with mean aged 37 +/- 11) were enrolled in this study and 15 sessions (per day on 3 weeks) of physical therapy were applied. That included hot pack, ultrasound, electrotherapy and lumbar traction. Physical examination of the lumbar spine, severity of pain, sleeping order, patient and physician global assessment with visual analogue scale, functional disability by HAQ, Roland Disability Questionnaire, and Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at 4-6 weeks after treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations were carried out before and 4-6 weeks after the treatment All patients completed the therapy session. There were significant reductions in pain, sleeping disturbances, patient and physician global assessment and disability scores, and significant increases in lumbar movements between baseline and follow-up periods. There were significant reductions of size of the herniated mass in five patients, and significant increase in 3 patients on magnetic resonance imaging after treatment, but no differences in other patients. This study showed that conventional physical therapies with lumbar traction were effective in the treatment of patient with subacute LDH. These results suggest that clinical improvement is not correlated with the finding of MRI. Patients with LDH should be monitored clinically (Fig. 3, Ref. 18).

  6. Fatigue limit by thermal analysis of specimen surface in mono axial traction test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risitano, A.; Giacomo, R.; Clienti, C.

    2010-06-01

    In this work is indicated how it could be possible to evaluate the limit stress of the thermo-elastic phase of deformation by thermo-analysing the surface of the specimen during a static traction test. Adding the temperature curve measured on a small area of the surface (the hottest) to the classic stress-strain curve, it is possible to evaluate a limit temperature T0 coincident with the beginning of the non linear trend of the curve. The corresponding stress value is coincident with the fatigue limit of the analyzed component. As an example, the results of traction tests performed on two notched specimens, where the change of linearity in the temperature curve during static traction test was evident, are reported. The corresponding value of stress was a good approximation of the fatigue limit for R = - 1, determined by the conventional method. The aim of the reported examples in this paper must be interpreted as support to the basic principle of the method and not as the results of a complete experimental planning of which we will comment in an another occasion.

  7. Fatigue limit by thermal analysis of specimen surface in mono axial traction test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clienti C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work is indicated how it could be possible to evaluate the limit stress of the thermo-elastic phase of deformation by thermo-analysing the surface of the specimen during a static traction test. Adding the temperature curve measured on a small area of the surface (the hottest to the classic stress-strain curve, it is possible to evaluate a limit temperature T0 coincident with the beginning of the non linear trend of the curve. The corresponding stress value is coincident with the fatigue limit of the analyzed component. As an example, the results of traction tests performed on two notched specimens, where the change of linearity in the temperature curve during static traction test was evident, are reported. The corresponding value of stress was a good approximation of the fatigue limit for R = - 1, determined by the conventional method. The aim of the reported examples in this paper must be interpreted as support to the basic principle of the method and not as the results of a complete experimental planning of which we will comment in an another occasion.

  8. Grain boundary traction signatures: Quantifying the asymmetrical dislocation emission processes under tension and compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruizhi; Chew, Huck Beng

    2017-06-01

    The disruption in crystallographic arrangement of atoms across a grain boundary interface generates local stress fields in the vicinity. Here, we reconstruct the continuum-equivalent grain boundary tractions from local atomic stresses near symmetrical-tilt Ni grain boundaries. We show that the resolved shear stress contribution from the grain boundary tractions, τGB, along active slip-systems either assists or prevents the emission of dislocations, depending on its direction with respect to the resolved shear stress contribution from external loading, τext. When τGB acts in the same direction as τext, Shockley partial dislocations are readily emitted from the boundary once | τGB +τext | exceeds the critical barrier stress for shear-slip. When τGB opposes τext, the higher sustainable stresses in the grain boundary structure instead triggers: (a) emission of dislocations from the bulk, or (b) reconfiguration of the grain boundary atomic structure and subsequent emission of non-Schmid dislocations or formation of extrinsic stacking faults. Our results quantitatively explain the asymmetrical grain boundary dislocation emission processes observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations under applied tensile and compressive loads. The relationship between the traction signatures and periodic structural units along the grain boundary is discussed.

  9. Height increase, neuromuscular function, and back pain during 6 degrees head-down tilt with traction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styf, J. R.; Ballard, R. E.; Fechner, K.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal lengthening and back pain are commonly experienced by astronauts exposed to microgravity. METHODS: To develop a ground-based simulation for spinal adaptation to microgravity, we investigated height increase, neuromuscular function and back pain in 6 subjects all of whom underwent two forms of bed rest for 3 d. One form consisted of 6 degrees of head-down tilt (HDT) with balanced traction, while the other was horizontal bed rest (HBR). Subjects had a 2-week recovery period in between the studies. RESULTS: Total body and spinal length increased significantly more and the subjects had significantly more back pain during HDT with balanced traction compared to HBR. The distance between the lower endplate of L4 and upper endplate of S1, as measured by ultrasonography, increased significantly in both treatments to the same degree. Intramuscular pressures in the erector spinae muscles and ankle torque measurements during plantarflexion and dorsiflexion did not change significantly during either treatment. CONCLUSION: Compared to HBR, HDT with balanced traction may be a better method to simulate changes of total body and spinal lengths, as well as back pain seen in microgravity.

  10. An innovative model of system-linked community care: home-based traction as an alternative to institutional treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, M; Stevens, B; Browne, G; Dent, P; Gafni, A; Anderson, M; Martin, R

    1994-01-01

    Home-based traction is an alternative treatment to conventional hospital-based traction for children with orthopedic conditions such as congenital dislocated hip and Legg-Perthes disease. The application of a proposed theoretical model is used to describe the process of the home-based traction innovation. Creativity and innovation occasions a reconceptualization of stresses. The reconceptualization of stress, plus the operational support of coordinated in-home services, can help families and nurses in the community and in the hospital develop, implement, and evaluate this kind of innovative care. In applying the home-based traction professionals empower and legitimize parents as resourceful co-providers of care. The legitimizing of the alternative in-home service affords parents a more optimistic appraisal of their situation as manageable. Parents are free to develop a coordinated response to their overall circumstance, including the treatment of their one child's illness. The evaluation of this home-based traction example found the alternative to be acceptable, safe, effective in accomplishing treatment goals, and less expensive than conventional hospital-based traction.

  11. Increases in COX II mRNA in the rat spinal cord induced by cauda equina traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Kiyoko; Komagata, Masashi; Yamada, Jinzo; Isshiki, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yasuo

    2006-05-01

    This article investigated the time response of COX II induction by traction of the cauda equina assessed by a quantified RT-PCR method. Under deep GOI anesthesia, male Wistar rats were fixed in the prone position and a laminectomy of the dorsal part of the first and second sacral vertebrae was performed. Following, COX II-mRNA levels in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal segments were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after traction by a quantified RT-PCR method. After cauda equina traction, significant levels of COX II mRNA were detected in all segments of the spinal cord examined. Maximum levels in each segment were determined 4 h after traction of the cauda equina. Particularly in the sacrocaudal segments significantly higher levels of COX II mRNA were measured 24 h after traction. These results indicate that significant induction of spinal COX II mRNA was caused by cauda equina traction and that such induction plays a regulatory role in the nociceptive pain pathway.

  12. Short-term anteroposterior treatment effects of functional appliances and extraoral traction on class II malocclusion. A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Gregory Stylianos; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the anteroposterior short-term skeletal and dental effects on Class II malocclusion in growing patients following treatment with functional appliances (activators or twin block), extraoral traction, or combination appliances (appliances with both functional and extraoral traction components), based on published data. A literature search was carried out identifying a total of nine prospective clinical trials. The data provided in the publications underwent meta-analysis using the random effects model with regard to SNA, SNB, ANB, and overjet. All appliance groups showed an improvement in sagittal intermaxillary relationships (decrease in ANB) when compared to untreated subjects. Activators and twin block appliances accomplish this mainly by acting on the mandible (increases in SNB) while twin block appliances also seem to act on the maxilla (decrease in SNA). Extraoral traction appliances achieve this by acting on the maxilla (decreases in SNA). Combination appliances mainly act on the mandible (increase in SNB). Activators, twin block, and combination appliances also reveal a decrease in overjet, which is not the case in the singular use of extraoral traction. Intermaxillary changes being present in all appliance groups, anteroposterior treatment response following the use of functional appliances and/or extraoral traction in growing class II malocclusion patients is most evident in one of the two jaws (mandible for activators and combination appliances and maxilla for extraoral traction) except for the twin block group, which shows changes on both jaws.

  13. STUDY OF THE MANUAL POWER EQUIPMENT OF TRACTION ELECTRIFICATION SYSTEM OF THE RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation of the operation of power equipment of traction substations (TS of Ukrainian electrified railways. The search of the new modern methods and approaches improved monitoring, diagnostics and maintenance of power equipment TS during operation to maintain the required level of reliability of the traction power supply of electrified railway and limit the power equipment accidents TS. Methodology. The study of changes of a technical condition of TSs’ equipment over the last 11 years was done for achieving this goal. This research was done for solving problems of power supply railways with high quality on the base of the reports analysis of the management and power supply of Ukrzaliznytsia. Findings. It was found that on the base of the new methods of maintenance is the risk analysis of old equipment or equipment with some defects (rev servicing equipment for the actual technical condition.Reliable performance of power supply devices has significant impact for solving the problem of safety on the railways of Ukraine. Different kinds of accumulated damage are at the first place before of failures of an electric power supply of electrified railway. The study of main causes of violations from 2002 to 2012 year showed that 80% of the reasons disorders normal operation of the traction power supply over the period constitutes next factors. There are damage to the main power equipment TS; power off the grid; overload and surge; and the impact of weather conditions. The primary power equipment failure of TS are constituted about 43%. Relevant constant monitoring, testing and diagnostics of the equipment with the creation and use of micro-processor smart automated monitoring and diagnosis are topical in the current operating conditions. Originality. The new directions for further improvement of maintenance electrified traction substations for electrified railways were considered. Modern strategies and management techniques and

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DAMAGE ANALYSIS OF RAILWAY TRACTION ENERGY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study provides the methods and models development of reducing damages of traction energy systems (TES at electrified railways of Ukraine. Definition the indicator of preventing damage evaluation TES at electrified railways is necessary. Paper is aimed to search the modern methods and approaches to improve the system of TES monitoring, diagnosis and maintenance. Methodology. To achieve this purpose a study of foreign experience and publications that focus on problem-solving quality of TES using a linguistic approach based on the theory of fuzzy multiple numbers and linguistic variable were done. Findings. In result of research an algorithm to reduce TPS damages which operates under uncertainty was developed. It is found that the solution of this problem is possible by timely detection of actual technical condition of equipment in terms of quality maintenance, diagnostics and update resource of electrical equipment traction substations (TS power supply TES. The study examined the fuzzy inference scheme, which is based on the use of mechanisms to minimize the area of decision-making. It contributes not only to structural identification in the process of developing a database, but also can significantly improve the efficiency of finding the parameters of fuzzy model, which in turn reduces the efforts that are necessary for the analysis and the design of effective control systems maintenance and repair (M and R TES. Originality. For the first time the algorithm of reduction the damage of traction energy system of electrified railways of Ukraine was offered. The mathematical model of reduction the damage calculation of TES from TP power equipment failures by improving system maintenance (M and P was developed. Firstly evaluation index was proposed to prevent the damage of traction energy system. Practical value. The article describes the fuzzy inference scheme, which is based on the use of the mechanism to minimize the area of decision

  15. Comparison between effectiveness of Mechanical and Manual Traction combined with mobilization and exercise therapy in Patients with Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Syed Rehan Iftikhar; Shakil-Ur-Rehman, Syed; Ahmad, Shakeel; Naeem, Aamer

    2016-01-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common neuro-musculo-skeletal disorder causing pain and disability. Traction is part of the evidence based manual physical therapy management due to its mechanical nature, type of traction and parameters related to its applicability and are still to be explored more through research. Our objective was to determine the Effects of Mechanical versus Manual Traction in Manual Physical Therapy combined with segmental mobilization and exercise therapy in the physical therapy management of Patients with Cervical Radiculopathy. This randomized control trial was conducted at department of physical therapy and rehabilitation, Rathore Hospital Faisalabad, from February to July 2015. Inclusion criteria were both male and female patients with evident symptoms of cervical spine radiculopathy and age ranged between 20-70 years. The exclusion criteria were Patients with history of trauma, neck pain without radiculopathy, aged less than 20 and more than 70. A total of 72 patients with cervical radiculopathy were screened out as per the inclusion criteria, 42 patients were randomly selected and placed into two groups by toss and trial method, and only 36 patients completed the study, while 6 dropped out. The mechanical traction was applied in group A and manual traction in group B along with common intervention of segmental mobilization and exercise therapy in both groups for 6 weeks. The patient's outcomes were assessed by self reported NPRS and NDI at the baseline and after completion of 06 weeks exercise program at 3 days per week. The data was analyzed through SPSS version-21, and paired T test was applied at 95% level significance to determine the statistical deference between two groups. Clinically the group of patients treated with mechanical traction managed pain (mean pre 6.26, mean post 1.43), and disability (mean pre 24.43 and mean post 7.26) more effectively as compared with the group of patients treated with manual traction (Pain mean pre 6

  16. Designing method in current control system of permanent magnet synchronous motor for railway vehicle traction; Tetsudo sharyo kudoyo eikyu jishaku doki dendoki no denryu seigyokei sekkeiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, K.; Matsuoka, K. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Nakazawa, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    We have been studying the application of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) for railway vehicle traction in order to reduce the weight and size of direct drive traction motor. As a part of this study establishing a current control system of PMSM suitable for railway vehicle traction should be investigated. In this paper we discuss about designing method of current control system mentioned above and suggest a method which is available under the condition of railway vehicle traction, low switching frequency and long digital calculating period. Next we investigate how to decide current response time constant Td and reach a conclusion that it is about 10ms is appropriate under some assumed condition. Then we checked this current control system for railway vehicle traction through experiments and studies of influence of parameter changing. Consequently we can recognize the current control system has satisfactory performance for railway vehicle traction. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Biomechanical analysis of combining head-down tilt traction with vibration for different grades of degeneration of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sicong; Wang, Lizhen; Wang, Yawei; Du, Chengfei; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a combination of traction and vibration therapy is usually used to alleviate low back pain (LBP) in clinical settings. Combining head-down tilt (HDT) traction with vibration was demonstrated to be efficacious for LBP patients in our previous study. However, the biomechanics of the lumbar spine during this combined treatment is not well known and need quantitative analysis. In addition, LBP patients have different grades of degeneration of the lumbar spinal structure, which are often age related. Selecting a suitable rehabilitation therapy for different age groups of patients has been challenging. Therefore, a finite element (FE) model of the L1-L5 lumbar spine and a vibration dynamic model are developed in this study in order to investigate the biomechanical effects of the combination of HDT traction and vibration therapy on the age-related degeneration of the lumbar spine. The decrease of intradiscal pressure is more effective when vibration is combined with traction therapy. Moreover, the stresses on the discs are lower in the "traction+vibration" mode than the "traction-only" mode. The stress concentration at the posterior part of nucleus is mitigated after the vibration is combined. The disc deformations especially posterior disc radial retraction is improved in the "traction+vibration" mode. These beneficial effects of this therapy could help decompress the discs and spinal nerves and therefore relieve LBP. Simultaneously, patients with grade 1 degeneration (approximately 41-50 years old) are able to achieve better results compared with other age groups. This study could be used to provide a more effective LBP rehabilitation therapy. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Posterior only pedicle screw instrumentation with intraoperative halo-femoral traction in the surgical treatment of severe scoliosis (>100 degrees).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoglu, Azmi; Ozturk, Cagatay; Aydogan, Mehmet; Tezer, Mehmet; Aksu, Neslihan; Bruno, Marco B

    2008-04-20

    Retrospective clinical study. To report the results of surgical correction achieved by intraoperative halo-femoral traction and posterior only pedicle screw instrumentation in severe scoliosis (scoliosis greater than 100 degrees ). Although previous reports show the effectiveness of preoperative halo traction in the treatment of severe spinal deformity, the intraoperative use of halo-femoral traction in conjunction with posterior pedicle screw instrumentation has never been reported in patients with severe spinal deformity. A total of 15 consecutive patients with severe (>100 degrees) thoracic idiopathic scoliosis and/or kyphoscoliosis operated by using intraoperative halo-femoral traction and posterior only pedicle screw instrumentation were included in the study. Subjects were analyzed by age at date of examination, gender, major coronal curve magnitude, major compensatory coronal curve magnitude, major sagittal curve magnitude, shoulder imbalance, and preoperative vital capacity of the lungs. Halo-traction related complications and short- and long-term complications were noted in each case. The average age at the time of surgery was 17.8 years (range, 16-19). There were 4 males and 11 females. The average improvement was 51% in the major thoracic curve, 33% in the compensatory lumbar curve, and 53% in the major sagittal curve. The average follow-up was 56 (range, 24-96) months. Loss of correction averaged 4 degrees for major thoracic curves and 2 degrees for thoracic kyphosis based on measurements at the final follow-up date. The use of intraoperative halo-femoral traction together with the wide facet resection and posterior release gradually provide a good correction and balance maintained by pedicle screw instrumentation. Intraoperative halo-femoral traction not only elongates spinal column but also elongates the thoracic cavity improving the compromised pulmonary function.

  19. Modification protocol for an early class III treatment using 3 miniplates for bone-anchored maxillary orthopedic traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung A; Seo, Kyung Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-09-01

    This article introduces the modification of 4-miniplate-assisted orthopedic protocol for class III correction. Instead of bilateral mandibular miniplates between lateral incisors and canine, the single modified Y-type C-tube with extension arms can replace 2 miniplates for temporary skeletal anchorage with advantages. Y-type C-tube was modified to have 2 extension arms for the application of class III elastics to replace 2 separate miniplates on either side of the mandible. A patient who declined a facemask therapy was selected to receive the modified protocol using only 3 C-tubes for bone-anchored maxillary orthopedic traction. The modified Y-type C-tube was inserted at the mandibular symphysis, and the bifurcation of the extension arms exited the tissue near the mucogingival junction. The modified Y-type C-tube was placed on the mandibular symphysis, and this provided 3 advantages compared with conventional miniplates: (1) 1 C-tube placement warrants less surgical sites than 2-miniplate installation, (2) placing the C-tube in between mandibular incisors prevents damage to developing or erupting permanent canines and allows early treatment start, and (3) the characteristic bendability of extension arms permits easy alteration on position and results in the vertical and sagittal vector controls of class III elastics. When the treatment is finished, it can be also simply removed like any other C-tubes with simple detachment of extension arms. The modification of 4-miniplate-assisted orthopedic protocol for class III correction provides easier surgical placement of miniplates by minimizing complications, early initiation of treatment, and more vector control with bendable extension arms of the modified Y-type C-tube.

  20. Biomechanical study and digital modeling of traction resistance in posterior thoracic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Louis Etienne; Pries, Pierre; Hamcha, Hamid; Clarac, Jean-Pierre; Texereau, Jacques

    2002-04-01

    Posterior implants were used to test the resistance of seven human thoracic spines to traction, and results were compared with those of a digital study. To compare the use of hook and screw fixation methods for posterior thoracic surgery in a study supplemented by a digital analysis using the finite-element method. The maximum break strength of pedicular screws on bone has already been studied several times. Far fewer studies have investigated the stresses that may be applied to pedicular and laminar hooks or compared these hooks with pedicular screws in the thorax. For this study, seven human thoracic spines were used, identifying 49 groups of two vertebrae each. The assemblies used a bolt in the medullary cavity. The central diameter of this bolt could be varied using tubes to suit the individual medullary cavity, spreading the stresses over the entire centrum during traction. The assembly was placed on an Instron machine. Vertical traction was applied up to the maximum break strength, that is, the strength recorded at the top of the traction curve read out directly on the Instron machine. Traction speed in all the tests was 5 mm per minute. Four pedicular screws and two pedicular-laminar clips were used alternately. In these tests, 25 values were obtained with hooks and 24 with screws. The group with screw fixation was tested in two halves, with 12 tests using 4-mm diameter screws and 12 tests using 5-mm diameter screws. For the digital study, the vertebra model comprised nearly 63,000 nodes and 14,000 elements. Elastic field calculations were carried out using the Abaqus finite-element calculation method. Each time pedicular-laminar traction was used, the pedicles broke at the base. Where screws were used, a medial fissure was found at the base of the pedicle. For the hooks, the maximum break strength was 1150 +/- 388 N. It was 820 +/- 418 N when 4-mm diameter screws were used and 1395 +/- 435 N when 5-mm screws were used. The most fragile vertebrae were found

  1. Direct magnetic resonance arthrography of the wrist with axial traction: a feasibility study to assess joint cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntern, Daniel; Becce, Fabio; Richarme, Delphine; Palhais, Nuno S; Meuli, Reto; Theumann, Nicolas

    2011-07-01

    To assess the impact of axial traction during acquisition of direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography of the wrist with regard to joint space width and amount of contrast material between the opposing cartilage surfaces. Fifteen consecutive patients (12 male, mean age 38.1 years) were included in this Institutional Review Board-approved prospective study. Three-compartment wrist MR arthrographies were performed between October and December 2009 on a 3 T unit using a fat-suppressed T1-weighted isotropic high-resolution volumetric interpolated breathhold examination (VIBE) sequence in the coronal plane, with and without axial traction (3 kg). Two radiologists measured radiocarpal (radioscaphoid, radiolunate) and midcarpal (lunocapitate, hamatolunate) joint space widths, with and without traction, and assessed the amount of contrast material between the opposing cartilage surfaces using a three-point scale: 0 = absence, 1 = partial, 2 = complete. With traction, joint space width increased significantly at the radioscaphoid (Δ = 0.78 mm, P wrist MR arthrography with axial traction of 3 kg increases joint space width at the radiocarpal and lunocapitate spaces, and prompts better coverage of the articular cartilage by the contrast material. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Spontaneous Ankylosis of Occiput to C2 following Closed Traction and Halo Treatment of Atlantoaxial Rotary Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krengel, Walter F.; Kim, Paul H.; Wiater, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective We report a case of spontaneous atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) presenting 9 months after onset in an 11-year-old boy. Methods This is a retrospective case report of spontaneous ankylosis of occiput to C2 following traction, manipulative reduction, and halo immobilization for refractory atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. Results The patient underwent traction followed by close manual reduction and placement of halo immobilization after 6 months of severe spontaneous-onset AARF that had been refractory to chiropractic manipulation and physical therapy. Imaging demonstrated dislocation of the left C1–C2 facet joint and remodeling changes of the C2 superior facet prior to reduction, followed by near complete reduction of the dislocation after manipulation and halo placement. Symptoms and clinical appearance were satisfactorily improved and the halo vest was removed after 3 months. At late follow-up, computed tomography demonstrated complete bony ankylosis of the occiput to C2. The patient was found to be HLA B27-positive, but he had no family history of ankylosing spondyloarthropathy or other joint symptoms. The underlying reasons for spontaneous fusion of the occiput to C2 could include the traction, HLA-B27-related spondyloarthropathy, or arthropathic changes caused by traction, reduction, the inciting insult, or immobilization. Conclusion When discussing treatment of childhood refractory AARF by traction, closed manipulation, and halo immobilization, the possibility of developing “spontaneous” ankylosis needs to be considered. PMID:26131392

  3. Mechanical Hybrid KERS Based on Toroidal Traction Drives: An Example of Smart Tribological Design to Improve Terrestrial Vehicle Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse in terms of efficiency and traction capabilities a recently patented traction drive, referred to as the double roller full-toroidal variator (DFTV. We compare its performance with the single roller full-toroidal variator (SFTV and the single roller half-toroidal variator (SHTV. Modeling of these variators involves challenging tribological issues; the traction and efficiency performances depend on tribological phenomena occurring at the interface between rollers and disks, where the lubricant undergoes very severe elastohydrodynamic lubrication regimes. Interestingly, the DFTV shows an improvement of the mechanical efficiency over a wide range of transmission ratios and in particular at the unit speed ratio as in such conditions in which the DFTV allows for zero-spin, thus strongly enhancing its traction capabilities. The very high mechanical efficiency and traction performances of the DFTV are exploited to investigate the performance of a flywheel-based Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS, where the efficiency of the variator plays an important role in determining the overall energy recovery performance. The energy boost capabilities and the round-trip efficiency are calculated for the three different variators considered in this study. The results suggest that the energy recovery potential of the mechanical KERS can be improved with a proper choice of the variator.

  4. Comparative study between lateral decubitus and traction table for treatment of pertrochanteric fractures with cephalomedullary nails ☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fernando de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To perform a retrospective radiographic assessment of the reduction and implant position in the femoral head in patients with pertrochanteric fractures treated with cephalomedullary nailing in the lateral position versus traction table. METHODS: Radiographs of patients with pertrochanteric fracture of the femur treated with cephalomedullary nailing in the lateral position and traction table were retrospectively evaluated. For the evaluation we used the anteroposterior radiographic view of the pelvis and the lateral view of the affected side. The cervicodiaphyseal angle, the tip-apex distance (TAD, and the spatial position of the cephalic component in the head were measured. Two patient groups were created, one group operated on the traction table and another group operated in the lateral position. RESULTS: Regarding the cervicodiaphyseal angle observed in the traction table group, the results of 11 patients (61.1% were outside the acceptable parameters proposed in the present study. Both groups were equivalent regarding TAD and the position of the cephalic component in the head. CONCLUSION: A difference in the cervicodiaphyseal angle was observed; the group operated on the traction table had 11 patients (61.1% whose measurements were outside the acceptable parameters.

  5. Cost effectiveness of using surgery versus skeletal traction in management of femoral shaft fractures at Thika level 5 hospital, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opondo, Everisto; Wanzala, Peter; Makokha, Ansellimo

    2013-01-01

    A prospective quasi experimental study was undertaken at the Thika level 5 hospital. The study aimed to compare the costs of managing femoral shaft fracture by surgery as compared to skeletal traction. Sixty nine (46.6%) patients were enrolled in group A and managed surgically by intramedullary nailing while 79 (53.4%) patients were enrolled in group B and managed by skeletal traction. Exclusion criteria included patients with pathological fractures and previous femoral fractures. Data was collected by evaluation of patients in patient bills using a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire included cost of haematological and radiological tests, bed fees, theatre fees and physiotherapy costs. The data was compiled and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Person's chi square and odds ratios were used to measure associations and risk analysis respectively. A higher proportion of patients (88.4%) in group A were hospitalized for less than one month compared to 20 patients (30.4%) in group B (p, 0.001).Total cost of treatment in group A was significantly lower than in group B. Nineteen (27.9%) patients who underwent surgery paid a total bill of Ksh 5000-7500 compared to 7(10.4%) who were treated by traction. The financial cost benefit of surgery was further complimented by better functional outcomes. The data indicates a cost advantage of managing femoral shaft fracture by surgery compared to traction. Furthermore the longer hospital stay in the traction group is associated with more malunion, limb deformity and shortening.

  6. Traction bow for acute reduction of fracture and/or dislocation of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G J; Eschenroeder, H C; Redler, M R; Stamp, W G

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of acute fractures and/or fracture dislocations of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine has traditionally involved bedrest or the use of traction devices with external hanging weights, until surgical correction can be accomplished. A fiberglass tubular traction bow with continuous adjustable elastic tension has been designed for the application of skeletal traction. When used to treat thoracic or thoracolumbar fractures and/or dislocations, it can maintain distraction forces in an uninterrupted fashion. Ten patients with acute fractures and/or dislocations of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine were treated with this traction bow. All of the spinal deformities showed dramatic improvement within the first 3 h of treatment. The patients all showed immediate lessening of acute severe pain, and those with incomplete neurologic loss showed improvement of their neurologic function. The patients all tolerated the device well and were able to undergo radiologic examination and, ultimately, spinal fusion while they were stabilized in the traction bow. We believe this device is especially valuable for immediate reduction of spine and care of patients with fractures or fracture dislocations of the thoracolumbar spine.

  7. Dielectric elastomer actuator for the measurement of cell traction forces with sub-cellular resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Samuel; Poulin, Alexandre; Zollinger, Alicia; Smith, Michael; Shea, Herbert

    2017-04-01

    We report on the use of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) to measure the traction force field of cells with subcellular resolution. The study of cellular electrochemical and mechanical response to deformation is an important area of research, as mechanotransduction has been shown to be linked with fundamental cell functions, or the progression of diseases such as cancer or atherosclerosis. Experimental cell mechanics is based on two fundamental concepts: the ability to measure cell stiffness, and to apply controlled strains to small clusters of cells. However, there is a lack of tools capable of applying precise deformation to a small cell population while being compatible with an inverted microscope (stable focal plane, transparency, compactness, etc.). Here, we use an anisotropically prestretched silicone-based DEA to deform a soft (7.6kPa) polyacrylamide gel on which the cells are cultured. An array of micro-dots of fluorescent fibronectin is transferred on the gel by micro-contact printing and serves as attachment points for the cells. In addition, the fluorescent dots (which have a diameter of 2 μm with a spacing of 6 μm) are used during the experiment to monitor the traction forces of a single cell (or small cluster of cells). The cell locally exerts traction on the gel, thus deforming the matrix of dots. The position of dots versus time is monitored live when the cells are submitted to a uniaxial strain step. Our deformable bioreactor enables the measurement of the local stiffness of cells submitted to mechanical strain, and is fully compatible with an inverted microscope set-up.

  8. The efficacy of lumbar traction in the management of patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Pinar; Keskin, Dilek; Bodur, Hatice

    2003-03-01

    The literature on the efficacy of traction in the treatment of low back pain (LBP) is conflicting. The aim of this study was to examine its efficacy in this disorder. Forty-two patients with at least 6 weeks of nonspecific LBP were selected. Demographic data were obtained. All patients completed the Oswestry disability index (ODI) to assess disability and the 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) for evaluation of pain. Subjects were randomly assigned into group 1, receiving only standard physical therapy, or group 2, receiving standard physical therapy with conventional lumbar traction. Standard physical therapy consisted of local heat, ultrasound for the lumbar region, and an active exercise program, given for ten sessions in all. The subjects received instruction on correct posture and recommended therapeutic exercises. They were reevaluated at the end of treatment and at 3-month follow-up. The mean outcome measures were global improvement and satisfaction with the therapy, as well as disability by ODI and pain by VAS. There were no group differences in terms of demographic and baseline clinical characteristics. There was a significant reduction in pain intensity and disability at the end of treatment in both groups. There was complete or mild improvement in 47.6% of group 1 and 40% of group 2. The satisfaction rate with both treatments was more than 70% immediately after the therapies. During the 3-month period, the outcome measures except disability remained statistically stable, with no difference amongst groups. Disability was significantly reduced at follow-up in both groups. Of the patients, 51% continued with the recommended exercises and had significantly lower disability scores than those who did not continue with the exercises. Pain and global improvement were also better in this group, but the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, no specific effect of traction on standard physical therapy was observed in our study group. We suggest

  9. Care of the school-aged child in 90/90 traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, M S

    1996-01-01

    Children in the school-aged period are those most likely to sustain a fractured femur. One method of treatment for this age group is immobilization of the fracture in 90/90 traction. Specific needs of these children are discussed, and related nursing problems are identified. The physiologic and psychosocial aspects of nursing care are also addressed. Emphasis is placed on the developmental tasks inherent in this age group. Mastery of illness and hospitalization are central issues for the school-aged child and can be facilitated through the efforts of nursing and hospital staff. A therapeutic play program is also a beneficial adjunct to treatment and nursing care.

  10. Electric traction motion power and energy supply : basics and practical experience

    CERN Document Server

    Steimel, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This book has evolved from the lecture series ""Elektrische Bahnen" (""Electric railways") which has been held at Ruhr-Universität Bochum since 1996. Its primary audience are students of electrical energy technologies, control engineering and mechanical engineering as well as young engineers of electrical engineering, especially in the fields of power electronics, in railway industry and in railway-operating companies. The book intends to convey mechanical fundamentals of electric railway propulsion, which includes rail-bound guidance, transmission of traction effort from wheel to rail under t

  11. Review on the Traction System Sensor Technology of a Rail Transit Train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianghua; Xu, Junfeng; Liao, Wu; Liu, Yong

    2017-06-11

    The development of high-speed intelligent rail transit has increased the number of sensors applied on trains. These play an important role in train state control and monitoring. These sensors generally work in a severe environment, so the key problem for sensor data acquisition is to ensure data accuracy and reliability. In this paper, we follow the sequence of sensor signal flow, present sensor signal sensing technology, sensor data acquisition, and processing technology, as well as sensor fault diagnosis technology based on the voltage, current, speed, and temperature sensors which are commonly used in train traction systems. Finally, intelligent sensors and future research directions of rail transit train sensors are discussed.

  12. Promising results after vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleif, Jakob; Fabricius, Rasmus; Bertelsen, Claus Anders

    2012-01-01

    Patients with an open abdomen (OA) present a major challenge to the surgeon. High mortality and associated complication rates have been reported depending on the specific method of temporary abdominal closure, the primary disorder and any co-morbidity. Vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh......-mediated fascial traction (VAWCM) is a novel technique recently introduced for late fascial closure of the OA. In previous studies, the disease aetiologies were mainly vascular and visceral surgical disease and trauma. We report our results using VAWCM in a non-trauma patient population treated with an OA due...

  13. Simulation of Dynamic Regimes in Asynchronous Traction Electric Drives of Locomotives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Seyidov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a dynamic model for locomotive electric drive with four asynchronous traction motors and their stator windings are serially connected. A mathematical model for motors being fed by one autonomous inverter has been developed in the paper. Serial connection makes it possible to increase a value of the total supply voltage. An analysis of the developed model shows that currents consumed by motors with their serial connection are lower in case of their parallel operation.  Direct and frequency start-up curves are given on the basis of the developed model.

  14. The Technical Problems of Anti-theft Diagnostics in a Traction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, Jerzy; Młynczak, Jakub

    2012-02-01

    The paper presents an analysis of traction lines theft in the Katowice division of the Railroad Development Company (Zakład Linii Kolejowych - ZLK) as well as the principles for the anti-theft protection system, currently in development. The problem of theft is a very important issue concerning the safety of rail transportation. It is also a significant economic problem, as the cost of recreating a stolen network is very high. Moreover, the Administrator of the infrastructure bears the cost of compensation for any delays in train schedules.

  15. Electric vehicle traction motors - The development of an advanced motor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P.

    1980-01-01

    An axial-field permanent magnet traction motor is described, similar to several advanced motors that are being developed in the United States. This type of machine has several advantages over conventional dc motors, particularly in the electric vehicle application. The rapidly changing cost of magnetic materials, particularly cobalt, makes it important to study the utilization of permanent magnet materials in such machines. The impact of different magnets on machine design is evaluated, and the advantages of using iron powder composites in the armature are assessed.

  16. CONSTRUCTIVE MODELLING FOR ZONE OF RECOVERY ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF DC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shynkarenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The article is aimed to develop the means and methods of forming a plurality of real and potential structural diagrams for zones of energy recovery and different locations of trains for further training neuro-fuzzy networks on the basis of expert solutions and also for the formation of good control. Methodology. Methodology of mathematical and algorithmic constructivism for modeling the structural diagrams of the electric supply system and modes of traction power consumption and the train’s locations in zones of energy recovery was applied. This approach involves the development of constructive-synthesizing structures (CSS with transformation by specialization, interpretation, specification and implementation. Development CSS provides an extensible definition media, relations and the signature of operations and constructive axiomatic. The most complex and essential part of the axioms is the set formed by the substitution rules defining the process of withdrawal of the corresponding structures. Findings. A specialized and specified CSS, which allows considering all the possibilities and features, that supply power traction systems with modern equipment, stations and trains location was designed. Its feature: the semantic content of the terminal alphabet images of electrical traction network and power consumers with relevant attributes. A special case of the formation of the structural diagram shows the possibilities CSS in relation to this problem. Originality. A new approach to solving the problem of rational use of energy recovery, which consists in application of the methods and means of artificial neural networks, expert systems, fuzzy logic and mathematical and algorithmic constructivism. This paper presents the methods of constructive simulation of a production-distribution of energy recovery zone structure in the system of the DC traction. Practical value. The tasks decision of the rational use of energy recovery can

  17. Separable and Inseparable Quantum Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, J.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The dynamical behavior of interacting systems plays a fundamental role for determining quantum correlations, such as entanglement. In this Letter, we describe temporal quantum effects of the inseparable evolution of composite quantum states by comparing the trajectories to their classically correlated counterparts. For this reason, we introduce equations of motions describing the separable propagation of any interacting quantum system, which are derived by requiring separability for all times. The resulting Schrödinger-type equations allow for comparing the trajectories in a separable configuration with the actual behavior of the system and, thereby, identifying inseparable and time-dependent quantum properties. As an example, we study bipartite discrete- and continuous-variable interacting systems. The generalization of our developed technique to multipartite scenarios is also provided.

  18. [A study of highpull extraoral traction on the treatment of growing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qing-ling; Cai, Zhong

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of highpull extraoral traction on growing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion. 11 pairs of cephalograms obtained before and after highpull extra-oral traction treatment were used in this study, treatment changes were measured with Pancherz analysis, and compared with the control group. Independent samples group t test with SPSS 11.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. highpull extra-oral traction had inhibitive effect on forward and downward maxillary growth. Changes on SNA, A-Olp between the two groups were statistically different (Ptraction had orthopedic effect on the correction of skeletal Class II malocclusion of growing patients, including inhibition of maxillary growth and allowance of fully expression of mandibular growth. Meanwhile, dental-alveolar changes on the vertical and sagittal plane were beneficial to further improvement of the dental and facial appearance of the patients.

  19. Traction Induced Vertical Displacement of Odontoid due to Type III Odontoid Fracture with Unrecognized Ligamentous Injury: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Ho; Hur, Hyuk; Jang, Jae-Won; Kim, Jae-Hyoo; Kim, Soo-Han

    2014-01-01

    Dens fractures are a common traumatic cervical spine injury. Among them, a type III fracture is the second common fracture. Although there are several treatment options, it has been accepted that type III fracture is usually healed by non-surgical method. After adequate reduction with traction, subsequent external immobilization has been associated with successful union rates. However, in the review of literatures, there are some cases with neurological deterioration after application of skull traction. So, the authors report a case of type III dens fracture with initially unrecognized ligamentous injury in which vertical dissociation and quadriplegia occurred after only five-pound Gardner-Well tongs traction. And also, the authors raise awareness of this potentially injury. PMID:27169054

  20. A comparison between the effects of simple and traction splints on pain intensity in patients with femur fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irajpour, Alireza; Kaji, Nariman Sadeghi; Nazari, Fatemeh; Azizkhani, Reza; Zadeh, Akbar Hassan

    2012-11-01

    Fractures of femur are among the most important causes of mortality in musculoskeletal injuries. Owning to lack of adequate research to compare various techniques of fracture stabilization, there has not yet been an agreement over a protocol to utilize a specific type of splint for femoral fracture immobilization. This study was thus conducted to compare the effects of simple and traction splints on pain intensityimmediately after and at the 1(st), 6(th), and 12(th)h after splinting among patients with femur fracture in the centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). This quasi-experimental study was performed on 32 patients with femur fractures. Prehospital emergency ambulances were divided into two groups of simple and traction splints using a table of random numbers. Continuous convenient sampling was employed in each group to use either a simple or a traction splint for the patients with femur fractures. Pain intensity of the patients was then measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) immediately, 1 h, 6 h, and 12 h after splinting. The effects of the two techniques were finally compared. After splinting, pain intensity decreased significantly in both groups (P = 0.0001 in both groups). The reductions were significantly more in the traction splint group at the 1(st), 6(th)(P = 0.0001), and 12(th)h after splinting (P = 0.02) compared with the simple splint group. There was no significant difference in pain intensity immediately after splintingbetween the two groups (P = 0.441). The significant difference in pain reduction between the simple and traction splint groups at the 1(st), 6(th), and 12(th)h after splinting emphasizes the superiority of traction splints.

  1. The efficacy of lumbar extension traction for sagittal alignment in mechanical low back pain: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Aliaa Attiah Mohamed; Moustafa, Ibrahim Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in the role of abnormal asymmetrical posture, which is considered one of the most important etiological factors reported to be associated with mechanical low back pain. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of lumbar extension traction on the pain, function and whole spine sagittal balance as represented in lumbar curvature, thoracic curvature, C7 plumb line, and sacral slope. Eighty patients with chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP) and definite hypolordosis were randomly assigned to traction or a control group. The control group (n=40) received stretching exercises and infrared radiation, whereas the traction group (n=40) received lumbar extension traction in addition to stretching exercises and infrared radiation three times a week for 10 weeks. Back pain rating scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and radiological spine sagittal balance parameters in terms of lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, sacral slope, and positioning of C7 plumb line were measured for all patients at three intervals (before treatment, after 10 weeks of treatment, and at six months follow-up). There was a significant difference between the traction and control groups adjusted to baseline value of outcome at 10 weeks post treatment with respect to lumbar lordotic curve (P=0.000), thoracic kyphosis (P=0.013), sacral slope (P=0.001), C7 plump line distance (p=0.001), while there was no significant difference with respect to pain (p=0.29) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) (p=0.1). At 6-months follow-up, there were significant differences between both groups for all the previous variables (pLumbar extension traction in addition to stretching exercises and infrared radiation improved the spine sagittal balance parameters and decreased the pain and disability in CMLBP.

  2. Influence of the braking power control of the traction asynchronous machine in the voltage vector control system under DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Олександрівна Слободенюк

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available At braking the traction motors are transferred to generator mode and produce electrical energy which passes to the contact mains or storage device in the DC mains for further use. Such braking is called regenerative. The resulting electrical energy can be spent by trains in traction mode. Regenerative braking reduces the consumption of electric power for traction. In electric railways of our country more than 3% of the consumed electrical energy is given back to contact mains annually. As this takes place there arises the task to control the braking of the traction motors with minimal impact on electric power quality and maintaining proper braking performance. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the brake traction of an electric locomotive with asynchronous electric machines the main braking modes have been chosen: at a constant sliding speed and the stator constant voltage; at constant braking power and the stator constant voltage; at a power value more than the nominal braking power; at a constant load torque; at a constant frequency of the stator. The vector control system with the formation of the reactive component of the stator current and the EMF regulator was chosen, basing on the working conditions characteristics in the electric braking mode (recuperation; namely, that the characteristics are defined by the laws regulating the frequency and voltage across the stator windings. This control system can fully reproduce any predetermined trajectory of traction and braking performance and adjust braking power. The offered system with recuperation can be used as a means of compensation in emergency situations with a power failure

  3. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS: psychometric properties.

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    Xavier Méndez

    Full Text Available This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS, which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82 and temporal stability (r = 0.83 of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  4. Probing the Dynamics of Cellular Traction Forces with Magnetic Micropost Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Corinne; Chen, Christopher; Reich, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Mechanical forces on living cells are associated with changes in cellular function. For example, vascular smooth muscle cells are known to undergo a mechanical feedback response to increased stress, which can result in atherosclerosis. We have recently developed a magnetic micropost array, a novel device for measuring cellular traction forces that simultaneously enables the application of localized external forces to cells. The device consists of an array of micrometer scale elastomeric posts that act as force sensors for cells cultured on their tips. An external force is applied to the adherent surface of a cell via a magnetic torque on a cobalt nanowire embedded in a single post. Initial results showed an active and non-local cellular response to applied forces in mouse fibroblast cells.ootnotetextN. Sniadecki, et. al, Proc Natl Acad Sci, 104, 14553 (2007). We will present results on the spatially resolved dynamics of traction forces exerted by smooth muscle cells over time in response to constant and time-varying stimulation. The observation of biochemical and mechanical regulation of the subcellular redistribution of force may allow insights into cellular mechanotransduction and control of cell function.

  5. Traction of impacted canines in a skeletal Class III malocclusion: A challenging orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; Sasso Stuani, Maria Bernadete; Assed Carneiro, Fábio Carvalho; Nakane Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko

    2017-06-01

    This case report describes the successful traction of 2 severely impacted canines. The patient, a 7-year-old girl, had good general health, nasal breathing, crossbite of the lateral incisors and canines, and a Class I molar relationship. The panoramic radiograph showed that the permanent canines were positioned above the roots of the lateral incisors, with the right canine in an accentuated inclination. The cephalometric analysis showed a skeletal Class III malocclusion with a predominance of horizontal growth. The Haas appliance associated with maxillary protraction was used during the first stage of treatment for 14 months. The second stage included the extraction of the deciduous molars, distal movement of the permanent molars to create space, and traction of the canines, and was associated with complete orthodontic treatment. The patient showed good esthetic and functional results at the end of treatment, verified by the stability over a period of 8 years after retention. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The XXI century mountains: sustainable management of mountainous areas based on animal traction

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    Rodrigues J.B.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, there are around 300 million working animals worldwide. They play a fundamental role in human livelihoods through their contribution to financial, human and social capital, supporting between 300 and 600 million people globally, particularly in poorer areas, where animal energy represents a huge and extremely important sustainable power resource. Yet their recognition remains largely neglected, with animal traction being largely ignored by decision and policy makers and even by civil society at all levels, which compromises a real development and improvement of this technology as well as animal welfare. On the other hand, a collective ecological and economical consciousness and an increasing awareness of public opinion about the need to reduce the excessive industrialization and mechanization of agriculture and forestry has led some sectors of society to consider the (reuse of animal traction as a valid modern source of energy. Indeed, working animals optimally transform the consumed biomass in energy and natural fertilizer, which avoids soil degradation and contributes to a sustainable management of arable lands, forests and sensitive areas. The need to maintain biodiversity, reduce carbon emissions, encourage self-reliance and reduce consumption of resources also contributes to this trend.

  7. α1 -AR agonist induced piloerection protects against the development of traction alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Andy; Shapiro, Jerry; Sinclair, Rodney; Kovacevic, Maja; McCoy, John

    2016-05-01

    Traction alopecia is hair loss that occurs after persistent pulling (e.g., during cosmetic procedures) on the roots of hair over time. Unlike plucking, which is painful, persistent pulling may go unnoticed until a patient presents with either bald spots or diffuse telogen shedding. Each hair follicle in the scalp contains an arrector pili muscle that, when contracted, erects the hair. The smooth muscle in the arrector pili expresses α1 adrenergic receptors (α1 -AR). As such, we hypothesized that contraction of the arrector pili muscle via an α1 -AR agonist would increase the threshold of force required to pluck hair during cosmetic procedures. Female subjects, ages 18-40, were recruited to study the effect of topically applied phenylephrine, a selective α1 -AR agonist, on epilation force and hair shedding during cosmetic procedures. In our blinded study, 80% of subjects demonstrated reduced shedding on days using phenylephrine compared to days using a placebo solution. The average reduction in hair loss was approximately 42%. In addition, the force threshold required for epilation increased by approximately 172% following topical phenylephrine application. To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating the utility of α1 -AR agonists in the treatment of traction alopecia and hair shedding during cosmetic procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Coordinated vehicle traction control based on engine torque and brake pressure under complicated road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mingxin; Li, Liang; Li, Hongzhi; Song, Jian; Han, Zongqi

    2012-09-01

    Vehicle traction control system has been developed to enhance the traction capability and the direction stability of the driving wheels through the tyre slip ratio regulation. Under normal situations, if the tyre slip ratio exceeds a certain threshold, the slip ratio of the driving wheel is regulated by the coupled interaction of the engine torque and the active brake pressure. In order to obtain the best driving performance on a road under complicated friction conditions, the driving torque and the active brake pressure, need to be decoupled and adjusted to avoid penalisation of each other. In this paper, a coordinated cascade control method with two sliding-mode variable structure controllers is presented. In this control method, the driving wheel slip ratio is regulated by adjusting the engine torque and the wheel brake pressure. Through the sliding-mode controller, the engine torque is tuned to achieve the maximum driving acceleration and then the active brake pressure is applied to the slipped wheel for further modification of the wheel slip ratio. The advantage of this control method is that through proper regulation, the conflict between the two control inputs could be avoided. Finally, the simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Integrin-Matrix Clusters Form Podosome-like Adhesions in the Absence of Traction Forces

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    Cheng-han Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Matrix-activated integrins can form different adhesion structures. We report that nontransformed fibroblasts develop podosome-like adhesions when spread on fluid Arg-Gly-Asp peptide (RGD-lipid surfaces, whereas they habitually form focal adhesions on rigid RGD glass surfaces. Similar to classic macrophage podosomes, the podosome-like adhesions are protrusive and characterized by doughnut-shaped RGD rings that surround characteristic core components including F-actin, N-WASP, and Arp2/Arp3. Furthermore, there are 18 podosome markers in these adhesions, though they lack matrix metalloproteinases that characterize invadopodia and podosomes of Src-transformed cells. When nontransformed cells develop force on integrin-RGD clusters by pulling RGD lipids to prefabricated rigid barriers (metal lines spaced by 1–2 μm, these podosomes fail to form and instead form focal adhesions. The formation of podosomes on fluid surfaces is mediated by local activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K and the production of phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3 in a FAK/PYK2-dependent manner. Enrichment of PIP3 precedes N-WASP activation and the recruitment of RhoA-GAP ARAP3. We propose that adhesion structures can be modulated by traction force development and that production of PIP3 stimulates podosome formation and subsequent RhoA downregulation in the absence of traction force.

  10. Lumbar extraforaminal ligaments act as a traction relief and prevent spinal nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, G A; Smit, T H; Hoogland, P V J M; Snijders, C J

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, ligaments that connect the extraforaminal lumbar spinal nerves with the fibrous capsule of the facet joints and the dorsolateral side of the intervertebral disc were described. This anatomical configuration suggests a mechanical role in transferring extraforaminal spinal nerve traction. One embalmed human lumbar spine was dissected from the twelfth thoracic vertebra to the first sacral vertebra to isolate the twelfth thoracic to the fourth lumbar spinal nerves. The spinal nerves from L1 to L4 were pulled at different angles with respect to the axis of the spine. Forces of 1-6N were applied. The displacements of reflective markers glued to the proximal and distal ends of the adjoining ligaments were recorded with a video system. The spinal nerve proximal of the extraforaminal ligaments stays centred in the intervertebral foramen when pulling at an angle. At levels L1-L4 strain reduction by the extraforaminal ligaments was largest when pulling at a wider angle to the spinal axis in the sagittal plane. Proximal to the extraforaminal ligaments less displacement was seen compared to the displacement distal of the extraforaminal ligaments when pulling in longitudinal direction. A graded decrease in the displacement proximal to the extraforaminal ligaments was seen from the levels L1-L4. Extraforaminal ligaments play an important role in the prevention of damage due to spinal nerve traction. The proximal attachments secure a spinal nerve position central in the intervertebral foramen and also reduce longitudinal tension.

  11. Radiographic evaluation of the use of transverse traction device in vertebral arthrodesis for degenerative diseases

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    Edgar Takao Utino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Perform radiographic analysis of the use of Transverse Traction Device (DTT with respect to fusion rate in patients submitted to vertebral arthrodesis for degenerative lumbar diseases. METHODS: We selected x-ray images on anteroposterior, lateral and oblique views and with maximum flexion and extension dynamics of 23 patients submitted to posterolateral arthrodesis of the lumbar spine with a minimum follow-up period of six months. The images were evaluated and classified by the Linovitz's system by two spine surgeons. RESULTS: We evaluated the radiographs of 23 patients after the minimum postoperative period of 6 months and of these, 11 have used DTT. With regard to the consolidation rate, seven patients (63.6% in the group of DTT were classified as fusion as well as six patients (50% who were not submitted to the treatment. There was no statistical difference between the groups regarding the consolidation rate. CONCLUSION: The use of transverse traction device in this study showed no significant difference in the rate of consolidation in radiographic evaluation. Studies on the effective participation of this device in the stability of pedicle fixation systems are still lacking in the literature.

  12. Observations at the craniocervical junction with simultaneous caudal traction of the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Oakes, W Jerry

    2007-04-01

    Some have opined that caudal traction of the spinal cord may result in caudal descent of the hindbrain. In fresh adult cadavers (n = 12; less than 6 h postmortem) with no CIM, distal tension (75 N) was applied to the conus medullaris with simultaneous observation of the cervical spinal cord, brainstem, and hindbrain and their relationship to the foramen magnum per occipital craniectomy and removal of the posterior arch of C1. After lumbar laminectomy in cadavers, caudal tension on the cord (conus medullaris) demonstrated negligible movement (less than 1 mm) of the caudal brain stem and cervical spinal cord. No movement of the cerebellar tonsils was identified. Moreover, after transection of the lumbar dural cul-de-sac and lumbar spinal dural nerve sleeves, distal traction produced only 2 to 3 mm of caudal descent of the brain stem and cervical spinal cord. Again, no movement of the cerebellar tonsils was visualized. Our findings in a fresh cadaveric model suggest that it is unlikely that caudal fixation of the distal spinal cord results in inferior displacement of the cerebellar tonsils, and a resultant Chiari I malformation or that transection of the filum terminale may reverse tonsillar ectopia. In vivo animal studies are now necessary to verify our findings.

  13. [Hip joint development after treatment the developmental dislocation with overhead traction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibińiski, Marcin; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej; Synder, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Despite the fact that ultrasound of children's hips is widely used for screening, late diagnosed cases of developmental dislocation of the hip are still a common problem in the orthopaedic practice. The aim of the study is to review final clinical and radiological outcomes of treatment of DDH with overhead traction and closed reduction after skeletal growth. Clinical records and radiograms of 107 hips (81 children) were retrospectively reviewed. All of them were treated according to the same program: overhead traction (about 2 weeks), followed by closed reduction, modified Lorenz cast (2 months) and finally cast in Lange position (3 months). Average age of children was 14.2 months at the beginning of treatment and 20.7 years at last visit. Good and very good results were found in 80% of cases according to final radiological assessment of Severin and in 91% according functional classification of Harris. Avascular necrosis of femoral head according to Bucholz-Ogden classification system was identified in one third of patients. Functional results are better than radiological, but deteriorated with time especially in hips with residual dysplasia and AVN due to development of early, secondary degenerative changes.

  14. External Fixation vs. Skeletal Traction for Treatment of Intertrochanteric Fractures in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Gholam Hossein; Emami, Mohammad; Manafi, Alireza; Najafi, Farideh; Najafi, Mohammad Amin

    2016-02-01

    Hip fractures are one of the causes of disability amongst elderly patients. External fixator and skeletal traction are two modes of treatment. The aim of this study is to compare two different treatment modes for intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients. Sixty elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures were randomized for treatment with either skeletal traction (Group A) or an external fixation (Group B). In this study patients at least 60 years of age, with AO/OTA A1 or A2 type fracture and intertrochanteric fracture as a result of minor trauma, were enrolled. Acceptable reduction was achieved in eight and 26 patients of group A and B, respectively. The mean duration of hospitalization in Group A and Group B was 14.3 ± 1.1 and 2.2 ± 0.6 days, respectively. Significant differences between the two groups were observed, regarding acceptable reduction and duration of hospitalization. Less pain was observed in group B, at five days and twelve months after surgery; the average HHS was 57 and 66, in group A and B, respectively (P > 0.05). Treatment with an external fixator is an effective treatment modality for intertrochanteric fractures in elderly high-risk patients. The advantages include rapid and simple application, insignificant blood loss, less radiation exposure, adequate fixation, pain reduction, early discharge from the hospital, low cost and more favorable functional outcome.

  15. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL STATE OF TRACTION BRUSHLESS PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR FOR MINE ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE

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    A. V. Matyuschenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study was conducted to analyze thermal state of the traction permanent magnet synchronous motor for mine electric battery locomotive when operating in continuous and short-time duty modes. These operating modes are selected for study, as they are typical for mine electric locomotives. Methodology. Thermal calculation was performed by means of FEM in three-dimensional formulation of problem using Jmag-Designer. Results. The modeling results of thermal state of the PMSM in continuous and short-time duty operation modes showed good agreement with experimental results. The results showed that the temperature of PM is higher than temperature of the stator winding in continuous operation mode. It was found that PM temperature might reach excessive values because of the high presence of eddy current losses in neodymium PM. Therefore, special attention in the design and testing of PMSM should be paid to the temperature of PM in various operation modes. Practical value. It was recommended to use high temperature permanent magnets in traction PMSM to avoid demagnetization of PM and performance degradation.

  16. Degree of Fault Tolerance as a Comprehensive Parameter for Reliability Evaluation of Fault Tolerant Electric Traction Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Bolvashenkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new approach and methodology of quantitative assessment of the fault tolerance of electric power drive consisting of the multi-phase traction electric motor and multilevel electric inverter. It is suggested to consider such traction drive as a system with several degraded states. As a comprehensive parameter for evaluating of the fault tolerance, it is proposed to use the criterion of degree of the fault tolerance. For the approbation of the proposed method, the authors carried out research and obtained results of its practical application for evaluating the fault tolerance of the power train of an electrical helicopter.

  17. Age-related differences in the response of the L5-S1 intervertebral disc to spinal traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Beattie, Paul F; Bowden, Jennifer; Larson, Robert; Wang, Haonan

    2017-10-01

    Lumbar traction is a common treatment for low back pain; however its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that a key effect of lumbar traction is its capacity to influence fluid movement within the intervertebral disc (IVD). To determine differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained with lumbar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the L5-S1 IVD before, and during, the application of lumbar traction. Case series, repeated measures. A static traction load of ∼50% of body-weight was applied to the low back using a novel "MRI-safe" apparatus. DWI of the lumbar spine was performed prior to, and during the application of the traction load. Participants were currently asymptomatic and included a young adult group (n = 18) and a middle-aged group (n = 15). The young adult group had a non-significant 2.2% increase in ADC (mean change = 0.03 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, SD = 0.24, 95% CI = -0.09, 0.15). The ADC for the middle-aged group significantly increased by 20% (mean change of 0.18 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, SD = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.28; p = 0.003; effect size = 0.95). There was an inverse relationship between the ADC obtained before traction and the percent increase in ADC that was measured during traction. Static traction was associated with an increase in diffusion of water within the L5-S1 IVDs of middle-age individuals, but not in young adults, suggesting age-related differences in the diffusion response. Further study is needed to assess the relationship between these findings and the symptoms of back pain. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flare-up of previously quiescent chronic osteomyelitis 20 years after childhood skeletal traction: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, A; Grimaldi, M; Rubens-Duval, B; Chaussard, C; Saragaglia, D

    2011-12-01

    Management of lower limb fractures in children involves many approaches, spanning from conservative treatment to open reduction and internal fixation. A number of intermediate treatments have also been shown to be effective, notably skeletal traction. However, each of these techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages in terms of complications. In this report, we describe two new cases of chronic osteomyelitis that manifested (many years) after childhood skeletal traction. After analysing these two cases, we proposed measures that can be implemented to avoid such complications, along with a simple, appropriate, reproducible treatment approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Heterotopic ossification of the quadriceps following distal femoral traction: a report of three cases and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Lawrence M; Gupta, Salil; Egol, Kenneth A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2004-04-01

    We present the previously unreported complication of symptomatic heterotopic ossification of the quadriceps following placement of a large-diameter Steinmann pin for the purpose of temporary skeletal traction. Following the development of distal quadriceps heterotopic bone formation in three patients, we conducted a comprehensive search of the literature using the Medline database from 1966 to the present. A variety of publications, including review articles, case reports, and randomized prospective studies, were used for the literature review. This potential complication should be considered when using a large-diameter Steinmann pin in the distal femur for skeletal traction.

  20. Maintenance of working capacity of movement mechanism of load trolley with linear traction electric drive of bridge type crane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Denisov, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the influence of the air gap size between the linear motor elements on the stability of the traction drive of the movement mechanism of the trolley of the bridge type crane. The main factors affecting the air gap size and the causes of their occurrence are described. The technique of calculating the magnitude of air gap variation is described in relation to the general deformation of the crane metal structure. Recommendations on the need for installation of additional equipment for load trolleys of various designs are given. The optimal values of the length of the trolley base are proposed. Observance of these values ensures normal operation of the traction drive.

  1. [Biomechanical experiments for measuring traction lengthening of the lumbar spine during weight bath therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurutzné, Kovács Márta; Bene, Eva; Lovas, Antal; Molnár, Péter; Monori, Erika

    2002-03-31

    Weight-bath as an effective traction therapy has successfully been applied in Hungary for nearly a half century, however, it has still been constrained exclusively to empirical bases until the numerical biomechanical analysis of Bene and Kurutz appeared in 1993. Due to their calculations, for cervical suspension in traction bath, the value and distribution of tensile force along the spine became known, however, the most important information, namely, the deformation of spine segments to be stretched by the therapy is so far unknown. In this paper the results of a wide-ranging in vivo biomechanical experimental analysis are presented, aimed partly to obtain the traction deformation effects of weight-bath therapy, partly to obtain the biomechanical traction model of human lumbar segments. The analysis aimed to clear the effect of decompression, extra weights, sex, aging, body height and weight. The experiments have been executed during the prescribed 20 minutes long weight-bath treatment of patients having indication for cervical suspension. Patients with other forms of suspension, like armpit bars, have been excluded from the analysis. Two groups of patients have been distinguished: 67 patients without and 88 patients with extra weight loads of 20-20 N (2-2 kgf) applied on the ankles. Extension values of lumbar segments LIII-IV, LIV-V and LV-SI have been measured. Tensile deformations have been specified as the change of the distance between two spinous process of vertebrae, measured by a special subequal ultrasound method developed by the research group. The experimental results have been evaluated by using special software for analyzing ultrasound pictures. More than 3500 ultrasound pictures of 400 lumbar segments of 155 patients have been measured and evaluated. As for the results, at the end of the treatment, elongation of lumbar segments has been demonstrated practically in 60% of patients without and in 75% of patients with extra weights. The mean extension of

  2. Current use of lumbar traction in the management of low back pain: results of a survey of physiotherapists in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Annette Agnes; Gracey, Jacqueline Helen; Baxter, George David

    2005-06-01

    To identify the current use of traction and the types of patients, treatment parameters, and treatment modalities used in conjunction with traction. Postal survey, with 4 sections: professional characteristics of respondent, current use of traction, patient selection, and treatment parameters. Musculoskeletal outpatient departments (private and nonprivate practitioners). Random sample (N=1491) of chartered physiotherapists in the UK who work in the management of low back pain (LBP). Not applicable. Descriptive analysis of information on current use and practice in applying traction. A response rate of 83% (n=1239) was achieved; 41% (n=507) use lumbar traction, which is most commonly used in the management of subacute LBP patients presenting with nerve root symptoms. Treatment parameters were established for weights (5-60 kg), frequency (2-3 times weekly), and length of treatment (4 wk). In addition, traction is commonly used with other modalities (87%): mobilizations, advice, and exercise. Survey results show the continued use of lumbar traction despite the recommendations of numerous guidelines. Results also clarify the types of patients and the parameters used in the application of traction.

  3. The impact of halo-gravity traction on curve rigidity and pulmonary function in the treatment of severe and rigid scoliosis and kyphoscoliosis: a clinical study and narrative review of the literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koller, Heiko; Zenner, Juliane; Gajic, Vera; Meier, Oliver; Ferraris, Luis; Hitzl, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    .... Presurgical halo-gravity traction (HGT) achieves an increase in curve flexibility, a reduction in neurologic risks through gradual traction on a chronically tethered cord and an improvement in preoperative pulmonary function...

  4. The Effects of Stretching with Lumbar Traction on VAS and Oswestry Scales of Patients with Lumbar 4-5 Herniated Intervertebral Disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hae-Sun; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stretching with lumbar traction on VAS and Oswestry scale scores of lumbar 4-5 herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) patients. [Subjects] We recruited 20 lumbar 4-5 HIVD patients. [Methods] We performed stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4-5 HIVD patients during 4 weeks. The VAS and Oswestry scales were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in VAS scale scores for stretching with lumbar traction in lumbar 4-5 HIVD patients, from 18±1.29 to 2.1±1.35. The Oswestry scale scores also decreased significantly, from 20.35±2.01 to 3.5±2.84, after stretching with lumbar traction. [Conclusion] Thus, we suggest stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4-5 HIVD patients.

  5. Dissociation between spatial and temporal integration mechanisms in Vernier fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Jan; Zhu, Weina; Melcher, David

    2014-12-01

    The visual system constructs a percept of the world across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This raises the questions of whether different scales involve separate integration mechanisms and whether spatial and temporal factors are linked via spatio-temporal reference frames. We investigated this using Vernier fusion, a phenomenon in which the features of two Vernier stimuli presented in close spatio-temporal proximity are fused into a single percept. With increasing spatial offset, perception changes dramatically from a single percept into apparent motion and later, at larger offsets, into two separately perceived stimuli. We tested the link between spatial and temporal integration by presenting two successive Vernier stimuli presented at varying spatial and temporal offsets. The second Vernier either had the same or the opposite offset as the first. We found that the type of percept depended not only on spatial offset, as reported previously, but interacted with the temporal parameter as well. At temporal separations around 30-40 ms the majority of trials were perceived as motion, while above 70 ms predominantly two separate stimuli were reported. The dominance of the second Vernier varied systematically with temporal offset, peaking around 40 ms ISI. Same-offset conditions showed increasing amounts of perceived separation at large ISIs, but little dependence on spatial offset. As subjects did not always completely fuse stimuli, we separated trials by reported percept (single/fusion, motion, double/segregation). We found systematic indications of spatial fusion even on trials in which subjects perceived temporal segregation. These findings imply that spatial integration/fusion may occur even when the stimuli are perceived as temporally separate entities, suggesting that the mechanisms responsible for temporal segregation and spatial integration may not be mutually exclusive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The improvement of maintenance service for traction networks equipment on the base of process approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Mironov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The new methods development for improving the maintenance service for equipment of traction networks in order to increase its efficiency and quality. Methodology. In world practice of solving problems related to the quality of products and services is usually achieved by introducing quality management system in to the enterprises. The provisions of quality management system were used for solving the problem. The technologies of process engineering were used for describing the main stages of maintenance service. Findings. The development of high-speed movement and growth of its intensity, the use of electric rolling stock of a new generation require the introduction of new methods diagnostics of equipment technical state and improvement of the existing maintenance system and repair of power supply. Developing a model of business-processes, their optimization with using techniques of process engineering and system management is needed for the transition to the management system based on the process approach. From the standpoint of the process approach and in accordance with the requirements of the quality management system (ISO 9001-2009, the operation of the E (Department of electrification and power supply infrastructure sector is represented as a scheme of business-processes in which the guaranteed supply with electricity of railway and third-party consumers is defined as the main business-process of management. Each of the sub-process of power supply for consumers is described in details. The use methods and main stages of process approach for sample management system reorganization were investigated. The methodology and the application method of PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act closed loop to the equipment maintenance system were described. The monitoring process of traction networks maintenance using the process approach was divided into components after investigations. The technical documentation of maintenance service was investigated in

  7. MR findings associated with positive distraction of the hip joint achieved by axial traction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, Aline; Dietrich, Tobias J.; Maier, Matthias; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Dora, Claudio [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-06-01

    To determine which MR-arthrography findings are associated with positive hip joint distraction. One hundred patients with MR arthrography of the hip using axial traction were included. Traction was applied during the MR examination with an 8 kg (females) or 10 kg (males) water bag, attached to the ankle over a deflection pulley. Fifty patients showing joint space distraction were compared to an age- and gender-matched control group of 50 patients that did not show a joint distraction under axial traction. Two radiologists assessed the neck-shaft angle, lateral and anterior center-edge (CE) angles, CE angles in the transverse plane, extrusion index of the femoral head, acetabular depth, alpha angle, acetabular version, ligamentum teres, joint capsule and ligaments, iliopsoas tendon and the labrum. Mean joint space distraction in the study group was 0.9 ± 0.6 mm. Patients with positive joint space distraction had significantly higher neck-shaft angles (control group 131.6 ± 5.4 /study group 134.1 ± 6.1 , p < 0.05), smaller lateral CE angles (38.1 ± 5.9 /34.6 ± 7.2 , p < 0.05), smaller overall transverse CE angles (161.4 ± 9.9 /153.6 ± 9.6 , p < 0.001), smaller acetabular depth (4.1 ± 2.4 mm/5.8 ± 2.5 mm, p < 0.01), higher alpha angles (53.5 ± 7.8 /59.2 ± 10.1 , p < 0.01) and a thicker ligamentum teres (4.7 ± 1.4 mm/5.4 ± 1.8 mm, p < 0.05). The other parameters revealed no significant differences. ICC values for interobserver agreement were 0.71-0.95 and kappa values 0.43-0.92. Increased neck-shaft angles, small CE angles, small acetabular depth, higher alpha angles and a thick ligamentum teres are associated with positive joint distraction. (orig.)

  8. MR findings associated with positive distraction of the hip joint achieved by axial traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Aline; Dietrich, Tobias J; Maier, Matthias; Dora, Claudio; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2015-06-01

    To determine which MR-arthrography findings are associated with positive hip joint distraction. One hundred patients with MR arthrography of the hip using axial traction were included. Traction was applied during the MR examination with an 8 kg (females) or 10 kg (males) water bag, attached to the ankle over a deflection pulley. Fifty patients showing joint space distraction were compared to an age- and gender-matched control group of 50 patients that did not show a joint distraction under axial traction. Two radiologists assessed the neck-shaft angle, lateral and anterior center-edge (CE) angles, CE angles in the transverse plane, extrusion index of the femoral head, acetabular depth, alpha angle, acetabular version, ligamentum teres, joint capsule and ligaments, iliopsoas tendon and the labrum. Mean joint space distraction in the study group was 0.9 ± 0.6 mm. Patients with positive joint space distraction had significantly higher neck-shaft angles (control group 131.6 ± 5.4°/study group 134.1 ± 6.1°, p < 0.05), smaller lateral CE angles (38.1 ± 5.9°/34.6 ± 7.2°, p < 0.05), smaller overall transverse CE angles (161.4 ± 9.9°/153.6 ± 9.6°, p < 0.001), smaller acetabular depth (4.1 ± 2.4 mm/5.8 ± 2.5 mm, p < 0.01), higher alpha angles (53.5 ± 7.8°/59.2 ± 10.1°, p < 0.01) and a thicker ligamentum teres (4.7 ± 1.4 mm/5.4 ± 1.8 mm, p < 0.05). The other parameters revealed no significant differences. ICC values for interobserver agreement were 0.71-0.95 and kappa values 0.43-0.92. Increased neck-shaft angles, small CE angles, small acetabular depth, higher alpha angles and a thick ligamentum teres are associated with positive joint distraction.

  9. [Comparison of clinical effects between locking intramedullary nail fixation and skeletal traction in treating tibiofibula fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-jia; Mai, Min-jun; Liu, Yong-kun; Gao, Gen-ping

    2010-01-01

    To compare and evaluate clinical effects between locking intramedullary nail fixation and skeletal traction in order to provide the best therapeutic choice for tibiofibula fractures. From November 1989 to December 2000, 108 patients with tibiofibula fractures (group A) were treated with skeletal traction, there was 76 males and 32 females; the age was from 29 to 66 years with an average of (40.3 +/- 9.6) years; according to AO classification standard,48 cases were type A, 46 type B, 14 type C, of which the standard typing Gustio, type I in 15 cases, type II in 13, type III A in 2. And from January 2001 to July 2007, 57 patients with tibiofibula fractures (group B) were treated with locking intramedullary nail fixation,there was 40 males and 17 females,the age was from 21 to 69 years with an average of (38.1 +/- 8.9) years; according to AO classification standard, 27 cases were type A, 22 type B, 8 type C, of which the standard typing Gustio, type I in 7 cases, type II in 6, type III A in 1. Four indexes were compared, including the time of fracture healing, the time of achieved 90 degrees genuflection, the time of off-bed weight-bearing and complication. Comparison of fracture healing time: group A was (19.0 +/- 0.6) weeks and group B was (14.0 +/- 0.5) weeks; the time of achieved 90 degrees genuflection in group A was (92.0 +/- 8.2) d and in group B was (39.0 +/- 6.1) d; the time of off-bed weight-bearing in group A was (96.0 +/- 6.3) d and in group B was (38.0 +/- 6.5) d. Complication occurred in 42 cases in group A and 6 in group B. There was significantly difference in 4 items between two groups (P skeletal traction in treating tibiofibula fractures. Treatment of tibiaofibula fractures with locking intramedullary nail fixation can obtain satisfactory effect, which has less complication, the fracture heals and weigh-loading can be achieved early.

  10. Non-canonical spectral decomposition of random functions of the traction voltage and current in electric transportation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Kostin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the non-canonical spectral decomposition of random functions of the traction voltages and currents. This decomposition is adapted for the electric transportation systems. The numerical representation is carried out for the random function of voltage on the pantograph of electric locomotives VL8 and DE1.

  11. Windowed SHE-PWM of Interleaved Four-Quadrant Converters for Resonance Suppression in Traction Power Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Kejian; Konstantinou, Georgios; Mingli, Wu

    2017-01-01

    AC electric locomotives that use a number of interleaved four-quadrant converters generate high-frequency switching harmonics which may stimulate certain resonances in traction power supply systems (TPSSs). A windowed selective harmonic elimination pulse-width modulation (SHE-PWM) method...

  12. Two-Stage Thoracoscopic Repair of Long-Gap Esophageal Atresia Using Internal Traction Is Safe and Feasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainaka, Takahisa; Uchida, Hiroo; Tanano, Akihide; Shirota, Chiyoe; Hinoki, Akinari; Murase, Naruhiko; Yokota, Kazuki; Oshima, Kazuo; Shirotsuki, Ryo; Chiba, Kosuke; Amano, Hizuru; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yujiro

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of long-gap esophageal atresia remains an issue for pediatric surgeons. Many techniques for treating long-gap esophageal atresia have been proposed, but the optimal method has not been established. The thoracoscopic esophageal elongation technique has recently been developed. We previously reported a case in which two-stage thoracoscopic repair was performed using internal esophageal traction without esophageal tearing, and we retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of this procedure in this study. Five patients underwent thoracoscopic treatment involving internal esophageal traction for esophageal atresia involving a long gap or vascular ring over a 5-year period. Between November 2010 and November 2015, 5 patients were treated with thoracoscopic traction. All of these patients successfully underwent thoracoscopic-delayed primary anastomosis. Conversion to open thoracotomy was not required in any case. The postoperative complications experienced by the patients included minor anastomotic leakage in 2 cases, anastomotic stenosis in 1 case, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in 4 cases, and a hiatal hernia in 1 case. None of the patients died. Two-stage thoracoscopic repair for esophageal atresia involving a long gap or vascular ring is a safe and feasible procedure; however, we must develop methods for treating minor anastomotic complications and GER due to esophageal traction in future.

  13. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Most database applications manage time-referenced, or temporal, data. Temporal data management is difficult when using conventional database technology, and many contributions have been made for how to better model, store, and query temporal data. Temporal aggregation illustrates well the problem...

  14. Spectro-Temporal Weighting of Loudness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberfeld, Daniel; Heeren, Wiebke; Rennies, Jan; Verhey, Jesko

    2012-01-01

    Real-world sounds like speech or traffic noise typically exhibit spectro-temporal variability because the energy in different spectral regions evolves differently as a sound unfolds in time. However, it is currently not well understood how the energy in different spectral and temporal portions contributes to loudness. This study investigated how listeners weight different temporal and spectral components of a sound when judging its overall loudness. Spectral weights were measured for the combination of three loudness-matched narrowband noises with different center frequencies. To measure temporal weights, 1,020-ms stimuli were presented, which randomly changed in level every 100 ms. Temporal weights were measured for each narrowband noise separately, and for a broadband noise containing the combination of the three noise bands. Finally, spectro-temporal weights were measured with stimuli where the level of the three narrowband noises randomly and independently changed every 100 ms. The data consistently showed that (i) the first 300 ms of the sounds had a greater influence on overall loudness perception than later temporal portions (primacy effect), and (ii) the lowest noise band contributed significantly more to overall loudness than the higher bands. The temporal weights did not differ between the three frequency bands. Notably, the spectral weights and temporal weights estimated from the conditions with only spectral or only temporal variability were very similar to the corresponding weights estimated in the spectro-temporal condition. The results indicate that the temporal and the spectral weighting of the loudness of a time-varying sound are independent processes. The spectral weights remain constant across time, and the temporal weights do not change across frequency. The results are discussed in the context of current loudness models. PMID:23209670

  15. Spectro-temporal weighting of loudness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oberfeld

    Full Text Available Real-world sounds like speech or traffic noise typically exhibit spectro-temporal variability because the energy in different spectral regions evolves differently as a sound unfolds in time. However, it is currently not well understood how the energy in different spectral and temporal portions contributes to loudness. This study investigated how listeners weight different temporal and spectral components of a sound when judging its overall loudness. Spectral weights were measured for the combination of three loudness-matched narrowband noises with different center frequencies. To measure temporal weights, 1,020-ms stimuli were presented, which randomly changed in level every 100 ms. Temporal weights were measured for each narrowband noise separately, and for a broadband noise containing the combination of the three noise bands. Finally, spectro-temporal weights were measured with stimuli where the level of the three narrowband noises randomly and independently changed every 100 ms. The data consistently showed that (i the first 300 ms of the sounds had a greater influence on overall loudness perception than later temporal portions (primacy effect, and (ii the lowest noise band contributed significantly more to overall loudness than the higher bands. The temporal weights did not differ between the three frequency bands. Notably, the spectral weights and temporal weights estimated from the conditions with only spectral or only temporal variability were very similar to the corresponding weights estimated in the spectro-temporal condition. The results indicate that the temporal and the spectral weighting of the loudness of a time-varying sound are independent processes. The spectral weights remain constant across time, and the temporal weights do not change across frequency. The results are discussed in the context of current loudness models.

  16. Regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in mutual loading systems of electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of mainline and industrial transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research data are aimed to identify the regulatory principles of unbalanced electromagnetic moment of mutually loaded electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of main and industrial transport. The purpose of this study is energy efficiency increase of the testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current using the improvement methods of their mutual loading, including the principles of automatic regulation of mutual loading system. Methodology. The general theoretical provisions and principles of system approach to the theoretical electric engineering, the theory of electric machines and theoretical mechanics are the methodological basis of this research. The known methods of analysis of electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in electrical machines of direct and pulse current are used in the study. Methods analysis of loading modes regulation of traction electric machines was conducted using the generalized scheme of mutual loading. It is universal for all known methods to cover the losses of idling using the electric power. Findings. The general management principles of mutual loading modes of the traction electric machines of direct and pulse current by regulating their unbalanced electric magnetic moment were developed. Regulatory options of unbalanced electromagnetic moment are examined by changing the difference of the magnetic fluxes of mutually loaded electric machines, the current difference of electric machines anchors, the difference of the angular velocities of electric machines shafts. Originality. It was obtained the scientific basis development to improve the energy efficiency test methods of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current. The management principles of mutual loading modes of traction electric machines were formulated. For the first time it is introduced the concept and developed the principles of regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in

  17. Electromyographic evaluation of a patient treated with extraoral traction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortu, E; Lacarbonara, M; Cattaneo, R; Marzo, G; Gatto, R; Monaco, A

    2016-06-01

    This work seeks to provide information on the utility of surface electromyography (SEMG) as an aid for diagnosing orthodontic conditions. Classic orthodontic monitoring by radiography, plaster models, cephalometry, and photography can be improved by using SEMG before and during treatment, to prevent clinical worsening and relapses. This paper presents the SEMG results for a 10-year-old female patient, orthodontically treated by extraoral traction (EOT). Significant muscular variations in the patient's EMG were observed as she changed different postures and as headgear device was used. SEMG should be performed prior to the orthodontic treatment to assess the neuromuscular patient's pattern, in order to prevent strain induced by extraoral forces. EMG can be a valid aid for evaluating the patient's neuromuscular condition before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.

  18. A traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng; Cheng, Xingqun

    2014-01-01

    Both active safety and fuel economy are important issues for vehicles. This paper focuses on a traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle. In emergency situation, a sliding mode control algorithm was employed to achieve antislip control through keeping the wheels' slip ratios below 20%. For general longitudinal driving cases, an efficiency model aiming at improving the fuel economy was built through an offline optimization stream within the two-dimensional design space composed of the acceleration pedal signal and the vehicle speed. The sliding mode control strategy for the joint roads and the efficiency model for the typical drive cycles were simulated. Simulation results show that the proposed driving control approach has the potential to apply to different road surfaces. It keeps the wheels' slip ratios within the stable zone and improves the fuel economy on the premise of tracking the driver's intention.

  19. Direct single to two/three phase power electronic conversion for AC traction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrucky, B.; Pavlanin, R.; Pokorny, M. [Zilina Univ. (Slovakia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed single to 3-phase power electronic converters. Conversion rates were evaluated using a middle frequency transformer with matrix converters. The use of a matrix converter subsystem with a 2-phase orthogonal induction motor was compared with conventional drives as a means of reducing the number of converter power switching elements. The converter was a high voltage modular multilevel converter where the transformer was fed directly by the single phase converter system operating on an AC line voltage. The converter offered sinusoidal input and output harmonics, eliminated the need for a DC link circuit, and decreased the number of switching elements for converters in AC-AC drives. A power active filter was used to improve the harmonic content of the input and output currents. Simulations of the 2-phase matrix converter orthogonal driving concept indicated that the converter can be used to provide solutions for single phase electric traction applications. 21 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Harness Traction Technique (HARNESS): Novel Method for Controlling the Transection Plane During Laparoscopic Hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itano, Osamu; Oshima, Go; Kitago, Minoru; Suzuki, Keiichi; Hayatsu, Shigeo; Shinoda, Masahiro; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Ikoma, Naruhiko; Aiko, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-08-01

    We present our experience using a novel method for controlling the transection plane, which we termed as the Harness Traction Technique (HARNESS) and evaluate its usefulness. From May 2009 to March 2012, laparoscopic hepatectomies using HARNESS were performed on 35 patients. After the superficial hepatic parenchyma on the line was transected at 1 to 2 cm depth, 5 mm tape was placed along the groove of the line and tied to prevent it from slipping off. Tape was tied and pulled using a forceps toward the best direction for minimizing the bleeding, moving the transection point to the appropriate position and creating good tension for parenchymal transection at the transection point. There were no conversions to laparotomy or intraoperative complications. HARNESS is useful for controlling the dissection line during laparoscopic hepatectomy, leading to precise and safe laparoscopic liver parenchymal dissection.

  1. A Review of Current Management of Vitreomacular Traction and Macular Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo García-Layana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the sequence of events of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD, vitreomacular adhesion (VMA, vitreomacular traction (VMT, and macular hole (MH from their pathophysiological aspects, clinical features, diagnostic implications, and current management strategies. A treatment algorithm to be used in clinical practice in patients with VMA, VMT, and MH based on the presence of symptoms, visual acuity, associated epiretinal membrane, and width of the vitreous attachment is presented. Observation, pharmacologic vitreolysis with ocriplasmin, and surgical treatment are positioned as treatment options in the different steps of the therapeutic algorithm, with clear indications of the paths to be followed according to the initial presenting manifestations and the patient’s clinical course.

  2. Review on the Traction System Sensor Technology of a Rail Transit Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianghua; Xu, Junfeng; Liao, Wu; Liu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The development of high-speed intelligent rail transit has increased the number of sensors applied on trains. These play an important role in train state control and monitoring. These sensors generally work in a severe environment, so the key problem for sensor data acquisition is to ensure data accuracy and reliability. In this paper, we follow the sequence of sensor signal flow, present sensor signal sensing technology, sensor data acquisition, and processing technology, as well as sensor fault diagnosis technology based on the voltage, current, speed, and temperature sensors which are commonly used in train traction systems. Finally, intelligent sensors and future research directions of rail transit train sensors are discussed. PMID:28604615

  3. Tractional Electric Drive with Non-Sensing Element Vector Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Opeyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is a structure formation and an analysis of non-sensing element vector control system developed for tractional electric drive with the help of mathematical simulation method. The paper presents a functional diagram of the electric drive with non-sensing element vector control system  operated by an asynchronous short-circuited electric motor.  Main expressions used for evaluation of variables of system conditions and parameters are cited in the paper. The paper provides results of mathematical simulation method for electric drive system taking into consideration various parameter values which confirm serviceability of the developed control system within the whole range of possible parameter chnges.

  4. Dural Traction a Possible Cause of Hemodynamic Changes During Single-Level Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Jonathan M; Marinov, Martin; Avitsian, Rafi

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar spinal surgery may be associated with electrophysiologic and hemodynamic abnormalities during the procedure. A 58-year-old man with grade II L4-5 spondylolisthesis and degenerative changes underwent single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. During decompression of the L4 foramina, distraction of the disc space, and placement of the interbody cage and pedicle screws, episodes of extreme bradycardia with up to 5 seconds of asystole were detected on electrocardiogram and invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The events correlated with and possibly could have been a result of traction on the dura mater. Anesthesia providers should be aware of electrophysiologic and hemodynamic abnormalities during lumbar spinal surgery and the need to respond appropriately with sympathomimetic or vagolytic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sudden progression of lumbar disk protrusion during vertebral axial decompression traction therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, H Gordon; Rizzo, Thomas D; Fenton, Douglas S

    2003-12-01

    Vertebral axial decompression (VAX-D) is a form of spinal traction that is widely promoted as an effective and safe treatment of degenerated and herniated lumbar intervertebral disks. Information targeted at the general public emphasizes that the treatment is completely risk-free. We describe a patient with a large lumbar disk protrusion who experienced sudden, severe exacerbation of radicular pain during a VAX-D therapy session. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar region showed marked enlargement of the disk protrusion, and urgent microdiskectomy was required. To our knowledge, this is the first reported complication of VAX-D therapy. This case shows that VAX-D therapy has the potential to cause sudden deterioration requiring urgent surgical intervention.

  6. First-order system least squares for the pure traction problem in planar linear elasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Z.; Manteuffel, T.; McCormick, S.; Parter, S.

    1996-12-31

    This talk will develop two first-order system least squares (FOSLS) approaches for the solution of the pure traction problem in planar linear elasticity. Both are two-stage algorithms that first solve for the gradients of displacement, then for the displacement itself. One approach, which uses L{sup 2} norms to define the FOSLS functional, is shown under certain H{sup 2} regularity assumptions to admit optimal H{sup 1}-like performance for standard finite element discretization and standard multigrid solution methods that is uniform in the Poisson ratio for all variables. The second approach, which is based on H{sup -1} norms, is shown under general assumptions to admit optimal uniform performance for displacement flux in an L{sup 2} norm and for displacement in an H{sup 1} norm. These methods do not degrade as other methods generally do when the material properties approach the incompressible limit.

  7. Review on the Traction System Sensor Technology of a Rail Transit Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of high-speed intelligent rail transit has increased the number of sensors applied on trains. These play an important role in train state control and monitoring. These sensors generally work in a severe environment, so the key problem for sensor data acquisition is to ensure data accuracy and reliability. In this paper, we follow the sequence of sensor signal flow, present sensor signal sensing technology, sensor data acquisition, and processing technology, as well as sensor fault diagnosis technology based on the voltage, current, speed, and temperature sensors which are commonly used in train traction systems. Finally, intelligent sensors and future research directions of rail transit train sensors are discussed.

  8. A Traction Control Strategy with an Efficiency Model in a Distributed Driving Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Both active safety and fuel economy are important issues for vehicles. This paper focuses on a traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle. In emergency situation, a sliding mode control algorithm was employed to achieve antislip control through keeping the wheels' slip ratios below 20%. For general longitudinal driving cases, an efficiency model aiming at improving the fuel economy was built through an offline optimization stream within the two-dimensional design space composed of the acceleration pedal signal and the vehicle speed. The sliding mode control strategy for the joint roads and the efficiency model for the typical drive cycles were simulated. Simulation results show that the proposed driving control approach has the potential to apply to different road surfaces. It keeps the wheels' slip ratios within the stable zone and improves the fuel economy on the premise of tracking the driver's intention. PMID:25197697

  9. Visualization and assessment of spatio-temporal covariance properties

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Huang

    2017-11-23

    Spatio-temporal covariances are important for describing the spatio-temporal variability of underlying random fields in geostatistical data. For second-order stationary random fields, there exist subclasses of covariance functions that assume a simpler spatio-temporal dependence structure with separability and full symmetry. However, it is challenging to visualize and assess separability and full symmetry from spatio-temporal observations. In this work, we propose a functional data analysis approach that constructs test functions using the cross-covariances from time series observed at each pair of spatial locations. These test functions of temporal lags summarize the properties of separability or symmetry for the given spatial pairs. We use functional boxplots to visualize the functional median and the variability of the test functions, where the extent of departure from zero at all temporal lags indicates the degree of non-separability or asymmetry. We also develop a rank-based nonparametric testing procedure for assessing the significance of the non-separability or asymmetry. Essentially, the proposed methods only require the analysis of temporal covariance functions. Thus, a major advantage over existing approaches is that there is no need to estimate any covariance matrix for selected spatio-temporal lags. The performances of the proposed methods are examined by simulations with various commonly used spatio-temporal covariance models. To illustrate our methods in practical applications, we apply it to real datasets, including weather station data and climate model outputs.

  10. Modified Longo's stapled hemorrhoidopexy with additional traction sutures for the treatment of residual prolapsed piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang-Wei; Kang, Jung-Cheng; Wu, Chang-Chieh; Hsiao, Cheng-Wen; Jao, Shu-Wen

    2008-03-01

    Residual prolapsed piles is a problem after the stapled hemorrhoidopexy, especially in large third- or fourth-degree hemorrhoids. We have developed a method using additional traction sutures along with modified Longo's procedure to manage this problem. From January 2005 to October 2005, 30 consecutive patients with symptomatic third- or fourth-degree hemorrhoids who underwent the modified Longo's stapled hemorrhoidopexy with additional traction sutures in a single institution were collected. The demographics, postoperative pain score, surgical features, outcomes, and early and late complications were recorded. All patients were followed for a mean duration of 8.8 (range, 4-15) months. Thirty patients (17 males) with a mean age of 45 (range, 27-63) years were identified. The mean postoperative pain score on the morning of the first postoperative day was 2.8 (range, 1-4). The mean duration of operation was 30.7 (range, 25-37) min. The mean duration of hospital stay was 2 (range, 1-3) days. The mean days for patients to resume normal work was 6.7 (range, 4-9) days. No other procedure-related complications occurred in all patients. There was no early complication except for fecal urgency found in one patient during the first postoperative days. Regarding the late complications, no residual prolapsed piles, persistent anal pain, incontinence, anal stenosis, or recurrent symptoms were found. Our preliminary experiences indicated that this modified procedures truly contributed to reduce the residual internal hemorrhoids and maintained the benefits of stapled hemorrhoidopexy. Randomized trial and long-term follow-up warrant to determine possible surgical and functional outcome.

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF MANUAL TRACTION AND OTHER PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PAINFUL CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Khan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical radiculopathy, generally entitle as pinching of the nerves which causes severe shooting pain which mostly pass through the shoulder. Along with it causes muscle weakness and numbness into the arm and hand. In majority of the cases, cervical radiculopathy responds well to conservative mode of treatments which incorporate physical therapy with medical management. The aim of this study is to uncover the effective and evidence based conservative treatment of cervical radiculopathy. Method: Randomized controlled trial study conducted from January 2014 to December 2014. Participants were recruited from physiotherapy OPDs of tertiary care hospitals. A total number of, 100 subjects with a ratio of 50 men and 50 women were recruited between the ages of 25 and 55 years with unilateral cervical radiculopathy. Control group received combination of conventional AROM exercises and modalities including TENS and superficial thermotherapy as a treatment while experimental group received manual cervical traction and combination of conventional AROM exercises, modalities including TENS and superficial thermotherapy. For both groups, treatment was designed for two weeks (6 sessions/ week. Improvement in symptoms was assessed by evaluation of both groups on the basis of visual analogue scale (VAS. Results: After 2 weeks of treatment, patients with neck pain showed marked decreased in pain as compared with the control group (P<.001.For pre and post level a paired sample t-test was used and the results with p-value less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Mean difference of 0.94 (VAS with a significant p-value (P<0.01 was obtained shows the respective improvements in the numeric pain scale scores. Conclusion: Manual cervical traction when used with conventional AROM exercises and modalities were effective methods for decreasing pain in cervical radiculopathy. Recent literature supports such protocols involving multiple interventions. Results

  12. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting

  13. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance

  14. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...... overlap. We demonstrate, via a range of examples, how fictional separation logic can be used to reason locally and modularly about mutable abstract data types, possibly implemented using sophisticated sharing. Fictional separation logic is defined on top of standard separation logic, and both the meta...

  15. Separating biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Technique utilizing electric field to promote biological cell separation from suspending medium in zero gravity increases speed, reduces sedimentation, and improves efficiency of separation in normal gravity.

  16. Temporal processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    reflection delays and enhances the test reflection for large delays. Employing a 200-ms-long broadband noise burst as input signal, the critical delay separating these two binaural phenomena was found to be 7–10 ms. It was suggested that the critical delay refers to a temporal window that is employed......, resulting in a critical delay of about 2–3 ms for 20-ms-long stimuli. Hence, for very short stimuli the temporal window or critical delay exhibits values similar to the auditory temporal resolution as, for instance, observed in gap-detection tasks. It is suggested that the larger critical delay observed...

  17. High-Force Versus Low-Force Lumbar Traction in Acute Lumbar Sciatica Due to Disc Herniation: A Preliminary Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve; Dufour, Stéphane Pascal; Schaeffer, Michael; Sauleau, Erik; Vautravers, Philippe; Lecocq, Jehan; Dupeyron, Arnaud

    This study compared the effects of high-force versus low-force lumbar traction in the treatment of acute lumbar sciatica secondary to disc herniation. A randomized double blind trial was performed, and 17 subjects with acute lumbar sciatica secondary to disc herniation were assigned to high-force traction at 50% body weight (BW; LT50, n = 8) or low force traction at 10% BW (LT10, n = 9) for 10 sessions in 2 weeks. Radicular pain (visual analogue scale [VAS]), lumbo-pelvic-hip complex motion (finger-to-toe test), lumbar-spine mobility (Schöber-Macrae test), nerve root compression (straight-leg-raising test), disability (EIFEL score), drug consumption, and overall evaluation of each patient were measured at days 0, 7, 1, 4, and 28. Significant (P traction treatment was independent of the level of medication. During the 2-week follow-up at day 28, only the LT10 group improved (P lumbar sciatica secondary to disc herniation who received 2 weeks of lumbar traction reported reduced radicular pain and functional impairment and improved well-being regardless of the traction force group to which they were assigned. The effects of the traction treatment were independent of the initial level of medication and appeared to be maintained at the 2-week follow-up. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Limited usefulness of traction-compression films in the radiographic diagnosis of lumbar spinal instability. Comparison with flexion-extension films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, M; Manninen, H I; Lindgrer, K A; Turunen, M; Airaksinen, O

    1997-01-15

    A prospective, within-patient comparison of two methods for functional radiography of lumbar spine with consecutive patients. To evaluate the usefulness of traction-compression radiography compared with conventional flexion-extension radiography in diagnosis of lumbar spinal instability. Flexion-extension radiography generally is used and widely recognized as an effective method for diagnosis of segmental lumbar spinal instability, but the usefulness and findings of traction-compression films are less well known. Flexion-extension and traction-compression radiography were performed on 306 consecutive patients (mean age, 43 years; range, 14-68 years) with clinically suspected lumbar spinal instability. Radiography was performed of each patient in an upright position. Axial traction was accomplished by letting the patient hang by his or her hands from a horizontal bar. Compression views were taken when the patient had sandbags of approximately 30% of the his or her weight on the shoulders. Main interest was translational forward and backward displacement of one vertebra on another. Signs of translational instability were present on the functional radiographs of 27% (84 of 306) of the patients. In diagnosis of instability, the overall agreement of flexion-extension and traction-compression films was only 0.786, and also statistic Kappa remained poor (0.05). Flexion-extension films more frequently revealed signs of instability than traction-compression films: 81 versus seven patients. Traction-compression films seem to be of questionable value in diagnosis of lumbar spinal instability.

  19. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  20. Navigability of multiplex temporal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qiao-Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Real world complex systems have multiple levels of relationships and in many cases, they need to be modeled as multiplex networks where the same nodes can interact with each other in different layers, such as social networks. However, social relationships only appear at prescribed times so the temporal structures of edge activations can also affect the dynamical processes located above them. To consider both factors are simultaneously, we introduce multiplex temporal networks and propose three different walk strategies to investigate the concurrent dynamics of random walks and the temporal structure of multiplex networks. Thus, we derive analytical results for the multiplex centrality and coverage function in multiplex temporal networks. By comparing them with the numerical results, we show how the underlying topology of the layers and the walk strategy affect the efficiency when exploring the networks. In particular, the most interesting result is the emergence of a super-diffusion process, where the time scale of the multiplex is faster than that of both layers acting separately.

  1. Changes in stature during and after spinal traction in young male subjects Alterações na estatura antes e após a tração vertebral em homens jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALF Rodacki

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spinal traction is a relatively popular procedure for increasing the intervertebral space by applying separating forces. The parameters of time and magnitude of the traction forces may influence the outcomes from this procedure and need to be investigated. The duration of the benefits derived from traction is unknown and needs to be determined so that physiotherapists can provide better and more effective treatments. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the relationship between load magnitude and time during spinal traction in relation to stature variations. Traction effect duration was also analyzed. METHOD: Fifteen healthy male subjects (23.1 ± 5.77 years; 1.80 ± 0.17 m and 87.0 ± 9.6 kg were assessed under three traction conditions (0, 30 and 60% of body weight, BW of 42 minutes. Stature variation was used to determine intervertebral disc height variation. Stature was assessed every 7 minutes during traction of 42 minutes and every 5 minutes for 45 minutes after traction ceased. RESULTS: 0 and 30% BW traction produced similar gains (6.09 ± 1.89 mm, 5.70 ± 1.88 mm, respectively; p>0.05, while these were smaller (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A tração sobre a coluna vertebral é um procedimento relativamente popular para aumentar o espaço inter-vertebral pela aplicação de forças de separação. Os parâmetros de tempo e magnitude da força aplicada podem influenciar os resultados desse procedimento e ainda precisam ser investigados. A duração dos benefícios derivados da tração não é conhecida e precisa ser determinada para que fisioterapeutas possam prover tratamentos melhores e mais eficientes. OBJETIVO: Este estudo analisou a relação entre a magnitude de carga e de tempo durante a tração vertebral sobre as variações de estatura, bem como a duração deste efeito. MÉTODOS: Quinze sujeitos saudáveis do sexo masculino (23,1 ± 5,77 anos; 1,80 ± 0,17 m e 87,0 ± 9,6 Kg foram mensurados sob três condições (0, 30 e 60% PC

  2. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    Semantics of temporal models with multi temporal dimensions are examined progressing from non-temporal models unto uni-temporal, and further unto bi- and tri-temporal models. An example of a uni-temporal model is the valid time model, an example of a bi-temporal model is the valid time/transactio...

  3. Traction-transport components integrated in fuel cells; running constraints, lifetime, reliability; Les composants traction-transport integres dans les systemes PAC; contraintes de mission, duree de vie, fiabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coquery, G. [Institut National de Recherche sur les transports et leur Securite, INRETS LTN, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2000-07-01

    The future systems 'fuel cell' on-board in transport vehicles 'SPACT' will be optimized by the control of energy fluxes: of generation, of traction, of recovery to braking and of stored energy. The aim is to reach the level required for the user in terms of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety for a transport vehicle answering to economical and environmental criteria. Despite the obvious necessity of the research and industrialization studies on the 'SPACT' technologies, the current technological advances on the integration of the electronics for traction and the energy storage by super-capacitors and batteries are also determining factors for the industrialization of these hybrid systems. The proposed study presents the constraints of the transport applications, lifetime and reliability, the technologies of the power integration and the future developments of these new components for the transport sector. (O.M.)

  4. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Waidyasekara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.

  5. THE EIGHT-WHEEL LOCOMOTIVE DC3 WITH THE SECOND TYPE OF RATING UNLOADING AND ADDITIONAL LOADING OF WHEELS AND DEFLECTIONS SPRING SUSPENSION DURING TRACTION EFFORTS TRANSFER FROM BOGIES TO BODY WITH USING RECLINING TRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bratash

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the calculation formulas for determination of unloadings (finishings loadings of wheels and bendings of a spring suspension of 8-wheel electric locomotive DS 3 with the hauling transmission of the second kind at the transmission of tractive forces from the bogies to the body through sloping tractions are presented. Numerical calculations are executed on the example of mainline freight-and-passenger electric locomotive DS 3.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of replacing skeletal traction by interlocked intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures in a provincial trauma hospital in Cambodia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gosselin, Richard A; Heitto, Merja; Zirkle, Lew

    2009-01-01

    In this article the costs and effectiveness of introducing the SIGN nailing system for femoral shaft fractures in a provincial trauma hospital in Cambodia are compared to those of Perkin's traction treatment...

  7. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings.

  8. Identification of Magnetizing Inrush and Internal Short-Circuit Fault Current in V/x-Type Traction Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fault diagnosis methodology for the V/x-type traction transformer in railway passenger-dedicated lines. A kind of the protection methodology to combine empirical mode decomposition (EMD, energy weight, and information entropy is proposed. This method can sensitively reflect the dynamic information changes of traction transformer differential current, so it can not only effectively identify internal short-circuit fault current from magnetizing inrush but also better identify fault current accompanied with magnetizing inrush. In this method, the differential current is decomposed by EMD and the energy weight of each intrinsic mode function (IMF is calculated, and the feature vector of the fault pattern recognition is obtained by constructing IMF energy entropy. The field-measured data illustrate that the new method not only has the advantages of high sensitivity, faster identification speed, and clear concept but also is available for the diagnosis of the complicated dynamic system.

  9. An indigenous approach to manage the osteoarthritis of knee joint with lakshadi guggulu, kalka-patra bandhan and knee traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Sharma, Anuradha; Kushwah, H K

    2007-01-01

    The clinical study was attempted to develop a holistic treatment module for the patients of osteoarthritis of the knee. The study was done in 10 patients of Osteoarthritis of knee. The patients were given Lakshadi Guggulu Tablet, Kalka patra -bandhan ( Bandage of medicinal paste) and Knee joint traction. The duration of treatment was 1 month with follow every week. At the end of 4 weeks, statistically significant results were found in the criteria of assessment specifically in severity of pain, deep grading of tenderness, walking distance and movement of knee joint(degree of flexion). Maximum response was observed in the deep grading of tenderness (76%). The combined therapy with Lakshadi .Guggulu, Kalka bandhan and traction therapy in the management of OA of the knee joint was very effective. It is essential to evaluate the clinical efficacy of this combination in a large population.

  10. Effects on traction of outsole composition and hardnesses of basketball shoes and three types of playing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinstein, D J; Morehouse, C A; Niebel, B W

    1978-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to determine the effects of outsole composition and hardness, playing surfaces and player weight on the dynamic torque, traction forces and static drag developed at the shoe-surface interface. Basketball shoes of polyurethane and elastomer outsoles, each of three different hardnesses, were tested on clean and dusty hardwood floor samples, and on a sample of an artificial gymnasium flooring. The tests were conducted using a laboratory apparatus which included a player leg assembly with simulation of two player weights. Dynamic torque, traction forces from side and rear impacts and static drag were measured at the shoe surface interface. The results indicated that in basketball the magnitude of the resistance forces and torques are influenced by the outsole material and outsole hardness of the shoes, the playing surface and player weights.

  11. Supracondylar skeletal traction and open interlocking nailing for neglected fracture of the shaft of femur - Retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, R; Thiruvenkitaprasad, G; Kaliaperumal, Dayanand; Sundaram, Nandkumar

    2013-09-01

    Neglected trauma is a common problem faced by Orthopaedic surgeons practicing in developing countries. Nothing much in English literature is available regarding the practical difficulties and guidelines for treating neglected trauma of long bones. In our institution from November 2003 to October 2009 we treated 25 cases of neglected fracture of shaft of femur. Patients underwent either of three types of management protocols depending upon the preoperative manual traction radiographs. The fracture was fixed with open interlocking nail. Primary bone grafting and bone shortening procedures were not performed in any of the patient. The fractures united in all patients at an average duration of 17 weeks. Two patients had limb length discrepancy. Careful preoperative evaluation is mandatory for good results. Preoperative skeletal traction and two stage surgical procedure may be required to avoid limb length discrepancy and neurovascular complication.

  12. A clinical prediction rule for classifying patients with low back pain who demonstrate short-term improvement with mechanical lumbar traction

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Congcong; Pua, Yong Hao; Lim, Kian Chong

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a clinical prediction rule for identifying patients with low back pain, who improved with mechanical lumbar traction. A prospective, cohort study was conducted in a physiotherapy clinic at a local hospital. Patients with low back pain, referred to physiotherapy were included in the study. The intervention was a standardized mechanical lumbar traction program, which comprised three sessions provided within 9 days. Patient demographic information, stand...

  13. Comparison of supine bending, push-prone, and traction under general anesthesia radiographs in predicting curve flexibility and postoperative correction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Raymond W; Teng, Andelle L; Armstrong, Douglas G; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Son-Hing, Jochen P; Thompson, George H

    2010-02-15

    A prospective study comparing supine bending, push-prone, and traction under general anesthesia (UGA) radiographs in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To compare the effectiveness of 3 different flexibility methods on structural and nonstructural main thoracic (MT) and thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curves. Supine side bending radiographs are the major method for determining curve reducibility. Push-prone radiographs show structural and compensatory curves on the same radiograph, but have not shown comparative reducibility in recent studies. Traction UGA is a relatively new modality which may offer similar or improved flexibility, while also showing structural and compensatory curves on the same radiograph. Fifty-eight patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were prospectively studied with standing PA and lateral, supine bending and push-prone radiographs before surgery; traction UGA radiographs intraoperatively; and standing PA and lateral radiographs after surgery. Traction UGA demonstrated equal flexibility to supine bending in structural MT and TL/L curves, with a trend towards more flexibility in severe MT curves > or = 60 degrees, while push-prone demonstrated significantly less flexibility. Each of the methods showed significantly less flexibility than postoperative correction in MT curves, while traction UGA and supine bending were not significantly different than postoperative correction in TL/L curves. Analysis of nonstructural TL/L curves showed that traction UGA and push-prone were not significantly different than postoperative correction, while supine bending overestimated postoperative correction. Traction UGA offers flexibility equivalent to supine bending for structural MT and TL/L curves, and flexibility comparable with push-prone for nonstructural TL/L curves. Traction UGA also shows both structural and compensatory curves on the same radiograph, and ultimately may provide a better estimate of spinal balance.

  14. The Effects of Stretching with Lumbar Traction on VAS and Oswestry Scales of Patients with Lumbar 4–5 Herniated Intervertebral Disc

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hae-sun; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stretching with lumbar traction on VAS and Oswestry scale scores of lumbar 4–5 herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) patients. [Subjects] We recruited 20 lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. [Methods] We performed stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients during 4 weeks. The VAS and Oswestry scales were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in VAS scale scores for stretchin...

  15. Influences of spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy on the pain, disability, and straight leg raising of patients with intervertebral disc herniation

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jioun; Lee, Sangyong; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify how spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy influence the pain, disability, and straight leg raise (SLR) ability of patients with intervertebral disc herniation. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with chronic lumbar pain who were divided into a spinal decompression therapy group (SDTG, n=15), and a general traction therapy group (GTTG, n=15). [Methods] The SDTG used a spinal decompression device, and the GTTG used a ...

  16. Cost-effectiveness of replacing skeletal traction by interlocked intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures in a provincial trauma hospital in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Richard A; Heitto, Merja; Zirkle, Lew

    2009-10-01

    In this article the costs and effectiveness of introducing the SIGN nailing system for femoral shaft fractures in a provincial trauma hospital in Cambodia are compared to those of Perkin's traction treatment. At an average cost per patient of $1,107 in the traction group and $888 in the nail group (p < 0.01), and with better clinical outcomes in the nail group, internal fixation is more cost-effective than conservative treatment.

  17. Treatment Effects of Occipitomental Anchorage Appliance of Maxillary Protraction Combined with Chincup Traction in Children with Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Chien Lin; Hong-Po Chang; Hsin-Fu Chang

    2007-01-01

    Little information related to the treatment effects of the occipitomental anchorage (OMA) appliance of maxillary (Mx) protraction combined with chincup traction is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of the OMA orthopedic appliance on patients with Class III malocclusion. Methods: Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of 20 consecutively treated patients with Class III malocclusions were evaluated and compared with a matched sample of u...

  18. The Effectiveness of Mechanical Traction Among Subgroups of Patients With Low Back Pain and Leg Pain: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Anne; Fritz, Julie M; Childs, John D; Brennan, Gerard P

    2016-03-01

    Randomized clinical trial. Background The recommended initial management strategy for patients with low back pain and signs of nerve root compression is conservative treatment, but there is little evidence to guide the most appropriate management strategy. Preliminary research suggests that a treatment protocol of mechanical traction and extension-oriented exercises may be effective, particularly in a specific subgroup of patients. To examine the effectiveness of mechanical traction in patients with lumbar nerve root compression and within a predefined subgroup. One hundred twenty patients with low back pain with nerve root compression were recruited from physical therapy clinics. Using predefined subgrouping criteria, patients were stratified at baseline and randomized to receive an extension-oriented treatment approach with or without the addition of mechanical traction. During a 6-week period, patients received up to 12 treatment visits. Primary outcomes of pain and disability were collected at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year by assessors blinded to group allocation. Outcomes were examined using linear mixed-model analyses examining change over time by treatment and the interaction between treatment and subgrouping status. The mean ± SD age of participants was 41.1 ± 11.3 years, median duration of symptoms was 62 days, and 57% were male. No significant differences in disability or pain outcomes were noted between treatment groups at any time point, nor was any interaction found between subgroup status and treatment. Patients with lumbar nerve root compression presenting for physical therapy can expect significant changes in disability and pain over a 6-week treatment period. There is no evidence that mechanical lumbar traction in combination with an extension-oriented treatment is superior to extension-oriented exercises alone in the management of these patients or within a predefined subgroup of patients. The study protocol was registered with Clinical

  19. Development of traction power supply for d.c. light rail vehicles; Entwicklung der Bahnenergieversorgung fuer Gleichstrom-Nahverkehrsbahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; George, G. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Offenbach/Main (Germany); Schlechter, E. [ELBAS GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    The generation, supply, conversion and distribution of traction power has undergone a basic change since 1879. Instead of the d.c. power stations of the early times use was later on made of substations with rotating converters and ultimately of converters equipped with semiconductor rectifiers and controlled double-way converters. The vehicles are no longer supplied via the rails but from contact lines of single-wire and catenary trolley wire design or third rails. (orig.)

  20. Lumbar extension exercises in conjunction with mechanical traction for the management of a patient with a lumbar herniated disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Allison R; Hasson, Scott M

    2010-05-01

    Low back pain resulting from lumbar disc herniation is a common reason for referral for physical therapy. There is no evidence to support the management of lumbar disc herniation and derangement using mechanical traction combined with lumbar extension exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this case report was to describe and discuss the use of mechanical traction in conjunction with lumbar extension exercises for a patient with a lumbar herniated disc. The patient was a 49-year-old male referred to physical therapy with a medical diagnosis of a lumbar herniated disc at L5-S1 with compression of the L5 nerve root confirmed by MRI. The patient's chief complaint was pain over the left lumbosacral and central lumbar region with radiating pain into the left buttock accompanied by numbness and tingling in the left lower leg and foot. The patient was seen for a total of 14 visits. The first 5 days (2 weeks) of therapy consisted of lumbar extension exercises. For the following nine visits (over a 3-week period), mechanical traction was added as an adjunct to the extension exercises. Outcome measures included the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, Back Pain Function Scale (BPFS), and the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS). Results from initial evaluation to discharge (Oswestry: 36% to 0%; BPFS: 33/60 to 57/60; NPRS: 7/10 to 0/10) demonstrated that the patient no longer experienced low back pain and improved in terms of functional status and pain-related disability. The patient no longer complained of numbness and tingling in the left lower extremity and the goals for the patient had been attained. The data from this case report suggests lumbar extension exercises in conjunction with mechanical traction facilitated the patient's improvement in pain and return to prior level of function.