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Sample records for temporally resolved gc-ms-based

  1. MetaQuant: a tool for the automatic quantification of GC/MS-based metabolome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, Boyke; Kucklick, Martin; Jonas, Rochus; Münch, Richard; Schobert, Max; Jahn, Dieter; Hiller, Karsten

    2006-12-01

    MetaQuant is a Java-based program for the automatic and accurate quantification of GC/MS-based metabolome data. In contrast to other programs MetaQuant is able to quantify hundreds of substances simultaneously with minimal manual intervention. The integration of a self-acting calibration function allows the parallel and fast calibration for several metabolites simultaneously. Finally, MetaQuant is able to import GC/MS data in the common NetCDF format and to export the results of the quantification into Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), Comma Separated Values (CSV) or Microsoft Excel (XLS) format. MetaQuant is written in Java and is available under an open source license. Precompiled packages for the installation on Windows or Linux operating systems are freely available for download. The source code as well as the installation packages are available at http://bioinformatics.org/metaquant

  2. A GC-MS based metabolomics approach to determine the effect of salinity on Kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung-Ho; Park, Seong-Eun; Kim, Eun-Ju; Lee, Kyoung-In; Na, Chang-Su; Son, Hong-Seok

    2018-03-01

    GC-MS datasets coupled with multivariate statistical analysis were used to investigate metabolic changes in Kimchi during fermentation and metabolic differences in Kimchi added with various amounts (0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5%) of salts. PCA score plot obtained after 1day of fermentation were clearly distinguishable by different salinity groups, implying that early fermentation speed varied according to Kimchi salinity. PLS-DA score plot from data obtained on the 50th day of fermentation also showed a clear separation, indicating metabolites of Kimchi were different according to salinity. Concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and xylitol were the highest in Kimchi with 5% salinity while concentration of fumaric acid was the highest in Kimchi with 0% salinity. Rarefaction curves showed that numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in Kimchi with 5% salinity were higher than those in Kimchi with 0% salinity, implying that Kimchi with 5% salinity had more bacterial diversities. This study highlights the applicability of GC-MS based metabolomics for evaluating fermentative characteristics of Kimchi with different salinities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. GC-MS-Based Endometabolome Analysis Differentiates Prostate Cancer from Normal Prostate Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is an important health problem worldwide. Diagnosis and management of PCa is very complex because the detection of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA has several drawbacks. Metabolomics brings promise for cancer biomarker discovery and for better understanding PCa biochemistry. In this study, a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS based metabolomic profiling of PCa cell lines was performed. The cell lines include 22RV1 and LNCaP from PCa with androgen receptor (AR expression, DU145 and PC3 (which lack AR expression, and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2. Regarding the metastatic potential, PC3 is from an adenocarcinoma grade IV with high metastatic potential, DU145 has a moderate metastatic potential, and LNCaP has a low metastatic potential. Using multivariate analysis, alterations in levels of several intracellular metabolites were detected, disclosing the capability of the endometabolome to discriminate all PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line. Discriminant metabolites included amino acids, fatty acids, steroids, and sugars. Six stood out for the separation of all the studied PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line: ethanolamine, lactic acid, β-Alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-tyrosine.

  4. GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Makoto; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshie, Tomoo; Shiomi, Yuuki; Kohashi, Michitaka; Fukunaga, Ken; Nakamura, Shiro; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Hatano, Naoya; Shinohara, Masakazu; Irino, Yasuhiro; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2011-09-01

    The roles that amino acids play in immunity and inflammation are well defined, and the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and certain amino acids has recently attracted attention. In this study, the levels of amino acids and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle-related molecules in the colonic tissues and sera of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) were profiled by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with the aim of evaluating whether the clinical state induced by UC leads to variations in the amino acid profile. Colonic biopsy samples from 22 UC patients were used, as well as serum samples from UC patients (n = 13), Crohn's disease (CD) patients (n = 21), and healthy volunteers (n = 17). In the GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules, lower levels of 16 amino acids and 5 TCA cycle-related molecules were observed in the colonic lesion tissues of the UC patients, and the serum profiles of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules of the UC patients were different from those of the CD patients and healthy volunteers. Our study raises the possibility that GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules is a useful early diagnostic tool for UC.

  5. GC-MS based metabolite profiling implies three interdependent ways of ammonium assimilation in Medicago truncatula root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsch, Aiko; Carvalho, Helena G; Cullimore, Julie V; Niehaus, Karsten

    2006-12-15

    In symbiotic interaction with legume plants, bacteria termed Rhizobia can fix massive amounts of atmospheric nitrogen which is primarily provided in the form of ammonium to the host plants. Therefore, legume root nodules that house the symbiotic bacteria are ideally suited to study the process of primary ammonium assimilation. Here, we present a GC-MS based metabolite profiling analysis of Medicago truncatula root nodules (induced by the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti) before and after inhibition of glutamine synthetase (GS) by the chemical herbicide phosphinotricine. The primary role of GS in ammonium assimilation was revealed by drastically reduced levels of glutamine in phosphinotricine treated root nodules. In comparison to previous results of increased asparagine synthetase transcript and protein abundances in GS inhibited nodules the metabolic data revealed that decreased amounts of aspartate might preclude taking advantage of this elevated enzymatic activity. A potential role of glutamate dehydrogenase in ammonium assimilation was metabolically indicated 24 and 48 h after GS inhibition. Therefore, nodule ammonium assimilation might in principle involve three interdependent metabolic pathways which are adjusted to control basic nitrogen metabolism.

  6. Discovering metabolic indices for early detection of squash (Cucurbita maxima) storage quality using GC-MS-based metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, K; Kimura, Y; Sugiyama, K; Kami, D; Nakamura, T; Oka, N

    2016-04-01

    Squash (Cucubita maxima) cultivars with good storage qualities are needed for breeding to improve poor crop supply during winter in Japan. We measured changes in squash constituents during different storage periods to identify compounds that were suitable to be used as indices of storage quality. Principal components analysis of compounds at 1-5 months after harvest showed that PC1 scores were lower for cultivars with a higher rather than lower SQ (storage quality) ranks. Partial least-squares regression analysis was performed using the peak areas of all compounds identified from the 15 cultivars at 1 month after harvest as explanation variables and SQ as the target variable. Variable influence on projection scores and rank correlation coefficients were higher for arabinose and xylose, which showed less temporal change during the storage period; hence, they were considered to be suitable indicators for storage evaluation. These data will be useful for future studies aiming to improve storage quality of squash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum seeds and seedlings, and their pest spotted stem borer larvae: a standardized GC-MS based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dhillon, Mukesh K

    2015-03-01

    In order to better understand the biochemical interactions and to identify new biomarkers for plant resistance against insects, we proposed a suitable lipophilic profiling method for insects and their host plants. The critical components of GC-MS based analysis are: sample amount, extraction, derivatization, temperature gradient, run time, and identification of peaks. For lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum, and their insect pest, spotted stem borer larvae, we recommend 100 mg sample weight for seeds and insect samples (whole insect body), and 200 mg for seedlings. Maize and sorghum seeds required less time for fat extraction in comparison to their seedlings and the pest fed on these seedlings. GC-MS was standardized for better separation and intensity of peaks using different temperature gradients in the range of 180-300 C. A total of 48 lipophilic compounds encompassing various classes based on their functional groups such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, hydrocarbons, sterols and terpenoids, vitamin derivative, etc. were separated in the seedlings (30), seeds (14), and the pest (26) in the retention time range of 3.22 to 29.41 min. This method could be useful to study nutritional aspects of different field crops in relation to various stresses apart from the analysis of lipophilic compounds for better understanding of insect-plant interactions.

  8. Temporally resolved refractive index structure parameter measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Markus; Forsling, Robin

    2017-09-01

    The refractive index structure parameter is the most common measure of optical turbulence. It is defined as a statistical quantity for the Kolmogorov spectrum energy cascade of turbulent eddies of different sizes. As such it is formally assumed to be constant in time and space. However, the large scale variation with the diurnal cycle, with altitude or with terrain characteristics is well known. The ensemble average in the definition of the refractive index structure parameter is thus assumed to be applied over a restricted region in space and time. The question of how large volume is needed to determine the refractive index structure parameter and on how short temporal scales it can vary has not received significant attention. To study the temporal variation we have used two independent measurement systems to measure the path-averaged refractive index structure parameter over a 171 m path at 1 m above ground with higher than 1 Hz temporal resolution. One measurement system uses the differential angle-of-arrival of an array of LEDs. The other system measures the scintillation of a single path laser beam using a photon counting system, with time correlation of picosecond pulses for simultaneous measurement of signal and background and with temporal autocorrelation-based variance determination to separate turbulence related scintillations from shot noise. The data shows excellent agreement between the two measurement systems on second level temporal variation, giving confidence in that the measured values show true variation of the refractive index structure parameter. Large scale variation of up to two orders of magnitude can be coupled to solar insolation on this partly cloudy day. High frequency variations that are consistent between the systems used show factor two changes at time scales below one second.

  9. Temporally resolved infrared spectra from the detonation of advanced munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joe Motos; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2009-05-01

    A suite of instruments including a 100 kHz 4-channel radiometer, a rapid scanning Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, and two high-speed visible imagers was used to observe the detonation of several novel insensitive munitions being developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory. The spectral signatures exhibited from several different explosive compositions are discernable and may be exploited for event classification. The spectra are initially optically thick, resembling a Planckian distribution. In time, selective emission in the wings of atmospheric absorption bands becomes apparent, and the timescale and degree to which this occurs is correlated with aluminum content in the explosive formulation. By analyzing the high-speed imagery in conjunction with the time-resolved spectral measurements, it may be possible to interpret these results in terms of soot production and oxidation rates. These variables allow for an investigation into the chemical kinetics of explosions and perhaps reveal other phenomenology not yet readily apparent. With an increased phenomenological understanding, a model could be created to explain the kinetic behavior of the temperature and by-product concentration profiles and thus improve the ability of military sensing platforms to identify explosive types and sources.

  10. CO2 laser interferometer for temporally and spatially resolved electron density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, P. J.; Gerber, R. A.; Gerardo, J. B.

    1982-09-01

    A 10.6-μm Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been constructed to make temporally and spatially resolved measurements of electron densities in plasmas. The device uses a pyroelectric vidicon camera and video memory to record and display the two-dimensional fringe pattern and a Pockels cell to limit the pulse width of the 10.6-μm radiation. A temporal resolution of 14 ns has been demonstrated. The relative sensitivity of the device for electron density measurements is 2×1015 cm-2 (the line integral of the line-of-sight length and electron density), which corresponds to 0.1 fringe shift.

  11. CO2 laser interferometer for temporally and spatially resolved electron density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, P.J.; Gerber, R.A.; Gerardo, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A 10.6-μm Mach--Zehnder interferometer has been constructed to make temporally and spatially resolved measurements of electron densities in plasmas. The device uses a pyroelectric vidicon camera and video memory to record and display the two-dimensional fringe pattern and a Pockels cell to limit the pulse width of the 10.6-μm radiation. A temporal resolution of 14 ns has been demonstrated. The relative sensitivity of the device for electron density measurements is 2 x 10 15 cm -2 (the line integral of the line-of-sight length and electron density), which corresponds to 0.1 fringe shift

  12. Time-resolved ARPES with sub-15 fs temporal and near Fourier-limited spectral resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, G; Hendel, A; Stange, A; Hanff, K; Oloff, L-P; Yang, L X; Rossnagel, K; Bauer, M

    2016-10-01

    An experimental setup for time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with sub-15 fs temporal resolution is presented. A hollow-fiber compressor is used for the generation of 6.5 fs white light pump pulses, and a high-harmonic-generation source delivers 11 fs probe pulses at a photon energy of 22.1 eV. A value of 13 fs full width at half-maximum of the pump-probe cross correlation signal is determined by analyzing a photoemission intensity transient probing a near-infrared interband transition in 1T-TiSe 2 . Notably, the energy resolution of the setup conforms to typical values reported in conventional time-resolved photoemission studies using high harmonics, and an ultimate resolution of 170 meV is feasible.

  13. Temporally resolved imaging on quenching and re-ignition of nanosecond underwater discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the temporally resolved images of plasma discharge in de-ionized water. The discharge was produced by high voltage pulses with 0.3 ns rise time and 10 ns duration. The temporal resolution of the imaging system was one nanosecond. A unique three-stage process, including a fast ignition at the leading edge of the pulse, quenching at the plateau of the pulse, and self re-ignition at the trailing edge of the pulse, was observed in a single pulse cycle. The maximum measured propagation velocity of the plasma discharge was about 1000 km/s. The possibility of direct ionization in water under high reduced electric field conditions was discussed.

  14. A spatially and temporally resolved model of the electricity grid – Economic vs environmental dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A spatially and temporally resolved dispatch model is developed. • MCP and average price of electricity are determined for 2050 base case. • Economic and environmental dispatch strategies are assessed. • Environmental dispatch results in significant NO x reduction and higher prices. • A combination of economic and environmental strategies is the preferred method. - Abstract: Substantial changes need to occur in the electricity generation sector in order to address greenhouse gas and urban air quality goals. These goals, combined with increasing energy prices, have led to elevated interest in alternative, low to zero carbon and pollutant emission technologies in this sector. The challenge is to assess the impacts of various technologies, policies, and market practices in order to develop a roadmap to meet energy and environmental goals. To this end, a spatially and temporally resolved resource dispatch model is developed that simulates an electricity market while taking into account physical constraints associated with various components of an electricity grid. Multiple technology simulation modules are developed to provide inputs to the model. The model is used to design a market-based grid, and to develop and evaluate different dispatch strategies. To maintain the system cost at acceptable levels and reduce emissions, the results reveal that the best approach is a combination of economic and environmental dispatch strategies. The methodology and the tools developed provide a means to examine various aspects of future scenarios and their impacts on different sectors, and can be used for both decision making and planning.

  15. Radio-frequency discharges in oxygen: II. Spatio-temporally resolved optical emission pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, K; Drozdov, D; Krames, B; Meichsner, J [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Greifswald, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2007-11-07

    Axially and temporally resolved optical emission structures were investigated in the rf sheath region of a parallel plate capacitively coupled rf discharge (13.56 MHz) in pure oxygen and tetrafluoromethane. The rf discharge was driven at total pressures of between 10 and 100 Pa, gas flow rate of 3 sccm and rf power in the range 5-100 W. In particular, the emission of the atomic oxygen at 844.6 nm (3p{sup 3}P {yields} 3s{sup 3}S{sup 0}) and the atomic carbon at 193 nm (3s{sup 1}P{sup 0} {yields} 2p{sup 1}D) were imaged with a lens onto the entrance slit of a spectrometer and detected by a fast ICCD-camera. The spatio-temporally resolved analysis of the emission intensity during the rf cycle (73.75 ns) provides two significant excitation processes inside the rf sheath: the electron impact excitation at the sheath edge, and heavy particle impact excitation in front of the powered electrode. In oxygen plasma the emission of atomic oxygen was found in both regions whereas in tetrafluoromethane the emission of atomic carbon was observed only in front of the powered electrode. The experimental results reveal characteristic dependence of the emission pattern in front of the powered electrode on plasma process parameters (self-bias voltage, pressure) and allow an estimation of the excitation threshold energy and effective cross section of energetic heavy particle loss.

  16. Radio-frequency discharges in oxygen: II. Spatio-temporally resolved optical emission pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, K.; Drozdov, D.; Krames, B.; Meichsner, J.

    2007-11-01

    Axially and temporally resolved optical emission structures were investigated in the rf sheath region of a parallel plate capacitively coupled rf discharge (13.56 MHz) in pure oxygen and tetrafluoromethane. The rf discharge was driven at total pressures of between 10 and 100 Pa, gas flow rate of 3 sccm and rf power in the range 5-100 W. In particular, the emission of the atomic oxygen at 844.6 nm (3p3P → 3s3S0) and the atomic carbon at 193 nm (3s1P0 → 2p1D) were imaged with a lens onto the entrance slit of a spectrometer and detected by a fast ICCD-camera. The spatio-temporally resolved analysis of the emission intensity during the rf cycle (73.75 ns) provides two significant excitation processes inside the rf sheath: the electron impact excitation at the sheath edge, and heavy particle impact excitation in front of the powered electrode. In oxygen plasma the emission of atomic oxygen was found in both regions whereas in tetrafluoromethane the emission of atomic carbon was observed only in front of the powered electrode. The experimental results reveal characteristic dependence of the emission pattern in front of the powered electrode on plasma process parameters (self-bias voltage, pressure) and allow an estimation of the excitation threshold energy and effective cross section of energetic heavy particle loss.

  17. Radio-frequency discharges in oxygen: II. Spatio-temporally resolved optical emission pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, K; Drozdov, D; Krames, B; Meichsner, J

    2007-01-01

    Axially and temporally resolved optical emission structures were investigated in the rf sheath region of a parallel plate capacitively coupled rf discharge (13.56 MHz) in pure oxygen and tetrafluoromethane. The rf discharge was driven at total pressures of between 10 and 100 Pa, gas flow rate of 3 sccm and rf power in the range 5-100 W. In particular, the emission of the atomic oxygen at 844.6 nm (3p 3 P → 3s 3 S 0 ) and the atomic carbon at 193 nm (3s 1 P 0 → 2p 1 D) were imaged with a lens onto the entrance slit of a spectrometer and detected by a fast ICCD-camera. The spatio-temporally resolved analysis of the emission intensity during the rf cycle (73.75 ns) provides two significant excitation processes inside the rf sheath: the electron impact excitation at the sheath edge, and heavy particle impact excitation in front of the powered electrode. In oxygen plasma the emission of atomic oxygen was found in both regions whereas in tetrafluoromethane the emission of atomic carbon was observed only in front of the powered electrode. The experimental results reveal characteristic dependence of the emission pattern in front of the powered electrode on plasma process parameters (self-bias voltage, pressure) and allow an estimation of the excitation threshold energy and effective cross section of energetic heavy particle loss

  18. Spatio-temporally resolved spectral measurements of laser-produced plasma and semiautomated spectral measurement-control and analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, S. Q.; Su, M. G.; Min, Q.; Sun, D. X.; O'Sullivan, G.; Dong, C. Z.

    2018-02-01

    A spatio-temporally resolved spectral measurement system of highly charged ions from laser-produced plasmas is presented. Corresponding semiautomated computer software for measurement control and spectral analysis has been written to achieve the best synchronicity possible among the instruments. This avoids the tedious comparative processes between experimental and theoretical results. To demonstrate the capabilities of this system, a series of spatio-temporally resolved experiments of laser-produced Al plasmas have been performed and applied to benchmark the software. The system is a useful tool for studying the spectral structures of highly charged ions and for evaluating the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-produced plasmas.

  19. Simulations of the temporal and spatial resolution for a compact time-resolved electron diffractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew S.; Lane, Paul D.; Wann, Derek A.

    2016-02-01

    A novel compact electron gun for use in time-resolved gas electron diffraction experiments has recently been designed and commissioned. In this paper we present and discuss the extensive simulations that were performed to underpin the design in terms of the spatial and temporal qualities of the pulsed electron beam created by the ionisation of a gold photocathode using a femtosecond laser. The response of the electron pulses to a solenoid lens used to focus the electron beam has also been studied. The simulated results show that focussing the electron beam affects the overall spatial and temporal resolution of the experiment in a variety of ways, and that factors that improve the resolution of one parameter can often have a negative effect on the other. A balance must, therefore, be achieved between spatial and temporal resolution. The optimal experimental time resolution for the apparatus is predicted to be 416 fs for studies of gas-phase species, while the predicted spatial resolution of better than 2 nm-1 compares well with traditional time-averaged electron diffraction set-ups.

  20. Temporal characterization of FEL micropulses as function of cavity length detuning using frequency-resolved optical gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, B.A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); DeLong, K.W.; Trebino, R. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Results of frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) measurements on the Stanford mid-IR FEL system show the effect of FEL cavity length detuning on the micropulse temporal structure. The FROG technique enables the acquisition of complete and uniquely invertible amplitude and phase temporal dependence of optical pulses. Unambiguous phase and amplitude profiles are recovered from the data. The optical pulses are nearly transform limited, and the pulse length increases with cavity length detuning.

  1. Temporally resolved PIV for space time correlations in both cold and hot jet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    2007-05-01

    Temporally resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) is the newest and most exciting tool recently developed to support our continuing efforts to characterize and improve our understanding of the decay of turbulence in jet flows—a critical element for understanding the acoustic properties of the flow. A new TR-PIV system has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center which is capable of acquiring planar PIV image frame pairs at up to 25 kHz. The data reported here were collected at Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.9 and at temperature ratios of 0.89 and 1.76. The field of view of the TR-PIV system covered six nozzle diameters along the lip line of the 50.8 mm diameter jet. The cold flow data at Mach 0.5 were compared with hotwire anemometry measurements in order to validate the new TR-PIV technique. The axial turbulence profiles measured across the shear layer using TR-PIV were thinner than those measured using hotwire anemometry and remained centred along the nozzle lip line. The collected TR-PIV data illustrate the differences in the single point statistical flow properties of cold and hot jet flows. The planar, time-resolved velocity records were then used to compute two-point space-time correlations of the flow at the Mach 0.9 flow condition. The TR-PIV results show that there are differences in the convective velocity and growth rate of the turbulent structures between cold and hot flows at the same Mach number.

  2. In situ, rapid, and temporally resolved measurements of cellulase adsorption onto lignocellulosic substrates by UV-vis spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao Liu; J. Y. Zhu; X. S. Chai

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated two in situ UV-vis spectrophotometric methods for rapid and temporally resolved measurements of cellulase adsorption onto cellulosic and lignocellulosic substrates during enzymatic hydrolysis. The cellulase protein absorption peak at 280 nm was used for quantification. The spectral interferences from light scattering by small fibers (fines) and...

  3. Highly temporally resolved response to seasonal surface melt of the Zachariae and 79N outlet glaciers in Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, N. M.; Hvidberg, C. S.; Solgaard, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The seasonal response to surface melting of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream outlets, Zachariae and 79N, is investigated using new highly temporally resolved surface velocity maps for 2016 combined with numerical modelling. The seasonal speed-up at 79N of 0.15km/yr is suggested to be driven by ...

  4. In situ distributed diagnostics of flowable electrode systems: resolving spatial and temporal limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, C R; Gogotsi, Y; Kumbur, E C

    2014-09-14

    In this study, we have developed an in situ distributed diagnostics tool to investigate spatial and temporal effects in electrochemical systems based on flowable electrodes. Specifically, an experimental approach was developed that enables spatially-resolved voltage measurements to be obtained in situ, in real-time. To extract additional data from these distributed measurements, an experimentally-parameterized equivalent circuit model with a new 'flow capacitor' circuit element was developed to predict the distributions of various system parameters during operation. As a case study, this approach was applied to investigate the behavior of the suspension electrodes used in an electrochemical flow capacitor under flowing and static conditions. The volumetric capacitance is reduced from 15.6 F ml(-1) to 1.1 F ml(-1) under flowing conditions. Results indicate that the majority of the charging in suspension electrodes occurs within ∼750 μm of the current collectors during flow, which gives rise to significant state-of-charge gradients across the cell, as well as underutilization of the available active material. The underlying cause of this observation is attributed to the relatively high electrical resistance of the slurry coupled with a stratified charging regime and insufficient residence time. The observations highlight the need to develop more conductive slurries and to design cells with reduced charge transport lengths.

  5. Compressed Sensing for Breast MRI: Resolving the Trade-Off Between Spatial and Temporal Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreemann, Suzan; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Alejandro; Nickel, Dominik; Heacock, Laura; Appelman, Linda; van Zelst, Jan; Karssemeijer, Nico; Weiland, Elisabeth; Maas, Marnix; Moy, Linda; Kiefer, Berthold; Mann, Ritse M

    2017-10-01

    Ultrafast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast enables assessment of the contrast inflow dynamics while providing images with diagnostic spatial resolution. However, the slice thickness of common ultrafast techniques still prevents multiplanar reconstruction. In addition, some temporal blurring of the enhancement characteristics occurs in case view-sharing is used. We evaluate a prototype compressed-sensing volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (CS-VIBE) sequence for ultrafast breast MRI that improves through plane spatial resolution and avoids temporal blurring while maintaining an ultrafast temporal resolution (less than 5 seconds per volume). Image quality (IQ) of the new sequence is compared with an ultrafast view-sharing sequence (time-resolved angiography with interleaved stochastic trajectories [TWIST]), and assessment of lesion morphology is compared with a regular T1-weighted 3D Dixon sequence (VIBE-DIXON) with an acquisition time of 91 seconds. From April 2016 to October 2016, 30 women were scanned with the CS-VIBE sequence, replacing the routine ultrafast TWIST sequence in a hybrid breast MRI protocol. The need for informed consent was waived. All MRI scans were performed on a 3T MAGNETOM Skyra system (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using a 16-channel bilateral breast coil. Two reader studies were conducted involving 5 readers. In the first study, overall IQ of CS-VIBE and TWIST in the axial plane was independently rated for 23 women for whom prior MRI examinations with TWIST were available. In addition, the presence of several types of artifacts was rated on a 5-point scale. The second study was conducted in women (n = 16) with lesions. In total, characteristics of 31 lesions (5 malignant and 26 benign) were described independently for CS-VIBE and VIBE-DIXON, according to the BI-RADS MRI-lexicon. In addition, a lesion conspicuity score was given. Using CS-VIBE, a much higher through-plane spatial resolution

  6. Time-resolved PIV technique for high temporal resolution measurement of mechanical prosthetic aortic valve fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, R; Morbiducci, U; Rossi, M; Scalise, L; Verdonck, P; Grigioni, M

    2007-02-01

    Prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) have been used to replace diseased native valves for more than five decades. Among these, mechanical PHVs are the most frequently implanted. Unfortunately, these devices still do not achieve ideal behavior and lead to many complications, many of which are related to fluid mechanics. The fluid dynamics of mechanical PHVs are particularly complex and the fine-scale characteristics of such flows call for very accurate experimental techniques. Adequate temporal resolution can be reached by applying time-resolved PIV, a high-resolution dynamic technique which is able to capture detailed chronological changes in the velocity field. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the evolution of the flow field in a detailed time domain of a commercial bileaflet PHV in a mock-loop mimicking unsteady conditions, by means of time-resolved 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The investigated flow field corresponded to the region immediately downstream of the valve plane. Spatial resolution as in "standard" PIV analysis of prosthetic valve fluid dynamics was used. The combination of a Nd:YLF high-repetition-rate double-cavity laser with a high frame rate CMOS camera allowed a detailed, highly temporally resolved acquisition (up to 10000 fps depending on the resolution) of the flow downstream of the PHV. Features that were observed include the non-homogeneity and unsteadiness of the phenomenon and the presence of large-scale vortices within the field, especially in the wake of the valve leaflets. Furthermore, we observed that highly temporally cycle-resolved analysis allowed the different behaviors exhibited by the bileaflet valve at closure to be captured in different acquired cardiac cycles. By accurately capturing hemodynamically relevant time scales of motion, time-resolved PIV characterization can realistically be expected to help designers in improving PHV performance and in furnishing comprehensive validation with experimental data

  7. Temporal Consequences, Message Framing, and Consideration of Future Consequences: Persuasion Effects on Adult Fruit Intake Intention and Resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Budding, Jeen

    2016-08-01

    Message framing is a persuasive strategy that has seen mixed evidence for promoting fruit intake intentions, potentially because framed messages for fruit intake have not (a) explicitly compared short-term consequences versus long-term consequences, (b) considered individual-level differences in time perspective, and (c) used alternative measures of fruit intake intentions. In the present online study, the effects of persuasive messages created from temporal context (short term vs. long term) and message frame (gain framed vs. loss framed) were investigated on fruit intake intentions and resolve among a sample of Dutch adults who were categorized as either present oriented or future oriented. For intention and resolve, results showed a significant Type of Frame × Type of Temporal Context interaction, such that gain-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with long-term consequences and loss-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with short-term consequences. The effect sizes for these differences were similar for resolve and intention, but only differences for intentions were significant. No other effects were found. These results demonstrate that message framing theory may usefully consider the inclusion of temporal context of outcomes and alternative motivation measures to maximize their persuasive effects.

  8. Temporally resolved proton radiography of rapidly varying electric and magnetic fields in laser-driven capacitor coil targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, A.; Santos, J. J.; Bailly-Grandvaux, M.; Ehret, M.; Alpinaniz, J.; Brabetz, C.; Schaumann, G.; Volpe, L.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the dynamics of rapidly varying electromagnetic fields in intense short pulse laser plasma interactions is of key importance to understand the mechanisms at the basis of a wide variety of physical processes, from high energy density physics and fusion science to the development of ultrafast laser plasma devices to control laser-generated particle beams. Target normal sheath accelerated (TNSA) proton radiography represents an ideal tool to diagnose ultrafast electromagnetic phenomena, providing 2D spatially and temporally resolved radiographs with temporal resolution varying from 2-3 ps to few tens of ps. In this work we introduce the proton radiography technique and its application to diagnose the spatial and temporal evolution of electromagnetic fields in laser-driven capacitor coil targets.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis and Requirements for Temporally and Spatially Resolved Thermometry Using Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Juan Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barnes, Cris William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michael Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavorka, Lukas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This report is intended to examine the use of neutron resonance spectroscopy (NRS) to make time- dependent and spatially-resolved temperature measurements of materials in extreme conditions. Specifically, the sensitivities of the temperature estimate on neutron-beam and diagnostic parameters is examined. Based on that examination, requirements are set on a pulsed neutron-source and diagnostics to make a meaningful measurement.

  10. Temporally resolved plasma composition measurements by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion plasma composition measurements by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) were demonstrated in recent proof-of-principle measurements in TEXTOR [S. B. Korsholm et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 165004 (2011)]. Such measurements rely on the ability to resolve and interpret ion cyclotron structure ...

  11. Virgo cluster and field dwarf ellipticals in 3D - III. Spatially and temporally resolved stellar populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryś, Agnieszka; Koleva, Mina; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Lisker, Thorsten; Peletier, Reynier; van de Ven, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar population analysis of a sample of 12 dwarf elliptical galaxies, observed with the SAURON integral field unit, using the full-spectrum fitting method. We show that star formation histories (SFHs) resolved into two populations can be recovered even within a limited wavelength

  12. Femtosecond resolved diagnostics for electron beam and XUV seed temporal overlap at sFLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkeshian, Roxana

    2012-02-01

    sFLASH is a seeded experiment at the Free-Electron Laser FLASH in Hamburg. It uses a 38 nm High-Harmonic-Generation (HHG) scheme to seed the FEL-process in a 10m long variable-gap undulator. The temporal overlap between the electron and HHG pulses is critical to the seeding process. The use of a 3 rd harmonic accelerating module provides a high current electron beam with ∝ (400 fs) FWHM bunch duration. The duration of the HHG laser pulse is ≤ (30 fs) FWHM . The desired overlap is achieved in two steps. Firstly, the HHG drive laser is brought to temporal overlap with the incoherent spontaneous radiation from an upstream undulator with picosecond resolution. The temporal overlap is periodically monitored using a streak camera installed in the linear accelerator tunnel. Next, the coherent radiation from an undulator is used to determine the exact overlap of the electron beam in a modulator-radiator set-up with sub-picosecond resolution. The physical and technical principles of the setup providing the temporal overlap are described. Results of the system are analyzed. An analytical approach and simulation results for the performance of the seeding experiment are presented. First attempts at demonstration of seeding are discussed. Strategies for optimizing overlap conditions are presented. (orig.)

  13. Diffuse back-illumination setup for high temporally resolved extinction imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree; Penney, Keith; Ivarsson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the development of an optical setup for quantitative, high-temporal resolution line-of-sight extinction imaging in harsh optical environments. The application specifically targets measurements of automotive fuel sprays at high ambient temperature and pressure conditions where t...

  14. Femtosecond resolved diagnostics for electron beam and XUV seed temporal overlap at sFLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkeshian, Roxana

    2012-02-15

    sFLASH is a seeded experiment at the Free-Electron Laser FLASH in Hamburg. It uses a 38 nm High-Harmonic-Generation (HHG) scheme to seed the FEL-process in a 10m long variable-gap undulator. The temporal overlap between the electron and HHG pulses is critical to the seeding process. The use of a 3{sup rd} harmonic accelerating module provides a high current electron beam with {proportional_to} (400 fs){sub FWHM} bunch duration. The duration of the HHG laser pulse is {<=} (30 fs){sub FWHM}. The desired overlap is achieved in two steps. Firstly, the HHG drive laser is brought to temporal overlap with the incoherent spontaneous radiation from an upstream undulator with picosecond resolution. The temporal overlap is periodically monitored using a streak camera installed in the linear accelerator tunnel. Next, the coherent radiation from an undulator is used to determine the exact overlap of the electron beam in a modulator-radiator set-up with sub-picosecond resolution. The physical and technical principles of the setup providing the temporal overlap are described. Results of the system are analyzed. An analytical approach and simulation results for the performance of the seeding experiment are presented. First attempts at demonstration of seeding are discussed. Strategies for optimizing overlap conditions are presented. (orig.)

  15. A Cell-Signaling Network Temporally Resolves Specific versus Promiscuous Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Kanshin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available If specific and functional kinase- or phosphatase-substrate interactions are optimized for binding compared to promiscuous interactions, then changes in phosphorylation should occur faster on functional versus promiscuous substrates. To test this hypothesis, we designed a high temporal resolution global phosphoproteomics protocol to study the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG response in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The method provides accurate, stimulus-specific measurement of phosphoproteome changes, quantitative analysis of phosphodynamics at sub-minute temporal resolution, and detection of more phosphosites. Rates of evolution of dynamic phosphosites were comparable to those of known functional phosphosites and significantly lower than static or longer-time-frame dynamic phosphosites. Kinetic profile analyses indicated that putatively functional kinase- or phosphatase-substrate interactions occur more rapidly, within 60 s, than promiscuous interactions. Finally, we report many changes in phosphorylation of proteins implicated in cytoskeletal and mitotic spindle dynamics that may underlie regulation of cell cycle and morphogenesis.

  16. Resolving mass flux at high spatial and temporal resolution using GRACE intersatellite measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlands, D. D.; Luthcke, S. B.; Klosko, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    The GRACE mission is designed to monitor mass flux on the Earth's surface at one month and high spatial resolution through the estimation of monthly gravity fields. Although this approach has been largely successful, information at submonthly time scales can be lost or even aliased through...... the estimation of static monthly parameters. Through an analysis of the GRACE data residuals, we show that the fundamental temporal and spatial resolution of the GRACE data is 10 days and 400 km. We present an approach similar in concept to altimetric methods that recovers submonthly mass flux at a high spatial...

  17. Experimental Determination of Drug Diffusion Coefficients in Unstirred Aqueous Environments by Temporally Resolved Concentration Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Massimiliano Pio; Clarelli, Fabrizio; Våbenø, Jon; Lesley, Christina; Rahman, Sokar Darsim; Cauzzo, Jennifer; Franceschinis, Erica; Realdon, Nicola; Stein, Paul C

    2018-04-02

    The diffusion coefficient (also known as diffusivity) of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a fundamental physicochemical parameter that affects passive diffusion through biological barriers and, as a consequence, bioavailability and biodistribution. However, this parameter is often neglected, and it is quite difficult to find diffusion coefficients of small molecules of pharmaceutical relevance in the literature. The available methods to measure diffusion coefficients of drugs all suffer from limitations that range from poor sensitivity to high selectivity of the measurements or the need for dedicated instrumentation. In this work, a simple but reliable method based on time-resolved concentration measurements by UV-visible spectroscopy in an unstirred aqueous environment was developed. This method is based on spectroscopic measurement of the variation of the local concentration of a substance during spontaneous migration of molecules, followed by standard mathematical treatment of the data in order to solve Fick's law of diffusion. This method is extremely sensitive and results in highly reproducible data. The technique was also employed to verify the influence of the environmental characteristics (i.e., ionic strength and presence of complexing agents) on the diffusivity. The method can be employed in any research laboratory equipped with a standard UV-visible spectrophotometer and could become a useful and straightforward tool in order to characterize diffusion coefficients in physiological conditions and help to better understand the drug permeability process.

  18. Optophysiological approach to resolve neuronal action potentials with high spatial and temporal resolution in cultured neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane ePages

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell to cell communication in the central nervous system is encoded into transient and local membrane potential changes (ΔVm. Deciphering the rules that govern synaptic transmission and plasticity entails to be able to perform Vm recordings throughout the entire neuronal arborization. Classical electrophysiology is, in most cases, not able to do so within small and fragile neuronal subcompartments. Thus, optical techniques based on the use of fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs have been developed. However, reporting spontaneous or small ΔVm from neuronal ramifications has been challenging, in part due to the limited sensitivity and phototoxicity of VSD-based optical measurements. Here we demonstrate the use of water soluble VSD, ANNINE-6plus, with laser scanning microscopy to optically record ΔVm in cultured neurons. We show that the sensitivity (> 10 % of fluorescence change for 100 mV depolarization and time response (submillisecond of the dye allows the robust detection of action potentials (APs even without averaging, allowing the measurement of spontaneous neuronal firing patterns. In addition, we show that back-propagating APs can be recorded, along distinct dendritic sites and within dendritic spines. Importantly, our approach does not induce any detectable phototoxic effect on cultured neurons. This optophysiological approach provides a simple, minimally invasive and versatile optical method to measure electrical activity in cultured neurons with high temporal (ms resolution and high spatial (µm resolution.

  19. Development and application of methods and models for the calculation of spatially and temporally highly resolved emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruchittampalam, Balendra

    2014-01-01

    High spatial and temporal resolution models are essential for answering many questions of air quality management and climate modeling. High-resolution emission models are required to determine the concentration of pollutants using chemical transport models, and to quantify the impacts on health and environment and in particular to develop adequate countermeasures. The aim of this work is to develop methods for the calculation of spatially and temporally high-resolved emissions and to apply these exemplarily on a 1 km x 1 km and hourly resolution for the year 2008 in the EU-27 and EFTA countries. The derivation of methods for the spatial and temporal resolution of emissions with corresponding detailed equations is one of the major improvements that have been carried out in the course of this work. The improvement of the spatial distribution of emissions from the point source relevant sectors like energy supply, industry and waste management is achieved by considering sector specific diffuse emission shares. The progress of the spatial distribution of emissions from households is in particular the development of a fuel type weighted distribution over Europe. Another main focus is the development of the spatial distribution of road transport emissions. Due to the restricted access to traffic count data at the European level, methods have been established to provide reliable emissions on grid level for Europe. The progress in the spatial distribution of agricultural emissions is achieved by the consideration of diffuse shares similar to the other point source relevant sectors like energy supply or industry. In addition to the spatial distribution of the emissions the temporal resolution is a main focus of this work, since the state of knowledge of the temporal resolution of emissions in Europe is still rudimentary. Therefore, it was necessary to develop in particular time curves for the hourly resolution of emissions for the main sectors, namely electricity and heat

  20. Associations between arrhythmia episodes and temporally and spatially resolved black carbon and particulate matter in elderly patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S; Wright, Robert O.; Gold, Diane R; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Ambient air pollution has been associated with sudden deaths, some of which are likely due to ventricular arrhythmias. Defibrillator discharge studies have examined the association of air pollution with arrhythmias in sensitive populations. No studies have assessed this association using residence-specific estimates of air pollution exposure. Methods In the Normative Aging Study, we investigated the association between temporally-and spatially-resolved black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 and arrhythmia episodes (bigeminy, trigeminy or couplets episodes) measured as ventricular ectopy (VE) by 4-min electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring in repeated measures of 701 subjects, during the years 2000 to 2010. We used a binomial distribution (having or not a VE episode) in a mixed effect model with a random intercept for subject, controlling for seasonality, temperature, day of the week, medication use, smoking, having diabetes, BMI and age. We also examined whether these associations were modified by genotype or phenotype. Results We found significant increases in VE with both pollutants and lags; for the estimated concentration averaged over the three days prior to the health assessment we found increases in the odds of having VE with an OR of 1.52 (95% CI: 1.19–1.94) for an IQR (0.30 μg/m3) increase in BC and an OR of 1.39 (95% CI: 1.12–1.71) for an IQR (5.63 μg/m3) increase in PM2.5. We also found higher effects in subjects with the GSTT1 and GSTM1 variants and in obese (P-values<0.05). Conclusion Increased levels of short-term traffic related pollutants may increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmia in elderly subjects. PMID:24142987

  1. Radially and temporally resolved electric field of positive streamers in air and modelling of the induced plasma chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoder, T.; Šimek, M.; Bonaventura, Z.; Prukner, V.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    The initial stages of transient luminous events (TLEs) occurring in the upper atmosphere of the Earth are, in a certain pressure range, controlled by the streamer mechanism. This paper presents the results of the first laboratory experiments to study the TLE streamer phenomena under conditions close to those of the upper atmosphere. Spectrally and highly spatiotemporally resolved emissions originating from radiative states {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) (second positive system) and \\text{N}2+≤ft({{\\text{B}}2}Σu+\\right) (first negative system) have been recorded from the positive streamer discharge. Periodic ionizing events were generated in a barrier discharge arrangement at a pressure of 4 torr of synthetic air, i.e. simulating the pressure conditions at altitudes of ≃37 km. Employing Abel inversion on the radially scanned streamer emission and a 2D fitting procedure, access was obtained to the local spectral signatures within the over 106  m s-1 fast propagating streamers. The reduced electric field strength distribution within the streamer head was determined from the ratio of the \\text{N}2+/{{\\text{N}}2} band intensities with peak values up to 500 Td and overall duration of about 10 ns. The 2D profiles of the streamer head electric fields were used as an experimentally obtained input for kinetic simulations of the streamer-induced air plasma chemistry. The radial and temporal computed distribution of the ground vibrational levels of the radiative states involved in the radiative transitions analyzed (337.1 nm and 391.5 nm), atomic oxygen, nitrogen, nitric oxide and ozone concentrations are vizualized and discussed in comparison with available models of the streamer phase of Blue Jet discharges in the stratosphere.

  2. Piperamides from Piper ottonoides by NMR and GC-MS based mixture analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Thiago; Valente, Ligia M.M., E-mail: valente@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Química; Santos, Priscila F.P. [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (UnED/CEFET), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Magalhães, Alvicler [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Química Inorgânica; Tinoco, Luzineide W. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais; Pereira, Rita C.A. [Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Guimarães, Elsie F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The species Piper ottonoides Yuncker (Piperaceae), known as 'joão-brandim', is a shrub that occurs in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. Its roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine as local anesthetic to treat toothache and sore throat. In this study, the structural characterization in mixture of isobutyl amides present in semi-purified fractions from fruits, leaves, stems and roots of P. ottonoides was achieved by employing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques ({sup 1}H, {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H COSY, {sup 1}H-{sup 13}CHSQC, {sup 1}H-{sup 13}CHMBC, TOCSY and {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H J-RES). The MS fragmentation patterns and the NMR chemical shifts, multiplicities, coupling constants and the signal correlations in the two-dimensional spectra were carefully analyzed also taking into account some key elements of differentiation among the compounds. The data set allowed identifying unequivocally the new amide N-isobutyl-7-(4'- methoxyphenyl)-2E,4E-heptadienamide, which we named ottonoidenamide as well as piperovatine and chingchengenamide A in all parts of the plant, the additional presence of pipercallosine and pipercallosidine in roots and of dihydropiperlonguminine in fruits and leaves. The presence of piperovatine and pipercallosine in P. ottonoides should be associated to its traditional use. (author)

  3. NMR- and GC/MS-based metabolomics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobakht, B Fatemeh; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Arefi Oskouie, Afsaneh; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Parastar, Hadi; Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Fathi, Fariba; Taheri, Salman

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent and its effects on cells and tissues are varied and complex. Due to limitations in the diagnostics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals (SMEIs) by noninvasive approaches, there is a great necessity to develop novel techniques and biomarkers for this condition. We present here the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) metabolic profiling of serum from and healthy controls to identify novel biomarkers in blood serum for better diagnostics. Of note, SMEIs were exposed to SM 30 years ago and that differences between two groups could still be found. Pathways in which differences between SMEIs and healthy controls are observed are related to lipid metabolism, ketogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and amino acid metabolism.

  4. GC-MS based metabolite profiling of five Bulgarian Fumaria species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Z. Vrancheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was profiling of primary metabolites of five Bulgarian Fumaria species (F. officinalis L., F. thuretii Boiss., F. kralikii Jord., F. rostellata Knaf. and F. schrammii Velen. by GC-MS analyses. In polar fractions ten carbohydrates, one polyol, ten amino acids and six organic acids were identified. Apolar (lipid fractions showed the presence of four free fatty acids, two esters of fatty acids with glycerol and two fatty alcohols. Sucrose and fructose were in the highest relative concentrations of identified carbohydrates. Citric acid was the dominant organic acid in polar fractions of five Fumaria species. Predominant compounds in lipid fractions were palmitic acid and 1-stearoyl-glycerol. Principal component analysis (PCA of GC-MS data of polar and apolar fractions of five Bulgarian Fumaria species differentiates them in two groups (F. officinalis and F. thuretii; F. rostellata and F. schrammii, respectively, while F. kralikii had phythochemical similarity with plants of both distinguished groups. The obtained results of PCA of primary metabolites could be proposed as chemotaxonomic markers for plants of the genus Fumaria.

  5. GC/MS based identification of skunk spray maliciously deployed as "biological weapon" to harm civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennig, Robert; Schneider, Serge; Meys, François

    2010-05-15

    Our laboratory has been asked to elucidate the origin of a strong "toxic smell" present in a prominent politician's office, private house and motorcar. This stinky and pungent atmosphere has caused serious nausea and vomiting to several individuals. Urine samples were collected from the persons presenting symptoms of nausea for toxicological analysis. Drops, paper and cotton swabs of an oily liquid found at the implicated places were submitted by police to our laboratory for investigation. Methanol extracts of the drops were acetylated for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis in the electron impact mode; the cotton and paper swabs were analysed using headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS). The GC/MS analysis of the acetylated methanol extracts revealed that the major peaks of the chromatogram could be attributed to 2-methylquinoline, to 2-quinolinemethanethiol, to S-2-quinolinemethyl thioacetate, to 2-phenylethanethiol, to bis(E)-2-butenyl disulphide and to bis(3-methylbutyl) disulphide. Several volatile sulphur-containing compounds have been identified with the HS-GC/MS system. Detailed examination of the spectra as well as GC/MS analysis of commercially available skunk secret allowed us to relate the identified compounds to those present in the defence spray of skunks. No health sequels were observed for any of the persons implicated in this case. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Piperamides from Piper ottonoides by NMR and GC-MS based mixture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Thiago; Valente, Ligia M.M.; Magalhães, Alvicler; Guimarães, Elsie F.

    2015-01-01

    The species Piper ottonoides Yuncker (Piperaceae), known as 'joão-brandim', is a shrub that occurs in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. Its roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine as local anesthetic to treat toothache and sore throat. In this study, the structural characterization in mixture of isobutyl amides present in semi-purified fractions from fruits, leaves, stems and roots of P. ottonoides was achieved by employing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques ( 1 H, 1 H- 1 H COSY, 1 H- 13 CHSQC, 1 H- 13 CHMBC, TOCSY and 1 H- 1 H J-RES). The MS fragmentation patterns and the NMR chemical shifts, multiplicities, coupling constants and the signal correlations in the two-dimensional spectra were carefully analyzed also taking into account some key elements of differentiation among the compounds. The data set allowed identifying unequivocally the new amide N-isobutyl-7-(4'- methoxyphenyl)-2E,4E-heptadienamide, which we named ottonoidenamide as well as piperovatine and chingchengenamide A in all parts of the plant, the additional presence of pipercallosine and pipercallosidine in roots and of dihydropiperlonguminine in fruits and leaves. The presence of piperovatine and pipercallosine in P. ottonoides should be associated to its traditional use. (author)

  7. A GC/MS-based metabolomic approach for reliable diagnosis of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiyue; Sheng, Xiaoqi; Liu, Dan; Zeng, Ting; Peng, Ying; Wang, Yichao

    2015-11-01

    Although the phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio in blood has been the gold standard for diagnosis of phenylketonuria (PKU), the disadvantages of invasive sample collection and false positive error limited the application of this discriminator in the diagnosis of PKU to some extent. The aim of this study was to develop a new standard with high sensitivity and specificity in a less invasive manner for diagnosing PKU. In this study, an improved oximation-silylation method together with GC/MS was utilized to obtain the urinary metabolomic information in 47 PKU patients compared with 47 non-PKU controls. Compared with conventional oximation-silylation methods, the present approach possesses the advantages of shorter reaction time and higher reaction efficiency at a considerably lower temperature, which is beneficial to the derivatization of some thermally unstable compounds, such as phenylpyruvic acid. Ninety-seven peaks in the chromatograms were identified as endogenous metabolites by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectra library, including amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, amides, and fatty acids. After normalization of data using creatinine as internal standard, 19 differentially expressed compounds with p values of <0.05 were selected by independent-sample t test for the separation of the PKU group and the control group. A principal component analysis (PCA) model constructed by these differentially expressed compounds showed that the PKU group can be discriminated from the control group. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with area under the curve (AUC), specificity, and sensitivity of each PKU marker obtained from these differentially expressed compounds was used to evaluate the possibility of using these markers for diagnosing PKU. The largest value of AUC (0.987) with high specificity (0.936) and sensitivity (1.000) was obtained by the ROC curve of phenylacetic acid at its cutoff value (17.244 mmol/mol creatinine), which showed that phenylacetic acid may be used as a reliable discriminator for the diagnosis of PKU. The low false positive rate (1-specificity, 0.064) can be eliminated or at least greatly reduced by simultaneously referring to other markers, especially phenylpyruvic acid, a unique marker in PKU. Additionally, this standard was obtained with high sensitivity and specificity in a less invasive manner for diagnosing PKU compared with the Phe/Tyr ratio. Therefore, we conclude that urinary metabolomic information based on the improved oximation-silylation method together with GC/MS may be reliable for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PKU.

  8. GC-MS-based metabolmics analysis of transgenic rice with human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, W.; Wang, L.; Zhu, S.; Li, Hao; Yang, D.

    2017-01-01

    This study was to analyze the difference of the metabolite profiles between non-transgenic (TP309-8) and human serum albumin (HSA) transgenic rice (TP309-HSA-8, TP309-HSA-9, corresponding to 8th and 9th generation) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by multivariate analyses methods including principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). As a result, 12 differential metabolites were identified between TP309-HSA-8 and TP309-8, of which 6 were known compounds (trehalose, citric acid, valine, glycine, asparagine and pantothenic acid) and they were enriched in starch and sucrose metabolism, carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation and biosynthesis, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and antidyslipidemic agents pathways, respectively. There were 4 different compounds between TP309-HSA-8 and TP309-HSA-9, including known compounds [asparagine and oleic acid (C18:1)]. However, no pathways were enriched for them. Our findings preliminarily reveal transgenic HSA may be beneficial for rice growth and providing more essential amino acid for human beings by altering the metabolite profiles. (author)

  9. Efficient Multiple Exciton Generation Observed in Colloidal PbSe Quantum Dots with Temporally and Spectrally Resolved Intraband Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Ji, Minbiao

    2009-03-11

    We have spectrally resolved the intraband transient absorption of photogenerated excitons to quantify the exciton population dynamics in colloidal PbSe quantum dots (QDs). These measurements demonstrate that the spectral distribution, as well as the amplitude, of the transient spectrum depends on the number of excitons excited in a QD. To accurately quantify the average number of excitons per QD, the transient spectrum must be spectrally integrated. With spectral integration, we observe efficient multiple exciton generation In colloidal PbSe QDs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. An Assessment of the Ability of Potential Satellite Instruments to Resolve Spatial and Temporal Variability of Atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A.; Bhartia, Pawan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sufficiently precise satellite observations with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would substantially increase our knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution and would undoubtedly lead to reduced uncertainty in estimates of the global carbon budget. An overview of possible strategies for measuring CO2 from space will be presented, including IR and nearby measurements, active sensors and broad band and narrow band passive sensors. The ability of potential satellite instruments with a variety of orbits, horizontal resolution and vertical weighting functions to capture the variation in atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios will be illustrated using a combination of surface data, aircraft data and model results.

  11. 5 kHz thermometry in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine model combustor using chirped probe pulse femtosecond CARS. Part 1: Temporally resolved swirl-flame thermometry

    KAUST Repository

    Dennis, Claresta N.

    2016-06-20

    Single-laser-shot temperature measurements at 5 kHz were performed in a gas turbine model combustor using femtosecond (fs) coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The combustor was operated at two conditions; one exhibiting a low level of thermoacoustic instability and the other a high level of instability. Measurements were performed at 73 locations within each flame in order to resolve the spatial flame structure and compare to previously published studies. The measurement procedures, including the procedure for calibrating the laser system parameters, are discussed in detail. Despite the high turbulence levels in the combustor, signals were obtained on virtually every laser shot, and these signals were strong enough for spectral fitting analysis for determination of flames temperatures. The spatial resolution of the single-laser shot temperature measurements was approximately 600 µm, the precision was approximately ±2%, and the estimated accuracy was approximately ±3%. The dynamic range was sufficient for temperature measurements ranging from 300 K to 2200 K, although some detector saturation was observed for low temperature spectra. These results demonstrate the usefulness of fs-CARS for the investigation of highly turbulent combustion phenomena. In a companion paper, the time-resolved fs CARS data are analyzed to provide insight into the temporal dynamics of the gas turbine model combustor flow field.

  12. Studies of Shear Band Velocity Using Spatially and Temporally Resolved Measurements of Strain During Quasistatic Compression of Bulk Metallic Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, W J; Samale, M; Hufnagel, T; LeBlanc, M; Florando, J

    2009-06-15

    We have made measurements of the temporal and spatial features of the evolution of strain during the serrated flow of Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glass tested under quasistatic, room temperature, uniaxial compression. Strain and load data were acquired at rates of up to 400 kHz using strain gages affixed to all four sides of the specimen and a piezoelectric load cell located near the specimen. Calculation of the displacement rate requires an assumption about the nature of the shear displacement. If one assumes that the entire shear plane displaces simultaneously, the displacement rate is approximately 0.002 m/s. If instead one assumes that the displacement occurs as a localized propagating front, the velocity of the front is approximately 2.8 m/s. In either case, the velocity is orders of magnitude less than the shear wave speed ({approx}2000 m/s). The significance of these measurements for estimates of heating in shear bands is discussed.

  13. An Assessment of the Ability of Potential Spaceborne Instruments to Resolve Spatial and Temporal Variability of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlyn E.; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2001-01-01

    Mounting concern regarding the possibility that increasing carbon dioxide concentrations will initiate climate change has stimulated interest in the feasibility of measuring CO2 mixing ratios from satellites. Currently, the most comprehensive set of atmospheric CO2 data is from the NOAA CMDL cooperative air sampling network, consisting of more than 40 sites where flasks of air are collected approximately weekly. Sporadic observations in the troposphere and stratosphere from airborne in situ and flask samplers are also available. Although the surface network is extensive, there is a dearth of data in the Southern Hemisphere and most of the stations were intentionally placed in remote areas, far from major sources. Sufficiently precise satellite observations with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would substantially increase our knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution and would undoubtedly lead to improved understanding of the global carbon budget. We use a 3-D chemical transport model to investigate the ability of potential satellite instruments with a variety of orbits, horizontal resolution and vertical weighting functions to capture the variation in the modeled CO2 fields. The model is driven by analyzed winds from the Goddard Data Assimilation Office. Simulated CO2 fields are compared with existing surface and aircraft data, and the effects of the model convection scheme and representation of the planetary boundary layer are considered.

  14. High sensitive and high temporal and spatial resolved image of reactive species in atmospheric pressure surface discharge reactor by laser induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Feng, Chun-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Hongbin

    2017-05-01

    The current paucity of spatial and temporal characterization of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) concentration has been a major hurdle to the advancement and clinical translation of low temperature atmospheric plasmas. In this study, an advanced laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed to be an effective antibacterial surface discharge reactor for the diagnosis of RONS, where the highest spatial and temporal resolution of the LIF system has been achieved to ∼100 μm scale and ∼20 ns scale, respectively. Measurements on an oxidative OH radical have been carried out as typical RONS for the benchmark of the whole LIF system, where absolute number density calibration has been performed on the basis of the laser Rayleigh scattering method. Requirements for pixel resolved spatial distribution and outer plasma region detection become challenging tasks due to the low RONS concentration (∼ppb level) and strong interference, especially the discharge induced emission and pulsed laser induced stray light. In order to design the highly sensitive LIF system, a self-developed fluorescence telescope, the optimization of high precision synchronization among a tunable pulsed laser, a surface discharge generator, intensified Charge Coupled Device (iCCD) camera, and an oscilloscope have been performed. Moreover, an image BOXCAR approach has been developed to remarkably improve the sensitivity of the whole LIF system by optimizing spatial and temporal gating functions via both hardware and software, which has been integrated into our automatic control and data acquisition system on the LabVIEW platform. In addition, a reciprocation averaging measurement has been applied to verify the accuracy of the whole LIF detecting system, indicating the relative standard deviation of ∼3%.

  15. A temporally and spatially resolved validation of emission inventories by measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Shao, M.; Chen, W.; Yuan, B.; Lu, S.; Zhang, Q.; Zeng, L.; Wang, Q.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is essential for ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) abatement measures. We made VOC measurements at 27 sites and online observations at an urban site in Beijing from July 2009 to January 2012. Based on these measurement data, we determined the spatial and temporal distribution of VOCs, estimated their annual emission strengths based on their emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO), and quantified the relative contributions of various sources using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model. These results from ambient measurements were compared with existing emission inventories to evaluate the spatial distribution, species-specific emissions, and source structure of VOCs in Beijing. The measured VOC distributions revealed a hotspot in the southern suburban area of Beijing, whereas current emission inventories suggested that VOC emissions were concentrated in downtown areas. Compared with results derived from ambient measurements, the annual inventoried emissions of oxygenated VOC (OVOC) species and C2-C4 alkanes may be underestimated, while the emissions of styrene and 1,3-butadiene may be overestimated by current inventories. Source apportionment using the CMB model identified vehicular exhaust as the most important VOC source, with the relative contribution of 49%, in good agreement with the 40-51% estimated by emission inventories. The relative contribution of paint and solvent utilization obtained from the CMB model was 14%, significantly lower than the value of 32% reported by one existing inventory. Meanwhile, the relative contribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage calculated using the CMB model was 6%, whereas LPG usage contribution was not reported by current emission inventories. These results suggested that VOC emission strengths in southern suburban area of Beijing, annual emissions of C2-C4 alkanes, OVOCs and some alkenes, and the contributions of solvent and

  16. Assessment of the pseudo-tracking approach for the calculation of material acceleration and pressure fields from time-resolved PIV: part II. Spatio-temporal filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, P. L.; Schrijer, F. F. J.; van Oudheusden, B. W.

    2018-04-01

    The present study characterises the spatio-temporal filtering associated with pseudo-tracking. A combined theoretical and numerical assessment is performed that uses the relatively simple flow case of a two-dimensional Taylor vortex as analytical test case. An additional experimental assessment considers the more complex flow of a low-speed axisymmetric base flow, for which time-resolved tomographic PIV measurements and microphone measurements were obtained. The results of these assessments show how filtering along Lagrangian tracks leads to amplitude modulation of flow structures. A cut-off track length and spatial resolution are specified to support future applications of the pseudo-tracking approach. The experimental results show a fair agreement between PIV and microphone pressure data in terms of fluctuation levels and pressure frequency spectra. The coherence and correlation between microphone and PIV pressure measurements were found to be substantial and almost independent of the track length, indicating that the low-frequency behaviour of the flow could be reproduced regardless of the track length. It is suggested that a spectral analysis can be used inform the selection of a suitable track length and to estimate the local error margin of reconstructed pressure values.

  17. Evaluating the latest estimates of spatially and temporally resolved gridded black carbon emission over Indian region in a strategic integrated modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Kumar, B. D.; Reddy, M.

    2016-12-01

    Among aerosol constituents, black carbon (BC) has a strong mass absorption efficiency and play an important role in modifying the climate system. Regional and global modelling studies using BC emissions as input and simulating BC distribution in general exhibit large inadequacy compared to observations especially over regions where atmosphere is observed laden with high pollution level of BC concentration (e.g. the Indo-Gangetic plain, IGP over the Indian region); thereby indicating discrepancy in emissions. In the present study, we evaluate the latest spatially and temporally resolved gridded black carbon (BC) emissions estimated over Indian region in a strategic integrated modelling approach; this estimation was done extracting information on initial bottom-up monthly emissions and atmospheric BC concentration from a general circulation model (GCM) simulation in conjunction with receptor modelling approach. Monthly BC emission obtained from the present study exhibited a spatial and temporal variability with this being the highest (lowest) during February (July). Monthly BC emission flux was considerably high (> 100 Kg.Km-2) over the entire Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and the east coast during winter months with this high value, however, being persistent throughout over the northern IGP. This was relatively higher over the central and western India than over the IGP during summer months. Annual BC emission rate was 2568 Gg y-1with that over the IGP and central India respectively being 58% and 34% of the total annual BC emissions over India. The relative predominance of monthly BC emission flux over a region (as depicted from z-score distribution maps) was inferred being consistent with the prevalence of region- and season-specific anthropogenic activity. Evaluation of emissions (modified and old) through simulations in a chemical transport model showed the mean BC surface concentration simulated using modified emission resembled relatively well with the measured

  18. High spatial resolution and temporally resolved T2* mapping of normal human myocardium at 7.0 Tesla: an ultrahigh field magnetic resonance feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Hezel

    Full Text Available Myocardial tissue characterization using T(2(* relaxation mapping techniques is an emerging application of (preclinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. The increase in microscopic susceptibility at higher magnetic field strengths renders myocardial T(2(* mapping at ultrahigh magnetic fields conceptually appealing. This work demonstrates the feasibility of myocardial T(2(* imaging at 7.0 T and examines the applicability of temporally-resolved and high spatial resolution myocardial T(2(* mapping. In phantom experiments single cardiac phase and dynamic (CINE gradient echo imaging techniques provided similar T(2(* maps. In vivo studies showed that the peak-to-peak B(0 difference following volume selective shimming was reduced to approximately 80 Hz for the four chamber view and mid-ventricular short axis view of the heart and to 65 Hz for the left ventricle. No severe susceptibility artifacts were detected in the septum and in the lateral wall for T(2(* weighting ranging from TE = 2.04 ms to TE = 10.2 ms. For TE >7 ms, a susceptibility weighting induced signal void was observed within the anterior and inferior myocardial segments. The longest T(2(* values were found for anterior (T(2(* = 14.0 ms, anteroseptal (T(2(* = 17.2 ms and inferoseptal (T(2(* = 16.5 ms myocardial segments. Shorter T(2(* values were observed for inferior (T(2(* = 10.6 ms and inferolateral (T(2(* = 11.4 ms segments. A significant difference (p = 0.002 in T(2(* values was observed between end-diastole and end-systole with T(2(* changes of up to approximately 27% over the cardiac cycle which were pronounced in the septum. To conclude, these results underscore the challenges of myocardial T(2(* mapping at 7.0 T but demonstrate that these issues can be offset by using tailored shimming techniques and dedicated acquisition schemes.

  19. GC-MS Based Metabolite Profiling, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Different Solvent Extracts of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallappa Kumara Swamy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the phytochemistry, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves extracted in different solvents. The methanol extract contained the highest total phenolic (94.37±1.24 mg GAE/g and flavonoid contents (26.90±1.35 mg RE/g and exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (90.13 ± 3.32% followed by the acetone extract (80.23 ± 3.26% at 500 μg/mL concentration. Similarly, the highest ferric ion reduction potential (849.63±30.95 μM of Fe (II/g dry weight was exhibited by the methanol extract followed by the acetone extract (695.92±25.44 μM of Fe (II/g dry weight. The methanol extract showed greater antimicrobial activity against all the tested pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. However, both hexane and acetone extracts failed to inhibit E. coli. S. aureus and C. albicans were more susceptible to all the extracts. Further, GC-MS analysis confirmed the occurrence of a total 46 phytocompounds in different solvent extracts. Some of the major compounds included carvacrol (37.7%, tetracontane (16.6%, squalene (15.6%, tetrapentacontane (13.7%, and Phytol (12.9%. In conclusion, extraction solvents influenced the recovery of phytocompounds and the highest pharmacological activities of the methanol extract could be correlated to the presence of additional bioactive compounds.

  20. GC-MS Based Metabolite Profiling, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Different Solvent Extracts of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Arumugam, Greetha; Kaur, Ravinder; Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Yusoff, Mazina Mohd; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the phytochemistry, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves extracted in different solvents. The methanol extract contained the highest total phenolic (94.37 ± 1.24 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (26.90 ± 1.35 mg RE/g) and exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (90.13 ± 3.32%) followed by the acetone extract (80.23 ± 3.26%) at 500  μ g/mL concentration. Similarly, the highest ferric ion reduction potential (849.63 ± 30.95  μ M of Fe (II)/g dry weight) was exhibited by the methanol extract followed by the acetone extract (695.92 ± 25.44  μ M of Fe (II)/g dry weight). The methanol extract showed greater antimicrobial activity against all the tested pathogens ( Bacillus subtilis , Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , and Candida albicans ). However, both hexane and acetone extracts failed to inhibit E. coli . S. aureus and C. albicans were more susceptible to all the extracts. Further, GC-MS analysis confirmed the occurrence of a total 46 phytocompounds in different solvent extracts. Some of the major compounds included carvacrol (37.7%), tetracontane (16.6%), squalene (15.6%), tetrapentacontane (13.7%), and Phytol (12.9%). In conclusion, extraction solvents influenced the recovery of phytocompounds and the highest pharmacological activities of the methanol extract could be correlated to the presence of additional bioactive compounds.

  1. Analysis of Phenolic and Cyclic Compounds in Plants Using Derivatization Techniques in Combination with GC-MS-Based Metabolite Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Rohloff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolite profiling has been established as a modern technology platform for the description of complex chemical matrices and compound identification in biological samples. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS in particular is a fast and accurate method widely applied in diagnostics, functional genomics and for screening purposes. Following solvent extraction and derivatization, hundreds of metabolites from different chemical groups can be characterized in one analytical run. Besides sugars, acids, and polyols, diverse phenolic and other cyclic metabolites can be efficiently detected by metabolite profiling. The review describes own results from plant research to exemplify the applicability of GC-MS profiling and concurrent detection and identification of phenolics and other cyclic structures.

  2. GC-MS Based Plasma Metabolomics for Identification of Candidate Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Egyptian Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R Nezami Ranjbar

    Full Text Available This study evaluates changes in metabolite levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cases vs. patients with liver cirrhosis by analysis of human blood plasma using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Untargeted metabolomic analysis of plasma samples from participants recruited in Egypt was performed using two GC-MS platforms: a GC coupled to single quadruple mass spectrometer (GC-qMS and a GC coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC-TOFMS. Analytes that showed statistically significant changes in ion intensities were selected using ANOVA models. These analytes and other candidates selected from related studies were further evaluated by targeted analysis in plasma samples from the same participants as in the untargeted metabolomic analysis. The targeted analysis was performed using the GC-qMS in selected ion monitoring (SIM mode. The method confirmed significant changes in the levels of glutamic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, valine, isoleucine, leucine, alpha tocopherol, cholesterol, and sorbose in HCC cases vs. patients with liver cirrhosis. Specifically, our findings indicate up-regulation of metabolites involved in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA metabolism. Although BCAAs are increasingly used as a treatment for cancer cachexia, others have shown that BCAA supplementation caused significant enhancement of tumor growth via activation of mTOR/AKT pathway, which is consistent with our results that BCAAs are up-regulated in HCC.

  3. Metabolic regulation of trisporic acid on Blakeslea trispora revealed by a GC-MS-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    Full Text Available The zygomycete Blakeslea trispora is used commercially as natural source of â-carotene. Trisporic acid (TA is secreted from the mycelium of B. trispora during mating between heterothallic strains and is considered as a mediator of the regulation of mating processes and an enhancer of carotene biosynthesis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis were employed to investigate TA-associated intracellular biochemical changes in B. trispora. By principal component analysis, the differential metabolites discriminating the control groups from the TA-treated groups were found, which were also confirmed by the subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis. The results indicate that TA is a global regulator and its main effects at the metabolic level are reflected on the content changes in several fatty acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. The carbon metabolism and fatty acids synthesis are sensitive to TA addition. Glycerol, glutamine, and ã-aminobutyrate might play important roles in the regulation of TA. Complemented by two-dimensional electrophoresis, the results indicate that the actions of TA at the metabolic level involve multiple metabolic processes, such as glycolysis and the bypass of the classical tricarboxylic acid cycle. These results reveal that the metabolomics strategy is a powerful tool to gain insight into the mechanism of a microorganism's cellular response to signal inducers at the metabolic level.

  4. GC/MS Based Non-target Screening of Organic Contaminants in River Indus and its Tributaries in Sindh (Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Shaikh1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate presence of organic contaminants in river Indus and its tributaries screening studies were carried out. Two years screening studies were based on four sampling campaigns in 13 sampling points out of which 9 sampling points belong to river Indus and its tributaries, 4 to municipal sewerage and 1 to industrial sewerage. Deconvolution Reporting Software (DRS was used to analyze scan data. Deconvolution is capable of screening the compounds whose peaks become invisible due to co-extracted compounds. Furthermore it significantly reduces analysis time and chromatographic resolution requirements. Results reveal that all the sampling points were greatly polluted with phthalate esters and tributyl phosphate (TBP. Apart from these, numerous long chain hydrocarbons, toxic phenols i.e. bisphenol A, analgesic i.e. ibuprofen and mefenamic acid, pesticides i.e. endosulfan, PCPIs, etc have significantly contaminated water bodies. In this screening analysis many compounds are identified that can be possible emerging contaminants and that are rarely documented. The identified contaminants are debated in accordance with their use, possible emission source and pathway. To the best of our knowledge this study holds first detailed screening of organic contaminants in river Indus and its tributaries. The information gathered in this analysis can be useful for future studies based on individual contamination in river Indus.

  5. Insights from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on the metallic states of YbB6(001): E(k) dispersion, temporal changes, and spatial variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; de Jong, N.; Zhang, J.X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Z.; Liang, C.L.; Wang, Y.; Varykhalov, A.; Huang, Y.K.; Golden, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    We report high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) results on the (001) cleavage surface of YbB6, a rare-earth compound that has been recently predicted to host surface electronic states with topological character. We observe two types of well-resolved metallic states, whose

  6. Synchronized multiartifact reduction with tomographic reconstruction (SMART-RECON): A statistical model based iterative image reconstruction method to eliminate limited-view artifacts and to mitigate the temporal-average artifacts in time-resolved CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Li, Yinsheng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In x-ray computed tomography (CT), a violation of the Tuy data sufficiency condition leads to limited-view artifacts. In some applications, it is desirable to use data corresponding to a narrow temporal window to reconstruct images with reduced temporal-average artifacts. However, the need to reduce temporal-average artifacts in practice may result in a violation of the Tuy condition and thus undesirable limited-view artifacts. In this paper, the authors present a new iterative reconstruction method, synchronized multiartifact reduction with tomographic reconstruction (SMART-RECON), to eliminate limited-view artifacts using data acquired within an ultranarrow temporal window that severely violates the Tuy condition. Methods: In time-resolved contrast enhanced CT acquisitions, image contrast dynamically changes during data acquisition. Each image reconstructed from data acquired in a given temporal window represents one time frame and can be denoted as an image vector. Conventionally, each individual time frame is reconstructed independently. In this paper, all image frames are grouped into a spatial–temporal image matrix and are reconstructed together. Rather than the spatial and/or temporal smoothing regularizers commonly used in iterative image reconstruction, the nuclear norm of the spatial–temporal image matrix is used in SMART-RECON to regularize the reconstruction of all image time frames. This regularizer exploits the low-dimensional structure of the spatial–temporal image matrix to mitigate limited-view artifacts when an ultranarrow temporal window is desired in some applications to reduce temporal-average artifacts. Both numerical simulations in two dimensional image slices with known ground truth and in vivo human subject data acquired in a contrast enhanced cone beam CT exam have been used to validate the proposed SMART-RECON algorithm and to demonstrate the initial performance of the algorithm. Reconstruction errors and temporal fidelity

  7. Influence of gold coating and interplate voltage on the performance of chevron micro-channel plates for temporally and spatially resolved single particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoendervanger, A. L.; Clément, D.; Aspect, A.; Westbrook, C. I.; Dowek, D.; Picard, Y. J.; Boiron, D.

    2013-02-01

    We present a study of two different sets of Micro-Channel Plates used for time and space resolved single particle detection. We investigate the effects of the gold coating and that of introducing an interplate voltage between the spatially separated plates. We find that the gold coating increases the count rate of the detector and the pulse amplitude as previously reported for non-spatially resolved setups. The interplate voltage also increases count rates. In addition, we find that a non-zero interplate voltage improves the spatial accuracy in determining the arrival position of incoming single particles (by ˜20%) while the gold coating has a negative effect (by ˜30%).

  8. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models I : Resolving spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning stock and recruitment for cod, herring, and sprat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Möllmann, C.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea comprises a heterogeneous oceanographic environment influencing the spatial and temporal potential for reproductive success of cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the different spawning basins. Hence, to quantify stock and recruitment dynamics, it is necessary......-disaggregated multispecies virtual population analyses (MSVPA) were performed for interacting species cod, herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat in the different subdivisions of the Central Baltic. The MSVPA runs revealed distinct spatial trends in population abundance, spawning biomass, recruitment, and predation...

  9. The impact of plug-in vehicles on greenhouse gas and criteria pollutants emissions in an urban air shed using a spatially and temporally resolved dispatch model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    With the introduction of plug-in vehicles (PEVs) into the light-duty vehicle fleet, the tail-pipe emissions of GHGs and criteria pollutants will be partly transferred to electricity generating units. To study the impact of PEVs on well-to-wheels emissions, the U.S. Western electrical grid serving the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) of California is modeled with both spatial and temporal resolution at the level of individual power plants. Electricity load is calculated and projected for future years, and the temporal electricity generation of each power plant within the SoCAB is modeled based on historical data and knowledge of electricity generation and dispatch. Due to the efficiency and pollutant controls governing the performance of the Western grid, the deployment of PEVs results in a daily reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and tail-pipe emissions, especially in the critical morning and afternoon commute hours. The extent of improvement depends on charging scenarios, future grid mix, and the number and type of plug-in vehicles. In addition, charging PEVs using wind energy that would otherwise be curtailed can result in a substantial emissions reduction. Smart control will be required to manage PEV charging in order to mitigate renewable intermittencies and decrease emissions associated with peaking power production.

  10. An Assessment of the Ability of Potential Space-Borne Instruments to Resolve Spatial and Temporal Variability of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlyn E.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Mounting concern regarding the possibility that increasing carbon dioxide concentrations will initiate climate change has stimulated interest in the feasibility of measuring CO2 mixing ratios from satellites. Currently, the most comprehensive set of atmospheric CO2 data is from the NOAA CMDL cooperative air sampling network, consisting of more than 40 sites where flasks of air are collected approximately weekly. Sporadic observations in the troposphere and stratosphere from airborne in situ and flask samplers are also available. Although the surface network is extensive, there is a dearth of data in the Southern Hemisphere and most of the stations were intentionally placed in remote areas, far from major sources. Sufficiently precise satellite observations with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would substantially increase our knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution and would undoubtedly lead to improved understanding of the global carbon budget. We use a 3-D chemical transport model to investigate the ability of potential satellite instruments with a variety of orbits, horizontal resolution and vertical weighting functions to capture the variation in the modeled CO2 fields. The model is driven by analyzed winds from the Goddard Data Assimilation Office. Simulated CO2 fields are compared with existing surface and aircraft data, and the effects of the model convection scheme and representation of the planetary boundary layer are considered.

  11. Single-cell RNA-seq and computational analysis using temporal mixture modelling resolves Th1/Tfh fate bifurcation in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnberg, Tapio; Svensson, Valentine; James, Kylie R; Fernandez-Ruiz, Daniel; Sebina, Ismail; Montandon, Ruddy; Soon, Megan S F; Fogg, Lily G; Nair, Arya Sheela; Liligeto, Urijah; Stubbington, Michael J T; Ly, Lam-Ha; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Zwiessele, Max; Lawrence, Neil D; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando; Bunn, Patrick T; Engwerda, Christian R; Heath, William R; Billker, Oliver; Stegle, Oliver; Haque, Ashraful; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2017-03-03

    Differentiation of naïve CD4 + T cells into functionally distinct T helper subsets is crucial for the orchestration of immune responses. Due to extensive heterogeneity and multiple overlapping transcriptional programs in differentiating T cell populations, this process has remained a challenge for systematic dissection in vivo . By using single-cell transcriptomics and computational analysis using a temporal mixtures of Gaussian processes model, termed GPfates, we reconstructed the developmental trajectories of Th1 and Tfh cells during blood-stage Plasmodium infection in mice. By tracking clonality using endogenous TCR sequences, we first demonstrated that Th1/Tfh bifurcation had occurred at both population and single-clone levels. Next, we identified genes whose expression was associated with Th1 or Tfh fates, and demonstrated a T-cell intrinsic role for Galectin-1 in supporting a Th1 differentiation. We also revealed the close molecular relationship between Th1 and IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in this infection. Th1 and Tfh fates emerged from a highly proliferative precursor that upregulated aerobic glycolysis and accelerated cell cycling as cytokine expression began. Dynamic gene expression of chemokine receptors around bifurcation predicted roles for cell-cell in driving Th1/Tfh fates. In particular, we found that precursor Th cells were coached towards a Th1 but not a Tfh fate by inflammatory monocytes. Thus, by integrating genomic and computational approaches, our study has provided two unique resources, a database www.PlasmoTH.org, which facilitates discovery of novel factors controlling Th1/Tfh fate commitment, and more generally, GPfates, a modelling framework for characterizing cell differentiation towards multiple fates.

  12. Phase-resolved real-time breath analysis during exercise by means of smart processing of PTR-MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoebel, Henny; Schubert, Roland; Sklorz, Martin; Kischkel, Sabine; Zimmermann, Ralf; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2011-10-01

    Separation of inspiratory, mixed expired and alveolar air is indispensable for reliable analysis of VOC breath biomarkers. Time resolution of direct mass spectrometers often is not sufficient to reliably resolve the phases of a breathing cycle. To realise fast on-line breath monitoring by means of direct MS utilising low-fragmentation soft ionisation, a data processing algorithm was developed to identify inspiratory and alveolar phases from MS data without any additional equipment. To test the algorithm selected breath biomarkers (acetone, isoprene, acetaldehyde and hexanal) were determined by means of quadrupole proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in seven healthy volunteers during exercise on a stationary bicycle. The results were compared to an off-line reference method consisting of controlled alveolar breath sampling in Tedlar® bags, preconcentration by solid-phase micro extraction (SPME), separation and identification by GC-MS. Based on the data processing method, quantitative attribution of biomarkers to inspiratory, alveolar and mixed expiratory phases was possible at any time during the experiment, even under respiratory rates up to 60/min. Alveolar concentrations of the breath markers, measured by PTR-MS ranged from 130 to 2,600 ppb (acetone), 10 to 540 ppb (isoprene), 2 to 31 ppb (acetaldehyde), whereas the concentrations of hexanal were always below the limit of detection (LOD) of 3 ppb. There was good correlation between on-line PTR-MS and SPME-GC-MS measurements during phases with stable physiological parameters but results diverged during rapid changes of heart rate and minute ventilation. This clearly demonstrates the benefits of breath-resolved MS for fast on-line monitoring of exhaled VOCs. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  13. Assessment of critical steps of a GC/MS based indirect analytical method for the determination of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediols (MCPDEs) and of glycidol (GEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinkova, Zuzana; Giri, Anupam; Wenzl, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Fatty acid esters of 2- and 3-chloropropanediol (MCPDEs) and fatty acid esters of glycidol (GEs) are commonly monitored in edible fats and oils. A recommendation issued by the European Commission emphasizes the need of generating data on the occurrence of these substances in a broad range of different foods. So far, analytical methods for the determination of MCPDEs and GEs are fully validated only for oils, fats and margarine. This manuscript presents the assessment of critical steps in the AOCS Cd 29a-13 method for the simultaneous determination of MCPDEs and GEs in the fat phase obtained from bakery and potato products, smoked and fried fish and meat, and other cereal products. The trueness of the method is affected by the additional formation of 3-MBPD esters from monoacylglycerols (MAGs), which are frequently present in food. The overestimation of GE contents for some samples was confirmed by the comparison of results with results obtained by an independent analytical method (direct analysis of GE by HPLC-MS/MS). An additional sample pre-treatment by SPE was introduced to remove MAGs from fat prior to the GEs conversion, while the overall method sensitivity was not significantly affected. Trueness of the determination of GEs by the modified analytical procedure was confirmed by comparison with a direct analysis of GEs. The potential impact on accuracy of results of the final sample preparation step of the analytical procedure, the derivatization of free forms MCPD and MBPD with PBA, was evaluated as well. Different commercial batches of PBA showed differences in solubility in a non-polar organic solvent. The PBA derivatization in organic solvent did not affect precision and trueness of the method due to the isotopic standard dilution. However, method sensitivity might be significantly compromised.

  14. GC-MS-Based Metabonomic Profiling Displayed Differing Effects of Borna Disease Virus Natural Strain Hu-H1 and Laboratory Strain V Infection in Rat Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwen; Bode, Liv; Zhang, Lujun; He, Peng; Huang, Rongzhong; Sun, Lin; Chen, Shigang; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Yujie; Zhou, Jingjing; Fu, Yuying; Zhu, Dan; Xie, Peng

    2015-08-17

    Borna disease virus (BDV) persists in the central nervous systems of a wide variety of vertebrates and causes behavioral disorders. Previous studies have revealed that metabolic perturbations are associated with BDV infection. However, the pathophysiological effects of different viral strains remain largely unknown. Rat cortical neurons infected with human strain BDV Hu-H1, laboratory BDV Strain V, and non-infected control (CON) cells were cultured in vitro. At day 12 post-infection, a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabonomic approach was used to differentiate the metabonomic profiles of 35 independent intracellular samples from Hu-H1-infected cells (n = 12), Strain V-infected cells (n = 12), and CON cells (n = 11). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to demonstrate discrimination between the three groups. Further statistical testing determined which individual metabolites displayed significant differences between groups. PLS-DA demonstrated that the whole metabolic pattern enabled statistical discrimination between groups. We identified 31 differential metabolites in the Hu-H1 and CON groups (21 decreased and 10 increased in Hu-H1 relative to CON), 35 differential metabolites in the Strain V and CON groups (30 decreased and 5 increased in Strain V relative to CON), and 21 differential metabolites in the Hu-H1 and Strain V groups (8 decreased and 13 increased in Hu-H1 relative to Strain V). Comparative metabonomic profiling revealed divergent perturbations in key energy and amino acid metabolites between natural strain Hu-H1 and laboratory Strain V of BDV. The two BDV strains differentially alter metabolic pathways of rat cortical neurons in vitro. Their systematic classification provides a valuable template for improved BDV strain definition in future studies.

  15. Identification of sex-specific urinary biomarkers for major depressive disorder by combined application of NMR- and GC-MS-based metabonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, P; Chen, J-J; Zhou, C-J; Zeng, L; Li, K-W; Sun, L; Liu, M-L; Zhu, D; Liang, Z-H; Xie, P

    2016-11-15

    Women are more vulnerable to major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. However, molecular biomarkers of sex differences are limited. Here we combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)- and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics to investigate sex differences of urinary metabolite markers in MDD, and further explore their potential of diagnosing MDD. Consequently, the metabolite signatures of women and men MDD subjects were significantly different from of that in their respective healthy controls (HCs). Twenty seven women and 36 men related differentially expressed metabolites were identified in MDD. Fourteen metabolites were changed in both women and men MDD subjects. Significantly, the women-specific (m-Hydroxyphenylacetate, malonate, glycolate, hypoxanthine, isobutyrate and azelaic acid) and men-specific (tyrosine, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, N-methylnicotinamide, indoxyl sulfate, citrate and succinate) marker panels were further identified, which could differentiate men and women MDD patients from their respective HCs with higher accuracy than previously reported sex-nonspecific marker panels. Our findings demonstrate that men and women MDD patients have distinct metabonomic signatures and sex-specific biomarkers have promising values in diagnosing MDD.

  16. A Novel MOS Nanowire Gas Sensor Device (S3) and GC-MS-Based Approach for the Characterization of Grated Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sberveglieri, Veronica; Bhandari, Manohar Prasad; Núñez Carmona, Estefanía; Betto, Giulia; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    To determine the originality of a typical Italian Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, it is crucial to define and characterize its quality, ripening period, and geographical origin. Different analytical techniques have been applied aimed at studying the organoleptic and characteristic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile of this cheese. However, most of the classical methods are time consuming and costly. The aim of this work was to illustrate a new simple, portable, fast, reliable, non-destructive, and economic sensor device S3 based on an array of six metal oxide semiconductor nanowire gas sensors to assess and discriminate the quality ranking of grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese samples and to identify the VOC biomarkers using a headspace SPME-GC-MS. The device could clearly differentiate cheese samples varying in quality and ripening time when the results were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis involving principal component analysis (PCA). Similarly, the volatile constituents of Parmigiano Reggiano identified were consistent with the compounds intimated in the literature. The obtained results show the applicability of an S3 device combined with SPME-GC-MS and sensory evaluation for a fast and high-sensitivity analysis of VOCs in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and for the quality control of this class of cheese. PMID:27999300

  17. NMR and GC-MS Based Metabolic Profiling and Free-Radical Scavenging Activities of Cordyceps pruinosa Mycelia Cultivated under Different Media and Light Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taek-Joo; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seul-Gi; Chun, Young-Jin; Sung, Gi-Ho; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2014-01-01

    Variation of metabolic profiles in Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under various media and light conditions was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 71 metabolites were identified (5 alcohols, 21 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 4 purines, 3 pyrimidines, 7 sugars, 11 fatty acids, and 5 other metabolites) by NMR and GC-MS analysis. The mycelia grown in nitrogen media and under dark conditions showed the lowest growth and ergosterol levels, essential to a functional fungal cell membrane; these mycelia, however, had the highest levels of putrescine, which is involved in abiotic stress tolerance. In contrast, mycelia cultivated in sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract (SDAY) media and under light conditions contained relatively higher levels of fatty acids, including valeric acid, stearic acid, lignoceric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, hepadecenoic acid, and linoleic acid. These mycelia also had the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity, and did not exhibit growth retardation due to enhanced asexual development caused by higher levels of linoleic acid. Therefore, we suggested that a light-enriched environment with SDAY media was more optimal than dark condition for cultivation of C. pruinosa mycelia as biopharmaceutical or nutraceutical resources. PMID:24608751

  18. Identification of sex-specific urinary biomarkers for major depressive disorder by combined application of NMR- and GC?MS-based metabonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, P; Chen, J-J; Zhou, C-J; Zeng, L; Li, K-W; Sun, L; Liu, M-l; Zhu, D; Liang, Z-H; Xie, P

    2016-01-01

    Women are more vulnerable to major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. However, molecular biomarkers of sex differences are limited. Here we combined gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC?MS)- and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics to investigate sex differences of urinary metabolite markers in MDD, and further explore their potential of diagnosing MDD. Consequently, the metabolite signatures of women and men MDD subjects were significantly different from of that in their ...

  19. Decomposition of time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.J.; Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted on a transitional water jet at a Reynolds number of Re = 5,000. Flow fields have been obtained by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry capturing all relevant spatial and temporal scales. The measured threedimensional flow fields have

  20. Time-resolved brightness measurements by streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Joshua S.; Speirs, Rory W.; McCulloch, Andrew J.; Scholten, Robert E.

    2018-03-01

    Brightness is a key figure of merit for charged particle beams, and time-resolved brightness measurements can elucidate the processes involved in beam creation and manipulation. Here we report on a simple, robust, and widely applicable method for the measurement of beam brightness with temporal resolution by streaking one-dimensional pepperpots, and demonstrate the technique to characterize electron bunches produced from a cold-atom electron source. We demonstrate brightness measurements with 145 ps temporal resolution and a minimum resolvable emittance of 40 nm rad. This technique provides an efficient method of exploring source parameters and will prove useful for examining the efficacy of techniques to counter space-charge expansion, a critical hurdle to achieving single-shot imaging of atomic scale targets.

  1. Are there local-scale effects of altitude, slope and aspect on temporal trends in a spatially high-resolved plant phenological network in the Swiss Alps 1971-2000?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneret, François; Rutishauser, This; Kottmann, Silvan; Brügger, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Shifts in phenology of plants and animals have been widely observed as consequence of climate change impacts and temperature increase. Species-specific data are often assigned to limited and generalized site information on the precise location of the observation. However, as much meta-information as possible on the individual plant under observations is necessary to assess the impacts of changing weather patterns at the local scale that are related to changes in radiation, fog, frost and dominating circulation. Here we used plant phenological data of the BERNCLIM network that collects data in the Canton of Bern (Switzerland) and adjacent areas covering a total area of 7,000 km2 since 1970. The number of observation sites reached up to 600 observation sites with detailed meta-information of several locations within each site. The precision of coordinates for each location is generally less than one hectare. This information allows to differentiate several terrain-types, based on altitude, slope and aspect. We used original observations and two interpolated data sets based of the blooming of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) for early spring, dandelion (Taraxacum officinale aggr.) for mid spring, and apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) for late spring. In addition we used interpolated data by using averaged maximum differences between several locations of a site and an algorithm based on constant spatial patterns in the 1971-1974 period. Phenological maps were created using multiple linear regression models with longitude, latitude, altitude, slope and aspect as independent variables and phenological date of each phase as dependent variable models in a Geographical Information System (GIS). For this contribution we analysed the impact of local terrain differences on phenological trends of three plant species. Specifically, we addressed the question whether differences in altitude, slope and aspect lead to systematic differences in temporal trends for the 1971-2000 period

  2. Multi-spectrozonal detectors for temporal-resolved SR experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Fedotov, M G

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the structure of the special integrating-mode X-ray detectors allowing the division of the range of their working energies into a few relatively independent sub-ranges. The recording of signals for all sub-ranges is carried out simultaneously (during one bunch passing in the SR source) and from the same area of the detector. It is expected that the application of such detectors for the studies of short-time processes will permit estimation of the variation of the spectrum of the recorded radiation, which violently simplifies the interpretation of the results.

  3. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...

  4. Time resolved two- and three-dimensional plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This collection of papers on diagnostics in fusion plasmas contains work on the data analysis of inverse problems and on the experimental arrangements presently used to obtain spatially and temporally resolved plasma radial profiles, including electron and ion temperature, plasma density and plasma current profiles. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions. (BWU) [de

  6. TX-Kw: An Effective Temporal XML Keyword Search

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Bin-Thalab; Neamat El-Tazi; Mohamed E.El-Sharkawi

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the great success of information retrieval (IR) style keyword search on the web, keyword search on XML has emerged recently. Existing methods cannot resolve challenges addressed by using keyword search in Temporal XML documents. We propose a way to evaluate temporal keyword search queries over Temporal XML documents. Moreover, we propose a new ranking method based on the time-aware IR ranking methods to rank temporal keyword search queries results. Extensive experiments have been ...

  7. Resolving inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Determining the cause of an inventory difference (ID) that exceeds warning or alarm limits should not only involve investigation into measurement methods and reexamination of the model assumptions used in the calculation of the limits, but also result in corrective actions that improve the quality of the accountability measurements. An example illustrating methods used by Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel to resolve an ID is presented that may be useful to other facilities faced with a similar problem. After first determining that no theft or diversion of material occurred and correcting any accountability calculation errors, investigation into the IDs focused on volume and analytical measurements, limit of error of inventory difference (LEID) modeling assumptions, and changes in the measurement procedures and methods prior to the alarm. There had been a gradual gain trend in IDs prior to the alarm which was reversed by the alarm inventory. The majority of the NM in the facility was stored in four large tanks which helped identify causes for the alarm. The investigation, while indicating no diversion or theft, resulted in changes in the analytical method and in improvements in the measurement and accountability that produced a 67% improvement in the LEID

  8. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  9. Time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    When new or more powerful probes become available that offer both shorter data-collection times and the opportunity to apply innovative approaches to established techniques, it is natural that investigators consider the feasibility of exploring the kinetics of time-evolving systems. This stimulating area of research not only can lead to insights into the metastable or excited states that a system may populate on its way to a ground state, but can also lead to a better understanding of that final state. Synchrotron radiation, with its unique properties, offers just such a tool to extend X-ray measurements from the static to the time-resolved regime. The most straight-forward application of synchrotron radiation to the study of transient phenomena is directly through the possibility of decreased data-collection times via the enormous increase in flux over that of a laboratory X-ray system. Even further increases in intensity can be obtained through the use of novel X-ray optical devices. Widebandpass monochromators, e.g., that utilize the continuous spectral distribution of synchrotron radiation, can increase flux on the sample several orders of magnitude over conventional X-ray optical systems thereby allowing a further shortening of the data-collection time. Another approach that uses the continuous spectral nature of synchrotron radiation to decrease data-collection times is the open-quote parallel data collectionclose quotes method. Using this technique, intensities as a function of X-ray energy are recorded simultaneously for all energies rather than sequentially recording data at each energy, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the data-collection time

  10. Temporal contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    and attractive renderings of bright light sources. Based on the anatomy of the human eye, we propose a model that enables real-time simulation of dynamic glare on a GPU. This allows an improved depiction of HDR images on LDR media for interactive applications like games, feature films, or even by adding movement......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic...

  12. Time-resolved studies. Ch. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Dennis M.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation, with its unique properties, offers a tool to extend X-ray measurements from the static to the time-resolved regime. The most straight-forward application of synchrotron radiation to the study of transient phenomena is directly through the possibility of decreased data-collection times via the enormous increase in flux over that of a laboratory X-ray system. Even further increases in intensity can be obtained through the use of novel X-ray optical devices. Wide-bandpass monochromators, e.g., that utilize the continuous spectral distribution of synchrotron radiation, can increase flux on the sample several orders of magnitude over conventional X-ray optical systems thereby allowing a further shortening of the data-collection time. Another approach that uses the continuous spectral nature of synchrotron radiation to decrease data-collection times is the 'parallel data collection' method. Using this technique, intensities as a function of X-ray energy are recorded simultaneously for all energies rather than sequentially recording data at each energy, allowing for a dramatic decrease in data-collection time. Perhaps the most exciting advances in time-resolved X-ray studies will be made by those methods that exploit the pulsed nature of the radiation emitted from storage rings. Pulsed techniques have had an enormous impact in the study of the temporal evolution of transient phenomena. The extension from continuous to modulated sources for use in time-resolved work has been carried over in a host of fields that use both pulsed particle and pulsed electro-magnetic beams. In this chapter the new experimental techniques are reviewed and illustrated with some experiments. (author). 98 refs.; 20 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Sound Source Investigation by the Time-Resolved Stereoscopic PIV

    OpenAIRE

    尾花, 功一; 店橋, 護; 宮内, 敏雄; Koichi, OBANA; Mamoru, TANAHASHI; Toshio, MIYAUCHI; 東工大院; 東工大院; 東工大院; Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology; Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology; Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    To reduce aerodynamic sound, investigation of the sound generation mechanism in flow field is very important. The detailed investigation of the sound source requires velocity measurements with high temporal and spatial resolution and the development of sound source exploration. In this study, sound source in the turbulent mixing layer have been investigated by the time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (TRSPIV). Powell's sound source and Reynolds stress component of the Lighthi...

  14. Microsecond-resolved SDR-based cavity ring down ellipsometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofikitis, D; Spiliotis, A K; Stamataki, K; Katsoprinakis, G E; Bougas, L; Samartzis, P C; Loppinet, B; Rakitzis, T P; Surligas, M; Papadakis, S

    2015-06-20

    We present an experimental apparatus that allows microsecond-resolved ellipsometric and absorption measurements. The apparatus is based on an optical cavity containing a Dove prism, in which light undergoes total internal reflection (TIR), while the data acquisition is based on software defined radio technology and custom-built drivers. We demonstrate the ability to sense rapid variations in the refractive index above the TIR interface for arbitrarily long times with a temporal resolution of at least 2 μs.

  15. Time resolved techniques: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1990-06-01

    Synchrotron sources provide exceptional opportunities for carrying out time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. The high intensity, high angular resolution, and continuously tunable energy spectrum of synchrotron x-ray beams lend themselves directly to carrying out sophisticated time-resolved x-ray scattering measurements on a wide range of materials and phenomena. When these attributes are coupled with the pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources, entirely new time-resolved scattering possibilities are opened. Synchrotron beams typically consist of sub-nanosecond pulses of x-rays separated in time by a few tens of nanoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds so that these beams appear as continuous x-ray sources for investigations of phenomena on time scales ranging from hours down to microseconds. Studies requiring time-resolution ranging from microseconds to fractions of a nanosecond can be carried out in a triggering mode by stimulating the phenomena under investigation in coincidence with the x-ray pulses. Time resolution on the picosecond scale can, in principle, be achieved through the use of streak camera techniques in which the time structure of the individual x-ray pulses are viewed as quasi-continuous sources with ∼100--200 picoseconds duration. Techniques for carrying out time-resolved scattering measurements on time scales varying from picoseconds to kiloseconds at present and proposed synchrotron sources are discussed and examples of time-resolved studies are cited. 17 refs., 8 figs

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Quantum Temporal Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Mankei; Psaltis, Demetri

    2006-01-01

    The concept of quantum temporal imaging is proposed to manipulate the temporal correlation of entangled photons. In particular, we show that time correlation and anticorrelation can be converted to each other using quantum temporal imaging.

  19. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  20. Time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Schwämmle, Veit; Sylvester, Marc

    2012-01-01

    proteins involved in the Ang-(1-7) signaling, we performed a mass spectrometry-based time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteome study of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) treated with Ang-(1-7). We identified 1288 unique phosphosites on 699 different proteins with 99% certainty of correct peptide...

  1. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmakoff, Andrei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Champion, Paul [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Heilweil, Edwin J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ziegler, Larry [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE's Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all fiveof DOE's grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  2. Minimum resolvable power contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Cognitive Temporal Document Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal information retrieval exploits temporal features of document collections and queries. Temporal document priors are used to adjust the score of a document based on its publication time. We consider a class of temporal document priors that is inspired by retention functions considered in

  6. The time resolved measurement of ultrashort terahertz-band electric fields without an ultrashort probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, D. A.; Snedden, E. W.; Jamison, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The time-resolved detection of ultrashort pulsed THz-band electric field temporal profiles without an ultrashort laser probe is demonstrated. A non-linear interaction between a narrow-bandwidth optical probe and the THz pulse transposes the THz spectral intensity and phase information to the optical region, thereby generating an optical pulse whose temporal electric field envelope replicates the temporal profile of the real THz electric field. This optical envelope is characterised via an autocorrelation based FROG (frequency resolved optical gating) measurement, hence revealing the THz temporal profile. The combination of a narrow-bandwidth, long duration, optical probe, and self-referenced FROG makes the technique inherently immune to timing jitter between the optical probe and THz pulse and may find particular application where the THz field is not initially generated via ultrashort laser methods, such as the measurement of longitudinal electron bunch profiles in particle accelerators

  7. Time and momentum-resolved phonon decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, David

    2017-04-01

    The high brightness of x-ray free-electron lasers provides us a unique opportunity to measure lattice dynamics directly in the time domain and out of equilibrium. As a first step in this direction we demonstrate how ultrafast optical excitation creates temporal coherences in the mean-square phonon displacements spanning the Brillouin zone by a second-order squeezing process. This leads to broad-bandwidth high-resolution measurements of the phonon dispersion without the need for high-resolution monochromators or analyzers. We will also show how anharmonic phonon decay can be viewed as a parametric squeezing process, and present first momentum-resolved measurements of the downconversion of a coherent optical phonon into pairs of high-wavevector acoustic modes, information that cannot be obtained by spectroscopic measurements in the frequency domain. Supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  8. Resolving runaway electron distributions in space, time, and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Cooper, C. M.; Aleynikov, P.; Eidietis, N. W.; Lvovskiy, A.; Pace, D. C.; Brennan, D. P.; Hollmann, E. M.; Liu, C.; Moyer, R. A.; Shiraki, D.

    2018-05-01

    Areas of agreement and disagreement with present-day models of runaway electron (RE) evolution are revealed by measuring MeV-level bremsstrahlung radiation from runaway electrons (REs) with a pinhole camera. Spatially resolved measurements localize the RE beam, reveal energy-dependent RE transport, and can be used to perform full two-dimensional (energy and pitch-angle) inversions of the RE phase-space distribution. Energy-resolved measurements find qualitative agreement with modeling on the role of collisional and synchrotron damping in modifying the RE distribution shape. Measurements are consistent with predictions of phase-space attractors that accumulate REs, with non-monotonic features observed in the distribution. Temporally resolved measurements find qualitative agreement with modeling on the impact of collisional and synchrotron damping in varying the RE growth and decay rate. Anomalous RE loss is observed and found to be largest at low energy. Possible roles for kinetic instability or spatial transport to resolve these anomalies are discussed.

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Time-Resolved Analysis of High-Power-Laser Produced Plasma Expansion in Vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliverdiev, A.; Batani, D.; Dezulian, R.; Malka, V.; Vinci, T.; Koenig, M.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.

    2005-01-01

    Here we consider the results of an experimental investigation of the temporal evolution of plasmas produced by high power laser irradiation of various types of target materials. The experiment was performed at the LULI Laboratory (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris). We have developed a method to analyze time-resolved streak-camera images and analyzed a number of results obtained with various materials

  4. Temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Although pluridirectional tomography had been the standard method to evaluate the temporal bone, computed tomography has replaced it for nearly all applications. Magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate nonosseous temporal bone structures as well

  5. Mesial temporal sclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    2005-07-29

    Jul 29, 2005 ... tail of the hippocampus were involved, with associated poor grey- white matter differentiation. In addi- tion, there was atrophy of the hip- pocampus and fornix, with dilatation of the temporal horn (Figs 1 - 4). Discussion. Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the commonest cause of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  6. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Mialocq, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the evolution in time of light emitted by a molecular system after a brief photo-excitation. The authors first describe fluorescence from a photo-physical point of view and discuss the characterization of the excited state. Then, they explain some basic notions related to fluorescence characterization (lifetime and decays, quantum efficiency, so on). They present the different experimental methods and techniques currently used to study time-resolved fluorescence. They discuss basic notions of time resolution and spectral reconstruction. They briefly present some conventional methods: intensified Ccd cameras, photo-multipliers and photodiodes associated with a fast oscilloscope, and phase modulation. Other methods and techniques are more precisely presented: time-correlated single photon counting (principle, examples, and fluorescence lifetime imagery), streak camera (principle, examples), and optical methods like the Kerr optical effect (principle and examples) and fluorescence up-conversion (principle and theoretical considerations, examples of application)

  7. Multi-frame pyramid correlation for time-resolved PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciacchitano, Andrea; Scarano, Fulvio [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Wieneke, Bernhard [LaVision GmbH, Goettingen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    A novel technique is introduced to increase the precision and robustness of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements. The innovative element of the technique is the linear combination of the correlation signal computed at different separation time intervals. The domain of the correlation signal resulting from different temporal separations is matched via homothetic transformation prior to the averaging of the correlation maps. The resulting ensemble-averaged correlation function features a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio and a more precise velocity estimation due to the evaluation of a larger particle image displacement. The method relies on a local optimization of the observation time between snapshots taking into account the local out-of-plane motion, continuum deformation due to in-plane velocity gradient and acceleration errors. The performance of the pyramid correlation algorithm is assessed on a synthetically generated image sequence reproducing a three-dimensional Batchelor vortex; experiments conducted in air and water flows are used to assess the performance on time-resolved PIV image sequences. The numerical assessment demonstrates the effectiveness of the pyramid correlation technique in reducing both random and bias errors by a factor 3 and one order of magnitude, respectively. The experimental assessment yields a significant increase of signal strength indicating enhanced measurement robustness. Moreover, the amplitude of noisy fluctuations is considerably attenuated and higher precision is obtained for the evaluation of time-resolved velocity and acceleration. (orig.)

  8. Lucas–Kanade fluid trajectories for time-resolved PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yegavian, Robin; Leclaire, Benjamin; Illoul, Cédric; Losfeld, Gilles; Champagnat, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method for estimating fluid trajectories in time-resolved PIV. It relies on a Lucas–Kanade paradigm and consists in a simple and direct extension of a two-frame estimation with FOLKI-PIV (Champagnat et al 2011 Exp. Fluids 50 1169–82). The so-called Lucas–Kanade Fluid Trajectories (LKFT) are assumed to be polynomial in time, and are found as the minimizer of a global functional, in which displacements are sought so as to match the intensities of a series of images pairs in the sequence, in the least-squares sense. All pairs involve the central image, similar to other recent time-resolved approaches (FTC (Lynch and Scarano 2013 Meas. Sci. Technol . 24 035305) and FTEE (Jeon et al 2014 Exp. Fluids 55 1–16)). As switching from a two-frame to a time-resolved objective simply amounts to adding terms in a functional, no significant additional algorithmic element is required. Similar to FOLKI-PIV the method is very well suited for GPU acceleration, which is an important feature as computational complexity increases with the image sequence size. Tests on synthetic data exhibiting peak-locking show that increasing the image sequence size strongly reduces both associated bias and random error, and that LKFT has a remaining total error comparable to that of FTEE on this case. Results on case B of the third PIV challenge (Stanislas et al 2008 Exp. Fluids 45 27–71) also show its ability to drastically reduce the error in situations with low signal-to-noise ratio. These results are finally confirmed on experimental images acquired in the near-field of a low Reynolds number jet. Strong reductions in peak-locking, spatial and temporal noise compared to two-frame estimation are also observed, on the displacement components themselves, as well as on spatial or temporal derivatives, such as vorticity and material acceleration. (paper)

  9. Flavour from partially resolved singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, G. [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: bonelli@sissa.it; Bonora, L. [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Ricco, A. [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    In this Letter we study topological open string field theory on D-branes in a IIB background given by non-compact CY geometries O(n)-bar O(-2-n) on P{sup 1} with a singular point at which an extra fiber sits. We wrap N D5-branes on P{sup 1} and M effective D3-branes at singular points, which are actually D5-branes wrapped on a shrinking cycle. We calculate the holomorphic Chern-Simons partition function for the above models in a deformed complex structure and find that it reduces to multi-matrix models with flavour. These are the matrix models whose resolvents have been shown to satisfy the generalized Konishi anomaly equations with flavour. In the n=0 case, corresponding to a partial resolution of the A{sub 2} singularity, the quantum superpotential in the N=1 unitary SYM with one adjoint and M fundamentals is obtained. The n=1 case is also studied and shown to give rise to two-matrix models which for a particular set of couplings can be exactly solved. We explicitly show how to solve such a class of models by a quantum equation of motion technique.

  10. Direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Condensed matter physics; high-c superconductivity; electronic properties; photoemission spectroscopy; angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy; cuprates; films; strain; pulsed laser deposition.

  11. Advances in temporal logic

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  12. Reducing view-sharing using compressed sensing in time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapacchi, Stanislas; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Plotnik, Adam; Gabriel, Simon; Laub, Gerhard; Finn, J Paul; Hu, Peng

    2015-08-01

    To study temporal and spatial blurring artifacts from k-space view-sharing in time-resolved MR angiography (MRA) and to propose a technique for reducing these artifacts. We acquired k-space data sets using a three-dimensional time-resolved MRA view-sharing sequence and retrospectively reformatted them into two reconstruction frameworks: full view-sharing via time-resolved imaging with stochastic trajectories (TWIST) and minimal k-space view-sharing and compressed sensing (CS-TWIST). The two imaging series differed in temporal footprint but not in temporal frame rate. The artifacts from view-sharing were compared qualitatively and quantitatively in nine patients in addition to a phantom experiment. CS-TWIST was able to reduce the imaging temporal footprint by two- to three-fold compared with TWIST, and the overall subjective image quality of CS-TWIST was higher than that for TWIST (P MRA, the shorter temporal footprint decreased the sensitivity to physiological motion blurring, and vessel sharpness was improved by 8.8% ± 6.0% using CS-TWIST (P MRA, the longer temporal footprint due to view-sharing causes spatial and temporal artifacts. CS-TWIST is a promising method for reducing these artifacts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Time-resolved Sensing of Meso-scale Shock Compression with Multilayer Photonic Crystal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scripka, David; Lee, Gyuhyon; Summers, Christopher J.; Thadhani, Naresh

    2017-06-01

    Multilayer Photonic Crystal structures can provide spatially and temporally resolved data needed to validate theoretical and computational models relevant for understanding shock compression in heterogeneous materials. Two classes of 1-D photonic crystal multilayer structures were studied: optical microcavities (OMC) and distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR). These 0.5 to 5 micron thick structures were composed of SiO2, Al2O3, Ag, and PMMA layers fabricated primarily via e-beam evaporation. The multilayers have unique spectral signatures inherently linked to their time-resolved physical states. By observing shock-induced changes in these signatures, an optically-based pressure sensor was developed. Results to date indicate that both OMCs and DBRs exhibit nanosecond-resolved spectral shifts of several to 10s of nanometers under laser-driven shock compression loads of 0-10 GPa, with the magnitude of the shift strongly correlating to the shock load magnitude. Additionally, spatially and temporally resolved spectral shifts under heterogeneous laser-driven shock compression created by partial beam blocking have been successfully demonstrated. These results illustrate the potential for multilayer structures to serve as meso-scale sensors, capturing temporal and spatial pressure profile evolutions in shock-compressed heterogeneous materials, and revealing meso-scale pressure distributions across a shocked surface. Supported by DTRA Grant HDTRA1-12-1-005 and DoD, AFOSR, National Defense Science and Eng. Graduate Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a.

  14. Constructing catalogue of temporal situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Constructing catalogue of temporal situations The paper is aiming to create a common basis for description, comparing, and analysis natural languages. As a subject of comparison we have chosen temporal structures of some languages. For such a choice there exists a perfect tool, describing basic temporal phenomena, namely an ordering of states and events in time, certainty and uncertainty, independency of histories of separate objects, necessity and possibility. This tool is supported by the Petri nets formalism, which seems to be well suited for expressing the above mentioned phenomena. Petri nets are built form three primitive notions: of states, of events that begin or end the states, and so-called flow relation indicating succession of states and events. This simple constituents give rise to many possibilities of representing temporal phenomena; it turns out that such representations are sufficient for many (clearly, not necessarily all temporal situations appearing in natural languages. In description formalisms used till now there is no possibility of expressing such reality phenomena as temporal dependencies in compound statement, or combination of temporality and modality. Moreover, using these formalisms one cannot distinguish between two different sources of uncertainty of the speaker while describing the reality: one, due to the lack of knowledge of the speaker what is going on in outside world, the second, due to objective impossibility of foreseen ways in which some conflict situations will be (or already have been resolved. Petri net formalism seems to be perfectly suited for such differentiations. There are two main description principles that encompassed this paper. First, that assigns meaning to names of grammatical structures in different languages may lead to misunderstanding. Two grammatical structures with apparently close names may describe different reality. Additionally, some grammatical terms used in one language may be

  15. Time resolved spectroscopic studies on some nanophosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Time resolved spectroscopy is an important tool for studying photophysical processes in phosphors. Present work investigates the steady state and time resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic characteristics of ZnS, ZnO and (Zn, Mg)O nanophosphors both in powder as well as thin film form.

  16. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  17. Dynamic Temporal Decoupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mountakis, K.S.; Klos, T.; Witteveen, C.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal decoupling is a method to distribute a temporal constraint problem over a number of actors, such that each actor can solve its own part of the problem. It then ensures that the partial solutions provided can be always merged to obtain a complete solution. This paper discusses static and

  18. The Interactive Role of Temporal Team Leadership in the Telecom Sector of Pakistan: Utilizing Temporal Diversity for Sustainable Knowledge Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Najam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human or social dimensions need to be significantly considered to maintain organizational sustainability. Unfortunately, this aspect has received relatively little attention when compared to other dimensions of sustainability. This study promotes the presence of a leader to manage conflicts, which cause hindrances in achieving sustainability. This is possible by maximizing sustainable knowledge sharing in a team, by effectively utilizing temporal diversity, including time urgency, time perspective, and pacing style diversity under a certain time pressure. This study has examined the effect of temporal diversity on knowledge sharing within teams by taking temporal conflict as a mediator. Moreover, it was also investigated whether the role of team temporal leadership is effective in utilizing the conflicts arising from the temporal diversity. The research design was quantitative in nature. A purposive sampling technique was used to gather data from 100 dyads working in the telecom sector of Pakistan, by distributing questionnaires. The findings suggest that team temporal leadership plays an effective role when a conflict arises rather than after it has arisen because more time and resources will be required to resolve such conflicts arising from temporal diversity. When the temporal diversity is low, the leader can manage the conflicts quite well, but as the diversity increases, the role of the temporal leader become much harder which may cause increased conflicts because of the limited capacity of a leader to manage those conflicts. Furthermore, it was observed that conflicts, if managed properly, may lead to increased knowledge sharing.

  19. Examining Electron-Boson Coupling Using Time-Resolved Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentef, Michael; Kemper, Alexander F.; Moritz, Brian; Freericks, James K.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Devereaux, Thomas P.

    2013-12-26

    Nonequilibrium pump-probe time-domain spectroscopies can become an important tool to disentangle degrees of freedom whose coupling leads to broad structures in the frequency domain. Here, using the time-resolved solution of a model photoexcited electron-phonon system, we show that the relaxational dynamics are directly governed by the equilibrium self-energy so that the phonon frequency sets a window for “slow” versus “fast” recovery. The overall temporal structure of this relaxation spectroscopy allows for a reliable and quantitative extraction of the electron-phonon coupling strength without requiring an effective temperature model or making strong assumptions about the underlying bare electronic band dispersion.

  20. Spatially resolved fish population analysis for designing MPAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Mosegaard, Henrik; Jensen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The sandeel population analysis model (SPAM) is presented as a simulation tool for exploring the efficiency of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) for sandeel stocks. SPAM simulates spatially resolved sandeel population distributions, based on a high-resolution map of all fishery-established sandbank....... The SPAM framework was tested using ICES statistical rectangle 37F2 as an MPA, and the impact on sandeel populations within the MPA and neighbouring habitats was investigated. Increased larval spillover compensated for lost catches inside the MPA. The temporal and spatial scales of stock response to MPAs...... demonstrated that ecosystem self-regulation must be included when modelling the efficiency of MPAs, and for lesser sandeel, that self-regulation partially counteracts the benefits of a fishing sanctuary. The use of realistic habitat connectivity is critical for both qualitative and quantitative MPA assessment...

  1. Differential resolvents of minimal order and weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Michael Nahay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We will determine the number of powers of α that appear with nonzero coefficient in an α-power linear differential resolvent of smallest possible order of a univariate polynomial P(t whose coefficients lie in an ordinary differential field and whose distinct roots are differentially independent over constants. We will then give an upper bound on the weight of an α-resolvent of smallest possible weight. We will then compute the indicial equation, apparent singularities, and Wronskian of the Cockle α-resolvent of a trinomial and finish with a related determinantal formula.

  2. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Interaction design is distinguished from most other design disciplines through its temporal form. Temporal form is the computational structure that enables and demands a temporal expression in the resulting design. Temporal form is what enables poetry. In music, temporal form is the composition o...

  3. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    , these query languages are implemented by translating temporal queries into standard relational queries. However, the compiled queries are often quite cumbersome and expensive to execute even using state-of-the-art relational products. This paper presents an optimization technique that produces more efficient...... translated SQL queries by taking into account the properties of the encoding used for temporal attributes. For concreteness, this translation technique is presented in the context of SQL/TP; however, these techniques are also applicable to other temporal query languages....

  4. Investigation of gravity waves using horizontally resolved radial velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, G.; Sommer, S.; Rapp, M.; Latteck, R.

    2013-10-01

    The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) on the island of Andøya in Northern Norway (69.3° N, 16.0° E) observes polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE). These echoes are used as tracers of atmospheric dynamics to investigate the horizontal wind variability at high temporal and spatial resolution. MAARSY has the capability of pulse-to-pulse beam steering allowing for systematic scanning experiments to study the horizontal structure of the backscatterers as well as to measure the radial velocities for each beam direction. Here we present a method to retrieve gravity wave parameters from these horizontally resolved radial wind variations by applying velocity azimuth display and volume velocity processing. Based on the observations a detailed comparison of the two wind analysis techniques is carried out in order to determine the zonal and meridional wind as well as to measure first-order inhomogeneities. Further, we demonstrate the possibility to resolve the horizontal wave properties, e.g., horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and propagation direction. The robustness of the estimated gravity wave parameters is tested by a simple atmospheric model.

  5. Investigation of gravity waves using horizontally resolved radial velocity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Stober

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY on the island of Andøya in Northern Norway (69.3° N, 16.0° E observes polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE. These echoes are used as tracers of atmospheric dynamics to investigate the horizontal wind variability at high temporal and spatial resolution. MAARSY has the capability of pulse-to-pulse beam steering allowing for systematic scanning experiments to study the horizontal structure of the backscatterers as well as to measure the radial velocities for each beam direction. Here we present a method to retrieve gravity wave parameters from these horizontally resolved radial wind variations by applying velocity azimuth display and volume velocity processing. Based on the observations a detailed comparison of the two wind analysis techniques is carried out in order to determine the zonal and meridional wind as well as to measure first-order inhomogeneities. Further, we demonstrate the possibility to resolve the horizontal wave properties, e.g., horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and propagation direction. The robustness of the estimated gravity wave parameters is tested by a simple atmospheric model.

  6. Sub-nanosecond time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, J; Xu, H; Kolthammer, J; Hong, Y K; Choi, B C

    2015-02-01

    We report on the development of a new magnetic microscope, time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope, which combines a near-field scanning optical microscope and magneto-optical contrast. By taking advantage of the high temporal resolution of time-resolved Kerr microscope and the sub-wavelength spatial resolution of a near-field microscope, we achieved a temporal resolution of ∼50 ps and a spatial resolution of microscope, the magnetic field pulse induced gyrotropic vortex dynamics occurring in 1 μm diameter, 20 nm thick CoFeB circular disks has been investigated. The microscope provides sub-wavelength resolution magnetic images of the gyrotropic motion of the vortex core at a resonance frequency of ∼240 MHz.

  7. Time-resolved absorption measurements on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; DaSilva, L.; Delettrez, J.; Gregory, G.G.; Richardson, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the incident laser light that is scattered and/or refracted from targets irradiated by the 24 uv-beam OMEGA laser at LLE, have provided some interesting features related to time-resolved absorption. The decrease in laser absorption characteristic of irradiating a target that implodes during the laser pulse has been observed. The increase in absorption expected as the critical density surface moves from a low to a high Z material in the target has also been noted. The detailed interpretation of these results is made through comparisons with simulation using the code LILAC, as well as with streak data from time-resolved x-ray imaging and spectroscopy. In addition, time and space-resolved imaging of the scattered light yields information on laser irradiation uniformity conditions on the target. The report consists of viewgraphs

  8. Component resolved testing for allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, Kirsten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2010-01-01

    Component resolved diagnostics introduces new possibilities regarding diagnosis of allergic diseases and individualized, allergen-specific treatment. Furthermore, refinement of IgE-based testing may help elucidate the correlation or lack of correlation between allergenic sensitization and allergi...

  9. Time resolved spectroscopic studies on some nanophosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    . 1. Introduction. Time resolved spectroscopy is an important tool for study- ing energy and charge transfer processes, coupling of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom, vibrational and conformational relaxation, isomerization, etc. The.

  10. Resolving Inconsistencies in de Broglie's Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagener P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern quantum theory is based on de Broglie's relation between momentum and wave-length. In this article we investigate certain inconsistencies in its formulation and propose a reformulation to resolve them.

  11. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy Temporal lobe seizure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  12. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  13. Temporal bone meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrionis, F D; Robertson, J H; Gardner, G; Heilman, C B

    1999-01-01

    Meningiomas involving the temporal bone may originate from arachnoid cell nests present within the temporal bone (intratemporal), but more frequently originate from arachnoid cell nests of the posterior or middle cranial fossa with secondary invasion of the TB (extratemporal). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of 13 patients with meningiomas involving the temporal bone who underwent surgery. Tumors of the posterior fossa with only temporal bone hyperostosis, but without invasion, were excluded. Patients presented primarily with otologic symptoms and signs. The tumors originated in the temporal bone (5/13), jugular foramen (4/13), petroclival region (2/13), the asterion (1/13) or the internal auditory meatus (1/13). All of the intratemporal meningiomas had the radiological appearance of en-plaque menigiomas. The tumor extended into the middle ear (11/13), eustachian tube (5/13), and/or the labyrinth (3/13). A gross total resection was achieved in 11 patients and a subtotal resection in 2 patients. The lower cranial nerves were infiltrated by tumor in 4 patients, and were sacrificed. At a mean follow-up of approximately 6 years, 12 patients are currently alive and doing well and 1 died from tumor progression. Six patients showed tumor recurrence and were reoperated on (5/6) or followed conservatively (1/6). Surgical treatment of temporal bone meningiomas is associated with high recurrence rate due to indiscreet tumor margins. Combined surgical approaches (temporal craniotomy and mastoidectomy) by neurosurgical and otological teams are recommended for meningiomas originating in the temporal bone.

  14. Time-resolved spectroscopy in synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, V.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1980-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) from large-diameter storage rings has intrinsic time structure which facilitates time-resolved measurements form milliseconds to picoseconds and possibly below. The scientific importance of time-resolved measurements is steadily increasing as more and better techniques are discovered and applied to a wider variety of scientific problems. This paper presents a discussion of the importance of various parameters of the SR facility in providing for time-resolved spectroscopy experiments, including the role of beam-line optical design parameters. Special emphasis is placed on the requirements of extremely fast time-resolved experiments with which the effects of atomic vibrational or relaxation motion may be studied. Before discussing the state-of-the-art timing experiments, we review several types of time-resolved measurements which have now become routine: nanosecond-range fluorescence decay times, time-resolved emission and excitation spectroscopies, and various time-of-flight applications. These techniques all depend on a short SR pulse length and a long interpulse period, such as is provided by a large-diameter ring operating in a single-bunch mode. In most cases, the pulse shape and even the stability of the pulse shape is relatively unimportant as long as the pulse length is smaller than the risetime of the detection apparatus, typically 1 to 2 ns. For time resolution smaller than 1 ns, the requirements on the pulse shape become more stringent. (orig./FKS)

  15. Analysis of Aerodynamic Sound Source by Time-Resolved Stereoscopic PIV

    OpenAIRE

    尾花, 功一; 瀬尾, 健彦; 志村, 祐康; 店橋, 護; 宮内, 敏雄; Koichi, OBANA; Takehiko, SEO; Masayasu, SHIMURA; Mamoru, TANAHASHI; Toshio, MIYAUCHI; 東工大院; 東工大院; 東工大院; 東工大院; 東工大院

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of sound generation mechanism in flow fields is important for reduction of aerodynamic sound. The detailed investigation of sound sources requires velocity measurements with high temporal and spatial resolutions. In this study, sound sources in turbulent mixing layer have been investigated by time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV). Powell's sound source and Reynolds stress component of Lighthill's sound source have been evaluated from experimental results an...

  16. Time-resolved far-infrared experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, D.B.; Reitze, D.H.; Carr, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    A facility for time-resolved infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy has been built and commissioned at the National Synchrotron Light Source. This facility permits the study of time dependent phenomena over a frequency range from 2-8000cm -1 (0.25 meV-1 eV). Temporal resolution is approximately 200 psec and time dependent phenomena in the time range out to 100 nsec can be investigated

  17. Optimization of experimental conditions in uranium trace determination using laser time-resolved fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baly, L.; Garcia, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    At the present paper a new sample excitation geometry is presented for the uranium trace determination in aqueous solutions by the Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence. This new design introduces the laser radiation through the top side of the cell allowing the use of cells with two quartz sides, less expensive than commonly used at this experimental set. Optimization of the excitation conditions, temporal discrimination and spectral selection are presented

  18. Range resolved lidar for long distance ranging with sub-millimeter resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piracha, Mohammad Umar; Nguyen, Dat; Mandridis, Dimitrios; Yilmaz, Tolga; Ozdur, Ibrahim; Ozharar, Sarper; Delfyett, Peter J

    2010-03-29

    A lidar technique employing temporally stretched, frequency chirped pulses from a 20 MHz mode locked laser is presented. Sub-millimeter resolution at a target range of 10.1 km (in fiber) is observed. A pulse tagging scheme based on phase modulation is demonstrated for range resolved measurements. A carrier to noise ratio of 30 dB is observed at an unambiguous target distance of 30 meters in fiber.

  19. Congenital amusia: a cognitive disorder limited to resolved harmonics and with no peripheral basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Marion; Oxenham, Andrew J; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Pitch plays a fundamental role in audition, from speech and music perception to auditory scene analysis. Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that appears to affect primarily pitch and melody perception. Pitch is normally conveyed by the spectro-temporal fine structure of low harmonics, but some pitch information is available in the temporal envelope produced by the interactions of higher harmonics. Using 10 amusic subjects and 10 matched controls, we tested the hypothesis that amusics suffer exclusively from impaired processing of spectro-temporal fine structure. We also tested whether the inability of amusics to process acoustic temporal fine structure extends beyond pitch by measuring sensitivity to interaural time differences, which also rely on temporal fine structure. Further tests were carried out on basic intensity and spectral resolution. As expected, pitch perception based on spectro-temporal fine structure was impaired in amusics; however, no significant deficits were observed in amusics' ability to perceive the pitch conveyed via temporal-envelope cues. Sensitivity to interaural time differences was also not significantly different between the amusic and control groups, ruling out deficits in the peripheral coding of temporal fine structure. Finally, no significant differences in intensity or spectral resolution were found between the amusic and control groups. The results demonstrate a pitch-specific deficit in fine spectro-temporal information processing in amusia that seems unrelated to temporal or spectral coding in the auditory periphery. These results are consistent with the view that there are distinct mechanisms dedicated to processing resolved and unresolved harmonics in the general population, the former being altered in congenital amusia while the latter is spared. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Congenital amusia: a cognitive disorder limited to resolved harmonics and with no peripheral basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineaua, Marion; Oxenham, Andrew J.; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Pitch plays a fundamental role in audition, from speech and music perception to auditory scene analysis. Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that appears to affect primarily pitch and melody perception. Pitch is normally conveyed by the spectro-temporal fine structure of low harmonics, but some pitch information is available in the temporal envelope produced by the interactions of higher harmonics. Using 10 amusic subjects and 10 matched controls, we tested the hypothesis that amusics suffer exclusively from impaired processing of spectro-temporal fine structure. We also tested whether the inability of amusics to process acoustic temporal fine structure extends beyond pitch by measuring sensitivity to interaural time differences, which also rely on temporal fine structure. Further tests were carried out on basic intensity and spectral resolution. As expected, pitch perception based on spectro-temporal fine structure was impaired in amusics; however, no significant deficits were observed in amusics' ability to perceive the pitch conveyed via temporal-envelope cues. Sensitivity to interaural time differences was also not significantly different between the amusic and control groups, ruling out deficits in the peripheral coding of temporal fine structure. Finally, no significant differences in intensity or spectral resolution were found between the amusic and control groups. The results demonstrate a pitch-specific deficit in fine spectro-temporal information processing in amusia that seems unrelated to temporal or spectral coding in the auditory periphery. These results are consistent with the view that there are distinct mechanisms dedicated to processing resolved and unresolved harmonics in the general population, the former being altered in congenital amusia while the latter is spared. PMID:25433224

  1. A spectral pyrometer to spatially resolve the blackbody temperature of a warm dense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    A pyrometer has been developed to spatially resolve the blackbody temperature of a radiatively cooling warm dense plasma. The pyrometer is composed of a lens coupled fiber array, Czerny-Turner visible spectrometer, and an intensified gated CCD for the detector. The radiatively cooling warm dense plasma is generated by a ˜100-ns-long intense relativistic electron bunch with an energy of 19.1 MeV and a current of 0.2 kA interacting with 100-μm-thick low-Z foils. The continuum spectrum is measured over 250 nm with a low groove density grating. These plasmas emit visible light or blackbody radiation on relatively long time scales (˜0.1 to 100 μs). The diagnostic layout, calibration, and proof-of-principle measurement of a radiatively cooling aluminum plasma is presented, which includes a spatially resolved temperature gradient and the ability to temporally resolve it also.

  2. Characterization of noise sources in a rod-airfoil configuration by means of Time-Resolved Tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzoni, V.; Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2010-01-01

    Time-resolved Tomographic PIV was used to characterize the flow around the leading edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in rod-airfoil configuration at ReD = 3500. The volumetric approach at relatively high temporal resolution allows the measurement of the evolution of the 3D vortical structures constituting

  3. Exploring the temporally resolved electron density evolution in extreme ultra-violet induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Horst, R M; Beckers, J; Nijdam, S; Kroesen, G M W

    2014-01-01

    We measured the electron density in an extreme ultra-violet (EUV) induced plasma. This is achieved in a low-pressure argon plasma by using a method called microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. The measured electron density just after the EUV pulse is 2.6 × 10 16  m −3 . This is in good agreement with a theoretical prediction from photo-ionization, which yields a density of 4.5 × 10 16  m −3 . After the EUV pulse the density slightly increases due to electron impact ionization. The plasma (i.e. electron density) decays in tens of microseconds. (fast track communication)

  4. Spatially and temporally resolved diagnostics of dense sprays using gated, femtosecond, digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.; Dioumaev, Andrei K.; Ziaee, Ali; Minniti, Marco; Dunn-Rankin, Derek

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes research that demonstrated gated, femtosecond, digital holography, enabling 3D microscopic viewing inside dense, almost opaque sprays, and providing a new and powerful diagnostics capability for viewing fuel atomization processes never seen before. The method works by exploiting the extremely short coherence and pulse length (approximately 30 micrometers in this implementation) provided by a femtosecond laser combined with digital holography to eliminate multiple and wide angle scattered light from particles surrounding the injection region, which normally obscures the image of interest. Photons that follow a path that differs in length by more than 30 micrometers from a straight path through the field to the sensor do not contribute to the holographic recording of photons that travel in a near straight path (ballistic and "snake" photons). To further enhance the method, off-axis digital holography was incorporated to enhance signal to noise ratio and image processing capability in reconstructed images by separating the conjugate images, which overlap and interfere in conventional in-line holography. This also enables digital holographic interferometry. Fundamental relationships and limitations were also examined. The project is a continuing collaboration between MetroLaser and the University of California, Irvine.

  5. Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, P C

    1999-03-20

    An optical diagnostic system based on line imaging of Raman-scattered light has been developed to study the mixing processes in internal combustion engines. The system permits multipoint, single laser-shot measurements of CO(2), O(2), N(2), C(3)H(8), and H(2)O mole fractions with submillimeter spatial resolution. Selection of appropriate system hardware is discussed, as are subsequent data reduction and analysis procedures. Results are reported for data obtained at multiple crank angles and in two different engine flow fields. Measurements are made at 12 locations simultaneously, each location having measurement volume dimensions of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.9 mm. The data are analyzed to obtain statistics of species mole fractions: mean, rms, histograms, and both spatial and cross-species covariance functions. The covariance functions are used to quantify the accuracy of the measured rms mole fraction fluctuations, to determine the integral length scales of the mixture inhomogeneities, and to quantify the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in bulk mixture composition under well-mixed conditions.

  6. Spatially and temporally resolved EUV emissions from SATURN z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.J.; Breeze, S.; Mock, R.; Jobe, D.

    1995-01-01

    EUV emissions can be used to measure several z-pinch parameters. The authors have measured implosion velocity from Doppler splitting of lines and estimated electron temperature during run-in from the mean ionization state of line emissions. In an argon pinch they measure an electron temperature of 100 eV before stagnation. To date Doppler split lines have measured implosion velocities less than 40 cm/microsecond. They are presently attempting to measure magnetic field or load current from Zeeman splitting and it may be possible to measure electron density from a Stark-broadened line. Opacity and ion thermal broadening may also contribute to line width information. The spectrometer utilizes a variable line space grating to give a flat focal field. Spectral resolution with a 60 micron detector resolution is up to 3,000 and generally increases with wavelength. This is sufficient to detect several plasma line broadening mechanisms. The spectrometer may detect lines above 100 angstrom and below 1,400 angstrom. Spectral range across a microchannel plate stripline detector decreases with increasing wavelength setting. The authors may gate two striplines with 1 to 12 nsec gates at any time during the pinch discharge. Each stripline spatially images the pinch diameter perpendicular to the direction of dispersion. Spatial resolution in the pinch diameter is 1 mm. Spatial acquisition along the z axis is also 1 mm. Data are presented from argon, krypton, and aluminum z-pinch discharges on the SATURN accelerator

  7. Spatially and temporally resolved measurements of the temperature inside droplets impinging on a hot solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaze, William; Caballina, Ophélie; Castanet, Guillaume; Lemoine, Fabrice

    2017-08-01

    Heat transfers at the impact of a droplet on a hot solid surface are investigated experimentally. Millimeter-sized water droplets impinge a flat sapphire window heated at 600 °C. The time evolution of the droplet temperature is characterized using the two-color laser-induced fluorescence technique. For that, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used for the excitation of the fluorescence to obtain instantaneous images of the droplet temperature. Water is seeded with two fluorescent dyes, one sensitive to temperature (fluorescein disodium) and the other not (sulforhodamine 640). Owing to a wavelength shift between the dyes' emissions, the fluorescence signal of the dyes can be detected separately by two cameras. The liquid temperature is determined with a good accuracy by doing the ratio of the images of the dyes' fluorescence. A critical feature of the method is that the image ratio is not disturbed by the deformation of the impacting droplet, which affects the signals of the dyes almost identically. Experiments are performed in the conditions of film boiling. A thin vapor film at the interface between the droplet and the solid surface prevents the deposition of liquid on the hot solid surface. Measurements highlight some differences in the rate of heat transfers and in the temperature distribution within the droplet between the bouncing and splashing regimes of impact.

  8. Experimental Determination of Drug Diffusion Coefficients in Unstirred Aqueous Environments by Temporally Resolved Concentration Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Cagno, Massimiliano Pio; Clarelli, Fabrizio; Vabenø, Jon

    2018-01-01

    of a substance during spontaneous migration of molecules, followed by standard mathematical treatment of the data in order to solve Fick's law of diffusion. This method is extremely sensitive and results in highly reproducible data. The technique was also employed to verify the influence of the environmental...

  9. Optophysiological Approach to Resolve Neuronal Action Potentials with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in Cultured Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Pagès, Stéphane; Côté, Daniel; De Koninck, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Cell to cell communication in the central nervous system is encoded into transient and local membrane potential changes (?Vm). Deciphering the rules that govern synaptic transmission and plasticity entails to be able to perform V m recordings throughout the entire neuronal arborization. Classical electrophysiology is, in most cases, not able to do so within small and fragile neuronal subcompartments. Thus, optical techniques based on the use of fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) have b...

  10. Disentangling detector data in XFEL studies of temporally resolved solution state chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Biasin, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    such artefacts, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) can be used to identify and characterize the observed detector fluctuations and assist in assigning some of them to variations in physical parameters such as X-ray energy and X-ray intensity. This paper presents a methodology for robustly identifying, separating...

  11. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Diagnostics of Dense Sprays Using Gated, Femtosecond, Digital Holography, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a proposal to develop a unique, gated, picosecond, digital holography system for characterizing dense particle fields in high pressure combustion...

  12. Spatio-Temporal Pain Recognition in CNN-based Super-Resolved Facial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellantonio, Marco; Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Rodriguez, Pau

    2017-01-01

    Automatic pain detection is a long expected solution to a prevalent medical problem of pain management. This is more relevant when the subject of pain is young children or patients with limited ability to communicate about their pain experience. Computer vision-based analysis of facial pain expre...

  13. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  14. The conforming brain and deontological resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Melanie; LaViers, Lisa; Prietula, Michael J; Berns, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules.

  15. The conforming brain and deontological resolve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Pincus

    Full Text Available Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules.

  16. Spectrally resolved longitudinal spatial coherence inteferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Ethan R.; Kudenov, Michael W.

    2017-05-01

    We present an alternative imaging technique using spectrally resolved longitudinal spatial coherence interferometry to encode a scene's angular information onto the source's power spectrum. Fourier transformation of the spectrally resolved channeled spectrum output yields a measurement of the incident scene's angular spectrum. Theory for the spectrally resolved interferometric technique is detailed, demonstrating analogies to conventional Fourier transform spectroscopy. An experimental proof of concept system and results are presented using an angularly-dependent Fabry-Perot interferometer-based optical design for successful reconstruction of one-dimensional sinusoidal angular spectra. Discussion for a potential future application of the technique, in which polarization information is encoded onto the source's power spectrum is also given.

  17. Depth-resolved fluorescence of biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yicong; Xi, Peng; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So Fan; Yu, Mei-Yung; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2005-06-01

    The depth-resolved autofluorescence ofrabbit oral tissue, normal and dysplastic human ectocervical tissue within l20μm depth were investigated utilizing a confocal fluorescence spectroscopy with the excitations at 355nm and 457nm. From the topmost keratinizing layer of oral and ectocervical tissue, strong keratin fluorescence with the spectral characteristics similar to collagen was observed. The fluorescence signal from epithelial tissue between the keratinizing layer and stroma can be well resolved. Furthermore, NADH and FADfluorescence measured from the underlying non-keratinizing epithelial layer were strongly correlated to the tissue pathology. This study demonstrates that the depth-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy can reveal fine structural information on epithelial tissue and potentially provide more accurate diagnostic information for determining tissue pathology.

  18. Imposing resolved turbulence in CFD simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, L.; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2011-01-01

    In large‐eddy simulations, the inflow velocity field should contain resolved turbulence. This paper describes and analyzes two methods for imposing resolved turbulence in the interior of the domain in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. The intended application of the methods is to impose...... resolved turbulence immediately upstream of the region or structure of interest. Comparing to the alternative of imposing the turbulence at the inlet, there is a large potential to reduce the computational cost of the simulation by reducing the total number of cells. The reduction comes from a lower demand...... of modifying the source terms. None of the two methods can impose synthetic turbulence with good results, but it is shown that by running the turbulence field through a short precursor simulation, very good results are obtained. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  19. Temporal Experience and Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Peebles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The well-known phenomenological argument draws metaphysical conclusions about time, specifically about change through time and the resulting passage or flow of time, from our temporal experience. The argument begins with the phenomenological premise that there is a class of properties which underlies our experience of time and change through time, and its conclusion is that these properties are not merely experienced but exemplified. I argue that the phenomenological argument is best served by the adoption of a representational theory of perception. I then present a representational theory of temporal experience.

  20. MONSTIR II: A 32-channel, multispectral, time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Robert J., E-mail: robert.cooper@ucl.ac.uk; Magee, Elliott; Everdell, Nick; Magazov, Salavat; Varela, Marta; Airantzis, Dimitrios; Gibson, Adam P.; Hebden, Jeremy C. [Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    We detail the design, construction and performance of the second generation UCL time-resolved optical tomography system, known as MONSTIR II. Intended primarily for the study of the newborn brain, the system employs 32 source fibres that sequentially transmit picosecond pulses of light at any four wavelengths between 650 and 900 nm. The 32 detector channels each contain an independent photo-multiplier tube and temporally correlated photon-counting electronics that allow the photon transit time between each source and each detector position to be measured with high temporal resolution. The system's response time, temporal stability, cross-talk, and spectral characteristics are reported. The efficacy of MONSTIR II is demonstrated by performing multi-spectral imaging of a simple phantom.

  1. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Financial Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Professor PhD Turlea Eugeniu; PhD Student Mocanu Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    Resolving ethical dilemmas is a difficult endeavor in any field and financial auditing makes no exception. Ethical dilemmas are complex situations which derive from a conflict and in which a decision among several alternatives is needed. Ethical dilemmas are common in the work of the financial auditor, whose mission is to serve the interests of the public at large, not those of the auditee’s managers who mandate him/her. The objective of the present paper is to offer support in resolving ethi...

  2. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  3. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2017-12-12

    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  4. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively...

  5. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  6. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...

  7. Dynamic epistemic temporal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renne, B.; Sack, Joshua; Yap, Audrey; He, X.; Horty, J.; Pacuit, E.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new type of arrow in the update frames (or "action models") of Dynamic Epistemic Logic in a way that enables us to reason about epistemic temporal dynamics in multi-agent systems that need not be synchronous. Since van Benthem and Pacuit (later joined by Hoshi and Gerbrandy) showed

  8. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  9. Information and Temporality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flender, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Being able to give reasons for what the world is and how it works is one of the defining characteristics of modernity. Mathematical reason and empirical observation brought science and engineering to unprecedented success. However, modernity has reached a post-state where an instrumental view of technology needs revision with reasonable arguments and evidence, i.e. without falling back to superstition and mysticism. Instrumentally, technology bears the potential to ease and to harm. Easing and harming can't be controlled like the initial development of technology is a controlled exercise for a specific, mostly easing purpose. Therefore, a revised understanding of information technology is proposed based upon mathematical concepts and intuitions as developed in quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics offers unequaled opportunities because it raises foundational questions in a precise form. Beyond instrumentalism it enables to raise the question of essences as that what remains through time what it is. The essence of information technology is acausality. The time of acausality is temporality. Temporality is not a concept or a category. It is not epistemological. As an existential and thus more comprehensive and fundamental than a concept or a category temporality is ontological; it does not simply have ontic properties. Rather it exhibits general essences. Datability, significance, spannedness and openness are general essences of equiprimordial time (temporality).

  10. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-8, č. článku 38076. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal quantum steering * EPR steering Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  11. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  12. Resolved resonance parameters for 236Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morogovskij, G.B.; Bakhanovich, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters were obtained for fission cross-section representation in the 0.01-33 eV energy region from evaluation of a 236 Np experimental fission cross-section in the resolved resonance region. (author)

  13. The resolved stellar population of Leo A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E

    1996-01-01

    New observations of the resolved stellar population of the extremely metal-poor Magellanic dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A in Thuan-Gunn r, g, i, and narrowband Ha filters are presented. Using the recent Cepheid variable star distance determination to Leo A by Hoessel et al., we are able to create an

  14. Direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since 1997 we systematically perform direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on in-situ grown thin (< 30 nm) cuprate films. Specifically, we probe low-energy electronic structure and properties of high-c superconductors (HTSC) under different degrees of epitaxial (compressive vs. tensile) strain.

  15. Generalized Darcy–Oseen resolvent problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar; Ptashnyk, M.; Varnhorn, W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2016), s. 1621-1630 ISSN 0170-4214 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Darcy -Oseen resolvent problem * semipermeable membrane * Brinkman- Darcy equations * fluid flow between free-fluid domains and porous media Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mma.3872/abstract

  16. Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm and inverse driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Inverse interpretation is a semantics based, non-standard interpretation of programs. Given a program and a value, an inverse interpreter finds all or one of the inputs, that would yield the given value as output with normal forward evaluation. The Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm is a new v...

  17. Topoisomerase IB of Deinococcus radiodurans resolves guanine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-28

    Nov 28, 2015 ... structure in vitro and it may be one such protein that could resolve G4 DNA under normal growth conditions in. D. radiodurans. [Kota S and Misra HS 2015 Topoisomerase IB of ..... 2004 Intracellular transcription of G-rich DNAs induces forma- tion of G-loops, novel structures containing G4 DNA. Genes. Dev.

  18. Topoisomerase IB of Deinococcus radiodurans resolves guanine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-28

    Nov 28, 2015 ... [Kota S and Misra HS 2015 Topoisomerase IB of Deinococcus radiodurans resolves guanine quadruplex DNA structures in vitro. J. Biosci. 40 833–843] ... known for its efficient DNA double strand break repair. (Zahradka et al. ..... These samples were analysed on 12% native PAGE in KCl buffer (a). For CD ...

  19. Resolving deconvolution ambiguity in gene alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbell Earl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many gene structures it is impossible to resolve intensity data uniquely to establish abundances of splice variants. This was empirically noted by Wang et al. in which it was called a "degeneracy problem". The ambiguity results from an ill-posed problem where additional information is needed in order to obtain an unique answer in splice variant deconvolution. Results In this paper, we analyze the situations under which the problem occurs and perform a rigorous mathematical study which gives necessary and sufficient conditions on how many and what type of constraints are needed to resolve all ambiguity. This analysis is generally applicable to matrix models of splice variants. We explore the proposal that probe sequence information may provide sufficient additional constraints to resolve real-world instances. However, probe behavior cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy by any existing probe sequence model, and so we present a Bayesian framework for estimating variant abundances by incorporating the prediction uncertainty from the micro-model of probe responsiveness into the macro-model of probe intensities. Conclusion The matrix analysis of constraints provides a tool for detecting real-world instances in which additional constraints may be necessary to resolve splice variants. While purely mathematical constraints can be stated without error, real-world constraints may themselves be poorly resolved. Our Bayesian framework provides a generic solution to the problem of uniquely estimating transcript abundances given additional constraints that themselves may be uncertain, such as regression fit to probe sequence models. We demonstrate the efficacy of it by extensive simulations as well as various biological data.

  20. Temporal lobe epilepsy semiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert D G

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  1. Qualitative and temporal aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral assumptions, rational or otherwise, are not solid enough to be eligible as first principles of theoretical economics. Hence all endeavors to lay the formal foundation on a new site and at a deeper level actually need no further vindication. The present paper suggests three non-behavioral axioms as groundwork and applies them to the analysis of qualitative and temporal aggregation in the pure consumption economy. It turns out that the structural axiom set is self-similar with regard...

  2. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  3. Deconvolution improves the accuracy and depth sensitivity of time-resolved measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2013-03-01

    Time-resolved (TR) techniques have the potential to distinguish early- from late-arriving photons. Since light travelling through superficial tissue is detected earlier than photons that penetrate the deeper layers, time-windowing can in principle be used to improve the depth sensitivity of TR measurements. However, TR measurements also contain instrument contributions - referred to as the instrument-response-function (IRF) - which cause temporal broadening of the measured temporal-point-spread-function (TPSF). In this report, we investigate the influence of the IRF on pathlength-resolved absorption changes (Δμa) retrieved from TR measurements using the microscopic Beer-Lambert law (MBLL). TPSFs were acquired on homogeneous and two-layer tissue-mimicking phantoms with varying optical properties. The measured IRF and TPSFs were deconvolved to recover the distribution of time-of-flights (DTOFs) of the detected photons. The microscopic Beer-Lambert law was applied to early and late time-windows of the TPSFs and DTOFs to access the effects of the IRF on pathlength-resolved Δμa. The analysis showed that the late part of the TPSFs contains substantial contributions from early-arriving photons, due to the smearing effects of the IRF, which reduced its sensitivity to absorption changes occurring in deep layers. We also demonstrated that the effects of the IRF can be efficiently eliminated by applying a robust deconvolution technique, thereby improving the accuracy and sensitivity of TR measurements to deep-tissue absorption changes.

  4. System architecture for temporal information extraction, representation and reasoning in clinical narrative reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Friedman, Carol; Parsons, Simon; Hripcsak, George

    2005-01-01

    Exploring temporal information in narrative Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) is essential and challenging. We propose an architecture for an integrated approach to process temporal information in clinical narrative reports. The goal is to initiate and build a foundation that supports applications which assist healthcare practice and research by including the ability to determine the time of clinical events (e.g., past vs. present). Key components include: (1) an annotation schema for temporal expressions and the development of an associated tagger; (2) a natural language processing (NLP) system for encoding and extracting medical events and associating them with formalized temporal data; (3) a post-processor, with a knowledge-based subsystem to help discover implicit information, that resolves temporal expressions and deals with issues such as granularity and vagueness; and (4) a reasoning mechanism which models clinical reports as Simple Temporal Problems (STPs).

  5. Deflection evaluation using time-resolved radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.A.; Lucero, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Time-resolved radiography is the creation of an x-ray image for which both the start-exposure and stop-exposure times are known with respect to the event under study. The combination of image and timing are used to derive information about the event. The authors have applied time-resolved radiography to evaluate motions of explosive-driven events. In the particular application discussed in this paper, the author's intent is to measure maximum deflections of the components involved. Exposures are made during the time just before to just after the event of interest occurs. A smear or blur of motion out to its furthest extent is recorded on the image. Comparison of the dynamic images with static images allows deflection measurements to be made

  6. A spin-resolved photoemission study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stoner vs. spin-mixing behavior in the bulk magnetism of Gd: A spin-resolved photoemission study. K MAITI1,2,∗. , M C MALAGOLI2, A DALLMEYER2 and C CARBONE2,3. 1Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. 2Institut für Festkörperforschung, Forschungszentrum Jülich, ...

  7. WFIRST: Resolving the Milky Way Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jason; Conroy, Charlie; Dressler, Alan; Geha, Marla; Levesque, Emily; Lu, Jessica; Tumlinson, Jason

    2018-01-01

    WFIRST will yield a transformative impact in measuring and characterizing resolved stellar populations in the Milky Way. The proximity and level of detail that such populations need to be studied at directly map to all three pillars of WFIRST capabilities - sensitivity from a 2.4 meter space based telescope, resolution from 0.1" pixels, and large 0.3 degree field of view from multiple detectors. In this poster, we describe the activities of the WFIRST Science Investigation Team (SIT), "Resolving the Milky Way with WFIRST". Notional programs guiding our analysis include targeting sightlines to establish the first well-resolved large scale maps of the Galactic bulge aand central region, pockets of star formation in the disk, benchmark star clusters, and halo substructure and ultra faint dwarf satellites. As an output of this study, our team is building optimized strategies and tools to maximize stellar population science with WFIRST. This will include: new grids of IR-optimized stellar evolution and synthetic spectroscopic models; pipelines and algorithms for optimal data reduction at the WFIRST sensitivity and pixel scale; wide field simulations of Milky Way environments including new astrometric studies; and strategies and automated algorithms to find substructure and dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way through the WFIRST High Latitude Survey.

  8. Pro-Resolving Mediators in Regulating and Conferring Macrophage Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesmond Dalli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are central in coordinating the host response to both sterile and infective insults. Clearance of apoptotic cells and cellular debris is a key biological action preformed by macrophages that paves the way to the resolution of local inflammation, repair and regeneration of damaged tissues, and re-establishment of function. The essential fatty acid-derived autacoids termed specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM play central roles in promoting these processes. In the present article, we will review the role of microvesicles in controlling macrophage efferocytosis and SPM production. We will also discuss the role of both apoptotic cells and microvesicles in providing substrate for transcellular biosynthesis of several SPM families during efferocyotsis. In addition, this article will discuss the biological actions of the recently uncovered macrophage-derived SPM termed maresins. These mediators are produced via 14-lipoxygenation of docosahexaenoic acid that is either enzymatically converted to mediators carrying two hydroxyl groups or to autacoids that are peptide-lipid conjugates, coined maresin conjugates in tissue regeneration. The formation of these mediators is temporally regulated during acute self-limited infectious-inflammation where they promote the uptake and clearance of apoptotic cells, regulate several aspects of the tissue repair and regeneration, and display potent anti-nociceptive actions.

  9. Time-Resolved Synchronous Fluorescence for Biomedical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Fales, Andrew; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents our most recent advances in synchronous fluorescence (SF) methodology for biomedical diagnostics. The SF method is characterized by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a constant wavelength interval between them. Compared to conventional fluorescence spectroscopy, the SF method simplifies the emission spectrum while enabling greater selectivity, and has been successfully used to detect subtle differences in the fluorescence emission signatures of biochemical species in cells and tissues. The SF method can be used in imaging to analyze dysplastic cells in vitro and tissue in vivo. Based on the SF method, here we demonstrate the feasibility of a time-resolved synchronous fluorescence (TRSF) method, which incorporates the intrinsic fluorescent decay characteristics of the fluorophores. Our prototype TRSF system has clearly shown its advantage in spectro-temporal separation of the fluorophores that were otherwise difficult to spectrally separate in SF spectroscopy. We envision that our previously-tested SF imaging and the newly-developed TRSF methods will combine their proven diagnostic potentials in cancer diagnosis to further improve the efficacy of SF-based biomedical diagnostics. PMID:26404289

  10. Resolving conflicts over trans-boundary rivers using bankruptcy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarezadeh, M.; Madani, K.; Morid, S.

    2013-11-01

    A bankruptcy approach is proposed for resolving trans-boundary rivers conflicts in which the total water demand or claim of the riparian parties is more than the available water. Bankruptcy solution methods can allocate the available water to the conflicting parties with respect to their claims. Four bankruptcy rules are used here to allocate the available water to the riparian parties. Given the non-uniform spatial and temporal distribution of water across river basins, bankruptcy optimization models are proposed to allocate water based on these rules with respect to time sensitivity of water deliveries during the planning horizon. Once allocation solutions are developed, their acceptability and stability must be evaluated. Thus, a new stability index method is developed for evaluating the acceptability of bankruptcy solutions. To show how the bankruptcy framework can be helpful in practice, the suggested methods are applied to a real-world tarns-boundary river system with eight riparians under various hydrologic regimes. Stability analysis based on the proposed stability index method suggests that the acceptability of allocation rules is sensitive to hydrologic conditions and demand values. This finding has an important policy implication suggesting that fixed allocation rules and trans-boundary treaties may not be reliable for securing cooperation over trans-boundary water resources as they are vulnerable to changing socio-economic and climatic conditions as well as hydrologic non-stationarity.

  11. A priori analysis of differential diffusion for model development for scale-resolving simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Franziska; Dietzsch, Felix; Gauding, Michael; Hasse, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The present study analyzes differential diffusion and the mechanisms responsible for it with regard to the turbulent/nonturbulent interface (TNTI) with special focus on model development for scale-resolving simulations. In order to analyze differences between resolved and subfilter phenomena, direct numerical simulation (DNS) data are compared with explicitly filtered data. The DNS database stems from a temporally evolving turbulent plane jet transporting two passive scalars with Schmidt numbers of unity and 0.25 presented by Hunger et al. [F. Hunger et al., J. Fluid Mech. 802, R5 (2016), 10.1017/jfm.2016.471]. The objective of this research is twofold: (i) to compare the position of the turbulent-nonturbulent interface between the original DNS data and the filtered data and (ii) to analyze differential diffusion and the impact of the TNTI with regard to scale resolution in the filtered DNS data. For the latter, differential diffusion quantities are studied, clearly showing the decrease of differential diffusion at the resolved scales with increasing filter width. A transport equation for the scalar differences is evaluated. Finally, the existence of large scalar gradients, gradient alignment, and the diffusive fluxes being the physical mechanisms responsible for the separation of the two scalars are compared between the resolved and subfilter scales.

  12. Time-resolved imaging using x-ray free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barty, Anton

    2010-01-01

    The ultra-intense, ultra-short x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) sources are ideally suited to time-resolved studies of structural dynamics with spatial resolution from nanometre to atomic length scales and a temporal resolution of 10 fs or less. With enough photons in a single pulse to enable single-shot measurements and short enough pulses to freeze atomic motion, researchers now have a new window into the time evolution ultrafast phenomena that are intrinsically not cyclic in nature. In this paper we recap some of the key time-resolved imaging experiments performed at FLASH and look ahead to a new generation of experiments at higher resolution using a new generation of new XFEL sources that are only just becoming available.

  13. Time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy for study of chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Deng, Leimin; Fan, Lisha; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yao; Shen, Xiaokang; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-François; Lu, Yongfeng

    2017-10-30

    Identification of chemical intermediates and study of chemical reaction pathways and mechanisms in laser-induced plasmas are important for laser-ablated applications. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), as a promising spectroscopic technique, is efficient for elemental analyses but can only provide limited information about chemical products in laser-induced plasmas. In this work, time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy was studied as a promising tool for the study of chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas. Resonance fluorescence excitation of diatomic aluminum monoxide (AlO) and triatomic dialuminum monoxide (Al 2 O) was used to identify these chemical intermediates. Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of AlO and Al 2 O were used to observe the temporal evolution in laser-induced Al plasmas and to study their formation in the Al-O 2 chemistry in air.

  14. Time-resolved ARPES at LACUS: Band Structure and Ultrafast Electron Dynamics of Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaldi, Alberto; Roth, Silvan; Gatti, Gianmarco; Arrell, Christopher A; Ojeda, José; van Mourik, Frank; Bugnon, Philippe; Magrez, Arnaud; Berger, Helmuth; Chergui, Majed; Grioni, Marco

    2017-05-31

    The manipulation of the electronic properties of solids by light is an exciting goal, which requires knowledge of the electronic structure with energy, momentum and temporal resolution. Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (tr-ARPES) is the most direct probe of the effects of an optical excitation on the band structure of a material. In particular, tr-ARPES in the extreme ultraviolet (VUV) range gives access to the ultrafast dynamics over the entire Brillouin zone. VUV tr-ARPES experiments can now be performed at the ASTRA (ARPES Spectrometer for Time-Resolved Applications) end station of Harmonium, at LACUS. Its capabilities are illustrated by measurements of the ultrafast electronic response of ZrSiTe, a novel topological semimetal characterized by linearly dispersing states located at the Brillouin zone boundary.

  15. A direct electron detector for time-resolved MeV electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchione, T.; Denes, P.; Jobe, R. K.; Johnson, I. J.; Joseph, J. M.; Li, R. K.; Perazzo, A.; Shen, X.; Wang, X. J.; Weathersby, S. P.; Yang, J.; Zhang, D.

    2017-03-01

    The introduction of direct electron detectors enabled the structural biology revolution of cryogenic electron microscopy. Direct electron detectors are now expected to have a similarly dramatic impact on time-resolved MeV electron microscopy, particularly by enabling both spatial and temporal jitter correction. Here we report on the commissioning of a direct electron detector for time-resolved MeV electron microscopy. The direct electron detector demonstrated MeV single electron sensitivity and is capable of recording megapixel images at 180 Hz. The detector has a 15-bit dynamic range, better than 30-μmμm spatial resolution and less than 20 analogue-to-digital converter count RMS pixel noise. The unique capabilities of the direct electron detector and the data analysis required to take advantage of these capabilities are presented. The technical challenges associated with generating and processing large amounts of data are also discussed.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  17. Time-resolved ultraviolet near-field scanning optical microscope for characterizing photoluminescence lifetime of light-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Jeong, Hyun; Kim, Yong Hwan; Yim, Sang-Youp; Lee, Hong Seok; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2013-03-01

    We developed a instrument consisting of an ultraviolet (UV) near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) combined with time-correlated single photon counting, which allows efficient observation of temporal dynamics of near-field photoluminescence (PL) down to the sub-wavelength scale. The developed time-resolved UV NSOM system showed a spatial resolution of 110 nm and a temporal resolution of 130 ps in the optical signal. The proposed microscope system was successfully demonstrated by characterizing the near-field PL lifetime of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells.

  18. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  19. Spectra-resolved technique of a sensitive time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhouyi; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Yali

    2004-07-01

    The lanthanide trivalence ion and its chelates are used for marking substance in time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA), marking the protein, hormone, antibody, nucleic acid probe or biologica alive cell, to measure the concentration of the analysis substance inside the reaction system with time-resolved fluorometry after the reaction system occurred, and attain the quantitative analysis's purpose. TRFIA has been become a kind of new and more sensitive measure method after radioisotope marking, enzymatic marking, chemiluminescence, electrochemiluminescence, it primarily is decided by the special physics and chemistry characteristic of lanthanide trivalence ion and its chelates. In this paper, the result of spectroscopic evaluation of europium trivalence ion and its chelate, and the principle of spectra-resolved technology and a sensitive time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay instrument made by ourselves are reported. In the set, a high frequency Xenon pulsed-light was adopted as exciting light, and two special filters was utilized according to spectra-resolved technique. Thus the influence of scattering light and short-lifetime fluorescence was removed. And the sensitivity is 10-12mol/L (when Eu3+ was used for marking substance), examination repeat is CV = 95% (p < 0.01).

  20. Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy of white-light continuum by optical Kerr grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yusu; Sui, Laizhi; Jiang, Yuanfei; Liu, Dunli; Li, Qingyi; Chen, Anmin; Jin, Mingxing

    2017-05-01

    We have optimized a femtosecond time-resolved system by the optical Kerr-gate (OKG) method to investigate characteristics of various Kerr media. Optical Kerr gating is widely used in ultrafast measurements ranging from pulse characterization to spectroscopy and microscopy. We compared the efficiencies and the temporal responses of three Kerr media CS2, benzene and GGG. We have demonstrated that benzene has fast response and low efficiency while CS2 has high efficiency and slow response. Benzene as a Kerr medium shows the most befitting characteristics in the three media.

  1. First photon detection in time-resolved transillumination imaging: a theoretical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behin-Ain, S; Doorn, T van; Patterson, J R

    2004-01-01

    First photon detection, as a special case of time-resolved transillumination imaging, is studied through the derivation of the temporal probability density function (pdf) for the first arriving photon. The pdf for different laser intensities, media and second and later arriving photons were generated. The arrival time of the first detected photon reduced as the laser power increased and also when the scattering and absorption coefficients decreased. The pdf for an imbedded totally absorbing 3 mm inhomogeneity may be distinguished from the pdf of a homogeneous turbid medium similar to that of human breast in dimensions and optical properties

  2. Studying the potential of point detectors in time-resolved dose verification of dynamic radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, C. F.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2015-01-01

    based on fiber-coupled plastic scintillator detectors was evaluated and compared with a Farmer-type ionization chamber and a small-volume ionization chamber. An important feature of scintillator detectors is that the sensitive volume of the detector can easily be scaled, and five scintillator detectors......-volume ionization chamber and the smallest scintillators. The time-resolved RapidArc dose profiles revealed volume-dependent discrepancies between scintillator and ionization chamber response, which confirmed that correction factors for ionization chambers in high temporal and spatial dose gradients are dominated...

  3. Time Resolved Digital PIV Measurements of Flow Field Cyclic Variation in an Optical IC Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, S; Justham, T; Clarke, A; Garner, C P; Hargrave, G K; Halliwell, N A

    2006-01-01

    Time resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experimental data is presented for the in-cylinder flow field development of a motored four stroke spark ignition (SI) optical internal combustion (IC) engine. A high speed DPIV system was employed to quantify the velocity field development during the intake and compression stroke at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. The results map the spatial and temporal development of the in-cylinder flow field structure allowing comparison between traditional ensemble average and cycle average flow field structures. Conclusions are drawn with respect to engine flow field cyclic variations

  4. Time resolved temperature measurement of polymer surface irradiated by mid-IR free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Chiba, Tomoyuki; Oyama, Takahiro; Imai, Takayuki; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2017-08-01

    We have developed the time-resolved temperature measurement system by using a radiation thermometer FLIR SC620. Temporal temperature profiles of an acrylic resin surface by the irradiation of infrared free electron laser (FEL) pulse were recorded in an 8 ms resolution to measure an instantaneous temperature rise and decay profile. Under the single-shot condition, a peak temperature defined as the temperature jump from the ambient temperature was found to be proportional to the absorbance. Under the multi-shot condition, the temperature accumulation was found to reach a roughly constant value where the supply and release of the heat is balanced.

  5. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT for Time-Resolved Imaging of Alveolar Dynamics in Mechanically Ventilated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schnabel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Though artificial ventilation is an essential life-saving treatment, the mechanical behavior of lung tissue at the alveolar level is still unknown. Therefore, we need to understand the tissue response during artificial ventilation at this microscale in order to develop new and more protective ventilation methods. Optical coherence tomography (OCT combined with intravital microscopy (IVM is a promising tool for visualizing lung tissue dynamics with a high spatial and temporal resolution in uninterruptedly ventilated rats. We present a measurement setup using a custom-made animal ventilator and a gating technique for data acquisition of time-resolved sequences.

  6. Performance of the Time Resolved Spectrometer for the 5 MeV Photo-Injector PHIN

    CERN Document Server

    Olvegaard, M; Mete, O; Csatari, M; Dabrowski, A; Dobert, S; Lefevre, T; Petrarca, M

    2011-01-01

    The PHIN photo-injector test facility is being commissioned at CERN to demonstrate the capability to produce the required beam for the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3), which includes the production of a 3.5A stable beam, bunched at 1.5 GHz with a relative energy spread of less than 1%. A 90◦ spectrometer is instrumented with an OTR screen coupled to a gated intensified camera, followed by a segmented beam dump for time resolved energy measurements. The following paper describes the transverse and temporal resolution of the instrumentation with an outlook towards single-bunch energy measurements.

  7. Achieving patient satisfaction: resolving patient complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxler, K F

    1997-07-01

    Patients demand to be active participants on and partners with the health care team to design their care regimen. Patients bring unique perceptions and expectations and use these to evaluate service quality and satisfaction. If customer satisfaction is not achieved and a patient complaint results, staff must have the skills to respond and launch a service recovery program. Service recovery, when done with style and panache, can retain loyal customers. Achieving patient satisfaction and resolving patient complaints require commitment from top leadership and commitment from providers to dedicate the time to understand their patients' needs.

  8. Daylight time-resolved photographs of lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qrville, R E; Lala, G G; Idone, V P

    1978-07-07

    Lightning dart leaders and return strokes have been recorded in daylight with both good spatial resolution and good time resolution as part of the Thunder-storm Research International Program. The resulting time-resolved photographs are apparently equivalent to the best data obtained earlier only at night. Average two-dimensional return stroke velocities in four subsequent strokes between the ground and a height of 1400 meters were approximately 1.3 x 10(8) meters per second. The estimated systematic error is 10 to 15 percent.

  9. Time-resolved x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques for time-resolved x-ray diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on systems utilizing x-ray diodes or scintillators. System design concerns for high-bandwidth (> 1 GHz) diagnostics will be emphasized. The limitations of a coaxial cable system and a technique for equalizing to improve bandwidth of such a system will be reviewed. Characteristics of new multi-GHz amplifiers will be presented. An example of a complete operational system on the Los Alamos Helios laser will be presented which has a bandwidth near 3 GHz over 38 m of coax. The system includes the cable, an amplifier, an oscilloscope, and a digital camera readout

  10. Spatially Resolved Analysis of Bragg Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper targets an inherent control of optical shrinkage in photosensitive polymers, contributing by means of spatially resolved analysis of volume holographic phase gratings. Point by point scanning of the local material response to the Gaussian intensity distribution of the recording beams is accomplished. Derived information on the local grating period and grating slant is evaluated by mapping of optical shrinkage in the lateral plane as well as through the depth of the layer. The influence of recording intensity, exposure duration and the material viscosity on the Bragg selectivity is investigated.

  11. Spatially resolved and time-resolved imaging of transport of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorow, C. J.; Hasling, M. W.; Calman, E. V.; Butov, L. V.; Wilkes, J.; Campman, K. L.; Gossard, A. C.

    2017-06-01

    We present the direct measurements of magnetoexciton transport. Excitons give the opportunity to realize the high magnetic-field regime for composite bosons with magnetic fields of a few tesla. Long lifetimes of indirect excitons allow the study of kinetics of magnetoexciton transport with time-resolved optical imaging of exciton photoluminescence. We performed spatially, spectrally, and time-resolved optical imaging of transport of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields. We observed that an increasing magnetic field slows down magnetoexciton transport. The time-resolved measurements of the magnetoexciton transport distance allowed for an experimental estimation of the magnetoexciton diffusion coefficient. An enhancement of the exciton photoluminescence energy at the laser excitation spot was found to anticorrelate with the exciton transport distance. A theoretical model of indirect magnetoexciton transport is presented and is in agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Few-femtosecond time-resolved measurements of X-ray free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, C; Decker, F-J; Ding, Y; Dolgashev, V A; Frisch, J; Huang, Z; Krejcik, P; Loos, H; Lutman, A; Maxwell, T J; Turner, J; Wang, J; Wang, M-H; Welch, J; Wu, J

    2014-04-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers, with pulse durations ranging from a few to several hundred femtoseconds, are uniquely suited for studying atomic, molecular, chemical and biological systems. Characterizing the temporal profiles of these femtosecond X-ray pulses that vary from shot to shot is not only challenging but also important for data interpretation. Here we report the time-resolved measurements of X-ray free-electron lasers by using an X-band radiofrequency transverse deflector at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We demonstrate this method to be a simple, non-invasive technique with a large dynamic range for single-shot electron and X-ray temporal characterization. A resolution of less than 1 fs root mean square has been achieved for soft X-ray pulses. The lasing evolution along the undulator has been studied with the electron trapping being observed as the X-ray peak power approaches 100 GW.

  13. Healthcare Teams Neurodynamically Reorganize When Resolving Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Stevens

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the microscale neural dynamics of social interactions has yet to be translated into improvements in the assembly, training and evaluation of teams. This is partially due to the scale of neural involvements in team activities, spanning the millisecond oscillations in individual brains to the minutes/hours performance behaviors of the team. We have used intermediate neurodynamic representations to show that healthcare teams enter persistent (50–100 s neurodynamic states when they encounter and resolve uncertainty while managing simulated patients. Each of the second symbols was developed situating the electroencephalogram (EEG power of each team member in the contexts of those of other team members and the task. These representations were acquired from EEG headsets with 19 recording electrodes for each of the 1–40 Hz frequencies. Estimates of the information in each symbol stream were calculated from a 60 s moving window of Shannon entropy that was updated each second, providing a quantitative neurodynamic history of the team’s performance. Neurodynamic organizations fluctuated with the task demands with increased organization (i.e., lower entropy occurring when the team needed to resolve uncertainty. These results show that intermediate neurodynamic representations can provide a quantitative bridge between the micro and macro scales of teamwork.

  14. High resolving power spectrometer for beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshammer, H. W.; Spencer, J. E.

    1992-03-01

    We describe a system designed to analyze the high energy, closely spaced bunches from individual RF pulses. Neither a large solid angle nor momentum range is required so this allows characteristics that appear useful for other applications such as ion beam lithography. The spectrometer is a compact, double-focusing QBQ design whose symmetry allows the Quads to range between F or D with a correspondingly large range of magnifications, dispersion, and resolving power. This flexibility insures the possibility of spatially separating all of the bunches along the focal plane with minimal transverse kicks and bending angle for differing input conditions. The symmetry of the system allows a simple geometric interpretation of the resolving power in terms of thin lenses and ray optics. We discuss the optics and the hardware that is proposed to measure emittance, energy, energy spread, and bunch length for each bunch in an RF pulse train for small bunch separations. We also discuss how to use such measurements for feedback and feedforward control of these bunch characteristics as well as maintain their stability.

  15. Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Hogan, J.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 (micro)g/cm 2 of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 (micro)g/cm 2 of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 (micro)g/cm 2 matched the mass of 13.5 (micro)g/cm 2 measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition

  16. Analysis of the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect for ultrafast magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdolski, I.; Alekhin, A.; Martens, U.; Bürstel, D.; Diesing, D.; Münzenberg, M.; Bovensiepen, U.; Melnikov, A.

    2017-05-01

    We discuss fundamental aspects of laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization probed by the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). Studying thin Fe films on MgO substrate in the absence of electronic transport, we demonstrate how to disentangle pump-induced variations of magnetization and magneto-optical coefficients. We provide a mathematical formalism for retrieving genuine laser-induced magnetization dynamics and discuss its applicability in real experimental situations. We further stress the importance of temporal resolution achieved in the experiments and argue that measurements of both time-resolved MOKE rotation and ellipticity are needed for the correct assessment of magnetization dynamics on sub-picosecond timescales. The framework developed here sheds light onto the details of the time-resolved MOKE technique and contributes to the understanding of the interplay between ultrafast laser-induced optical and magnetic effects.

  17. Model Based Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Marla J.; Spinrad, Paul R.; Fall, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Systems that assess the real world must cope with evidence that is uncertain, ambiguous, and spread over time. Typically, the most important function of an assessment system is to identify when activities are occurring that are unusual or unanticipated. Model based temporal reasoning addresses both of these requirements. The differences among temporal reasoning schemes lies in the methods used to avoid computational intractability. If we had n pieces of data and we wanted to examine how they were related, the worst case would be where we had to examine every subset of these points to see if that subset satisfied the relations. This would be 2n, which is intractable. Models compress this; if several data points are all compatible with a model, then that model represents all those data points. Data points are then considered related if they lie within the same model or if they lie in models that are related. Models thus address the intractability problem. They also address the problem of determining unusual activities if the data do not agree with models that are indicated by earlier data then something out of the norm is taking place. The models can summarize what we know up to that time, so when they are not predicting correctly, either something unusual is happening or we need to revise our models. The model based reasoner developed at Advanced Decision Systems is thus both intuitive and powerful. It is currently being used on one operational system and several prototype systems. It has enough power to be used in domains spanning the spectrum from manufacturing engineering and project management to low-intensity conflict and strategic assessment.

  18. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  19. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  20. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  1. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Temporal Bone: Three Cases and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqin Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory pseudotumor (IP is a clinically aggressive but histologically benign condition of unknown cause. Its appearance in the temporal bone is uncommon. We present clinical, radiological, and histopathologic findings of three cases originating in the temporal bone. In the first case, a simultaneous IP of the temporal bone and parotid gland was found with histopathologic confirmation. In the second case, an enlarged cervical node, which was also believed to be related to IP, was observed accompanied with the temporal lesion. While the third case presented with chronic suppurative otitis media. Two of them were treated by surgery alone with complete resolve of the diseases. Another one underwent tympanomastoidectomy in combination with oral steroids, radiation, and chemotherapy, but the IP still recurred. A comprehensive review of the literature on clinical features of the temporal pseudotumor was conducted.

  2. Usefulness of time-resolved projection MRA on evaluation of hemodynamics in cerebral occlusive diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Katsusuke; Nochide, Ichiro; Igase, Keiji; Harada, Hironobu; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko; Nagasawa, Kiyoshi

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness for evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics using time-resolved projection MRA was studied in normal volunteers and patients of cerebrovascular diseases. Six normal volunteers and ten patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases including 6 of IC occlusion and 4 of post EC/IC bypass surgery underwent time-resolved projection MRA on a 1.5 T clinical MRI system. Projection angiograms are acquired with 2D-fast SPGR sequence with a time resolution of approximately one image per second, 40 images being acquired consecutively before and after bolus injection Gd-DTPA. And all images were calculated by complex subtraction from the background mask in a work station. In normal volunteers, the quality of images of time-resolved projection MRA was satisfactory. The arteries from internal carotid artery through M2 segment of middle cerebral artery and all major venous systems were well portrayed. In 4 cases of IC occlusion who were assessed the collateral flow through the anterior communicating artery and posterior communicating artery, there were delayed to demonstrate the ipsilateral MCA. However, in 2 cases of IC occlusion that were assessed the collateral flow through leptomeningeal anastomosis, ipsilateral MCA and collateral circulation were not demonstrated. In all patients of post EC/IC bypass surgery, the patency of EC/IC bypass could be evaluated as properly with time-resolved projection MRA as 3D-TOF MRA. Although the temporal and spatial resolutions are insufficient, time-resolved projection MRA was power-full non-invasive method to evaluate the cerebral hemodynamics vis the basal communicating arteries in IC occlusion and identify the patency of EC/IC bypass. (author)

  3. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    with equality predicates rather than the inequality predicates prevalent in valid-time queries. Second, the presence of temporally varying data dramatically increases the size of a database. These factors indicate that specialized techniques are needed to efficiently evaluate temporal joins. We address......, if any, comparison of the various operators. We then address evaluation algorithms, comparing the applicability of various algorithms to the temporal join operators and describing a performance study involving algorithms for one important operator, the temporal equijoin. Our focus, with respect...... to implementation, is on non-index-based join algorithms. Such algorithms do not rely on auxiliary access paths but may exploit sort orderings to achieve efficiency....

  4. The Temporality of Power and the Power of Temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends existing understandings of power, resistance and subjectivity in professional service organizations by developing an analysis of how these relate to temporality. Drawing in particular on Hoy’s reading of the Foucauldian account of temporality, we conceive of disciplinary power...... light on the interplay of power, resistance and subjectivity....

  5. Forecasting Lightning Threat using Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Goodman, Steven J.; LaCasse, Katherine M.; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Two new approaches are proposed and developed for making time and space dependent, quantitative short-term forecasts of lightning threat, and a blend of these approaches is devised that capitalizes on the strengths of each. The new methods are distinctive in that they are based entirely on the ice-phase hydrometeor fields generated by regional cloud-resolving numerical simulations, such as those produced by the WRF model. These methods are justified by established observational evidence linking aspects of the precipitating ice hydrometeor fields to total flash rates. The methods are straightforward and easy to implement, and offer an effective near-term alternative to the incorporation of complex and costly cloud electrification schemes into numerical models. One method is based on upward fluxes of precipitating ice hydrometeors in the mixed phase region at the-15 C level, while the second method is based on the vertically integrated amounts of ice hydrometeors in each model grid column. Each method can be calibrated by comparing domain-wide statistics of the peak values of simulated flash rate proxy fields against domain-wide peak total lightning flash rate density data from observations. Tests show that the first method is able to capture much of the temporal variability of the lightning threat, while the second method does a better job of depicting the areal coverage of the threat. Our blended solution is designed to retain most of the temporal sensitivity of the first method, while adding the improved spatial coverage of the second. Exploratory tests for selected North Alabama cases show that, because WRF can distinguish the general character of most convective events, our methods show promise as a means of generating quantitatively realistic fields of lightning threat. However, because the models tend to have more difficulty in predicting the instantaneous placement of storms, forecasts of the detailed location of the lightning threat based on single

  6. Spatially resolved spectroscopy on semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, Johanna

    2009-02-20

    Cleared edge overgrowth (CEO) nanostructures are identified and studied by 1D und 2D {mu}PL mapping scans and by time-resolved and power-dependent measurements. Distinct excitonic ground states of 2fold CEO QDs with large localization energies are achieved. The deeper localization reached as compared to the only other report on 2fold CEO QDs in literature is attributed to a new strain-free fabrication process and changed QW thickness in [001] growth. In order to achieve controlled manipulation of 2fold CEO QDs the concept of a CEO structure with three top gates and one back gate is presented. Due to the complexity of this device, a simpler test structure is realized. Measurements on this test structure confirm the necessity to either grow significantly thicker overgrowth layers or to provide separate top gates in all three spatial direction to controllably manipulate 2fold CEO QDs with an external electric field. (orig.)

  7. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity...... of cells at rates of more than 10,000 per second. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations...... Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...

  9. Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2014-01-15

    We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Time - resolved thermography at Tokamak T-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunow, C.; Guenther, K.; Lingertat, J.; Chicherov, V.M.; Evstigneev, S.A.; Zvonkov, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    Thermographic experiments were performed at T-10 tokamak to investigate the thermic coupling of plasma and the limiter. The limiter is an internal equipment of the vacuum vessel of tokamak-type fusion devices and the interaction of plasma with limiter results a high thermal load of limiter for short time. In according to improve the limiter design the temperature distribution on the limiter surface was measured by a time-resolved thermographic method. Typical isotherms and temperature increment curves are presented. This measurement can be used as a systematic plasma diagnostic method because the limiter is installed in the tokamak whereas special additional probes often disturb the plasma discharge. (D.Gy.) 3 refs.; 7 figs

  11. Resolving capacity of the circular Zernike polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svechnikov, M V; Chkhalo, N I; Toropov, M N; Salashchenko, N N

    2015-06-01

    Circular Zernike polynomials are often used for approximation and analysis of optical surfaces. In this paper, we analyse their lateral resolving capacity, illustrating the effects of a lack of approximation by a finite set of polynomials and answering the following questions: What is the minimum number of polynomials that is necessary to describe a local deformation of a certain size? What is the relationship between the number of approximating polynomials and the spatial spectrum of the approximation? What is the connection between the mean-square error of approximation and the number of polynomials? The main results of this work are the formulas for calculating the error of fitting the relief and the connection between the width of the spatial spectrum and the order of approximation.

  12. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of CA125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Gangming; Huang Biao; Zhu Liguo; Xiao Hualong; Tan Cheng; Tao Yonghui; Jin Jian

    2001-01-01

    A two-site time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) of CA 125 based on the direct sandwich technique has been developed, with the equilibrium method. The monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against CA 125 was labelled with europium by the help of europium-chelate of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The luminescent enhancement system was an enhancement solution that contained mainly of 2-naphthoyltrifluoroacetone. The intra- and inter- assay CV of the TRFIA were 4.5% and 4.0%, respectively, and the recovery rate was 96.7%, the sensitivity was 3.3 μg/mL. The cross-reacting rate with CEA was negligible, and that with AFP and β-HCG was 4.6% and 12.4%, respectively. Compared with the imported IRMA Kit, the correlation coefficient was 0.999

  13. Single-shot 35 fs temporal resolution electron shadowgraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoby, C. M.; Li, R. K.; Threlkeld, E.; To, H.; Musumeci, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-01-14

    We obtain single-shot time-resolved shadowgraph images of the electromagnetic fields resulting from the interaction of a high intensity ultrashort laser pulse with a metal surface. Using a high brightness relativistic electron beam and a high streaking speed radiofrequency deflector, we report <35 fs temporal resolution enabling a direct visualization of the retarded-time dominated field evolution which follows the laser-induced charge emission. A model including the finite signal propagation speed well reproduces the data and yields measurements of fundamental parameters in short pulse laser-matter interaction such as the amount of emitted charge and the emission time scale.

  14. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Waidyasekara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.

  15. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  16. Spatial Grouping Determines Temporal Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Frouke; Scharnowski, Frank; Herzog, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    To make sense out of a continuously changing visual world, people need to integrate features across space and time. Despite more than a century of research, the mechanisms of features integration are still a matter of debate. To examine how temporal and spatial integration interact, the authors measured the amount of temporal fusion (a measure of…

  17. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Jensen, K; Podelski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  18. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  19. Effective surgical revascularization improves cerebral hemodynamics and resolves headache in pediatric Moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabori, Masahito; Kuroda, Satoshi; Nakayama, Naoki; Hirata, Kenji; Shiga, Toru; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2013-11-01

    Headache is one of the major clinical presentations in pediatric Moyamoya disease. However, the clinical features and underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to clarify the clinical feature of headache in pediatric Moyamoya disease and the effect of surgical revascularization. This study included 29 pediatric patients who underwent superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis and indirect bypass for Moyamoya disease. Their medical records were precisely evaluated to identify the clinical features of their headache. The findings on magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography also were analyzed. Preoperative headache was documented in 11 (38%) of 29 patients. The majority of them complained of severe headache in the frontal or temporal region in the morning. Headache was significantly related to more advanced disease stage and to the decreases in cerebral blood flow and its reactivity to acetazolamide. Surgical revascularization completely resolved headache in all 11 patients. These findings strongly suggest that disturbed cerebral hemodynamics may play key roles in developing severe headache in pediatric Moyamoya disease. STA-MCA anastomosis and encephalo-duro-myo-arterio-pericranial synangiosis may be effective procedures to rapidly resolve headache by widely supplying collateral blood flow to the operated hemispheres. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Time-resolved measurements of x-ray damage to optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, R. C.; Grun, J.; Burkhalter, P. G.; Burris, H. R.; Ripin, B. H.; Newman, D. A.; Millard, J. R.; Bey, D.-M.; Manka, C. K.; Konnert, J.

    1997-02-01

    Thin film optical coatings are susceptible to damage by high intensity x rays. Time-resolved measurements of this damage are required to better understand the mechanism, so that more rugged coatings can be developed. In the present experiment, dark-field shadowgraphy was used to temporally map the x-ray damage across the surface of certain anti-reflecting (AR) coatings. Two beams from the NRL PHAROS III high power Nd:glass laser system were utilized to generate a point source of plasma x rays, which in turn was used to irradiate and damage the optical coatings. Thin, opaque filters, coupled with permanent magnets and pinholes, were used to shield the optical samples from ultraviolet and charged-particle damage, respectively. The absolute, time-integrated x-ray fluence was measured with a crystal spectrograph, and also was temporally resolved with an x-ray diode. The surface morphology of the damaged optical samples was examined after each shot visually, and later with a profilometer as well as with both scanning electron- and atomic-force microscopes. A measured threshold fluence for damage of 0.049±30% cal/cm2 agrees very well with a radiation-damage code prediction of 0.046 cal/cm2.

  1. Evaluation of unsteady pressure fields and forces in rotating airfoils from time-resolved PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, A.; Diez, F. J.

    2014-04-01

    The instantaneous pressure fields and aerodynamic loads are obtained for rotating airfoils from time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements. These allowed evaluating the contribution from the local acceleration (unsteady acceleration) to the instantaneous forces. Traditionally, this term has been neglected for wind turbines with quasi-steady flows, but results show that it is a dominant term in the wake where high temporal variations in the flow field are present due to vortex shedding. Briefly, time-resolved particle image velocimetry TR-PIV measurements are used to calculate flow velocity fields and corresponding spatial and temporal derivatives. These derivatives are then used in the Poisson equation to solve for the pressure field and later used in the integral momentum equation to solve for the instantaneous forces. The robustness of the measurements is analyzed by calculating the PIV uncertainty and the independence of the calculated forces. The experimental mean aerodynamic forces are compared with theoretical predictions from the blade element momentum theory showing good agreement. The instantaneous pressure field showed dependence with time in the wake due to vortex shedding. The contribution to the instantaneous forces from each term in the integral momentum equation is evaluated. The analysis shows that the larger contributions to the normal force coefficient are from the unsteady and the pressure terms, and the larger contribution to the tangential force coefficient is from the convective term.

  2. Experimental research on time-resolved evolution of cathode plasma expansion velocity in a long pulsed magnetically insulated coaxial diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danni; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Ge, Xingjun; Gao, Jingming

    2018-02-01

    Unlike planar diodes, separate research of the axial and radial plasma expansion velocities is difficult for magnetically insulated coaxial diodes. Time-resolved electrical diagnostic which is based on the voltage-ampere characteristics has been employed to study the temporal evolution of the axial and radial cathode plasma expansion velocities in a long pulsed magnetically insulated coaxial diode. Different from a planar diode with a "U" shaped profile of temporal velocity evolution, the temporal evolution trend of the axial expansion velocity is proved to be a "V" shaped profile. Apart from the suppression on the radial expansion velocity, the strong magnetic field is also conducive to slowing down the axial expansion velocity. Compared with the ordinary graphite cathode, the carbon velvet and graphite composite cathode showed superior characteristics as judged by the low plasma expansion velocity and long-term electrical stability as a promising result for applications where long-pulsed and reliable operation at high power is required.

  3. Spatially and temporally resolved detection of arsenic in a capillary dielectric barrier discharge by hydride generation high-resolved optical emission spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burhenn, S.; Kratzer, Jan; Svoboda, Milan; Klute, F. D.; Michels, A.; Veža, D.; Franzke, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 90, MAR (2018), s. 3424-3429 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-04329S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : dielectric barrier discharge * optical emission spectroscopy * arsenic hydride Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  4. Spatially and temporally resolved detection of arsenic in a capillary dielectric barrier discharge by hydride generation high-resolved optical emission spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burhenn, S.; Kratzer, Jan; Svoboda, Milan; Klute, F. D.; Michels, A.; Veža, D.; Franzke, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 90, MAR (2018), s. 3424-3429 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-04329S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : dielectric barrier discharge * optical emission spectroscopy * arsenic hydride Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  5. Compressive hyperspectral time-resolved wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Qi; Yao, Ruoyang; Sinsuebphon, Nattawut; Intes, Xavier

    2017-07-01

    Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging and spatial multiplexing have offered information content and collection-efficiency boosts in microscopy, but efficient implementations for macroscopic applications are still lacking. An imaging platform based on time-resolved structured light and hyperspectral single-pixel detection has been developed to perform quantitative macroscopic fluorescence lifetime imaging (MFLI) over a large field of view (FOV) and multiple spectral bands simultaneously. The system makes use of three digital micromirror device (DMD)-based spatial light modulators (SLMs) to generate spatial optical bases and reconstruct N by N images over 16 spectral channels with a time-resolved capability (∼40 ps temporal resolution) using fewer than N2 optical measurements. We demonstrate the potential of this new imaging platform by quantitatively imaging near-infrared (NIR) Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) both in vitro and in vivo. The technique is well suited for quantitative hyperspectral lifetime imaging with a high sensitivity and paves the way for many important biomedical applications.

  6. Role of density modulation in the spatially resolved dynamics of strongly confined liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Shibu; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-08-07

    Confinement by walls usually produces a strong modulation in the density of dense liquids near the walls. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we examine the effects of the density modulation on the spatially resolved dynamics of a liquid confined between two parallel walls, using a resolution of a fraction of the interparticle distance in the liquid. The local dynamics is quantified by the relaxation time associated with the temporal autocorrelation function of the local density. We find that this local relaxation time varies in phase with the density modulation. The amplitude of the spatial modulation of the relaxation time can be quite large, depending on the characteristics of the wall and thermodynamic parameters of the liquid. To disentangle the effects of confinement and density modulation on the spatially resolved dynamics, we compare the dynamics of a confined liquid with that of an unconfined one in which a similar density modulation is induced by an external potential. We find several differences indicating that density modulation alone cannot account for all the features seen in the spatially resolved dynamics of confined liquids. We also examine how the dynamics near a wall depends on the separation between the two walls and show that the features seen in our simulations persist in the limit of large wall separation.

  7. Constant Matrix Element Approximation to Time-Resolved Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Freericks

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss several issues associated with employing a constant matrix element approximation for the coupling of light to multiband electrons in the context of time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES. In particular, we demonstrate that the “constant matrix element approximation” —even when reasonable—only holds for specific choices of the one-electron basis, and changing to other bases, requires including nonconstant corrections to the matrix element. We also discuss some simplifying approximations, where a constant matrix element is employed in multiple bases, and the consequences of this further approximation (especially with respect to the calculated TR-ARPES signal becoming negative. We also discuss issues related to gauge invariance of the final spectra.

  8. Model Checking Temporal Logic Formulas Using Sticker Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important complex problem, the temporal logic model checking problem is still far from being fully resolved under the circumstance of DNA computing, especially Computation Tree Logic (CTL, Interval Temporal Logic (ITL, and Projection Temporal Logic (PTL, because there is still a lack of approaches for DNA model checking. To address this challenge, a model checking method is proposed for checking the basic formulas in the above three temporal logic types with DNA molecules. First, one-type single-stranded DNA molecules are employed to encode the Finite State Automaton (FSA model of the given basic formula so that a sticker automaton is obtained. On the other hand, other single-stranded DNA molecules are employed to encode the given system model so that the input strings of the sticker automaton are obtained. Next, a series of biochemical reactions are conducted between the above two types of single-stranded DNA molecules. It can then be decided whether the system satisfies the formula or not. As a result, we have developed a DNA-based approach for checking all the basic formulas of CTL, ITL, and PTL. The simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method.

  9. Effect of risk perception on epidemic spreading in temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinet, Antoine; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Barrat, Alain

    2018-01-01

    Many progresses in the understanding of epidemic spreading models have been obtained thanks to numerous modeling efforts and analytical and numerical studies, considering host populations with very different structures and properties, including complex and temporal interaction networks. Moreover, a number of recent studies have started to go beyond the assumption of an absence of coupling between the spread of a disease and the structure of the contacts on which it unfolds. Models including awareness of the spread have been proposed, to mimic possible precautionary measures taken by individuals that decrease their risk of infection, but have mostly considered static networks. Here, we adapt such a framework to the more realistic case of temporal networks of interactions between individuals. We study the resulting model by analytical and numerical means on both simple models of temporal networks and empirical time-resolved contact data. Analytical results show that the epidemic threshold is not affected by the awareness but that the prevalence can be significantly decreased. Numerical studies on synthetic temporal networks highlight, however, the presence of very strong finite-size effects, resulting in a significant shift of the effective epidemic threshold in the presence of risk awareness. For empirical contact networks, the awareness mechanism leads as well to a shift in the effective threshold and to a strong reduction of the epidemic prevalence.

  10. Resolving the inner disk of UX Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, A.; Madlener, D.; Chen, L.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Tambovtseva, L.; Kishimoto, M.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: The cause of the UX Ori variability in some Herbig Ae/Be stars is still a matter of debate. Detailed studies of the circumstellar environment of UX Ori objects (UXORs) are required to test the hypothesis that the observed drop in photometry might be related to obscuration events. Methods: Using near- and mid-infrared interferometric AMBER and MIDI observations, we resolved the inner circumstellar disk region around UX Ori. Results: We fitted the K-, H-, and N-band visibilities and the spectral energy distribution (SED) of UX Ori with geometric and parametric disk models. The best-fit K-band geometric model consists of an inclined ring and a halo component. We obtained a ring-fit radius of 0.45 ± 0.07 AU (at a distance of 460 pc), an inclination of 55.6 ± 2.4°, a position angle of the system axis of 127.5 ± 24.5°, and a flux contribution of the over-resolved halo component to the total near-infrared excess of 16.8 ± 4.1%. The best-fit N-band model consists of an elongated Gaussian with a HWHM ~ 5 AU of the semi-major axis and an axis ration of a/b ~ 3.4 (corresponding to an inclination of ~72°). With a parametric disk model, we fitted all near- and mid-infrared visibilities and the SED simultaneously. The model disk starts at an inner radius of 0.46 ± 0.06 AU with an inner rim temperature of 1498 ± 70 K. The disk is seen under an nearly edge-on inclination of 70 ± 5°. This supports any theories that require high-inclination angles to explain obscuration events in the line of sight to the observer, for example, in UX Ori objects where orbiting dust clouds in the disk or disk atmosphere can obscure the central star. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program IDs: 090.C-0769, 074.C-0552.

  11. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    ending up with lexical data models. In particular we look upon the representations by sets of normalised tables, by sets of 1NF tables and by sets of N1NF/nested tables. At each translation step we focus on how the temporal semantic is consistently maintained. In this way we recognise the requirements...... for representation of temporal properties in different models and the correspondence between the models. The results rely on the assumptions that the temporal dimensions are interdependent and ordered. Thus for example the valid periods of existences of a property in a mini world are dependent on the transaction...... periods in which the corresponding recordings are valid. This is not the normal way of looking at temporal dimensions and we give arguments supporting our assumption....

  12. Time-Resolved Nucleic Acid Hybridization Beacons Utilizing Unimolecular and Toehold-Mediated Strand Displacement Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Melissa; Ancona, Mario G; Medintz, Igor L; Algar, W Russ

    2015-12-01

    Nucleic acid hybridization probes are sought after for numerous assay and imaging applications. These probes are often limited by the properties of fluorescent dyes, prompting the development of new probes where dyes are paired with novel or nontraditional luminescent materials. Luminescent terbium complexes are an example of such a material, and these complexes offer several unique spectroscopic advantages. Here, we demonstrate two nonstem-loop designs for light-up nucleic acid hybridization beacons that utilize time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) between a luminescent Lumi4-Tb cryptate (Tb) donor and a fluorescent reporter dye, where time-resolved emission from the dye provides an analytical signal. Both designs are based on probe oligonucleotides that are labeled at their opposite termini with Tb and a fluorescent reporter dye. In one design, a probe is partially blocked with a quencher dye-labeled oligonucleotide, and target hybridization is signaled through toehold-mediated strand displacement and loss of a competitive FRET pathway. In the other design, the intrinsic folding properties of an unblocked probe are utilized in combination with a temporal mechanism for signaling target hybridization. This temporal mechanism is based on a recently elucidated "sweet spot" for TR-FRET measurements and exploits distance control over FRET efficiencies to shift the Tb lifetime within or outside the time-gated detection window for measurements. Both the blocked and unblocked beacons offer nanomolar (femtomole) detection limits, response times on the order of minutes, multiplexing through the use of different reporter dyes, and detection in complex matrices such as serum and blood. The blocked beacons offer better mismatch selectivity, whereas the unblocked beacons are simpler in design. The temporal mechanism of signaling utilized with the unblocked beacons also plays a significant role with the blocked beacons and represents a new and effective

  13. The Resolved Stellar Population of Leo A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    1996-05-01

    New observations of the resolved stellar population of the extremely metal-poor Magellanic dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A in Thuan-Gunn r, g, i, and narrowband Hα filters are presented. Using the recent Cepheid variable star distance determination to Leo A by Hoessel et al., we are able to create an accurate color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We have used the Bavesian inference method described by Tolstoy & Saha to calculate the likelihood of a Monte Carlo simulation of the stellar population of Leo A being a good match to the data within the well understood errors in the data. The magnitude limits on our data are sensitive enough to look back at ~1 Gyr of star formation history at the distance of Leo A. To explain the observed ratio of red to blue stars in the observed CMD, it is necessary to invoke either a steadily decreasing star formation rate toward the present time or gaps in the star formation history. We also compare the properties of the observed stellar population with the known spatial distribution of the H I gas and H II regions to support the conclusions from CMD modeling. We consider the possibility that currently there is a period of diminished star formation in Leo A, as evidenced by the lack of very young stars in the CMD and the faint H II regions. How the chaotic H I distribution, with no observable rotation, fits into our picture of the evolution of Leo A is as yet unclear.

  14. Resolved Parental Infertility and Children's Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Amelia R; Helgertz, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    Although difficulty conceiving a child has long been a major medical and social preoccupation, it has not been considered as a predictor of long-term outcomes in children ultimately conceived. This is consistent with a broader gap in knowledge regarding the consequences of parental health for educational performance in offspring. Here we address that omission, asking how resolved parental infertility relates to children's academic achievement. In a sample of all Swedish births between 1988 and 1995, we find that involuntary childlessness prior to either a first or a second birth is associated with lower academic achievement (both test scores and GPA) in children at age 16, even if the period of infertility was prior to a sibling's birth rather than the child's own. Our results support a conceptualization of infertility as a cumulative physical and social experience with effects extending well beyond the point at which a child is born, and emphasize the need to better understand how specific parental health conditions constrain children's educational outcomes.

  15. Time-Resolved Fluorescence in Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chi Allison Yeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been used clinically for treating various diseases including malignant tumors. The main advantages of PDT over traditional cancer treatments are attributed to the localized effects of the photochemical reactions by selective illumination, which then generate reactive oxygen species and singlet oxygen molecules that lead to cell death. To date, over- or under-treatment still remains one of the major challenges in PDT due to the lack of robust real-time dose monitoring techniques. Time-resolved fluorescence (TRF provides fluorescence lifetime profiles of the targeted fluorophores. It has been demonstrated that TRF offers supplementary information in drug-molecular interactions and cell responses compared to steady-state intensity acquisition. Moreover, fluorescence lifetime itself is independent of the light path; thus it overcomes the artifacts given by diffused light propagation and detection geometries. TRF in PDT is an emerging approach, and relevant studies to date are scattered. Therefore, this review mainly focuses on summarizing up-to-date TRF studies in PDT, and the effects of PDT dosimetric factors on the measured TRF parameters. From there, potential gaps for clinical translation are also discussed.

  16. Component-resolved diagnostics in vernal conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, Alicia; Sanchís, Eugenia; Montero, Javier A

    2016-10-01

    Conventional diagnostic tests in allergy are insufficient to clarify the cause of vernal conjunctivitis. Component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) by microarray allergen assay may be useful in detecting allergens that might be involved in the inflammatory process. In a recent trial in patients suffered from eosinophilic esophagitis, after 2 years of the CRD-guided exclusion diet and specific immunotherapy, significant clinical improvement was observed, and 68% of patients were discharged (cure based on negative biopsy, no symptoms, and no medication intake). Our new objective was to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity by CRD in tears and serum from patients with vernal conjunctivitis and treat patients with identified triggering allergens by specific immunotherapy. Twenty-five patients with vernal conjunctivitis were evaluated. The identified triggering allergens were n Lol p 1 (11 cases), n Cyn d 1 (eight cases), group 4 and 6 grasses (six cases) and group 5 of grasses (five cases). Prick test and pollen IgE were positive in one case. Clinical improvement was observed in 13/25 vernal conjunctivitis patients after 1-year specific immunotherapy. CRD seems to be a more sensitive diagnostic tool compared with prick test and IgE detection. Specific CRD-led immunotherapy may achieve clinical improvements in vernal conjunctivitis patients.

  17. Component Resolved Diagnosis in Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsitz, D; Brockow, K

    2017-06-01

    Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. Many new insect venom allergens have been identified within the last few years. Commercially available recombinant allergens offer new diagnostic tools for detecting sensitivity to insect venoms. Additional added sensitivity to nearly 95% was introduced by spiking yellow jacket venom (YJV) extract with Ves v 5. The further value of CRD for sensitivity in YJV and honey bee venom (HBV) allergy is more controversially discussed. Recombinant allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants often help to identify the culprit venom in patients with double sensitivity to YJV and HBV. CRD identified a group of patients with predominant Api m 10 sensitization, which may be less well protected by VIT, as some treatment extracts are lacking this allergen. The diagnostic gap of previously undetected Hymenoptera allergy has been decreased via production of recombinant allergens. Knowledge of analogies in interspecies proteins and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants is necessary to distinguish relevant from irrelevant sensitizations.

  18. Fully Resolved Simulations of 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Xia, Huanxiong; Lu, Jiacai

    2017-11-01

    Numerical simulations of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) (or Fused Filament Fabrication) where a filament of hot, viscous polymer is deposited to ``print'' a three-dimensional object, layer by layer, are presented. A finite volume/front tracking method is used to follow the injection, cooling, solidification and shrinking of the filament. The injection of the hot melt is modeled using a volume source, combined with a nozzle, modeled as an immersed boundary, that follows a prescribed trajectory. The viscosity of the melt depends on the temperature and the shear rate and the polymer becomes immobile as its viscosity increases. As the polymer solidifies, the stress is found by assuming a hyperelastic constitutive equation. The method is described and its accuracy and convergence properties are tested by grid refinement studies for a simple setup involving two short filaments, one on top of the other. The effect of the various injection parameters, such as nozzle velocity and injection velocity are briefly examined and the applicability of the approach to simulate the construction of simple multilayer objects is shown. The role of fully resolved simulations for additive manufacturing and their use for novel processes and as the ``ground truth'' for reduced order models is discussed.

  19. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton W, Frederick; Walsh S, David; Doyle L, Barney; Dodd E, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a -.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients

  20. Resolving Gas-Phase Metallicity In Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, David

    2017-06-01

    Chapter 2: As part of the Bluedisk survey we analyse the radial gas-phase metallicity profiles of 50 late-type galaxies. We compare the metallicity profiles of a sample of HI-rich galaxies against a control sample of HI-'normal' galaxies. We find the metallicity gradient of a galaxy to be strongly correlated with its HI mass fraction {M}{HI}) / {M}_{\\ast}). We note that some galaxies exhibit a steeper metallicity profile in the outer disc than in the inner disc. These galaxies are found in both the HI-rich and control samples. This contradicts a previous indication that these outer drops are exclusive to HI-rich galaxies. These effects are not driven by bars, although we do find some indication that barred galaxies have flatter metallicity profiles. By applying a simple analytical model we are able to account for the variety of metallicity profiles that the two samples present. The success of this model implies that the metallicity in these isolated galaxies may be in a local equilibrium, regulated by star formation. This insight could provide an explanation of the observed local mass-metallicity relation. Chapter 3 We present a method to recover the gas-phase metallicity gradients from integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations of barely resolved galaxies. We take a forward modelling approach and compare our models to the observed spatial distribution of emission line fluxes, accounting for the degrading effects of seeing and spatial binning. The method is flexible and is not limited to particular emission lines or instruments. We test the model through comparison to synthetic observations and use downgraded observations of nearby galaxies to validate this work. As a proof of concept we also apply the model to real IFS observations of high-redshift galaxies. From our testing we show that the inferred metallicity gradients and central metallicities are fairly insensitive to the assumptions made in the model and that they are reliably recovered for galaxies

  1. Enzyme reactions and their time resolved measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdu, Janos

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental strategies in data collection with the Laue method and summarises recent results using synchrotron radiation. Then, an assessment is made of the progress towards time resolved studies with protein crystals and the problems that remain. The paper consists of three parts which respectively describe some aspects of Laue diffraction, recent examples of structural results from Laue diffraction, and kinetic Laue crystallography. In the first part, characteristics of Laue diffraction is discussed first, focusing on the harmonics problems, spatials problem, wavelength normalization, low resolution hole, data completeness, and uneven coverage of reciprocal space. Then, capture of the symmetry unique reflection set is discussed focusing on the effect of wavelength range on the number of reciprocal lattice points occupying diffracting positions, effect of crystal to film distance and the film area and shape on the number of reflections captured, and effect of crystal symmetry on the number of unique reflections within the number of reflections captured. The second part addresses the determination of the structure of turkey egg white lysozyme, and calcium binding in tomato bushy stunt virus. The third part describes the initiation of reactions in enzyme crystals, picosecond Laue diffraction at high energy storage rings, and detectors. (N.K.)

  2. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Joins are arguably the most important relational operators. Poor implementations are tantamount to computing the Cartesian product of the input relations. In a temporal database, the problem is more acute for two reasons. First, conventional techniques are designed for the evaluation of joins wit...... to implementation, is on non-index-based join algorithms. Such algorithms do not rely on auxiliary access paths but may exploit sort orderings to achieve efficiency......., if any, comparison of the various operators. We then address evaluation algorithms, comparing the applicability of various algorithms to the temporal join operators and describing a performance study involving algorithms for one important operator, the temporal equijoin. Our focus, with respect...

  3. Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, Peter P; Webb, James G; Huntington, Elanor H; Ralph, Timothy C

    2007-01-01

    Number-resolving photo-detection is necessary for many quantum optics experiments, especially in the application of entangled state preparation. Several schemes have been proposed for approximating number-resolving photo-detection using non-number-resolving detectors. Such techniques include multi-port detection and time-division multiplexing. We provide a detailed analysis and comparison of different number-resolving detection schemes, with a view to creating a useful reference for experimentalists. We show that the ideal architecture for projective measurements is a function of the detector's dark count and efficiency parameters. We also describe a process for selecting an appropriate topology given actual experimental component parameters

  4. Treatment of Temporal Bone Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rodney C.; Cervenka, Brian; Brodie, Hilary A.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the temporal bone can lead to significant morbidity or mortality and knowledge of the pertinent anatomy, pathophysiology of injury, and appropriate management strategies is critical for successful recovery and rehabilitation of such injured patients. Most temporal bone fractures are caused by motor vehicle accidents. Temporal bone fractures are best classified as either otic capsule sparing or otic capsule disrupting-type fractures, as such classification correlates well with risk of concomitant functional complications. The most common complications of temporal bone fractures are facial nerve injury, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and hearing loss. Assessment of facial nerve function as soon as possible following injury greatly facilitates clinical decision making. Use of prophylactic antibiotics in the setting of CSF leak is controversial; however, following critical analysis and interpretation of the existing classic and contemporary literature, we believe its use is absolutely warranted. PMID:27648399

  5. Temporal bone trauma and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turetschek, K.; Czerny, C.; Wunderbaldinger, P.; Steiner, E.

    1997-01-01

    Fractures of the temporal bone result from direct trauma to the temporal bone or occur as one component of a severe craniocerebral injury. Complications of temporal trauma are hemotympanon, facial nerve paralysis, conductive or sensorineur hearing loss, and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. Erly recognition and an appropiate therapy may improve or prevent permanent deficits related to such complications. Only 20-30% of temporal bone fractures can be visualized by plain films. CT has displaced plain radiography in the investigation of the otological trauma because subtle bony details are best evaluated by CT which even can be reformatted in multiple projections, regardless of the original plane of scanning. Associated epidural, subdural, and intracerebral hemorrhagic lesions are better defined by MRI. (orig.) [de

  6. Panchromatic SED modelling of spatially resolved galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J. B.; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2018-05-01

    We test the efficacy of the energy-balance spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code MAGPHYS for recovering the spatially resolved properties of a simulated isolated disc galaxy, for which it was not designed. We perform 226 950 MAGPHYS SED fits to regions between 0.2 and 25 kpc in size across the galaxy's disc, viewed from three different sight-lines, to probe how well MAGPHYS can recover key galaxy properties based on 21 bands of UV-far-infrared model photometry. MAGPHYS yields statistically acceptable fits to >99 per cent of the pixels within the r-band effective radius and between 59 and 77 percent of pixels within 20 kpc of the nucleus. MAGPHYS is able to recover the distribution of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), specific SFR, dust luminosity, dust mass, and V-band attenuation reasonably well, especially when the pixel size is ≳ 1 kpc, whereas non-standard outputs (stellar metallicity and mass-weighted age) are recovered less well. Accurate recovery is more challenging in the smallest sub-regions of the disc (pixel scale ≲ 1 kpc), where the energy balance criterion becomes increasingly incorrect. Estimating integrated galaxy properties by summing the recovered pixel values, the true integrated values of all parameters considered except metallicity and age are well recovered at all spatial resolutions, ranging from 0.2 kpc to integrating across the disc, albeit with some evidence for resolution-dependent biases. These results must be considered when attempting to analyse the structure of real galaxies with actual observational data, for which the `ground truth' is unknown.

  7. Mode resolved density of atmospheric aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aalto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the mode resolved density of ultrafine atmospheric particles measured in boreal forest environment. The method used here enables us to find the distinct density information for each mode in atmospheric fine particle population: the density values for nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation mode particles are presented. The experimental data was gained during 2 May 2005–19 May 2005 at the boreal forest measurement station "SMEAR II" in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. The density values for accumulation mode varied from 1.1 to 2 g/cm3 (average 1.5 g/cm3 and for Aitken mode from 0.4 to 2 g/cm3 (average 0.97 g/cm3. As an overall trend during the two weeks campaign, the density value of Aitken mode was seen to gradually increase. With the present method, the time dependent behaviour of the particle density can be investigated in the time scale of 10 min. This allows us to follow the density evolution of the nucleation mode particles during the particle growth process following the nucleation burst. The density of nucleation mode particles decreased during the growth process. The density values for 15 nm particles were 1.2–1.5 g/cm3 and for grown 30 nm particles 0.5–1 g/cm3. These values are consistent with the present knowledge that the condensing species are semi-volatile organics, emitted from the boreal forest.

  8. Resolved Hapke parameter maps of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B.; Denevi, B. W.; Boyd, A. K.

    2014-08-01

    We derived spatially resolved near-global Hapke photometric parameter maps of the Moon from 21 months of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) multispectral observations using a novel "tile-by-tile method" (1° latitude by 1° longitude bins). The derived six parameters (w,b,c,BS0,hS, andθ¯p) for each tile were used to normalize the observed reflectance (standard angles i = g = 60°, e = 0° instead of the traditional angles i = g = 30°, e = 0°) within each tile, resulting in accurate normalization optimized for the local photometric response. Each pixel in the seven-color near-global mosaic (70°S to 70°N and 0°E to 360°E) was computed by the median of normalized reflectance from large numbers of repeated observations (UV: ˜50 and visible: ˜126 on average). The derived mosaic exhibits no significant artifacts with latitude or along the tile boundaries, demonstrating the quality of the normalization procedure. The derived Hapke parameter maps reveal regional photometric response variations across the lunar surface. The b, c (Henyey-Greenstein double-lobed phase function parameters) maps demonstrate decreased backscattering in the maria relative to the highlands (except 321 nm band), probably due to the higher content of both SMFe (submicron iron) and ilmenite in the interiors of back scattering agglutinates in the maria. The hS (angular width of shadow hiding opposition effect) map exhibits relatively lower values in the maria than the highlands and slightly higher values for immature highland crater ejecta, possibly related to the variation in a grain size distribution of regolith.

  9. Parameterized and resolved Southern Ocean eddy compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Mads B.; Jochum, Markus; Nuterman, Roman

    2018-04-01

    The ability to parameterize Southern Ocean eddy effects in a forced coarse resolution ocean general circulation model is assessed. The transient model response to a suite of different Southern Ocean wind stress forcing perturbations is presented and compared to identical experiments performed with the same model in 0.1° eddy-resolving resolution. With forcing of present-day wind stress magnitude and a thickness diffusivity formulated in terms of the local stratification, it is shown that the Southern Ocean residual meridional overturning circulation in the two models is different in structure and magnitude. It is found that the difference in the upper overturning cell is primarily explained by an overly strong subsurface flow in the parameterized eddy-induced circulation while the difference in the lower cell is mainly ascribed to the mean-flow overturning. With a zonally constant decrease of the zonal wind stress by 50% we show that the absolute decrease in the overturning circulation is insensitive to model resolution, and that the meridional isopycnal slope is relaxed in both models. The agreement between the models is not reproduced by a 50% wind stress increase, where the high resolution overturning decreases by 20%, but increases by 100% in the coarse resolution model. It is demonstrated that this difference is explained by changes in surface buoyancy forcing due to a reduced Antarctic sea ice cover, which strongly modulate the overturning response and ocean stratification. We conclude that the parameterized eddies are able to mimic the transient response to altered wind stress in the high resolution model, but partly misrepresent the unperturbed Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation and associated heat transports.

  10. The grounding of temporal metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T; Desai, Rutvik H

    2016-03-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (The hours crawled until the release of the news) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (The trail crawled until the end of the hills) and literal motion (The caterpillar crawled towards the top of the tree), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus (ITS). These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preclinical, fluorescence and diffuse optical tomography: non-contact instrumentation, modeling and time-resolved 3D reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouizi, F.

    2011-09-01

    Time-Resolved Diffuse Optical Tomography (TR-DOT) is a new non-invasive imaging technique increasingly used in the clinical and preclinical fields. It yields optical absorption and scattering maps of the explored organs, and related physiological parameters. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Diffuse Optical Tomography (TR-FDOT) is based on the detection of fluorescence photons. It provides spatio-temporal maps of fluorescent probe concentrations and life times, and allows access to metabolic and molecular imaging which is important for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, particularly in oncology. The main goal of this thesis was to reconstruct 3D TR-DOT/TR-FDOT images of small animals using time-resolved optical technology. Data were acquired using optical fibers fixed around the animal without contact with its surface. The work was achieved in four steps: 1)- Setting up an imaging device to record the 3D coordinates of an animal's surface; 2)- Modeling the no-contact approach to solve the forward problem; 3)- Processing of the measured signals taking into account the impulse response of the device; 4)- Implementation of a new image reconstruction method based on a selection of carefully chosen points. As a result, good-quality 3D optical images were obtained owing to reduced cross-talk between absorption and scattering. Moreover, the computation time was cut down, compared to full-time methods using whole temporal profiles. (author)

  12. Application of microfluidic devices for time resolved FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, C.

    2012-01-01

    Within this thesis, micro fluidic mixers, operated in continuous flow mode, were used for time resolved FTIR studies of chemical reactions in aqueous solution. Any chemical reaction, that can be started upon mixing two reagents, can be examined with this technique. The mixing channel also serves as the observation window for the IR measurements. The actual measurements take place at well defined spots along this channel, corresponding to specific reaction times: moving the measurement spot (100 × 100 μm 2 ) towards the entry yields shorter reaction times, moving it towards the channel's end gives longer reaction times. The temporal resolution of the experiment depends on the flow rate inside the mixing channel and the spacing between subsequent measurement points. Fast flow rates, limited by the back pressure of the mixer leading to leakages, allow time resolutions in the sub-millisecond time range using a standard FTIR microscope, whereas slow flow rates allow the measurement of reaction times up to 1000 ms. Evaluating the mixer using a fast chemical reaction resulted in mixing times of approximately 5 ms and a homogeneous distribution of the liquids across the width of the mixing channel. The mixer was then used for the measurement of the H/D exchange on carbohydrates, the complex formaldehyde sulfite clock reaction, and the folding of the protein ubiquitin from its native to the ''A'' state, induced by mixing it with an acidified methanol solution. For cleaning the mixer a software tool, called ATLAS, was developed in LabVIEW, which was used to automatize the necessary cleaning steps performed by a dedicated flow system. Additionally, the micro mixer technology was combined with the step scan measurement technique using a beam condenser focusing the IR beam of an FTIR spectrometer down to a spot size of 1 mm diameter and through the mixer. The laser light, initiating the chemical reaction inside the mixing channel, was coupled into the focusing unit using a

  13. Relevance of the law of international organisations in resolving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    structures to resolve disputes between states. Uncertainty remains, however, on the availability of effective structures within the system to resolve disputes between international organisations. It is important to note that international organisations were, prior to 1945, not considered subjects of international law so as to be ...

  14. 48 CFR 30.606 - Resolving cost impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.606 Resolving cost...) The CFAO may resolve a cost impact attributed to a change in cost accounting practice or a...; or (B) Implements a common cost accounting practice for two or more segments. (4) For desirable...

  15. Deciding to Change OpenURL Link Resolvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan; Leonard, Andrea; Wiswell, John

    2015-01-01

    This article will be of interest to librarians, particularly those in consortia that are evaluating OpenURL link resolvers. This case study contrasts WebBridge (an Innovative Interface product) and LinkSource (EBSCO's product). This study assisted us in the decision-making process of choosing an OpenURL link resolver that was sustainable to…

  16. Thinking, Relating and Choosing: Resolving the issue of Faith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thinking, Relating and Choosing: Resolving the issue of Faith, Ethics and the Existential Responsibility. ... If we are free to define ourselves through our choices, as existentialism posits, then the latter is worse. This paper attempts to resolve the issue of the difference between religious (group) ethics and the ethics of a ...

  17. Study on sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems. As a result of consideration, the followings were found. (1) In general, solutions to some kinds of questions can be deduced from basic laws using some theories or methodologies in the field of the natural science or engineering. The approach to resolve maintenance related social problems is similar to the approach in the natural science or engineering. (2) The points of view based on fundamental human rights, market principles and community principles, and so on, are very important in resolving maintenance related social problems and can be placed as theories or tools for resolution. (3) If such theories or tools for resolving maintenance related social problems as described above are systematically prepared, it is estimated that it becomes very much easier to resolve maintenance related social problems. (author)

  18. Energy-resolved positron annihilation for molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, L.D.; Gilbert, S.J.; Surko, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study designed to address the long-standing question regarding the origin of very large positron annihilation rates observed for many molecules. We report a study of the annihilation, resolved as a function of positron energy (ΔE∼25 meV, full width at half maximum) for positron energies from 50 meV to several eV. Annihilation measurements are presented for a range of hydrocarbon molecules, including a detailed study of alkanes, C n H 2n+2 , for n=1-9 and 12. Data for other molecules are also presented: C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 ; CD 4 ; isopentane; partially fluorinated and fluorinated methane (CH x F 4-x ); 1-fluorohexane (C 6 H 13 F) and 1-fluorononane (C 9 H 19 F). A key feature of the results is very large enhancements in the annihilation rates at positron energies corresponding to the excitation of molecular vibrations in larger alkane molecules. These enhancements are believed to be responsible for the large annihilation rates observed for Maxwellian distributions of positrons in molecular gases. In alkane molecules larger than ethane (C 2 H 6 ), the position of these peaks is shifted downward by an amount ∼20 meV per carbon. The results presented here are generally consistent with a physical picture recently considered in detail by Gribakin [Phys. Rev. A 61, 022720 (2000)]. In this model, the incoming positron excites a vibrational Feshbach resonance and is temporarily trapped on the molecule, greatly enhancing the probability of annihilation. The applicability of this model and the resulting enhancement in annihilation rate relies on the existence of positron-molecule bound states. In accord with this reasoning, the experimental results presented here provide the most direct evidence to date that positrons bind to neutral molecules. The shift in the position of the resonances is interpreted as a measure of the binding energy of the positron to the molecule. Other features of the results are also discussed, including large

  19. The effect of sampling rate on interpretation of the temporal characteristics of radiative and convective heating in wildland flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Frankman; Brent W. Webb; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; Michael Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Time-resolved radiative and convective heating measurements were collected on a prescribed burn in coniferous fuels at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz. Evaluation of the data in the time and frequency domain indicate that this sampling rate was sufficient to capture the temporal fluctuations of radiative and convective heating. The convective heating signal contained...

  20. Temporal anteroinferior encephalocele: An underrecognized etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavalainen, Taavi; Jutila, Leena; Mervaala, Esa; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Vanninen, Ritva; Immonen, Arto

    2015-10-27

    To report the increasing frequency with which temporal anteroinferior encephalocele is a cause of adult temporal lobe epilepsy, to illustrate the clinical and imaging characteristics of this condition, and to report its surgical treatment in a series of 23 adult patients. Epilepsy patients diagnosed with temporal anteroinferior encephalocele from January 2006 to December 2013 in a national epilepsy reference center were included in this noninterventional study. Twenty-three epilepsy patients (14 female, mean age 43.8 years) were diagnosed with temporal anteroinferior encephalocele in our institute. Thirteen patients had ≥2 encephaloceles; 7 cases presented bilaterally. The estimated frequency of this condition was 0.3% among MRI examinations performed due to newly diagnosed epilepsy (n = 6) and 1.9% among drug-resistant patients referred to our center (n = 17). Nine patients with local encephalocele disconnection (n = 4) or anterior temporal lobectomy and amygdalohippocampectomy (n = 5) have become seizure-free (Engel 1) for a mean 2.8 years (range 3 months-6.2 years) of follow-up. Three patients with local encephalocele disconnection were almost seizure-free or exhibited worthwhile improvement. Histologically, all 12 surgical patients had gliosis at the base of the encephalocele; some had cortical laminar disorganization (n = 5) or mild hippocampal degeneration (n = 1). The possibility of a temporal encephalocele should be considered when interpreting MRI examinations of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. These patients can significantly benefit from unitemporal epilepsy surgery, even in cases with bilateral encephaloceles. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Tôrres das Neves

    Full Text Available O presente artigo faz uma revisão breve da literatura sobre envelhecimento auditivo, abordando os estudos sobre o envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo, especificamente, estudos sobre detecção de interrupções em sons, por sujeitos adultos de mais idade. São apresentadas definições e descrições da presbiacusia, suas conseqüências, e sua prevalência. São descritos os procedimentos experimentais para estudo de processamento temporal envolvendo a detecção de interrupções em ruídos com faixas amplas de freqüência, a discriminação de sons com reversão temporal, a detecção de mudanças na amplitude de sons, a detecção de interrupções em sons com faixas estreitas de freqüências, a detecção de diferenças de duração entre dois estímulos, bem como a discriminação da ordem temporal de diferentes canais de freqüência componentes de tons complexos. São revisados, adicionalmente, estudos que descrevem as características psicofísicas do processamento auditivo temporal em idosos. Finalmente, são apresentadas sugestões sobre direções futuras para pesquisa.

  2. Envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Vera Tôrres das

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo faz uma revisão breve da literatura sobre envelhecimento auditivo, abordando os estudos sobre o envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo, especificamente, estudos sobre detecção de interrupções em sons, por sujeitos adultos de mais idade. São apresentadas definições e descrições da presbiacusia, suas conseqüências, e sua prevalência. São descritos os procedimentos experimentais para estudo de processamento temporal envolvendo a detecção de interrupções em ruídos com faixas amplas de freqüência, a discriminação de sons com reversão temporal, a detecção de mudanças na amplitude de sons, a detecção de interrupções em sons com faixas estreitas de freqüências, a detecção de diferenças de duração entre dois estímulos, bem como a discriminação da ordem temporal de diferentes canais de freqüência componentes de tons complexos. São revisados, adicionalmente, estudos que descrevem as características psicofísicas do processamento auditivo temporal em idosos. Finalmente, são apresentadas sugestões sobre direções futuras para pesquisa.

  3. Temporal coordination between performing musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, Janeen D; Palmer, Caroline

    2011-11-01

    Many common behaviours require people to coordinate the timing of their actions with the timing of others' actions. We examined whether representations of musicians' actions are activated in coperformers with whom they must coordinate their actions in time and whether coperformers simulate each other's actions using their own motor systems during temporal coordination. Pianists performed right-hand melodies along with simple or complex left-hand accompaniments produced by themselves or by another pianist. Individual performers' preferred performance rates were measured in solo performance of the right-hand melody. The complexity of the left-hand accompaniment influenced the temporal grouping structure of the right-hand melody in the same way when it was performed by the self or by the duet partner, providing some support for the action corepresentation hypothesis. In contrast, accompaniment complexity had little influence on temporal coordination measures (asynchronies and cross-correlations between parts). Temporal coordination measures were influenced by a priori similarities between partners' preferred rates; partners who had similar preferred rates in solo performance were better synchronized and showed mutual adaptation to each other's timing during duet performances. These findings extend previous findings of action corepresentation and action simulation to a task that requires precise temporal coordination of independent yet simultaneous actions.

  4. Scene from above: retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P; Manger, Paul R

    2013-06-15

    The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is a browser that uses its extensible tongue to selectively collect leaves during foraging. As the tallest extant terrestrial mammal, its elevated head height provides panoramic surveillance of the environment. These aspects of the giraffe's ecology and phenotype suggest that vision is of prime importance. Using Nissl-stained retinal wholemounts and stereological methods, we quantitatively assessed the retinal specializations in the ganglion cell layer of the giraffe. The mean total number of retinal ganglion cells was 1,393,779 and their topographic distribution revealed the presence of a horizontal visual streak and a temporal area. With a mean peak of 14,271 cells/mm(2), upper limits of spatial resolving power in the temporal area ranged from 25 to 27 cycles/degree. We also observed a dorsotemporal extension (anakatabatic area) that tapers toward the nasal retina giving rise to a complete dorsal arch. Using neurofilament-200 immunohistochemistry, we also detected a dorsal arch formed by alpha ganglion cells with density peaks in the temporal (14-15 cells/mm(2)) and dorsonasal (10 cells/mm(2)) regions. As with other artiodactyls, the giraffe shares the presence of a horizontal streak and a temporal area which, respectively, improve resolution along the horizon and in the frontal visual field. The dorsal arch is related to the giraffe's head height and affords enhanced resolution in the inferior visual field. The alpha ganglion cell distribution pattern is unique to the giraffe and enhances acquisition of motion information for the control of tongue movement during foraging and the detection of predators. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Manger, Paul R

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether the retinal organization of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), a large African herbivore with lips specialized for grazing in open savannahs, relates to its foraging ecology and habitat. Using stereology and retinal wholemounts, we estimated a total of 353,000 retinal ganglion cells. Their density distribution reveals an unusual topographic organization of a temporal (2,000 cells/mm 2 ) and a nasal (1,800 cells/mm 2 ) area embedded within a well-defined horizontal visual streak (800 cells/mm 2 ), which is remarkably similar to the retinal organization in the black rhinoceros. Alpha ganglion cells comprise 3.5% (12,300) of the total population of ganglion cells and show a similar distribution pattern with maximum densities also occurring in the temporal (44 cells/mm 2 ) and nasal (40 cells/mm 2 ) areas. We found higher proportions of alpha cells in the dorsal and ventral retinas. Given their role in the detection of brisk transient stimuli, these higher proportions may facilitate the detection of approaching objects from the front and behind while grazing with the head at 45 °. Using ganglion cell peak density and eye size (29 mm, axial length), we estimated upper limits of spatial resolving power of 7 cycles/deg (temporal area), 6.6 cycles/deg (nasal area), and 4.4 cycles/deg (horizontal streak). The resolution of the temporal area potentially assists with grazing, while the resolution of the streak may be used for panoramic surveillance of the horizon. The nasal area may assist with detection of approaching objects from behind, potentially representing an adaptation compensating for limited neck and head mobility. J. Comp. Neurol., 525:2484-2498, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ictus expectoratus: a sign of complex partial seizures usually of non-dominant temporal lobe origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, P W; Kerr, D A; Olivi, A

    1999-12-01

    Spitting (or expectoration) is rarely seen with seizures. In Western society, spitting is a striking behavioral aberration. A 13-year-old child had intermittent agitated behavior, episodes of rage, spitting and confusion lasting up to 2 minutes. He stood up in church and told the preacher to 'shut up and sit down'. Epilepsy monitoring revealed spitting with polysharp and spike seizures resolved over the right temporal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right temporal lobe ganglioglioma. Spitting seizures resolved after resection. Ictal expectoration is rare. It may occur with epigastric aura, nausea, chewing, swallowing and fumbling. Literature review disclosed 17 cases, 12 of which arose from the non-dominant hemisphere. Most regressed with surgery and anticonvulsants. Copyright 1999 BEA Trading Ltd.

  7. Processing Temporal Constraints: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Giosue

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates how linguistic expressions of time--in particular, temporal adverbs and verb tense morphemes--are used to establish temporal reference at the level of brain physiology. First, a formal semantic analysis of tense and temporal adverbs is outlined. It is argued that computing temporal reference amounts to solving a…

  8. Temporal interpolation in Meteosat images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Hansen, Johan Dore; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    in such animated films are perceived as being jerky due to t he low temporal sampling rate in general and missing images in particular. In order to perform a satisfactory temporal interpolation we estimate and use the optical flow corresponding to every image in the sequenc e. The estimation of the optical flow...... a threshold between clouds and land/water. The temperature maps are estimated using observations from the image sequence itself at cloud free pixels and ground temperature measurements from a series of meteor ological observation stations in Europe. The temporal interpolation of the images is bas ed on a path...... of each pixel determined by the estimated optical flow. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by the interpolation of a sequence of Meteosat infrared images....

  9. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2012-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  10. 340 nm pulsed UV LED system for europium-based time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design, development and investigation of an optical system based on UV light emitting diode (LED) excitation at 340 nm for time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays. The system was tested to measure cardiac marker Troponin I with a concentration of 200 ng....../L in immunoassay. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable to state-of-the-art Xenon flash lamp based unit with equal excitation energy and without overdriving the LED. We performed a comparative study of the flash lamp and the LED based system and discussed temporal, spatial, and spectral features of the LED...... excitation for time-resolved fluorimetry. Optimization of the suggested key parameters of the LED promises significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio and hence of the sensitivity of immunoassay systems....

  11. Emotions are temporal interpersonal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily A

    2017-10-01

    Several characteristics of emotions are that they: first, evolve dynamically over time, second, extend beyond the individual to incorporate multiple people, and third, function as a system. In other words, emotions can be seen as temporal interpersonal systems. This review summarizes current models for temporal interpersonal emotion systems (TIES), evidence they matter beyond levels of emotional responding, their connections with relationship quality and interpersonal regulation, and some of the challenges for studying them. Important directions for future research include distinguishing between different patterns of interpersonal emotional dynamics and extending theory and experimental work to uncover mechanisms for altering harmful TIES and promoting beneficial ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethnographies of Youth and Temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line; Frederiksen, Martin Demant; Højlund, Susanne

    As we experience and manipulate time—be it as boredom or impatience—it becomes an object: something materialized and social, something that affects perception, or something that may motivate reconsideration and change. The editors and contributors to this important new book, Ethnographies of Youth...... and Temporality, have provided a diverse collection of ethnographic studies and theoretical explorations of youth experiencing time in a variety of contemporary socio-cultural settings. The essays in this volume focus on time as an external and often troubling factor in young people’s lives, and show how...... of Youth and Temporality use youth as a prism to understand time and its subjective experience....

  13. Time resolved x-ray photography of a dense plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.C.; Meyer, J.; Rankin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The temporal development of the hot plasma in a dense plasma focus is studied by x-ray streak photography of approximately 2 ns resolution time. It is shown that initially a uniform x-ray emitting pinch plasma is formed which subsequently cools down until x-ray emission stops after approximately 50 ns. At a time of around 100 ns after initial x-ray emission coinciding with the break-up time of the pinch a second burst of x-rays is observed coming from small localized regions. The observations are compared with results obtained from time-resolved shadow and schlieren photography of a similar dense focus discharge. (author)

  14. Time-resolved Chemical Imaging of Molecules by High-order Harmonics and Ultrashort Rescattering Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chii Dong [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Directly monitoring atomic motion during a molecular transformation with atomic-scale spatio-temporal resolution is a frontier of ultrafast optical science and physical chemistry. Here we provide the foundation for a new imaging method, fixed-angle broadband laser-induced electron scattering, based on structural retrieval by direct one-dimensional Fourier transform of a photoelectron energy distribution observed along the polarization direction of an intense ultrafast light pulse. The approach exploits the scattering of a broadband wave packet created by strong-field tunnel ionization to self-interrogate the molecular structure with picometre spatial resolution and bond specificity. With its inherent femtosecond resolution, combining our technique with molecular alignment can, in principle, provide the basis for time-resolved tomography for multi-dimensional transient structural determination.

  15. Achieving Extreme Resolution in Numerical Cosmology Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement: Resolving Primordial Star Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg L. Bryan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As an entry for the 2001 Gordon Bell Award in the "special" category, we describe our 3-d, hybrid, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR code Enzo designed for high-resolution, multiphysics, cosmological structure formation simulations. Our parallel implementation places no limit on the depth or complexity of the adaptive grid hierarchy, allowing us to achieve unprecedented spatial and temporal dynamic range. We report on a simulation of primordial star formation which develops over 8000 subgrids at 34 levels of refinement to achieve a local refinement of a factor of 1012 in space and time. This allows us to resolve the properties of the first stars which form in the universe assuming standard physics and a standard cosmological model. Achieving extreme resolution requires the use of 128-bit extended precision arithmetic (EPA to accurately specify the subgrid positions. We describe our EPA AMR implementation on the IBM SP2 Blue Horizon system at the San Diego Supercomputer Center.

  16. Causes of the armed conflict in Croatia 1991. Resolving conceptual and methodological inconsistencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosta Nikolić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This text is intended to identify, clarify and resolve the most frequent examples of methodological inconsistencies found in the current literature by Serbian and foreign researchers, and to point to their conceptual, methodological and factual inconsistencies. This work follows the basic line of conceptual delimitation concerning the phenomenon of the breakup of Yugoslavia, on one hand, and of the violent conflicts in certain Yugoslav republics, on the other. It is based on the interdisciplinary analysis of the findings in the field of international relations and historical analysis, while relying primarily on the fundamental sources of historical material. Henceforth, this paper will address the issues of correct determining of the main and secondary actors, temporal determination and elements for making a clear and unambiguous definition of the armed conflict in Croatia.

  17. Time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering of a micelle-to-vesicle transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egelhaaf, S.U. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 -Grenoble (France); Schurtenberger, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-04-01

    Amphiphilic molecules spontaneously self-assemble in solution to form a variety of aggregates. Only limited information is available on the kinetics of the structural transitions as well as on the existence of non-equilibrium or metastable states. Aqueous mixtures of lecithin and bile salt are very interesting biological model-systems which exhibit a spontaneous transition from polymer-like mixed micelles to vesicles upon dilution. The small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument D22, with its very high neutron flux and the broad range of scattering vectors covered in a single instrumental setting, allowed us for the first time to perform time-resolved scattering experiments in order to study the micelle-to-vesicle transition. The temporal evolution of the aggregate structures were followed and detailed information was obtained even on molecular length-scales. (author). 5 refs.

  18. An analytic approach to resolving problems in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candee, D; Puka, B

    1984-01-01

    Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The deontological view focuses on rights, duties, and principles of justice. Both methods are used to resolve the 1971 Johns Hopkins case of a baby born with Down's syndrome and duodenal atresia. PMID:6234395

  19. An analytic approach to resolving problems in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candee, D; Puka, B

    1984-06-01

    Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The deontological view focuses on rights, duties, and principles of justice. Both methods are used to resolve the 1971 Johns Hopkins case of a baby born with Down's syndrome and duodenal atresia.

  20. Indoor Measurement of Angle Resolved Light Absorption by Black Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Iandolo, Beniamino; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Angle resolved optical spectroscopy of photovoltaic (PV) samples gives crucial information on PV panels under realistic working conditions. Here, we introduce measurements of angle resolved light absorption by PV cells, performed indoors using a collimated high radiance broadband light source. Our...... indoor method offers a significant simplification as compared to measurements by solar trackers. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show characterization of black silicon solar cells. The experimental results showed stable and reliable optical responses that makes our setup suitable for indoor......, angle resolved characterization of solar cells....

  1. TEMPORAL QUERY PROCESSIG USING SQL SERVER

    OpenAIRE

    Vali Shaik, Mastan; Sujatha, P

    2017-01-01

    Most data sources in real-life are not static but change their information in time. This evolution of data in time can give valuable insights to business analysts. Temporal data refers to data, where changes over time or temporal aspects play a central role. Temporal data denotes the evaluation of object characteristics over time. One of the main unresolved problems that arise during the data mining process is treating data that contains temporal information. Temporal queries on time evolving...

  2. A simultaneous multi-slice selective J-resolved experiment for fully resolved scalar coupling information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing; Lin, Liangjie; Chen, Jinyong; Lin, Yanqin; Barker, Peter B.; Chen, Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Proton-proton scalar coupling plays an important role in molecular structure elucidation. Many methods have been proposed for revealing scalar coupling networks involving chosen protons. However, determining all JHH values within a fully coupled network remains as a tedious process. Here, we propose a method termed as simultaneous multi-slice selective J-resolved spectroscopy (SMS-SEJRES) for simultaneously measuring JHH values out of all coupling networks in a sample within one experiment. In this work, gradient-encoded selective refocusing, PSYCHE decoupling and echo planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) detection module are adopted, resulting in different selective J-edited spectra extracted from different spatial positions. The proposed pulse sequence can facilitate the analysis of molecular structures. Therefore, it will interest scientists who would like to efficiently address the structural analysis of molecules.

  3. Odor identity influences tracking of temporally patterned plumes in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frye Mark A

    2011-06-01

    peripheral processing of temporal cues faithfully follow rapid odor transients above the rates that can be resolved behaviorally. These results indicate that (1 higher order circuits create a perceptually continuous signal from an intermittent sensory one, and that (2 this transformation varies with odorant rather than being constrained by sensory-motor integration, thus (3 offering an entry point for examining the mechanisms of rapid olfactory decision making in an ecological context.

  4. Determination of atomic positions from time resolved high resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Zahra; Lin, Pin Ann; Natarajan, Bharath; Zhu, Wenhui; Sharma, Renu

    2018-03-01

    For many reaction processes, such as catalysis, phase transformations, nanomaterial synthesis etc., nanoscale observations at high spatial (sub-nanometer) and temporal (millisecond) resolution are required to characterize and comprehend the underlying factors that favor one reaction over another. The combination of such spatial and temporal resolution (up to 600 µs), while rich in information, produces a large number of snapshots, each of which must be analyzed to obtain the structural (and thereby chemical) information. Here we present a methodology for automated quantitative measurement of real-time atomic position fluctuations in a nanoparticle. We leverage a combination of several image processing algorithms to precisely identify the positions of the atomic columns in each image. A geometric model is then used to measure the time-evolution of distances and angles between neighboring atomic columns to identify different phases and quantify local structural fluctuations. We apply this technique to determine the atomic-level fluctuations in the relative fractions of metal and metal-carbide phases in a cobalt catalyst nanoparticle during single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) growth. These measurements provided a means to obtain the number of carbon atoms incorporated into and released from the catalyst particle, thereby helping resolve carbon reaction pathways during SWCNT growth. Further we demonstrate the use of this technique to measure the reaction kinetics of iron oxide reduction. Apart from reducing the data analysis time, the statistical approach allows us to measure atomic distances with sub-pixel resolution. We show that this method can be applied universally to measure atomic positions with a precision of 0.01 nm from any set of atomic-resolution video images. With the advent of high time-resolution direct detection cameras, we anticipate such methods will be essential in addressing the metrology problem of quantifying large datasets of time-resolved

  5. Absolute calibration of space- and time-resolving flat-field vacuum ultraviolet spectrograph for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Yuuji; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Watabe, Chikara; Tamano, Teruo; Kawamori, Eiichirou; Ito, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Yatsu, Kiyoshi [Plasma Research Center, Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Yamaguchi, Naohiro [Toyota Technological Inst., Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    Measurement of spectra in the wavelength range from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) to soft X-ray is an important means to diagnose impurities in magnetically confined plasmas used in fusion plasmas such as a GAMMA10 plasma. Recently, a space- and time-resolving flat-field grazing-incidence VUV spectrograph was constructed for the simultaneous observation of spatial, temporal and spectral distributions of plasma radiation in the wavelength range of 150-1050 A. Absolute calibration experiments were performed at beamline 11C in the Photon Factory at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. The absolute efficiency of the VUV spectrograph was measured for P polarization geometry in the spectrograph. (author)

  6. Absolute calibration of space- and time-resolving flat-field vacuum ultraviolet spectrograph for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yuuji; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Watabe, Chikara; Tamano, Teruo; Kawamori, Eiichirou; Ito, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Yatsu, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Naohiro

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of spectra in the wavelength range from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) to soft X-ray is an important means to diagnose impurities in magnetically confined plasmas used in fusion plasmas such as a GAMMA10 plasma. Recently, a space- and time-resolving flat-field grazing-incidence VUV spectrograph was constructed for the simultaneous observation of spatial, temporal and spectral distributions of plasma radiation in the wavelength range of 150-1050 A. Absolute calibration experiments were performed at beamline 11C in the Photon Factory at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. The absolute efficiency of the VUV spectrograph was measured for P polarization geometry in the spectrograph. (author)

  7. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...

  8. Temporal scaling in information propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  9. Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Masato; Koyama, Yukiko; Enomoto, Fuyuki; Ichikawa, Ginichiro [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    We report a case of temporal bone necrosis that emerged after radiotherapy for epipharyngeal carcinoma performed 13 years ago. The patient was a 51-year-old male. His major complaint was left facial swelling. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Co 60, 6120 rad), as the treatment of that period, for epipharyngeal carcinoma from September 30, 1986 to January 31, 1987. He also underwent lobectomy of the left temporal lobe in brain surgery for left temporal lobe necrosis in August, 1989. After that operation, we saw constriction in his left external acoustic meatus and continued the follow-up. On October 22, 1999 he felt a left facial swelling. We found skin defects and ulcer formation in the front part of his left ear. Although we administered an antiseptic and antibiotic to the diseased area, his condition did not improve. He was hospitalized for the purpose of undergoing medical treatment on January 6, 2000. We found extensive skin necrosis and defects in his left auricular area. The corrupted temporal bone reached the zygomatic, the bone department external acoustic meatus and the mastoid process was exposing. We performed debridement of the diseased area on January 19, 2000. On February 23, we performed reconstruction by left trapezius muscle flap after debridement once again. One year after the operation, the flap was completely incorporated. (author)

  10. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.

    2001-01-01

    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  11. Algorithms for Simple Temporal Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, L.R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes research into new methods for automated temporal reasoning. For this purpose, several frameworks are available in literature. Chapter 1 presents a concise literature survey that provides a new overview of their interrelation. In the remainder of the dissertation, the

  12. Denoising time-resolved microscopy image sequences with singular value thresholding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnival, Tom, E-mail: tjof2@cam.ac.uk; Leary, Rowan K., E-mail: rkl26@cam.ac.uk; Midgley, Paul A., E-mail: pam33@cam.ac.uk

    2017-07-15

    Time-resolved imaging in microscopy is important for the direct observation of a range of dynamic processes in both the physical and life sciences. However, the image sequences are often corrupted by noise, either as a result of high frame rates or a need to limit the radiation dose received by the sample. Here we exploit both spatial and temporal correlations using low-rank matrix recovery methods to denoise microscopy image sequences. We also make use of an unbiased risk estimator to address the issue of how much thresholding to apply in a robust and automated manner. The performance of the technique is demonstrated using simulated image sequences, as well as experimental scanning transmission electron microscopy data, where surface adatom motion and nanoparticle structural dynamics are recovered at rates of up to 32 frames per second. - Highlights: • Correlations in space and time are harnessed to denoise microscopy image sequences. • A robust estimator provides automated selection of the denoising parameter. • Motion tracking and automated noise estimation provides a versatile algorithm. • Application to time-resolved STEM enables study of atomic and nanoparticle dynamics.

  13. Spatially resolved photoresponse on individual ZnO nanorods: correlating morphology, defects and conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, K; Mitra, J

    2016-06-23

    Electrically active native point defects have a significant impact on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures. Control of defect distribution and a detailed understanding of their physical properties are central to designing ZnO in novel functional forms and architecture, which ultimately decides device performance. Defect control is primarily achieved by either engineering nanostructure morphology by tailoring growth techniques or doping. Here, we report conducting atomic force microscopy studies of spatially resolved photoresponse properties on ZnO nanorod surfaces. The photoresponse for super-band gap, ultraviolet excitations show a direct correlation between surface morphology and photoactivity localization. Additionally, the system exhibits significant photoresponse with sub-bandgap, green illumination; the signature energy associated with the deep level oxygen vacancy states. While the local current-voltage characteristics provide evidence of multiple transport processes and quantifies the photoresponse, the local time-resolved photoresponse data evidences large variations in response times (90 ms-50 s), across the surface of a nanorod. The spatially varied photoconductance and the range in temporal response display a complex interplay of morphology, defects and connectivity that brings about the true colour of these ZnO nanostructures.

  14. Time-Resolved PIV for Space-Time Correlations in Hot Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Temporally Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) is being used to characterize the decay of turbulence in jet flows a critical element for understanding the acoustic properties of the flow. A TR-PIV system, developed in-house at the NASA Glenn Research Center, is capable of acquiring planar PIV image frame pairs at up to 10 kHz. The data reported here were collected at Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.9 and at temperature ratios of 0.89 and 1.76. The field of view of the TR-PIV system covered 6 nozzle diameters along the lip line of the 50.8 mm diameter jet. The cold flow data at Mach 0.5 were compared with hotwire anemometry measurements in order to validate the new TR-PIV technique. The axial turbulence profiles measured across the shear layer using TR-PIV were thinner than those measured using hotwire anemometry and remained centered along the nozzle lip line. The collected TR-PIV data illustrate the differences in the single point statistical flow properties of cold and hot jet flows. The planar, time-resolved velocity records were then used to compute two-point space-time correlations of the flow at the Mach 0.9 flow condition. The TR-PIV results show that there are differences in the convective velocity and growth rate of the turbulent structures between cold and hot flows at the same Mach number.

  15. Existence Results for a Family of Equations of Fractional Resolvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.W.; Qasem, S.A.; Zailan Siri

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the presence and distinction of bounded m-solutions (type mild) for a family of generalized integral and differential equations of spot order with fractional resolvent and indefinite delay. (author)

  16. 48 CFR 2429.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Resolving tax problems. 2429.101 Section 2429.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... intervention in proceedings concerning taxes. ...

  17. Using a referee to resolve shipper-receiver differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietjen, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Within the nuclear community, shipper-receiver differences generate considerable concern. Current methods of resolving these differences are discussed, prticularly the use of an umpire or referee. Numerous statistical problems connected with the present procedures are also considered

  18. 48 CFR 229.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Counsels of the Navy and Air Force, and for the Army, the Chief, Contract Law Division, Office of the Judge..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 229.101 Resolving tax problems. (a...

  19. Aeroacoustic source analysis using time-resolved PIV in a free jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakey, David E. S.; Fitzpatrick, John A.; Meskell, Craig

    2013-05-01

    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) has become a valuable tool for spatio-temporally resolved flow measurements. Current camera and laser technology has advanced such that time-domain events leading to sound generation can now be resolved over a reasonable spatial extent. This paper reports on the application of TR-PIV for the analysis of aeroacoustic sources in a free jet using the direct correlation between in-flow velocity fluctuations on the jet center-line and near-field pressure fluctuations. This correlation is considered both in the time domain and in the frequency domain (coherence), and the effect of TR-PIV errors on these estimates is considered by comparison to hot-wire anemometer measurements. In addition, a recently developed wavelet filtering technique is used to separate the acoustic and hydrodynamic components of recorded near-field pressure signals, enabling a gain in the signal-to-noise ratio. The results show that TR-PIV can recover the same time-domain correlation available from hot-wire and traditional PIV measurements, but that the frequency-domain estimates are corrupted by error, particularly at high frequencies. This result negates the principal benefit of using TR-PIV over PIV (the availability of coherence estimates). Despite this result, an analysis of the correlation signature gives evidence that large-scale, convecting, wave-like structures are associated with sound production, a result consistent with observations by many recent investigators. The analysis shows that in the presence of such large-scale structures, noise source localization based on the traditional correlation technique is ambiguous.

  20. Temporal Coding of Volumetric Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llull, Patrick Ryan

    'Image volumes' refer to realizations of images in other dimensions such as time, spectrum, and focus. Recent advances in scientific, medical, and consumer applications demand improvements in image volume capture. Though image volume acquisition continues to advance, it maintains the same sampling mechanisms that have been used for decades; every voxel must be scanned and is presumed independent of its neighbors. Under these conditions, improving performance comes at the cost of increased system complexity, data rates, and power consumption. This dissertation explores systems and methods capable of efficiently improving sensitivity and performance for image volume cameras, and specifically proposes several sampling strategies that utilize temporal coding to improve imaging system performance and enhance our awareness for a variety of dynamic applications. Video cameras and camcorders sample the video volume (x,y,t) at fixed intervals to gain understanding of the volume's temporal evolution. Conventionally, one must reduce the spatial resolution to increase the framerate of such cameras. Using temporal coding via physical translation of an optical element known as a coded aperture, the compressive temporal imaging (CACTI) camera emonstrates a method which which to embed the temporal dimension of the video volume into spatial (x,y) measurements, thereby greatly improving temporal resolution with minimal loss of spatial resolution. This technique, which is among a family of compressive sampling strategies developed at Duke University, temporally codes the exposure readout functions at the pixel level. Since video cameras nominally integrate the remaining image volume dimensions (e.g. spectrum and focus) at capture time, spectral (x,y,t,lambda) and focal (x,y,t,z) image volumes are traditionally captured via sequential changes to the spectral and focal state of the system, respectively. The CACTI camera's ability to embed video volumes into images leads to exploration

  1. Super-resolved imaging geometrical and diffraction approaches

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    In this brief we review several approaches that provide super resolved imaging, overcoming the geometrical limitation of the detector as well as the diffraction effects set by the F number of the imaging lens. In order to obtain the super resolved enhancement, we use spatially non-uniform and/or random transmission structures to encode the image or the aperture planes. The desired resolution enhanced images are obtained by post-processing decoding of the captured data.

  2. On the resolvents methods in quantum perturbation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic review of resolvent methods in quantum perturbation calculations. The case of discrete spectrum of hamiltonian is considered specially (in the literature this is the fewest considered case). The topics of calculations of quantum transitions by using of the resolvent formalism, quantum transitions between states from particular subspaces, the shifts of energy levels, are shown. The main ideas of stationary perturbation theory developed by Lippmann and Schwinger are considered too. (author)

  3. Motor Oil Classification Based on Time-Resolved Fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Taotao; Chen, Siying; Zhang, Yinchao; Guo, Pan; Chen, He; Meng, Fandong

    2014-01-01

    A time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) technique is presented for classifying motor oils. The system is constructed with a third harmonic Nd:YAG laser, a spectrometer, and an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) measurements are reported for several motor oils. It is found that steady-state fluorescence is insufficient to distinguish the motor oil samples. Then contour diagrams of TRF intensities (CDTRFIs) are acquired to serve as uniq...

  4. An analytic approach to resolving problems in medical ethics.

    OpenAIRE

    Candee, D; Puka, B

    1984-01-01

    Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The deontological view focuses on rights, duties, and principles of justic...

  5. Photoemission Electron Spectroscopy IV: Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. D.; Nagatomi, T. (Translator); Mizutani, G. (Translator); Endo, K. (Translation Supervisor)

    2010-01-01

    The angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a powerful experimental tool to probe themomentum-resolved electronic structure, i.e., the electronic band dispersion ε(k), of solids and their surfaces. ARPES is also an ideal tool to address the question concerning the electron correlation effect on quasiparticle excitations in the low-dimensional (one- or two-dimensional) correlated electron systems. In this issue, we briefly introduce representative studies of ARPES and their fruitf...

  6. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik

    This thesis describes time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurements on various semiconductor nanostructures. The aim is to study the carrier dynamics in these nanostructures on a picosecond timescale. In a typical experiment carriers are excited with a visible or near-infrared pulse...... be signicantly reduced. Besides time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurement, optical transmission, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy experiments on black silicon are presented....

  7. Modeling mechanisms of persisting and resolving delay in language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S C; Knowland, V C P

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE In this study, the authors used neural network modeling to investigate the possible mechanistic basis of developmental language delay and to test the viability of the hypothesis that persisting delay and resolving delay lie on a mechanistic continuum with normal development. METHOD The authors used a population modeling approach to study individual rates of development in 1,000 simulated individuals acquiring a notional language domain (in this study, represented by English past tense). Variation was caused by differences in internal neurocomputational learning parameters as well as the richness of the language environment. An early language delay group was diagnosed, and individual trajectories were then traced. RESULTS Quantitative variations in learning mechanisms were sufficient to produce persisting delay and resolving delay subgroups in similar proportions to empirical observations. In the model, persisting language delay was caused by limitations in processing capacity, whereas resolving delay was caused by low plasticity. Richness of the language environment did not predict the emergence of persisting delay but did predict the final ability levels of individuals with resolving delay. CONCLUSION Mechanistically, it is viable that persisting delay and resolving delay are only quantitatively different. There may be an interaction between environmental factors and outcome groups, with individuals who have resolving delay being influenced more by the richness of the language environment.

  8. Seventh international conference on time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, R.B.; Martinez, M.A.D.; Shreve, A.; Woodruff, W.H. [comps.

    1997-04-01

    The International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy (TRVS) is widely recognized as the major international forum for the discussion of advances in this rapidly growing field. The 1995 conference was the seventh in a series that began at Lake Placid, New York, 1982. Santa Fe, New Mexico, was the site of the Seventh International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, held from June 11 to 16, 1995. TRVS-7 was attended by 157 participants from 16 countries and 85 institutions, and research ranging across the full breadth of the field of time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy was presented. Advances in both experimental capabilities for time-resolved vibrational measurements and in theoretical descriptions of time-resolved vibrational methods continue to occur, and several sessions of the conference were devoted to discussion of these advances and the associated new directions in TRVS. Continuing the interdisciplinary tradition of the TRVS meetings, applications of time-resolved vibrational methods to problems in physics, biology, materials science, and chemistry comprised a large portion of the papers presented at the conference.

  9. Time-resolved neutron diffraction investigation of effect of hydrogen on the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurov, A.M.; Mironova, G.M.; Rudnickij, L.A.; Galkin, V.Yu.

    1991-01-01

    We have undertaken a time-resolved neutron diffraction study of the process of effect of hydrogen on the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ in a wide region of d hkl . This method was developed at the pulsed reactor IBR-2 on the time-of-flight diffractometer DN-2 and recently reported. Such technique makes it possible to investigate the solid state chemical reactions in situ with a temporal resolution of several seconds. (orig./BUD)

  10. Quantifying human exposure to air pollution - moving from static monitoring to spatio-temporally resolved personal exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E

    2013-01-01

    results from multifaceted relationships and interactions between environmental and human systems, adding complexity to the assessment process. Traditionally, approaches to quantify human exposure have relied on pollutant concentrations from fixed air quality network sites and static population...... distributions. New developments in sensor technology now enable us to monitor personal exposure to air pollutants directly while people are moving through their activity spaces and varying concentration fields. The literature review on which this paper is based on reflects recent developments in the assessment...... of human exposure to air pollution. This includes the discussion of methodologies and concepts, and the elaboration of approaches and study designs applied in the field. We identify shortcomings of current approaches and discuss future research needs. We close by proposing a novel conceptual model...

  11. Spatially- and Temporally-Resolved Measurements of Roadway Air Pollution Using a Zero-Emission Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicle-related air pollution has an intrinsically dynamic nature. Recent field measurements and modeling work have demonstrated that near-road topography may modify levels of air pollutants reaching populations residing and working in close proximity to roadways. However, the ma...

  12. Feasibility study on temporal-resolved diffraction of high-energy electrons produced in femtosecond laser-plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Jun; Cang Yu; Chen Qing; Peng Lian Mao; Wang Huai Bin; Zhong Jia Yong

    2002-01-01

    The high-energy electrons can be produced in the interaction between intense ultra-short laser pulses and Al targets. The diffraction may take place when high-energy electrons pass through an Al single crystal. Feasibility is studied using such diffraction as a method to analyze the structures of crystals

  13. Radially and temporally resolved electric field of positive streamers in air and modelling of the induced plasma chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoder, T.; Šimek, Milan; Bonaventura, Z.; Prukner, Václav; Gordillo-Vázquez, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 045021. ISSN 0963-0252 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : streamer * electric field * Blue Jet * air plasma chemistry * transient luminous event Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0963-0252/25/4/045021/meta

  14. Time-resolved studies at PETRA III with a highly repetitive synchronized laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlie, Mortiz

    2013-09-15

    Atomic and molecular processes can nowadays be directly followed in the time domain. This is a core technique for a better understanding of the involved fundamental physics, thus auguring new applications in the future as well. Usually the so-called pump-probe technique making use of two synchronized ultrashort light pulses is utilized to obtain this time-resolved data. In this work, the development and characterization of a synchronization system enabling such pump-probe studies at the storage ring PETRA III in combination with an external, then synchronized fs-laser system is described. The synchronization is based on an extended PLL approach with three interconnected feedback loops allowing to monitor short-time losses of the lock and thus prevent them. This way, the jitter between the laser PHAROS and the PETRA III reference signal is reduced to {sigma} <5 ps. Thus the system allows to conduct experiments at a repetition rate of 130 kHz with a temporal resolution limited only by the X-ray pulse length. A major emphasis in the fundamental introductory chapters is an intuitive explanation of the basic principles of phase locked loops and the different aspects of phase noise to allow a deeper understanding of the synchronization. Furthermore, first pump-probe experiments conducted at different beamlines at PETRA III are presented, demonstrating the usability of the laser system in a scientific environment as well. In first characterizing experiments the pulse duration of PETRA III X-ray pulses has been measured to be 90 ps FWHM. In particular, there have been time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments on Gaq3 and Znq2 conducted at beamline P11. First results show dynamics of the electronic excitation on the timescale of a few hundred pico seconds up to a few nano seconds and provide a basic understanding for further research on those molecules. For Gaq3 this data is analyzed in detail and compared with visible fluorescence measurements suggesting at

  15. Time-resolved studies at PETRA III with a highly repetitive synchronized laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlie, Mortiz

    2013-09-01

    Atomic and molecular processes can nowadays be directly followed in the time domain. This is a core technique for a better understanding of the involved fundamental physics, thus auguring new applications in the future as well. Usually the so-called pump-probe technique making use of two synchronized ultrashort light pulses is utilized to obtain this time-resolved data. In this work, the development and characterization of a synchronization system enabling such pump-probe studies at the storage ring PETRA III in combination with an external, then synchronized fs-laser system is described. The synchronization is based on an extended PLL approach with three interconnected feedback loops allowing to monitor short-time losses of the lock and thus prevent them. This way, the jitter between the laser PHAROS and the PETRA III reference signal is reduced to σ <5 ps. Thus the system allows to conduct experiments at a repetition rate of 130 kHz with a temporal resolution limited only by the X-ray pulse length. A major emphasis in the fundamental introductory chapters is an intuitive explanation of the basic principles of phase locked loops and the different aspects of phase noise to allow a deeper understanding of the synchronization. Furthermore, first pump-probe experiments conducted at different beamlines at PETRA III are presented, demonstrating the usability of the laser system in a scientific environment as well. In first characterizing experiments the pulse duration of PETRA III X-ray pulses has been measured to be 90 ps FWHM. In particular, there have been time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments on Gaq3 and Znq2 conducted at beamline P11. First results show dynamics of the electronic excitation on the timescale of a few hundred pico seconds up to a few nano seconds and provide a basic understanding for further research on those molecules. For Gaq3 this data is analyzed in detail and compared with visible fluorescence measurements suggesting at least

  16. View-sharing in keyhole imaging: Partially compressed central k-space acquisition in time-resolved MRA at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch R., E-mail: Dariusch.Hadizadeh@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Gieseke, Juergen [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Beck, Gabriele; Geerts, Liesbeth [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Kukuk, Guido M. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Bostroem, Azize [Department of Neurosurgery, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn, Deutschland (Germany); Urbach, Horst; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Introduction: Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (CEMRA) of the intracranial vasculature has proved its clinical value for the evaluation of cerebral vascular disease in cases where both flow hemodynamics and morphology are important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a combination of view-sharing with keyhole imaging to increase spatial and temporal resolution of time-resolved CEMRA at 3.0 T. Methods: Alternating view-sharing was combined with randomly segmented k-space ordering, keyhole imaging, partial Fourier and parallel imaging (4DkvsMRA). 4DkvsMRA was evaluated using varying compression factors (80-100) resulting in spatial resolutions ranging from (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.4) to (0.96 x 0.96 x 0.95) mm{sup 3} and temporal resolutions ranging from 586 ms/dynamic scan - 288 ms/dynamic scan in three protocols in 10 healthy volunteers and seven patients (17 subjects). DSA correlation was available in four patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) and one patient with cerebral teleangiectasia. Results: 4DkvsMRA was successfully performed in all subjects and showed clear depiction of arterial and venous phases with diagnostic image quality. At the maximum view-sharing compression factor (=100), a 'flickering' artefact was observed. Conclusion: View-sharing in keyhole imaging allows for increased spatial and temporal resolution in time-resolved MRA.

  17. View-sharing in keyhole imaging: Partially compressed central k-space acquisition in time-resolved MRA at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Gieseke, Juergen; Beck, Gabriele; Geerts, Liesbeth; Kukuk, Guido M.; Bostroem, Azize; Urbach, Horst; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (CEMRA) of the intracranial vasculature has proved its clinical value for the evaluation of cerebral vascular disease in cases where both flow hemodynamics and morphology are important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a combination of view-sharing with keyhole imaging to increase spatial and temporal resolution of time-resolved CEMRA at 3.0 T. Methods: Alternating view-sharing was combined with randomly segmented k-space ordering, keyhole imaging, partial Fourier and parallel imaging (4DkvsMRA). 4DkvsMRA was evaluated using varying compression factors (80-100) resulting in spatial resolutions ranging from (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.4) to (0.96 x 0.96 x 0.95) mm 3 and temporal resolutions ranging from 586 ms/dynamic scan - 288 ms/dynamic scan in three protocols in 10 healthy volunteers and seven patients (17 subjects). DSA correlation was available in four patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) and one patient with cerebral teleangiectasia. Results: 4DkvsMRA was successfully performed in all subjects and showed clear depiction of arterial and venous phases with diagnostic image quality. At the maximum view-sharing compression factor (=100), a 'flickering' artefact was observed. Conclusion: View-sharing in keyhole imaging allows for increased spatial and temporal resolution in time-resolved MRA.

  18. Cortical pitch regions in humans respond primarily to resolved harmonics and are located in specific tonotopic regions of anterior auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman-Haignere, Sam; Kanwisher, Nancy; McDermott, Josh H

    2013-12-11

    Pitch is a defining perceptual property of many real-world sounds, including music and speech. Classically, theories of pitch perception have differentiated between temporal and spectral cues. These cues are rendered distinct by the frequency resolution of the ear, such that some frequencies produce "resolved" peaks of excitation in the cochlea, whereas others are "unresolved," providing a pitch cue only via their temporal fluctuations. Despite longstanding interest, the neural structures that process pitch, and their relationship to these cues, have remained controversial. Here, using fMRI in humans, we report the following: (1) consistent with previous reports, all subjects exhibited pitch-sensitive cortical regions that responded substantially more to harmonic tones than frequency-matched noise; (2) the response of these regions was mainly driven by spectrally resolved harmonics, although they also exhibited a weak but consistent response to unresolved harmonics relative to noise; (3) the response of pitch-sensitive regions to a parametric manipulation of resolvability tracked psychophysical discrimination thresholds for the same stimuli; and (4) pitch-sensitive regions were localized to specific tonotopic regions of anterior auditory cortex, extending from a low-frequency region of primary auditory cortex into a more anterior and less frequency-selective region of nonprimary auditory cortex. These results demonstrate that cortical pitch responses are located in a stereotyped region of anterior auditory cortex and are predominantly driven by resolved frequency components in a way that mirrors behavior.

  19. A hybrid breath hold and continued respiration-triggered technique for time-resolved 3D MRI perfusion studies in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintze, C.; Stemmer, A.; Bock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of lung cancer perfusion is impaired by respiratory motion. Imaging times for contrast agent wash-out studies often exceed breath hold capabilities, and respiration triggering reduces temporal resolution. Temporally resolved volume acquisition of entire tumors is required to assess heterogeneity. Therefore, we developed and evaluated an MR measurement technique that exceeds a single breath hold, and provides a variable temporal resolution during acquisition while suspending breath-dependent motion. 20 patients with suspected lung cancer were subjected to perfusion studies using a spoiled 3D gradient echo sequence after bolus injection of 0.07 mmol/kg body weight of Gd-DTPA. 10 acquisitions in expiratory breath hold were followed by 50 navigator-triggered acquisitions under free breathing. Post-processing allowed for co-registration of the 3D data sets. An ROI-based visualization of the signal-time curves was performed. In all cases motion-suspended, time-resolved volume data sets (40 x 33 x 10 cm 3 , voxel size: 2.1 x 2.1 x 5.0 mm 3 ) were generated with a variable, initially high temporal resolution (2.25 sec) that was synchronized with the breath pattern and covered up to 8(1)/(2) min. In 7 / 20 cases a remaining offset could be reduced by rigid co-registration. The tumors showed fast wash-in, followed by rapid signal decay (8 / 20) or a plateau. The feasibility of a perfusion study with hybrid breath hold and navigator-triggered time-resolved 3D MRI which combines high initial temporal resolution during breath hold with a long wash-out period under free breathing was demonstrated. (orig.)

  20. Nanosecond Time-Resolved Microscopic Gate-Modulation Imaging of Polycrystalline Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Kamata, Toshihide; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2018-02-01

    We develop a time-resolved microscopic gate-modulation (μ GM ) imaging technique to investigate the temporal evolution of the channel current and accumulated charges in polycrystalline pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs). A time resolution of as high as 50 ns is achieved by using a fast image-intensifier system that could amplify a series of instantaneous optical microscopic images acquired at various time intervals after the stepped gate bias is switched on. The differential images obtained by subtracting the gate-off image allows us to acquire a series of temporal μ GM images that clearly show the gradual propagation of both channel charges and leaked gate fields within the polycrystalline channel layers. The frontal positions for the propagations of both channel charges and leaked gate fields coincide at all the time intervals, demonstrating that the layered gate dielectric capacitors are successively transversely charged up along the direction of current propagation. The initial μ GM images also indicate that the electric field effect is originally concentrated around a limited area with a width of a few micrometers bordering the channel-electrode interface, and that the field intensity reaches a maximum after 200 ns and then decays. The time required for charge propagation over the whole channel region with a length of 100 μ m is estimated at about 900 ns, which is consistent with the measured field-effect mobility and the temporal-response model for organic TFTs. The effect of grain boundaries can be also visualized by comparison of the μ GM images for the transient and the steady states, which confirms that the potential barriers at the grain boundaries cause the transient shift in the accumulated charges or the transient accumulation of additional charges around the grain boundaries.

  1. Highly spatially- and seasonally-resolved predictive contamination maps for persistent organic pollutants: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Cristiano; Guazzoni, Niccoló; Comolli, Roberto; Tremolada, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    A reliable spatial assessment of the POPs contamination in soils is essential for burden studies and flux evaluations. Soil characteristics and properties vary enormously even within small spatial scale and over time; therefore soil capacity of accumulating POPs varies greatly. In order to include this very high spatial and temporal variability, models can be used for assessing soil accumulation capacity in a specific time and space and, from it, the spatial distribution and temporal trends of POPs concentrations. In this work, predictive contamination maps of the accumulation capacity of soils were developed at a space resolution of 1×1m with a time frame of one day, in a study area located in the central Alps. Physical algorithms for temperature and organic carbon estimation along the soil profile and across the year were fitted to estimate the horizontal, vertical and seasonal distribution of the contamination potential for PCBs in soil (Ksa maps). The resulting maps were cross-validated with an independent set of PCB contamination data, showing very good agreement (e.g. for CB-153, R(2)=0.80, p-value≤2.2·10(-06)). Slopes of the regression between predicted Ksa and experimental concentrations were used to map the soil contamination for the whole area, taking into account soil characteristics and temperature conditions. These maps offer the opportunity to evaluate burden (concentration maps) and fluxes (emission maps) with highly resolved temporal and spatial detail. In addition, in order to explain the observed low autumn PCB concentrations in soil related to the high Ksa values of this period, a dynamic model of seasonal variation of soil concentrations was developed basing on rate parameters fitted on measured concentrations. The model was able to describe, at least partially, the observed different behavior between the quite rapid discharge phase in summer and the slow recharge phase in autumn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Data Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ha Le

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the route to a spatio-temporal geoscience information system, an appropriate data model for geo-objects in space and time has been developed. In this model, geo-objects are represented as sequences of geometries and properties with continuous evolution in each time interval. Because geomodeling software systems usually model objects at specific time instances, we want to interpolate the geometry and properties from two models of an object with only geometrical constraints (no physical or mechanical constraints. This process is called spatio-temporal data construction or morphological interpolation of intermediate geometries. This paper is strictly related to shape morphing, shape deformation, cross-parameterization and compatible remeshing and is only concerned with geological surfaces. In this study, two main sub-solutions construct compatible meshes and find trajectories in which vertices of the mesh evolve. This research aims to find an algorithm to construct spatio-temporal data with some constraints from the geosciences, such as cutting surfaces by faulting or fracturing phenomena and evolving boundaries attached to other surfaces. Another goal of this research is the implementation of the algorithm in a software product, namely a gOcad plug-in. The four main procedures of the algorithm are cutting the surfaces, setting up constraints, partitioning and calculating the parameterizations and trajectories. The software has been tested to construct data for a salt dome and other surfaces in regard to the geological processes of faulting, deposition and erosion. The result of this research is an algorithm and software for the construction of spatio-temporal data.

  3. The Machinic Temporality of Metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Celis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1990 Deleuze introduced the hypothesis that disciplinary societies are gradually being replaced by a new logic of power: control. Accordingly, Matteo Pasquinelli has recently argued that we are moving towards societies of metadata, which correspond to a new stage of what Deleuze called control societies. Societies of metadata are characterised for the central role that meta-information acquires both as a source of surplus value and as an apparatus of social control. The aim of this article is to develop Pasquinelli’s thesis by examining the temporal scope of these emerging societies of metadata. In particular, this article employs Guattari’s distinction between human and machinic times. Through these two concepts, this article attempts to show how societies of metadata combine the two poles of capitalist power formations as identified by Deleuze and Guattari, i.e. social subjection and machinic enslavement. It begins by presenting the notion of metadata in order to identify some of the defining traits of contemporary capitalism. It then examines Berardi’s account of the temporality of the attention economy from the perspective of the asymmetric relation between cyber-time and human time. The third section challenges Berardi’s definition of the temporality of the attention economy by using Guattari’s notions of human and machinic times. Parts four and five fall back upon Deleuze and Guattari’s notions of machinic surplus labour and machinic enslavement, respectively. The concluding section tries to show that machinic and human times constitute two poles of contemporary power formations that articulate the temporal dimension of societies of metadata.

  4. Temporal nonlocality in bistable perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    A novel conceptual framework for theoretical psychology is presented and illustrated for the example of bistable perception. A basic formal feature of this framework is the non-commutativity of operations acting on mental states. A corresponding model for the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli, the Necker-Zeno model, is sketched and some empirical evidence for it so far is described. It is discussed how a temporal nonlocality of mental states, predicted by the model, can be understood and tested.

  5. Temporal compressive imaging for video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Linxia; Ke, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In many situations, imagers are required to have higher imaging speed, such as gunpowder blasting analysis and observing high-speed biology phenomena. However, measuring high-speed video is a challenge to camera design, especially, in infrared spectrum. In this paper, we reconstruct a high-frame-rate video from compressive video measurements using temporal compressive imaging (TCI) with a temporal compression ratio T=8. This means that, 8 unique high-speed temporal frames will be obtained from a single compressive frame using a reconstruction algorithm. Equivalently, the video frame rates is increased by 8 times. Two methods, two-step iterative shrinkage/threshold (TwIST) algorithm and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) method, are used for reconstruction. To reduce reconstruction time and memory usage, each frame of size 256×256 is divided into patches of size 8×8. The influence of different coded mask to reconstruction is discussed. The reconstruction qualities using TwIST and GMM are also compared.

  6. Temporal ecology in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkovich, E M; Cook, B I; McLauchlan, K K; Davies, T J

    2014-11-01

    Two fundamental axes - space and time - shape ecological systems. Over the last 30 years spatial ecology has developed as an integrative, multidisciplinary science that has improved our understanding of the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation and loss. We argue that accelerating climate change - the effective manipulation of time by humans - has generated a current need to build an equivalent framework for temporal ecology. Climate change has at once pressed ecologists to understand and predict ecological dynamics in non-stationary environments, while also challenged fundamental assumptions of many concepts, models and approaches. However, similarities between space and time, especially related issues of scaling, provide an outline for improving ecological models and forecasting of temporal dynamics, while the unique attributes of time, particularly its emphasis on events and its singular direction, highlight where new approaches are needed. We emphasise how a renewed, interdisciplinary focus on time would coalesce related concepts, help develop new theories and methods and guide further data collection. The next challenge will be to unite predictive frameworks from spatial and temporal ecology to build robust forecasts of when and where environmental change will pose the largest threats to species and ecosystems, as well as identifying the best opportunities for conservation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  7. THE DEBRIS DISK AROUND {gamma} DORADUS RESOLVED WITH HERSCHEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Booth, Mark; Kavelaars, J. J.; Koning, Alice [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sibthorpe, Bruce [UK Astronomy Technology Center, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Lawler, Samantha M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Qi, Chenruo [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Greaves, Jane S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the debris disk around {gamma} Doradus, an F1V star, from the Herschel Key Programme DEBRIS (Disc Emission via Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre). The disk is well resolved at 70, 100, and 160 {mu}m, resolved along its major axis at 250 {mu}m, detected but not resolved at 350 {mu}m, and confused with a background source at 500 {mu}m. It is one of our best resolved targets and we find it to have a radially broad dust distribution. The modeling of the resolved images cannot distinguish between two configurations: an arrangement of a warm inner ring at several AU (best fit 4 AU) and a cool outer belt extending from {approx}55 to 400 AU or an arrangement of two cool, narrow rings at {approx}70 AU and {approx}190 AU. This suggests that any configuration between these two is also possible. Both models have a total fractional luminosity of {approx}10{sup -5} and are consistent with the disk being aligned with the stellar equator. The inner edge of either possible configuration suggests that the most likely region to find planets in this system would be within {approx}55 AU of the star. A transient event is not needed to explain the warm dust's fractional luminosity.

  8. [A new measurement method of time-resolved spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhi-gang; Huang, Shi-hua; Liang, Chun-jun; Lei, Quan-sheng

    2007-02-01

    A new method for measuring time-resolved spectrum (TRS) is brought forward. Programming with assemble language controlled the micro-control-processor (AT89C51), and a kind of peripheral circuit constituted the drive circuit, which drived the stepping motor to run the monochromator. So the light of different kinds of expected wavelength could be obtained. The optical signal was transformed to electrical signal by optical-to-electrical transform with the help of photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu 1P28). The electrical signal of spectrum data was transmitted to the oscillograph. Connecting the two serial interfaces of RS232 between the oscillograph and computer, the electrical signal of spectrum data could be transmitted to computer for programming to draw the attenuation curve and time-resolved spectrum (TRS) of the swatch. The method for measuring time-resolved spectrum (TRS) features parallel measurement in time scale but serial measurement in wavelength scale. Time-resolved spectrum (TRS) and integrated emission spectrum of Tb3+ in swatch Tb(o-BBA)3 phen were measured using this method. Compared with the real time-resolved spectrum (TRS). It was validated to be feasible, credible and convenient. The 3D spectra of fluorescence intensity-wavelength-time, and the integrated spectrum of the swatch Tb(o-BBA)3 phen are given.

  9. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Yaffe, S.; Atlan, H.; Cohen, D.; Konstantini, S.; Meiner, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using 99m Tc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.)

  10. PREFACE: Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Lin, Nian

    2010-07-01

    out the potential landscape of the system (often a molecule or an atom) under study [4, 5]. However, the dynamical processes might also be induced by the tunnelling process itself [6, 7]. In the field of molecular science, excited single molecule experiments have been especially performed [8]. As a nice example, we refer to the work of Sykes' group [9] on thioether molecular rotors. In addition, several groups explore the possibility of combining time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy with optical techniques [10, 11]. Although the majority of studies that have been performed so far focus on rather simple systems under nearly ideal and well-defined conditions, we anticipate that time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy can also be applied in other research areas, such as biology and soft condensed matter, where the experimental conditions are often less ideal. We hope that readers will enjoy this collection of papers and that it will trigger them to further explore the possibilities of this simple, but powerful technique. References [1] Besenbacher F, Laegsgaard E and Stengaard I 2005 Mater. Today 8 26 [2] van Houselt A and Zandvliet H J W 2010 Rev. Mod. Phys. 82 1593 [3] Tringides M C and Hupalo M 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264002 [4] Ronci F, Colonna S, Cricenti A and Le Lay G 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264003 [5] van Houselt A, Poelsema B and Zandvliet H J W 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264004 [6] Sprodowski C, Mehlhorn M and Morgenstern K 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264005 [7] Saedi A, Poelsema B and Zandvliet H J W 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264007 [8] Sloan P A 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264001 [9] Jewell A D, Tierney H L, Baber A E, Iski E V, Laha M M and Sykes E C H 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264006 [10] Riedel D 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264009 [11] Terada Y, Yoshida S, Takeuchi O and Shigekawa H 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264008

  11. Epilepsia temporal: relato de caso = Temporal epilepsy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Taís Amara da Costa de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem o objetivo de divulgar um recurso terapêutico da epilepsia do lobo temporal por esclerose hipocampal: a cirurgia. Aproximadamente vinte e cinco mil pacientes com esta patologia são refratários aos tratamentos medicamentosos no sul do país e muitos chegam ao neurocirurgião com 30-40 anos de evolução, muitas vezes já mutilados em conseqüência das crises. Convulsões parciais originadas no lobo temporal são comuns, e grande parte originam-se em estruturas mesiais (esclerose mesial temporal – EMT. Como aí se encontram a sede de funções nobres do sistema nervoso – memória, aprendizagem, comportamento, entre outras –, os sintomas podem apresentar-se como alterações em qualquer uma delas. Ressaltamos a necessidade do correto diagnóstico e dos métodos para fazê-lo: através da anamnese, da ressonância magnética, do eletroencefalograma (EEG, do vídeo-EEG e por vezes através de sensores intracranianos (strips. Apesar de existirem métodos confiáveis para realizar o diagnóstico e tratamento cirúrgico com grande índice de sucesso, a desinformação dos profissionais que atendem pacientes com EMT acerca do assunto leva ao prolongamento de tratamentos clínico ineficiente e conseqüente seqüelas físicas, psicológicas e sociais

  12. Time-resolved granular dynamics of a rotating drum in a slumping regime as revealed by speckle visibility spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivkovic V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials in rotating drums are of wide interest not only because of their extensive use in the industrial contexts, but also as model systems in the study of natural disasters, such as avalanches or landslides. Most of available experimental methods are restricted to surface layer flows and dilute systems whilst the remainder can only resolve the granular dynamics to a fine scale with relatively poor temporal resolution or vice versa. In contrast, speckle visibility spectroscopy (SVS is able to resolve the average of the three components of motion of grains in dense systems in small volume of granular media several layer deep with spatio-temporal resolutions that allow the probing of the granular micro-dynamics. We have used this technique to study granular dynamics of surface avalanche flow in the slumping regime using both spherical glass and irregular sand particles. Although results are very similar, we determined that visually observed compaction at the beginning of avalanche process for irregular sand particles influence time evolution of the particle fluctuation velocity during avalanches.

  13. Time-resolved photoluminescence study of CdSe/CdMnS/CdS core/multi-shell nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J. R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Department of Physics, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Delikanli, S.; Demir, H. V., E-mail: volkan@bilkent.edu.tr [LUMINOUS Center of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Physical and Materials Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics, UNAM−Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Scrace, T.; Zhang, P.; Norden, T.; Petrou, A., E-mail: petrou@buffalo.edu [Department of Physics, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Thomay, T.; Cartwright, A. N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2016-06-13

    We used photoluminescence spectroscopy to resolve two emission features in CdSe/CdMnS/CdS and CdSe/CdS core/multi-shell nanoplatelet heterostructures. The photoluminescence from the magnetic sample has a positive circular polarization with a maximum centered at the position of the lower energy feature. The higher energy feature has a corresponding signature in the absorption spectrum; this is not the case for the low-energy feature. We have also studied the temporal evolution of these features using a pulsed-excitation/time-resolved photoluminescence technique to investigate their corresponding recombination channels. A model was used to analyze the temporal dynamics of the photoluminescence which yielded two distinct timescales associated with these recombination channels. The above results indicate that the low-energy feature is associated with recombination of electrons with holes localized at the core/shell interfaces; the high-energy feature, on the other hand, is excitonic in nature with the holes confined within the CdSe cores.

  14. Non-contrast-enhanced 3D volumetric time-resolved MRA combining PCASL for intracranial vessels. President award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masanobu; Yoneyama, Masami; Tabuchi, Takashi; Tatsuno, Satoshi; Takemura, Atsushi; Obara, Makoto; Takahara, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Hemodynamic information is required for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and follow-up examination of numerous cerebrovascular diseases. A recently introduced technique for non-contrast 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)-contrast inherent inflow enhanced multi phase angiography (CINEMA)-provides useful qualitative information on the morphologic and dynamic filling of intracranial vessels and requires no catheter insertion or contrast agent. We propose combining CINEMA with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL). We present a preliminary study of non-contrast time-resolved MRA with time-of-arrival map and discuss its clinical relevance. Studies in all volunteers and patients clearly depicted major intracranial vessels. In patients, CINEMA-PCASL demonstrated the nidus, feeding arteries, and right posterior cerebral artery, and subsequent draining into the superficial venous system was clearly observed with a temporal resolution of 200 ms. Time-of-arrival maps presented the different filling time of every segment vessel in a single colorful image. The expected pattern of delayed transit to more distal vessels is apparent as well as the earlier arrival in central portions of larger vessels. This preliminary study demonstrated the usefulness of the CINEMA-PCASL technique in evaluating the cerebral vasculature. Simultaneous acquisition of high quality temporal and spatial resolutions obviated the need for contrast agent. (author)

  15. Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the…

  16. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy in Complex Liquids An Experimental Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Torre, Renato

    2007-01-01

    Time-Resolved Spectroscopy in Complex Liquids introduces current state-of-the-art techniques in the study of complex dynamical problems in liquid phases. With a unique focus on the experimental aspects applied to complex liquids, this volume provides an excellent overview into the quickly emerging field of soft-matter science. Researchers and engineers will find a comprehensive review of current non-linear spectroscopic and optical Kerr effect techniques, in addition to an in-depth look into relaxation dynamics in complex liquids. This volume offers current experimental findings in transient grating spectroscopy and their application to viscoelastic phenomena in glass-formers, dynamics of confined liquid-crystals, and a time-resolved analysis of the host-quest interactions of dye molecules in liquid-crystal matter. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy in Complex Liquids provides a cohesive introduction suitable for individuals involved in this emerging field, complete with the latest experimental procedures of complex ...

  17. THE ALGOL TRIPLE SYSTEM SPATIALLY RESOLVED AT OPTICAL WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavala, R. T.; Hutter, D. J.; Hummel, C. A.; Boboltz, D. A.; Ojha, R.; Shaffer, D. B.; Tycner, C.; Richards, M. T.

    2010-01-01

    Interacting binaries typically have separations in the milliarcsecond regime, and hence it has been challenging to resolve them at any wavelength. However, recent advances in optical interferometry have improved our ability to discern the components in these systems and have now enabled the direct determination of physical parameters. We used the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer to produce for the first time images resolving all three components in the well-known Algol triple system. Specifically, we have separated the tertiary component from the binary and simultaneously resolved the eclipsing binary pair, which represents the nearest and brightest eclipsing binary in the sky. We present revised orbital elements for the triple system, and we have rectified the 180 0 ambiguity in the position angle of Algol C. Our directly determined magnitude differences and masses for this triple star system are consistent with earlier light curve modeling results.

  18. RESOLVE's Field Demonstration on Mauna Kea, Hawaii 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Quinn, Jacqueline; Moss, Thomas; Weis, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, and the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The resulting water could be electrolyzed into oxygen to support exploration and hydrogen, which would be recycled through the process. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted on a Canadian Space Agency mobility chasis and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in February 2010. The RESOLVE unit is the initial prototype of a robotic prospecting mission to the Moon. RESOLVE is designed to go to the poles of the Moon to "ground truth" the form and concentration of the hydrogen/water/hydroxyl that has been seen from orbit (M3, Lunar Prospector and LRO) and to test technologies to extract oxygen from the lunar regolith. RESOLVE has the ability to capture a one-meter core sample of lunar regolith and heat it to determine the volatiles that may be released and then demonstrate the production of oxygen from minerals found in the regolith. The RESOLVE project, which is led by KSC, is a multi-center and multi-organizational effort that includes representatives from KSC, JSC, GRC, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Northern Center for Advanced Technology (NORCAT). This paper details the results obtained from four days of lunar analog testing that included gas chromatograph analysis for volatile components, remote control of chemistry and drilling operations via satalite communications, and real-time water quantification using a novel capacitance measurement technique.

  19. The Resolved Stellar Populations Early Release Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Daniel; Anderson, J.; Boyer, M.; Cole, A.; Dolphin, A.; Geha, M.; Kalirai, J.; Kallivayalil, N.; McQuinn, K.; Sandstrom, K.; Williams, B.

    2017-11-01

    We propose to obtain deep multi-band NIRCam and NIRISS imaging of three resolved stellar systems within 1 Mpc (NOI 104). We will use this broad science program to optimize observational setups and to develop data reduction techniques that will be common to JWST studies of resolved stellar populations. We will combine our expertise in HST resolved star studies with these observations to design, test, and release point spread function (PSF) fitting software specific to JWST. PSF photometry is at the heart of resolved stellar populations studies, but is not part of the standard JWST reduction pipeline. Our program will establish JWST-optimized methodologies in six scientific areas: star formation histories, measurement of the sub-Solar mass stellar IMF, extinction maps, evolved stars, proper motions, and globular clusters, all of which will be common pursuits for JWST in the local Universe. Our observations of globular cluster M92, ultra-faint dwarf Draco II, and star-forming dwarf WLM, will be of high archival value for other science such as calibrating stellar evolution models, measuring properties of variable stars, and searching for metal-poor stars. We will release the results of our program, including PSF fitting software, matched HST and JWST catalogs, clear documentation, and step-by-step tutorials (e.g., Jupyter notebooks) for data reduction and science application, to the community prior to the Cycle 2 Call for Proposals. We will host a workshop to help community members plan their Cycle 2 observations of resolved stars. Our program will provide blueprints for the community to efficiently reduce and analyze JWST observations of resolved stellar populations.

  20. Evaluation of Temporal Diagnostic Techniques for Two-Bunch Facet Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litos, M.D.; Bionta, M.R.; Dolgashev, V.A.; England, R.J.; Fritz, D.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, Ph.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Three temporal diagnostic techniques are considered for use in the FACET facility at SLAC, which will incorporate a unique two-bunch beam for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The results of these experiments will depend strongly on the the inter-bunch spacing as well as the longitudinal profiles of the two bunches. A reliable, singleshot, high resolution measurement of the beam's temporal profile is necessary to fully quantify the physical mechanisms underlying the beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. In this study we show that a transverse deflecting cavity is the diagnostic which best meets our criteria. Based on our laboratory testing, numerical calculations, and simulations of the three single-shot temporal diagnostic devices, the X-band TCAV system is the best candidate for resolving FACET's two-bunch beam, with an estimated resolution of 7 {micro}m. Both the S-band TCAV system and the EO system could resolve the peak-to-peak separation of the two bunches in the FACET beam with estimated resolutions of 25 {micro}m and 30 {micro}m, respectively, but would be unable to resolve the temporal profiles of the individual bunches themselves. Because the TCAV signal is more easily interpreted and because the reliability of the EO system is less well known, however, the S-band TCAV system would be the next preferred option after the X-band TCAV system. The Fesca-200 streak camera, though simple, compact, and reliable, is unable to achieve a resolution that would be of use to FACET.

  1. Characterization of type I, II, III, IV, and V collagens by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Laura; Cohen, David; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2000-04-01

    The relative proportions of genetically distinct collagen types in connective tissues vary with tissue type and change during disease progression, development, wound healing, aging. This study aims to 1) characterize the spectro- temporal fluorescence emission of fiber different types of collagen and 2) assess the ability of time-resolved laser- induced fluorescence spectroscopy to distinguish between collagen types. Fluorescence emission of commercially available purified samples was induced with nitrogen laser excitation pulses and detected with a MCP-PMT connected to a digital storage oscilloscope. The recorded time-resolved emission spectra displayed distinct fluorescence emission characteristics for each collagen type. The time domain information complemented the spectral domain intensity data for improved discrimination between different collagen types. Our results reveal that analysis of the fluorescence emission can be used to characterize different species of collagen. Also, the results suggest that time-resolved spectroscopy can be used for monitoring of connective tissue matrix composition changes due to various pathological and non-pathological conditions.

  2. Resonance fluorescence in the resolvent-operator formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debierre, V.; Harman, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The Mollow spectrum for the light scattered by a driven two-level atom is derived in the resolvent operator formalism. The derivation is based on the construction of a master equation from the resolvent operator of the atom-field system. We show that the natural linewidth of the excited atomic level remains essentially unmodified, to a very good level of approximation, even in the strong-field regime, where Rabi flopping becomes relevant inside the self-energy loop that yields the linewidth. This ensures that the obtained master equation and the spectrum derived matches that of Mollow.

  3. Spectrally resolved digital holography using a white light LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, D.; Pedrini, G.; Buchta, D.; Osten, W.

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces the concept of spectrally resolved digital holography. The measurement principle and the analysis of the data will be discussed in detail. The usefulness of spectrally resolved digital holography is demonstrated for colour imaging and optical metrology with regards to the recovery of modulus information and phase information, respectively. The phase information will be used to measure the shape of an object via the application of the dual wavelength method. Based on the large degree of data available, multiple speckle de-correlated dual wavelength phase maps can be obtained, which when averaged result in a signal to noise ratio improvement.

  4. Utilizar las matemáticas para resolver problemas reales

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Martín, Santiago; Dooren, Wim van; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo de revisión se analizan las razones por las que los alumnos no son capaces de resolver problemas realistas utilizando conocimientos no matemáticos. Para ello se describen, en primer lugar, las investigaciones internacionales que han documentado estas dificultades en la resolución de problemas realistas. En segundo lugar, se describe cómo los libros de texto y la cultura del aula favorecen que los niños vayan aprendiendo de manera progresiva a resolver los problemas de matemáti...

  5. Resolving power of a discrete electrode detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, K.; Langstaff, D. P.

    1994-09-01

    The resolving power of a new high resolution one-dimensional ion detector array has been studied as a function of the microchannel plate electron multiplier (MCP) voltage and the detector pulse height discrimination level. Experimental data have been analysed to give a simple representation of both the resolving power and the region of stable operation of the array. The conditions necessary for high resolution and stable operation are explained and the implications of the results for future design of high resolution arrays are outlined.

  6. Atom-resolved AFM imaging of calcite nanoparticles in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Hirotake; Kimura, Kenjiro; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An advanced frequency-modulation AFM (FM-AFM) was applied for imaging particles. ► Atom-resolved topography of nano-sized particles of calcite was observed in water. ► Locally ordered structures were found and assigned to a (104) facet of calcite. ► A promising ability of FM-AFM was demonstrated in imaging nano-sized particles. - Abstract: The atom-resolved topography of calcite nanoparticles was observed in water using a frequency-modulation atomic force microscope. Locally ordered structures were found and assigned to a (104) facet of crystalline calcite

  7. The role of mediation in resolving workplace relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donna Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stress triggered by workplace-based interpersonal conflict can result in damaged relationships, loss of productivity, diminished job satisfaction and increasingly, workers' compensation claims for psychological injury. This paper examined the literature on the role and effectiveness of mediation, as the most common method of Alternative Dispute Resolution, in resolving workplace relationship conflict. Available evidence suggests that mediation is most effective when supported by organisational commitment to ADR strategies, policies and processes, and conducted by independent, experienced and qualified mediators. The United States Postal Service program REDRESS™ is described as an illustration of the successful use of mediation to resolve conflict in the workplace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Picosecond time resolved cathodoluminescence to study semiconductor materials and heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Sonderegger, Samuel

    2007-01-01

    A large number of characterization tools for semiconductor based heterostructures are available nowadays. Most of these techniques deliver high temporal resolution (down to hundreds of femtoseconds) or good spatial resolution (down to sub nanometer resolution), but not both simultaneously. However, to get a complete picture of carrier recombination and diffusion processes in heterostructures, one needs a spectroscopic tool which simultaneously yields high temporal and spatial resolutions. The...

  9. Picosecond time resolved cathodoluminescence to study semiconductor materials and heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Sonderegger, Samuel; Ganière, Jean-Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A large number of characterization tools for semiconductor based heterostructures are available nowadays. Most of these techniques deliver high temporal resolution (down to hundreds of femtoseconds) or good spatial resolution (down to sub nanometer resolution), but not both simultaneously. However, to get a complete picture of carrier recombination and diffusion processes in heterostructures, one needs a spectroscopic tool which simultaneously yields high temporal and spatial resolutions. The...

  10. Annotating temporal information in clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiyi; Rumshisky, Anna; Uzuner, Ozlem

    2013-12-01

    Temporal information in clinical narratives plays an important role in patients' diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. In order to represent narrative information accurately, medical natural language processing (MLP) systems need to correctly identify and interpret temporal information. To promote research in this area, the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) project developed a temporally annotated corpus of clinical narratives. This corpus contains 310 de-identified discharge summaries, with annotations of clinical events, temporal expressions and temporal relations. This paper describes the process followed for the development of this corpus and discusses annotation guideline development, annotation methodology, and corpus quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficient and Secure Temporal Credential-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Using Extended Chaotic Maps for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu

    2015-06-25

    A secure temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enables a user, a sensor node and a gateway node to realize mutual authentication using temporal credentials. The user and the sensor node then negotiate a common secret key with the help of the gateway node, and establish a secure and authenticated channel using this common secret key. To increase efficiency, recent temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement schemes for WSNs have been designed to involve few computational operations, such as hash and exclusive-or operations. However, these schemes cannot protect the privacy of users and withstand possible attacks. This work develops a novel temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for WSNs using extended chaotic maps, in which operations are more efficient than modular exponential computations and scalar multiplications on an elliptic curve. The proposed scheme not only provides higher security and efficiency than related schemes, but also resolves their weaknesses.

  12. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying cyanoHABs in multiple water bodies and across geo-political boundaries. An assessment method was developed using MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) imagery to quantify cyanoHAB surface area extent, transferable to different spatial areas, in Florida, Ohio, and California for the test period of 2008 to 2012. Temporal assessment was used to evaluate changes in satellite resolvable inland waterbodies for each state of interest. To further assess cyanoHAB risk within the states, the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recreational guidance level thresholds were used to categorize surface area of cyanoHABs into three risk categories: low, moderate, and high-risk bloom area. Results showed that in Florida, the area of cyanoHABs increased largely due to observed increases in high-risk bloom area. California exhibited a slight decrease in cyanoHAB extent, primarily attributed to decreases in Northern California. In Ohio (excluding Lake Erie), little change in cyanoHAB surface area was observed. This study uses satellite remote sensing to quantify changes in inland cyanoHAB surface area across numerous water bodies within an entire state. The temporal assessment method developed here

  13. Temporal and spatial variability of the Denmark Strait Overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Martin; Nunes, Nuno; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) represents about half of the export of dense waters formed in the Nordic Seas to the deep circulation in the North Atlantic. The passage connecting the two is wider than the Rossby radius of deformation, and highly variable meso-scale current fluctuations are observed in the overflow. In the summer of 2014, the mooring array used for monitoring the Denmark Strait Overflow was expanded from two to five moorings in order to better resolve its spatial variability. Continuous measurements of the velocity field were made using four acoustic profilers (ADCP) and one point current meter (RCM). The instruments were deployed along the sill between the deepest point and 33 km westward of it, towards the Greenland shelf. A descriptive analysis of the structure of the velocity field at the Denmark Strait sill is presented, along with its spatial and temporal variability. The fluctuations are dominated by passing meso-scale vortices, pulsating changes in the strength of the overflow and shifts in the location of the Polar Front. These changes and their respective contribution to the variability of the flow field are discussed with relation to the different source water masses for the DSO. The relationship between spatial coherence and temporal variability on daily to monthly time scales is explored, and the influence of meso-scale eddies on daily to weekly transport estimates is quantified. The results of the analysis are used to develop a measurement strategy for unbiased DSO transport estimates.

  14. Chondroblastoma of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuko; Murakami, Ryusuke; Toba, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Taro [Dept. of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa, Ryuzaburo; Sanno, Naoko; Shimura, Toshiro [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Namie; Hosone, Masaru [Dept. of Pathology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Dept. of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    A rare case of chondroblastoma arising from the temporal bone that occurred in a 60-year-old woman is reported. The tumor appeared well demarcated and osteolytic on the radiographs. CT scan clearly depicted marginal and central calcification in the tumor. MR imaging demonstrated two components in the tumor: a solid component with predominantly low signal intensities on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences, and a multilocular cystic component with T1- and T2-elongation and fluid-fluid levels on the T2-weighted images. Postcontrast MR imaging revealed marked enhancement in the solid component and the septa of the cystic component. (orig.)

  15. Measuring temporal trends in biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Buckland, S. T.; Yuan, Y.; Marcon, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Yuan was part-funded by EPSRC/NERC Grant EP/1000917/1 and Marcon by ANR-10-LABX-25-01. In 2002, nearly 200 nations signed up to the 2010 target of the Convention for Biological Diversity, ‘to significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010’. In order to assess whether the target was met, it became necessary to quantify temporal trends in measures of diversity. This resulted in a marked shift in focus for biodiversity measurement. We explore the developments in measuring biodiver...

  16. SILAC-Based Temporal Phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francavilla, Chiara; Hekmat, Omid; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, thanks to advances in Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics, studies on signaling pathways have moved from a detailed description of individual components to system-wide analysis of entire signaling cascades, also providing spatio-temporal views of intracellular...... pathways. Quantitative proteomics that combines stable isotope labeling by amino acid in cell culture (SILAC) with enrichment strategies for post-translational modification-bearing peptides and high-performance tandem mass spectrometry represents a powerful and unbiased approach to monitor dynamic...

  17. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-12-07

    show a good agreement. Up to now the measurements of impinging spectra with a Timepix detector have been performed in radiation fields with a relatively high fluence. To cope with the requirement of measuring in radiation fields with a low fluence, there had to be changes in the method of analysis compared to those performed formerly. An important improvement in this context was the employment of the Bayesian deconvolution method. The spectra reconstructed with this method were then compared to the results of two different and established detection systems. Firstly, the shape of the deconvolved spectrum was compared to the one measured with a hpGe detector. Secondly, the calculated value of the kerma rate was compared to the one measured with an ionization chamber. This gave an estimate on the correctness of the absolute number of photons. Both comparisons have shown a good agreement and thus I was able to validate that the method delivers precise results. Compared to the formerly used spectrum-stripping method the Bayesian deconvolution turned out to be very stable and reliable. This robustness of the deconvolution method and the development of a pixel-by-pixel energy calibration were the keys towards position-resolved spectrometry. With such a precise energy calibration the energy resolution was enhanced by up to 45%. This improved accuracy in the measurement has been very demanding on the improvements of the simulation of the response matrix needed for deconvolution. Both this enhanced simulation and a pixel-by-pixel calibrated detector opened the possibility of measuring the anode heel effect. Not only the relative angular dependency of the spectrum emitted but also the change in the absolute photon fluence were measured. Furthermore, it is possible to even use small ROIs down to 4x4 pixels to evaluate a spectrum. This was then applied for the spectrometry of small focal spots of a miniature X-ray source used in therapeutics. Furthermore, the robustness and the

  18. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    show a good agreement. Up to now the measurements of impinging spectra with a Timepix detector have been performed in radiation fields with a relatively high fluence. To cope with the requirement of measuring in radiation fields with a low fluence, there had to be changes in the method of analysis compared to those performed formerly. An important improvement in this context was the employment of the Bayesian deconvolution method. The spectra reconstructed with this method were then compared to the results of two different and established detection systems. Firstly, the shape of the deconvolved spectrum was compared to the one measured with a hpGe detector. Secondly, the calculated value of the kerma rate was compared to the one measured with an ionization chamber. This gave an estimate on the correctness of the absolute number of photons. Both comparisons have shown a good agreement and thus I was able to validate that the method delivers precise results. Compared to the formerly used spectrum-stripping method the Bayesian deconvolution turned out to be very stable and reliable. This robustness of the deconvolution method and the development of a pixel-by-pixel energy calibration were the keys towards position-resolved spectrometry. With such a precise energy calibration the energy resolution was enhanced by up to 45%. This improved accuracy in the measurement has been very demanding on the improvements of the simulation of the response matrix needed for deconvolution. Both this enhanced simulation and a pixel-by-pixel calibrated detector opened the possibility of measuring the anode heel effect. Not only the relative angular dependency of the spectrum emitted but also the change in the absolute photon fluence were measured. Furthermore, it is possible to even use small ROIs down to 4x4 pixels to evaluate a spectrum. This was then applied for the spectrometry of small focal spots of a miniature X-ray source used in therapeutics. Furthermore, the robustness and the

  19. Time-Resolved 2PPE and Time-Resolved PEEM as a Probe of LSP's in Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bayer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The time-resolved two-photon photoemission technique (TR-2PPE has been applied to study static and dynamic properties of localized surface plasmons (LSP in silver nanoparticles. Laterally, integrated measurements show the difference between LSP excitation and nonresonant single electron-hole pair creation. Studies below the optical diffraction limit were performed with the detection method of time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy (TR-PEEM. This microscopy technique with a resolution down to 40 nm enables a systematic study of retardation effects across single nanoparticles. In addition, as will be shown in this paper, it is a highly sensitive sensor for coupling effects between nanoparticles.

  20. Techniques used to increase the resolving power of magnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a method which can be used to obtain highly detailed and clear images of organs inside the body. The objective of this article is evaluation of techniques used to increase the resolving power of magnetic resonance images. The use of gradient techniques with high functionality will increase ...

  1. Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ... Mixed solvent systems; electrolyte solutions; dynamic fluorescence measurements; theory. 1. ..... Open and filled triangles represent τs for the other binary mixture in the absence and presence of 1.0 M LiClO4, respectively. exponentially with the mole ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Spatially Resolved NMR Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This handbook and ready reference covers materials science applications as well as microfluidic, biomedical and dental applications and the monitoring of physicochemical processes. It includes the latest in hardware, methodology and applications of spatially resolved magnetic resonance, such as portable imaging and single-sided spectroscopy. For materials scientists, spectroscopists, chemists, physicists, and medicinal chemists.

  3. On the interpretation of time-resolved anisotropic diffraction patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we review existing systematic treatments for the interpretation of anisotropic diffraction patterns from partially aligned symmetric top molecules. Such patterns arise in the context of time-resolved diffraction experiments. We calculate diffraction patterns for ground-state Na...

  4. Resolvent-based feedback control for turbulent friction drag reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Aika; Nakashima, Satoshi; Luhar, Mitul; Fukagata, Koji

    2017-11-01

    Suboptimal control for turbulent friction drag reduction has been studied extensively. Nakashima et al. (accepted) extended resolvent analysis to suboptimal control, and for the control where the streamwise wall shear stress is used as an input (Case ST), they revealed the control effect across spectral space is mixed: there are regions of drag increase as well as reduction. This suggests that control performance may be improved if the control is applied for selective wavelengths, or if a new law is designed to suppress the spectral region leading to drag increase. In the present study, we first assess the effect of suboptimal control for selective wavelengths via DNS. The friction Reynolds number is set at 180. For Case ST, resolvent analysis predicts drag reduction at long streamwise wavelengths. DNS with control applied only for this spectral region, however, did not result in drag reduction. Then, we seek an effective control law using resolvent analysis and propose a new law. DNS results for this law are consistent with predictions from resolvent analysis, and about 10% drag reduction is attained. Further, we discuss how this law reduces the drag from a dynamical and theoretical point of view. This work was supported through Grant-in-Aid for Scientic Research (C) (No. 25420129) by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  5. Time resolved spectroscopy of GRB 030501 using INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, V.; Borkowski, J.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The gamma-ray instruments on-board INTEGRAL offer an unique opportunity to perform time resolved analysis on GRBs. The imager IBIS allows accurate positioning of GRBs and broad band spectral analysis, while SPI provides high resolution spectroscopy. GRB 030501 was discovered by the INTEGRAL Burst...... the Ulysses and RHESSI experiments....

  6. Time-resolved luminescence from feldspars: New insight into fading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsukamoto, S.; Denby, P.M.; Murray, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared optically stimulated luminescence (IR-OSL) signals of K- and Na-feldspar samples extracted from sediments were measured in UV, blue and red detection windows, using a fast photon counter and pulsed IR stimulation (lambda = 875 nm). We observe that the relative contribution ...

  7. Dissociable neural systems resolve conflict from emotional versus nonemotional distracters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Tobias; Etkin, Amit; Gale, Seth; Hirsch, Joy

    2008-06-01

    The human brain protects the processing of task-relevant stimuli from interference ("conflict") by task-irrelevant stimuli via attentional biasing mechanisms. The lateral prefrontal cortex has been implicated in resolving conflict between competing stimuli by selectively enhancing task-relevant stimulus representations in sensory cortices. Conversely, recent data suggest that conflict from emotional distracters may be resolved by an alternative route, wherein the rostral anterior cingulate cortex inhibits amygdalar responsiveness to task-irrelevant emotional stimuli. Here we tested the proposal of 2 dissociable, distracter-specific conflict resolution mechanisms, by acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data during resolution of conflict from either nonemotional or emotional distracters. The results revealed 2 distinct circuits: a lateral prefrontal "cognitive control" system that resolved nonemotional conflict and was associated with enhanced processing of task-relevant stimuli in sensory cortices, and a rostral anterior cingulate "emotional control" system that resolved emotional conflict and was associated with decreased amygdalar responses to emotional distracters. By contrast, activations related to both emotional and nonemotional conflict monitoring were observed in a common region of the dorsal anterior cingulate. These data suggest that the neuroanatomical networks recruited to overcome conflict vary systematically with the nature of the conflict, but that they may share a common conflict-detection mechanism.

  8. Detectors for Energy-Resolved Fast Neutron Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Dangendorf, V.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M. B.; Jagutzki, O.; Kersten, C.; Laczko, G.; Mor, I.; Spillman, U.; Vartsky, D.

    2004-01-01

    Two detectors for energy-resolved fast-neutron imaging in pulsed broad-energy neutron beams are presented. The first one is a neutron-counting detector based on a solid neutron converter coupled to a gaseous electron multiplier (GEM). The second is an integrating imaging technique, based on a scintillator for neutron conversion and an optical imaging system with fast framing capability.

  9. TRIZ based Interface conflict resolving strategies for modular product architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.; Rizzi, C.

    2010-01-01

    In product development, the chosen product architecture often possesses characteristics of both modular and integral design. Within a modular architecture, a Function-Behavior-Structure (FBS) model has been applied to describe modules and their interfaces. To resolve emerging interface conflicts,

  10. Time-resolved fluorescence analysis of the mobile flavin cofactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conformational heterogeneity of the FAD cofactor in -hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH) was investigated with time-resolved polarized flavin fluorescence. For binary enzyme/substrate (analogue) complexes of wild-type PHBH and Tyr222 mutants, crystallographic studies have revealed two distinct flavin conformations ...

  11. Resolving ambiguities in reconstructed grain maps using discrete tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, A.; Knudsen, E.; Poulsen, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    reconstruct the image from diffraction data, but they are often unable to assign unambiguous values to all pixels. We present an approach that resolves these ambiguous pixels by using a Monte Carlo technique that exploits the discrete nature of the problem and utilizes proven methods of discrete tomography...

  12. Resolving distance ambiguities towards 6.7 GHz methanol masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, J. D.; Momjian, E.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    2008-07-01

    Context: Distances to most star forming regions are determined using kinematics, through the assumption that the observed radial velocity arises from the motion of the source with respect to the Sun resulting from the differential rotation of Galaxy. The primary challenge associated with the application of this technique in the inner Galaxy is the kinematic distance ambiguity. Aims: In this work, we aim to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity towards a sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers, which are signposts of the early stages of massive star formation. Methods: We measured 21 cm H I absorption spectra using the Very Large Array in C and CnB configurations. A comparison of the maximum velocity of H I absorption with the source velocity and tangent point velocity was used to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity. Results: We resolved the distance ambiguity towards 41 sources. Distance determinations that are in conflict with previous measurements are discussed. The NE2001 spiral arm model is broadly consistent with the locations of the star forming complexes. We find that the use of vertical scale height arguments to resolve the distance ambiguity can lead to erroneous classifications for a significant fraction of sources.

  13. Time Resolved Broadband Terahertz Relaxation Dynamics of Electron in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Cooke, David G.

    We investigated the transient response of the solvated electron in water ejected by photodetachment from potassium ferrocyanide using time resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TSTS). Ultrabroadband THz transients are generated and detected by a two-color femtosecond-induced air plasma and air biased...

  14. 48 CFR 29.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable contract terms and to the pertinent tax laws and regulations. Therefore, when tax questions arise, contracting officers should request assistance from the agency-designated legal counsel. (b) To keep treatment... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 29.101 Resolving tax problems. (a) Contract tax problems are...

  15. application of chemometric methods to resolve intermediates formed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    APPLICATION OF CHEMOMETRIC METHODS TO RESOLVE INTERMEDIATES. FORMED DURING ... Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry has been proved to be a powerful technique to ..... HPLC/UV-VIS diode array and atmospheric pressure ionization quadrupole ion trap massspectrometry. Int. J. Mass ...

  16. Music Education Preservice Teachers' Confidence in Resolving Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Debra G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there would be a change in preservice teachers' (a) confidence concerning the resolution of behavior problems, (b) tactics for resolving them, (c) anticipation of problems, (d) fears about management issues, and (e) confidence in methodology and pedagogy over the time period of a one-semester…

  17. Time-Resolved Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Besselink, R.; Stawski, Tomasz; Castricum, H.L.; Levy, D.; Zayat, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on time-resolved studies of nanostructure development in sol-gel liquids, that is, diluted sols, wet gels, and drying thin fffilms. The most commonly investigated classes of sol-gel materials are silica, organically modified silica, template-directed mesostructured silica,

  18. CASE STUDY: Lebanon — Researchers find new ways to resolve ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Communication is the key to conflict resolution A research team in Lebanon's remote Arsaal region used an updated version of the traditional tribal council, combined with modern technologies such as videos and GIS surveys, to resolve long-standing conflicts among land users. The results have had an ...

  19. Disruptive colonial boundaries and attempts to resolve land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But on closer examination it became clear that land/boundary disputes in the region have their roots in European colonialism, and derive largely from administrative policies that were disruptive on inter-village boundaries. Despite the efforts of British colonial authorities at resolving these disputes before the close of the ...

  20. Cross section parameterization in the resolved resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental techniques, methods, and equipment have evolved to provide more accurate neutron cross section data with better energy resolution. Keeping pace with those developments has been a challenge for data analysts; commensurate improvements in analysis tools are required. In this paper, analysis techniques for neutron time-of-flight data in the resolved resonance region are discussed, with emphasis on contemporary needs

  1. Multi-frame pyramid correlation for time-resolved PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sciacchitano, A.; Scarano, F.; Wieneke, B.

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique is introduced to increase the precision and robustness of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements. The innovative element of the technique is the linear combination of the correlation signal computed at different separation time intervals. The domain of the

  2. Optimizing a time-resolved X-ray absorption experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bressler, C; Chergui, M; Abela, R; Pattison, P

    2001-01-01

    Calculations are presented of the optimum conditions for performing a laser-pump X-ray probe time-resolved X-ray absorption experiment. The results concerning sensitivity and feasibility for implementing the method are illustrated for the case of the nascent I radical environment following I sup - photolysis in H sub 2 O.

  3. Spatial, temporal and geographic considerations of the problem of rock varnish diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Ronald I.; Krinsley, David

    2011-07-01

    The rock varnish literature hosts an abundance of prima facie contradictory empirical data. Past and perhaps future empirical contradictions, however, can be resolved by theoretical considerations of different spatial and temporal scales of varnish diagenesis, as well as the geomorphic position of different types of varnishes. For example, twentieth-century contamination by lead and other heavy metals has led to claims of accumulation rates in the last century far more rapid than prior published empirical studies. A consideration of spatial scales resolves this contradiction; nanoscale processes allow migration of lead into varnish deposited well before the twentieth century time of heavy metal pollution. Evidence of nanometer-scale disequilibrium in three samples led to claims that varnish cannot be used in paleoclimatic research; these data rest in contrast to replicable patterns in varnish deposition observed by Dr. Tanzhuo Liu and others in over ten thousand micro-sedimentary basins. This contraction can be resolved by understanding that the types of varnishes studied differ and that processes differ substantially between the nanoscale and the micron scale. A lack of evidence of Mn-oxidizers in genetic analyses contrasts with culturing studies and in situ evidence of Mn-enhancement by bacteria. This contradiction has a likely resolution in vastly different temporal scales; DNA material analyzed may be no older than 200 years, but in situ fossilized remains of bacteria may be preserved for thousands of years recording palaeoecological conditions favoring growth of Mn-enhancing bacteria.

  4. Population responses in primary auditory cortex simultaneously represent the temporal envelope and periodicity features in natural speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis; Zecker, Steven; Kraus, Nina

    2017-05-01

    Speech perception relies on a listener's ability to simultaneously resolve multiple temporal features in the speech signal. Little is known regarding neural mechanisms that enable the simultaneous coding of concurrent temporal features in speech. Here we show that two categories of temporal features in speech, the low-frequency speech envelope and periodicity cues, are processed by distinct neural mechanisms within the same population of cortical neurons. We measured population activity in primary auditory cortex of anesthetized guinea pig in response to three variants of a naturally produced sentence. Results show that the envelope of population responses closely tracks the speech envelope, and this cortical activity more closely reflects wider bandwidths of the speech envelope compared to narrow bands. Additionally, neuronal populations represent the fundamental frequency of speech robustly with phase-locked responses. Importantly, these two temporal features of speech are simultaneously observed within neuronal ensembles in auditory cortex in response to clear, conversation, and compressed speech exemplars. Results show that auditory cortical neurons are adept at simultaneously resolving multiple temporal features in extended speech sentences using discrete coding mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Downscaling of coarse resolution LAI products to achieve both high spatial and temporal resolution for regions of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-11-12

    This paper presents a flexible tool for spatio-temporal enhancement of coarse resolution leaf area index (LAI) products, which is readily adaptable to different land cover types, landscape heterogeneities and cloud cover conditions. The framework integrates a rule-based regression tree approach for estimating Landsat-scale LAI from existing 1 km resolution LAI products, and the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) to intelligently interpolate the downscaled LAI between Landsat acquisitions. Comparisons against in-situ records of LAI measured over corn and soybean highlights its utility for resolving sub-field LAI dynamics occurring over a range of plant development stages.

  6. Demonstration of Resolving Urban Problems by Applying Smart Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, movements to seek various alternatives are becoming more active around the world to resolve urban problems related to energy, water, a greenhouse gas, and disaster by utilizing smart technology system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate service verification aimed at demonstration region applied with actual smart technology in order to raise the efficiency of the service and explore solutions for urban problems. This process must be required for resolving urban problems in the future and establishing `integration platform' for sustainable development. The demonstration region selected in this study to evaluate service verification is `Busan' in Korea. Busan adopted 16 services in 4 sections last year and begun demonstration to improve quality of life and resolve urban environment problems. In addition, Busan participated officially in `Global City Teams Challenge (GCTC)' held by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in USA last year and can be regarded as representative demonstration region in Korea. The result of survey showed that there were practical difficulties as explained below in the demonstration for resolving urban problems by applying smart technology. First, the participation for demonstration was low because citizens were either not aware or did not realize the demonstration. Second, after demonstrating various services at low cost, it resulted in less effect of service demonstration. Third, as functions get fused, it was found that management department, application criteria of technology and its process were ambiguous. In order to increase the efficiency of the demonstration for the rest of period through the result of this study, it is required to draw demand that citizens requires in order to raise public participation. In addition, it needs to focus more on services which are wanted to demonstrate rather than various service demonstrations. Lastly, it is necessary to build integration platform through cooperation

  7. Numerical simulations of time-resolved quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaury, Benoit; Weston, Joseph; Santin, Matthieu; Houzet, Manuel; Groth, Christoph; Waintal, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulation has become a major tool in quantum electronics both for fundamental and applied purposes. While for a long time those simulations focused on stationary properties (e.g. DC currents), the recent experimental trend toward GHz frequencies and beyond has triggered a new interest for handling time-dependent perturbations. As the experimental frequencies get higher, it becomes possible to conceive experiments which are both time-resolved and fast enough to probe the internal quantum dynamics of the system. This paper discusses the technical aspects–mathematical and numerical–associated with the numerical simulations of such a setup in the time domain (i.e. beyond the single-frequency AC limit). After a short review of the state of the art, we develop a theoretical framework for the calculation of time-resolved observables in a general multiterminal system subject to an arbitrary time-dependent perturbation (oscillating electrostatic gates, voltage pulses, time-varying magnetic fields, etc.) The approach is mathematically equivalent to (i) the time-dependent scattering formalism, (ii) the time-resolved non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism and (iii) the partition-free approach. The central object of our theory is a wave function that obeys a simple Schrödinger equation with an additional source term that accounts for the electrons injected from the electrodes. The time-resolved observables (current, density, etc.) and the (inelastic) scattering matrix are simply expressed in terms of this wave function. We use our approach to develop a numerical technique for simulating time-resolved quantum transport. We find that the use of this wave function is advantageous for numerical simulations resulting in a speed up of many orders of magnitude with respect to the direct integration of NEGF equations. Our technique allows one to simulate realistic situations beyond simple models, a subject that was until now beyond the simulation

  8. Photoelectron spectroscopy at a free-electron laser. Investigation of space-charge effects in angle-resolved and core-level spectroscopy and realizaton of a time-resolved core-level photoemission experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczynski-Buehlow, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) is a very interesting light source with which to perform photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments. Its special characteristics include highly intense photon pulses (up to 100 J/pulse), a photon energy range of 30 eV to 1500 eV, transverse coherence as well as pulse durations of some ten femtoseconds. Especially in terms of time-resolved PES (TRPES), the deeper lying core levels can be reached with photon energies up to 1500 eV with acceptable intensity now and, therefore, element-specific, time-resolved core-level PES (XPS) is feasible at FLASH. During the work of this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle-resolved (ARPES), core-level (XPS) as well as time-resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time-resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space-charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N-body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations. It turned out that the most influencing parameter is the ''linear electron density'' - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons to the diameter of the illuminated spot on the sample. Furthermore, the simulations could reproduce the observations described in the literature fairly well. Some rules of thumb for XPS and ARPES measurements could be deduced from the simulations. Experimentally, SCEs are investigated by means of ARPES as well as XPS measurements as a function of FEL pulse

  9. Photoelectron spectroscopy at a free-electron laser. Investigation of space-charge effects in angle-resolved and core-level spectroscopy and realizaton of a time-resolved core-level photoemission experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczynski-Buehlow, Martin

    2012-01-30

    The free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) is a very interesting light source with which to perform photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments. Its special characteristics include highly intense photon pulses (up to 100 J/pulse), a photon energy range of 30 eV to 1500 eV, transverse coherence as well as pulse durations of some ten femtoseconds. Especially in terms of time-resolved PES (TRPES), the deeper lying core levels can be reached with photon energies up to 1500 eV with acceptable intensity now and, therefore, element-specific, time-resolved core-level PES (XPS) is feasible at FLASH. During the work of this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle-resolved (ARPES), core-level (XPS) as well as time-resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time-resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space-charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N-body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations. It turned out that the most influencing parameter is the ''linear electron density'' - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons to the diameter of the illuminated spot on the sample. Furthermore, the simulations could reproduce the observations described in the literature fairly well. Some rules of thumb for XPS and ARPES measurements could be deduced from the simulations. Experimentally, SCEs are investigated by means of ARPES as well as XPS measurements as a function of

  10. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankelevich, Diego R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, 3101 Kemper Hall, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Marcu, Laura, E-mail: lmarcu@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Elson, Daniel S. [Hamlyn Centre for Robotic Surgery, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 μm diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence

  11. Spatially-resolved aircraft-based quantification of methane emissions from the Fayetteville Shale Gas Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwietzke, S.; Petron, G.; Conley, S. A.; Karion, A.; Tans, P. P.; Wolter, S.; King, C. W.; White, A. B.; Coleman, T.; Bianco, L.; Schnell, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    Confidence in basin scale oil and gas industry related methane (CH4) emission estimates hinges on an in-depth understanding, objective evaluation, and continued improvements of both top-down (e.g. aircraft measurement based) and bottom-up (e.g. emission inventories using facility- and/or component-level measurements) approaches. Systematic discrepancies of CH4 emission estimates between both approaches in the literature have highlighted research gaps. This paper is part of a more comprehensive study to expand and improve this reconciliation effort for a US dry shale gas play. This presentation will focus on refinements of the aircraft mass balance method to reduce the number of potential methodological biases (e.g. data and methodology). The refinements include (i) an in-depth exploration of the definition of upwind conditions and their impact on calculated downwind CH4 enhancements and total CH4 emissions, (ii) taking into account small but non-zero vertical and horizontal wind gradients in the boundary layer, and (iii) characterizing the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the study area using aircraft measurements. For the first time to our knowledge, we apply the aircraft mass balance method to calculate spatially resolved total CH4 emissions for 10 km x 60 km sub-regions within the study area. We identify higher-emitting sub-regions and localize repeating emission patterns as well as differences between days. The increased resolution of the top-down calculation will for the first time allow for an in-depth comparison with a spatially and temporally resolved bottom-up emission estimate based on measurements, concurrent activity data and other data sources.

  12. Development of in situ time-resolved Raman spectroscopy facility for dynamic shock loading in materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, S.; Rastogi, V.; Rao, U.; Sijoy, C. D.; Mishra, V.; Deo, M. N.

    2017-11-01

    The transient state of excitation and relaxation processes in materials under shock compression can be investigated by coupling the laser driven shock facility with Raman spectroscopy. For this purpose, a time resolved Raman spectroscopy setup has been developed to monitor the physical and the chemical changes such as phase transitions, chemical reactions, molecular kinetics etc., under shock compression with nanosecond time resolution. This system consist of mainly three parts, a 2 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser system used for generation of pump and probe beams, a Raman spectrometer with temporal and spectral resolution of 1.2 ns and 3 cm-1 respectively and a target holder in confinement geometry assembly. Detailed simulation for the optimization of confinement geometry targets is performed. Time resolved measurement of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) targets at focused laser intensity of 2.2 GW/cm2 has been done. The corresponding pressure in the Aluminum and PTFE are 3.6 and 1.7 GPa respectively. At 1.7 GPa in PTFE, a red shift of 5 cm-1 is observed for the CF2 twisting mode (291 cm-1). Shock velocity in PTFE is calculated by measuring rate of change of ratios of the intensity of Raman lines scattered from shocked volume to total volume of sample in the laser focal spot along the laser axis. The calculated shock velocity in PTFE is found to be 1.64 ± 0.16 km/s at shock pressure of 1.7 GPa, for present experimental conditions.

  13. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography: benefits of using the time-resolved modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducros, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography enables the three-dimensional reconstruction of fluorescence markers injected within a biological tissue, with light in the near infrared range. The simple continuous modality uses steady excitation light and operates from the measurements at different positions of the attenuation of the incident beam. This technique is low-cost, non-ionizing, and easy to handle, but subject to low resolution for thick tissues due to diffusion. Hopefully, the time-resolved modality, which provides the time of flight of any detected photon, could overcome this limitation and pave the way to clinical applications. This thesis aims at determining the best way to exploit the time resolved information and at quantifying the advantages of this modality over the standard continuous wave one. Model deviations must be carefully limited when ill-posed problems as fluorescence diffuse optical tomography are considered. As a result, we have first addressed the modelling part of the problem. We have shown that the photons density models to good approximation the measurable quantity that is the quantity measured by an actual acquisition set-up. Then, the moment-based reconstruction scheme has been thoroughly evaluated by means of a theoretical analysis of the moments properties. It was found that the moment-based approach requires high photon counts to be profitable compared to the continuous wave modality. Last, a novel wavelet-based approach, which enables an improved reconstruction quality, has been introduced. This approach has shown good ability to exploit the temporal information at lower photon counts. (author) [fr

  14. Spectrally-resolved Soft X-ray Observations and the Temperature Structure of the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry; McTiernan, James; Woods, Thomas N.

    2015-04-01

    Solar X-ray observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating and particle acceleration, during solar flares and quiescent periods. How the corona is heated to its ~1-3 MK nominal temperature remains one of the fundamental unanswered questions of solar physics; heating of plasma to tens of MK during solar flares -- particularly to the hottest observed temperatures of up to ~50 MK -- is also still poorly understood. Soft X-ray emission (~0.1-10 keV; or ~0.1-10 nm) is particularly sensitive to hot coronal plasma and serves as a probe of the thermal processes driving coronal plasma heating. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding these energetic processes, but there have historically been very few such observations. We present new solar soft X-ray spectra from the Amptek X123-SDD, measuring quiescent solar X-ray emission from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution from two SDO/EVE calibration sounding rocket underflights in 2012 and 2013. Combined with observations from RHESSI, GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, and SDO/AIA, the temperature distribution derived from these data suggest significant hot (5-10 MK) emission from active regions, and the 2013 spectra suggest a low-FIP enhancement of only ~1.6 relative to the photosphere, 40% of the usually-observed value from quiescent coronal plasma. We explore the implications of these findings on coronal heating. We discuss future missions for spectrally-resolved soft X-ray observations using the X123-SDD, including the upcoming MinXSS 3U CubeSat using the X123-SDD and scheduled for deployment in mid-2015, and the CubIXSS 6U CubeSat mission concept.

  15. Spatially-Resolved Proteomics: Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Laser Capture Microdissected Alveolar Tissue Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, Geremy; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicola, Teodora; Kitzmiller, Joseph A.; Huang, Eric L.; Zink, Erika M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Carson, James P.; Smith, Richard D.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Corley, Richard A.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Ansong, Charles

    2016-12-22

    Global proteomics approaches allow characterization of whole tissue lysates to an impressive depth. However, it is now increasingly recognized that to better understand the complexity of multicellular organisms, global protein profiling of specific spatially defined regions/substructures of tissues (i.e. spatially-resolved proteomics) is essential. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables microscopic isolation of defined regions of tissues preserving crucial spatial information. However, current proteomics workflows entail several manual sample preparation steps and are challenged by the microscopic mass-limited samples generated by LCM, and that impact measurement robustness, quantification, and throughput. Here, we coupled LCM with a fully automated sample preparation workflow that with a single manual step allows: protein extraction, tryptic digestion, peptide cleanup and LC-MS/MS analysis of proteomes from microdissected tissues. Benchmarking against the current state of the art in ultrasensitive global proteomic analysis, our approach demonstrated significant improvements in quantification and throughput. Using our LCM-SNaPP proteomics approach, we characterized to a depth of more than 3,400 proteins, the ontogeny of protein changes during normal lung development in laser capture microdissected alveolar tissue containing ~4,000 cells per sample. Importantly, the data revealed quantitative changes for 350 low abundance transcription factors and signaling molecules, confirming earlier transcript-level observations and defining seven modules of coordinated transcription factor/signaling molecule expression patterns, suggesting that a complex network of temporal regulatory control directs normal lung development with epigenetic regulation fine-tuning pre-natal developmental processes. Our LCM-proteomics approach facilitates efficient, spatially-resolved, ultrasensitive global proteomics analyses in high-throughput that will be enabling for several clinical and

  16. Time Resolved PIV for Space-Time Correlations in Hot Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Temporally Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) is the newest and most exciting tool recently developed to support our continuing efforts to characterize and improve our understanding of the decay of turbulence in jet flows -- a critical element for understanding the acoustic properties of the flow. A new TR-PIV system has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center which is capable of acquiring planar PIV image frame pairs at up to 25 kHz. The data reported here were collected at Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.9 and at temperature ratios of 0.89 and 1.76. The field of view of the TR-PIV system covered 6 nozzle diameters along the lip line of the 50.8 mm diameter jet. The cold flow data at Mach 0.5 were compared with hotwire anemometry measurements in order to validate the new TR-PIV technique. The axial turbulence profiles measured across the shear layer using TR-PIV were thinner than those measured using hotwire anemometry and remained centered along the nozzle lip line. The collected TR-PIV data illustrate the differences in the single point statistical flow properties of cold and hot jet flows. The planar, time-resolved velocity records were then used to compute two-point space-time correlations of the flow at the Mach 0.9 flow condition. The TR-PIV results show that there are differences in the convective velocity and growth rate of the turbulent structures between cold and hot flows at the same Mach number

  17. Lateral temporal encephaloceles: case-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Kazuhito; Kato, Mihoko; Chu, Jonsu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Lateral temporal encephalocele is an extremely rare clinical condition, with only 18 cases presented in the literature to date. No review articles have examined lateral temporal encephalocele in depth. We therefore reviewed past cases of lateral encephalocele to clarify the clinical characteristics of this extremely rare deformity. We also present a case of lateral encephalocele with arachnoid cyst which has never been reported in past reports. We identified 8 reports describing 18 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele. We therefore reviewed 19 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele, including our own experience, and discussed the clinical characteristics of this pathology. All the cases with lateral temporal encephalocele were detected at birth except for an occult case. The majority occurred at the pterion, and occurrence at the asterion appears much rarer. Due to the preference for the pterion, the ipsilateral orbital wall was also distorted in some cases. Lateral temporal encephalocele seems to have fewer associated malformations: only 3 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele had associated malformations, including our case which was associated with intracranial arachnoid cyst. The only case of lateral temporal encephalocele to have shown hydrocephalus was our own case. Patients with this deformity have relatively good prognoses: only 3 of the 19 cases showed delayed psychomotor development during follow-up. Provision of adequate treatment is likely to achieve a good prognosis in patients with lateral temporal encephalocele, so we should keep in mind this deformity when encountering pediatric patients with mass lesions on the temporal cranium.

  18. Auditory evoked fields elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal changes in human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko eOkamoto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral-temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30 – 50 ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously.

  19. Annually resolved Holocene record of dust deposition and size distribution from the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesler, A.; Koffman, B. G.; Kreutz, K. J.; Osterberg, E. C.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Cole-Dai, J.; Wells, M. L.; Handley, M.

    2017-12-01

    Ice cores offer insights into past changes in atmospheric composition and circulation at high temporal resolution. Dust particles preserved in ice cores provide information regarding the atmospheric burden of dust and associated trace elements, changes in atmospheric circulation, and variations in the climates of dust-producing regions. Well resolved ice core dust records, therefore, can be used to gain a better understanding of the dynamics affecting ocean overturning circulation, to constrain atmospheric nutrient deposition to ocean ecosystems, and to assess atmospheric albedo variations. Existing Antarctic ice core dust records are generally either low-resolution and long-duration (glacial/interglacial timescale), or high-resolution and short-duration (past 2400 years), but high-resolution and long-duration records are rare. Here we present a continuous high-resolution record of dust deposition, including particle size distribution (PSD) and concentration, from the South Pole Ice (SPICE) Core, the first Holocene dust record from this location. The SPICE core was drilled during 2014-2016, reaching a depth of 1751 m. Cores were melted and analyzed for particles (1.0-12 µm diameter) using a continuous-flow Abakus laser particle sensor at Dartmouth College. The current SPICE Core chronology is based on: 1) visual stratigraphy from 0-10.2 ka and 2) correlations to the IceCube dust log calibration beyond 10.2 ka. Annual layer counts of Mg, dust (1.0 µm and 2.4 µm), Na, and SO4 demonstrate that the dust record is annually resolved through most of the Holocene ( 10.3 ka), allowing us to assess dust/climate relationships at high temporal resolution. We use meteorological and reanalysis data to understand modern drivers of observed variability in particle concentration and size distribution, and compare the new SPICE dust record to available Antarctic dust records including from EPICA Dome C, WAIS Divide, Taylor Dome, Taylor Glacier, Talos Dome, Siple Dome, and EPICA

  20. Temporal sensitivity. [time dependent human perception of visual stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1986-01-01

    Human visual temporal sensitivity is examined. The stimuli used to measure temporal sensitivity are described and the linear systems theory is reviewed in terms of temporal sensitivity. A working model which represents temporal sensitivity is proposed. The visibility of a number of temporal wave forms, sinusoids, rectangular pulses, and pulse pairs, is analyzed. The relation between spatial and temporal effects is studied. Temporal variations induced by image motion and the effects of light adaptation on temporal sensitivity are considered.

  1. A Temporal Map of Coaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Theeboom

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic pressures on companies, technological developments, and less stable career paths pose potential threats to the well-being of employees (e.g., stress, burn-out and require constant adaptation. In the light of these challenges, it is not surprising that employees often seek the support of a coach. The role of a coach is to foster change by facilitating a coachees’ movement through a self-regulatory cycle with the ultimate aim of stimulating sustained well-being and functioning. While meta-analytic research indicates that coaching interventions can be effectively applied to assist employees in dealing with change, the current literature on coaching lacks solid theoretical frameworks that are needed to build a cumulative knowledge-base and to inspire evidence-based practice. In this conceptual analysis, we examine the coaching process through a temporal lens. By doing so, we provide an integrated theoretical framework: a temporal map of coaching. In this framework, we link seminal concepts in psychology to the coaching process, and describe which competencies of coachees are crucial in the different stages of change that coaching aims to bring about. During the preparatory contemplation stage, targeting coachees’ awareness by enhancing their mindfulness and environmental receptiveness is important. During the contemplation stage, coachees’ willingness and perceived ability to change are central competencies. We propose that coaches should therefore foster intrinsic goal orientation and self-efficacy during this stage. During the planning stage, coaches should focus on goal-setting and implementation intentions. Finally, during the maintenance/termination stage, stimulating coachees’ reflection is especially important in order to help them to integrate their learning experiences. The framework delineated in this paper contributes to the understanding of coaching as a tool to assist employees in dealing with the challenges of an

  2. Motor activity improves temporal expectancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Fautrelle

    Full Text Available Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1 pointing with a whole-body movement, (2 pointing only with the arm, (3 imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4 simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5 pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6 reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments.

  3. Memory for temporally dynamic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ryan; Homa, Donald; Ellis, Derek

    2017-07-01

    Recognition memory was investigated for individual frames extracted from temporally continuous, visually rich film segments of 5-15 min. Participants viewed a short clip from a film in either a coherent or a jumbled order, followed by a recognition test of studied frames. Foils came either from an earlier or a later part of the film (Experiment 1) or from deleted segments selected from random cuts of varying duration (0.5 to 30 s) within the film itself (Experiment 2). When the foils came from an earlier or later part of the film (Experiment 1), recognition was excellent, with the hit rate far exceeding the false-alarm rate (.78 vs. 18). In Experiment 2, recognition was far worse, with the hit rate (.76) exceeding the false-alarm rate only for foils drawn from the longest cuts (15 and 30 s) and matching the false-alarm rate for the 5 s segments. When the foils were drawn from the briefest cuts (0.5 and 1.0 s), the false-alarm rate exceeded the hit rate. Unexpectedly, jumbling had no effect on recognition in either experiment. These results are consistent with the view that memory for complex visually temporal events is excellent, with the integrity unperturbed by disruption of the global structure of the visual stream. Disruption of memory was observed only when foils were drawn from embedded segments of duration less than 5 s, an outcome consistent with the view that memory at these shortest durations are consolidated with expectations drawn from the previous stream.

  4. SST: Single-Stream Temporal Action Proposals

    KAUST Repository

    Buch, Shyamal

    2017-11-09

    Our paper presents a new approach for temporal detection of human actions in long, untrimmed video sequences. We introduce Single-Stream Temporal Action Proposals (SST), a new effective and efficient deep architecture for the generation of temporal action proposals. Our network can run continuously in a single stream over very long input video sequences, without the need to divide input into short overlapping clips or temporal windows for batch processing. We demonstrate empirically that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art on the task of temporal action proposal generation, while achieving some of the fastest processing speeds in the literature. Finally, we demonstrate that using SST proposals in conjunction with existing action classifiers results in improved state-of-the-art temporal action detection performance.

  5. High-order passive photonic temporal integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Wang, Chao; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José

    2010-04-15

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, an ultrafast photonic high-order (second-order) complex-field temporal integrator. The demonstrated device uses a single apodized uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and it is based on a general FBG design approach for implementing optimized arbitrary-order photonic passive temporal integrators. Using this same design approach, we also fabricate and test a first-order passive temporal integrator offering an energetic-efficiency improvement of more than 1 order of magnitude as compared with previously reported passive first-order temporal integrators. Accurate and efficient first- and second-order temporal integrations of ultrafast complex-field optical signals (with temporal features as fast as approximately 2.5ps) are successfully demonstrated using the fabricated FBG devices.

  6. Time-resolved X-ray transmission microscopy on magnetic microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzic, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Three excitation schemes were designed for stroboscopic imaging of magnetization dynamics with time-resolved magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy (TR-MTXM). These techniques were implemented into two types of X-ray microscopes, namely the imaging transmission X-ray microscope (ITXM) and the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM), both installed at the electron storage ring of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, USA. Circular diffraction gratings (Fresnel zone plates) used in both microscopes as focusing and imaging elements presently allow for lateral resolution down to 30 nm. Magnetic imaging is performed by using the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) as element specific contrast mechanism. The developed methods have been successfully applied to the experimental investigation of magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic microstructures. A temporal resolution well below 100 ps was achieved. A conventional pump-probe technique was implemented first. The dynamic response of the magnetization excited by a broadband pulsed magnetic field was imaged spatially resolved using focused X-ray flashes. As a complementary method, the spatially resolved ferromagnetic resonance (SR-FMR) technique was developed for experimental study of magnetization dynamics in the frequency domain. As a third excitation mode, the burst excitation was implemented. The performance and efficiency of the developed methods have been demonstrated by imaging the local magnetization dynamics in laterally patterned ferromagnetic thin-film elements and three-layer stacks. The existence of multiple eigenmodes in the excitation spectra of ferromagnetic microstructures has been verified by using the pump-probe technique. Magnetostatic spin waves were selectively excited and detected with a time resolution of 50 ps using the SR-FMR technique. Thorough analysis of 20 in most cases independently prepared samples has verified that vortices which exhibit a low-amplitude switching of their core

  7. Time-resolved X-ray transmission microscopy on magnetic microstructures; Zeitaufloesende Roentgentransmissionsmikroskopie an magnetischen Mikrostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzic, Aleksandar

    2007-10-23

    Three excitation schemes were designed for stroboscopic imaging of magnetization dynamics with time-resolved magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy (TR-MTXM). These techniques were implemented into two types of X-ray microscopes, namely the imaging transmission X-ray microscope (ITXM) and the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM), both installed at the electron storage ring of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, USA. Circular diffraction gratings (Fresnel zone plates) used in both microscopes as focusing and imaging elements presently allow for lateral resolution down to 30 nm. Magnetic imaging is performed by using the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) as element specific contrast mechanism. The developed methods have been successfully applied to the experimental investigation of magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic microstructures. A temporal resolution well below 100 ps was achieved. A conventional pump-probe technique was implemented first. The dynamic response of the magnetization excited by a broadband pulsed magnetic field was imaged spatially resolved using focused X-ray flashes. As a complementary method, the spatially resolved ferromagnetic resonance (SR-FMR) technique was developed for experimental study of magnetization dynamics in the frequency domain. As a third excitation mode, the burst excitation was implemented. The performance and efficiency of the developed methods have been demonstrated by imaging the local magnetization dynamics in laterally patterned ferromagnetic thin-film elements and three-layer stacks. The existence of multiple eigenmodes in the excitation spectra of ferromagnetic microstructures has been verified by using the pump-probe technique. Magnetostatic spin waves were selectively excited and detected with a time resolution of 50 ps using the SR-FMR technique. Thorough analysis of 20 in most cases independently prepared samples has verified that vortices which exhibit a low-amplitude switching of their core

  8. Zooming into Molecular Biomarker Distribution through Spatially Resolved Mass Spectrometry on Intact Sediment Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörmer, L.; Fuchser, J.; Alfken, S.; Elvert, M.; Schimmelmann, A.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2016-02-01

    Marine microorganisms adapt to their habitat by structural modification of their membrane lipids. After sedimentation, and due to their persistence in the sedimentary record, the information archived in them remains available on geological time-scales. Thereby sedimentary lipid biomarkers become important informants of past environments. Conventional biomarker analysis is labor-intensive and requires cm-sized samples, temporal resolution is consequently low. We here present an approach, based on laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to ultra high resolution mass spectrometry, that avoids wet-chemical sample preparation and enables analysis directly on sediment sections at sub-mm spatial resolution. Our initial study targeted archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). GDGTS are ubiquitous and persistent components in marine sediments, and used in several, widely recognized paleoenvironmental proxies. Applied to an Eastern Mediterranean Sapropel layer, GDGT-profiles with previously unachieved temporal resolution were obtained, and pointed to a strong influence of high frequency cycles on sea-surface temperature and planktonic archaeal ecology. Spatial information furthermore revealed a new view on the fine-scale patchiness of lipid distribution. Following these pioneering studies, major developments are under way. A dedicated facility has been set up at MARUM/University of Bremen, which combines lipid biomarker and elemental analysis at sub-mm resolution (down to 50 µm). We present methods for other comprehensive lipid biomarkers (e.g. alkenones or sterols) that are currently being targeted; and the application of spatially resolved biomarker analysis to recent laminated sediments (Santa Barbara Basin), yielding informative profiles with subannual resolution. We also discuss criteria for analyte and sample selection, as well as the main potentialities and constraints of this new approach.

  9. Capturing Chemistry in Action with Electrons: Realization of Atomically Resolved Reaction Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischenko, Anatoly A; Weber, Peter M; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2017-08-23

    One of the grand challenges in chemistry has been to directly observe atomic motions during chemical processes. The depiction of the nuclear configurations in space-time to understand barrier crossing events has served as a unifying intellectual theme connecting the different disciplines of chemistry. This challenge has been cast as an imaging problem in which the technical issues reduce to achieving not only sufficient simultaneous space-time resolution but also brightness for sufficient image contrast to capture the atomic motions. This objective has been met with electrons as the imaging source. The review chronicles the first use of electron structural probes to study reactive intermediates, to the development of high bunch charge electron pulses with sufficient combined spatial-temporal resolution and intensity to literally light up atomic motions, as well as the means to characterize the electron pulses in terms of temporal brightness and image reconstruction. The use of femtosecond Rydberg spectroscopy as a novel means to use internal electron scattering within the molecular reference frame to obtain similar information on reaction dynamics is also discussed. The focus is on atomically resolved chemical reaction dynamics with pertinent references to work in other areas and forms of spectroscopy that provide additional information. Effectively, we can now directly observe the far-from-equilibrium atomic motions involved in barrier crossing and categorize chemistry in terms of a power spectrum of a few dominant reaction modes. It is this reduction in dimensionality that makes chemical reaction mechanisms transferrable to seemingly arbitrarily complex (large N) systems, up to molecules as large as biological macromolecules (N > 1000 atoms). We now have a new way to reformulate reaction mechanisms using an experimentally determined dynamic mode basis that in combination with recent theoretical advances has the potential to lead to a new conceptual basis for

  10. Time-resolved homo-FRET studies of biotin-streptavidin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, Alessandra; Nardo, Luca; Rigler, Rudolf

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer is a mechanism of fluorescence quenching that is notably useful for characterizing properties of biomolecules and/or their interactions. Here we study water-solutions of Biotin-Streptavidin complexes, in which Biotin is labeled with a rigidly-bound fluorophore that can interact by Förster resonance energy transfer with the fluorophores labeling the other, up to three, Biotins of the same complex. The fluorophore, Atto550, is a Rhodamine analogue. We detect the time-resolved fluorescence decay of the fluorophores with an apparatus endowed with single-photon sensitivity and temporal resolution of ~30ps. The decay profiles we observe for samples containing constant Biotin-Atto550 conjugates and varying Streptavidin concentrations are multi-exponential. Each decay component can be associated with the rate of quenching exerted on each donor by each of the acceptors that label the other Biotin molecules, depending on the binding site they occupy. The main features that lead to this result are that (i) the transition dipole moments of the up-to-four Atto550 fluorophores that label the complexes are fixed as to both relative positions and mutual orientations; (ii) the fluorophores are identical and the role of donor in each Biotin-Streptavidin complex is randomly attributed to the one that has absorbed the excitation light (homo-FRET). Obviously the high-temporal resolution of the excitation-detection apparatus is necessary to discriminate among the fluorescence decay components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of temporal networks under uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesemann, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Many decision problems in Operations Research are defined on temporal networks, that is, workflows of time-consuming tasks whose processing order is constrained by precedence relations. For example, temporal networks are used to model projects, computer applications, digital circuits and production processes. Optimization problems arise in temporal networks when a decision maker wishes to determine a temporal arrangement of the tasks and/or a resource assignment that optimizes some network characteristic (e.g. the time required to complete all tasks). The parameters of these optimization probl

  12. Recent trends in spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Taichi

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of the Rashba effect on crystal surfaces and also the discovery of topological insulators, spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SARPES) has become more and more important, as the technique can measure directly the electronic band structure of materials with spin resolution. In the same way that the discovery of high-Tc superconductors promoted the development of high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, the discovery of this new class of materials has stimulated the development of new SARPES apparatus with new functions and higher resolution, such as spin vector analysis, ten times higher energy and angular resolution than conventional SARPES, multichannel spin detection, and so on. In addition, the utilization of vacuum ultra violet lasers also opens a pathway to the realization of novel SARPES measurements. In this review, such recent trends in SARPES techniques and measurements will be overviewed.

  13. The Wind Acceleration Region of Betelgeuse: Resolved at Centimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, E.; Harper, G. M.; Brown, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present multi-epoch spatially resolved radio continuum observations of Betelgeuse (α Ori) at various combinations of wavelengths between 0.7 and 6.1 cm. We used the Very Large Array in the A configuration with the Pie Town antenna to spatially resolve its atmosphere at 0.7, 1.3, 2.0, and 6.1 cm at all epochs. Our findings are similar to those of Lim et al. (1998) in that Betelgeuse's opaque atmosphere extends from 2 to 6 R* between 0.7 and 6.1 cm with temperatures decreasing from ˜3000 to 1800 K, respectively. We find no evidence of radio hotspots at any epochs even though we have sufficient spatial resolution and sensitivity at 0.7 and 1.3 cm to detect the hotspots recently reported with e-MERLIN at 5.2 cm.

  14. Spatially and time resolved kinetics of indirect magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasling, Matthew; Dorow, Chelsey; Calman, Erica; Butov, Leonid; Wilkes, Joe; Campman, Kenneth; Gossard, Arthur

    The small exciton mass and binding energy give the opportunity to realize the high magnetic field regime for excitons in magnetic fields of few Tesla achievable in lab Long lifetimes of indirect exciton give the opportunity to study kinetics of magnetoexciton transport by time-resolved optical imaging of exciton emission. We present spatially and time resolved measurements showing the effect of increased magnetic field on transport of magnetoexcitons. We observe that increased magnetic field leads to slowing down of magnetoexciton transport. Supported by NSF Grant No. 1407277. J.W. was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/L022990/1). C.J.D. was supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE-1144086.

  15. Spin-resolved quantum transport in graphene-based nanojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Wei; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yun-Jin; Wei, Ya-Dong; Yu, Zhi-Zhou; Wang, Yin

    2017-08-01

    First-principles calculations were performed to explore the spin-resolved electronic and thermoelectric transport properties of a series of graphene-nanoribbon-based nanojunctions. By flipping the magnetic moments in graphene leads from parallel to antiparallel, very large tunneling magnetoresistance can be obtained under different gate voltages for all the structures. Spin-resolved alternating-current conductance increases versus frequency for the short nanojunctions but decreases for the long nanojunctions. With increasing junction length, the behavior of the junctions changes from capacitive-like to inductive-like. Because of the opposite signs of spin-up thermopower and spin-down thermopower near the Fermi level, pure spin currents can be obtained and large figures of merit can be achieved by adjusting the gate voltage and chemical potential for all the nanojunctions.

  16. Multiscale correlations in highly resolved Large Eddy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biferale, Luca; Buzzicotti, Michele; Linkmann, Moritz

    2017-11-01

    Understanding multiscale turbulent statistics is one of the key challenges for many modern applied and fundamental problems in fluid dynamics. One of the main obstacles is the existence of anomalously strong non Gaussian fluctuations, which become more and more important with increasing Reynolds number. In order to assess the performance of LES models in reproducing these extreme events with reasonable accuracy, it is helpful to further understand the statistical properties of the coupling between the resolved and the subgrid scales. We present analytical and numerical results focussing on the multiscale correlations between the subgrid stress and the resolved velocity field obtained both from LES and filtered DNS data. Furthermore, a comparison is carried out between LES and DNS results concerning the scaling behaviour of higher-order structure functions using both Smagorinsky or self-similar Fourier sub-grid models. ERC AdG Grant No 339032 NewTURB.

  17. De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang; Huang, Shujia; Sun, Yuhui; Tong, Xin; Xie, Yinlong; Liu, Binghang; Yang, Hailong; Zheng, Hancheng; Li, Jian; Li, Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Fang; Sun, Peng; Liu, Siyang; Gao, Peng; Huang, Haodong; Sun, Jing; Chen, Dan; He, Guangzhu; Huang, Weihua; Huang, Zheng; Li, Yue; Tellier, Laurent C A M; Liu, Xiao; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Bolund, Lars; Krogh, Anders; Kristiansen, Karsten; Drmanac, Radoje; Drmanac, Snezana; Nielsen, Rasmus; Li, Songgang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Yingrui; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun

    2015-06-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-genome shotgun strategies, based solely on next-generation sequencing and hierarchical assembly methods. We applied our sequencing method to the genome of an Asian individual and generated a 5.15-Gb assembled genome with a haplotype N50 of 484 kb. Our analysis identified previously undetected indels and 7.49 Mb of novel coding sequences that could not be aligned to the human reference genome, which include at least six predicted genes. This haplotype-resolved genome represents the most complete de novo human genome assembly to date. Application of our approach to identify individual haplotype differences should aid in translating genotypes to phenotypes for the development of personalized medicine.

  18. De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang

    2015-01-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-genome...... of novel coding sequences that could not be aligned to the human reference genome, which include at least six predicted genes. This haplotype-resolved genome represents the most complete de novo human genome assembly to date. Application of our approach to identify individual haplotype differences should...... shotgun strategies, based solely on next-generation sequencing and hierarchical assembly methods. We applied our sequencing method to the genome of an Asian individual and generated a 5.15-Gb assembled genome with a haplotype N50 of 484 kb. Our analysis identified previously undetected indels and 7.49 Mb...

  19. Suggested technical scheme to help resolve regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, T.

    1978-07-01

    A management-planning model envisioned as a useful tool for planning and guiding the development of a nuclear waste repository data base is described. It incorporates the technical assessment goals and objectives of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and it provides a strategy for reaching them. The model strategy includes provisions for the breadth, timeliness, and defensibility of its predictions. Consideration is given to observational data, its structure, and future refinements. The structure of the data is consistent with the needs of a systems model whose structure is proposed to resolve questions about repository safety. Uncertainties are categorized as an aid in defining and resolving technical issues. The model provides a framework for ultimately exposing all the sensitive and controversial factors. Some quantitative aspects of data acquisition are presented. 12 figures.

  20. Leukocyte diversity in resolving and nonresolving mechanisms of cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourki, Bochra; Halade, Ganesh

    2017-10-01

    In response to myocardial infarction (MI), time-dependent leukocyte infiltration is critical to program the acute inflammatory response. Post-MI leukocyte density, residence time in the infarcted area, and exit from the infarcted injury predict resolving or nonresolving inflammation. Overactive or unresolved inflammation is the primary determinant in heart failure pathology post-MI. Here, our review describes supporting evidence that the acute inflammatory response also guides the generation of healing and regenerative mediators after cardiac damage. Time-dependent leukocyte density and diversity and the magnitude of myocardial injury is responsible for the resolving and nonresolving pathway in myocardial healing. Post MI, the diversity of leukocytes, such as neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes, has been explored that regulate the clearance of deceased cardiomyocytes by using the classic and reparative pathways. Among the innovative factors and intermediates that have been recognized as essential in acute the self-healing and clearance mechanism, we highlight specialized proresolving mediators as the emerging factor for post-MI reparative mechanisms-translational leukocyte modifiers, such as aging, the source of leukocytes, and the milieu around the leukocytes. In the clinical setting, it is possible that leukocyte diversity is more prominent as a result of risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Pharmacologic agents are critical modifiers of leukocyte diversity in healing mechanisms that may impair or stimulate the clearance mechanism. Future research is needed, with a focused approach to understand the molecular targets, cellular effectors, and receptors. A clear understanding of resolving and nonresolving inflammation in myocardial healing will help to develop novel targets with major emphasis on the resolution of inflammation in heart failure pathology.-Tourki, B., Halade, G. Leukocyte diversity in resolving and nonresolving mechanisms

  1. Time-resolved crystallography using the Hadamard Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Briony A.; Beddard, Godfrey S.; Owen, Robin L.; Pearson, Arwen R.

    2014-01-01

    A new method for performing time-resolved X-ray crystallographic experiments based on the Hadamard Transform is proposed and demonstrated. The time-resolution is defined by the underlying periodicity of the probe pulse sequence and the signal to noise is greatly improved compared to the fastest experiments depending on a single pulse. This approach is general and equally applicable to any spectroscopic or imaging measurement where the probe can be encoded. PMID:25282611

  2. Theory of time-resolved inelastic x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a general theory of time-resolved x-ray scattering, we derive a convenient expression for the diffraction signal based on a careful analysis of the relevant inelastic scattering processes. We demonstrate that the resulting inelastic limit applies to a wider variety of experimental...... conditions than similar, previously derived formulas, and it directly allows the application of selection rules when interpreting diffraction signals. Furthermore, we present a simple extension to systems simultaneously illuminated by x rays and a laser beam....

  3. Resolving traceability issues of product derivation for software product lines

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Saad bin

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed Dealing with traceability management issues during model based product derivation in large complex industrial SPL is error prone due to the lack of tool support. As a result traceability management between connected models emerges as an important research topic. In this position paper, we discuss research challenges as scenarios from developed example product line and give recommendations on resolving traceability issues during product derivation. We also discuss initial idea...

  4. The role of the educator in resolving conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Tjaša

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I have studied the conflicts between children in primary education, and the role of the teacher in solving these conflicts. The theoretical part of my paper consist of the definition of conflict, types of conflicts, reasons for outburst of conflict situations as well as consequences which may occur due to unsolved or inappropriately solved conflicts. I have introduced the role of the teacher and adequate measures which a professional worker can take to resolve these conflic...

  5. Time-resolved fluorescence methods (IUPAC Technical Report)

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmetyinen, Helge; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Valeur, Bernard; Hotta, Jun-ichi; AMELOOT, Marcel; Ernsting, Nikolaus P.; Gustavsson, Thomas; Boens, Noel

    2014-01-01

    This IUPAC Technical Report describes and compares the currently applied methods for measuring and analyzing time-resolved fluorescence traces using phase-modulation fluorometry as well as pulse fluorometry (direct emission decay measurements, single-photon timing, streak camera measurements, fluorescence upconversion, and optical Kerr gating). The paper starts with a brief description of the basic principles for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy. The fundamental equations a...

  6. Spectrally resolved far-fields of terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstetter, Martin; Schönhuber, Sebastian; Krall, Michael; Kainz, Martin A.; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron M.; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a convenient and fast method to measure the spectrally resolved far-fields of multimode terahertz quantum cascade lasers by combining a microbolometer focal plane array with an FTIR spectrometer. Far-fields of fundamental TM0 and higher lateral order TM1 modes of multimode Fabry-P\\'erot type lasers have been distinguished, which very well fit to the results obtained by a 3D finite-element simulation. Furthermore, multimode random laser cavities have been investigated, analyzing...

  7. Resolvent estimates for perturbations by large magnetic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Fernando, E-mail: fernando@dmat.ufpe.br; Cuevas, Claudio, E-mail: cch@dmat.ufpe.br [Departamento de Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, CEP. 50540-740 Recife-Pe (Brazil); Vodev, Georgi, E-mail: vodev@math.univ-nantes.fr [Département de Mathématiques, Université de Nantes, UMR 6629 du CNRS, 2, rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44332 Nantes Cedex 03 (France)

    2014-02-15

    We prove optimal high-frequency resolvent estimates for self-adjoint operators of the form G = −Δ + ib(x) · ∇ + i∇ · b(x) + V(x) on L{sup 2}(R{sup n}), n ⩾ 3, where b(x) and V(x) are large magnetic and electric potentials, respectively. No continuity of the magnetic potential is assumed.

  8. Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Elbanna, Abduh; Eldin, Mohammed Tag; Fathy, Mohammad; Osman, Osama; Abdelfattah, Mohammed; Safwat, Abdelrahman; Elkader, Mohammed Sedki Abd; Bilasy, Shymaa E.; salama, Khaled; Elnour, Asim A.; Shehab, Abdullah; Baghdady, Shazly; Amer, Mohamed; Alboraie, Mohamed; ragb, Aly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Children obesity has become one of the most important public health problems in many countries worldwide. Although the awareness of childhood obesity as a modifiable health risk is high, but many societies do not prioritize this issue as a health care problem, which may lead to comorbidities and even premature death. Despite the rising interest in bariatric surgery for children, only laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is being considered in resolving childhood obesity who failed o...

  9. Resolving Conflicts between Agriculture and the Natural Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Tanentzap

    Full Text Available Agriculture dominates the planet. Yet it has many environmental costs that are unsustainable, especially as global food demand rises. Here, we evaluate ways in which different parts of the world are succeeding in their attempts to resolve conflict between agriculture and wild nature. We envision that coordinated global action in conserving land most sensitive to agricultural activities and policies that internalise the environmental costs of agriculture are needed to deliver a more sustainable future.

  10. A rapid high-resolution method for resolving DNA topoisomers

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchenall, Lesley A.; Hipkin, Rachel E.; Piperakis, Michael M.; Burton, Nicolas P.; Maxwell, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Objective Agarose gel electrophoresis has been the mainstay technique for the analysis of DNA samples of moderate size. In addition to separating linear DNA molecules, it can also resolve different topological forms of plasmid DNAs, an application useful for the analysis of the reactions of DNA topoisomerases. However, gel electrophoresis is an intrinsically low-throughput technique and suffers from other potential disadvantages. We describe the application of the QIAxcel Advanced System, a h...

  11. Time-resolved THz spectroscopy in a parallel plate waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy inside a novel parallel plate waveguide where one of the metallic plates is replaced by a transparent conducting oxide. Considerable improvements to the waveguide loss coefficient are shown, with a power absorption coefficient of 4cm-1 at 0.5 THz....... The time resolution of the technique is shown to be limited by the spatial excitation profile, which for sharply focused beams can approach ~1 ps time scales....

  12. Time resolved heat exchange in driven quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencia Ludovico, María; Lim, Jong Soo; Moskalets, Michael; Arrachea, Liliana; Sánchez, David

    2014-12-01

    We study time-dependent heat transport in systems composed of a resonant level periodically forced with an external power source and coupled to a fermionic continuum. This simple model contains the basic ingredients to understand time resolved energy exchange in quantum capacitors that behave as single particle emitters. We analyse the behaviour of the dynamic heat current for driving frequencies within the non-adiabatic regime, showing that it does not obey a Joule dissipation law.

  13. Reliable determination of tissue optical properties from spatially resolved reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladytz, Thomas; Hoppe, Alexander; Cantow, Kathleen; Pohlmann, Andreas; Flemming, Bert; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann; Grosenick, Dirk

    2017-03-01

    Spatially resolved reflectance is a frequently used technique to derive optical properties and physiological parameters of tissue. We have evaluated the accuracy of this method by investigations on a set of phantoms with known optical properties derived from time-resolved measurements. The recorded profiles of spatially resolved reflectance were analyzed by a Monte Carlo model of photon transport. When we took only the shape of the measured profiles into account, we got only poor estimates of the optical properties. In particular, the absorption was strongly underestimated. The main reason for failing of this approach is that the shape of the measured profiles can be well described by many combinations of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients. The separation between scattering and absorption was strongly improved when the reflectance data were calibrated by using a reference phantom. We applied both the relative and the calibration based analysis method to reflectance data obtained from in vivo investigations on the kidney of rats. Despite the limited number of only 4 detector positions the calibration based analysis method yielded reliable estimates of the tissue optical properties.

  14. Benchmarking the Optical Resolving Power of Uav Based Camera Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, H.; Cramer, M.; Piltz, B.

    2017-08-01

    UAV based imaging and 3D object point generation is an established technology. Some of the UAV users try to address (very) highaccuracy applications, i.e. inspection or monitoring scenarios. In order to guarantee such level of detail and accuracy high resolving imaging systems are mandatory. Furthermore, image quality considerably impacts photogrammetric processing, as the tie point transfer, mandatory for forming the block geometry, fully relies on the radiometric quality of images. Thus, empirical testing of radiometric camera performance is an important issue, in addition to standard (geometric) calibration, which normally is covered primarily. Within this paper the resolving power of ten different camera/lens installations has been investigated. Selected systems represent different camera classes, like DSLRs, system cameras, larger format cameras and proprietary systems. As the systems have been tested in wellcontrolled laboratory conditions and objective quality measures have been derived, individual performance can be compared directly, thus representing a first benchmark on radiometric performance of UAV cameras. The results have shown, that not only the selection of appropriate lens and camera body has an impact, in addition the image pre-processing, i.e. the use of a specific debayering method, significantly influences the final resolving power.

  15. Super-resolved refocusing with a plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiliang; Yuan, Yan; Bin, Xiangli; Qian, Lulu

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to enhance the resolution of refocused images by super resolution methods. In plenoptic imaging, we demonstrate that the raw sensor image can be divided to a number of low-resolution angular images with sub-pixel shifts between each other. The sub-pixel shift, which defines the super-resolving ability, is mathematically derived by considering the plenoptic camera as equivalent camera arrays. We implement simulation to demonstrate the imaging process of a plenoptic camera. A high-resolution image is then reconstructed using maximum a posteriori (MAP) super resolution algorithms. Without other degradation effects in simulation, the super resolved image achieves a resolution as high as predicted by the proposed model. We also build an experimental setup to acquire light fields. With traditional refocusing methods, the image is rendered at a rather low resolution. In contrast, we implement the super-resolved refocusing methods and recover an image with more spatial details. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we finally compare the reconstructed images using image quality metrics like peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR).

  16. Resolve Instrument on X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Yamada, S.; Ichinohe, Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Takei, Y.; Yasuda, S.; Ishida, M.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Maeda, Y.; Tsujimoto, M.; Iizuka, R.; Koyama, S.; Noda, H.; Tamagawa, T.; Sawada, M.; Sato, K.; Kitamoto, S.; Hoshino, A.; Brown, G. V.; Eckart, M. E.; Hayashi, T.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Mori, H.; Okajima, T.; Porter, F. S.; Soong, Y.; McCammon, D.; Szymkowiak, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) is a recovery mission of ASTRO-H/Hitomi, which is expected to be launched in Japanese Fiscal Year of 2020 at the earliest. The Resolve instrument on XARM consists of an array of 6 × 6 silicon-thermistor microcalorimeters cooled down to 50 mK and a high-throughput X-ray mirror assembly with the focal length of 5.6 m. Hitomi was launched into orbit in February 2016 and observed several celestial objects, although the operation of Hitomi was terminated in April 2016. The soft X-ray spectrometer (SXS) on Hitomi demonstrated high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of 5 eV FWHM in orbit for most of the pixels. The Resolve instrument is planned to mostly be a copy of the Hitomi SXS and soft X-ray telescope designs, though several changes are planned based on the lessons learned from Hitomi. We report a brief summary of the SXS performance and the status of the Resolve instrument.

  17. BENCHMARKING THE OPTICAL RESOLVING POWER OF UAV BASED CAMERA SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meißner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available UAV based imaging and 3D object point generation is an established technology. Some of the UAV users try to address (very highaccuracy applications, i.e. inspection or monitoring scenarios. In order to guarantee such level of detail and accuracy high resolving imaging systems are mandatory. Furthermore, image quality considerably impacts photogrammetric processing, as the tie point transfer, mandatory for forming the block geometry, fully relies on the radiometric quality of images. Thus, empirical testing of radiometric camera performance is an important issue, in addition to standard (geometric calibration, which normally is covered primarily. Within this paper the resolving power of ten different camera/lens installations has been investigated. Selected systems represent different camera classes, like DSLRs, system cameras, larger format cameras and proprietary systems. As the systems have been tested in wellcontrolled laboratory conditions and objective quality measures have been derived, individual performance can be compared directly, thus representing a first benchmark on radiometric performance of UAV cameras. The results have shown, that not only the selection of appropriate lens and camera body has an impact, in addition the image pre-processing, i.e. the use of a specific debayering method, significantly influences the final resolving power.

  18. Resolving the Circumgalactic Medium in the NEPHTHYS Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark Lawrence Albert; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Rosdahl, Karl Joakim; Kimm, Taysun

    2018-01-01

    NEPHTHYS is a RAMSES Cosmological-zoom galaxy simulation suite investigating the impact of stellar feedback (winds, radiation, and type Ia and II SNe) on z > 1 ~L* galaxies and their environments. NEPHTHYS has ~10 pc resolution in the galaxy, where the scales driving star formation and the interaction of stellar feedback with the ISM can begin to be resolved. As outflows, winds, and radiation permeate through the circumgalactic medium (CGM) they can heat or cool gas, and deposit metals throughout the CGM. Such material in the CGM is seen by spectroscopic studies of distant quasars, where CGM gas of foreground galaxies is observed in absorption. It is still unclear what the origin and evolution of this gas is. To help answer this, NEPHTHYS includes additional refinement in the CGM, refining it to an unrivaled 80 pc resolution. I will discuss how this extra resolution is crucial for resolving the complex structure of outflows and accretion in the CGM. Specifically, the metal mass and covering fraction of metals and high energy ions is increased, while the better resolved outflows leads to a decrease in the overall baryon content of galaxy halos, and individual outflow events can have larger velocities. Our results suggest that absorption observations of CGM are tracing a clumpy column of gas with multiple kinematic components.

  19. Depth resolved Doppler broadening spectroscopy in thin metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiner, Markus; Pikart, Philip; Hugenschmidt, Christoph [ZWE FRM 2, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physikdepartment E 21, Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Within this contribution the examination of thin metallic films by (C)DB ((coincident) Doppler broadening) measurements at different temperatures is presented. Systems with a gold or copper layer with a thickness between 20 and 500 nm were produced by evaporation deposition on silicon substrates. Doppler broadening and positronium fraction were examined in order to investigate annealing processes. In addition, theses samples as well as gold-copper-silicon systems were studied by depth resolved CDB measurements with the goal to obtain information about temperature dependent diffusion processes at the interface. These measurements were performed by use of the highly intensive positron beam NEPOMUC. Depth resolved DB measurements are used for the determination of the positron diffusion length which is highly sensitive to defect concentration. At high temperatures the thermic desorption of positronium can be detected and additionally considered to determine the diffusion length. Depth resolved CDB measurements allow the detection of the chemical surrounding of defects in layered structures. Recently a new heatable sample holder has been set up in order to achieve a sample temperature up to 1000 K.

  20. In-pile Thermal Conductivity Characterization with Time Resolved Raman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinwei

    2018-03-19

    Executive Summary The project is designed to achieve three objectives: (1) Develop a novel time resolved Raman technology for direct measurement of fuel and cladding thermal conductivity. (2) Validate and improve the technology development by measuring ceramic materials germane to the nuclear industry. (3) Conduct instrumentation development to integrate optical fiber into our sensing system for eventual in-pile measurement. We have developed three new techniques: time-domain differential Raman (TD-Raman), frequency-resolved Raman (FR-Raman), and energy transport state-resolved Raman (ET-Raman). The TD-Raman varies the laser heating time and does simultaneous Raman thermal probing, the FR-Raman probes the material’s thermal response under periodical laser heating of different frequencies, and the ET-Raman probes the thermal response under steady and pulsed laser heating. The measurement capacity of these techniques have been fully assessed and verified by measuring micro/nanoscale materials. All these techniques do not need the data of laser absorption and absolute material temperature rise, yet still be able to measure the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with unprecedented accuracy. It is expected they will have broad applications for in-pile thermal characterization of nuclear materials based on pure optical heating and sensing.

  1. Temporal Ontologies for Geoscience: Alignment Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Time is a central concept in geoscience. Geologic histories are composed of sequences of geologic processes and events. Calibration of their timing ties a local history into a broader context, and enables correlation of events between locations. The geologic timescale is standardized in the International Chronostratigraphic Chart, which specifies interval names, and calibrations for the ages of the interval boundaries. Time is also a key concept in the world at large. A number of general purpose temporal ontologies have been developed, both stand-alone and as parts of general purpose or upper ontologies. A temporal ontology for geoscience should apply or extend a suitable general purpose temporal ontology. However, geologic time presents two challenges: Geology involves greater spans of time than in other temporal ontologies, inconsistent with the year-month-day/hour-minute-second formalization that is a basic assumption of most general purpose temporal schemes; The geologic timescale is a temporal topology. Its calibration in terms of an absolute (numeric) scale is a scientific issue in its own right supporting a significant community. In contrast, the general purpose temporal ontologies are premised on exact numeric values for temporal position, and do not allow for temporal topology as a primary structure. We have developed an ontology for the geologic timescale to account for these concerns. It uses the ISO 19108 distinctions between different types of temporal reference system, also linking to an explicit temporal topology model. Stratotypes used in the calibration process are modelled as sampling-features following the ISO 19156 Observations and Measurements model. A joint OGC-W3C harmonization project is underway, with standardization of the W3C OWL-Time ontology as one of its tasks. The insights gained from the geologic timescale ontology will assist in development of a general ontology capable of modelling a richer set of use-cases from geoscience.

  2. Time-resolved spectroscopy in the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Box, F. M. A.; Howard, J.; VandeKolk, E.; Meijer, F. G.

    1997-01-01

    At the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project tokamak spectrometers are used to diagnose the velocity distribution and abundances of impurity ions. Quantities can be measured as a function of time, and the temporal resolution depends on the line emissivity and can be as good as 0.2 ms for the strongest lines.

  3. How to resolve microsecond current fluctuations in single ion channels: The power of beta distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A main ingredient for the understanding of structure/function correlates of ion channels is the quantitative description of single-channel gating and conductance. However, a wealth of information provided from fast current fluctuations beyond the temporal resolution of the recording system is often ignored, even though it is close to the time window accessible to molecular dynamics simulations. This kind of current fluctuations provide a special technical challenge, because individual opening/closing or blocking/unblocking events cannot be resolved, and the resulting averaging over undetected events decreases the single-channel current. Here, I briefly summarize the history of fast-current fluctuation analysis and focus on the so-called “beta distributions.” This tool exploits characteristics of current fluctuation-induced excess noise on the current amplitude histograms to reconstruct the true single-channel current and kinetic parameters. A guideline for the analysis and recent applications demonstrate that a construction of theoretical beta distributions by Markov Model simulations offers maximum flexibility as compared to analytical solutions. PMID:26368656

  4. Time Domain Filtering of Resolved Images of Sgr A{sup ∗}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiokawa, Hotaka; Doeleman, Sheperd S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gammie, Charles F. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The goal of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is to provide spatially resolved images of Sgr A*, the source associated with the Galactic Center black hole. Because Sgr A* varies on timescales that are short compared to an EHT observing campaign, it is interesting to ask whether variability contains information about the structure and dynamics of the accretion flow. In this paper, we introduce “time-domain filtering,” a technique to filter time fluctuating images with specific temporal frequency ranges and to demonstrate the power and usage of the technique by applying it to mock millimeter wavelength images of Sgr A*. The mock image data is generated from the General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulation and the general relativistic ray-tracing method. We show that the variability on each line of sight is tightly correlated with a typical radius of emission. This is because disk emissivity fluctuates on a timescale of the order of the local orbital period. Time-domain filtered images therefore reflect the model dependent emission radius distribution, which is not accessible in time-averaged images. We show that, in principle, filtered data have the power to distinguish between models with different black-hole spins, different disk viewing angles, and different disk orientations in the sky.

  5. Time resolved LIF measurements for the study of NO removal: influence of H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresnet, F.; Baravian, G.; Magne, L.; Pasquiers, S.; Postel, C.; Puech, V.; Rousseau, A.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostic of the NO-removal in a pre-ionized homogeneous discharge, i.e. without density nor temperature gradients, using the photo-triggering technique. This technique allows to measure specie densities in the temporal post-discharge after one homogeneous pulsed excitation, so that experimental results can be more confidently compared to predictions of a 0D-model, i.e. a model which have a spatially homogeneous kinetic description of the cleaning process. This model is fully self-consistent and describe both kinetics during the discharge and the post-discharge. We first reported the influence of electrical parameters (energy and reduced electric field) on the NO removal efficiency in the N 2 /NO mixture. Then, the influence of hydrocarbon (C 2 H 4 ) addition was determined. We showed that dissociation of NO through collision with the metastable state N 2 (a '1 Σ u - ) play the main part in the NO-removal process in homogeneously excited N 2 /NO mixture, and, that a de-excitation process of N 2 (a '1 Σ u - ) by C 2 H 4 explains that the NO-removal efficiency decreases when ethene is added to the mixture. Estimation for the rate coefficient value of this reaction, closed to the known value for methane, was also deduced from our results. In this study, the influence of water is investigated on the NO removal efficiency

  6. Comparison of ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved-optical-gating traces for three common beam geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLong, K.W.; Trebino, R.; Kane, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    We recently introduced frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), a technique for measuring the intensity and phase of an individual, arbitrary, ultrashort laser pulse. FROG can use almost any instantaneous optical nonlinearity, with the most common geometries being polarization gate, self-diffraction, and second-harmonic generation. The experimentally generated FROG trace is intuitive, visually appealing, and can yield quantitative information about the pulse parameters (such as temporal and spectral width and chirp). However, the qualitative and the quantitative features of the FROG trace depend strongly on the geometry used. We compare the FROG traces for several common ultrashort pulses for these three common geometries and, where possible, develop scaling rules that allow one to obtain quantitative information about the pulse directly from the experimental FROG trace. We illuminate the important features of the various FROG traces for transform-limited, linearly chirped, self-phase modulated, and nonlinearly chirped pulses, pulses with simultaneous linear chirp and self-phase modulation, and pulses with simultaneous linear chirp and cubic phase distortion, as well as double pulses, pulses with phase jumps, and pulses with complex intensity and phase substructure

  7. Time-resolved reconstruction of dynamical pulse trains using multiheterodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T.; Tykalewicz, B.; Goulding, D.; Kelleher, B.; Huyet, Guillaume; Hegarty, S. P.

    2014-05-01

    A technique has been developed for the measurement of pulse trains demonstrating a dynamical behaviour (i.e. not ideally periodic). Existing techniques in this area (e.g. FROG, SPIDER or other heterodyne methods) require very stable pulse trains, or large averaging times, and so are limited when applied to even slowly varying pulse trains. The technique presented involves mixing the comb under test (CUT) with a reference optical frequency comb (OFC) which has a known spectral intensity profile. Mixing these signals on a photodiode results in a series of radio frequency (RF) beat tones. The phase properties of these beat tones can be used to measure the spectral phase between adjacent modes in the CUT, allowing the full complex spectrum of the CUT to be measured simultaneously with one single real time oscilloscope acquisition. With the spectral properties of the comb known, the pulse train can be reconstructed in the temporal domain. By applying this technique to very small sections of the beating signal ( tens of nanoseconds), a time resolved picture of the pulse train behaviour can be obtained. Dynamic signals generated in a LiNbO3 modulator driven by a modulated RF signal have been measured. This technique is well suited to studying the combs produced by mode-locked semiconductor lasers. Quantum dot mode-locked laser combs can be characterised, and pulse train instabilities measured.

  8. High-performance coupled poro-hydro-mechanical models to resolve fluid escape pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räss, Ludovic; Makhnenko, Roman; Podladchikov, Yury

    2017-04-01

    Field observations and laboratory experiments exhibit inelastic deformation features arising in many coupled settings relevant to geo-applications. These irreversible deformations and their specific patterns suggest a rather ductile or brittle mechanism, such as viscous creep or micro cracks, taking place on both geological (long) and human (short) timescales. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for these deformation features, there is a current need to accurately resolve the non-linearities inherent to strongly coupled physical processes. Among the large variety of modelling tools and softwares available nowadays in the community, very few are capable to efficiently solve coupled systems with high accuracy in both space and time and run efficiently on modern hardware. Here, we propose a robust framework to solve coupled multi-physics hydro-mechanical processes on very high spatial and temporal resolution in both two and three dimensions. Our software relies on the Finite-Difference Method and a pseudo-transient scheme is used to converge to the implicit solution of the system of poro-visco-elasto-plastic equations at each physical time step. The rheology including viscosity estimates for major reservoir rock types is inferred from novel lab experiments and confirms the ease of flow of sedimentary rocks. Our results propose a physical mechanism responsible for the generation of high permeability pathways in fluid saturated porous media and predict their propagation in rates observable on operational timescales. Finally, our software scales linearly on more than 5000 GPUs.

  9. Highly resolved measurements of atmospheric turbulence with the new 2d-Atmospheric Laser Cantilever Anemometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeromin, A; Schaffarczyk, A P; Puczylowski, J; Peinke, J; Hölling, M

    2014-01-01

    For the investigation of atmospheric turbulent flows on small scales a new anemometer was developed, the so-called 2d-Atmospheric Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-ALCA). It performs highly resolved measurements with a spatial resolution in millimeter range and temporal resolution in kHz range, thus detecting very small turbulent structures. The anemometer is a redesign of the successfully operating 2d-LCA for laboratory application. The new device was designed to withstand hostile operating environments (rain and saline, humid air). In February 2012, the 2d-ALCA was used for the first time in a test field. The device was mounted in about 53 m above ground level on a lattice tower near the German North Sea coast. Wind speed was measured by the 2d-ALCA at 10 kHz sampling rate and by cup anemometers at 1 Hz. The instantaneous wind speed ranged from 8 m/s to 19 m/s at an average turbulence level of about 7 %. Wind field characteristics were analyzed based on cup anemometer as well as 2d-ALCA. The combination of both devices allowed the study of atmospheric turbulence over several magnitudes in turbulent scales

  10. 3D Spatially Resolved Models of the Intracellular Dynamics of the Hepatitis C Genome Replication Cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Knodel, Markus

    2017-10-02

    Mathematical models of virus dynamics have not previously acknowledged spatial resolution at the intracellular level despite substantial arguments that favor the consideration of intracellular spatial dependence. The replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral RNA (vRNA) occurs within special replication complexes formed from membranes derived from endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). These regions, termed membranous webs, are generated primarily through specific interactions between nonstructural virus-encoded proteins (NSPs) and host cellular factors. The NSPs are responsible for the replication of the vRNA and their movement is restricted to the ER surface. Therefore, in this study we developed fully spatio-temporal resolved models of the vRNA replication cycle of HCV. Our simulations are performed upon realistic reconstructed cell structures-namely the ER surface and the membranous webs-based on data derived from immunostained cells replicating HCV vRNA. We visualized 3D simulations that reproduced dynamics resulting from interplay of the different components of our models (vRNA, NSPs, and a host factor), and we present an evaluation of the concentrations for the components within different regions of the cell. Thus far, our model is restricted to an internal portion of a hepatocyte and is qualitative more than quantitative. For a quantitative adaption to complete cells, various additional parameters will have to be determined through further in vitro cell biology experiments, which can be stimulated by the results deccribed in the present study.

  11. Time-Resolved CubeSat Photometry with a Low Cost Electro-Optics System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasdia, F.; Barjatya, A.; Bilardi, S.

    2016-09-01

    Once the orbits of small debris or CubeSats are determined, optical rate-track follow-up observations can provide information for characterization or identification of these objects. Using the Celestron 11" RASA telescope and an inexpensive CMOS machine vision camera, we have obtained time-series photometry from dozens of passes of small satellites and CubeSats over sites in Florida and Massachusetts. The fast readout time of the CMOS detector allows temporally resolved sampling of glints from small wire antennae and structural facets of rapidly tumbling objects. Because the shape of most CubeSats is known, these light curves can be used in a mission support function for small satellite operators to diagnose or verify the proper functioning of an attitude control system or deployed antenna or instrument. We call this telescope system and the accompanying analysis tools OSCOM for Optical tracking and Spectral characterization of CubeSats for Operational Missions. We introduce the capability of OSCOM for space object characterization, and present photometric observations demonstrating the potential of high frame rate small satellite photometry.

  12. A new framework for resolving conflicts over transboundary rivers using bankruptcy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Zarezadeh, M.; Morid, S.

    2014-08-01

    A novel bankruptcy approach is proposed for resolving transboundary river conflicts in which the total water demand or claim of the riparian parties is more than the available water. Bankruptcy solution methods can allocate the available water to the conflicting parties with respect to their claims. Four commonly used bankruptcy methods in the economic literature are used here to develop new river bankruptcy solution methods for allocating water to the riparian parties of river systems. Given the non-uniform spatial and temporal distribution of water across river basins, the proposed solution methods are formulated as non-linear network flow optimization models to allocate water with respect to time sensitivity of water deliveries at different locations in a river network during the planning horizon. Once allocation optimization solutions are developed, their acceptability and stability must be evaluated. Thus, a new bankruptcy allocation stability index (BASI) is developed for evaluating the acceptability of river bankruptcy solutions. To show how the proposed river bankruptcy framework can be helpful in practice, the suggested methods are applied to a real-world transboundary river system with eight riparians under various hydrologic regimes. Stability analysis based on the proposed stability evaluation method suggests that the acceptability of allocation rules is sensitive to hydrologic conditions and demand values. This finding has an important policy implication suggesting that fixed allocation rules and treaties may not be reliable for securing cooperation over transboundary water resources as they are vulnerable to changing socioeconomic and climatic conditions as well as hydrologic non-stationarity.

  13. Kinetics of Wnt-driven beta-catenin stabilization revealed by quantitative and temporal imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami N Hannoush

    Full Text Available The Wnt/beta-catenin signal transduction pathway regulates a broad range of developmental processes. Aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway leads to cancer and degenerative diseases. beta-catenin is a key signaling molecule that is frequently used as a direct monitor of Wnt pathway activation. This paper describes a multi-parametric method for quantitative analysis of cellular beta-catenin protein levels in a rapid and high-throughput manner. The assay offers temporally resolved detection of Wnt-stimulated accumulation of beta-catenin, simultaneously detecting cell number, and it sheds light onto the kinetics of posttranslational stabilization of beta-catenin.

  14. Gauge invariance in the theoretical description of time-resolved angle-resolved pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freericks, J. K.; Krishnamurthy, H. R.; Sentef, M. A.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-10-01

    Nonequilibrium calculations in the presence of an electric field are usually performed in a gauge, and need to be transformed to reveal the gauge-invariant observables. In this work, we discuss the issue of gauge invariance in the context of time-resolved angle-resolved pump/probe photoemission. If the probe is applied while the pump is still on, one must ensure that the calculations of the observed photocurrent are gauge invariant. We also discuss the requirement of the photoemission signal to be positive and the relationship of this constraint to gauge invariance. We end by discussing some technical details related to the perturbative derivation of the photoemission spectra, which involve processes where the pump pulse photoexcites electrons due to nonequilibrium effects.

  15. Computed tomography of temporal bone fractures and temporal region anatomy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownder, S; Scrivani, P V; Bezuidenhout, A; Divers, T J; Ducharme, N G

    2010-01-01

    In people, specific classifications of temporal bone fractures are associated with clinical signs and prognosis. In horses, similar classifications have not been evaluated and might be useful establishing prognosis or understanding pathogenesis of certain types of trauma. We hypothesized associations between temporal bone fracture location and orientation in horses detected during computed tomography (CT) and frequency of facial nerve (CN7) deficit, vestibulocochlear nerve (CN8) deficit, or temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO). Complex temporal region anatomy may confound fracture identification, and consequently a description of normal anatomy was included. All horses undergoing temporal region CT at our hospital between July 1998 and May 2008. Data were collected retrospectively, examiners were blinded, and relationships were investigated among temporal bone fractures, ipsilateral THO, ipsilateral CN7, or ipsilateral CN8 deficits by Chi-square or Fischer's exact tests. Seventy-nine horses had CT examinations of the temporal region (158 temporal bones). Sixteen temporal bone fractures were detected in 14 horses. Cranial nerve deficits were seen with fractures in all parts of the temporal bone (petrosal, squamous, and temporal) and, temporal bone fractures were associated with CN7 and CN8 deficits and THO. No investigated fracture classification scheme, however, was associated with specific cranial nerve deficits. Without knowledge of the regional anatomy, normal structures may be mistaken for a temporal bone fracture or vice versa. Although no fracture classification scheme was associated with the assessed clinical signs, simple descriptive terminology (location and orientation) is recommended for reporting and facilitating future comparisons.

  16. Temporal Convergence for Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillip Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Time and knowledge have tended to be conceptualised in conventional knowledge management systems as either ‘timeless’ recordings of procedures, or time-stamped records of past events and states. The concept of temporal convergence was previously developed to help apply knowledge-management theory to complex military processes such as commander’s intent, shared situation awareness, and self-synchronisation. This paper clarifies the concept and introduces several others in forming a framework to assist discussion and exploration of the types of knowledge required for complex endeavours, such as warfighting, characterised by opposition and uncertainty. The approach is grounded in a pragmatist philosophy and constructivist epistemology. Argument proceeds along mathematical lines from a basis that the types of knowledge most valuable to goal-directed agents in uncertain environments can be modelled as directed graph topologies. The framework is shown to be useful in describing and reasoning about the knowledge requirements and prerequisites for distributed decision-making through the sharing of situational knowledge and common intentions, with practical application to the planning and execution of operations. To the designers of knowledge management systems seeking to address this space, it presents a challenge that cannot be addressed merely by construction, storage, search and retrieval of documents and records pertaining to the past.

  17. Correlated Temporal and Spectral Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Jean H.

    2007-01-01

    The variability of neutron star and black hole X-ray sources has several dimensions, because of the roles played by different important time-scales. The variations on time scales of hours, weeks, and months, ranging from 50% to orders of magnitude, arise out of changes in the flow in the disk. The most important driving forces for those changes are probably various possible instabilities in the disk, though there may be effects with other dominant causes. The changes in the rate of flow appear to be associated with changes in the flow's configuration, as the accreting material approaches the compact object, for there are generally correlated changes in both the Xray spectra and the character of the faster temporal variability. There has been a lot of progress in tracking these correlations, both for Z and Atoll neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, and for black hole binaries. I will discuss these correlations and review briefly what they tell us about the physical states of the systems.

  18. A survey of temporal data mining

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since temporal data mining brings together techniques from different fields such as statistics, machine learning and databases, the literature is scattered among many different sources. In this article, we present an overview of techniques of temporal data mining. We mainly concentrate on algorithms for pattern discovery in ...

  19. A survey of temporal data mining

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequences within a group have similar functional properties (Corpet 1988; Miller et al 1999;. Osata et al 2002). .... A rule consists of a pair of Boolean-valued propositions, namely, a left-hand side proposition (the ... The problem now is to search for representative (temporal) patterns within each group. Each temporal pattern ...

  20. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    in conventional temporally-annotated corpora – for example Michaelmas or Vasant Panchami. UsingWikipedia and linked data, we automatically construct a resource of English named temporal expressions, and use it to extract training examples from a large corpus. These examples are then used to train and evaluate...