Sample records for temporally constrained k-t

  1. k-t PCA: temporally constrained k-t BLAST reconstruction using principal component analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Kozerke, Sebastian; Ringgaard, Steffen


    in the Fourier reciprocal x-f space (x = spatial position, f = temporal frequency) using an adaptive filter derived from a low-resolution estimate of the signal covariance. However, this filtering process tends to increase the reconstruction error or lower the achievable acceleration factor. This is problematic...

  2. Effect of improving spatial or temporal resolution on image quality and quantitative perfusion assessment with k-t SENSE acceleration in first-pass CMR myocardial perfusion imaging. (United States)

    Maredia, Neil; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Kozerke, Sebastian; Larghat, Abdulghani; Greenwood, John P; Plein, Sven


    k-t Sensitivity-encoded (k-t SENSE) acceleration has been used to improve spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and slice coverage in first-pass cardiac magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging. This study compares the effect of investing the speed-up afforded by k-t SENSE acceleration in spatial or temporal resolution. Ten healthy volunteers underwent adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging using four saturation-recovery gradient echo perfusion sequences: a reference sequence accelerated by sensitivity encoding (SENSE), and three k-t SENSE-accelerated sequences with higher spatial resolution ("k-t High"), shorter acquisition window ("k-t Fast"), or a shared increase in both parameters ("k-t Hybrid") relative to the reference. Dark-rim artifacts and image quality were analyzed. Semiquantitative myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) and Fermi-derived quantitative MPR were also calculated. The k-t Hybrid sequence produced highest image quality scores at rest (P = 0.015). Rim artifact thickness and extent were lowest using k-t High and k-t Hybrid sequences (P spatial resolution by k-t SENSE acceleration produces the greatest reduction in dark rim artifact. There is good agreement between k-t SENSE and standard acquisition methods for semiquantitative and fully quantitative myocardial perfusion analysis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. K T Kashyap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. K T Kashyap. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 1 February 2000 pp 39-45 Metallic Materials. Role of diffusional coherency strain theory in the discontinuous precipitation in Mg–Al alloy · K T Kashyap C Ramachandra M Sujatha B Chatterji.

  4. A g-factor metric for k-t SENSE and k-t PCA based parallel imaging. (United States)

    Binter, Christian; Ramb, Rebecca; Jung, Bernd; Kozerke, Sebastian


    To propose and validate a g-factor formalism for k-t SENSE, k-t PCA and related k-t methods for assessing SNR and temporal fidelity. An analytical gxf -factor formulation in the spatiotemporal frequency domain is derived, enabling assessment of noise and depiction fidelity in both the spatial and frequency domain. Using pseudoreplica analysis of cardiac cine data the gxf -factor description is validated and example data are used to analyze the performance of k-t methods for various parameter settings. Analytical gxf -factor maps were found to agree well with pseudoreplica analysis for 3x, 5x, and 7x k-t SENSE and k-t PCA. While k-t SENSE resulted in lower average gxf values (gx (avg) ) in static regions when compared with k-t PCA, k-t PCA yielded lower gx (avg) values in dynamic regions. Temporal transfer was better preserved with k-t PCA for increasing undersampling factors. The proposed gxf -factor and temporal transfer formalism allows assessing noise performance and temporal depiction fidelity of k-t methods including k-t SENSE and k-t PCA. The framework enables quantitative comparison of different k-t methods relative to frame-by-frame parallel imaging reconstruction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Auto-calibration approach for k-t SENSE. (United States)

    Ponce, Irene P; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A; Griswold, Mark A; Jakob, Peter M; Kellman, Peter


    The goal of this work is to increase the spatial resolution of training data, used by reconstruction methods such as k-t SENSE in order to calculate the missing data in a series of dynamic images, without compromising their temporal resolution or acquisition time. The k-t SENSE method allows dynamic imaging at high acceleration factors with high reconstruction quality. However, the low resolution training data required by k-t SENSE may cause undesired temporal filtering effects in the reconstructed images. In this work, a feedback regularization approach is applied to realize auto-calibration of the k-t SENSE algorithm. To that end, a full resolution training data set is calculated from the accelerated data itself using a TSENSE reconstruction. The reconstructed training data are then fed back for the actual k-t SENSE reconstruction. For evaluation of our approach, temporal filtering effects are quantified by calculating the modulation transfer function and noise measurements are done by Monte-Carlo simulations. Computer simulations and cardiac imaging experiments demonstrate an improved temporal fidelity of auto-calibrated k-t SENSE compared to standard k-t SENSE. Auto-calibrated k-t SENSE provides high quality reconstructions for dynamic imaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Using temporal seeding to constrain the disparity search range in stereo matching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndhlovu, T


    Full Text Available are then tracked to a successive left image of the sequence and by using the previously calculated disparity estimates, the disparity search range is constrained. Errors between the local-matching and the temporal seeding algorithms are analysed. Results show...

  7. Temporally and spatially constrained ICA of fMRI data analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Xia, Maogeng; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying


    Constrained independent component analysis (CICA) is capable of eliminating the order ambiguity that is found in the standard ICA and extracting the desired independent components by incorporating prior information into the ICA contrast function. However, the current CICA method produces constraints that are based on only one type of prior information (temporal/spatial), which may increase the dependency of CICA on the accuracy of the prior information. To improve the robustness of CICA and to reduce the impact of the accuracy of prior information on CICA, we proposed a temporally and spatially constrained ICA (TSCICA) method that incorporated two types of prior information, both temporal and spatial, as constraints in the ICA. The proposed approach was tested using simulated fMRI data and was applied to a real fMRI experiment using 13 subjects who performed a movement task. Additionally, the performance of TSCICA was compared with the ICA method, the temporally CICA (TCICA) method and the spatially CICA (SCICA) method. The results from the simulation and from the real fMRI data demonstrated that TSCICA outperformed TCICA, SCICA and ICA in terms of robustness to noise. Moreover, the TSCICA method displayed better robustness to prior temporal/spatial information than the TCICA/SCICA method.

  8. Audio-visual temporal recalibration can be constrained by content cues regardless of spatial overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrick eRoseboom


    Full Text Available It has now been well established that the point of subjective synchrony for audio and visual events can be shifted following exposure to asynchronous audio-visual presentations, an effect often referred to as temporal recalibration. Recently it was further demonstrated that it is possible to concurrently maintain two such recalibrated, and opposing, estimates of audio-visual temporal synchrony. However, it remains unclear precisely what defines a given audio-visual pair such that it is possible to maintain a temporal relationship distinct from other pairs. It has been suggested that spatial separation of the different audio-visual pairs is necessary to achieve multiple distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates. Here we investigated if this was necessarily true. Specifically, we examined whether it is possible to obtain two distinct temporal recalibrations for stimuli that differed only in featural content. Using both complex (audio visual speech; Experiment 1 and simple stimuli (high and low pitch audio matched with either vertically or horizontally oriented Gabors; Experiment 2 we found concurrent, and opposite, recalibrations despite there being no spatial difference in presentation location at any point throughout the experiment. This result supports the notion that the content of an audio-visual pair can be used to constrain distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates regardless of spatial overlap.

  9. Audio-Visual Temporal Recalibration Can be Constrained by Content Cues Regardless of Spatial Overlap. (United States)

    Roseboom, Warrick; Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya


    It has now been well established that the point of subjective synchrony for audio and visual events can be shifted following exposure to asynchronous audio-visual presentations, an effect often referred to as temporal recalibration. Recently it was further demonstrated that it is possible to concurrently maintain two such recalibrated estimates of audio-visual temporal synchrony. However, it remains unclear precisely what defines a given audio-visual pair such that it is possible to maintain a temporal relationship distinct from other pairs. It has been suggested that spatial separation of the different audio-visual pairs is necessary to achieve multiple distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates. Here we investigated if this is necessarily true. Specifically, we examined whether it is possible to obtain two distinct temporal recalibrations for stimuli that differed only in featural content. Using both complex (audio visual speech; see Experiment 1) and simple stimuli (high and low pitch audio matched with either vertically or horizontally oriented Gabors; see Experiment 2) we found concurrent, and opposite, recalibrations despite there being no spatial difference in presentation location at any point throughout the experiment. This result supports the notion that the content of an audio-visual pair alone can be used to constrain distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates regardless of spatial overlap.

  10. Improved k-t PCA Algorithm Using Artificial Sparsity in Dynamic MRI. (United States)

    Wang, Yiran; Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Lixia; Xia, Ling; Liu, Feng


    The k-t principal component analysis (k-t PCA) is an effective approach for high spatiotemporal resolution dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, it suffers from larger residual aliasing artifacts and noise amplification when the reduction factor goes higher. To further enhance the performance of this technique, we propose a new method called sparse k-t PCA that combines the k-t PCA algorithm with an artificial sparsity constraint. It is a self-calibrated procedure that is based on the traditional k-t PCA method by further eliminating the reconstruction error derived from complex subtraction of the sampled k-t space from the original reconstructed k-t space. The proposed method is tested through both simulations and in vivo datasets with different reduction factors. Compared to the standard k-t PCA algorithm, the sparse k-t PCA can improve the normalized root-mean-square error performance and the accuracy of temporal resolution. It is thus useful for rapid dynamic MR imaging.

  11. Motion artifact removal from photoplethysmographic signals by combining temporally constrained independent component analysis and adaptive filter. (United States)

    Peng, Fulai; Zhang, Zhengbo; Gou, Xiaoming; Liu, Hongyun; Wang, Weidong


    The calculation of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) relies heavily on the amplitude information of the high-quality photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals, which could be contaminated by motion artifacts (MA) during monitoring. A new method combining temporally constrained independent component analysis (cICA) and adaptive filters is presented here to extract the clean PPG signals from the MA corrupted PPG signals with the amplitude information reserved. The underlying PPG signal could be extracted from the MA contaminated PPG signals automatically by using cICA algorithm. Then the amplitude information of the PPG signals could be recovered by using adaptive filters. Compared with conventional ICA algorithms, the proposed approach is permutation and scale ambiguity-free. Numerical examples with both synthetic datasets and real-world MA corrupted PPG signals demonstrate that the proposed method could remove the MA from MA contaminated PPG signals more effectively than the two existing FFT-LMS and moving average filter (MAF) methods. This paper presents a new method which combines the cICA algorithm and adaptive filter to extract the underlying PPG signals from the MA contaminated PPG signals with the amplitude information reserved. The new method could be used in the situations where one wants to extract the interested source automatically from the mixed observed signals with the amplitude information reserved. The results of study demonstrated the efficacy of this proposed method.

  12. MUSIC seeded multi-dipole MEG modeling using the Constrained Start Spatio-Temporal modeling procedure. (United States)

    Ranken, D M; Stephen, J M; George, J S


    The Constrained Start Spatio-Temporal modeling program (CSST) is an objective multi-dipole, multi-start MEG/EEG analysis procedure that randomly selects from 100 to 100,000 initial dipole configurations, and runs a nonlinear simplex search on each of these configurations employing a reduced Chi-square statistic as the minimization criterion, to obtain a set of dipole configurations that best fit the data [Ranken, 2002]. A parallel version of CSST is implemented in IDL and MPI, making CSST usable on a single computer, or on a Linux cluster. We have now developed a multi-resolution version of MUSIC [Mosher, 1992] [Mosher, 1998] that provides an 80% or more reduction in the number of forward calculations needed to obtain results comparable to a 160,000 point MUSIC scan, on a 2 mm grid that defines a brain volume. The multi-resolution MUSIC scan provides an improved set of initial dipole estimates for the CSST analysis. In preliminary tests on real and simulated MEG data, with model orders ranging between 5 and 7 dipoles, the best performance improvements were obtained by mixing in 1 to 3 dipole locations randomly drawn from the best MUSIC locations, with randomly selected locations from the brain volume to complete the selected model order. We have also developed an improved method for sampling the brain volume for initial configurations. These improvements have led to a 75% reduction in the number of starting configurations required to obtain 5-10 best solutions with equal or lower reduced Chi-square values, when compared to the best solutions from the previous version of CSST.

  13. Sequential combination of k-t principle component analysis (PCA) and partial parallel imaging: k-t PCA GROWL. (United States)

    Qi, Haikun; Huang, Feng; Zhou, Hongmei; Chen, Huijun


    k-t principle component analysis (k-t PCA) is a distinguished method for high spatiotemporal resolution dynamic MRI. To further improve the accuracy of k-t PCA, a combination with partial parallel imaging (PPI), k-t PCA/SENSE, has been tested. However, k-t PCA/SENSE suffers from long reconstruction time and limited improvement. This study aims to improve the combination of k-t PCA and PPI on both reconstruction speed and accuracy. A sequential combination scheme called k-t PCA GROWL (GRAPPA operator for wider readout line) was proposed. The GRAPPA operator was performed before k-t PCA to extend each readout line into a wider band, which improved the condition of the encoding matrix in the following k-t PCA reconstruction. k-t PCA GROWL was tested and compared with k-t PCA and k-t PCA/SENSE on cardiac imaging. k-t PCA GROWL consistently resulted in better image quality compared with k-t PCA/SENSE at high acceleration factors for both retrospectively and prospectively undersampled cardiac imaging, with a much lower computation cost. The improvement in image quality became greater with the increase of acceleration factor. By sequentially combining the GRAPPA operator and k-t PCA, the proposed k-t PCA GROWL method outperformed k-t PCA/SENSE in both reconstruction speed and accuracy, suggesting that k-t PCA GROWL is a better combination scheme than k-t PCA/SENSE. Magn Reson Med 77:1058-1067, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. The K-T Transition in Meghalaya, NE India (United States)

    Gertsch, B.; Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Garg, R.; Prasad, V.; Berner, Z.; Ateequzzaman, K.; Stueben, D.


    produced in the hypolimnion. Sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, biostratigraphic and paleoecological studies of the Um Sohryngkew Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) transition in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India, reveal biotic and environmental changes about 800 km from the Deccan volcanic province (DVP). Upper Cretaceous sediments consist mainly of conglomerates, glauconitic sandstone, sandy shale, calcareous shale with a few shell beds and rare coal pockets, all of which indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment with high detrital influx from nearby continental terrains. High kaolinite and illite indicate high humidity and high runoff. The K-T transition is in calcareous silty shale and marked by a 1 cm thin "rust colored" layer with high anomalies in Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru (108 ppb), Rh (93 ppb) and Pd (75 pbb). In the Danian, kaolinite remains the dominant clay mineral, suggesting humid climatic conditions. In contrast, semi-arid climate conditions prevailed in the contemporaneous Deccan Traps province, which appears to be linked to "mock aridity" (Harris and Van Couvering, 1995, Khadkikar et al., 1999). Microfossil assemblages define the K-T boundary. Nannofossils are common throughout the Upper Maastrichtian interval. Assemblages dominated by Micula decussata and Watzenueria barnesae along with common Ceratolithioides kampteneri and Lithraphidites quadratus are typical of the low latitude Tethys and Micula prinsii attests to the presence of the terminal Maastrichtian. Dinoflagellate cysts are common to abundant with increased frequencies of peridiniods, terrestrial organic matter and framboidal pyrite in the uppermost Maastrichtian. This suggests high nutrient loading possibly leading to stressful eutrophic conditions. Dinogymnium and Alisogymnium species have their last occurrences at the K-T boundary. The first appearence of Danian nannofossil species Neobiscutum romeinii and Biantholithus sparsus appear at 5 cm and 15 cm above the K-T boundary

  15. Correlation-constrained and sparsity-controlled vector autoregressive model for spatio-temporal wind power forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yongning; Ye, Lin; Pinson, Pierre


    The ever-increasing number of wind farms has brought both challenges and opportunities in the development of wind power forecasting techniques to take advantage of interdependenciesbetweentensorhundredsofspatiallydistributedwind farms, e.g., over a region. In this paper, a Sparsity......-Controlled Vector Autoregressive (SC-VAR) model is introduced to obtain sparse model structures in a spatio-temporal wind power forecasting framework by reformulating the original VAR model into a constrained Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP) problem. It allows controlling the sparsity of the coefficient...... and forecasting, the original SC-VAR is modified and a Correlation-Constrained SC-VAR (CCSC-VAR) is proposed based on spatial correlation information about wind farms. Our approach is evaluated based on a case study of very-short-term forecasting for 25 wind farms in Denmark. Comparison is performed with a set...

  16. Semi-supervised change detection approach combining sparse fusion and constrained k means for multi-temporal remote sensing images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha M. Lal


    Full Text Available Change detection is the measure of the thematic change information that can guide to more tangible insights into an underlying process involving land cover, land usage and environmental changes. This paper deals with a semi-supervised change detection approach combining sparse fusion and constrained k means clustering on multi-temporal remote sensing images taken at different timings T1 and T2. Initially a remote sensing fusion method with sparse representation over learned dictionaries is applied to the difference images. The dictionaries are learned from the difference images adaptively. The fused image is calculated by combining the sparse coefficients and the dictionary. Finally the fused image is subjected to constrained k means (CKM clustering combining few known labelled patterns and unlabelled patterns which have been collected from experts. The enhanced (CKM approach (ECKM is compared with k means, adaptive k means (AKM and fuzzy c means (FCM. Experimental results were carried out on multi-temporal remote sensing images. Results obtained using PCC and F1 measure confirms the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is also noticed that the ECKM provides better results with less misclassification of errors as compared to k means, adaptive k means and fuzzy c means.

  17. Impact of spatially constrained sampling of temporal contact networks on the evaluation of the epidemic risk

    CERN Document Server

    Vestergaard, Christian L; Génois, Mathieu; Poletto, Chiara; Colizza, Vittoria; Barrat, Alain


    The ability to directly record human face-to-face interactions increasingly enables the development of detailed data-driven models for the spread of directly transmitted infectious diseases at the scale of individuals. Complete coverage of the contacts occurring in a population is however generally unattainable, due for instance to limited participation rates or experimental constraints in spatial coverage. Here, we study the impact of spatially constrained sampling on our ability to estimate the epidemic risk in a population using such detailed data-driven models. The epidemic risk is quantified by the epidemic threshold of the susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible model for the propagation of communicable diseases, i.e. the critical value of disease transmissibility above which the disease turns endemic. We verify for both synthetic and empirical data of human interactions that the use of incomplete data sets due to spatial sampling leads to the underestimation of the epidemic risk. The bias is howev...

  18. Constraining Swiss Methane Emissions from Atmospheric Observations: Sensitivities and Temporal Development (United States)

    Henne, Stephan; Leuenberger, Markus; Steinbacher, Martin; Eugster, Werner; Meinhardt, Frank; Bergamaschi, Peter; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik


    Similar to other Western European countries, agricultural sources dominate the methane (CH4) emission budget in Switzerland. 'Bottom-up' estimates of these emissions are still connected with relatively large uncertainties due to considerable variability and uncertainties in observed emission factors for the underlying processes (e.g., enteric fermentation, manure management). Here, we present a regional-scale (˜300 x 200 km2) atmospheric inversion study of CH4 emissions in Switzerland making use of the recently established CarboCount-CH network of four stations on the Swiss Plateau as well as the neighbouring mountain-top sites Jungfraujoch and Schauinsland (Germany). Continuous observations from all CarboCount-CH sites are available since 2013. We use a high-resolution (7 x 7 km2) Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART-COSMO) in connection with two different inversion systems (Bayesian and extended Kalman filter) to estimate spatially and temporally resolved CH4 emissions for the Swiss domain in the period 2013 to 2016. An extensive set of sensitivity inversions is used to assess the overall uncertainty of our inverse approach. In general we find good agreement of the total Swiss CH4 emissions between our 'top-down' estimate and the national 'bottom-up' reporting. In addition, a robust emission seasonality, with reduced winter time values, can be seen in all years. No significant trend or year-to-year variability was observed for the analysed four-year period, again in agreement with a very small downward trend in the national 'bottom-up' reporting. Special attention is given to the influence of boundary conditions as taken from different global scale model simulations (TM5, FLEXPART) and remote observations. We find that uncertainties in the boundary conditions can induce large offsets in the national total emissions. However, spatial emission patterns are less sensitive to the choice of boundary condition. Furthermore and in order to demonstrate the

  19. Can riverside seismic monitoring constrain temporal and spatial variations in bedload transport during a controlled flood of the Trinity River? (United States)

    Glasgow, M. E.; Schmandt, B.; Gaeuman, D.


    To evaluate the utility of riverside seismic monitoring for constraining temporal and spatial variations in coarse bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers we collected seismic data during a dam-controlled flood of the Trinity River in northern California in May 2015. This field area was chosen because the Trinity River Restoration Project conducts extensive monitoring of water and sediment transport, and riverbed morphology to guide management of the river with the goal of improving salmon habitat. Four three component broadband seismometers were collocated with water discharge and bedload physical sampling sites along a ~30 km reach of the Trinity River downstream of the Lewiston Dam. Arrays with 10-80 cable-free vertical component geophones were also deployed at each of the four sites in order to constrain spatial variability and amplitude decay of seismic signals emanating from the river. Nominal inter-station spacing within the geophone arrays was ~30 m. The largest geophone array consisted of 83 nodes along a 700 m reach of the Trinity River with a gravel augmentation site at its upstream end. Initial analyses of the seismic data show that ground velocity power from averaged from ~7 - 90 Hz is correlated with discharge at all sites. The array at the gravel injection site shows greater high frequency (>30 Hz) power at the upstream end where gravel was injected during the release compared to ~300 m downstream, consistent with bedload transport providing a significant source of seismic energy in addition to water discharge. Declining seismic power during a ~3 day plateau at peak discharge when physical sampler data shows decreasing bedload flux provides a further indication that the seismic data are sensitive to bedload transport. We will use the array data to back-project the seismic signals in multiple frequency bands into the channel to create maps of the time-varying spatial intensity of seismic energy production. We hypothesize that the greatest seismic

  20. Automated tractography in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy (TRACULA). (United States)

    Kreilkamp, Barbara A K; Weber, Bernd; Richardson, Mark P; Keller, Simon S


    A detailed understanding of white matter tract alterations in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is important as it may provide useful information for likely side of seizure onset, cognitive impairment and postoperative prognosis. However, most diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) studies have relied on manual reconstruction of tract bundles, despite the recent development of automated techniques. In the present study, we used an automated white matter tractography analysis approach to quantify temporal lobe white matter tract alterations in TLE and determine the relationships between tract alterations, the extent of hippocampal atrophy and the chronicity and severity of the disorder. We acquired preoperative T1-weighted and DTI data in 64 patients with well-characterized TLE, with imaging and histopathological evidence of hippocampal sclerosis. Identical acquisitions were collected for 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We employed automatic probabilistic tractography DTI analysis using TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy (TRACULA) available in context of Freesurfer software for the reconstruction of major temporal lobe tract bundles. We determined the factors influencing probabilistic tract reconstruction and investigated alterations of DTI scalar metrics along white matter tracts with respect to hippocampal volume, which was automatically estimated using Freesurfer's morphometric pipelines. We also explored the relationships between white matter tract alterations and duration of epilepsy, age of onset of epilepsy and seizure burden (defined as a function of seizure frequency and duration of epilepsy). Whole-tract diffusion characteristics of patients with TLE differed according to side of epilepsy and were significantly different between patients and controls. Waypoint comparisons along each tract revealed that patients had significantly altered tissue characteristics of the ipsilateral inferior-longitudinal, uncinate fasciculus, superior

  1. Acceleration of tissue phase mapping by k-t BLAST: a detailed analysis of the influence of k-t-BLAST for the quantification of myocardial motion at 3T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhaus G Ulrich


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of myocardial motion with tissue phase mapping (TPM provides high spatiotemporal resolution and quantitative motion information in three directions. Today, whole volume coverage of the heart by TPM encoding at high spatial and temporal resolution is limited by long data acquisition times. Therefore, a significant increase in imaging speed without deterioration of the quantitative motion information is required. For this purpose, the k-t BLAST acceleration technique was combined with TPM black-blood functional imaging of the heart. Different k-t factors were evaluated with respect to their impact on the quantitative assessment of cardiac motion. Results It is demonstrated that a k-t BLAST factor of two can be used with a marginal, but statistically significant deterioration of the quantitative motion data. Further increasing the k-t acceleration causes substantial alteration of the peak velocities and the motion pattern, but the temporal behavior of the contraction is well maintained up to an acceleration factor of six. Conclusions The application of k-t BLAST for the acceleration of TPM appears feasible. A reduction of the acquisition time of almost 45% could be achieved without substantial loss of quantitative motion information.

  2. Highly-Accelerated Real-Time Cardiac Cine MRI Using k-t SPARSE-SENSE (United States)

    Feng, Li; Srichai, Monvadi B.; Lim, Ruth P.; Harrison, Alexis; King, Wilson; Adluru, Ganesh; Dibella, Edward VR.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Otazo, Ricardo; Kim, Daniel


    For patients with impaired breath-hold capacity and/or arrhythmias, real-time cine MRI may be more clinically useful than breath-hold cine MRI. However, commercially available real-time cine MRI methods using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatio-temporal resolution due to their low image acquisition speed. We sought to achieve relatively high spatial resolution (~2.5mm × 2.5mm) and temporal resolution (~40ms), to produce high-quality real-time cine MR images that could be applied clinically for wall motion assessment and measurement of left ventricular (LV) function. In this work, we present an 8-fold accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI pulse sequence using a combination of compressed sensing and parallel imaging (k-t SPARSE-SENSE). Compared with reference, breath-hold cine MRI, our 8-fold accelerated real-time cine MRI produced significantly worse qualitative grades (1–5 scale), but its image quality and temporal fidelity scores were above 3.0 (adequate) and artifacts and noise scores were below 3.0 (moderate), suggesting that acceptable diagnostic image quality can be achieved. Additionally, both 8-fold accelerated real-time cine and breath-hold cine MRI yielded comparable LV function measurements, with coefficient of variation cine MRI with k-t SPARSE-SENSE is a promising modality for rapid imaging of myocardial function. PMID:22887290

  3. Highly accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI using k-t SPARSE-SENSE. (United States)

    Feng, Li; Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Harrison, Alexis; King, Wilson; Adluru, Ganesh; Dibella, Edward V R; Sodickson, Daniel K; Otazo, Ricardo; Kim, Daniel


    For patients with impaired breath-hold capacity and/or arrhythmias, real-time cine MRI may be more clinically useful than breath-hold cine MRI. However, commercially available real-time cine MRI methods using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatio-temporal resolution due to their low image acquisition speed. We sought to achieve relatively high spatial resolution (∼2.5 × 2.5 mm(2)) and temporal resolution (∼40 ms), to produce high-quality real-time cine MR images that could be applied clinically for wall motion assessment and measurement of left ventricular function. In this work, we present an eightfold accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI pulse sequence using a combination of compressed sensing and parallel imaging (k-t SPARSE-SENSE). Compared with reference, breath-hold cine MRI, our eightfold accelerated real-time cine MRI produced significantly worse qualitative grades (1-5 scale), but its image quality and temporal fidelity scores were above 3.0 (adequate) and artifacts and noise scores were below 3.0 (moderate), suggesting that acceptable diagnostic image quality can be achieved. Additionally, both eightfold accelerated real-time cine and breath-hold cine MRI yielded comparable left ventricular function measurements, with coefficient of variation cine MRI with k-t SPARSE-SENSE is a promising modality for rapid imaging of myocardial function. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. NLO inclusive jet production in $k_T$-factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Bartels, J.; Schwennsen, F.


    The inclusive production of jets in the central region of rapidity is studied in $k_T$-factorization at next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD perturbation theory. Calculations are performed in the Regge limit making use of the NLO BFKL results. A jet cone definition is introduced and a proper phase--space separation into multi-Regge and quasi-multi-Regge kinematic regions is carried out. Two situations are discussed: scattering of highly virtual photons, which requires a symmetric energy scale to separate the impact factors from the gluon Green's function, and hadron-hadron collisions, where a non--symmetric scale choice is needed.

  5. High resolution three-dimensional cardiac perfusion imaging using compartment-based k-t principal component analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitanis, Viton; Manka, Robert; Giese, Daniel


    Three-dimensional myocardial perfusion imaging requires significant acceleration of data acquisition to achieve whole-heart coverage with adequate spatial and temporal resolution. The present article introduces a compartment-based k-t principal component analysis reconstruction approach, which...... permits three-dimensional perfusion imaging at 10-fold nominal acceleration. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that the compartment-based method results in accurate representations of dynamic signal intensity changes with significant improvements of temporal fidelity in comparison to conventional k...... component analysis for highly accelerated three-dimensional perfusion imaging....

  6. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyuan Yu


    Full Text Available Passive infrared (PIR motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach. (United States)

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian


    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks.

  8. Environments and extinctions at the K-T boundary in eastern Montana are compatible with an asteroid impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fastovsky, D.E. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States)); Sheehan, P.M. (Milwaukee Public Museum, WI (United States))


    In the terrestrial latest Cretaceous Hell Creek (HC) Formation, both non-biotic events and patterns of extinction and survivorship are consistent with an asteroid impact causing the extinctions. Environments through the last 2--3 million-year interval represented by the HC remained relatively constant: an aggrading coastal lowland dissected by meandering rivers. The K-T boundary occurred during an abrupt change to impeded drainage represented by coals and pond deposits formed under low-energy conditions. Because of the close temporal proximity of the sediments of the Paleocene Cannonball Sea to the K-T boundary in South Dakota, impeded drainage in the earliest Paleocene in eastern Montana may be attributable to riverine base-level changes associated with a renewed transgression of the western interior sea during the K-T transition. Patterns within the biota mirror those of the paleoenvironments. The ecological diversity of HC dinosaurs remains statistically unchanged through HC time. Analyses of vertebrates at the species level indicate a differential extinction in which the terrestrial biota underwent far more extinction than its aquatic counterpart. There is no evidence for changing environments in the upper HC, and there is circumstantial evidence that the latest Cretaceous was a time of renewed transgression rather than regression. Likewise, biotic patterns do not accord with gradual, environmentally driven extinctions. While the paleoenvironmental change that marks the K-T transition in eastern Montana accounts for some of the extinctions, the pattern of differential extinction is concordant with an asteroid impact. In this scenario, aquatic ecosystems and some land-based food chains would be buffered by detritus-based feeding. Terrestrial systems, dependent upon primary productivity, would undergo a short-term loss of resources causing extinctions.

  9. Technical Note: Sequential combination of parallel imaging and dynamic artificial sparsity framework for rapid free-breathing golden-angle radial dynamic MRI: K-T ARTS-GROWL. (United States)

    Chen, Zhifeng; Kang, Liyi; Xia, Ling; Wang, Qiuliang; Li, Yi; Hu, Xinning; Liu, Feng; Huang, Feng


    To develop and validate a fast dynamic MR imaging scheme. A novel approach termed K-T ARTificial Sparsity enhanced GROWL (K-T ARTS-GROWL) is proposed that integrates dynamic artificial sparsity and GROWL-based parallel imaging (PI). Golden-angle radial k-space data are acquired with the free-breathing sampling scheme and then sorted into a time series by grouping consecutive spokes into temporal frames. The reconstruction framework sequentially applies PI and dynamic artificial sparsity. In the implementation, GROWL is taken as a special PI instance for its high computational efficiency and the K-T sparse is exploited to improve the PI reconstruction performance, because the dynamic MR images are often sparse in the x-f domain. In the final reconstruction procedure, artificial sparsity is constructed and fed back to the previous reconstruction. The K-T ARTS-GROWL results in high spatial and temporal resolution reconstructions. By exploiting dynamic artificial sparsity, the acceleration capability is further improved compared to the PI alone. The experimental results demonstrate that K-T ARTS-GROWL leads to significantly better image quality (P < 0.05) than the frame-by-frame GROWL and frame-by-frame ARTS-GROWL for in vivo liver imaging. Compared with the tested K-T reconstruction algorithms, the K-T ARTS-GROWL results in a better or comparable image quality and temporal resolution with greatly decreased computational costs. The proposed technique enables sparse, fast imaging of high spatial, high temporal resolutions for dynamic MRI. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. The Identification of Nonlinear Systems Using C t - K t Plane Coordinates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ming-Fei Chen; Dyi-Cheng Chen; Chung-Heng Yang; Shih-Feng Tseng


    ...] (coefficient of stiffness), which are both functions of time in an M.C.K. nonlinear system, a new identification method is proposed in this paper. The graphs of the [subscript] C t [/subscript] - [subscript] K t [/subscript...

  11. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the K/T boundary deposit in Haiti (United States)

    Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Dhondt, S.; Espindola, J. M.


    The K/T boundary sequence is exposed in uplifted carbonate sediments of the southwest peninsula of Haiti. It is found at 15 localities within the Beloc formation, a sequence of limestone and marls interpreted as a monoclinal nappe structure thrust to the north. This tectonic deformation has affected the K/T boundary deposit to varying degrees. In some cases the less competent K/T deposit has acted as a slip plane leading to extensive shearing of the boundary layer, as well as duplication of the section. The presence of glassy tektites, shocked quartz, and an Ir anomaly directly link the deposit to a bolide impact. Stratigraphic and sedimentological features of the tripartite sequence indicate that it was formed by deposition from ballistic fallout of coarse tektites, emplacement of particle gravity flows and fine grained fallout of widely dispersed impact ejecta.

  12. Interactive Adjustment of Regularization in SENSE and k-t SENSE Using Commodity Graphics Hardware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Schacht; Atkinson, David; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild


    This project demonstrates that modern commodity graphics cards (GPUs) can be used to perform fast Cartesian SENSE and k-t SENSE reconstruction. Specifically, the SENSE inversion is accelerated by up to two orders of magnitude and is no longer the time-limiting step. The achieved reconstruction...

  13. Dinosaur bone beds and mass mortality: Implications for the K-T extinction (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth


    Mass accumulations of fossilized large terrestrial vertebrate skeletons (bone beds: BB) provide a test for K-T catastrophic extinction hypotheses. The two major factors contributing to BB formation are mode of death and sedimentation rate. Catastrophic mass mortality (CMM) is the sudden death of numerous individuals where species, age, health, gender, or social ranking offer no survivorship advantage. Noncatastrophic mass mortality (NCMM) occurs over time and is strongly influenced by species, age, or gender. In addition to cause of death, sedimentation rate is also important in BB formation. Models of BBs can be made. The CMM drops all individuals in their tracks, therefore, the BB should reflect the living population with respect to species, age, or gender. The NCMM results in monospecific BBs skewed in the direction of the less fit, usually the very young or very old, or towards a specific gender. The NCMM and AM BBs may become more similar the more spread out over time NCMM deaths occur because carcasses are widely scattered requiring hydraulic accumulation, and the greater time allows for more disarticulation and weathering. The CMM and NCMM BB appear to be dominated by social animals. Applying this and the characteristics of mortality patterns to the uppermost Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation indicates that only NCMM and AM BB occur. Furthermore, NCMM BB are rare in the upper third of the Hell Creek. Near the K-T boundary, only AM BB are known. The absence of CMM and NCMM BB appears to be real reflecting a decrease in population levels of some dinosaurs prior to the K-T event. The absence of CMM suggests that the K-T event did not lead to an instantaneous extinction of dinosaurs. Nor was there a protracted die-off due to an asteroid impact winter, because no NCMM BB are known at or near the K-T boundary.

  14. The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary: 25 Years of controversial discussion (United States)

    Harting, M.; Wittler, F. A.


    The K/T transition is under geoscientific focus since many years. Ever since the discovery of the Chicxulub- Impact theory in the early 1980s, its ctrater and its subsurface structure in the late 1990s many scientists and media, Hollywood, and the general public have become convinced that a large meteorite caused the K/T boundary and killed the dinosaurs and other organisms in the late Maastrichtian. However, today a much more comprehensive and detailed scientific background is present. Many scientist today believe that there is doubt that the Chicxulub impact is the "smoking gun". Moreover, there is increasing evidence that the Chicxulub impact predates the K/T mass extinction by about 300.000 years and did not cause the end of the dinosaures or of other marine and terrestrial organisms. On the other hand, some scientist still fixed to the general theory of a catastropic event. Due to recent field work on highly important sites and drillings inside the Chicxulub Impact structure itself, major new results are present today. In general, these new evidence, such as multiple ejecta layer, in locations in the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, the Tethys and beyond, could not be interpreted by secondary (e.g. sedimentological-) features (slumping, reworking). Unfortunately, due to the highly emotional and controversal discussion - sometimes more like a religious than a scientific fight - many scientist feel uncomfortable to join the K/T problem. In fact, in between only a couple of major groups in various Universities are focussed - and leading - the discussion. A more open interaction between various geoscientific disciplines and researcher may the key to solve the mystery of the Chicxulub Impact and its relation to the K/T boundary.

  15. Hexagonal Diamonds (Lonsdaleite) Discovered in the K/T Impact Layer in Spain and New Zealand (United States)

    Bunch, T. E.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J. P.; Kennett, D. J.; Que Hee, S. S.; Wolbach, W. S.; Stich, A.; Mercer, C.; Weaver, J. C.


    We present the first evidence from Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary clay and rock for shocked hexagonal nanodiamonds (lonsdaleite), these being found in concentrations greater than 50 ppm at Needles Point, New Zealand, and Caravaca, Spain. This is also the first evidence for K/T diamonds of any kind outside of North America. No diamonds were detected immediately above or below the impact layer. Cubic diamonds have been reported earlier from North American K/T sediments by Carlisle and Braman (1991; 45 ppm) and Hough et al. (1997; 18 ppm), but lonsdaleite was not detected. Carlisle and Braman suggested that the cubic diamonds arrived already formed within the impactor, but Hough argued that they were shock-produced by the impact with Earth. Hence, it is not yet clear that K/T cubic diamonds were formed through shock. Lonsdaleite does not co-occur with terrestrial diamonds but is found with cubic diamonds in ET impact craters (e.g., Popigai, Sudbury). Both also have been reported in the impact layer of the proposed Younger Dryas impact event at 12.9 ka. Lonsdaleite is formed by shocking carbonaceous material, e. g., graphite, under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature (more than 15 GPa at more than 1000° C), thus making this mineral an excellent impact-shock indicator (DeCarli, 2002). Although lonsdaleite is also contained in meteorites, such as ureilites, there appears to be a consensus of opinion that crater-related lonsdaleite formed during ET impact. K/T sediment samples were acquired from the boundary layer, as well as above and below. To extract the diamonds from the sediments, we utilized the protocol from Amari (1994) and Huss and Lewis (1995), but modified their methodology after determining that phosphoric and perchloric acids oxidize metastable lonsdaleite. We extracted the diamonds successfully after eliminating those acids, which may explain why lonsdaleite was not apparent in extractions by others. The extracted lonsdaleite was analyzed by

  16. Palaeoenvironment and Shark Evolution across the K/T-boundary on Southern Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolfssen, Jan Schulz

    The chondrichthyan faunal evolution across the Cretaceous/Tertiary-boundary, have been analysed from collected fossil shark teeth from Stevns Klint, Faxe Kalkbrud and a few other localities in Denmark. The teeth have been collected from the upper Maastrichtian Chalk, the K/T-boundary clay Fiskeler...... isotopes extracted from the shark teeth have revealed that the sea surface temperature fell slightly prior to the boundary and may have declined almost four degrees centigrade across the K/T-boundary. Subsequently the temperature rose during the deposition the upper layer of Fiskeler and the Cerithium...... Limestone. The striking fall in shark diversity prior to the boundary cannot be explained by a bolide impact and must have another explanation. This could have been caused by a sudden change in bathymetry. The calculated temperature range between sea surface and bottom water temperatures could suggest so...

  17. K/T boundary stratigraphy: Evidence for multiple impacts and a possible comet stream (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Izett, G. A.


    A critical set of observations bearing on the K/T boundary events were obtained from several dozen sites in western North America. Thin strata at and adjacent to the K/T boundary are locally preserved in association with coal beds at these sites. The strata were laid down in local shallow basins that were either intermittently flooded or occupied by very shallow ponds. Detailed examination of the stratigraphy at numerous sites led to the recognition of two distinct strata at the boundary. From the time that the two strata were first recognized, E.M. Shoemaker has maintained that they record two impact events. We report some of the evidence that supports this conclusion.

  18. Coronary endothelial function assessment using self-gated cardiac cine MRI and k-t sparse SENSE. (United States)

    Yerly, Jérôme; Ginami, Giulia; Nordio, Giovanna; Coristine, Andrew J; Coppo, Simone; Monney, Pierre; Stuber, Matthias


    Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cine MRI, paired with isometric handgrip exercise, can be used to accurately, reproducibly, and noninvasively measure coronary endothelial function (CEF). Obtaining a reliable ECG signal at higher field strengths, however, can be challenging due to rapid gradient switching and an increased heart rate under stress. To address these limitations, we present a self-gated cardiac cine MRI framework for CEF measurements that operates without ECG signal. Cross-sectional slices of the right coronary artery (RCA) were acquired using a two-dimensional golden angle radial trajectory. This sampling approach, combined with the k-t sparse SENSE algorithm, allows for the reconstruction of both real-time images for self-gating signal calculations and retrospectively reordered self-gated cine images. CEF measurements were quantitatively compared using both the self-gated and the standard ECG-gated approach. Self-gated cine images with high-quality, temporal, and spatial resolution were reconstructed for 18 healthy volunteers. CEF as measured in self-gated images was in good agreement (R 2  = 0.60) with that measured by its standard ECG-gated counterpart. High spatial and temporal resolution cross-sectional cine images of the RCA can be obtained without ECG signal. The coronary vasomotor response to handgrip exercise compares favorably with that obtained with the standard ECG-gated method. Magn Reson Med 76:1443-1454, 2015. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. First evidence for a massive extinction event affecting bees close to the K-T boundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Rehan

    Full Text Available Bees and eudicot plants both arose in the mid-late Cretaceous, and their co-evolutionary relationships have often been assumed as an important element in the rise of flowering plants. Given the near-complete dependence of bees on eudicots we would expect that major extinction events affecting the latter would have also impacted bees. However, given the very patchy distribution of bees in the fossil record, identifying any such extinctions using fossils is very problematic. Here we use molecular phylogenetic analyses to show that one bee group, the Xylocopinae, originated in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the early radiation of the eudicots. Lineage through time analyses for this bee subfamily show very early diversification, followed by a long period of seemingly no radiation and then followed by rapid diversification in each of the four constituent tribes. These patterns are consistent with both a long-fuse model of radiation and a massive extinction event close to the K-T boundary. We argue that massive extinction is much more plausible than a long fuse, given the historical biogeography of these bees and the diversity of ecological niches that they occupy. Our results suggest that events near the K-T boundary would have disrupted many plant-bee relationships, with major consequences for the subsequent evolution of eudicots and their pollinators.

  20. Measurement of $k_T$ splitting scales in $W \\to l\

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; 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Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dressnandt, Nandor; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Göpfert, Thomas; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koenig, Sebastian; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Möser, Nicolas; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Müller, Thomas; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Michele; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz


    A measurement of splitting scales, as defined by the $k_T$ clustering algorithm, is presented for final states containing a W boson produced in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The measurement is based on the full 2010 data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb$^{-1}$ which was collected using the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Cluster splitting scales are measured in events containing W bosons decaying to electrons or muons. The measurement comprises the four hardest splitting scales in a $k_T$ cluster sequence of the hadronic activity accompanying the W boson, and ratios of these splitting scales. Backgrounds such as multi-jet and top-quark-pair production are subtracted and the results are corrected for detector effects. Predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators at particle level are compared to the data. Overall, reasonable agreement is found with all generators, but larger deviations between the predictions and the data are ...

  1. Terrestrial ecosystem destabilization at the K/T boundary in southwestern North Dakota, USA. (United States)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Pearson, Dean; Villanueva-Amadoz, Uxue


    Much of the debate regarding mass extinction events tend to discuss the relationship between such events relative to the moment and timing of internal or external factors (such as volcanism, impact(s), climate, sea-level changes and so on). However, the details of the extinction process itself is still poorly understood, and most of the analysis are based on biodiversity patterns without integrating the biogeographic and environmental context. Another way of approaching the problem would be to propose precise paleoenvironment reconstructions and analyzing their evolution through time, which allows for the understanding of such processes. The badlands of southwestern North Dakota provides some of the most prolific exposures of the continental Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary in the world. The stratigraphical context indicates that the K/T boundary is coincident or lies in close proximity to the contact between the Hell Creek and the Fort Union Formations. In this area, a series of eight stratigraphical sections across a 40 km north-south transect were studied. These sections bracket the formational contact on a 10 m stratigraphical interval. Reconstruction of the depositional environment was undertaken at a centimeter scale by using sedimentological data, as well as palynological, paleobotanical and palaeontological content of the strata, using the K/T boundary as a precise chronological datum of correlation between the sections. Results shows a consistent evolution of pattern across the entire study area : 1) The uppermost 10 to 20 cm of the Hell Creek Formation always corresponds to a sequence of dark rooted mudstone. Pollen content is consistent with a Cretaceous age and displays a diversity of terrestrial taxa. 2) Immediately above, the formation contact lies at the lower part of the first laterally traceable lignite horizon. The K/T boundary indicators (iridium anomaly, shocked quartz, fern spike and boundary claystone) are located at or adjacent to this

  2. Prompt photon and associated heavy quark production at hadron colliders with k T -factorization (United States)

    Lipatov, A. V.; Malyshev, M. A.; Zotov, N. P.


    In the framework of the k T -factorization approach, the production of prompt photons in association with a heavy (charm or beauty) quarks at high energies is studied. The consideration is based on the {O}( {α α_s^2} ) off-shell amplitudes of gluon-gluon fusion and quark-(anti)quark interaction subprocesses. The unintegrated parton densities in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The analysis covers the total and differential cross sections and extends to specific angular correlations between the produced prompt photons and muons originating from the semileptonic decays of associated heavy quarks. Theoretical uncertainties of our evaluations are studied and comparison with the results of standard NLO pQCD calculations is performed. Our numerical predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the D∅ and CDF collaborations at the Tevatron. Finally, we extend our results to LHC energies.

  3. Charmonium Production at High Energy in the $k_T$-Factorization Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kniehl, Bernd A; Vasin, D V


    We study charmonium production at high-energy colliders (Tevatron, HERA, and LEP2) in the framework of the k_T-factorization approach and the factorization formalism of non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics at leading order in the strong-coupling constant alpha_s and the relative velocity v. The transverse-momentum distributions of direct and prompt J/psi-meson production measured at the Fermilab Tevatron are fitted to obtain the non-perturbative long-distance matrix elements for different choices of unintegrated gluon distribution functions in the proton. Using the matrix elements thus obtained, we predict charmonium production rates in gamma-gamma, gamma-p, and deep-inelastic e-p collisions including the contributions from both direct and resolved photons. The results are compared with the known ones obtained in the conventional parton model and with recent experimental data from HERA and LEP2.

  4. Z-boson production in association with heavy flavor in the kT-factorization (United States)

    Malyshev, Maxim; Baranov, Sergei; Lipatov, Artem


    We present the calculations of associated production of Z bosons and heavy (charm or beauty) quarks at the LHC energies in the framework of kT -factorization QCD approach. Our consideration is mainly based on the off-shell gluon-gluon fusion subprocess where produced Z boson subsequently decays into a lepton pair. Several subleading contributions from the and subprocesses are taken into account. Contributions from the double parton scattering mechanism are estimated. The transverse momentum dependent (or unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton are determined using the Catani-Ciafaloni-Fiorani-Marchesini evolution equation. We achieve reasonably good agreement of our predictions and latest experimental data taken by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations, discuss the theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and demonstrate the importance of subleading quark contributions in description of the LHC data in the whole kinematical region.

  5. Chondritic ratios of Fe/Cr/Ir in Kerguelen Plateau (Hole 738C) K/T carbonate-rich sediments support asteroid-cometary impact at K/T time (United States)

    Liu, Y. G.; Schmitt, R. A.


    In the study of marine carbonate sediments from Holes 577 and 577B, Shatsky Plateau (Rise), a net extraterrestrial Fe/Ir = C1 chondritic ratio at the K/T boundary was reported. Applying a similar procedure to Hole 738C (Kerguelen Plateau) data reported, Fe/Cr/Ir ratios similar to C1 or C2 chondritic ratios were obtained.

  6. Geochemistry of K/T-boundary Chicxulub ejecta of NE-Mexico (United States)

    Harting, M.; Deutsch, A.; Rickers, K.


    Many K/T sections all over the world contain impact spherules supposed related to the Chicxulub event. This study focus on ejecta layers in NE-Mexican profiles. We carried out systematic XRF and synchrotron radiation measurements on such spherules at the HASYLAB and ANKA facilities as well as microprobe analyses (CAMECA SX50). Area scans on tektite-like material of the Bochil section reveal a pronounced zonation in the inner part, dominated by Ba and Sr whereas secondary CaCO3 dominates in the altered margin. The composition of the spherules from the Mesa-Juan Perez section differ significantly from the Beloc (Haiti) and Bochil tektite glasses. At Mesa-Juan Perez, spherules are either extremely rich in Fe and Ca or consist of smectite, some of those carry carbonate inclusions. Yttrium, La and Ce are zoned within the smectite with concentrations below the detection limit and up to 20 æg/g The Ca-rich inclusions are enriched in Y (up to 35 æg/g) and La (18 æg/g) and, compared to the surrounding smectite, also in Ce (up to 34 æg/g). The Ce enrichment in spherules from the Mesa-Juan Perez section indicates impact-melted carbonates of the Yucatan carbonate platform as possible precursor rocks. Recent investigations focus on the chemistry of melt rock samples from the PEMEX wells Yucatan-6 and Chicxulub-1: Their average composition (mean of 250 data points in wt-percent ) is 61.6 for SiO2, 0.16 for TiO2, 18.07 for Al2O3, 0.01 for Cr2O3, 1.98 for Na2O, 1.5 for FeO, 0.05 for MnO, 0.01 for NiO, 0.31 for MgO, 9.14 for K2O, 3.44 for CaO, and 0.01 for SO2. These results are in some cases comparable to the geochemistry of ejecta glasses, e.g. from Beloc (Haiti).

  7. Dual-TRACER: High resolution fMRI with constrained evolution reconstruction. (United States)

    Li, Xuesong; Ma, Xiaodong; Li, Lyu; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Xue; Tong, Yan; Wang, Lihong; Sen Song; Guo, Hua


    fMRI with high spatial resolution is beneficial for studies in psychology and neuroscience, but is limited by various factors such as prolonged imaging time, low signal to noise ratio and scarcity of advanced facilities. Compressed Sensing (CS) based methods for accelerating fMRI data acquisition are promising. Other advanced algorithms like k-t FOCUSS or PICCS have been developed to improve performance. This study aims to investigate a new method, Dual-TRACER, based on Temporal Resolution Acceleration with Constrained Evolution Reconstruction (TRACER), for accelerating fMRI acquisitions using golden angle variable density spiral. Both numerical simulations and in vivo experiments at 3T were conducted to evaluate and characterize this method. Results show that Dual-TRACER can provide functional images with a high spatial resolution (1×1mm(2)) under an acceleration factor of 20 while maintaining hemodynamic signals well. Compared with other investigated methods, dual-TRACER provides a better signal recovery, higher fMRI sensitivity and more reliable activation detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diamonds from the iridium-rich K-T boundary layer at Arroyo el Mimbral, Tamaulipas, Mexico (United States)

    Hough, R. M.; Gilmour, I.; Pillinger, C. T.; Langenhorst, F.; Montanari, A.


    Diamonds, up to 30 μm in size, were found in the iridium-rich layer from the K-T boundary site at Arroyo El Mimbral and the spherule bed from Arroyo El Peñon, northeastern Mexico. Stepped heating experiments indicate two or more isotopically distinct diamond components with carbon isotopic compositions characteristic of a mixture of carbon sources. The diamonds' crystal form is cubic—not the hexagonal polymorph of diamond, lonsdaleite, which has been used previously to infer formation due to shock transformation of graphite. The size, crystallography, and mineralogic associations of K-T diamonds are similar to those of impact-produced diamonds from the Ries crater in Germany where both shock transformation of graphite and a mode of formation by condensation from a vapor plume have been inferred. The discovery of impact-produced diamonds in association with high Ir contents for these sediments supports their impact origin, K-T age, and the inference that their source was from the buried impact crater of Chicxulub on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico.

  9. Climatic changes resulting from mass extinctions at the K-T boundary (and other bio-events) (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Volk, Tyler


    The mass extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary include about 90 percent of marine calcareous nannoplankton (coccoliths), and carbon-isotope data show that marine primary productivity was drastically reduced for about 500,000 years after the boundary event, the so-called Strangelove Ocean effect. One result of the elimination of most marine phytoplankton would have been a severe reduction in production of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a biogenic gas that is believed to be the major precursor of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) over the oceans. A drastic reduction in marine CCN should lead to a cloud canopy with significantly lower reflectivity, and hence cause a significant warming at the earth's surface. Calculations suggest that, all other things being held constant, a reduction in CCN of more than 80 percent (a reasonable value for the K-T extinctions) could have produced a rapid global warming of 6 C or more. Oxygen-isotope analyses of marine sediments, and other kinds of paleoclimatic data, have provided for a marked warming, and a general instability of climate coincident with the killoff of marine plankton at the K-T boundary. Similar reductions in phytoplankton abundance at other boundaries, as indicated by marked shifts in carbon-isotope curves, suggest that severe temperature changes may have accompanied other mass extinctions, and raises the intriguing possibility that the extinction events themselves could have contributed to the climatic instabilities at critical bio-events in the geologic record.

  10. High spatial resolution myocardial perfusion imaging during high dose dobutamine/atropine stress magnetic resonance using k-t SENSE. (United States)

    Gebker, R; Jahnke, C; Manka, R; Frick, M; Hucko, T; Kozerke, S; Schnackenburg, B; Fleck, E; Paetsch, I


    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of high spatial resolution myocardial perfusion imaging during high dose dobutamine/atropine stress magnetic resonance (DSMR) for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). DSMR-wall motion was combined with perfusion imaging (DSMR-perfusion) in 78 patients prior to clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography. For DSMR-perfusion an in-plane spatial resolution of 1.5 × 1.5mm(2) was attained by using 8 × k-space and time sensitivity encoding (k-t SENSE). Image quality and extent of artifacts during perfusion imaging were evaluated. Wall motion and perfusion data were interpreted sequentially. Significant CAD (stenosis ≥ 70%) was present in 52 patients and involved 86 coronary territories. One patient did not reach target heart rate despite maximum infusion of dobutamine/atropine. Two studies (3%) were non-diagnostic due k-t SENSE related artifacts resulting from insufficient breathhold capability. Overall image quality was good. Dark-rim artifacts were limited to the endocardial border at a mean width of 1.8mm. The addition of DSMR-perfusion to DSMR-wall motion data improved sensitivity for the detection of CAD (92% vs. 81%, P=0.03) and accurate determination of disease extent (85% vs. 66% of territories, Pspatial resolution DSMR-perfusion imaging at maximum stress level was feasible, improved sensitivity over DSMR-wall motion for the detection of CAD and allowed an accurate determination of disease extent. Specificity of DSMR-perfusion with k-t SENSE improved compared to prior studies using lower spatial resolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanodiamonds and Carbon Spherules from Tunguska, the K/T Boundary, and the Younger Dryas Boundary Layer (United States)

    Wittke, J. H.; Bunch, T. E.; West, A.; Kennett, J.; Kennett, D. J.; Howard, G. A.


    More than a dozen markers, including nanodiamonds (NDs) and carbon spherules (CS), occur in a sedimentary layer marking the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) cooling episode at ~12.9 ka. This boundary layer, called the YDB, has been found at nearly forty locations across North America, Europe, and Asia, although not all markers are present at any given site. Firestone et al. (2007) and Kennett et al. (2008, 2009) proposed that these markers resulted from a cosmic impact/airburst and impact-related biomass burning. Here we report features common to the YDB event, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) impact, and the Tunguska airburst of 1908. In sediments attributed to each event, we and other researchers have recovered NDs either inside or closely associated with CS, which appear to be the high-temperature by-products of biomass burning. CS range in diameter from about 500 nanometers to 4 millimeters with a mean of ~100 microns, and they typically contain NDs, including lonsdaleite (hexagonal diamonds), in the interior matrix and in the crust. To date, CS and NDs have been found in the K/T layer in the United States, Spain, and New Zealand. Similarly, CS and NDs have been found in the YDB layer in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, and France. Thus far, every site examined contains NDs and/or CS in the K/T and YDB layers; conversely, we have yet to detect CS associated with NDs in any non-YDB sediments tested. Five allotropes of NDs have been identified in association with CS: cubic diamonds, lonsdaleite, n-diamonds, p-diamonds, and i-carbon, which are differentiated by slight variations in their crystalline structure. All allotropes have been identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with confirmation by selected area diffraction (SAED). Lonsdaleite is found on Earth only in three instances: (1) in the laboratory, where it is produced

  12. The Disposition of Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, and Ru in Marine Sediments and the K/T Boundary (United States)

    Lee, Cin-Ty; Wasserburg, Gerald; Kyte, Frank


    The marine record of platinum group elements (PGEs) and Os isotopic compositions provides information on different inputs of PGEs into the oceans. Some studies based on a smaller subset of the PGEs suggest that the PGEs may suffer post-depositional mobility during diagenesis. In some K/T boundary clays, Kyte and others showed that the relative abundances of Pt, Pd, Ir, and Os can differ significantly from chondritic, which is the signature expected from fallout of the meteorite impact. In some K/T boundary sections, elevated Ir concentrations are observed as far as 1 meter from the cm-thick boundary clay containing the meteoritic ejecta. The purpose of this study was to characterize Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, and Ru abundances in zones including the K/T boundary. We determined PGE abundances of boundary clays at two hemipelagic sites (Stevns Klint, Denmark and Caravaca, Spain) in which previous studies by Kyte and others showed that the Ir anomaly is confined to within a few cm. We also analyzed two pelagic Pacific sites: a boundary clay from the north Pacific (Hole 465A) characterized by a 0.5 m thick Ir anomaly and a transect across the K/T boundary from the south Pacific (Hole 596) where the Ir anomaly spans 2 m. The Stevns Klint, Caravaca, and north Pacific sites are characterized by abundant marls and limestones in the section, whereas the south Pacific site is dominated by clays. Samples were spiked with isotopic tracers, mixed with a flux, S and Ni, and equilibrated by fusion. PGEs were extracted from the Ni and analyzed on a Finnigan Element ICP-MS. We find that the narrow Caravaca and Stevns Klint boundary clays have relative PGE abundance patterns indistinguishable from chondritic values. The two Pacific sites were found to have nearly identical PGE patterns but have ratios at the peak, which differ from chondritic values as found earlier by Evans et al. The Pacific sites were found to have nearly identical PGE patterns but are extremely depleted in OS (Os/Ir = 0

  13. Evolutionary constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Kalyanmoy


    This book makes available a self-contained collection of modern research addressing the general constrained optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. Broadly the topics covered include constraint handling for single and multi-objective optimizations; penalty function based methodology; multi-objective based methodology; new constraint handling mechanism; hybrid methodology; scaling issues in constrained optimization; design of scalable test problems; parameter adaptation in constrained optimization; handling of integer, discrete and mix variables in addition to continuous variables; application of constraint handling techniques to real-world problems; and constrained optimization in dynamic environment. There is also a separate chapter on hybrid optimization, which is gaining lots of popularity nowadays due to its capability of bridging the gap between evolutionary and classical optimization. The material in the book is useful to researchers, novice, and experts alike. The book will also be useful...

  14. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...

  15. Choosing health, constrained choices. (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan


    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  16. Minimal constrained supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribiori, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dall' Agata, G., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Porrati, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)


    We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  17. Constrained superfields in supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall’Agata, Gianguido; Farakos, Fotis [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    We analyze constrained superfields in supergravity. We investigate the consistency and solve all known constraints, presenting a new class that may have interesting applications in the construction of inflationary models. We provide the superspace Lagrangians for minimal supergravity models based on them and write the corresponding theories in component form using a simplifying gauge for the goldstino couplings.

  18. Minimal constrained supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cribiori


    Full Text Available We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  19. Prompt charmonia production and polarization at the LHC in the NRQCD with kT-factorization. III. J /ψ meson (United States)

    Baranov, S. P.; Lipatov, A. V.


    In the framework of the kT-factorization approach, the production and polarization of prompt J /ψ mesons at the LHC energies is studied. Our consideration is based on the nonrelativistic QCD formalism for bound states and off-shell amplitudes for hard partonic subprocesses. Both the direct production mechanism and feed-down contributions from χc and ψ (2 S ) decays are taken into account. The transverse momentum dependent (or unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton were derived from Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini evolution equation or, alternatively, were chosen in accordance with Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The nonperturbative color-octet matrix elements were first deduced from the fits to the latest CMS data on J /ψ transverse momentum distributions and then applied to describe the ATLAS and LHCb data on J /ψ production and polarization at √{s }=7 , 8 and 13 TeV. We perform an estimation of polarization parameters λθ, λϕ, and λθ ϕ which determine J /ψ spin density matrix and demonstrate that treating the soft gluon emission as a series of explicit color-electric dipole transitions within NRQCD leads to unpolarized J /ψ production at high transverse momenta, that is in qualitative agreement with the LHC data.

  20. Exploring Constrained Creative Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk


    between communicative constrains and participants’ perception of dialogue and creativity is examined. Four batches of students preparing for forming semester project groups were conducted and documented. Students were asked to create an unspecified object without any exchange of communication except......Creative collaboration via online tools offers a less ‘media rich’ exchange of information between participants than face-to-face collaboration. The participants’ freedom to communicate is restricted in means of communication, and rectified in terms of possibilities offered in the interface. How do...

  1. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene echinoderms and the K/T boundary in the southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium — Part 6: Conclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, J.W.M.


    The palaeobiology of echinoderms occurring in the Meerssen and Geulhem members is discussed and changes in diversity across the K/T boundary are documented. Using literature data on the ecology of extant faunas, the various echinoderm groups are considered. Naturally, such data can only be applied

  2. Sharp spatially constrained inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.


    We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes...... inversions are compared against classical smooth results and available boreholes. With the focusing approach, the obtained blocky results agree with the underlying geology and allow for easier interpretation by the end-user....

  3. High resolution CBV assessment with PEAK-EPI: k-t-undersampling and reconstruction in echo planar imaging. (United States)

    Ramb, Rebecca; Mader, Irina; Jung, Bernd; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim


    Achieving higher spatial resolution and improved brain coverage while mitigating in-plane susceptibility artifacts in the assessment of perfusion parameters, such as cerebral blood volume, in echo planar imaging (EPI)-based dynamic susceptibility contrast weighted cerebral perfusion measurements. PEAK-EPI, an EPI sequence with interleaved readout trajectories and three different strategies for autocalibration-signal acquisition (inplace, dynamic extra and extra) is presented. Performance of each approach is analyzed in vivo based on flip angle variation induced dynamics, assessing temporal fidelity, temporal SNR and g-factors. All approaches are compared with conventional GRAPPA reconstructions. PEAK-EPI with inplace autocalibration-signal at R = 5 is then compared with the standard clinical EPI protocol in six patients, using two half-dose dynamic susceptibility contrast weighted cerebral perfusion measurements per subject. PEAK-EPI acquisition facilitates a substantial increase of spatial resolution at a higher number of slices per TR and provides improved SNR compared to conventional GRAPPA. High dependency of the resulting reconstruction quality on the type of autocalibration-signal acquisition is observed. PEAK-EPI with inplace autocalibration-signal achieves high temporal fidelity and initial feasibility is shown. The obtained high resolution cerebral blood volume maps reveal more detailed information than in corresponding standard EPI measurements and facilitate detailed delineation of tumorous tissue. Magn Reson Med 77:2153-2166, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Neutrino Oscillation Experiments with J-PARC: T2K, T2K-II and Hyper-Kamiokande

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The T2K experiment started the operation in 2010, and advances neutrino physics with the discovery of electron neutrino appearance in the muon neutrino beam and precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters. In 2016, the measurements of anti-neutrino oscillation directly constrain CP violation in neutrino oscillation. In this colloquium, we introduce many physics results from T2K including the most recent one of the CP violation. By utilizing the J-PARC neutrino beam, the upgrade of the T2K experiment (naming T2K-II) is planned and Hyper-Kamiokande is proposed to explore neutrino physics further. In T2K-II, the beam power of J-PARC will be upgraded to 1.3 MW around 2020. Hyper-Kamiokande is the larger Water Cherenkov detector of 520 k...

  5. Power-constrained supercomputing (United States)

    Bailey, Peter E.

    As we approach exascale systems, power is turning from an optimization goal to a critical operating constraint. With power bounds imposed by both stakeholders and the limitations of existing infrastructure, achieving practical exascale computing will therefore rely on optimizing performance subject to a power constraint. However, this requirement should not add to the burden of application developers; optimizing the runtime environment given restricted power will primarily be the job of high-performance system software. In this dissertation, we explore this area and develop new techniques that extract maximum performance subject to a particular power constraint. These techniques include a method to find theoretical optimal performance, a runtime system that shifts power in real time to improve performance, and a node-level prediction model for selecting power-efficient operating points. We use a linear programming (LP) formulation to optimize application schedules under various power constraints, where a schedule consists of a DVFS state and number of OpenMP threads for each section of computation between consecutive message passing events. We also provide a more flexible mixed integer-linear (ILP) formulation and show that the resulting schedules closely match schedules from the LP formulation. Across four applications, we use our LP-derived upper bounds to show that current approaches trail optimal, power-constrained performance by up to 41%. This demonstrates limitations of current systems, and our LP formulation provides future optimization approaches with a quantitative optimization target. We also introduce Conductor, a run-time system that intelligently distributes available power to nodes and cores to improve performance. The key techniques used are configuration space exploration and adaptive power balancing. Configuration exploration dynamically selects the optimal thread concurrency level and DVFS state subject to a hardware-enforced power bound

  6. Optimization of Resin Infusion Processing for Composite Pipe Key-Part and K/T Type Joints Using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (United States)

    Wang, Changchun; Bai, Guanghui; Yue, Guangquan; Wang, Zhuxi; Li, Jin; Zhang, Boming


    In present study, the optimization injection processes for manufacturing the composite pipe key-part and K/T type joints in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) were determined by estimating the filling time and flow front shape of four kinds of injection methods. Validity of the determined process was proved with the results of a scaling-down composite pipe key-part containing of the carbon fiber four axial fabrics and a steel core with a complex surface. In addition, an expanded-size composite pipe part was also produced to further estimate the effective of the determined injection process. Moreover, the resin injection method for producing the K/T type joints via VARTM was also optimized with the simulation method, and then manufactured on a special integrated mould by the determined injection process. The flow front pattern and filling time of the experiments show good agreement with that from simulation. Cross-section images of the cured composite pipe and K/T type joints parts prove the validity of the optimized injection process, which verify the efficiency of simulation method in obtaining a suitable injection process of VARTM.

  7. k-t SENSE-accelerated Myocardial Perfusion MR Imaging at 3.0 Tesla - comparison with 1.5 Tesla (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Schwitter, Juerg; Suerder, Daniel; Greenwood, John P.; Boesiger, Peter; Kozerke, Sebastian


    Purpose To determine the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of high spatial resolution myocardial perfusion MR at 3.0 Tesla using k-space and time domain undersampling with sensitivity encoding (k-t SENSE). Materials and Methods The study was reviewed and approved by the local ethic review board. k-t SENSE perfusion MR was performed at 1.5 Tesla and 3.0 Tesla (saturation recovery gradient echo pulse sequence, repetition time/echo time 3.0ms/1.0ms, flip angle 15°, 5x k-t SENSE acceleration, spatial resolution 1.3×1.3×10mm3). Fourteen volunteers were studied at rest and 37 patients during adenosine stress. In volunteers, comparison was also made with standard-resolution (2.5×2.5×10mm3) 2x SENSE perfusion MR at 3.0 Tesla. Image quality, artifact scores, signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-enhancement ratios (CER) were derived. In patients, diagnostic accuracy of visual analysis to detect >50% diameter stenosis on quantitative coronary angiography was determined by receiver-operator-characteristics (ROC). Results In volunteers, image quality and artifact scores were similar for 3.0 Tesla and 1.5 Tesla, while SNR was higher (11.6 vs. 5.6) and CER lower (1.1 vs. 1.5, p=0.012) at 3.0 Tesla. Compared with standard-resolution perfusion MR, image quality was higher for k-t SENSE (3.6 vs. 3.1, p=0.04), endocardial dark rim artifacts were reduced (artifact thickness 1.6mm vs. 2.4mm, pTesla and 1.5 Tesla, respectively. Conclusions k-t SENSE accelerated high-resolution perfusion MR at 3.0 Tesla is feasible with similar artifacts and diagnostic accuracy as at 1.5 Tesla. Compared with standard-resolution perfusion MR, image quality is improved and artifacts are reduced. PMID:18936311

  8. Lightweight cryptography for constrained devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alippi, Cesare; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco


    Lightweight cryptography is a rapidly evolving research field that responds to the request for security in resource constrained devices. This need arises from crucial pervasive IT applications, such as those based on RFID tags where cost and energy constraints drastically limit the solution...... complexity, with the consequence that traditional cryptography solutions become too costly to be implemented. In this paper, we survey design strategies and techniques suitable for implementing security primitives in constrained devices....

  9. The superfluid diffusion equation S(T)(@T/@t) = nabla ter dot (K(T)( nabla T) sup 1/3 )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.


    This report deals with the superfluid diffusion equation, S(T)({partial derivative}T/{partial derivative}t) = {nabla}{center dot}(K(T)({nabla}T){sup 1/3}), which describes heat transport in turbulent helium-II (superfluid helium). Three methods of solution -- the method of similarity, the variational method, and the method of maximum/minimum principles -- are applied to this equation. The solutions discovered are helpful in addressing the use of helium-II in superconducting magnets and other applications. 22 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Associated production of Z bosons and b-jets at the LHC in the combined k_T + collinear QCD factorization approach (United States)

    Baranov, S. P.; Jung, H.; Lipatov, A. V.; Malyshev, M. A.


    We consider the production of Z bosons associated with beauty quarks at the LHC using a combined k_T + collinear QCD factorization approach, which interpolates between small x and large x physics. Our consideration is based on the off-shell gluon-gluon fusion subprocess g^* g^* → Z Q\\bar{Q} at the leading order O(α α _s^2) (where the Z boson further decays into a lepton pair), calculated in the k_T-factorization approach, and several subleading O(α α _s^2 ) and O(α α _s^3 ) subprocesses involving quark-antiquark and quark-gluon interactions, taken into account in conventional (collinear) QCD factorization. The contributions from double parton scattering are discussed as well. The transverse momentum dependent (or unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton are derived from Catani-Ciafaloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) evolution equation. We achieve reasonably good agreement with the latest data taken by CMS and ATLAS Collaborations. The comparison of our results with next-to-leading-order pQCD predictions, obtained in the collinear QCD factorization, is presented. We discuss the uncertainties of our calculations and demonstrate the importance of subleading quark-involving contributions in describing the LHC data in the whole kinematic region.

  11. Discovering metric temporal constraint networks on temporal databases. (United States)

    Álvarez, Miguel R; Félix, Paulo; Cariñena, Purificación


    the search space, which reduced the number of possible patterns from 2.1×10⁷ to 1219 and reduced the number of frequent patterns found from 1167 to 340, thereby increasing the efficiency of the mining algorithm. A temporal data mining technique for discovering frequent temporal patterns in collections of time-stamped event sequences is presented. The resulting patterns describe different and distinguishable temporal arrangements among sets of event types in terms of repetitive appearance and similarity of the dispositions between the same events. ASTPminer allows users to participate in the mining process by introducing domain knowledge in the form of a temporal pattern using the STP formalism. This knowledge constrains the search to patterns consistent with the provided pattern and improves the performance of the procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization of temporal networks under uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesemann, Wolfram


    Many decision problems in Operations Research are defined on temporal networks, that is, workflows of time-consuming tasks whose processing order is constrained by precedence relations. For example, temporal networks are used to model projects, computer applications, digital circuits and production processes. Optimization problems arise in temporal networks when a decision maker wishes to determine a temporal arrangement of the tasks and/or a resource assignment that optimizes some network characteristic (e.g. the time required to complete all tasks). The parameters of these optimization probl

  13. Variable Radius, Exclusive-k$_{T}$, and Center-of-Mass Subjet Reconstruction for Higgs($\\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$) Tagging in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration


    Many physics searches in Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider involve boosted Higgs bosons, which decay to two $b$-quarks with a large branching ratio. The Higgs boson is reconstructed as a large-$R$ jet and the $b$-quarks are reconstructed as a pair of $b$-tagged subjets. This note documents alternative subjet techniques to reconstruct and identify the two $b$-jets from highly-boosted Higgs boson decays. New subjet tagging techniques are investigated, including the use of variable radius trackjets, exclusive-$k_{T}$ subjets, and calorimeter subjets reconstructed in the center-of-mass frame of the Higgs jet. For Higgs jets with large transverse momenta (>1 TeV), these three new techniques significantly outperform the fixed radius trackjet tagging technique currently used as the standard method in ATLAS.

  14. Charmonia production from b-hadron decays at LHC with k_T-factorization: J/ψ , ψ (2S) and J/ψ + Z (United States)

    Lipatov, A. V.; Baranov, S. P.; Jung, H.; Malyshev, M. A.


    We consider the production of J/ψ and ψ (2S) mesons originating from the decays of b-flavored hadrons at the LHC using the k_T-factorization approach. Our analysis covers both inclusive charmonia production and production of J/ψ mesons in association with Z bosons. We apply the transverse momentum dependent (or unintegrated) gluon density in a proton derived from Catani-Ciafaloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) evolution equation and adopt fragmentation functions based on the non-relativistic QCD factorization to describe the inclusive b-hadron decays into the different charmonium states. Our predictions agree well with latest experimental data taken by the CMS, ATLAS and LHCb Collaborations at √{s} = 7, 8 and 13 TeV. The contributions from double parton scattering to the associated non-prompt J/ψ + Z production are estimated and found to be small.

  15. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  16. Trends in PDE constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Benner, Peter; Engell, Sebastian; Griewank, Andreas; Harbrecht, Helmut; Hinze, Michael; Rannacher, Rolf; Ulbrich, Stefan


    Optimization problems subject to constraints governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) are among the most challenging problems in the context of industrial, economical and medical applications. Almost the entire range of problems in this field of research was studied and further explored as part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) priority program 1253 on “Optimization with Partial Differential Equations” from 2006 to 2013. The investigations were motivated by the fascinating potential applications and challenging mathematical problems that arise in the field of PDE constrained optimization. New analytic and algorithmic paradigms have been developed, implemented and validated in the context of real-world applications. In this special volume, contributions from more than fifteen German universities combine the results of this interdisciplinary program with a focus on applied mathematics.   The book is divided into five sections on “Constrained Optimization, Identification and Control”...

  17. Constraining spacetime torsion with LAGEOS (United States)

    March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Tauraso, Roberto; Dell'Agnello, Simone


    We compute the corrections to the orbital Lense-Thirring effect (or frame-dragging) in the presence of spacetime torsion. We analyze the motion of a test body in the gravitational field of a rotating axisymmetric massive body, using the parametrized framework of Mao, Tegmark, Guth and Cabi. In the cases of autoparallel and extremal trajectories, we derive the specific approximate expression of the corresponding system of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved with methods of Celestial Mechanics. We calculate the secular variations of the longitudes of the node and of the pericenter. We also show how the LAser GEOdynamics Satellites (LAGEOS) can be used to constrain torsion parameters. We report the experimental constraints obtained using both the nodes and perigee measurements of the orbital Lense-Thirring effect. This makes LAGEOS and Gravity Probe B complementary frame-dragging and torsion experiments, since they constrain three different combinations of torsion parameters.

  18. Constrained Multiobjective Biogeography Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Mo


    Full Text Available Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA.

  19. 3.0T, time-resolved, 3D flow-sensitive MR in the thoracic aorta: Impact of k-t BLAST acceleration using 8- versus 32-channel coil arrays. (United States)

    Zaman, Arshad; Motwani, Manish; Oliver, James J; Crelier, Gerard; Dobson, Laura E; Higgins, David M; Plein, Sven; Greenwood, John P


    To evaluate the performance of 4D flow MR in the thoracic aorta with 8- and 32-channel coil arrays using k-t BLAST and SENSE acceleration techniques and compare this to a conventional 2D SENSE approach. Fifteen healthy subjects and eight patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3.0T using: 1) 2D SENSE phase contrast velocity mapping as the reference standard and 2) 4D-flow pulse sequences accelerated with SENSE and k-t BLAST, using both 8- and 32-channel coil arrays. Data processing was performed using GT Flow. Image quality of the magnitude images and pathline visualization were graded and mean scan times, flow, peak velocity, stroke volume, and image quality were compared between techniques. Mean scan times were significantly lower for 4D-flow sequences accelerated with k-t BLAST compared to SENSE (5.5 vs. 25.2 min; P 32-channel and 8-channel data (P 32 channels were utilized compared to 8 (P 0.05); the lowest bias being observed with the 4D 32 channel k-t BLAST sequence. There were no significant differences in measured flow, peak velocity, or stroke volume with any of the four investigated 4D acquisition techniques compared to reference technique values (P > 0.05). In patients, there were no significant differences in flow, peak velocity, or stroke volume measurements between 32-channel 4D k-t BLAST and the reference acquisition. 4D flow MR using k-t BLAST and 32 channel coils allows a reduction in total scan time while improving overall image quality compared to a standard 2D SENSE and 4D SENSE acquisitions. The use of 32 channels rather than 8 channels with the 4D k-t BLAST was also preferable in terms of image quality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The additivity problem and constrained quantum channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.


    We give formulations of the famous additivity conjecture for several important quantities characterizing quantum channel and prove their global equivalence to the additivity of the classical capacity of a channel under input constrains (like mean energy constrain).

  1. Multi-constrained inverse kinematics for the human hand. (United States)

    Samadani, Ali-Akbar; Kulić, Dana; Gorbet, Rob


    Measuring the spatial and temporal characteristics of hand movement is a challenging task due to the large number of degrees of freedom (DOF) in the hand. This paper presents a multi-constrained inverse kinematics (IK) approach for hand motion estimation from motion capture data. The IK approach satisfies a set of prioritized motion and postural constraints for each hand joint and link. The high-priority constraint is fully satisfied, while the fulfillment of the low-priority constraints is achieved as long as no conflict with the high-priority constraint exists. The proposed approach can aid marker-based motion capture technologies in accurately reconstructing discontinuities or erroneous marker trajectory segments resulting from occluded, missing, or flipped markers. The performance of the multi-constrained IK approach for the hand is tested for a full range of continuous hand motion.

  2. Constrained ballistics and geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo


    The problem of constant-speed ballistics is studied under the umbrella of non-linear non-holonomic constrained systems. The Newtonian approach is shown to be equivalent to the use of Chetaev's rule to incorporate the constraint within the initially unconstrained formulation. Although the resulting equations are not, in principle, obtained from a variational statement, it is shown that the trajectories coincide with those of geometrical optics in a medium with a suitably chosen refractive index, as prescribed by Fermat's principle of least time. This fact gives rise to an intriguing mechano-optical analogy. The trajectories are further studied and discussed.

  3. Constraining properties of disintegrating exoplanets (United States)

    Veras, D.; Carter, P. J.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Gänsicke, B. T.


    Evaporating and disintegrating planets provide unique insights into chemical makeup and physical constraints. The striking variability, depth (˜10 - 60%) and shape of the photometric transit curves due to the disintegrating minor planet orbiting white dwarf WD 1145+017 has galvanised the post-main- sequence exoplanetary science community. We have performed the first tidal disruption simulations of this planetary object, and have succeeded in constraining its mass, density, eccentricity and physical nature. We illustrate how our simulations can bound these properties, and be used in the future for other exoplanetary systems.

  4. Constraining walking and custodial technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sannino, Francesco


    We show how to constrain the physical spectrum of walking technicolor models via precision measurements and modified Weinberg sum rules. We also study models possessing a custodial symmetry for the S parameter at the effective Lagrangian level-custodial technicolor-and argue that these models...... cannot emerge from walking-type dynamics. We suggest that it is possible to have a very light spin-one axial (vector) boson. However, in the walking dynamics the associated vector boson is heavy while it is degenerate with the axial in custodial technicolor Udgivelsesdato: 19 May...

  5. A constrained model for MSMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capella, Antonio [Instituto de Matematicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Mueller, Stefan [Hausdorff Center for Mathematics and Institute for Applied Mathematics, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Otto, Felix [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Leipzig (Germany)


    A mathematical description of transformation processes in magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMA) under applied stresses and external magnetic fields needs a combination of micromagnetics and continuum elasticity theory. In this note, we discuss the so-called constrained theories, i.e., models where the state described by the pair (linear strain, magnetization) is at every point of the sample constrained to assume one of only finitely many values (that reflect the material symmetries). Furthermore, we focus on large body limits, i.e., models that are formulated in terms of (local) averages of a microstructured state, as the one proposed by DeSimone and James. We argue that the effect of an interfacial energy associated with the twin boundaries survives on the level of the large body limit in form of a (local) rigidity of twins. This leads to an alternative (i.e., with respect to reference 1) large body limit. The new model has the advantage of qualitatively explaining the occurrence of a microstructure with charged magnetic walls, as observed in SPP experiments in reference 2. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Temporal naturalism (United States)

    Smolin, Lee


    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  7. Enablers and constrainers to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Milana, Marcella


    as to construct a tool for analyzing the targeting of adult learning policy, with regard to both its coverage and expected consequences. Our aim is to develop a means for a more in-depth analysis of the match-mismatch of public policy and persisting constraints to participation.......This paper briefly reviews some of evidence on participation patterns in Nordic countries and some of the defining parameters that may explain the observations. This is done in a comparative perspective by contrasting results from the 2003 Eurobarometer data between Nordic countries and a handful...... of non-Nordic countries. An emphasis is placed on the constraining and enabling elements to participation and how these may explain why certain groups participate more or less than others. A central question of interest to this paper is to what extent does (can) government intervention interact...

  8. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo


    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  9. Formal language constrained path problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.


    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  10. Remote temporal camouflage: contextual flicker disrupts perceived visual temporal order. (United States)

    Cass, John; Van der Burg, Erik


    Correctly perceiving the temporal order of events is essential to many tasks. Despite this, the factors constraining our ability to make timing judgments remain largely unspecified. Here we present a new phenomenon demonstrating that perceived timing of visual events may be profoundly impaired by the mere presence of irrelevant events elsewhere in the visual field. Human observers saw two abrupt luminance events presented across a range of onset asynchronies. Temporal order judgment (TOJ) just noticeable differences (JNDs) provided a behavioural index of temporal precision. When target events were presented in isolation or in static distractor environments temporal resolution was very precise (JNDs ∼20ms). However, when surrounded by dynamic distractor events, performance deteriorated more than a factor of four. This contextual effect we refer to as Remote Temporal Camouflage (RTC) operates across large spatial and temporal distances and possesses a unique spatial distribution conforming to neither the predictions of attentional capture by transient events, nor by stimulus dependencies associated with other contextual phenomena such as surround suppression, crowding, object-substitution masking or motion-induced blindness. We propose that RTC is a consequence of motion-related masking whereby irrelevant motion signals evoked by dynamic distractors interfere with TOJ-relevant target-related apparent motion. Consistent with this we also show that dynamic visual distractors do not interfere with audio-visual TOJs. Not only is RTC the most spatially extensive contextual effect ever reported, it offers vision science a new technique with which to investigate temporal order performance, free of motion-related sensory contributions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards Constraining Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in Greenland Using ICESat and GPS Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas


    Constraining glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) i.e. the Earth’s viscoelastic response to past ice changes, is an important task, because GIA is a significant correction in gravity-based ice sheet mass balance estimates. Here, we investigate how temporal variations in the observed and modeled cru...

  12. Posible origen catastrófico de las secuencias asociadas al límite K/T en Cuba Oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Quintas-Caballero


    Full Text Available En la porción oriental de Cuba se localizan facies terrígenas y carbonatadas, acumuladas en aguas profundas de cuencas a cuestas y de antepaís, caracterizadas por la presencia de macrobrechas de calizas, flysch arcilloso-arenoso vulcanomíctico, flysch serpentino-clástico y olistostromas con alto componente ofiolítico. Algunas de esas facies, presentes en las Formaciones Mícara y La Jíquima, se correlacionan con otras de la Formación Beloc en Haití, y de las Formaciones Peñalver y Amaro localizadas en Cuba centro-occidental, donde se ha verificado la existencia de una alta anomalía de iridio, vidrio de impacto, así como turbiditas y megabrechas relacionadas con tsunamis resultantes del impacto meteórico en Chicxulub, en Yucatán. Durante el Maastrichtiano, La Española (isla de Santo Domingo, la península de Yucatán (México y la porción oriental de Cuba se encontraban en un entorno inmediatamente cercano, por lo que las Formaciones Beloc, Mícara, La Jíquima y otras equivalentes se acumularon en condiciones paleogeográficas y medioambientales similares. Las facies de olistostromas, megaturbiditas terrígenas y de macrobrechas de calizas, localizadas en lo que se considera el límite K/T en la porción oriental de Cuba, posiblemente se acumularon como consecuencia de tsunamis formados por el impacto del meteorito que dio origen al cráter de Chicxulub.

  13. Vertebrate time-tree elucidates the biogeographic pattern of a major biotic change around the K-T boundary in Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crottinia, A.; Madsen, O.; Poux, C.; Straussa, A.; Vieites, D.R.; Vences, M.


    The geographic and temporal origins of Madagascar's biota have long been in the center of debate. We reconstructed a time-tree including nearly all native nonflying and nonmarine vertebrate clades present on the island, from DNA sequences of two single-copy protein-coding nuclear genes (BDNF and

  14. Wavelet library for constrained devices (United States)

    Ehlers, Johan Hendrik; Jassim, Sabah A.


    The wavelet transform is a powerful tool for image and video processing, useful in a range of applications. This paper is concerned with the efficiency of a certain fast-wavelet-transform (FWT) implementation and several wavelet filters, more suitable for constrained devices. Such constraints are typically found on mobile (cell) phones or personal digital assistants (PDA). These constraints can be a combination of; limited memory, slow floating point operations (compared to integer operations, most often as a result of no hardware support) and limited local storage. Yet these devices are burdened with demanding tasks such as processing a live video or audio signal through on-board capturing sensors. In this paper we present a new wavelet software library, HeatWave, that can be used efficiently for image/video processing/analysis tasks on mobile phones and PDA's. We will demonstrate that HeatWave is suitable for realtime applications with fine control and range to suit transform demands. We shall present experimental results to substantiate these claims. Finally this library is intended to be of real use and applied, hence we considered several well known and common embedded operating system platform differences; such as a lack of common routines or functions, stack limitations, etc. This makes HeatWave suitable for a range of applications and research projects.

  15. Constrained Peptides as Miniature Protein Structures (United States)

    Yin, Hang


    This paper discusses the recent developments of protein engineering using both covalent and noncovalent bonds to constrain peptides, forcing them into designed protein secondary structures. These constrained peptides subsequently can be used as peptidomimetics for biological functions such as regulations of protein-protein interactions. PMID:25969758

  16. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pryds, Nini

    A mesoscale numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element method for calculating stresses. The sintering behavior of a sample constrained by a rigid substrate...

  17. Order-constrained linear optimization. (United States)

    Tidwell, Joe W; Dougherty, Michael R; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Thomas, Rick P


    Despite the fact that data and theories in the social, behavioural, and health sciences are often represented on an ordinal scale, there has been relatively little emphasis on modelling ordinal properties. The most common analytic framework used in psychological science is the general linear model, whose variants include ANOVA, MANOVA, and ordinary linear regression. While these methods are designed to provide the best fit to the metric properties of the data, they are not designed to maximally model ordinal properties. In this paper, we develop an order-constrained linear least-squares (OCLO) optimization algorithm that maximizes the linear least-squares fit to the data conditional on maximizing the ordinal fit based on Kendall's τ. The algorithm builds on the maximum rank correlation estimator (Han, 1987, Journal of Econometrics, 35, 303) and the general monotone model (Dougherty & Thomas, 2012, Psychological Review, 119, 321). Analyses of simulated data indicate that when modelling data that adhere to the assumptions of ordinary least squares, OCLO shows minimal bias, little increase in variance, and almost no loss in out-of-sample predictive accuracy. In contrast, under conditions in which data include a small number of extreme scores (fat-tailed distributions), OCLO shows less bias and variance, and substantially better out-of-sample predictive accuracy, even when the outliers are removed. We show that the advantages of OCLO over ordinary least squares in predicting new observations hold across a variety of scenarios in which researchers must decide to retain or eliminate extreme scores when fitting data. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Paleoenvironmental Changes linked to Deccan Volcanism and the K-T Mass Extinction across India and their Correlations with more distant Areas (United States)

    Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Gerstch, B.; Gardin, S.; Bartolini, A.; Bajpai, S.


    valley estuarine system. At Jhilmili, multidisciplinary analyses reveal the KT boundary at or close to the lower trap basalt in C29R and the upper trap near the C29R/C29N transition. Intertrappean deposition occurred in predominantly terrestrial environments. But a short aquatic interval of fresh water ponds and lakes followed by shallow estuarine marine conditions with brackish ostracods and early Danian zone P1a planktic foraminifera mark this interval close to the K-T boundary. Clays from paleosoils and sediments consist of smectite and palygorskyte and indicate sub-humid to semi-arid conditions. In Meghalaya to the northeast, the KT transition consists of Upper Cretaceous sediments dominated by sandstone, shale, sandy shale and rare coal layers, which indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment with high detrital influx from nearby continental areas. The KTB is characterized by major PGE anomalies in Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru (108 ppb), Rh (93 ppb) and Pd (75 pbb). Contrary to the sections located in the Deccan traps, dominant kaolinite in clay mineral assemblages indicates high humidity and high runoff, which is likely linked with increased warming (greenhouse effect) due to Deccan activity on the mainland. Such climatic conditions have been observed worldwide (e.g. Tunisia, Kazakhstan, South Atlantic). The contemporaneous semi-arid climate conditions that are observed in the Deccan Traps province are not observed elsewhere and therefore appear to be restricted to areas of volcanic activity.

  19. On Shor's Channel Extension and Constrained Channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.; Shirokov, M. E.

    Several equivalent formulations of the additivity conjecture for constrained channels, which formally is substantially stronger than the unconstrained additivity, are given. To this end a characteristic property of the optimal ensemble for such a channel is derived, generalizing the maximal distance property. It is shown that the additivity conjecture for constrained channels holds true for certain nontrivial classes of channels. After giving an algebraic formulation for Shor's channel extension, its main asymptotic property is proved. It is then used to show that additivity for two constrained channels can be reduced to the same problem for unconstrained channels, and hence, ``global'' additivity for channels with arbitrary constraints is equivalent to additivity without constraints.

  20. Supra-aortic arteries: three-dimensional time-resolved k-t BLAST contrast-enhanced MRA using a nondedicated body coil at 3 tesla in acute ischemic stroke. (United States)

    Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Hélène; Breil, Stéphane; Carsin-Nicol, Béatrice; Ronzière, Thomas; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves


    To assess the image quality and diagnostic performance achieved by using supra-aortic 3D-TR-CE-k-t BLAST MRA and a nondedicated body coil as compared with conventional CE-MRA in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this prospective study, 36 consecutive patients with a suspected acute ischemic stroke underwent both k-t BLAST MRA and conventional CE-MRA. Image quality was assessed using visual and quantitative criteria and the techniques were compared. Both techniques were compared for degree of visual and quantitative measurement of carotid stenosis. Delineation of vessel lumen and overall diagnostic confidence were significantly better with CE-MRA, respectively 3.4 ± 0.5 and 3.3 ± 0.6 (mean score ± SD), than with k-t BLAST MRA, respectively 2.8 ± 0.4 and 2.9 ± 0.5 (P coil offering and dynamic information was a effective diagnostic tool for detection and characterization of carotid stenosis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Measurement of the MACS of {sup 181}Ta(n,γ) at kT=30 keV as a test of a method for Maxwellian neutron spectra generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praena, J., E-mail: [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Mastinu, P.F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Padova (Italy); Pignatari, M. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Quesada, J.M. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); García-López, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Lozano, M. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Dzysiuk, N. [International Nuclear Safety Center of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Capote, R. [NAPC–Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Martín-Hernández, G. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnólogicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, 5ta y 30, Playa, La Habana (Cuba)


    Measurement of the Maxwellian-Averaged Cross-Section (MACS) of the {sup 181}Ta(n,γ) reaction at kT=30 keV by the activation technique using an innovative method for the generation of Maxwellian neutron spectra is presented. The method is based on the shaping of the proton beam to produce a desired neutron spectrum using the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction as a neutron source. The characterization of neutron spectra has been performed by combining measured proton distributions, an analytical description of the differential neutron yield in angle and energy of the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction, and with Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron transport. A measured value equal to 815±73 mbarn is reported for the MACS of the reaction {sup 181}Ta(n,γ) at kT=30 keV. The MACS of the reaction {sup 197}Au(n,γ) provided by KADoNiS has been used as a reference. -- Author-Highlights: • Generation of Maxwellian neutron spectrum for astrophysics and nuclear data validation. • {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction and proton distributions conformed by aluminum as a shaper foil. • Measurement of the proton distributions and simulation of the neutron transport. • MACS of {sup 181}Ta(n,γ) at kT=30 keV measured by the activation technique. • First accelerator-based neutron source in Spain.

  2. Constrained vertebrate evolution by pleiotropic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Haiyang; Uesaka, Masahiro; Guo, Song


    Despite morphological diversification of chordates over 550 million years of evolution, their shared basic anatomical pattern (or 'bodyplan') remains conserved by unknown mechanisms. The developmental hourglass model attributes this to phylum-wide conserved, constrained organogenesis stages...

  3. A Dynamic Programming Approach to Constrained Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Steffensen, Mogens


    This paper studies constrained portfolio problems that may involve constraints on the probability or the expected size of a shortfall of wealth or consumption. Our first contribution is that we solve the problems by dynamic programming, which is in contrast to the existing literature that applies...... the martingale method. More precisely, we construct the non-separable value function by formalizing the optimal constrained terminal wealth to be a (conjectured) contingent claim on the optimal non-constrained terminal wealth. This is relevant by itself, but also opens up the opportunity to derive new solutions...... to constrained problems. As a second contribution, we thus derive new results for non-strict constraints on the shortfall of intermediate wealth and/or consumption....

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Constrained Hamiltonian Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der; Maschke, B.M.


    Network modelling of unconstrained energy conserving physical systems leads to an intrinsic generalized Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics. Constrained energy conserving physical systems are directly modelled as implicit Hamiltonian systems with regard to a generalized Dirac structure on the

  5. On the origin of constrained superfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall’Agata, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dudas, E. [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    In this work we analyze constrained superfields in supersymmetry and supergravity. We propose a constraint that, in combination with the constrained goldstino multiplet, consistently removes any selected component from a generic superfield. We also describe its origin, providing the operators whose equations of motion lead to the decoupling of such components. We illustrate our proposal by means of various examples and show how known constraints can be reproduced by our method.

  6. Robust Tracking Control for Constrained Robots


    Mehdi, Haifa; Boubaker, Olfa


    In this paper, a novel robust tracking control law is proposed for constrained robots under unknown stiffness environment. The stability and the robustness of the controller are proved using a Lyapunov-based approach where the relationship between the error dynamics of the robotic system and its energy is investigated. Finally, a 3DOF constrained robotic arm is used to prove the stability, the robustness and the safety of the proposed approach.

  7. Modulation of the primary impulse of spatially-constrained video-aiming movements. (United States)

    Tinjust, David; Proteau, Luc


    It has been suggested that temporally-constrained goal directed movements are based on a single submovement control strategy that could be modulated online. On the contrary, spatially-constrained movements might encourage participants to produce very fast, open-loop, but somewhat inaccurate/variable primary movement impulses and, if necessary, to perform a discrete correction. We wanted to determine whether the primary impulse of a spatially-constrained manual aiming movement was modulated online. On movement extent, results revealed that a first modulation mechanism acted soon after movement initiation. This modulation was largely independent of target size and apparently stabilized the output of the movement planning processes. A second modulation mechanism further reduced the variability of the movement's primary impulse so that movements ended on target. Movement direction appeared to be under continuous control.

  8. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghoon Lee


    Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  9. Continuation of Sets of Constrained Orbit Segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten; Chamoun, George Chaouki

    Sets of constrained orbit segments of time continuous flows are collections of trajectories that represent a whole or parts of an invariant set. A non-trivial but simple example is a homoclinic orbit. A typical representation of this set consists of an equilibrium point of the flow and a trajectory...... that starts close and returns close to this fixed point within finite time. More complicated examples are hybrid periodic orbits of piecewise smooth systems or quasi-periodic invariant tori. Even though it is possible to define generalised two-point boundary value problems for computing sets of constrained...... orbit segments, this is very disadvantageous in practice. In this talk we will present an algorithm that allows the efficient continuation of sets of constrained orbit segments together with the solution of the full variational problem....

  10. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard


    Most database applications manage time-referenced, or temporal, data. Temporal data management is difficult when using conventional database technology, and many contributions have been made for how to better model, store, and query temporal data. Temporal aggregation illustrates well the problem...

  11. k-t accelerated aortic 4D flow MRI in under two minutes: Feasibility and impact of resolution, k-space sampling patterns, and respiratory navigator gating on hemodynamic measurements. (United States)

    Bollache, Emilie; Barker, Alex J; Dolan, Ryan Scott; Carr, James C; van Ooij, Pim; Ahmadian, Rouzbeh; Powell, Alex; Collins, Jeremy D; Geiger, Julia; Markl, Michael


    To assess the performance of highly accelerated free-breathing aortic four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI acquired in under 2 minutes compared to conventional respiratory gated 4D flow. Eight k-t accelerated nongated 4D flow MRI (parallel MRI with extended and averaged generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition kernels [PEAK GRAPPA], R = 5, TRes = 67.2 ms) using four ky -kz Cartesian sampling patterns (linear, center-out, out-center-out, random) and two spatial resolutions (SRes1 = 3.5 × 2.3 × 2.6 mm3 , SRes2 = 4.5 × 2.3 × 2.6 mm3 ) were compared in vitro (aortic coarctation flow phantom) and in 10 healthy volunteers, to conventional 4D flow (16 mm-navigator acceptance window; R = 2; TRes = 39.2 ms; SRes = 3.2 × 2.3 × 2.4 mm3 ). The best k-t accelerated approach was further assessed in 10 patients with aortic disease. The k-t accelerated in vitro aortic peak flow (Qmax), net flow (Qnet), and peak velocity (Vmax) were lower than conventional 4D flow indices by ≤4.7%, ≤ 11%, and ≤22%, respectively. In vivo k-t accelerated acquisitions were significantly shorter but showed a trend to lower image quality compared to conventional 4D flow. Hemodynamic indices for linear and out-center-out k-space samplings were in agreement with conventional 4D flow (Qmax ≤ 13%, Qnet ≤ 13%, Vmax ≤ 17%, P > 0.05). Aortic 4D flow MRI in under 2 minutes is feasible with moderate underestimation of flow indices. Differences in k-space sampling patterns suggest an opportunity to mitigate image artifacts by an optimal trade-off between scan time, acceleration, and k-space sampling. Magn Reson Med 79:195-207, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Spatio-temporal patterns of forest fires: a comprehensive application of the K-function (United States)

    Tonini, Marj; Vega Orozco, Carmen; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Conedera, Marco


    The spatial distribution of uncontrolled hazardous events, such as forest fires, is largely investigated from the scientific community with the purpose of finding out the more vulnerable areas. Mapping the location of spatio-temporal sequences for a given environmental dataset is of great impact; however, the majority of the studies miss the analysis of the aggregation over time. Nonetheless discovering unusual temporal pattern for a given time sequence is fundamental to understand the phenomena and underlying processes. The present study aims investigating both the spatial and the temporal cluster behaviour of forest fires occurrences registered in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) over a period of about 40 years and testing if space and time interact in generate clusters. To do this, the purely spatial, the time and the space-time extensions of the Ripley's K-function were applied. The Ripley's K-function is a statistic exploratory method which enables detecting whether or not a point process (e.g. the location of the ignition points) is randomly distributed. The purely spatial K-function K(r) is defined as the expected number of further events within an area of radius r around an arbitrary point of the pattern, divided by the intensity of the phenomenon. Under completely spatial randomness, the value of the K(r) is equal to the area around the point (=πr2), while observations above this theoretical value imply a clustering behaviour at the corresponding distance r. For the purely time analysis, the Ripley's K-function K(t) can be taught as a reformulation of the spatial version to detect unexpected aggregation of events over the temporal scale. For its computation, the value of the intensity used in K(r) is replaced by the total duration of the time sequence divided by the total number of observed events, and the distance r is replaced by the time interval t. Under time-regularity, K(t) equals 2t, whereas, observed measures above this theoretical value indicate a

  13. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.


    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement...

  14. Semantic Web in a Constrained Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, L.J.; Schlobach, K.S.


    The semantic web is intrinsically constrained by its environment. These constraints act as a bottlenecks and limit the performance of applications in various ways. Examples of such constraints are the limited availability of memory, disk space, or a limited network bandwidth. But how do these bounds

  15. Constrained superfields from inflation to reheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Dalianis


    Full Text Available We construct effective supergravity theories from customized constrained superfields which provide a setup consistent both for the description of inflation and the subsequent reheating processes. These theories contain the minimum degrees of freedom in the bosonic sector required for single-field inflation.

  16. Constrained Optimization in Simulation : A Novel Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; van Beers, W.C.M.; van Nieuwenhuyse, I.


    This paper presents a novel heuristic for constrained optimization of random computer simulation models, in which one of the simulation outputs is selected as the objective to be minimized while the other outputs need to satisfy prespeci¯ed target values. Besides the simulation outputs, the

  17. Integrating job scheduling and constrained network routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette


    This paper examines the NP-hard problem of scheduling jobs on resources such that the overall profit of executed jobs is maximized. Job demand must be sent through a constrained network to the resource before execution can begin. The problem has application in grid computing, where a number...

  18. A model for optimal constrained adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Reese, Lynda M.


    A model for constrained computerized adaptive testing is proposed in which the information on the test at the ability estimate is maximized subject to a large variety of possible constraints on the contents of the test. At each item-selection step, a full test is first assembled to have maximum

  19. Constrained Registration of the Wrist Joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Giessen, M.; Streekstra, G.J.; Strackee, S.D.; Maas, M.; Grimbergen, K.A.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Vos, F.M.


    Comparing wrist shapes of different individuals requires alignment of these wrists into the same pose. Unconstrained registration of the carpal bones results in anatomically nonfeasible wrists. In this paper, we propose to constrain the registration using the shapes of adjacent bones, by keeping the

  20. Constrained registration of the wrist joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Giessen, M.; Streekstra, G.J.; Strackee, S.D.; Maas, M.; Grimbergen, K.A.; van Vliet, L.J.; Vos, F.M.


    Comparing wrist shapes of different individuals requires alignment of these wrists into the same pose. Unconstrained registration of the carpal bones results in anatomically nonfeasible wrists. In this paper, we propose to constrain the registration using the shapes of adjacent bones, by keeping the

  1. Factors Constraining Farmers Use of Improved Cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that land and labour problems, marketing problems, poor technical information, cultural incompatibility, high cost of farm inputs and unavailability of necessary inputs were the major factors constraining the use of improved cowpea technologies in the area. These findings suggest that there is an urgent ...

  2. Can Neutron stars constrain Dark Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos; Tinyakov, Peter


    temperature that could in principle be detected. Due to their compactness, neutron stars can acrete WIMPs efficiently even if the WIMP-to-nucleon cross section obeys the current limits from direct dark matter searches, and therefore they could constrain a wide range of dark matter candidates....

  3. Client's constraining factors to construction project management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed client's related factors that constrain project management success of public and private sector construction in Nigeria. Issues that concern clients in any project can not be undermined as they are the owners and the initiators of project proposals. It is assumed that success, failure or abandonment of ...

  4. A Constrained Vision of the Writing Classroom. (United States)

    Phelps, Louise Wetherbee


    Proposes that writing teachers and administrators think, first, in terms of the truly political realities--the situated interconnections of interests, accidents, luck, and consequences--that constrain our abilities to realize utopian goals and, second, in terms of ethical constraints to which they are willing to be bound by. (RS)

  5. Algorithm Solves Constrained and Unconstrained Optimization Problems (United States)

    Denson, M. A.


    Is quasi-Newton iteration utilizing Broyden/Fletcher/Goldfarb/Shanno update on inverse Hessian matrix. Capable of solving constrained optimization unconstrained optimization and constraints only problems with one to five independent variables from one to five constraint functions and one dependent function optimized.

  6. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pryds, Nini


    A numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element model (FEM) for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response to the local stress...

  7. Modeling the Microstructural Evolution During Constrained Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pryds, Nini


    A numerical model able to simulate solid-state constrained sintering is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo model for free sintering with a finite element model (FEM) for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response to the local stress...

  8. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Tikare, V.

    A numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering of a powder compact is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element (FE) method for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response...

  9. Entanglement-assisted capacity of constrained channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.


    In this paper we fil a gap in previous work by proving the conjectured formula for the antanglement-assisted capacity of quantum channel with additive input constraint (such as Bosonic Gaussian channel). The main tools are the coding theorem for classical-quantum constrained channels and a finite dimensional approximation of the input density operators for the entanglement-assisted capacity.

  10. Constrained target controllability of complex networks (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Wei, Ze-Gang; Zeng, Tao; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Jingsong; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Chen, Luonan


    It is of great theoretical interest and practical significance to study how to control a system by applying perturbations to only a few driver nodes. Recently, a hot topic of modern network researches is how to determine driver nodes that allow the control of an entire network. However, in practice, to control a complex network, especially a biological network, one may know not only the set of nodes which need to be controlled (i.e. target nodes), but also the set of nodes to which only control signals can be applied (i.e. constrained control nodes). Compared to the general concept of controllability, we introduce the concept of constrained target controllability (CTC) of complex networks, which concerns the ability to drive any state of target nodes to their desirable state by applying control signals to the driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. To efficiently investigate the CTC of complex networks, we further design a novel graph-theoretic algorithm called CTCA to estimate the ability of a given network to control targets by choosing driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. We extensively evaluate the CTC of numerous real complex networks. The results indicate that biological networks with a higher average degree are easier to control than biological networks with a lower average degree, while electronic networks with a lower average degree are easier to control than web networks with a higher average degree. We also show that our CTCA can more efficiently produce driver nodes for target-controlling the networks than existing state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we use our CTCA to analyze two expert-curated bio-molecular networks and compare to other state-of-the-art methods. The results illustrate that our CTCA can efficiently identify proven drug targets and new potentials, according to the constrained controllability of those biological networks.

  11. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    Semantics of temporal models with multi temporal dimensions are examined progressing from non-temporal models unto uni-temporal, and further unto bi- and tri-temporal models. An example of a uni-temporal model is the valid time model, an example of a bi-temporal model is the valid time/transactio...

  12. Modeling Atmospheric CO2 Processes to Constrain the Missing Sink (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Denning, A. S.; Erickson, D. J.; Collatz, J. C.; Pawson, S.


    We report on a NASA supported modeling effort to reduce uncertainty in carbon cycle processes that create the so-called missing sink of atmospheric CO2. Our overall objective is to improve characterization of CO2 source/sink processes globally with improved formulations for atmospheric transport, terrestrial uptake and release, biomass and fossil fuel burning, and observational data analysis. The motivation for this study follows from the perspective that progress in determining CO2 sources and sinks beyond the current state of the art will rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. The major components of this effort are: 1) Continued development of the chemistry and transport model using analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, with comparison to real time data in both forward and inverse modes; 2) An advanced biosphere model, constrained by remote sensing data, coupled to the global transport model to produce distributions of CO2 fluxes and concentrations that are consistent with actual meteorological variability; 3) Improved remote sensing estimates for biomass burning emission fluxes to better characterize interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 budget and to better constrain the land use change source; 4) Evaluating the impact of temporally resolved fossil fuel emission distributions on atmospheric CO2 gradients and variability. 5) Testing the impact of existing and planned remote sensing data sources (e.g., AIRS, MODIS, OCO) on inference of CO2 sources and sinks, and use the model to help establish measurement requirements for future remote sensing instruments. The results will help to prepare for the use of OCO and other satellite data in a multi-disciplinary carbon data assimilation system for analysis and prediction of carbon cycle changes and carbodclimate interactions.

  13. How peer-review constrains cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen


    as ‘cognition’ describes enabling conditions for flexible behavior, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as ‘symbolizations’, replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio......Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far......-cognitive view, peer-review constrains knowledge-making by writers, editors, reviewers. Authors are prompted to recursively re-aggregate symbolizations to present what are deemed acceptable knowledge claims. How, then, can recursive re-embodiment be explored? In illustration, I sketch how the paper’s own content...

  14. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen


    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  15. A constrained supersymmetric left-right model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Martin [AHEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de València, Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Krauss, Manuel E. [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Emil-Hilb-Weg 22, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Opferkuch, Toby [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Porod, Werner [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Emil-Hilb-Weg 22, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Theory Division, CERN,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)


    We present a supersymmetric left-right model which predicts gauge coupling unification close to the string scale and extra vector bosons at the TeV scale. The subtleties in constructing a model which is in agreement with the measured quark masses and mixing for such a low left-right breaking scale are discussed. It is shown that in the constrained version of this model radiative breaking of the gauge symmetries is possible and a SM-like Higgs is obtained. Additional CP-even scalars of a similar mass or even much lighter are possible. The expected mass hierarchies for the supersymmetric states differ clearly from those of the constrained MSSM. In particular, the lightest down-type squark, which is a mixture of the sbottom and extra vector-like states, is always lighter than the stop. We also comment on the model’s capability to explain current anomalies observed at the LHC.

  16. Doubly Constrained Robust Blind Beamforming Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Song


    Full Text Available We propose doubly constrained robust least-squares constant modulus algorithm (LSCMA to solve the problem of signal steering vector mismatches via the Bayesian method and worst-case performance optimization, which is based on the mismatches between the actual and presumed steering vectors. The weight vector is iteratively updated with penalty for the worst-case signal steering vector by the partial Taylor-series expansion and Lagrange multiplier method, in which the Lagrange multipliers can be optimally derived and incorporated at each step. A theoretical analysis for our proposed algorithm in terms of complexity cost, convergence performance, and SINR performance is presented in this paper. In contrast to the linearly constrained LSCMA, the proposed algorithm provides better robustness against the signal steering vector mismatches, yields higher signal captive performance, improves greater array output SINR, and has a lower computational cost. The simulation results confirm the superiority of the proposed algorithm on beampattern control and output SINR enhancement.

  17. Constraining RRc candidates using SDSS colours


    Bányai, E.; Plachy, E.; Molnár, L.; Dobos, L.; Szabó, R.


    The light variations of first-overtone RR Lyrae stars and contact eclipsing binaries can be difficult to distinguish. The Catalina Periodic Variable Star catalog contains several misclassified objects, despite the classification efforts by Drake et al. (2014). They used metallicity and surface gravity derived from spectroscopic data (from the SDSS database) to rule out binaries. Our aim is to further constrain the catalog using SDSS colours to estimate physical parameters for stars that did n...

  18. Analysing Cinematography with Embedded Constrained Patterns


    Wu, Hui-Yin; Christie, Marc


    International audience; Cinematography carries messages on the plot, emotion, or more general feeling of the film. Yet cinematographic devices are often overlooked in existing approaches to film analysis. In this paper, we present Embedded Constrained Patterns (ECPs), a dedicated query language to search annotated film clips for sequences that fulfill complex stylistic constraints. ECPs are groups of framing and sequencing constraints defined using vocabulary in film textbooks. Using a set al...

  19. Constraining neutron star matter with Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi


    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount --- or even presence --- of quark matter inside the stars.

  20. Capacity constrained assignment in spatial databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    U, Leong Hou; Yiu, Man Lung; Mouratidis, Kyriakos


    Given a point set P of customers (e.g., WiFi receivers) and a point set Q of service providers (e.g., wireless access points), where each q 2 Q has a capacity q.k, the capacity constrained assignment (CCA) is a matching M Q × P such that (i) each point q 2 Q (p 2 P) appears at most k times (at most...

  1. Phase-constrained parallel MR image reconstruction. (United States)

    Willig-Onwuachi, Jacob D; Yeh, Ernest N; Grant, Aaron K; Ohliger, Michael A; McKenzie, Charles A; Sodickson, Daniel K


    A generalized method for phase-constrained parallel MR image reconstruction is presented that combines and extends the concepts of partial-Fourier reconstruction and parallel imaging. It provides a framework for reconstructing images employing either or both techniques and for comparing image quality achieved by varying k-space sampling schemes. The method can be used as a parallel image reconstruction with a partial-Fourier reconstruction built in. It can also be used with trajectories not readily handled by straightforward combinations of partial-Fourier and SENSE-like parallel reconstructions, including variable-density, and non-Cartesian trajectories. The phase constraint specifies a better-conditioned inverse problem compared to unconstrained parallel MR reconstruction alone. This phase-constrained parallel MRI reconstruction offers a one-step alternative to the standard combination of homodyne and SENSE reconstructions with the added benefit of flexibility of sampling trajectory. The theory of the phase-constrained approach is outlined, and its calibration requirements and limitations are discussed. Simulations, phantom experiments, and in vivo experiments are presented.

  2. Constrained Multi-View Video Face Clustering. (United States)

    Cao, Xiaochun; Zhang, Changqing; Zhou, Chengju; Fu, Huazhu; Foroosh, Hassan


    In this paper, we focus on face clustering in videos. To promote the performance of video clustering by multiple intrinsic cues, i.e., pairwise constraints and multiple views, we propose a constrained multi-view video face clustering method under a unified graph-based model. First, unlike most existing video face clustering methods which only employ these constraints in the clustering step, we strengthen the pairwise constraints through the whole video face clustering framework, both in sparse subspace representation and spectral clustering. In the constrained sparse subspace representation, the sparse representation is forced to explore unknown relationships. In the constrained spectral clustering, the constraints are used to guide for learning more reasonable new representations. Second, our method considers both the video face pairwise constraints as well as the multi-view consistence simultaneously. In particular, the graph regularization enforces the pairwise constraints to be respected and the co-regularization penalizes the disagreement among different graphs of multiple views. Experiments on three real-world video benchmark data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of our method over the state-of-the-art methods.

  3. An English language interface for constrained domains (United States)

    Page, Brenda J.


    The Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) Jargon Interpreter (MJI) demonstrates an English language interface for a constrained domain. A constrained domain is defined as one with a small and well delineated set of actions and objects. The set of actions chosen for the MJI is from the domain of MSOCC Applications Executive (MAE) Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) directives and contains directives for signing a cathode ray tube (CRT) on or off, calling up or clearing a display page, starting or stopping a procedure, and controlling history recording. The set of objects chosen consists of CRTs, display pages, STOL procedures, and history files. Translation from English sentences to STOL directives is done in two phases. In the first phase, an augmented transition net (ATN) parser and dictionary are used for determining grammatically correct parsings of input sentences. In the second phase, grammatically typed sentences are submitted to a forward-chaining rule-based system for interpretation and translation into equivalent MAE STOL directives. Tests of the MJI show that it is able to translate individual clearly stated sentences into the subset of directives selected for the prototype. This approach to an English language interface may be used for similarly constrained situations by modifying the MJI's dictionary and rules to reflect the change of domain.

  4. Measurement of the ratio of inclusive jet cross sections using the anti-$k_T$ algorithm with radius parameters R=0.5 and 0.7 in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Heracleous, Natalie; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Stein, Matthias; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Jones, John; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Anil; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Musenich, Riccardo; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Golutvin, Igor; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Korenkov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Tikhonenko, Elena; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Dordevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Favaro, Carlotta; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Günaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Ilic, Jelena; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Felcini, Marta; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Kcira, Dorian; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Ratnikova, Natalia; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Oliveros, Sandra; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Vuosalo, Carl; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sakharov, Alexandre; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H


    Measurements of the inclusive jet cross section with the anti-$k_t$ clustering algorithm are presented for two radius parameters, R=0.5 and 0.7. They are based on data from LHC proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse-femtobarns collected with the CMS detector in 2011. The ratio of these two measurements is obtained as a function of the rapidity and transverse momentum of the jets. Significant discrepancies are found comparing the data to leading-order simulations and to fixed-order calculations at next-to-leading order, corrected for nonperturbative effects, whereas simulations with next-to-leading-order matrix elements matched to parton showers describe the data best.

  5. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby


    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...

  6. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  7. Less favourable climates constrain demographic strategies in plants. (United States)

    Csergő, Anna M; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Broennimann, Olivier; Coutts, Shaun R; Guisan, Antoine; Angert, Amy L; Welk, Erik; Stott, Iain; Enquist, Brian J; McGill, Brian; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Violle, Cyrille; Buckley, Yvonne M


    Correlative species distribution models are based on the observed relationship between species' occurrence and macroclimate or other environmental variables. In climates predicted less favourable populations are expected to decline, and in favourable climates they are expected to persist. However, little comparative empirical support exists for a relationship between predicted climate suitability and population performance. We found that the performance of 93 populations of 34 plant species worldwide - as measured by in situ population growth rate, its temporal variation and extinction risk - was not correlated with climate suitability. However, correlations of demographic processes underpinning population performance with climate suitability indicated both resistance and vulnerability pathways of population responses to climate: in less suitable climates, plants experienced greater retrogression (resistance pathway) and greater variability in some demographic rates (vulnerability pathway). While a range of demographic strategies occur within species' climatic niches, demographic strategies are more constrained in climates predicted to be less suitable. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Tracking Long-lived Hotspots to Constrain Temporal Mantle Compositional Evolution (United States)

    Konter, J. G.; Jackson, M. G.; Koppers, A. A.


    Linear chains of intraplate volcanoes provide a record of the geochemical composition of the mantle through geologic time. Their geochemical compositions characterize the mantle source material that melted and place constraints on the geodynamic origin of the source, and thereby the dynamic character of the mantle. In particular, long-lived volcanic chains provide strong constraints, since they require large volumes of mantle source material and provide the best way to evaluate hotspot source stability. Some of the longest-lived volcanic chains are anchored by the current Cook-Austral Islands continuing into the Western Pacific, where their tracks are complicated by cross-cutting volcanic chains and isolated seamounts. The connection between recent volcanism in the Cook-Austral Islands and Cretaceous volcanism in the Western Pacific is revealed by a combination of ages and isotopic compositions, suggesting three simultaneously erupting hotspot locations. The ages of the Western Pacific volcanoes fit with three predicted hotspot tracks, while the isotopic compositions along each track have a limited range and are largely distinct from each other. However, until recently no data existed on volcanoes in the 30-60 Ma age range for these hotspot chains. New data collected on samples from volcanoes in Samoa and Tuvalu are now starting to provide a more complete geochemical record through time. In the Tuvalu Islands very limited dredging only provided a small number of samples. Isotopic compositions for these volcanoes correspond very well to the range in compositions observed for the Rurutu hotspot in the Cook-Austral Islands, and the Tuvalu Islands lie along the predicted hotspot track for the Rurutu hotspot. Similarly, a number of volcanoes with similar composition are found along the Samoan chain of volcanoes. Since plate motion models predicts that the Pacific Plate around Samoa passed over the Rurutu hotspot, the Samoan region represents a complex area of intersecting hotspot chains, coined the hotspot highway. Another hotspot that likely contributed to this complex region is the western-most Cook-Austral hotspot of Rarotonga. Its isotopic composition is distinct from the Rurutu and Samoa mantle source but has not yet been directly observed among the Samoan Islands. However, Cretaceous volcanoes in the Western Pacific with similar composition have been proposed to originate near Rarotonga, and post-erosional lavas on the Samoan Islands trend toward this composition. Since the Rarotonga hotspot was the last hotspot the Samoan region passed over, a metasomatic Rarotonga component may be sampled by Samoan post-erosional lavas. This interpretation of all currently available data in the southwest Pacific implies that hotspot sources can be located near each other with little interaction of their mantle sources. Therefore, several of these hotspots have been erupting relatively limited ranges in isotopic compositions since the Mesozoic, likely with little interaction with other mantle material. This observation argues for the need of multiple long-term stable mantle reservoirs, located close together erupting over the seismically observed Pacific superplume.

  9. TEXPLORE temporal difference reinforcement learning for robots and time-constrained domains

    CERN Document Server

    Hester, Todd


    This book presents and develops new reinforcement learning methods that enable fast and robust learning on robots in real-time. Robots have the potential to solve many problems in society, because of their ability to work in dangerous places doing necessary jobs that no one wants or is able to do. One barrier to their widespread deployment is that they are mainly limited to tasks where it is possible to hand-program behaviors for every situation that may be encountered. For robots to meet their potential, they need methods that enable them to learn and adapt to novel situations that they were not programmed for. Reinforcement learning (RL) is a paradigm for learning sequential decision making processes and could solve the problems of learning and adaptation on robots. This book identifies four key challenges that must be addressed for an RL algorithm to be practical for robotic control tasks. These RL for Robotics Challenges are: 1) it must learn in very few samples; 2) it must learn in domains with continuou...

  10. Charged particles constrained to a curved surface

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Thomas


    We study the motion of charged particles constrained to arbitrary two-dimensional curved surfaces but interacting in three-dimensional space via the Coulomb potential. To speed-up the interaction calculations, we use the parallel compute capability of the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) of todays graphics boards. The particles and the curved surfaces are shown using the Open Graphics Library (OpenGL). The paper is intended to give graduate students, who have basic experiences with electrostatics and differential geometry, a deeper understanding in charged particle interactions and a short introduction how to handle a many particle system using parallel computing on a single home computer


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Azarskov


    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper deals with adaptive regulation of a discrete-time linear time-invariant plant witharbitrary bounded disturbances whose control input is constrained to lie within certain limits. The adaptivecontrol algorithm exploits the one-step-ahead control strategy and the gradient projection type estimationprocedure using the modified dead zone. The convergence property of the estimation algorithm is shown tobe ensured. The sufficient conditions guaranteeing the global asymptotical stability and simultaneously thesuboptimality of the closed-loop systems are derived. Numerical examples and simulations are presented tosupport the theoretical results.

  12. Page 1 110 S Jayasimha and C G Hiremath M k(T.) k(T.) kT. k(T ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    we have used the near-equiripple pseudo-QMF bank designed using the method described in by Jayasimha & Hiremath (1998). The condition number of the matrix TÉ, deteriorates with increasing M and with the number of missing polyphase components (i.e., the length of the lost-sample burst). The condition number of the ...

  13. i,j,k T (j

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of tubes due to localized heating are practically encountered. Thus, we think the method we proposed in this paper paves the way for further investigation and research for the cases that maybe encountered in practice. REFERENCES . [1]. Bailey, R. W., "DelIign Aspect of Creep",. Transaction of the ASME Journal of Applied.

  14. Phenomenological applications of kT factorization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    parton is scattered by the highly virtual photon, where Q is the large momentum transfer from the photon. The evolution of the hadron distribution function from the low scale ..... In reality, in order to determine φ2, we can use the time- dependent rate of B0(t) → π+π−. Since penguin contributions are sizable about. 20–30% of ...

  15. Phenomenological applications of kT factorization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    leptonic two-body -meson decays. We briefly review its ingredients and some important theoretical issues on the factorization approach. PQCD results are compatible with present experimental data for charmless -meson decays. We predict ...

  16. The precise temporal calibration of dinosaur origins (United States)

    Marsicano, Claudia A.; Irmis, Randall B.; Mancuso, Adriana C.; Mundil, Roland; Chemale, Farid


    Dinosaurs have been major components of ecosystems for over 200 million years. Although different macroevolutionary scenarios exist to explain the Triassic origin and subsequent rise to dominance of dinosaurs and their closest relatives (dinosauromorphs), all lack critical support from a precise biostratigraphically independent temporal framework. The absence of robust geochronologic age control for comparing alternative scenarios makes it impossible to determine if observed faunal differences vary across time, space, or a combination of both. To better constrain the origin of dinosaurs, we produced radioisotopic ages for the Argentinian Chañares Formation, which preserves a quintessential assemblage of dinosaurian precursors (early dinosauromorphs) just before the first dinosaurs. Our new high-precision chemical abrasion thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-TIMS) U-Pb zircon ages reveal that the assemblage is early Carnian (early Late Triassic), 5- to 10-Ma younger than previously thought. Combined with other geochronologic data from the same basin, we constrain the rate of dinosaur origins, demonstrating their relatively rapid origin in a less than 5-Ma interval, thus halving the temporal gap between assemblages containing only dinosaur precursors and those with early dinosaurs. After their origin, dinosaurs only gradually dominated mid- to high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems millions of years later, closer to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

  17. Inductive Temporal Logic Programming


    Kolter, Robert


    We study the extension of techniques from Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) to temporal logic programming languages. Therefore we present two temporal logic programming languages and analyse the learnability of programs from these languages from finite sets of examples. In first order temporal logic the following topics are analysed: - How can we characterize the denotational semantics of programs? - Which proof techniques are best suited? - How complex is the learning task? In propositional ...

  18. Indeterministic Temporal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz


    Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.

  19. Changes in epistemic frameworks: Random or constrained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananka Loubser


    Full Text Available Since the emergence of a solid anti-positivist approach in the philosophy of science, an important question has been to understand how and why epistemic frameworks change in time, are modified or even substituted. In contemporary philosophy of science three main approaches to framework-change were detected in the humanist tradition:1. In both the pre-theoretical and theoretical domains changes occur according to a rather constrained, predictable or even pre-determined pattern (e.g. Holton.2. Changes occur in a way that is more random or unpredictable and free from constraints (e.g. Kuhn, Feyerabend, Rorty, Lyotard.3. Between these approaches, a middle position can be found, attempting some kind of synthesis (e.g. Popper, Lakatos.Because this situation calls for clarification and systematisation, this article in fact tried to achieve more clarity on how changes in pre-scientific frameworks occur, as well as provided transcendental criticism of the above positions. This article suggested that the above-mentioned positions are not fully satisfactory, as change and constancy are not sufficiently integrated. An alternative model was suggested in which changes in epistemic frameworks occur according to a pattern, neither completely random nor rigidly constrained, which results in change being dynamic but not arbitrary. This alternative model is integral, rather than dialectical and therefore does not correspond to position three. 

  20. Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path. (United States)

    Babaeian, Amir; Bayestehtashk, Alireza; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba


    The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering.

  1. Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Babaeian

    Full Text Available The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering.

  2. Constrained Metric Learning by Permutation Inducing Isometries. (United States)

    Bosveld, Joel; Mahmood, Arif; Huynh, Du Q; Noakes, Lyle


    The choice of metric critically affects the performance of classification and clustering algorithms. Metric learning algorithms attempt to improve performance, by learning a more appropriate metric. Unfortunately, most of the current algorithms learn a distance function which is not invariant to rigid transformations of images. Therefore, the distances between two images and their rigidly transformed pair may differ, leading to inconsistent classification or clustering results. We propose to constrain the learned metric to be invariant to the geometry preserving transformations of images that induce permutations in the feature space. The constraint that these transformations are isometries of the metric ensures consistent results and improves accuracy. Our second contribution is a dimension reduction technique that is consistent with the isometry constraints. Our third contribution is the formulation of the isometry constrained logistic discriminant metric learning (IC-LDML) algorithm, by incorporating the isometry constraints within the objective function of the LDML algorithm. The proposed algorithm is compared with the existing techniques on the publicly available labeled faces in the wild, viewpoint-invariant pedestrian recognition, and Toy Cars data sets. The IC-LDML algorithm has outperformed existing techniques for the tasks of face recognition, person identification, and object classification by a significant margin.

  3. Simplex ACE: a constrained subspace detector (United States)

    Ziemann, Amanda; Theiler, James


    In hyperspectral target detection, one must contend with variability in both target materials and background clutter. While most algorithms focus on the background clutter, there are some materials for which there is substantial variability in the signatures of the target. When multiple signatures can be used to describe a target material, subspace detectors are often the detection algorithm of choice. However, as the number of variable target spectra increases, so does the size of the target subspace spanned by these spectra, which in turn increases the number of false alarms. Here, we propose a modification to this approach, wherein the target subspace is instead a constrained subspace, or a simplex without the sum-to-one constraint. We derive the simplex adaptive matched filter (simplex AMF) and the simplex adaptive cosine estimator (simplex ACE), which are constrained basis adaptations of the traditional subspace AMF and subspace ACE detectors. We present results using simplex AMF and simplex ACE for variable targets, and compare their performances against their subspace counterparts. Our primary interest is in the simplex ACE detector, and as such, the experiments herein seek to evaluate the robustness of simplex ACE, with simplex AMF included for comparison. Results are shown on hyperspectral images using both implanted and ground-truthed targets, and demonstrate the robustness of simplex ACE to target variability.

  4. The K/T-boundary carbonate breccia succession at the Cantarell Field, Campeche Bay area: a representative example of the influence of the Chicxulub meteorite-impact event on the formation of extraordinary petroleum reservoirs (United States)

    Murillo-Muñeton, G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J. M.; Velasquillo-Martínez, L. G.; García-Hernández, J.


    Over the last decade, intense petroleum exploration and exploitation activities have been conducted in the Campeche Bay area. Detailed stratigraphic studies in this region based on seismic, well logs, and core data have allowed the documentation of numerous deep-water carbonate breccia deposits throughout the Cretaceous stratigraphic column. However, the uppermost carbonate breccia succession is very distinctive in terms of its sedimentological properties compared to the underlying and older calcareous breccia layers. The unique characteristics of this deposit include: its unusual thickness, stratigraphic position, distribution, and content of impact-metamorphic constituents. At the Cantarell field, this carbonate breccia sedimentary package is a representative example of how the Chuxulub meteorite-impact event influenced the formation of a remarkable carbonate reservoir. This deposit was the most important oil-producing stratigraphic horizon for long time in that field. Nevertheless, this reservoir is still important not only in that field but also in other fields in offshore Campeche. The K/T boundary carbonate breccia succession is a typical fining-upward deposit made up, from base to top, of three units. The 50 to 300-m thick, basal Unit 1 consists of a coarse-grained carbonate breccia. Unit 2 is a 10 to 20 m-thick, fine-grained carbonate breccia. The 25 to 30 m-thick, uppermost Unit 3 is a greenish interval of friable sand, silt and clay-sized constituents with abundant ejecta material. In some wells, a 10 to 20 m-thick, non-oil producing fine-grained calcareous breccia occurs interbedded within Unit 3. The K/T boundary carbonate sedimentary package is underlain and overlain by deep-water shaly calcareous facies of Upper Maastrichtian and Lower Paleocene age, respectively. Studies of cronostratigraphic-equivalent outcrop analogs of this K/T boundary carbonate reservoir carried out by the authors in the Sierra de Chiapas (El Guayal, Tabasco and Bochil, Chiapas

  5. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghiu, E.


    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity

  6. Temporal Linear System Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigenburg, van L.G.; Koning, de W.L.


    Piecewise constant rank systems and the differential Kalman decomposition are introduced in this note. Together these enable the detection of temporal uncontrollability/unreconstructability of linear continuous-time systems. These temporal properties are not detected by any of the four conventional

  7. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny


    , constituting a temporal smoothing of rapidly changing illumination. In global illumination temporal smoothing can be achieved with distribution ray tracing (Cook et al., 1984). Unfortunately, this, and resembling methods, requires a high temporal resolution as samples has to be drawn from in-between frames. We...... present a novel method which is able to produce high quality temporal smoothing for indirect illumination without using in-between frames. Our method is based on ray differentials (Igehy, 1999) as it has been extended in (Sporring et al., 2009). Light rays are traced as bundles creating footprints, which......The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively...

  8. Scheduling of resource-constrained projects

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Robert


    Project management has become a widespread instrument enabling organizations to efficiently master the challenges of steadily shortening product life cycles, global markets and decreasing profit margins. With projects increasing in size and complexity, their planning and control represents one of the most crucial management tasks. This is especially true for scheduling, which is concerned with establishing execution dates for the sub-activities to be performed in order to complete the project. The ability to manage projects where resources must be allocated between concurrent projects or even sub-activities of a single project requires the use of commercial project management software packages. However, the results yielded by the solution procedures included are often rather unsatisfactory. Scheduling of Resource-Constrained Projects develops more efficient procedures, which can easily be integrated into software packages by incorporated programming languages, and thus should be of great interest for practiti...

  9. Constrained Delaunay Triangulation for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Satyanarayana


    Full Text Available Geometric spanners can be used for efficient routing in wireless ad hoc networks. Computation of existing spanners for ad hoc networks primarily focused on geometric properties without considering network requirements. In this paper, we propose a new spanner called constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT which considers both geometric properties and network requirements. The CDT is formed by introducing a small set of constraint edges into local Delaunay triangulation (LDel to reduce the number of hops between nodes in the network graph. We have simulated the CDT using network simulator (ns-2.28 and compared with Gabriel graph (GG, relative neighborhood graph (RNG, local Delaunay triangulation (LDel, and planarized local Delaunay triangulation (PLDel. The simulation results show that the minimum number of hops from source to destination is less than other spanners. We also observed the decrease in delay, jitter, and improvement in throughput.

  10. Spatially constrained propulsion in jumping archer fish (United States)

    Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra


    Archer fish jump multiple body lengths out of the water for prey capture with impressive accuracy. Their remarkable aim is facilitated by jumping from a stationary position directly below the free surface. As a result of this starting position, rapid acceleration to a velocity sufficient for reaching the target occurs with only a body length to travel before the fish leaves the water. Three-dimensional measurements of jumping kinematics and volumetric velocimetry using Synthetic Aperture PIV highlight multiple strategies for such spatially constrained acceleration. Archer fish rapidly extend fins at jump onset to increase added mass forces and modulate their swimming kinematics to minimize wasted energy when the body is partially out of the water. Volumetric measurements also enable assessment of efficiency during a jump, which is crucial to understanding jumping's role as an energetically viable hunting strategy for the fish.

  11. Shape space exploration of constrained meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang


    We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc. © 2011 ACM.

  12. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.


    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  13. Constrained multibody system dynamics: An automated approach (United States)

    Kamman, J. W.; Huston, R. L.


    The governing equations for constrained multibody systems are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated, numerical development and solution. The closed loop problem of multibody chain systems is addressed. The governing equations are developed by modifying dynamical equations obtained from Lagrange's form of d'Alembert's principle. The modifications is based upon a solution of the constraint equations obtained through a zero eigenvalues theorem, is a contraction of the dynamical equations. For a system with n-generalized coordinates and m-constraint equations, the coefficients in the constraint equations may be viewed as constraint vectors in n-dimensional space. In this setting the system itself is free to move in the n-m directions which are orthogonal to the constraint vectors.

  14. Shape space exploration of constrained meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang


    We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc.

  15. Temporal properties of stereopsis (United States)

    Gheorghiu, E.


    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity processing, are based on psychophysical experiments and computational model analysis. In chapter 1 we investigated which processes of binocular depth perception in dynamic random-dot stereograms (DRS), i.e., tolerance for interocular delays and temporal integration of correlation, are responsible for the temporal flexibility of the stereoscopic system. Our results demonstrate that (i) disparities from simultaneous monocular inputs dominate those from interocular delayed inputs; (ii) stereopsis is limited by temporal properties of monocular luminance mechanisms; (iii) depth perception in DRS results from cross-correlation-like operation on two simultaneous monocular inputs that represent the retinal images after having been subjected to a process of monocular temporal integration of luminance. In chapter 2 we examined what temporal information is exploited by the mechanisms underlying stereoscopic motion in depth. We investigated systematically the influence of temporal frequency on binocular depth perception in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS. Our results show that disparity-defined depth is judged differently in temporally correlated and uncorrelated DRS above a temporal frequency of about 3 Hz. The results and simulations indicate that: (i) above about 20 Hz, the complete absence of stereomotion is caused by temporal integration of luminance; (ii) the difference in perceived depth in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS for temporal frequencies between 20 and 3 Hz, is caused by temporal integration of disparity. In chapter 3 we investigated temporal properties of stereopsis at different spatial scales in response to sustained and

  16. Hard Instances of the Constrained Discrete Logarithm Problem


    Mironov, Ilya; Mityagin, Anton; Nissim, Kobbi


    The discrete logarithm problem (DLP) generalizes to the constrained DLP, where the secret exponent $x$ belongs to a set known to the attacker. The complexity of generic algorithms for solving the constrained DLP depends on the choice of the set. Motivated by cryptographic applications, we study sets with succinct representation for which the constrained DLP is hard. We draw on earlier results due to Erd\\"os et al. and Schnorr, develop geometric tools such as generalized Menelaus' theorem for ...

  17. Towards Temporal Graph Databases


    Campos, Alexander; Mozzino, Jorge; Vaisman, Alejandro


    In spite of the extensive literature on graph databases (GDBs), temporal GDBs have not received too much attention so far. Temporal GBDs can capture, for example, the evolution of social networks across time, a relevant topic in data analysis nowadays. In this paper we propose a data model and query language (denoted TEG-QL) for temporal GDBs, based on the notion of attribute graphs. This allows a straightforward translation to Neo4J, a well-known GBD. We present extensive examples of the use...

  18. Wave speed in excitable random networks with spatially constrained connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Vladimirov

    Full Text Available Very fast oscillations (VFO in neocortex are widely observed before epileptic seizures, and there is growing evidence that they are caused by networks of pyramidal neurons connected by gap junctions between their axons. We are motivated by the spatio-temporal waves of activity recorded using electrocorticography (ECoG, and study the speed of activity propagation through a network of neurons axonally coupled by gap junctions. We simulate wave propagation by excitable cellular automata (CA on random (Erdös-Rényi networks of special type, with spatially constrained connections. From the cellular automaton model, we derive a mean field theory to predict wave propagation. The governing equation resolved by the Fisher-Kolmogorov PDE fails to describe wave speed. A new (hyperbolic PDE is suggested, which provides adequate wave speed v( that saturates with network degree , in agreement with intuitive expectations and CA simulations. We further show that the maximum length of connection is a much better predictor of the wave speed than the mean length. When tested in networks with various degree distributions, wave speeds are found to strongly depend on the ratio of network moments / rather than on mean degree , which is explained by general network theory. The wave speeds are strikingly similar in a diverse set of networks, including regular, Poisson, exponential and power law distributions, supporting our theory for various network topologies. Our results suggest practical predictions for networks of electrically coupled neurons, and our mean field method can be readily applied for a wide class of similar problems, such as spread of epidemics through spatial networks.

  19. Constraining the SIF - GPP relationship via estimation of NPQ (United States)

    Silva, C. E.; Yang, X.; Tang, J.; Lee, J. E.; Cushman, K.; Toh Yuan Kun, L.; Kellner, J. R.


    Airborne and satellite measurements of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) have the potential to improve estimates of gross primary production (GPP). Plants dissipate absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) among three de-excitation pathways: SIF, photochemical quenching (PQ), which results in electron transport and the production of ATP and NADPH consumed during carbon fixation (i.e., GPP), and heat dissipation via conversion of xanthophyll pigments (non-photochemical quenching: NPQ). As a result, the relationship between SIF and GPP is a function of NPQ and may vary temporally and spatially with environmental conditions (e.g., light and water availability) and plant traits (e.g., leaf N content). Accurate estimates of any one of the de-excitation pathways require measurement of the other two. Here we combine half-hourly measurements of canopy APAR and SIF with eddy covariance estimates of GPP at Harvard Forest to close the canopy radiation budget and infer canopy NPQ throughout the 2013 growing season. We use molecular-level photosynthesis equations to compute PQ (umol photons m-2s-1) from GPP (umol CO2 m-2s-1) and invert an integrated canopy radiative transfer and leaf-level photosynthesis/fluorescence model (SCOPE) to quantify hemispherically and spectrally-integrated SIF emission (umol photons m-2s-1) from single band (760 nm) top-of-canopy SIF measurements. We estimate half-hourly NPQ as the residual required to close the radiation budget (NPQ = APAR - SIF - PQ). Our future work will test estimated NPQ against simultaneously acquired measurements of the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), a spectral index sensitive to xanthopyll pigments. By constraining two of the three de-excitation pathways, simultaneous SIF and PRI measurements are likely to improve GPP estimates, which are crucial to the study of climate - carbon cycle interactions.

  20. Which factors limit constraining ecosystem models with remote sensing observations? (United States)

    Viskari, T.; Serbin, S.; Shiklomanov, A. N.; Dietze, M.


    Improving terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) has become an important challenge within the global change research community. At the same time, the amount and diversity of observational data constraints available to inform modeling activities has rapidly grown. For canopy radiative transfer, which is crucial for several processes within TBMs, the growing amount of remote sensing data across spatial and temporal scales is an invaluable resource for constraining model parameters and understanding the internal dynamics. Within the context of data assimilation this remote sensing data can be used to update both parameters and model states. However, due to the model complexity, there could be several possible parameter sets that can result in the same end state. Thus it is important to assess how reliably multiple parameters can be simultaneously estimated from remote sensing data.Here we present the coupling of the PROSPECT leaf radiative transfer model, which can simulate leaf transmittance and reflectance over the shortwave spectrum (i.e. 300 to 2500 nm) using 4-6 parameters, with the Ecosystem Demography model v2 in order to dynamically simulate the canopy albedo. We employ a synthetic analysis to test how efficiently our MCMC parameter data assimilation approach can correctly estimate the true parameter values within this complex system and how the results are influenced by the number of free parameters. Our results show that the efficiency of the assimilation approach decreases with larger numbers of free parameters. In addition these issues may lead to improper parameter sets that do not match those that produced the synthetic observations. However, we also show that modifications to the assimilation scheme and improved prior estimates can yield better results.

  1. Free energy calculations using flexible-constrained, hard-constrained and non-constrained molecular dynamics simulations. (United States)

    Christen, Markus; Christ, Clara D; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F


    A comparison of different treatments of bond-stretching interactions in molecular dynamics simulation is presented. Relative free energies from simulations using rigid bonds maintained with the SHAKE algorithm, using partially rigid bonds maintained with a recently introduced flexible constraints algorithm, and using fully flexible bonds are compared in a multi-configurational thermodynamic integration calculation of changing liquid water into liquid methanol. The formula for the free energy change due to a changing flexible constraint in a flexible constraint simulation is derived. To allow for a more direct comparison between these three methods, three different pairs of models for water and methanol were used: a flexible model (simulated without constraints and with flexible constraints), a rigid model (simulated with standard hard constraints), and an alternative flexible model (simulated with flexible constraints and standard hard constraints) in which the ideal or constrained bond lengths correspond to the average bond lengths obtained from a short simulation of the unconstrained flexible model. The particular treatment of the bonds induces differences of up to 2 % in the liquid densities, whereas (excess) free energy differences of up to 5.7 (4.3) kJ mol(-1) are observed. These values are smaller than the differences observed between the three different pairs of methanol/water models: up to 5 % in density and up to 8.5 kJ mol(-1) in (excess) free energy.

  2. Reflected stochastic differential equation models for constrained animal movement (United States)

    Hanks, Ephraim M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Johnson, Devin S.


    Movement for many animal species is constrained in space by barriers such as rivers, shorelines, or impassable cliffs. We develop an approach for modeling animal movement constrained in space by considering a class of constrained stochastic processes, reflected stochastic differential equations. Our approach generalizes existing methods for modeling unconstrained animal movement. We present methods for simulation and inference based on augmenting the constrained movement path with a latent unconstrained path and illustrate this augmentation with a simulation example and an analysis of telemetry data from a Steller sea lion (Eumatopias jubatus) in southeast Alaska.

  3. Fast Constrained Spectral Clustering and Cluster Ensemble with Random Projection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenfen Liu; Mao Ye; Jianghong Wei; Xuexian Hu


    Constrained spectral clustering (CSC) method can greatly improve the clustering accuracy with the incorporation of constraint information into spectral clustering and thus has been paid academic attention widely...

  4. Resource Management in Constrained Dynamic Situations (United States)

    Seok, Jinwoo

    Resource management is considered in this dissertation for systems with limited resources, possibly combined with other system constraints, in unpredictably dynamic environments. Resources may represent fuel, power, capabilities, energy, and so on. Resource management is important for many practical systems; usually, resources are limited, and their use must be optimized. Furthermore, systems are often constrained, and constraints must be satisfied for safe operation. Simplistic resource management can result in poor use of resources and failure of the system. Furthermore, many real-world situations involve dynamic environments. Many traditional problems are formulated based on the assumptions of given probabilities or perfect knowledge of future events. However, in many cases, the future is completely unknown, and information on or probabilities about future events are not available. In other words, we operate in unpredictably dynamic situations. Thus, a method is needed to handle dynamic situations without knowledge of the future, but few formal methods have been developed to address them. Thus, the goal is to design resource management methods for constrained systems, with limited resources, in unpredictably dynamic environments. To this end, resource management is organized hierarchically into two levels: 1) planning, and 2) control. In the planning level, the set of tasks to be performed is scheduled based on limited resources to maximize resource usage in unpredictably dynamic environments. In the control level, the system controller is designed to follow the schedule by considering all the system constraints for safe and efficient operation. Consequently, this dissertation is mainly divided into two parts: 1) planning level design, based on finite state machines, and 2) control level methods, based on model predictive control. We define a recomposable restricted finite state machine to handle limited resource situations and unpredictably dynamic environments

  5. PAPR-Constrained Pareto-Optimal Waveform Design for OFDM-STAP Radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL


    We propose a peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) constrained Pareto-optimal waveform design approach for an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radar signal to detect a target using the space-time adaptive processing (STAP) technique. The use of an OFDM signal does not only increase the frequency diversity of our system, but also enables us to adaptively design the OFDM coefficients in order to further improve the system performance. First, we develop a parametric OFDM-STAP measurement model by considering the effects of signaldependent clutter and colored noise. Then, we observe that the resulting STAP-performance can be improved by maximizing the output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) with respect to the signal parameters. However, in practical scenarios, the computation of output SINR depends on the estimated values of the spatial and temporal frequencies and target scattering responses. Therefore, we formulate a PAPR-constrained multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem to design the OFDM spectral parameters by simultaneously optimizing four objective functions: maximizing the output SINR, minimizing two separate Cramer-Rao bounds (CRBs) on the normalized spatial and temporal frequencies, and minimizing the trace of CRB matrix on the target scattering coefficients estimations. We present several numerical examples to demonstrate the achieved performance improvement due to the adaptive waveform design.

  6. Temporal Lobe Seizure (United States)

    ... pregnancy Temporal lobe seizure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  7. Temporal Lobe Seizure (United States)

    ... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. During a temporal lobe seizure, you ... include: A sudden sense of unprovoked fear A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...

  8. Multisensory temporal numerosity judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippi, T.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Werkhoven, P.J.


    In temporal numerosity judgment, observers systematically underestimate the number of pulses. The strongest underestimations occur when stimuli are presented with a short interstimulus interval (ISI) and are stronger for vision than for audition and touch. We investigated if multisensory

  9. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (United States)

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.


    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  10. Massive temporal lobe cholesteatoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent


    .... There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma...

  11. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent


    .... There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma...

  12. Joint Chance-Constrained Dynamic Programming (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J. Bob


    This paper presents a novel dynamic programming algorithm with a joint chance constraint, which explicitly bounds the risk of failure in order to maintain the state within a specified feasible region. A joint chance constraint cannot be handled by existing constrained dynamic programming approaches since their application is limited to constraints in the same form as the cost function, that is, an expectation over a sum of one-stage costs. We overcome this challenge by reformulating the joint chance constraint into a constraint on an expectation over a sum of indicator functions, which can be incorporated into the cost function by dualizing the optimization problem. As a result, the primal variables can be optimized by a standard dynamic programming, while the dual variable is optimized by a root-finding algorithm that converges exponentially. Error bounds on the primal and dual objective values are rigorously derived. We demonstrate the algorithm on a path planning problem, as well as an optimal control problem for Mars entry, descent and landing. The simulations are conducted using a real terrain data of Mars, with four million discrete states at each time step.

  13. Stochastic optimal control of state constrained systems (United States)

    van den Broek, Bart; Wiegerinck, Wim; Kappen, Bert


    In this article we consider the problem of stochastic optimal control in continuous-time and state-action space of systems with state constraints. These systems typically appear in the area of robotics, where hard obstacles constrain the state space of the robot. A common approach is to solve the problem locally using a linear-quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method. We take a different approach and apply path integral control as introduced by Kappen (Kappen, H.J. (2005a), 'Path Integrals and Symmetry Breaking for Optimal Control Theory', Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 2005, P11011; Kappen, H.J. (2005b), 'Linear Theory for Control of Nonlinear Stochastic Systems', Physical Review Letters, 95, 200201). We use hybrid Monte Carlo sampling to infer the control. We introduce an adaptive time discretisation scheme for the simulation of the controlled dynamics. We demonstrate our approach on two examples, a simple particle in a halfspace and a more complex two-joint manipulator, and we show that in a high noise regime our approach outperforms the iterative LQG method.

  14. How peer-review constrains cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen


    Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far as ‘cognit......Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far...... as ‘cognition’ describes enabling conditions for flexible behavior, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as ‘symbolizations’, replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio-cognitive...... came to be re-aggregated: agonistic review drove reformatting of argument structure, changes in rhetorical ploys and careful choice of wordings. For this reason, the paper’s knowledge-claims can be traced to human activity that occurs in distributed cognitive systems. Peer-review is on the frontline...

  15. Constrained Sypersymmetric Flipped SU (5) GUT Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John; /CERN /King' s Coll. London; Mustafayev, Azar; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst.; Olive, Keith A.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Minnesota U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC


    We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, Min, above the GUT scale, M{sub GUT}. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino {chi} and the lighter stau {tilde {tau}}{sub 1} is sensitive to M{sub in}, as is the relationship between m{sub {chi}} and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons A,H. For these reasons, prominent features in generic (m{sub 1/2}, m{sub 0}) planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to Min, as we illustrate for several cases with tan {beta} = 10 and 55. However, these features do not necessarily disappear at large Min, unlike the case in the minimal conventional SU(5) GUT. Our results are relatively insensitive to neutrino masses.

  16. Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Causse, Mathieu


    This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.

  17. Constraining New Physics with D meson decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barranco, J.; Delepine, D.; Gonzalez Macias, V. [Departamento de Física, División de Ciencias e Ingeniería, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León, León 37150 (Mexico); Lopez-Lozano, L. [Departamento de Física, División de Ciencias e Ingeniería, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León, León 37150 (Mexico); Área Académica de Matemáticas y Física, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42184, Pachuca, HGO (Mexico)


    Latest Lattice results on D form factors evaluation from first principles show that the Standard Model (SM) branching ratios prediction for the leptonic D{sub s}→ℓν{sub ℓ} decays and the semileptonic SM branching ratios of the D{sup 0} and D{sup +} meson decays are in good agreement with the world average experimental measurements. It is possible to disprove New Physics hypothesis or find bounds over several models beyond the SM. Using the observed leptonic and semileptonic branching ratios for the D meson decays, we performed a combined analysis to constrain non-standard interactions which mediate the cs{sup ¯}→lν{sup ¯} transition. This is done either by a model-independent way through the corresponding Wilson coefficients or in a model-dependent way by finding the respective bounds over the relevant parameters for some models beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we obtain bounds for the Two Higgs Doublet Model Type-II and Type III, the Left–Right model, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with explicit R-parity violation and Leptoquarks. Finally, we estimate the transverse polarization of the lepton in the D{sup 0} decay and we found it can be as high as P{sub T}=0.23.

  18. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, Aaron V [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  19. Flexible constrained de Finetti reductions and applications (United States)

    Lancien, Cécilia; Winter, Andreas


    De Finetti theorems show how sufficiently exchangeable states are well-approximated by convex combinations of independent identically distributed states. Recently, it was shown that in many quantum information applications, a more relaxed de Finetti reduction (i.e., only a matrix inequality between the symmetric state and one of the de Finetti forms) is enough and that it leads to more concise and elegant arguments. Here we show several uses and general flexible applicability of a constrained de Finetti reduction in quantum information theory, which was recently discovered by Duan, Severini, and Winter. In particular, we show that the technique can accommodate other symmetries commuting with the permutation action and permutation-invariant linear constraints. We then demonstrate that, in some cases, it is also fruitful with convex constraints, in particular separability in a bipartite setting. This is a constraint particularly interesting in the context of the complexity class QMA(2) of interactive quantum Merlin-Arthur games with unentangled provers, and our results relate to the soundness gap amplification of QMA(2) protocols by parallel repetition. It is also relevant for the regularization of certain entropic channel parameters. As an aside, we present an alternative way of attacking this problem, relying on an entanglement measure theory rather than the de Finetti approach. Finally, we explore an extension to infinite-dimensional systems, which usually pose inherent problems to de Finetti techniques in the quantum case.

  20. Electropore Formation in Mechanically Constrained Phospholipid Bilayers. (United States)

    Fernández, M Laura; Risk, Marcelo Raúl; Vernier, P Thomas


    Molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayers in aqueous systems reveal how an applied electric field stabilizes the reorganization of the water-membrane interface into water-filled, membrane-spanning, conductive pores with a symmetric, toroidal geometry. The pore formation process and the resulting symmetric structures are consistent with other mathematical approaches such as continuum models formulated to describe the electroporation process. Some experimental data suggest, however, that the shape of lipid electropores in living cell membranes may be asymmetric. We describe here the axially asymmetric pores that form when mechanical constraints are applied to selected phospholipid atoms. Electropore formation proceeds even with severe constraints in place, but pore shape and pore formation time are affected. Since lateral and transverse movement of phospholipids may be restricted in cell membranes by covalent attachments to or non-covalent associations with other components of the membrane or to membrane-proximate intracellular or extracellular biomolecular assemblies, these lipid-constrained molecular models point the way to more realistic representations of cell membranes in electric fields.

  1. Thermoregulatory strategies in an aquatic ectotherm from thermally-constrained habitats: An evaluation of current approaches. (United States)

    Piasečná, Karin; Pončová, Alena; Tejedo, Miguel; Gvoždík, Lumír


    Many ectotherms employ diverse behavioral adjustments to effectively buffer the spatio-temporal variation in environmental temperatures, whereas others remain passive to thermal heterogeneity. Thermoregulatory studies are frequently performed on species living in thermally benign habitats, which complicate understanding of the thermoregulation-thermoconformity continuum. The need for new empirical data from ectotherms exposed to thermally challenging conditions requires the evaluation of available methods for quantifying thermoregulatory strategies. We evaluated the applicability of various thermoregulatory indices using fire salamander larvae, Salamandra salamandra, in two aquatic habitats, a forest pool and well, as examples of disparate thermally-constrained environments. Water temperatures in the well were lower and less variable than in the pool. Thermal conditions prevented larvae from reaching their preferred body temperature range in both water bodies. In contrast to their thermoregulatory abilities examined in a laboratory thermal gradient, field body temperatures only matched the mean and range of operative temperatures, showing thermal passivity of larvae in both habitats. Despite apparent thermoconformity, thermoregulatory indices indicated various strategies from active thermoregulation, to thermoconformity, and even thermal evasion, which revealed their limited applicability under thermally-constrained conditions. Salamander larvae abandoned behavioral thermoregulation despite varying opportunities to increase their body temperature above average water temperatures. Thermoconformity represents a favored strategy in these ectotherms living in more thermally-constrained environments than those examined in previous thermoregulatory studies. To understand thermal ecology and its impact on population dynamics, the quantification of thermoregulatory strategies of ectotherms in thermally-constrained habitats requires the careful choice of an appropriate

  2. I/O-Efficient Construction of Constrained Delaunay Triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Arge, Lars; Yi, Ke


    In this paper, we designed and implemented an I/O-efficient algorithm for constructing constrained Delaunay triangulations. If the number of constraining segments is smaller than the memory size, our algorithm runs in expected O( N B logM/B NB ) I/Os for triangulating N points in the plane, where M...

  3. Balance of payments constrained economic growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With Nigeria adopting the import substitution industrialization policy in 1960, we apply cointegration test on time series data to estimate the long-run ... BOP constrained model as a suitable framework to explain Nigeria's long term growth and reinforces the opinion that external factors constrain Nigeria's economic growth.

  4. Constraining blazar physics with polarization signatures (United States)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Boettcher, Markus; Li, Hui


    Blazars are active galactic nuclei whose jets are directed very close to our line of sight. They emit nonthermal-dominated emission from radio to gamma-rays, with the radio to optical emissions known to be polarized. Both radiation and polarization signatures can be strongly variable. Observations have shown that sometimes strong multiwavelength flares are accompanied by drastic polarization variations, indicating active participation of the magnetic field during flares. We have developed a 3D multi-zone time-dependent polarization-dependent radiation transfer code, which enables us to study the spectral and polarization signatures of blazar flares simultaneously. By combining this code with a Fokker-Planck nonthermal particle evolution scheme, we are able to derive simultaneous fits to time-dependent spectra, multiwavelength light curves, and time-dependent optical polarization signatures of a well-known multiwavelength flare with 180 degree polarization angle swing of the blazar 3C279. Our work shows that with detailed consideration of light travel time effects, the apparently symmetric time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures can be naturally explained by a straight, helically symmetric jet pervaded by a helical magnetic field, without the need of any asymmetric structures. Also our model suggests that the excess in the nonthermal particles during flares can originate from magnetic reconnection events, initiated by a shock propagating through the emission region. Additionally, the magnetic field should generally revert to its initial topology after the flare. We conclude that such shock-initiated magnetic reconnection event in an emission environment with relatively strong magnetic energy can be the driver of multiwavelength flares with polarization angle swings. Future statistics on such observations will constrain general features of such events, while magneto-hydrodynamic simulations will provide physical scenarios for the magnetic field evolution

  5. Constraining Cosmic Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A.C.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Davis, T.M.; Garnavich, P.M.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R.P.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; Li, W.; Matheson, T.; Miceli, A.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Rest, A.; Riess, A.G.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Chile U., Catolica /Bohr Inst. /Notre Dame U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Texas A-M /European Southern Observ. /NOAO, Tucson /Fermilab /Chile U., Santiago /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek /Stockholm U. /Hawaii U. /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.


    We present the first large-scale effort of creating composite spectra of high-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and comparing them to low-redshift counterparts. Through the ESSENCE project, we have obtained 107 spectra of 88 high-redshift SNe Ia with excellent light-curve information. In addition, we have obtained 397 spectra of low-redshift SNe through a multiple-decade effort at Lick and Keck Observatories, and we have used 45 ultraviolet spectra obtained by HST/IUE. The low-redshift spectra act as a control sample when comparing to the ESSENCE spectra. In all instances, the ESSENCE and Lick composite spectra appear very similar. The addition of galaxy light to the Lick composite spectra allows a nearly perfect match of the overall spectral-energy distribution with the ESSENCE composite spectra, indicating that the high-redshift SNe are more contaminated with host-galaxy light than their low-redshift counterparts. This is caused by observing objects at all redshifts with similar slit widths, which corresponds to different projected distances. After correcting for the galaxy-light contamination, subtle differences in the spectra remain. We have estimated the systematic errors when using current spectral templates for K-corrections to be {approx}0.02 mag. The variance in the composite spectra give an estimate of the intrinsic variance in low-redshift maximum-light SN spectra of {approx}3% in the optical and growing toward the ultraviolet. The difference between the maximum-light low and high-redshift spectra constrain SN evolution between our samples to be < 10% in the rest-frame optical.

  6. Carbon-constrained health care enterprise. (United States)

    Gell, Michael


    The health economy is a significant part of a national economy accounting typically for about 8% of GDP spent. As national economies respond to the dual challenges of severe economic turbulence on the global scale and climate change mitigation, the health economy is coming under increasing pressure to respond. Indications for sharp reductions in budgets and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, are widespread. In this paper an analysis is undertaken of the diverse forces acting on a typical health care enterprise. The forces, both economic and carbon related, are investigated in terms of their effects through the enterprise and across its boundaries on the supply, demand and waste sides. The overall aim is to show how the enterprise and whole supply chains may flip synchronously into a low-carbon evolutionary pathway. By illustrating how different elements of the health care enterprise may respond to these developments, diverse opportunities for cost reduction, carbon reduction and product (goods and services) development are identified. These opportunities involve a variety of waste reduction and energy and materials conservation measures as well as new ways of collaborating with other enterprises going through similar transformations. The overall objective is to show that the carbon-constrained health care enterprise and the low-carbon health economy in which it sits may broaden its role in the coming decades to include a degree of responsibility for the health of the environment. This broader role is likely to supplement and entangle with the traditional role of the health economy, currently focused narrowly on human health, and lead to extensive organisational transformation, and infrastructure and product developments.

  7. Automatic temporal segment detection via bilateral long short-term memory recurrent neural networks (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Cao, Siming; He, Jun; Yu, Lejun; Li, Liandong


    Constrained by the physiology, the temporal factors associated with human behavior, irrespective of facial movement or body gesture, are described by four phases: neutral, onset, apex, and offset. Although they may benefit related recognition tasks, it is not easy to accurately detect such temporal segments. An automatic temporal segment detection framework using bilateral long short-term memory recurrent neural networks (BLSTM-RNN) to learn high-level temporal-spatial features, which synthesizes the local and global temporal-spatial information more efficiently, is presented. The framework is evaluated in detail over the face and body database (FABO). The comparison shows that the proposed framework outperforms state-of-the-art methods for solving the problem of temporal segment detection.

  8. Text Dependent Speaker Verification Using Un-supervised HMM-UBM and Temporal GMM-UBM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkar, Achintya Kumar; Tan, Zheng-Hua


    In this paper, we investigate the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and the temporal Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) systems based on the Universal Background Model (UBM) concept to capture temporal information of speech for Text Dependent (TD) Speaker Verification (SV). In TD-SV, target speakers...... are constrained to use only predefined fixed sentence/s during both the enrollment and the test process. The temporal information is therefore important in the sense of utterance verification, i.e. whether the test utterance has the same sequence of textual content as the utterance used during the target...... enrollment. However, the temporal information is not considered in the classical GMM-UBM based TD-SV system. Moreover, no transcription knowledge of the speech is required in the HMM-UBM and temporal GMM-UBM based systems. We also study the fusion of the HMM-UBM, the temporal GMM-UBM and the classical GMM...

  9. Probabilistic M/EEG source imaging from sparse spatio-temporal event structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Attias, Hagai T.; Wipf, David

    While MEG and EEG source imaging methods have to tackle a severely ill-posed problem their success can be stated as their ability to constrain the solutions using appropriate priors. In this paper we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model facilitating spatio-temporal patterns through the use of both...

  10. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter


    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  11. Vivienda temporal para refugiados


    Amonarraiz Gutiérrez, Ana


    El proyecto se centra en el diseño y desarrollo de un espacio destinado a vivienda temporal para dar hogar a personas que han perdido su casa. Este tipo de vivienda es fundamental dentro del proceso de recuperación post-desastre ya que la construcción inmediata de viviendas permanentes es utópica. El objetivo principal es la construcción de una vivienda temporal formada por elementos prefabricados, logrando así una mayor rapidez en su montaje. Esto también permitirá que cualquier component...

  12. Folding of small proteins using constrained molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Balaraman, Gouthaman S; Park, In-Hee; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan


    The focus of this paper is to examine whether conformational search using constrained molecular dynamics (MD) method is more enhanced and enriched toward "native-like" structures compared to all-atom MD for the protein folding as a model problem. Constrained MD methods provide an alternate MD tool for protein structure prediction and structure refinement. It is computationally expensive to perform all-atom simulations of protein folding because the processes occur on a time scale of microseconds. Compared to the all-atom MD simulation, constrained MD methods have the advantage that stable dynamics can be achieved for larger time steps and the number of degrees of freedom is an order of magnitude smaller, leading to a decrease in computational cost. We have developed a generalized constrained MD method that allows the user to "freeze and thaw" torsional degrees of freedom as fit for the problem studied. We have used this method to perform all-torsion constrained MD in implicit solvent coupled with the replica exchange method to study folding of small proteins with various secondary structural motifs such as, α-helix (polyalanine, WALP16), β-turn (1E0Q), and a mixed motif protein (Trp-cage). We demonstrate that constrained MD replica exchange method exhibits a wider conformational search than all-atom MD with increased enrichment of near-native structures. "Hierarchical" constrained MD simulations, where the partially formed helical regions in the initial stretch of the all-torsion folding simulation trajectory of Trp-cage were frozen, showed a better sampling of near-native structures than all-torsion constrained MD simulations. This is in agreement with the zipping-and-assembly folding model put forth by Dill and co-workers for folding proteins. The use of hierarchical "freeze and thaw" clustering schemes in constrained MD simulation can be used to sample conformations that contribute significantly to folding of proteins. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Simultaneous static and cine nonenhanced MR angiography using radial sampling and highly constrained back projection reconstruction. (United States)

    Koktzoglou, Ioannis; Mistretta, Charles A; Giri, Shivraman; Dunkle, Eugene E; Amin, Parag; Edelman, Robert R


    To describe a pulse sequence for simultaneous static and cine nonenhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NEMRA) of the peripheral arteries. The peripheral arteries of 10 volunteers and 6 patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) were imaged with the proposed cine NEMRA sequence on a 1.5 Tesla (T) system. The impact of multi-shot imaging and highly constrained back projection (HYPR) reconstruction was examined. The propagation rate of signal along the length of the arterial tree in the cine nonenhanced MR angiograms was quantified. The cine NEMRA sequence simultaneously provided a static MR angiogram showing vascular anatomy as well as a cine display of arterial pulse wave propagation along the entire length of the peripheral arteries. Multi-shot cine NEMRA improved temporal resolution and reduced image artifacts. HYPR reconstruction improved image quality when temporal reconstruction footprints shorter than 100 ms were used (P cine NEMRA was slower in patients with PAD than in volunteers. Simultaneous static and cine NEMRA of the peripheral arteries is feasible. Multi-shot acquisition and HYPR reconstruction can be used to improve arterial conspicuity and temporal resolution. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Land-use and land-cover change carbon emissions between 1901 and 2012 constrained by biomass observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li


    Full Text Available The use of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs to estimate CO2 emissions from land-use and land-cover change (LULCC offers a new window to account for spatial and temporal details of emissions and for ecosystem processes affected by LULCC. One drawback of LULCC emissions from DGVMs, however, is lack of observation constraint. Here, we propose a new method of using satellite- and inventory-based biomass observations to constrain historical cumulative LULCC emissions (ELUCc from an ensemble of nine DGVMs based on emerging relationships between simulated vegetation biomass and ELUCc. This method is applicable on the global and regional scale. The original DGVM estimates of ELUCc range from 94 to 273 PgC during 1901–2012. After constraining by current biomass observations, we derive a best estimate of 155 ± 50 PgC (1σ Gaussian error. The constrained LULCC emissions are higher than prior DGVM values in tropical regions but significantly lower in North America. Our emergent constraint approach independently verifies the median model estimate by biomass observations, giving support to the use of this estimate in carbon budget assessments. The uncertainty in the constrained ELUCc is still relatively large because of the uncertainty in the biomass observations, and thus reduced uncertainty in addition to increased accuracy in biomass observations in the future will help improve the constraint. This constraint method can also be applied to evaluate the impact of land-based mitigation activities.

  15. Onomatopoeia characters extraction from comic images using constrained Delaunay triangulation (United States)

    Liu, Xiangping; Shoji, Kenji; Mori, Hiroshi; Toyama, Fubito


    A method for extracting onomatopoeia characters from comic images was developed based on stroke width feature of characters, since they nearly have a constant stroke width in a number of cases. An image was segmented with a constrained Delaunay triangulation. Connected component grouping was performed based on the triangles generated by the constrained Delaunay triangulation. Stroke width calculation of the connected components was conducted based on the altitude of the triangles generated with the constrained Delaunay triangulation. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Blue moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics. (United States)

    Ciccotti, Giovanni; Kapral, Raymond; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric


    We give a new formula expressing the components of the mean force in terms of a conditional expectation which can be computed by Blue Moon sampling. This generalizes to the vectorial case a formula first derived by Ruiz-Montero et al. for a scalar reaction coordinate. We also discuss how to compute this conditional average by means of constrained stochastic dynamics which, unlike the usual constrained molecular dynamics, introduces no bias. Finally, we give a new perspective on bias removal by using constrained molecular dynamics.

  17. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Bryan W.


    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  18. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan


    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  19. Mesial temporal sclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 29, 2005 ... Introduction. Mesial temporal sclerosis is the commonest cause of partial complex seizures. The aetiology of this condi- tion is controversial, but it is postulat- ed that both acquired and develop- mental processes may be involved. Familial cases have also been reported. Magnetic resonance imaging. (MRI) ...

  20. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology


    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  1. Fast Emission Estimates in China Constrained by Satellite Observations (Invited) (United States)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R.


    Emission inventories of air pollutants are crucial information for policy makers and form important input data for air quality models. Unfortunately, bottom-up emission inventories, compiled from large quantities of statistical data, are easily outdated for an emerging economy such as China, where rapid economic growth changes emissions accordingly. Alternatively, top-down emission estimates from satellite observations of air constituents have important advantages of being spatial consistent, having high temporal resolution, and enabling emission updates shortly after the satellite data become available. Constraining emissions from concentration measurements is, however, computationally challenging. Within the GlobEmission project of the European Space Agency (ESA) a new algorithm has been developed, specifically designed for fast daily emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric species on a mesoscopic scale (0.25 × 0.25 degree) from satellite observations of column concentrations. The algorithm needs only one forward model run from a chemical transport model to calculate the sensitivity of concentration to emission, using trajectory analysis to account for transport away from the source. By using a Kalman filter in the inverse step, optimal use of the a priori knowledge and the newly observed data is made. We apply the algorithm for NOx emission estimates in East China, using the CHIMERE model together with tropospheric NO2 column retrievals of the OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments. The observations are used to construct a monthly emission time series, which reveal important emission trends such as the emission reduction measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, and the impact and recovery from the global economic crisis. The algorithm is also able to detect emerging sources (e.g. new power plants) and improve emission information for areas where proxy data are not or badly known (e.g. shipping emissions). The new emission estimates result in a better

  2. Communication, Technology, Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Martinez


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a media studies that foregrounds technological objects as communicative and historical agents. Specifically, I take the digital computer as a powerful catalyst of crises in communication theories and certain key features of modernity. Finally, the computer is the motor of “New Media” which is at once a set of technologies, a historical epoch, and a field of knowledge. As such the computer shapes “the new” and “the future” as History pushes its origins further in the past and its convergent quality pushes its future as a predominate medium. As treatment of information and interface suggest, communication theories observe computers, and technologies generally, for the mediated languages they either afford or foreclose to us. My project describes the figures information and interface for the different ways they can be thought of as aspects of communication. I treat information not as semantic meaning, formal or discursive language, but rather as a physical organism. Similarly an interface is not a relationship between a screen and a human visual intelligence, but is instead a reciprocal, affective and physical process of contact. I illustrate that historically there have been conceptions of information and interface complimentary to mine, fleeting as they have been in the face of a dominant temporality of mediation. I begin with a theoretically informed approach to media history, and extend it to a new theory of communication. In doing so I discuss a model of time common to popular, scientific, and critical conceptions of media technologies especially in theories of computer technology. This is a predominate model with particular rules of temporal change and causality for thinking about mediation, and limits the conditions of possibility for knowledge production about communication. I suggest a new model of time as integral to any event of observation and analysis, and that human mediation does not exhaust the

  3. CONDORR--CONstrained Dynamics of Rigid Residues: a molecular dynamics program for constrained molecules. (United States)

    York, William S; Yi, Xiaobing


    A computer program CONDORR (CONstrained Dynamics of Rigid Residues) was developed for molecular dynamics simulations of large and/or constrained molecular systems, particularly carbohydrates. CONDORR efficiently calculates molecular trajectories on the basis of 2D or 3D potential energy maps, and can generate such maps based on a simple force field. The simulations involve three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom for each rigid, asymmetrical residue in the model. Total energy and angular momentum are conserved when no stochastic or external forces are applied to the model, if the time step is kept sufficiently short. Application of Langevin dynamics allows longer time steps, providing efficient exploration of conformational space. The utility of CONDORR was demonstrated by application to a constrained polysaccharide model and to the calculation of residual dipolar couplings for a disaccharide. [Figure: see text]. Molecular models (bottom) are created by cloning rigid residue archetypes (top) and joining them together. As defined here, the archetypes AX, HM and BG respectively correspond to an alpha-D-Xyl p residue, a hydroxymethyl group, and a beta-D-Glc p residue lacking O6, H6a and H6b. Each archetype contains atoms (indicated by boxes) that can be shared with other archetypes to form a linked structure. For example, the glycosidic link between the two D-Glc p residues is established by specifying that O1 of the nonreducing beta-D-Glc p (BG) residue (2) is identical to O4 of the reducing Glc p (BG) residue (1). The coordinates of the two residues are adjusted so as to superimpose these two (nominally distinct) atoms. Flexible hydroxymethyl (HM) groups (3 and 4) are treated as separate residues, and the torsional angles (normally indicated by the symbol omega) that define their geometric relationships to the pyranosyl rings of the BG residues are specified as psi3 and psi4, respectively. The torsional angles phi3 and phi4, defined solely to

  4. Routing Military Aircraft with a Constrained Shortest-Path Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlyle, W. M; Royset, Johannes O; Wood, R. K


    .... We use a constrained-shortest path (CSP) model that discretizes the relevant airspace into a grid of vertices representing potential waypoints, and connects vertices with directed edges to represent potential flight segments...

  5. Ensemble image registration by a spatially constrained clustering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhu


    Full Text Available In this article, a novel spatially constrained clustering approach is proposed for ensemble image registration. We use a spatially constrained Gaussian mixture model, which is based on a joint Gaussian mixture model and Markov random field, to model the joint intensity scatter plot of the unregistered images. The spatially constrained Gaussian mixture model has the capability of performing the correlation among neighboring observations. A cost function of reducing the dispersion in the joint intensity scatter plot is proposed using the spatially constrained Gaussian mixture model to simultaneously register a group of images. We derive an expectation maximization algorithm for the proposed model. Computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Thin-shell wormholes constrained by cosmological observations (United States)

    Wang, Deng; Meng, Xin-He


    We investigate the thin-shell wormholes constrained by cosmological observations for the first time in the literature. Without loss of generality, we study the thin-shell wormholes in ωCDM model and analyze their stability under perturbations preserving the symmetry. Firstly, we constrain the ωCDM model using a combination of Union 2.1 SNe Ia data, the latest H(z) data and CMB data. Secondly, we use the constrained dark energy equation of state (EoS) ω which lies in [ - 1 . 05 , - 0 . 89 ] to investigate thin-shell wormholes generated by various black hole spacetimes. We find that the stable Schwarzschild and Reinssner-Nordström thin-shell wormholes constrained by cosmological observations do not exist. In addition, the method we developed can be applied in exploring the stable thin-shell wormholes from any black hole spacetime in the framework of any cosmological theory.

  7. Is oil consumption constrained by industrial structure? Evidence from China (United States)

    Jia, Y. Q.; Duan, H. M.


    This paper examines whether oil consumption is constrained by output value, applying a cointegration test and an ECM to the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors in China during 1985-2013. The empirical results indicate that oil consumption in China is constrained by the industrial structure both in the short run and in the long run. Regardless of the time horizon considered, the oil consumption constraint is the lowest for the primary sector as well as the highest for the tertiary sector. This is because the long-term industrial structure formation and the technological level of each sector underlines the existence of long run equilibrium and short run fluctuations of output value and oil consumption, with the latter being constrained by adjustments in industrial structure. In order to decrease the constraining effect of output value on oil consumption, the government should take some measures to improve the utilization rate, reducing the intensity of oil consumption, and secure the supply of oil.

  8. Ionospheric radio occultation inversion constrained with the data assimillation (United States)

    Wu, X.; Hu, X.; Zhang, Y.


    Ionospheric radio occultation inversion constrained with the data assimillation Wu Xiaocheng, Hu Xiong, Zhang Yanan National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences The assumption that electron density distribution is spherically symmetric, is usually used in the traditional ionospheric radio occultation (IRO) inversion, and it is the main error source of IRO inversion. In order to improve the IRO inversion, many methods were studied. One of them uses known ionosphere background to constrain the inversion of IRO, but it has not been used in the routine processing of observation data, due to that it is difficult to get the proper ionosphere background. Data assimilation can provide accurate electron density on the three dimensional grid, which may be used to constrain the IRO inversion and improve the inversion result. This article assimilates the TEC of ground GPS and IRO observation, and the constrains the IRO inversion. The inversion result is greatly improved. Key Words: Ionospheric radio occultation, Data assimilation, Inversion, GPS

  9. In vitro transcription of a torsionally constrained template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas; Nielsen, Peter E


    of torsionally constrained DNA by free RNAP. We asked whether or not a newly synthesized RNA chain would limit transcription elongation. For this purpose we developed a method to immobilize covalently closed circular DNA to streptavidin-coated beads via a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-biotin conjugate in principle...... mimicking a SAR/MAR attachment. We used this construct as a torsionally constrained template for transcription of the beta-lactamase gene by Escherichia coli RNAP and found that RNA synthesis displays similar characteristics in terms of rate of elongation whether or not the template is torsionally...... constrained. We conclude that transcription of a natural bacterial gene may proceed with high efficiency despite the fact that newly synthesized RNA is entangled around the template in the narrow confines of torsionally constrained supercoiled DNA....

  10. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid


    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  11. Generalized bracket formulation of constrained dynamics in phase space. (United States)

    Sergi, Alessandro


    A generalized bracket formalism is used to define the phase space flow of constrained systems. The generalized bracket naturally subsumes the approach to constrained dynamics given by Dirac some time ago. The dynamical invariant measure and the linear response of systems subjected to holonomic constraints are explicitly derived. In light of previous results, it is shown that generalized brackets provide a simple and unified view of the statistical mechanics of non-Hamiltonian phase space flows with a conserved energy.

  12. ADHD and temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    According to the official diagnostic manual, ADHD is defined by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and patterns of behaviour are characterized as failure to pay attention to details, excessive talking, fidgeting, or inability to remain seated in appropriate situations (DSM-5......). In this paper, however, I will ask if we can understand what we call ADHD in a different way than through the symptom descriptions and will advocate for a complementary, phenomenological understanding of ADHD as a certain being in the world – more specifically as a matter of a phenomenological difference...... in temporal experience and/or rhythm. Inspired by both psychiatry’s experiments with people diagnosed with ADHD and their assessment of time and phenomenological perspectives on mental disorders and temporal disorientation I explore the experience of ADHD as a disruption in the phenomenological experience...

  13. Temporal lobe epilepsy semiology. (United States)

    Blair, Robert D G


    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  14. The highest confidence density region and its usage for joint inferences about constrained parameters. (United States)

    Tian, Lu; Wang, Rui; Cai, Tianxi; Wei, Lee-Jen


    Suppose that we are interested in making joint inferences about a set of constrained parameters. Confidence regions for these parameters are often constructed via a normal approximation of the distribution of a consistent estimator for a transformation of the parameters. In this article, we utilize the confidence distribution, a frequentist counterpart to the posterior distribution in Bayesian statistics, to obtain optimal confidence regions for the parameters. Members of such a region can be generated efficiently via a standard Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We then apply this technique to draw inferences about the temporal profile of the survival function with censored observations. We illustrate the new proposal with the survival data from the well-known Mayo primary biliary cirrhosis study and show that the volume of the new 0.95 confidence region is only one thirty-fourth of that of the conventional confidence band. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  15. A Framework for Discovering Evolving Domain Related Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi


    Full Text Available In massive Twitter datasets, tweets deriving from different domains, e.g., civil unrest, can be extracted to constitute spatio-temporal Twitter events for spatio-temporal distribution pattern detection. Existing algorithms generally employ scan statistics to detect spatio-temporal hotspots from Twitter events and do not consider the spatio-temporal evolving process of Twitter events. In this paper, a framework is proposed to discover evolving domain related spatio-temporal patterns from Twitter data. Given a target domain, a dynamic query expansion is employed to extract related tweets to form spatio-temporal Twitter events. The new spatial clustering approach proposed here is based on the use of multi-level constrained Delaunay triangulation to capture the spatial distribution patterns of Twitter events. An additional spatio-temporal clustering process is then performed to reveal spatio-temporal clusters and outliers that are evolving into spatial distribution patterns. Extensive experiments on Twitter datasets related to an outbreak of civil unrest in Mexico demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability of the new method. The proposed method will be helpful to accurately predict the spatio-temporal evolution process of Twitter events, which belongs to a deeper geographical analysis of spatio-temporal Big Data.

  16. The Temporal Window of Multisensory Integration under Competing Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Van der Burg


    Full Text Available Our brain tends to integrate information from different sensory modalities when presented within the so-called temporal window of integration. Whereas other studies investigated this window using a single audio-visual event, we examine the effect of competing spatio-temporal circumstances. Participants saw nineteen luminance-modulating discs while hearing an amplitude modulating tone. The luminance-modulation of each disc had a unique temporal phase (between −380 and 380 ms; steps of 40 ms, one of which was synchronized with the tone. Participants were instructed to identify which disc was synchronized with the tone. The waveforms of auditory and visual modulations were either both sinusoidal or square. Under sine-wave conditions, participants selected disks with phase offsets indistinguishable from guessing. In contrast, under square-wave conditions, participants selected the correct disc (phase = 0 ms with a high degree of accuracy. When errors did occur, they tended to decrease with temporal phase separation, yielding an integration window of ∼140ms. These results indicate reliable AV integration depends upon transient signals. Interestingly, spatial analysis of confusion density profiles indicate transient elements left and right of fixation are integrated more efficiently than elements above or below. This anisotropy suggests that the temporal window of AV integration is constrained by intra-hemsipheric competition.

  17. Increased robustness in reference region model analysis of DCE MRI using two-step constrained approaches. (United States)

    Ahmed, Zaki; Levesque, Ives R


    Reference region models (RRMs) can quantify tumor perfusion in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI without an arterial input function. Inspection of the RRM reveals that one of the free parameters in the fit is uniquely linked to the reference region and is common to all voxels. A two-step approach is proposed that takes this constraint into account. Three constrained RRM (CRRM) approaches were devised and evaluated. Simulations were performed to compare their accuracy and precision over a range of noise and temporal resolutions. The CRRM was also applied on a virtual phantom that simulates different perfusion values. In vivo evaluation was performed on data from breast cancer and soft tissue sarcoma. In simulations, the CRRM consistently improved precision and had better accuracy at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In virtual phantom, the CRRMs were able to fit voxels that had similar kinetics to the reference tissue, whereas the unconstrained models failed to accurately fit these voxels. In the in vivo data, the constrained approaches produced parameter maps that had less variability and were in better agreement with the Tofts model. These findings indicate that the two-step fitting approach of the CRRM can reduce the variability of perfusion estimates for quantifying perfusion with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. Magn Reson Med 78:1547-1557, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Post-Traumatic Stress Constrains the Dynamic Repertoire of Neural Activity. (United States)

    Mišić, Bratislav; Dunkley, Benjamin T; Sedge, Paul A; Da Costa, Leodante; Fatima, Zainab; Berman, Marc G; Doesburg, Sam M; McIntosh, Anthony R; Grodecki, Richard; Jetly, Rakesh; Pang, Elizabeth W; Taylor, Margot J


    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder arising from exposure to a traumatic event. Although primarily defined in terms of behavioral symptoms, the global neurophysiological effects of traumatic stress are increasingly recognized as a critical facet of the human PTSD phenotype. Here we use magnetoencephalographic recordings to investigate two aspects of information processing: inter-regional communication (measured by functional connectivity) and the dynamic range of neural activity (measured in terms of local signal variability). We find that both measures differentiate soldiers diagnosed with PTSD from soldiers without PTSD, from healthy civilians, and from civilians with mild traumatic brain injury, which is commonly comorbid with PTSD. Specifically, soldiers with PTSD display inter-regional hypersynchrony at high frequencies (80-150 Hz), as well as a concomitant decrease in signal variability. The two patterns are spatially correlated and most pronounced in a left temporal subnetwork, including the hippocampus and amygdala. We hypothesize that the observed hypersynchrony may effectively constrain the expression of local dynamics, resulting in less variable activity and a reduced dynamic repertoire. Thus, the re-experiencing phenomena and affective sequelae in combat-related PTSD may result from functional networks becoming "stuck" in configurations reflecting memories, emotions, and thoughts originating from the traumatizing experience. The present study investigates the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat-exposed soldiers. We find that soldiers with PTSD exhibit hypersynchrony in a circuit of temporal lobe areas associated with learning and memory function. This rigid functional architecture is associated with a decrease in signal variability in the same areas, suggesting that the observed hypersynchrony may constrain the expression of local dynamics, resulting in a reduced dynamic range. Our findings suggest that

  19. Integrating satellite retrieved leaf chlorophyll into land surface models for constraining simulations of water and carbon fluxes

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus


    In terrestrial biosphere models, key biochemical controls on carbon uptake by vegetation canopies are typically assigned fixed literature-based values for broad categories of vegetation types although in reality significant spatial and temporal variability exists. Satellite remote sensing can support modeling efforts by offering distributed information on important land surface characteristics, which would be very difficult to obtain otherwise. This study investigates the utility of satellite based retrievals of leaf chlorophyll for estimating leaf photosynthetic capacity and for constraining model simulations of water and carbon fluxes. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Outcomes of Constrained Prostheses in Primary and Revision TKR (United States)

    Parkinson, Ben; Lorimer, Michelle; Lewis, Peter


    Introduction: The decision to use varus/valgus constrained or hinge knee prostheses in complex Total Knee Replacement (TKR) cases is difficult. There are few publications that compare survival rates, to aid this decision-making. This study compares the survival rates of unlinked fully constrained and hinge constrained prostheses in the primary and revision settings. Methods: Data from the AOANJRR to 31st of December 2013 was analysed to determine the survival rate of unlinked and hinge constrained TKR in the primary and revision settings (excluding the diagnosis of tumour and infection). Only first-time revisions of a known primary TKR were included in the revision analysis. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survivorship were calculated for the two categories of constraint and were matched for age and diagnosis in both primary and revision TKR situations. Hazard ratios using the Cox proportional-hazards model were used. The survivorship of individual prosthesis models was determined. Results: There were 3237 prostheses implanted during the study period that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 1896 were for primary TKR and 1341 for revision TKR. There were 1349 unlinked fully constrained and 547 hinge prostheses for primary TKR and 991 unlinked fully constrained and 350 hinge prostheses for revision TKR. In both the primary and revision settings when matched by age, there was no difference in rates of revision for either level of constraint. When matched by indication in the primary setting, there was no difference in the rates of revision for either level of constraint. The rate of revision for both categories of constrained prosthesis was significantly higher in younger patients <55 years of age (p < 0.05). There were no differences in survival rates of individual models of constrained TKR. Conclusions: The survival rates of unlinked constrained and hinge knee prostheses are similar when matched by age or diagnosis. In complex TKR instability cases, surgeons should feel

  1. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  2. Residual flexibility test method for verification of constrained structural models (United States)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Ivey, Edward W.


    A method is described for deriving constrained modes and frequencies from a reduced model based on a subset of the free-free modes plus the residual effects of neglected modes. The method involves a simple modification of the MacNeal and Rubin component mode representation to allow development of a verified constrained (fixed-base) structural model. Results for two spaceflight structures having translational boundary degrees of freedom show quick convergence of constrained modes using a measureable number of free-free modes plus the boundary partition of the residual flexibility matrix. This paper presents the free-free residual flexibility approach as an alternative test/analysis method when fixed-base testing proves impractical.

  3. Dust deposition: the best way to constrain the simulated dust mass budget? (United States)

    Bergametti, Gilles


    Dust deposition is a key process of the dust cycle. In term of mass, deposition is equal to emissions and dust deposition being a size dependent process, the evolution of the size distribution during transport is in a large part controlled by the intensity of the deposition pathways. Moreover, the dust material removed from the atmosphere is a key component of many biogeochemical cycles: far from the source regions, atmospheric dust deposition supplies surface seawater with soil-derived elements, many of them (Fe, P. . .) being suspected to be limiting nutrients for oceanic ecosystems while in the continental areas, deposition contributes to soil formation in many surrounding desert areas. Finally, dust archives from deep ocean sediments, ice cores, lakes or continental loess deposits are used as proxies of past environmental and climate conditions. Thus, dust deposition is of high environmental interest and a special attention should be given to properly assess its intensity and spatio-temporal fields. Despite the major role and the various impacts of dust deposition, little attention was given to both deposition measurements and modelling. However, a better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of the deposition field would greatly help to better constrain the dust cycle. Indeed, even if recent progresses have been made in dust emission modelling, it could remain large uncertainties on the intensity of the simulated dust emissions. Having a good estimate of the deposition will contribute to better assess the relevance of simulated dust emissions.

  4. Three-dimensional imaging of ventilation dynamics in asthmatics using multiecho projection acquisition with constrained reconstruction. (United States)

    Holmes, James H; O'Halloran, Rafael L; Brodsky, Ethan K; Bley, Thorsten A; Francois, Christopher J; Velikina, Julia V; Sorkness, Ronald L; Busse, William W; Fain, Sean B


    The purpose of this work is to detect dynamic gas trapping in three dimensions during forced exhalation at isotropic high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution using hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI. Ten subjects underwent hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI and multidetector CT. MRI was performed throughout inspiration, breath-hold, and forced expiration. A multiecho three-dimensional projection acquisition was used to improve data collection efficiency and an iterative constrained reconstruction was implemented to improve signal to noise ratio (SNR) and increase robustness to motion. Two radiologists evaluated the dynamic MRI and breath-held multidetector CT data for gas and air trapping, respectively. Phantom studies showed the proposed technique significantly improved depiction of moving objects compared to view-sharing methods. Gas trapping was detected using MRI in five of the six asthmatic subjects who displayed air trapping with multidetector CT. Locations in disagreement were found to represent small to moderate regions of air trapping. The proposed technique provides whole-lung three-dimensional imaging of respiration dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution and compares well to the current standard, multidetector CT. While multidetector CT can provide information about static regional air trapping, it is unable to depict dynamics in a setting more comparable to a spirometry maneuver and explore the longitudinal time evolution of the trapped regions. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Exact methods for time constrained routing and related scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas


    This dissertation presents a number of optimization methods for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). The VRPTW is a generalization of the well known capacity constrained Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), where a fleet of vehicles based at a central depot must service a set of custo......This dissertation presents a number of optimization methods for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). The VRPTW is a generalization of the well known capacity constrained Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), where a fleet of vehicles based at a central depot must service a set...

  6. A proposal for constraining initial vacuum by cosmic microwave background (United States)

    Chandra, Debabrata; Pal, Supratik


    We propose a theoretical framework that can possibly constrain the initial vacuum by observation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). With a generic vacuum without any particular choice a priori, thereby keeping both the Bogolyubov coefficients in the analysis, we compute observable parameters from two- and three-point correlation functions. We are thus left with constraining four model parameters from the two complex Bogolyubov coefficients. We also demonstrate a method of finding out the constraint relations between the Bogolyubov coefficients using the theoretical normalization condition and observational data of power spectrum and bispectrum from CMB. Finally, we discuss the possible pros and cons of the analysis.

  7. Constrained caloric curves and phase transition for hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borderie, B., E-mail: [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Piantelli, S. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Rivet, M.F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Raduta, Ad.R. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ademard, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bonnet, E. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS-IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Galichet, E. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, F-75141 Paris Cedex 03 (France); Gruyer, D. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P. [Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS-IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Marini, P. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); and others


    Simulations based on experimental data obtained from multifragmenting quasi-fused nuclei produced in central {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Sn collisions have been used to deduce event by event freeze-out properties in the thermal excitation energy range 4–12 AMeV [S. Piantelli, et al., INDRA Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. A 809 (2008) 111]. From these properties and the temperatures deduced from proton transverse momentum fluctuations, constrained caloric curves have been built. At constant average volumes caloric curves exhibit a monotonic behaviour whereas for constrained pressures a backbending is observed. Such results support the existence of a first order phase transition for hot nuclei.

  8. Hamiltonian Monte Carlo with Constrained Molecular Dynamics as Gibbs Sampling. (United States)

    Spiridon, Laurentiu; Minh, David D L


    Compared to fully flexible molecular dynamics, simulations of constrained systems can use larger time steps and focus kinetic energy on soft degrees of freedom. Achieving ergodic sampling from the Boltzmann distribution, however, has proven challenging. Using recent generalizations of the equipartition principle and Fixman potential, here we implement Hamiltonian Monte Carlo based on constrained molecular dynamics as a Gibbs sampling move. By mixing Hamiltonian Monte Carlo based on fully flexible and torsional dynamics, we are able to reproduce free energy landscapes of simple model systems and enhance sampling of macrocycles.

  9. 21 CFR 888.3210 - Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented... metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint metal/metal constrained..., 1996 for any finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis that was in commercial...

  10. Temporal adaptation to audiovisual asynchrony generalizes across different sound frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi eNavarra


    Full Text Available The human brain exhibits a highly-adaptive ability to reduce natural asynchronies between visual and auditory signals. Even though this mechanism robustly modulates the subsequent perception of sounds and visual stimuli, it is still unclear how such a temporal realignment is attained. In the present study, we investigated whether or not temporal adaptation generalizes across different sound frequencies. In a first exposure phase, participants adapted to a fixed 220-ms audiovisual asynchrony or else to synchrony for 3min. In a second phase, the participants performed simultaneity judgments (SJs regarding pairs of audiovisual stimuli that were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs and included either the same tone as in the exposure phase (a 250Hz beep, another low-pitched beep (300Hz, or a high-pitched beep (2500Hz. Temporal realignment was always observed (when comparing SJ performance after exposure to asynchrony vs. synchrony, regardless of the frequency of the sound tested. This suggests that temporal recalibration influences the audiovisual perception of sounds in a frequency non-specific manner and may imply the participation of non-primary perceptual areas of the brain that are not constrained by certain physical features such as sound frequency.

  11. [Temporal meaning of suffering]. (United States)

    Porée, J


    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  12. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M


    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  13. Constrained control of a once-through boiler with recirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K


    There is an increasing need to operate power plants at low load for longer periods of time. When a once-through boiler operates at a sufficiently low load, recirculation is introduced, significantly altering the control structure. This paper illustrates the possibilities for using constrained con...

  14. A spatially constrained ecological classification: rationale, methodology and implementation (United States)

    Franz Mora; Louis Iverson; Louis Iverson


    The theory, methodology and implementation for an ecological and spatially constrained classification are presented. Ecological and spatial relationships among several landscape variables are analyzed in order to define a new approach for a landscape classification. Using ecological and geostatistical analyses, several ecological and spatial weights are derived to...

  15. Effect of modified constrained induced movement therapy on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab M. Abdel-Kafy


    Dec 21, 2012 ... Effect of modified constrained induced movement therapy on improving arm function in children with obstetric brachial plexus injury. Ehab M. Abdel-Kafy, Hebatallah M. Kamal *, Samah A. Elshemy. Department of Physical Therapy for Disturbances of Growth and Developmental Disorders in Children and its ...

  16. Circumstellar disc geometry constrained by infrared line fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, C.E.; Molak, A.; Sigut, T.A.A.; de Koter, A.; Lenorzer, A.; Popa, S.C.


    Lenorzer et al. introduce ratios of hydrogen infrared recombination lines as a diagnostic tool to constrain the spatial distribution and physical condition of circumstellar material around hot massive stars. They demonstrate that the observed line flux ratios Hu14/Brα and Hu14/Pfγ from different

  17. Balance of Payments Constrained Economic Growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper applies the adjusted balance of payment (BOP) constrained growth framework modified by Thirwall and Hussain (1982) on Nigeria's economic growth to estimate the determinants of the long run rate of growth in Nigeria. With Nigeria adopting the import substitution industrialization policy in 1960, we ...

  18. Reserve-constrained economic dispatch: Cost and payment allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misraji, Jaime [Sistema Electrico Nacional Interconectado de la Republica Dominicana, Calle 3, No. 3, Arroyo Hondo 1, Santo Domingo, Distrito Nacional (Dominican Republic); Conejo, Antonio J.; Morales, Juan M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)


    This paper extends basic economic dispatch analytical results to the reserve-constrained case. For this extended problem, a cost and payment allocation analysis is carried out and a detailed economic interpretation of the results is provided. Sensitivity values (Lagrange multipliers) are also analyzed. A case study is considered to illustrate the proposed analysis. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  19. Adaptive double chain quantum genetic algorithm for constrained optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Kong


    Full Text Available Optimization problems are often highly constrained and evolutionary algorithms (EAs are effective methods to tackle this kind of problems. To further improve search efficiency and convergence rate of EAs, this paper presents an adaptive double chain quantum genetic algorithm (ADCQGA for solving constrained optimization problems. ADCQGA makes use of double-individuals to represent solutions that are classified as feasible and infeasible solutions. Fitness (or evaluation functions are defined for both types of solutions. Based on the fitness function, three types of step evolution (SE are defined and utilized for judging evolutionary individuals. An adaptive rotation is proposed and used to facilitate updating individuals in different solutions. To further improve the search capability and convergence rate, ADCQGA utilizes an adaptive evolution process (AEP, adaptive mutation and replacement techniques. ADCQGA was first tested on a widely used benchmark function to illustrate the relationship between initial parameter values and the convergence rate/search capability. Then the proposed ADCQGA is successfully applied to solve other twelve benchmark functions and five well-known constrained engineering design problems. Multi-aircraft cooperative target allocation problem is a typical constrained optimization problem and requires efficient methods to tackle. Finally, ADCQGA is successfully applied to solving the target allocation problem.

  20. The balance of payment-constrained economic growth in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to empirically test the validity of the simplified version of the balance of payment-constrained economic growth model for Ethiopia during the period 1971-20082. According to the model, economies only grow at a pace allowed by the constraints imposed by the requirement of balance of payment ...

  1. Dark matter, constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, and lattice QCD. (United States)

    Giedt, Joel; Thomas, Anthony W; Young, Ross D


    Recent lattice measurements have given accurate estimates of the quark condensates in the proton. We use these results to significantly improve the dark matter predictions in benchmark models within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. The predicted spin-independent cross sections are at least an order of magnitude smaller than previously suggested and our results have significant consequences for dark matter searches.

  2. Constrained relationship agency as the risk factor for intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constrained relationship agency as the risk factor for intimate partner violence in .... sexual violence before the age of 18 (Reza et al., 2009). In addition 11% of .... modified as necessary to ensure that the intent and translation of each item was clear. A young bilingual female Swazi RA who was familiar with the research.

  3. Constrained Geocast to Support Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) Merging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios


    In this paper we introduce a new geocasting concept to target vehicles based on where they will be in the direct future, in stead of their current position. We refer to this concept as constrained geocast. This may be useful in situations where vehicles have interdependencies based on (future)

  4. Revenue Prediction in Budget-constrained Sequential Auctions with Complementarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Verwer (Sicco); Y. Zhang (Yingqian)


    textabstractWhen multiple items are auctioned sequentially, the ordering of auctions plays an important role in the total revenue collected by the auctioneer. This is true especially with budget constrained bidders and the presence of complementarities among items. In such sequential auction

  5. Modeling constrained sintering of bi-layered tubular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Ni, De Wei


    Constrained sintering of tubular bi-layered structures is being used in the development of various technologies. Densification mismatch between the layers making the tubular bi-layer can generate stresses, which may create processing defects. An analytical model is presented to describe the densi...

  6. Trauma death in a resource constrained setting: Mechanisms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 20, 2013 ... experienced personnel, the utilization of high technology. Trauma death in a resource constrained setting: ... staff includes orderlies, cleaners, security personnel and drivers. The ambulance service is for 24 h daily .... pressure<70 mmHg) 20 (13.6). Exploratory laparotomy 9 (6.1%). External fixation 8 (5.4%).

  7. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3230 Section 888.3230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... made from either a silicone elastomer or a combination pf polypropylene and polyester material. The...

  8. Using Diagnostic Text Information to Constrain Situation Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutke, S.; Baadte, C.; Hähnel, A.; Hecker, U. von; Rinck, M.


    During reading, the model of the situation described by the text is continuously accommodated to new text input. The hypothesis was tested that readers are particularly sensitive to diagnostic text information that can be used to constrain their existing situation model. In 3 experiments, adult

  9. Constrained relationship agency as the risk factor for intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used structural equation modelling to identify and measure constrained relationship agency (CRA) as a latent variable, and then tested the hypothesis that CRA plays a significant role in the pathway between IPV and transactional sex. After controlling for CRA, receiving more material goods from a sexual partner was ...

  10. Improved Differential Evolution with Shrinking Space Technique for Constrained Optimization (United States)

    Fu, Chunming; Xu, Yadong; Jiang, Chao; Han, Xu; Huang, Zhiliang


    Most of the current evolutionary algorithms for constrained optimization algorithm are low computational efficiency. In order to improve efficiency, an improved differential evolution with shrinking space technique and adaptive trade-off model, named ATMDE, is proposed to solve constrained optimization problems. The proposed ATMDE algorithm employs an improved differential evolution as the search optimizer to generate new offspring individuals into evolutionary population. For the constraints, the adaptive trade-off model as one of the most important constraint-handling techniques is employed to select better individuals to retain into the next population, which could effectively handle multiple constraints. Then the shrinking space technique is designed to shrink the search region according to feedback information in order to improve computational efficiency without losing accuracy. The improved DE algorithm introduces three different mutant strategies to generate different offspring into evolutionary population. Moreover, a new mutant strategy called "DE/rand/best/1" is constructed to generate new individuals according to the feasibility proportion of current population. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a suite of benchmark functions and practical engineering problems. This research presents a constrained evolutionary algorithm with high efficiency and accuracy for constrained optimization problems.

  11. 3D facial geometric features for constrained local model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Shiyang; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Asthana, Ashish; Asthana, Akshay; Pantic, Maja


    We propose a 3D Constrained Local Model framework for deformable face alignment in depth image. Our framework exploits the intrinsic 3D geometric information in depth data by utilizing robust histogram-based 3D geometric features that are based on normal vectors. In addition, we demonstrate the

  12. Inferring meaningful communities from topology-constrained correlation networks. (United States)

    Hleap, Jose Sergio; Blouin, Christian


    Community structure detection is an important tool in graph analysis. This can be done, among other ways, by solving for the partition set which optimizes the modularity scores [Formula: see text]. Here it is shown that topological constraints in correlation graphs induce over-fragmentation of community structures. A refinement step to this optimization based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and a statistical test for significance is proposed. In structured simulation constrained by topology, this novel approach performs better than the optimization of modularity alone. This method was also tested with two empirical datasets: the Roll-Call voting in the 110th US Senate constrained by geographic adjacency, and a biological dataset of 135 protein structures constrained by inter-residue contacts. The former dataset showed sub-structures in the communities that revealed a regional bias in the votes which transcend party affiliations. This is an interesting pattern given that the 110th Legislature was assumed to be a highly polarized government. The [Formula: see text]-amylase catalytic domain dataset (biological dataset) was analyzed with and without topological constraints (inter-residue contacts). The results without topological constraints showed differences with the topology constrained one, but the LDA filtering did not change the outcome of the latter. This suggests that the LDA filtering is a robust way to solve the possible over-fragmentation when present, and that this method will not affect the results where there is no evidence of over-fragmentation.

  13. Identification of different geologic units using fuzzy constrained resistivity tomography (United States)

    Singh, Anand; Sharma, S. P.


    Different geophysical inversion strategies are utilized as a component of an interpretation process that tries to separate geologic units based on the resistivity distribution. In the present study, we present the results of separating different geologic units using fuzzy constrained resistivity tomography. This was accomplished using fuzzy c means, a clustering procedure to improve the 2D resistivity image and geologic separation within the iterative minimization through inversion. First, we developed a Matlab-based inversion technique to obtain a reliable resistivity image using different geophysical data sets (electrical resistivity and electromagnetic data). Following this, the recovered resistivity model was converted into a fuzzy constrained resistivity model by assigning the highest probability value of each model cell to the cluster utilizing fuzzy c means clustering procedure during the iterative process. The efficacy of the algorithm is demonstrated using three synthetic plane wave electromagnetic data sets and one electrical resistivity field dataset. The presented approach shows improvement on the conventional inversion approach to differentiate between different geologic units if the correct number of geologic units will be identified. Further, fuzzy constrained resistivity tomography was performed to examine the augmentation of uranium mineralization in the Beldih open cast mine as a case study. We also compared geologic units identified by fuzzy constrained resistivity tomography with geologic units interpreted from the borehole information.

  14. Node Discovery and Interpretation in Unstructured Resource-Constrained Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gechev, Miroslav; Kasabova, Slavyana; Mihovska, Albena D.


    A main characteristic of the Internet of Things networks is the large number of resource-constrained nodes, which, however, are required to perform reliable and fast data exchange; often of critical nature; over highly unpredictable and dynamic connections and network topologies. Reducing the num...

  15. Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a Process Control Laboratory (United States)

    Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A.; Blankespoor, Wesley; Budman, Hector M.


    This paper describes an experiment performed by the fourth year chemical engineering students in the process control laboratory at the University of Waterloo. The objective of this experiment is to test the capabilities of a constrained Model Predictive Controller (MPC) to control the operation of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger (DPHE) in real time.…

  16. Total Knee Replacement in A Resource Constrained Environment: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 6, 2017 ... knee replacement in a resource constrained environment: A preliminary report. Niger J Clin Pract 2017;20:369-75. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon ...

  17. Constrained variational calculus for higher order classical field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Cedric M; De Leon, Manuel; De Diego, David MartIn, E-mail: cedricmc@icmat.e, E-mail: mdeleon@icmat.e, E-mail: david.martin@icmat.e [Instituto de Ciencias Matematicas, CSIC-UAM-UC3M-UCM, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    We develop an intrinsic geometrical setting for higher order constrained field theories. As a main tool we use an appropriate generalization of the classical Skinner-Rusk formalism. Some examples of applications are studied, in particular to the geometrical description of optimal control theory for partial differential equations.

  18. Constrained relationship agency as the risk factor for intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    masculinity (Maganja, Maman, Groves, & Mbwambo, 2007). Similarly, bystanders may be less likely to intervene in an impending sexual assault if they believe that a man has. Constrained relationship agency as the risk factor for intimate partner violence in different models of transactional sex. Rebecca Fielding-Miller1, 2* ...

  19. Convergence profile of a discretized scheme for constrained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    profile of a quadratic control problem constrained by evolution equation with real coefficients. With an unconstrained formulation of the problem via the penaltymultiplier method, the discretization of the time interval and differential constraint is carried out. An operator, to circumvent the cumbersome calculation inherent in ...

  20. Effective Teaching of Economics: A Constrained Optimization Problem? (United States)

    Hultberg, Patrik T.; Calonge, David Santandreu


    One of the fundamental tenets of economics is that decisions are often the result of optimization problems subject to resource constraints. Consumers optimize utility, subject to constraints imposed by prices and income. As economics faculty, instructors attempt to maximize student learning while being constrained by their own and students'…

  1. Inferring meaningful communities from topology-constrained correlation networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Sergio Hleap

    Full Text Available Community structure detection is an important tool in graph analysis. This can be done, among other ways, by solving for the partition set which optimizes the modularity scores [Formula: see text]. Here it is shown that topological constraints in correlation graphs induce over-fragmentation of community structures. A refinement step to this optimization based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and a statistical test for significance is proposed. In structured simulation constrained by topology, this novel approach performs better than the optimization of modularity alone. This method was also tested with two empirical datasets: the Roll-Call voting in the 110th US Senate constrained by geographic adjacency, and a biological dataset of 135 protein structures constrained by inter-residue contacts. The former dataset showed sub-structures in the communities that revealed a regional bias in the votes which transcend party affiliations. This is an interesting pattern given that the 110th Legislature was assumed to be a highly polarized government. The [Formula: see text]-amylase catalytic domain dataset (biological dataset was analyzed with and without topological constraints (inter-residue contacts. The results without topological constraints showed differences with the topology constrained one, but the LDA filtering did not change the outcome of the latter. This suggests that the LDA filtering is a robust way to solve the possible over-fragmentation when present, and that this method will not affect the results where there is no evidence of over-fragmentation.

  2. Dirac's Constrained Hamiltonian Dynamics from an Unconstrained Dynamics


    Rothe, Heinz J.


    We derive the Hamilton equations of motion for a constrained system in the form given by Dirac, by a limiting procedure, starting from the Lagrangean for an unconstrained system. We thereby ellucidate the role played by the primary constraints and their persistance in time.

  3. Factors constraining accessibility and usage of information among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges faced by farmers in using poultry management information were mostly related to poverty, ignorance, and limited literacy. An understanding of the factors that constrain access and use of poultry management information can guide the planners and information providers in setting up appropriate standards for ...

  4. The Balance of Payment-Constrained Economic Growth in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Lopez and Cruz (1986) applied the balance of payment constrained model to four Latin American countries, namely, Argentina, Brazil,. Colombia, and Mexico. They estimate the model using co-integration analysis and a Vector Auto Regression (VAR) specification. In addition, they showed a co-integration between export ...

  5. Auditory temporal processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Lavasani, Azam Navaei; Mohammadkhani, Ghassem; Motamedi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Leyla Jalilvand; Jalaei, Shohreh; Shojaei, Fereshteh Sadat; Danesh, Ali; Azimi, Hadi


    Auditory temporal processing is the main feature of speech processing ability. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, despite their normal hearing sensitivity, may present speech recognition disorders. The present study was carried out to evaluate the auditory temporal processing in patients with unilateral TLE. The present study was carried out on 25 patients with epilepsy: 11 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy and 14 with left temporal lobe epilepsy with a mean age of 31.1years and 18 control participants with a mean age of 29.4years. The two experimental and control groups were evaluated via gap-in-noise and duration pattern sequence tests. One-way ANOVA was run to analyze the data. The mean of the threshold of the GIN test in the control group was observed to be better than that in participants with LTLE and RTLE. Also, it was observed that the percentage of correct responses on the DPS test in the control group and in participants with RTLE was better than that in participants with LTLE. Patients with TLE have difficulties in temporal processing. Difficulties are more significant in patients with LTLE, likely because the left temporal lobe is specialized for the processing of temporal information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Constrained Laboratory vs. Unconstrained Steering-Induced Rollover Crash Tests. (United States)

    Kerrigan, Jason R; Toczyski, Jacek; Roberts, Carolyn; Zhang, Qi; Clauser, Mark


    The goal of this study was to evaluate how well an in-laboratory rollover crash test methodology that constrains vehicle motion can reproduce the dynamics of unconstrained full-scale steering-induced rollover crash tests in sand. Data from previously-published unconstrained steering-induced rollover crash tests using a full-size pickup and mid-sized sedan were analyzed to determine vehicle-to-ground impact conditions and kinematic response of the vehicles throughout the tests. Then, a pair of replicate vehicles were prepared to match the inertial properties of the steering-induced test vehicles and configured to record dynamic roof structure deformations and kinematic response. Both vehicles experienced greater increases in roll-axis angular velocities in the unconstrained tests than in the constrained tests; however, the increases that occurred during the trailing side roof interaction were nearly identical between tests for both vehicles. Both vehicles experienced linear accelerations in the constrained tests that were similar to those in the unconstrained tests, but the pickup, in particular, had accelerations that were matched in magnitude, timing, and duration very closely between the two test types. Deformations in the truck test were higher in the constrained than the unconstrained, and deformations in the sedan were greater in the unconstrained than the constrained as a result of constraints of the test fixture, and differences in impact velocity for the trailing side. The results of the current study suggest that in-laboratory rollover tests can be used to simulate the injury-causing portions of unconstrained rollover crashes. To date, such a demonstration has not yet been published in the open literature. This study did, however, show that road surface can affect vehicle response in a way that may not be able to be mimicked in the laboratory. Lastly, this study showed that configuring the in-laboratory tests to match the leading-side touchdown conditions

  7. Symmetry constraints on temporal order in measurement-based quantum computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raussendorf


    Full Text Available We discuss the interdependence of resource state, measurement setting and temporal order in measurement-based quantum computation. The possible temporal orders of measurement events are constrained by the principle that the randomness inherent in quantum measurement should not affect the outcome of the computation. We provide a classification for all temporal relations among measurement events compatible with a given initial stabilizer state and measurement setting, in terms of a matroid. Conversely, we show that classical processing relations necessary for turning the local measurement outcomes into computational output determine the resource state and measurement setting up to local equivalence. Further, we find a symmetry transformation related to local complementation that leaves the temporal relations invariant.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Video Object Segmentation via Scale-Adaptive 3D Structure Tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yun Wang


    Full Text Available To address multiple motions and deformable objects' motions encountered in existing region-based approaches, an automatic video object (VO segmentation methodology is proposed in this paper by exploiting the duality of image segmentation and motion estimation such that spatial and temporal information could assist each other to jointly yield much improved segmentation results. The key novelties of our method are (1 scale-adaptive tensor computation, (2 spatial-constrained motion mask generation without invoking dense motion-field computation, (3 rigidity analysis, (4 motion mask generation and selection, and (5 motion-constrained spatial region merging. Experimental results demonstrate that these novelties jointly contribute much more accurate VO segmentation both in spatial and temporal domains.

  9. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Waidyasekara


    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.

  10. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  11. Ivory Osteoma Of Temporal Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Meher


    Full Text Available Osteomas are slow growing bony tumors common in fronto-ethmoid regions and rare in temporal bone. These are usually asymptomatic and require treatment mainly for cosmetic reasons. We describe a case of temporal bone osteoma in a female.

  12. Spatial Grouping Determines Temporal Integration (United States)

    Hermens, Frouke; Scharnowski, Frank; Herzog, Michael H.


    To make sense out of a continuously changing visual world, people need to integrate features across space and time. Despite more than a century of research, the mechanisms of features integration are still a matter of debate. To examine how temporal and spatial integration interact, the authors measured the amount of temporal fusion (a measure of…

  13. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Jensen, K; Podelski, A.


    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  14. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette


    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  15. Temporal Processing and Reading Disability. (United States)

    Share, David L.; Jorm, Anthony F.; Maclean, Rod; Matthews, Russell


    Examines the hypothesis that early auditory temporal processing deficits cause later specific reading disability by impairing phonological processing. Suggests that auditory temporal deficits in dyslexics may be associated with dysphasic-type symptoms observed by Tallal and her colleagues in specific language-impaired populations, but do not cause…

  16. Análisis comparativo de los valores K (T para el equilibrio cuarzo/solución de 0 a 100 ºC según los calibrados geotermométricos y las funciones utilizadas en programas de modelización geoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandado, J.


    Full Text Available Modern geochemical research on geothermal systems is approached through the interactive use of classical geothermometrical techniques and more complex computer codes. This supposes an increase in uncertainities related to the handling of different thermodynamic data-bases. This paper studies the coherence between different silica-quartz geothermometrical calibrates (in the 0-100 ºC temperature interval and the K (T expressions for dissolution reaction of quartz used in several geochemical codes. With few exceptions, the log K values calculated by these functions at different temperatures agree well with differences of ± 0,05. Anomalies in several K (T functions are originated both on the use of some experimental solubility data with methodological problems in their determination and the extrapolation of these functions outside their temperature limits.El estudio de sistemas geotermales es abordado en la actualidad mediante la utilización de técnicas geotermométricas clásicas de manera interactiva con otras más complejas de modelización termodinámica por ordenador. Esta situación conduce a una ampliación en la incertidumbre de la situación de equilibrio, derivada de las variaciones de los parámetros termodinámicos incluidos en las distintas bases de datos existentes. En este trabajo se analiza la coherencia entre distintos calibrados del geotermómetro sílice-cuarzo en el rango de temperaturas de O a 100° C, y las expresiones K (T para la reacción de disolución del cuarzo utilizadas en diferentes códigos de modelización. Salvo algunas excepciones, el error existente en los valores log K previstos por estas funciones para cualquier temperatura dentro del rango establecido, es de ± 0,05, lo cual es aceptable en la mayoría de los casos de utilización práctica. Las expresiones K (T «anómalas» proceden, bien de la adopción de datos de solubilidad de cuarzo procedentes de experiencias con problemas metodol

  17. Examining intra-urban variation in fine particle mass constituents using GIS and constrained factor analysis (United States)

    Clougherty, Jane E.; Houseman, E. Andres; Levy, Jonathan I.

    Recent studies have used land use regression (LUR) techniques to explain spatial variability in exposures to PM 2.5 and traffic-related pollutants. Factor analysis has been used to determine source contributions to measured concentrations. Few studies have combined these methods, however, to construct and explain latent source effects. In this study, we derive latent source factors using confirmatory factor analysis constrained to non-negative loadings, and develop LUR models to predict the influence of outdoor sources on latent source factors using GIS-based measures of traffic and other local sources, central site monitoring data, and meteorology. We collected 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and PM 2.5 outside of 44 homes in summer and winter, from 2003 to 2005 in and around Boston, Massachusetts. Reflectance analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were performed on particle filters to estimate elemental carbon (EC), trace element, and water-soluble metals concentrations. Within our constrained factor analysis, a five-factor model was optimal, balancing statistical robustness and physical interpretability. This model produced loadings indicating long-range transport, brake wear/traffic exhaust, diesel exhaust, fuel oil combustion, and resuspended road dust. LUR models largely corroborated factor interpretations through covariate significance. For example, 'long-range transport' was predicted by central site PM 2.5 and season; 'brake wear/traffic exhaust' and 'resuspended road dust' by traffic and residential density; 'diesel exhaust' by percent diesel traffic on nearest major road; and 'fuel oil combustion' by population density. Results suggest that outdoor residential PM 2.5 source contributions can be partially predicted using GIS-based terms, and that LUR techniques can support factor interpretation for source apportionment. Together, LUR and factor analysis

  18. A family of locally constrained CCA models for detecting activation patterns in fMRI. (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaowei; Yang, Zhengshi; Curran, Tim; Byrd, Richard; Nandy, Rajesh; Cordes, Dietmar


    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been used in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) for improved detection of activation by incorporating time series from multiple voxels in a local neighborhood. To improve the specificity of local CCA methods, spatial constraints were previously proposed. In this study, constraints are generalized by introducing a family model of spatial constraints for CCA to further increase both sensitivity and specificity in fMRI activation detection. The proposed locally-constrained CCA (cCCA) model is formulated in terms of a multivariate constrained optimization problem and solved efficiently with numerical optimization techniques. To evaluate the performance of this cCCA model, simulated data are generated with a Signal-To-Noise Ratio of 0.25, which is realistic to the noise level contained in episodic memory fMRI data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methods are used to compare the performance of different models. The cCCA model with optimum parameters (called optimum-cCCA) obtains the largest area under the ROC curve. Furthermore, a novel validation method is proposed to validate the selected optimum-cCCA parameters based on ROC from simulated data and real fMRI data. Results for optimum-cCCA are then compared with conventional fMRI analysis methods using data from an episodic memory task. Wavelet-resampled resting-state data are used to obtain the null distribution of activation. For simulated data, accuracy in detecting activation increases for the optimum-cCCA model by about 43% as compared to the single voxel analysis with comparable Gaussian smoothing. Results from the real fMRI data set indicate a significant increase in activation detection, particularly in hippocampus, para-hippocampal area and nearby medial temporal lobe regions with the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Generating High-Temporal and Spatial Resolution TIR Image Data (United States)

    Herrero-Huerta, M.; Lagüela, S.; Alfieri, S. M.; Menenti, M.


    Remote sensing imagery to monitor global biophysical dynamics requires the availability of thermal infrared data at high temporal and spatial resolution because of the rapid development of crops during the growing season and the fragmentation of most agricultural landscapes. Conversely, no single sensor meets these combined requirements. Data fusion approaches offer an alternative to exploit observations from multiple sensors, providing data sets with better properties. A novel spatio-temporal data fusion model based on constrained algorithms denoted as multisensor multiresolution technique (MMT) was developed and applied to generate TIR synthetic image data at both temporal and spatial high resolution. Firstly, an adaptive radiance model is applied based on spectral unmixing analysis of . TIR radiance data at TOA (top of atmosphere) collected by MODIS daily 1-km and Landsat - TIRS 16-day sampled at 30-m resolution are used to generate synthetic daily radiance images at TOA at 30-m spatial resolution. The next step consists of unmixing the 30 m (now lower resolution) images using the information about their pixel land-cover composition from co-registered images at higher spatial resolution. In our case study, TIR synthesized data were unmixed to the Sentinel 2 MSI with 10 m resolution. The constrained unmixing preserves all the available radiometric information of the 30 m images and involves the optimization of the number of land-cover classes and the size of the moving window for spatial unmixing. Results are still being evaluated, with particular attention for the quality of the data streams required to apply our approach.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herrero-Huerta


    Full Text Available Remote sensing imagery to monitor global biophysical dynamics requires the availability of thermal infrared data at high temporal and spatial resolution because of the rapid development of crops during the growing season and the fragmentation of most agricultural landscapes. Conversely, no single sensor meets these combined requirements. Data fusion approaches offer an alternative to exploit observations from multiple sensors, providing data sets with better properties. A novel spatio-temporal data fusion model based on constrained algorithms denoted as multisensor multiresolution technique (MMT was developed and applied to generate TIR synthetic image data at both temporal and spatial high resolution. Firstly, an adaptive radiance model is applied based on spectral unmixing analysis of . TIR radiance data at TOA (top of atmosphere collected by MODIS daily 1-km and Landsat – TIRS 16-day sampled at 30-m resolution are used to generate synthetic daily radiance images at TOA at 30-m spatial resolution. The next step consists of unmixing the 30 m (now lower resolution images using the information about their pixel land-cover composition from co-registered images at higher spatial resolution. In our case study, TIR synthesized data were unmixed to the Sentinel 2 MSI with 10 m resolution. The constrained unmixing preserves all the available radiometric information of the 30 m images and involves the optimization of the number of land-cover classes and the size of the moving window for spatial unmixing. Results are still being evaluated, with particular attention for the quality of the data streams required to apply our approach.

  1. The Perception of Dynamic and Static Facial Expressions of Happiness and Disgust Investigated by ERPs and fMRI Constrained Source Analysis (United States)

    Trautmann-Lengsfeld, Sina Alexa; Domínguez-Borràs, Judith; Escera, Carles; Herrmann, Manfred; Fehr, Thorsten


    A recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study by our group demonstrated that dynamic emotional faces are more accurately recognized and evoked more widespread patterns of hemodynamic brain responses than static emotional faces. Based on this experimental design, the present study aimed at investigating the spatio-temporal processing of static and dynamic emotional facial expressions in 19 healthy women by means of multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG), event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI-constrained regional source analyses. ERP analysis showed an increased amplitude of the LPP (late posterior positivity) over centro-parietal regions for static facial expressions of disgust compared to neutral faces. In addition, the LPP was more widespread and temporally prolonged for dynamic compared to static faces of disgust and happiness. fMRI constrained source analysis on static emotional face stimuli indicated the spatio-temporal modulation of predominantly posterior regional brain activation related to the visual processing stream for both emotional valences when compared to the neutral condition in the fusiform gyrus. The spatio-temporal processing of dynamic stimuli yielded enhanced source activity for emotional compared to neutral conditions in temporal (e.g., fusiform gyrus), and frontal regions (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, medial and inferior frontal cortex) in early and again in later time windows. The present data support the view that dynamic facial displays trigger more information reflected in complex neural networks, in particular because of their changing features potentially triggering sustained activation related to a continuing evaluation of those faces. A combined fMRI and EEG approach thus provides an advanced insight to the spatio-temporal characteristics of emotional face processing, by also revealing additional neural generators, not identifiable by the only use of an fMRI approach. PMID:23818974

  2. An Automated Translator for Model Checking Time Constrained Workflow Systems (United States)

    Mashiyat, Ahmed Shah; Rabbi, Fazle; Wang, Hao; Maccaull, Wendy

    Workflows have proven to be a useful conceptualization for the automation of business processes. While formal verification methods (e.g., model checking) can help ensure the reliability of workflow systems, the industrial uptake of such methods has been slow largely due to the effort involved in modeling and the memory required to verify complex systems. Incorporation of time constraints in such systems exacerbates the latter problem. We present an automated translator, YAWL2DVE-t, which takes as input a time constrained workflow model built with the graphical modeling tool YAWL, and outputs the model in DVE, the system specification language for the distributed LTL model checker DiVinE. The automated translator, together with the graphical editor and the distributed model checker, provides a method for rapid design, verification and refactoring of time constrained workflow systems. We present a realistic case study developed through collaboration with the local health authority.

  3. Morphological transitions of elastic domain structures in constrained layers (United States)

    Slutsker, J.; Artemev, A.; Roytburd, A. L.


    The phase transformation in a constrained layer is the subject of this article. The formation and evolution of polydomain microstructure under external stress in the constrained layer are investigated by phase-field simulation and analytically using homogeneous approximation. As a result of simulation, it has been shown that the three-domain hierarchical structure can be formed in the epitaxial films. Under external stress there are two types of morphological transitions: from the three-domain structure to the two-domain one and from the hierarchical three-domain structure to the cellular three-domain structure. The results of phase-field simulation are compared with conclusions of homogenous theory and with available experimental data.

  4. Colorimetric characterization of LCD based on constrained least squares (United States)

    LI, Tong; Xie, Kai; Wang, Qiaojie; Yao, Luyang


    In order to improve the accuracy of colorimetric characterization of liquid crystal display, tone matrix model in color management modeling of display characterization is established by using constrained least squares for quadratic polynomial fitting, and find the relationship between the RGB color space to CIEXYZ color space; 51 sets of training samples were collected to solve the parameters, and the accuracy of color space mapping model was verified by 100 groups of random verification samples. The experimental results showed that, with the constrained least square method, the accuracy of color mapping was high, the maximum color difference of this model is 3.8895, the average color difference is 1.6689, which prove that the method has better optimization effect on the colorimetric characterization of liquid crystal display.

  5. A Projection Neural Network for Constrained Quadratic Minimax Optimization. (United States)

    Liu, Qingshan; Wang, Jun


    This paper presents a projection neural network described by a dynamic system for solving constrained quadratic minimax programming problems. Sufficient conditions based on a linear matrix inequality are provided for global convergence of the proposed neural network. Compared with some of the existing neural networks for quadratic minimax optimization, the proposed neural network in this paper is capable of solving more general constrained quadratic minimax optimization problems, and the designed neural network does not include any parameter. Moreover, the neural network has lower model complexities, the number of state variables of which is equal to that of the dimension of the optimization problems. The simulation results on numerical examples are discussed to demonstrate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed neural network.

  6. Constrained next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. (United States)

    Djouadi, A; Ellwanger, U; Teixeira, A M


    We consider the fully constrained version of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (cNMSSM) in which a singlet Higgs superfield is added to the two doublets that are present in the minimal extension (MSSM). Assuming universal boundary conditions at a high scale for the soft supersymmetry-breaking mass parameters as well as for the trilinear interactions, we find that the model is more constrained than the celebrated minimal supergravity model. The phenomenologically viable region in the parameter space of the cNMSSM corresponds to a small value for the universal scalar mass m_{0}: in this case, one single input parameter is sufficient to describe the model's phenomenology once constraints from collider data and cosmology are imposed.

  7. A Novel Neural Network for Generally Constrained Variational Inequalities. (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Liao, Li-Zhi


    This paper presents a novel neural network for solving generally constrained variational inequality problems by constructing a system of double projection equations. By defining proper convex energy functions, the proposed neural network is proved to be stable in the sense of Lyapunov and converges to an exact solution of the original problem for any starting point under the weaker cocoercivity condition or the monotonicity condition of the gradient mapping on the linear equation set. Furthermore, two sufficient conditions are provided to ensure the stability of the proposed neural network for a special case. The proposed model overcomes some shortcomings of existing continuous-time neural networks for constrained variational inequality, and its stability only requires some monotonicity conditions of the underlying mapping and the concavity of nonlinear inequality constraints on the equation set. The validity and transient behavior of the proposed neural network are demonstrated by some simulation results.

  8. Deep Learning of Constrained Autoencoders for Enhanced Understanding of Data. (United States)

    Ayinde, Babajide O; Zurada, Jacek M


    Unsupervised feature extractors are known to perform an efficient and discriminative representation of data. Insight into the mappings they perform and human ability to understand them, however, remain very limited. This is especially prominent when multilayer deep learning architectures are used. This paper demonstrates how to remove these bottlenecks within the architecture of non-negativity constrained autoencoder. It is shown that using both L1 and L2 regularizations that induce non-negativity of weights, most of the weights in the network become constrained to be non-negative, thereby resulting into a more understandable structure with minute deterioration in classification accuracy. Also, this proposed approach extracts features that are more sparse and produces additional output layer sparsification. The method is analyzed for accuracy and feature interpretation on the MNIST data, the NORB normalized uniform object data, and the Reuters text categorization data set.

  9. Constraining new physics models with isotope shift spectroscopy (United States)

    Frugiuele, Claudia; Fuchs, Elina; Perez, Gilad; Schlaffer, Matthias


    Isotope shifts of transition frequencies in atoms constrain generic long- and intermediate-range interactions. We focus on new physics scenarios that can be most strongly constrained by King linearity violation such as models with B -L vector bosons, the Higgs portal, and chameleon models. With the anticipated precision, King linearity violation has the potential to set the strongest laboratory bounds on these models in some regions of parameter space. Furthermore, we show that this method can probe the couplings relevant for the protophobic interpretation of the recently reported Be anomaly. We extend the formalism to include an arbitrary number of transitions and isotope pairs and fit the new physics coupling to the currently available isotope shift measurements.

  10. Functional coupling constrains craniofacial diversification in Lake Tanganyika cichlids (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masahito; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, Niclas


    Functional coupling, where a single morphological trait performs multiple functions, is a universal feature of organismal design. Theory suggests that functional coupling may constrain the rate of phenotypic evolution, yet empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. In fish, the evolutionary transition from guarding the eggs on a sandy/rocky substrate (i.e. substrate guarding) to mouthbrooding introduces a novel function to the craniofacial system and offers an ideal opportunity to test the functional coupling hypothesis. Using a combination of geometric morphometrics and a recently developed phylogenetic comparative method, we found that head morphology evolution was 43% faster in substrate guarding species than in mouthbrooding species. Furthermore, for species in which females were solely responsible for mouthbrooding the males had a higher rate of head morphology evolution than in those with bi-parental mouthbrooding. Our results support the hypothesis that adaptations resulting in functional coupling constrain phenotypic evolution. PMID:25948565

  11. Optimal Power Constrained Distributed Detection over a Noisy Multiaccess Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Hu


    Full Text Available The problem of optimal power constrained distributed detection over a noisy multiaccess channel (MAC is addressed. Under local power constraints, we define the transformation function for sensor to realize the mapping from local decision to transmitted waveform. The deflection coefficient maximization (DCM is used to optimize the performance of power constrained fusion system. Using optimality conditions, we derive the closed-form solution to the considered problem. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed new method. Simulation results show that the proposed method could significantly improve the detection performance of the fusion system with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. We also show that the proposed new method has a robust detection performance for broad SNR region.

  12. Regularized Primal-Dual Subgradient Method for Distributed Constrained Optimization. (United States)

    Yuan, Deming; Ho, Daniel W C; Xu, Shengyuan


    In this paper, we study the distributed constrained optimization problem where the objective function is the sum of local convex cost functions of distributed nodes in a network, subject to a global inequality constraint. To solve this problem, we propose a consensus-based distributed regularized primal-dual subgradient method. In contrast to the existing methods, most of which require projecting the estimates onto the constraint set at every iteration, only one projection at the last iteration is needed for our proposed method. We establish the convergence of the method by showing that it achieves an O ( K (-1/4) ) convergence rate for general distributed constrained optimization, where K is the iteration counter. Finally, a numerical example is provided to validate the convergence of the propose method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Váňa


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a variant of the Dubins traveling salesman problem (DTSP that is called the Dubins traveling salesman problem with constrained collecting maneuvers (DTSP-CM. In contrast to the ordinary formulation of the DTSP, in the proposed DTSP-CM, the vehicle is requested to visit each target by specified collecting maneuver to accomplish the mission. The proposed problem formulation is motivated by scenarios with unmanned aerial vehicles where particular maneuvers are necessary for accomplishing the mission, such as object dropping or data collection with sensor sensitive to changes in vehicle heading. We consider existing methods for the DTSP and propose its modifications to use these methods to address a variant of the introduced DTSP-CM, where the collecting maneuvers are constrained to straight line segments.

  14. Lilith: a tool for constraining new physics from Higgs measurements (United States)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Dumont, Béranger


    The properties of the observed Higgs boson with mass around 125 GeV can be affected in a variety of ways by new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The wealth of experimental results, targeting the different combinations for the production and decay of a Higgs boson, makes it a non-trivial task to assess the patibility of a non-SM-like Higgs boson with all available results. In this paper we present Lilith, a new public tool for constraining new physics from signal strength measurements performed at the LHC and the Tevatron. Lilith is a Python library that can also be used in C and C++/ ROOT programs. The Higgs likelihood is based on experimental results stored in an easily extensible XML database, and is evaluated from the user input, given in XML format in terms of reduced couplings or signal strengths.The results of Lilith can be used to constrain a wide class of new physics scenarios.

  15. Constraining the noncommutative spectral action via astrophysical observations. (United States)

    Nelson, William; Ochoa, Joseph; Sakellariadou, Mairi


    The noncommutative spectral action extends our familiar notion of commutative spaces, using the data encoded in a spectral triple on an almost commutative space. Varying a rather simple action, one can derive all of the standard model of particle physics in this setting, in addition to a modified version of Einstein-Hilbert gravity. In this Letter we use observations of pulsar timings, assuming that no deviation from general relativity has been observed, to constrain the gravitational sector of this theory. While the bounds on the coupling constants remain rather weak, they are comparable to existing bounds on deviations from general relativity in other settings and are likely to be further constrained by future observations.

  16. Applications of a constrained mechanics methodology in economics

    CERN Document Server

    Janová, Jitka


    The paper presents instructive interdisciplinary applications of constrained mechanics calculus in economics on a level appropriate for the undergraduate physics education. The aim of the paper is: 1. to meet the demand for illustrative examples suitable for presenting the background of the highly expanding research field of econophysics even on the undergraduate level and 2. to enable the students to understand deeper the principles and methods routinely used in mechanics by looking at the well known methodology from the different perspective of economics. Two constrained dynamic economic problems are presented using the economic terminology in an intuitive way. First, the Phillips model of business cycle is presented as a system of forced oscillations and the general problem of two interacting economies is solved by the nonholonomic dynamics approach. Second, the Cass-Koopmans-Ramsey model of economical growth is solved as a variational problem with a velocity dependent constraint using the vakonomic approa...

  17. Dark matter scenarios in a constrained model with Dirac gauginos

    CERN Document Server

    Goodsell, Mark D.; Müller, Tobias; Porod, Werner; Staub, Florian


    We perform the first analysis of Dark Matter scenarios in a constrained model with Dirac Gauginos. The model under investigation is the Constrained Minimal Dirac Gaugino Supersymmetric Standard model (CMDGSSM) where the Majorana mass terms of gauginos vanish. However, $R$-symmetry is broken in the Higgs sector by an explicit and/or effective $B_\\mu$-term. This causes a mass splitting between Dirac states in the fermion sector and the neutralinos, which provide the dark matter candidate, become pseudo-Dirac states. We discuss two scenarios: the universal case with all scalar masses unified at the GUT scale, and the case with non-universal Higgs soft-terms. We identify different regions in the parameter space which fullfil all constraints from the dark matter abundance, the limits from SUSY and direct dark matter searches and the Higgs mass. Most of these points can be tested with the next generation of direct dark matter detection experiments.

  18. Hadroproduction experiments to constrain accelerator-based neutrino fluxes (United States)

    Zambelli, Laura


    The precise knowledge of (anti-)neutrino fluxes is one of the largest limitation in accelerator-based neutrino experiments. The main limitations arise from the poorly known production properties of neutrino parents in hadron-nucleus interactions. Strategies used by neutrino experiment to constrain their fluxes using external hadroproduction data will be described and illustrated with an example of a tight collaboration between T2K and NA61/SHINE experiments. This enabled a reduction of the T2K neutrino flux uncertainty from ∼25% (without external constraints) down to ∼10%. On-going developments to further constrain the T2K (anti-)neutrino flux are discussed and recent results from NA61/SHINE are reviewed. As the next-generation long baseline experiments aim for a neutrino flux uncertainty at a level of a few percent, the future data-taking plans of NA61/SHINE are discussed.

  19. Hydrolysis of Al3+ from constrained molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masaru; Kimura, Takaumi


    We investigated the hydrolysis reactions of Al(3+) in AlCl(3) aqueous solution using the constrained molecular dynamics based on the Car-Parrinello molecular-dynamics method. By employing the proton-aluminum coordination number as a reaction coordinate in the constrained molecular dynamics the deprotonation as well as dehydration processes are successfully realized. From our free-energy difference of DeltaG(0) approximately 8.0 kcal mol(-1) the hydrolysis constant pK(a1) is roughly estimated as 5.8, comparable to the literature value of 5.07. We show that the free-energy difference for the hydrolysis of Al(3+) in acidic conditions is at least 4 kcal mol(-1) higher than that in neutral condition, indicating that the hydrolysis reaction is inhibited by the presence of excess protons located around the hydrated ion, in agreement with the change of the predominant species by pH.

  20. Completing constrained flavor violation: lepton masses, neutrinos and leptogenesis


    Cline, James M.; Diaz-Furlong, Alfonso; Ren, Jing


    Constrained flavor violation is a recent proposal for predicting the down-quark Yukawa matrix in terms of those for up quarks and charged leptons. We study the viability of CFV with respect to its predictions for the lepton mass ratios, showing that this remains a challenge, and suggest some possible means for improving this shortcoming. We then extend CFV to include neutrinos, and show that it leads to interesting predictions for hierachical heavy neutrinos, and leptogenesis dominated by dec...

  1. Critical transition in the constrained traveling salesman problem. (United States)

    Andrecut, M; Ali, M K


    We investigate the finite size scaling of the mean optimal tour length as a function of density of obstacles in a constrained variant of the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The computational experience pointed out a critical transition (at rho(c) approximately 85%) in the dependence between the excess of the mean optimal tour length over the Held-Karp lower bound and the density of obstacles.

  2. Distributionally Robust Joint Chance Constrained Problem under Moment Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-wei Ding


    Full Text Available We discuss and develop the convex approximation for robust joint chance constraints under uncertainty of first- and second-order moments. Robust chance constraints are approximated by Worst-Case CVaR constraints which can be reformulated by a semidefinite programming. Then the chance constrained problem can be presented as semidefinite programming. We also find that the approximation for robust joint chance constraints has an equivalent individual quadratic approximation form.

  3. Singular divergence instability thresholds of kinematically constrained circulatory systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, O.N., E-mail: [Magnetohydrodynamics Division, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Challamel, N. [University of South Brittany, LIMATB, Lorient (France); Darve, F. [Laboratoire Sols Solides Structures, UJF-INPG-CNRS, Grenoble (France); Lerbet, J. [IBISC, Universite d' Evry Val d' Essone, 40 Rue Pelvoux, CE 1455 Courcouronnes, 91020 Evry Cedex (France); Nicot, F. [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche Erosion Torrentielle Neige et Avalanches, Grenoble (France)


    Static instability or divergence threshold of both potential and circulatory systems with kinematic constraints depends singularly on the constraints' coefficients. Particularly, the critical buckling load of the kinematically constrained Ziegler's pendulum as a function of two coefficients of the constraint is given by the Plücker conoid of degree n=2. This simple mechanical model exhibits a structural instability similar to that responsible for the Velikhov–Chandrasekhar paradox in the theory of magnetorotational instability.

  4. A Globally Convergent Parallel SSLE Algorithm for Inequality Constrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Luo


    Full Text Available A new parallel variable distribution algorithm based on interior point SSLE algorithm is proposed for solving inequality constrained optimization problems under the condition that the constraints are block-separable by the technology of sequential system of linear equation. Each iteration of this algorithm only needs to solve three systems of linear equations with the same coefficient matrix to obtain the descent direction. Furthermore, under certain conditions, the global convergence is achieved.

  5. Homework and performance for time-constrained students


    William Neilson


    Most studies of homework effectiveness relate time spent on homework to test performance, and find a nonmonotonic relationship. A theoretical model shows that this can occur even when additional homework helps all students because of the way in which variables are defined. However, some students are time-constrained, limiting the amount of homework they can complete. In the presence of time constraints, additional homework can increase the spread between the performance of the best and worst ...

  6. Asynchronous parallel generating set search for linearly-constrained optimization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolda, Tamara G.; Griffin, Joshua; Lewis, Robert Michael


    We describe an asynchronous parallel derivative-free algorithm for linearly-constrained optimization. Generating set search (GSS) is the basis of ourmethod. At each iteration, a GSS algorithm computes a set of search directionsand corresponding trial points and then evaluates the objective function valueat each trial point. Asynchronous versions of the algorithm have been developedin the unconstrained and bound-constrained cases which allow the iterations tocontinue (and new trial points to be generated and evaluated) as soon as anyother trial point completes. This enables better utilization of parallel resourcesand a reduction in overall runtime, especially for problems where the objec-tive function takes minutes or hours to compute. For linearly-constrained GSS,the convergence theory requires that the set of search directions conform to the3 nearby boundary. The complexity of developing the asynchronous algorithm forthe linearly-constrained case has to do with maintaining a suitable set of searchdirections as the search progresses and is the focus of this research. We describeour implementation in detail, including how to avoid function evaluations bycaching function values and using approximate look-ups. We test our imple-mentation on every CUTEr test problem with general linear constraints and upto 1000 variables. Without tuning to individual problems, our implementationwas able to solve 95% of the test problems with 10 or fewer variables, 75%of the problems with 11-100 variables, and nearly half of the problems with100-1000 variables. To the best of our knowledge, these are the best resultsthat have ever been achieved with a derivative-free method. Our asynchronousparallel implementation is freely available as part of the APPSPACK software.4

  7. Dynamical spacetimes and gravitational radiation in a Fully Constrained Formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Ibáñez, José María


    This contribution summarizes the recent work carried out to analyze the behavior of the hyperbolic sector of the Fully Constrained Formulation (FCF) derived in Bonazzola et al. 2004. The numerical experiments presented here allows one to be confident in the performances of the upgraded version of CoCoNuT's code by replacing the Conformally Flat Condition (CFC) approximation of the Einstein equations by the FCF.

  8. Search for passing-through-walls neutrons constrains hidden braneworlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Sarrazin


    Full Text Available In many theoretical frameworks our visible world is a 3-brane, embedded in a multidimensional bulk, possibly coexisting with hidden braneworlds. Some works have also shown that matter swapping between braneworlds can occur. Here we report the results of an experiment – at the Institut Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France – designed to detect thermal neutron swapping to and from another braneworld, thus constraining the probability p2 of such an event. The limit, p87 in Planck length units.

  9. A Fractional Trust Region Method for Linear Equality Constrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglan Zhu


    Full Text Available A quasi-Newton trust region method with a new fractional model for linearly constrained optimization problems is proposed. We delete linear equality constraints by using null space technique. The fractional trust region subproblem is solved by a simple dogleg method. The global convergence of the proposed algorithm is established and proved. Numerical results for test problems show the efficiency of the trust region method with new fractional model. These results give the base of further research on nonlinear optimization.

  10. Reliable Event Detectors for Constrained Resources Wireless Sensor Node Hardware


    López Trinidad MarcoAntonio; Valle Maurizio


    Abstract A novel event detector algorithm, which points out in-door acoustic human activities, for constrained wireless sensor node hardware is proposed in the present paper. In our approach, event detections are computed from the signal energy statistics change rate at two instants separated by an samples interval. The experimentation is run in two phases: (i) the detector characterisation and tuning seek detector configurations that enable event detections from three acoustic human activi...

  11. Evaluating potentialities and constrains of Problem Based Learning curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Aida


    encloses three methodological approaches to investigate three interrelated research questions. Phase one, a literature review; aims develop a theoretical and analytical framework. The second phase aims to investigate examples of practices that combine PBL and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD......This paper presents a research design to evaluate Problem Based Learning (PBL) curriculum potentialities and constrains for future changes. PBL literature lacks examples of how to evaluate and analyse established PBL learning environments to address new challenges posed. The research design...

  12. Weighted Constrained Hue-Plane Preserving Camera Characterization. (United States)

    Find Andersen, Casper; Connah, David


    Color correction relates device dependent sensor responses (RGB) to device independent color values (XYZ). Here we present a new approach to Hue-plane Preserving Color Correction (HPPCC) using weighted constrained 3 × 3 matrices. Hue-plane preservation was introduced in [1] in conjunction with an HPPCC method. That method maps using a finite number of local white point preserving 3 × 3 matrices, each of which operates in a hue-angle delimited subregion of device space defined by the white and two adjacent chromatic training set colors. However, that formulation does not leave room for optimization or continuity beyond C0 in the transitions between the subregions. To remedy that our new method uses hue-angle specific weighted matrixing: given a device RGB from which a device hue-angle is derived, a corresponding transformation matrix is found as the normalized weighted sum of all precalculated constrained white point and training color preserving matrices. Each weight is calculated as a power function of the minimum difference between the device and the training color hue-angle. The weighting function provides local influence to the matrices that are in close hue-angle proximity to the device color. The power of the function is optimized for global accuracy. We call this Hue-plane Preserving Color Correction by Weighted Constrained Matrixing HPPCC-WCM 1 1. Experiments performed using different input spectra show that our method consistently improves on both stability and accuracy compared to state of the art methods.

  13. Bidirectional Dynamic Diversity Evolutionary Algorithm for Constrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weishang Gao


    Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms (EAs were shown to be effective for complex constrained optimization problems. However, inflexible exploration-exploitation and improper penalty in EAs with penalty function would lead to losing the global optimum nearby or on the constrained boundary. To determine an appropriate penalty coefficient is also difficult in most studies. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional dynamic diversity evolutionary algorithm (Bi-DDEA with multiagents guiding exploration-exploitation through local extrema to the global optimum in suitable steps. In Bi-DDEA potential advantage is detected by three kinds of agents. The scale and the density of agents will change dynamically according to the emerging of potential optimal area, which play an important role of flexible exploration-exploitation. Meanwhile, a novel double optimum estimation strategy with objective fitness and penalty fitness is suggested to compute, respectively, the dominance trend of agents in feasible region and forbidden region. This bidirectional evolving with multiagents can not only effectively avoid the problem of determining penalty coefficient but also quickly converge to the global optimum nearby or on the constrained boundary. By examining the rapidity and veracity of Bi-DDEA across benchmark functions, the proposed method is shown to be effective.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Oleg Ye. Sysoyev  Doctor of Engineering, Professor, the Civil construction and Architecture Department, Dean of the Cadastre and Civil construction faculty, Komsomolsk-on-Amur State Technical University (Russia, Komsomolsk-on-Amur. E-mail:


    Full Text Available In the laboratory of constructions of Komsomolsk-on-Amur State Technical University (KnAGTU an experiment has been carried on. The aim of the experiment was to identify patterns of influence of magnitude of fluctuations in the virtual mass on constrained oscillation of open shells. Constrained oscillation of curved and open-shell carrying the virtual mass was measured with the help of induction accelerometers. Steel shell is pin supported along the edges, rectangular in the plan. Pin supported open shells along both sides, as the most frequently used in the construction have not yet been investigated. The calculation was made based on the general equation of oscillation of a shell, as well as Donnell - Mushtari - Vlasov equations. In the theoretical calculation, assumptions about the flatness were not taken into account. But it seemed that the magnitude of the stresses from bending moments are comparable in magnitude to the stress of the effort. In consequence, substantial increase in the differentiation was obtained. As a result, values of theoretical constrained oscillation of a shell were obtained. We compared the theoretical and analytical data.

  15. Constraining the Solubility of Aerosol Fe using US GEOTRACES Data (United States)

    Aguilar-Islas, A. M.; Buck, C. S.; Rember, R.; Landing, W. M.


    Atmospheric deposition represents an important input of micronutrients to surface waters, and is of particular interest as an input for the limiting micronutrient iron. The solubility of aerosol iron after deposition is not well constrained, and it has been shown to vary principally with aerosol composition, although dissolution methodologies also contribute to the observed variability. To address procedural artifacts and arrive at a better constrained estimate of aerosol iron fractional solubility, a flow-through on-board protocol designed to minimize experimental artifacts and to simulate conditions experienced by deposited aerosols was used during the US Atlantic GEOTRACES cruises and compared to laboratory leaching methods. Here we present results of the fractional solubility of aerosol iron obtained during the US GEOTRACES Atlantic and Pacific cruises, and suggest revising estimates for this parameter. Our data provides a more constrained upwardly adjusted estimate in the range of 8% to 14% solubility for iron in aerosols dominated by lithogenic sources, and a fractional solubility of 15% to 25% for iron in aerosols from air masses impacted by anthropogenic sources. Greater variability (6% to 55%) was observed in the solubility of iron in aerosols from maritime air masses.

  16. A TV-constrained decomposition method for spectral CT (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yuxiang


    Spectral CT is attracting more and more attention in medicine, industrial nondestructive testing and security inspection field. Material decomposition is an important issue to a spectral CT to discriminate materials. Because of the spectrum overlap of energy channels, as well as the correlation of basis functions, it is well acknowledged that decomposition step in spectral CT imaging causes noise amplification and artifacts in component coefficient images. In this work, we propose materials decomposition via an optimization method to improve the quality of decomposed coefficient images. On the basis of general optimization problem, total variance minimization is constrained on coefficient images in our overall objective function with adjustable weights. We solve this constrained optimization problem under the framework of ADMM. Validation on both a numerical dental phantom in simulation and a real phantom of pig leg on a practical CT system using dual-energy imaging is executed. Both numerical and physical experiments give visually obvious better reconstructions than a general direct inverse method. SNR and SSIM are adopted to quantitatively evaluate the image quality of decomposed component coefficients. All results demonstrate that the TV-constrained decomposition method performs well in reducing noise without losing spatial resolution so that improving the image quality. The method can be easily incorporated into different types of spectral imaging modalities, as well as for cases with energy channels more than two.

  17. 'Constrained collaboration': Patient empowerment discourse as resource for countervailing power. (United States)

    Vinson, Alexandra H


    Countervailing powers constrain the authority and autonomy of the medical profession. One countervailing power is patient consumerism, a movement with roots in health social movements. Patient empowerment discourses that emerge from health social movements suggest that active patienthood is a normative good, and that patients should inform themselves, claim their expertise, and participate in their care. Yet, little is known about how patient empowerment is understood by physicians. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in an American medical school, this article examines how physicians teach medical students to carry out patient encounters while adhering to American cultural expectations of a collaborative physician-patient relationship. Overt medical paternalism is characterised by professors as 'here's the orders' paternalism, and shown to be counterproductive to 'closing the deal' - achieving patient agreement to a course of treatment. To explain how physicians accomplish their therapeutic goals without violating cultural mandates of patient empowerment I develop the concept of 'constrained collaboration'. This analysis of constrained collaboration contrasts with structural-level narratives of diminishing professional authority and contributes to a theory of the micro-level reproduction of medical authority as a set of interactional practices. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  18. Groundwater availability as constrained by hydrogeology and environmental flows. (United States)

    Watson, Katelyn A; Mayer, Alex S; Reeves, Howard W


    Groundwater pumping from aquifers in hydraulic connection with nearby streams has the potential to cause adverse impacts by decreasing flows to levels below those necessary to maintain aquatic ecosystems. The recent passage of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact has brought attention to this issue in the Great Lakes region. In particular, the legislation requires the Great Lakes states to enact measures for limiting water withdrawals that can cause adverse ecosystem impacts. This study explores how both hydrogeologic and environmental flow limitations may constrain groundwater availability in the Great Lakes Basin. A methodology for calculating maximum allowable pumping rates is presented. Groundwater availability across the basin may be constrained by a combination of hydrogeologic yield and environmental flow limitations varying over both local and regional scales. The results are sensitive to factors such as pumping time, regional and local hydrogeology, streambed conductance, and streamflow depletion limits. Understanding how these restrictions constrain groundwater usage and which hydrogeologic characteristics and spatial variables have the most influence on potential streamflow depletions has important water resources policy and management implications. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Applications of a constrained mechanics methodology in economics (United States)

    Janová, Jitka


    This paper presents instructive interdisciplinary applications of constrained mechanics calculus in economics on a level appropriate for undergraduate physics education. The aim of the paper is (i) to meet the demand for illustrative examples suitable for presenting the background of the highly expanding research field of econophysics even at the undergraduate level and (ii) to enable the students to gain a deeper understanding of the principles and methods routinely used in mechanics by looking at the well-known methodology from the different perspective of economics. Two constrained dynamic economic problems are presented using the economic terminology in an intuitive way. First, the Phillips model of the business cycle is presented as a system of forced oscillations and the general problem of two interacting economies is solved by the nonholonomic dynamics approach. Second, the Cass-Koopmans-Ramsey model of economical growth is solved as a variational problem with a velocity-dependent constraint using the vakonomic approach. The specifics of the solution interpretation in economics compared to mechanics is discussed in detail, a discussion of the nonholonomic and vakonomic approaches to constrained problems in mechanics and economics is provided and an economic interpretation of the Lagrange multipliers (possibly surprising for the students of physics) is carefully explained. This paper can be used by the undergraduate students of physics interested in interdisciplinary physics applications to gain an understanding of the current scientific approach to economics based on a physical background, or by university teachers as an attractive supplement to classical mechanics lessons.

  20. Interpreting single turnover catalysis measurements with constrained mean dwell times. (United States)

    Ochoa, Maicol A; Zhou, Xiaochun; Chen, Peng; Loring, Roger F


    Observation of a chemical transformation at the single-molecule level yields a detailed view of kinetic pathways contributing to the averaged results obtained in a bulk measurement. Studies of a fluorogenic reaction catalyzed by gold nanoparticles have revealed heterogeneous reaction dynamics for these catalysts. Measurements on single nanoparticles yield binary trajectories with stochastic transitions between a dark state in which no product molecules are adsorbed and a fluorescent state in which one product molecule is present. The mean dwell time in either state gives information corresponding to a bulk measurement. Quantifying fluctuations from mean kinetics requires identifying properties of the fluorescence trajectory that are selective in emphasizing certain dynamic processes according to their time scales. We propose the use of constrained mean dwell times, defined as the mean dwell time in a state with the constraint that the immediately preceding dwell time in the other state is, for example, less than a variable time. Calculations of constrained mean dwell times for a kinetic model with dynamic disorder demonstrate that these quantities reveal correlations among dynamic fluctuations at different active sites on a multisite catalyst. Constrained mean dwell times are determined from measurements of single nanoparticle catalysis. The results indicate that dynamical fluctuations at different active sites are correlated, and that especially rapid reaction events produce particularly slowly desorbing product molecules.

  1. Applications of a constrained mechanics methodology in economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janova, Jitka, E-mail: [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Statistics and Operation Analysis, Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)


    This paper presents instructive interdisciplinary applications of constrained mechanics calculus in economics on a level appropriate for undergraduate physics education. The aim of the paper is (i) to meet the demand for illustrative examples suitable for presenting the background of the highly expanding research field of econophysics even at the undergraduate level and (ii) to enable the students to gain a deeper understanding of the principles and methods routinely used in mechanics by looking at the well-known methodology from the different perspective of economics. Two constrained dynamic economic problems are presented using the economic terminology in an intuitive way. First, the Phillips model of the business cycle is presented as a system of forced oscillations and the general problem of two interacting economies is solved by the nonholonomic dynamics approach. Second, the Cass-Koopmans-Ramsey model of economical growth is solved as a variational problem with a velocity-dependent constraint using the vakonomic approach. The specifics of the solution interpretation in economics compared to mechanics is discussed in detail, a discussion of the nonholonomic and vakonomic approaches to constrained problems in mechanics and economics is provided and an economic interpretation of the Lagrange multipliers (possibly surprising for the students of physics) is carefully explained. This paper can be used by the undergraduate students of physics interested in interdisciplinary physics applications to gain an understanding of the current scientific approach to economics based on a physical background, or by university teachers as an attractive supplement to classical mechanics lessons.

  2. Dynamic Constrained Economic/Emission Dispatch Scheduling Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Benhamida


    Full Text Available In this paper, a Dynamic Economic/Emission Dispatch (DEED problem is obtained by considering both the economy and emission objectives with required constraints dynamically. This paper presents an optimization algorithm for solving constrained combined economic emission dispatch (EED problem and DEED, through the application of neural network, which is a flexible Hopfield neural network (FHNN. The constrained DEED must not only satisfy the system load demand and the spinning reserve capacity, but some practical operation constraints of generators, such as ramp rate limits and prohibited operating zone, are also considered in practical generator operation. The feasibility of the proposed FHNN using to solve DEED is demonstrated using three power systems, and it is compared with the other methods in terms of solution quality and computation efficiency. The simulation results showed that the proposed FHNN method was indeed capable of obtaining higher quality solutions efficiently in constrained DEED and EED problems with a much shorter computation time compared to other methods.

  3. A quantum constrained kinematic model for elementary chemical reactions (United States)

    McCaffery, Anthony J.; Truhins, Kaspars; Whiteley, Thomas W. J.


    The model we have termed quantum constrained kinematics and found to give an accurate account of atom-diatom inelastic scattering is tested by application to elementary atom-molecule reactive collisions. The approach emphasizes the disposal of initial relative momentum into rotational angular momentum of the product diatomic via vector relations that are constrained by the internal quantum structure of the product diatomic. We introduce the concept of vibrational momentum of the atoms in a diatomic molecule in order to treat vibrational and rotational excitation of the product species. This representation is valuable in providing a realistic picture of the motion in a heteronuclear diatomic and also indicates how the enthalpy of a reaction may be disposed in momentum terms. It may also provide criteria for assessing the likelihood of particular reaction mechanisms. Comparison of results calculated using the quantum constrained kinematic model with experimental data indicates a number of simple, transferable rule-of-thumb guides to the outcome of reactive collisions. Most probable j values and distributions are accurately predicted using readily available data in parameter-free calculations. It is found that in reactive collisions, initial velocity distributions are mapped onto those of product rotational states via an effective impact parameter distribution that is sharply peaked around the half bond length of the product diatomic molecule.

  4. Constrained droplets for high resolution microscopy of protein fibrillization (United States)

    Posada, David; Tessier, Peter; Hirsa, Amir


    The use of constrained droplets (droplets with pinned contact lines on solid surfaces) is proposed here as a method for sample support in optical microscopy studies. Capillarity acts to contain the liquid sample, allowing access for observations in the bulk and at the gas/liquid interface. At the capillary length scale, surface tension forms stable interfaces, virtually immune to gravity and with curvatures that can be adjusted. This is particularly useful when studying the gas/liquid interface and its vicinity under high resolution optical microscopy. Such observations are normally performed using oil immersion objectives which must be positioned within distances only tens of microns from the region of interest. Constrained droplets can also be used at small scales, requiring minute volumes of analyte. The use of the constrained droplet method is demonstrated by studying the aggregation of insulin into amyloid fibrils in the solution and at the gas/liquid interface, where proteins are prone to denaturation and subsequent fibrillization. Such an aggregation process is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzhemier's.

  5. The dynamics of folding instability in a constrained Cosserat medium. (United States)

    Gourgiotis, Panos A; Bigoni, Davide


    Different from Cauchy elastic materials, generalized continua, and in particular constrained Cosserat materials, can be designed to possess extreme (near a failure of ellipticity) orthotropy properties and in this way to model folding in a three-dimensional solid. Following this approach, folding, which is a narrow zone of highly localized bending, spontaneously emerges as a deformation pattern occurring in a strongly anisotropic solid. How this peculiar pattern interacts with wave propagation in the time-harmonic domain is revealed through the derivation of an antiplane, infinite-body Green's function, which opens the way to integral techniques for anisotropic constrained Cosserat continua. Viewed as a perturbing agent, the Green's function shows that folding, emerging near a steadily pulsating source in the limit of failure of ellipticity, is transformed into a disturbance with wavefronts parallel to the folding itself. The results of the presented study introduce the possibility of exploiting constrained Cosserat solids for propagating waves in materials displaying origami patterns of deformation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Patterning through instabilities in complex media: theory and applications.' © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Spherical Hamiltonian Monte Carlo for Constrained Target Distributions. (United States)

    Lan, Shiwei; Zhou, Bo; Shahbaba, Babak


    Statistical models with constrained probability distributions are abundant in machine learning. Some examples include regression models with norm constraints (e.g., Lasso), probit models, many copula models, and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) models. Bayesian inference involving probability distributions confined to constrained domains could be quite challenging for commonly used sampling algorithms. For such problems, we propose a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method that provides a general and computationally efficient framework for handling boundary conditions. Our method first maps the D-dimensional constrained domain of parameters to the unit ball [Formula: see text], then augments it to a D-dimensional sphere SD such that the original boundary corresponds to the equator of SD . This way, our method handles the constraints implicitly by moving freely on the sphere generating proposals that remain within boundaries when mapped back to the original space. To improve the computational efficiency of our algorithm, we divide the dynamics into several parts such that the resulting split dynamics has a partial analytical solution as a geodesic flow on the sphere. We apply our method to several examples including truncated Gaussian, Bayesian Lasso, Bayesian bridge regression, and a copula model for identifying synchrony among multiple neurons. Our results show that the proposed method can provide a natural and efficient framework for handling several types of constraints on target distributions.

  7. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.


    Joins are arguably the most important relational operators. Poor implementations are tantamount to computing the Cartesian product of the input relations. In a temporal database, the problem is more acute for two reasons. First, conventional techniques are designed for the evaluation of joins wit...... to implementation, is on non-index-based join algorithms. Such algorithms do not rely on auxiliary access paths but may exploit sort orderings to achieve efficiency......., if any, comparison of the various operators. We then address evaluation algorithms, comparing the applicability of various algorithms to the temporal join operators and describing a performance study involving algorithms for one important operator, the temporal equijoin. Our focus, with respect...

  8. Prior image constrained image reconstruction in emerging computed tomography applications (United States)

    Brunner, Stephen T.

    Advances have been made in computed tomography (CT), especially in the past five years, by incorporating prior images into the image reconstruction process. In this dissertation, we investigate prior image constrained image reconstruction in three emerging CT applications: dual-energy CT, multi-energy photon-counting CT, and cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy. First, we investigate the application of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) in dual-energy CT, which has been called "one of the hottest research areas in CT." Phantom and animal studies are conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice GE Discovery 750 HD CT scanner to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose reduction in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging. Second, we extend the application of PICCS from dual-energy CT to multi-energy photon-counting CT, which has been called "one of the 12 topics in CT to be critical in the next decade." Numerical simulations are conducted to generate multiple energy bin images for a photon-counting CT acquisition and to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose efficiency improvement. Third, we investigate the performance of a newly proposed prior image constrained scatter correction technique to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT, which, when used in image-guided radiation therapy procedures, can assist in patient localization, and potentially, dose verification and adaptive radiation therapy. Phantom studies are conducted using a Varian 2100 EX system with an on-board imager to investigate the extent to which the prior image constrained scatter correction technique can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT. Results show that these prior image constrained image reconstruction techniques can reduce radiation dose in dual-energy CT by 50% in phantom and animal studies in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging, can lead to radiation

  9. Temporal cortex reflects effects of sentence context on phonetic processing. (United States)

    Guediche, Sara; Salvata, Caden; Blumstein, Sheila E


    Listeners' perception of acoustically presented speech is constrained by many different sources of information that arise from other sensory modalities and from more abstract higher-level language context. An open question is how perceptual processes are influenced by and interact with these other sources of information. In this study, we use fMRI to examine the effect of a prior sentence fragment meaning on the categorization of two possible target words that differ in an acoustic phonetic feature of the initial consonant, VOT. Specifically, we manipulate the bias of the sentence context (biased, neutral) and the target type (ambiguous, unambiguous). Our results show that an interaction between these two factors emerged in a cluster in temporal cortex encompassing the left middle temporal gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. The locus and pattern of these interactions support an interactive view of speech processing and suggest that both the quality of the input and the potential bias of the context together interact and modulate neural activation patterns.

  10. Treatment of Temporal Bone Fractures. (United States)

    Diaz, Rodney C; Cervenka, Brian; Brodie, Hilary A


    Traumatic injury to the temporal bone can lead to significant morbidity or mortality and knowledge of the pertinent anatomy, pathophysiology of injury, and appropriate management strategies is critical for successful recovery and rehabilitation of such injured patients. Most temporal bone fractures are caused by motor vehicle accidents. Temporal bone fractures are best classified as either otic capsule sparing or otic capsule disrupting-type fractures, as such classification correlates well with risk of concomitant functional complications. The most common complications of temporal bone fractures are facial nerve injury, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and hearing loss. Assessment of facial nerve function as soon as possible following injury greatly facilitates clinical decision making. Use of prophylactic antibiotics in the setting of CSF leak is controversial; however, following critical analysis and interpretation of the existing classic and contemporary literature, we believe its use is absolutely warranted.

  11. Treatment of Temporal Bone Fractures (United States)

    Diaz, Rodney C.; Cervenka, Brian; Brodie, Hilary A.


    Traumatic injury to the temporal bone can lead to significant morbidity or mortality and knowledge of the pertinent anatomy, pathophysiology of injury, and appropriate management strategies is critical for successful recovery and rehabilitation of such injured patients. Most temporal bone fractures are caused by motor vehicle accidents. Temporal bone fractures are best classified as either otic capsule sparing or otic capsule disrupting-type fractures, as such classification correlates well with risk of concomitant functional complications. The most common complications of temporal bone fractures are facial nerve injury, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and hearing loss. Assessment of facial nerve function as soon as possible following injury greatly facilitates clinical decision making. Use of prophylactic antibiotics in the setting of CSF leak is controversial; however, following critical analysis and interpretation of the existing classic and contemporary literature, we believe its use is absolutely warranted. PMID:27648399

  12. Stereopsis after anterior temporal lobectomy. (United States)

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Decramer, Thomas; van Loon, Johannes; Goffin, Jan; Van Paesschen, Wim; Janssen, Peter; Theys, Tom


    Brain areas critical for stereopsis have been investigated in non-human primates but are largely unknown in the human brain. Microelectrode recordings and functional MRI (fMRI) studies in monkeys have shown that in monkeys the inferior temporal cortex is critically involved in 3D shape categorization. Furthermore, some human fMRI studies similarly suggest an involvement of visual areas in the temporal lobe in depth perception. We aimed to investigate the role of the human anterior temporal neocortex in stereopsis by assessing stereoscopic depth perception before and after anterior temporal lobectomy. Eighteen epilepsy surgery patients were tested, pre- and postoperatively, in 3 different depth discrimination tasks. Sensitivity for local and global disparity was tested in a near-far discrimination task and sensitivity for 3D curvature was assessed in a convex-concave discrimination task, where 3D shapes were presented at different positions in depth. We found no evidence that temporal lobe epilepsy surgery has a significant effect on stereopsis. In contrast with earlier findings, we conclude that local as well as global stereopsis is maintained after unilateral resection of the temporal pole in epilepsy surgery patients. Our findings, together with previous studies, suggest that in humans more posterior visual regions underlie depth perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The grounding of temporal metaphors. (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T; Desai, Rutvik H


    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (The hours crawled until the release of the news) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (The trail crawled until the end of the hills) and literal motion (The caterpillar crawled towards the top of the tree), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus (ITS). These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arthritis. (United States)

    Epperly, T D; Moore, K E; Harrover, J D


    Polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arteritis are closely related inflammatory conditions that affect different cellular targets in genetically predisposed persons. Compared with temporal arteritis, polymyalgla rheumatica is much more common, affecting one in 200 persons older than 50 years. Temporal arteritis, however, is more dangerous and can lead to sudden blindness. The diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica is based on the presence of a clinical syndrome consisting of fever, nonspecific somatic complaints, pain and stiffness in the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Temporal arteritis typically presents with many of the same findings as polymyalgia rheumatica, but patients also have headaches and tenderness to palpation over the involved artery. Arterial biopsy usually confirms the diagnosis of temporal arteritis. Early diagnosis and treatment of polymyalgia rheumatica or temporal arteritis can dramatically improve patients' lives and return them to previous functional status. Corticosteroid therapy provides rapid and dramatic improvement of the clinical features of both conditions. Therapy is generally continued for six to 24 months. Throughout treatment, clinical condition is assessed periodically. Patients are instructed to see their physician immediately if symptoms recur or they develop new headache, jaw claudication or visual problems.

  15. 21 CFR 888.3200 - Finger joint metal/metal constrained uncemented prosthesis. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint metal/metal constrained uncemented... metal/metal constrained uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint metal/metal... Administration on or before December 26, 1996 for any finger joint metal/metal constrained uncemented prosthesis...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3220 - Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented... metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint metal/polymer..., 1996 for any finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis that was in commercial...

  17. Constraining the Sulfur Dioxide Degassing Flux from Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica Using Unmanned Aerial System Measurements (United States)

    Xi, Xin; Johnson, Matthew S.; Jeong, Seongeun; Fladeland, Matthew; Pieri, David; Diaz, Jorge Andres; Bland, Geoffrey L.


    Observed sulfur dioxide (SO2)mixing ratios onboard unmanned aerial systems (UAS) duringMarch 11-13, 2013 are used to constrain the three-day averaged SO2 degassing flux fromTurrialba volcanowithin a Bayesian inverse modeling framework. A mesoscale model coupled with Lagrangian stochastic particle backward trajectories is used to quantify the source-receptor relationships at very high spatial resolutions (i.e., b1 km). The model shows better performance in reproducing the near-surface meteorological properties and observed SO2 variations when using a first-order closure non-local planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme. The optimized SO2 degassing fluxes vary from 0.59 +/- 0.37 to 0.83 +/- 0.33 kt d-1 depending on the PBL scheme used. These fluxes are in good agreement with ground-based gas flux measurements, and correspond to corrective scale factors of 8-12 to the posteruptive SO2 degassing rate in the AeroCom emission inventory. The maximum a posteriori solution for the SO2 flux is highly sensitive to the specification of prior and observational errors, and relatively insensitive to the SO2 loss term and temporal averaging of observations. Our results indicate relatively low degassing activity but sustained sulfur emissions from Turrialba volcano to the troposphere during March 2013. This study demonstrates the utility of low-cost small UAS platforms for volcanic gas composition and flux analysis.

  18. Decline of traditional rice farming constrains the recovery of the endangered Asian crested ibis (Nipponia nippon). (United States)

    Sun, Yiwen; Wang, Tiejun; Skidmore, Andrew K; Wang, Qi; Ding, Changqing


    Traditional agriculture benefits a rich diversity of plants and animals. The winter-flooded rice fields in the Qinling Mountains, China, are the last refuge for the endangered Asian crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), and intensive efforts have been made to protect this anthropogenic habitat. Analyses of multi-temporal satellite data indicate that winter-flooded rice fields have been continuously reduced across the current range of crested ibis during the past two decades. The rate of loss of these fields in the core-protected areas has unexpectedly increased to a higher level than that in non-protected areas in the past decade. The best fit (R (2) = 0.87) numerical response model of the crested ibis population shows that a reduction of winter-flooded rice fields decreases population growth and predicts that the population growth will be constrained by the decline of traditional winter-flooded rice fields in the coming decades. Our findings suggest that the decline of traditional rice farming is likely to continue to pose a threat to the long-term survival and recovery of the crested ibis population in China.

  19. A multiwavelength study of Swift GRB 060111B constraining the origin of its prompt optical emission (United States)

    Stratta, G.; Pozanenko, A.; Atteia, J.-L.; Klotz, A.; Basa, S.; Gendre, B.; Verrecchia, F.; Boër, M.; Cutini, S.; Henze, M.; Holland, S.; Ibrahimov, M.; Ienna, F.; Khamitov, I.; Klose, S.; Rumyantsev, V.; Biryukov, V.; Sharapov, D.; Vachier, F.; Arnouts, S.; Perley, D. A.


    Context: The detection of bright optical emission measured with good temporal resolution during the prompt phase of GRB 060111Bmakes this GRB a rare event that is especially useful for constraining theories of the prompt emission. Aims: For this reason an extended multi-wavelength campaign was performed to further constrain the physical interpretation of the observations. Methods: In this work, we present the results obtained from our multi-wavelength campaign, as well as from the public Swift/BAT, XRT, and UVOT data. Results: We identified the host galaxy at R˜25 mag from deep R-band exposures taken 5 months after the trigger. Its featureless spectrum and brightness, as well as the non-detection of any associated supernova 16 days after the trigger, enabled us to constrain the distance scale of GRB 060111B11 within 0.4≤ z ≤3 in the most conservative case. The host galaxy spectral continuum is best fit with a redshift of z˜2, and other independent estimates converge to z˜1-2. From the analysis of the early afterglow SED, we find that non-negligible host galaxy dust extinction, in addition to the Galactic one, affects the observed flux in the optical regime. The extinction-corrected optical-to-gamma-ray SED during the prompt emission shows a flux density ratio Fγ/F_opt=10-2-10-4 with spectral index βγ,opt > βγ, strongly suggesting a separate origin of the optical and gamma-ray components. This result is supported by the lack of correlated behavior in the prompt emission light curves observed in the two energy domains. The temporal properties of the prompt optical emission observed during GRB 060111B11 and their similarities to other rapidly-observed events favor interpretation of this optical light as radiation from the reverse shock. Observations are in good agreement with theoretical expectations for a thick shell limit in slow cooling regime. The expected peak flux is consistent with the observed one corrected for the host extinction, likely

  20. Constrained dynamics approach for motion synchronization and consensus (United States)

    Bhatia, Divya

    In this research we propose to develop constrained dynamical systems based stable attitude synchronization, consensus and tracking (SCT) control laws for the formation of rigid bodies. The generalized constrained dynamics Equations of Motion (EOM) are developed utilizing constraint potential energy functions that enforce communication constraints. Euler-Lagrange equations are employed to develop the non-linear constrained dynamics of multiple vehicle systems. The constraint potential energy is synthesized based on a graph theoretic formulation of the vehicle-vehicle communication. Constraint stabilization is achieved via Baumgarte's method. The performance of these constrained dynamics based formations is evaluated for bounded control authority. The above method has been applied to various cases and the results have been obtained using MATLAB simulations showing stability, synchronization, consensus and tracking of formations. The first case corresponds to an N-pendulum formation without external disturbances, in which the springs and the dampers connected between the pendulums act as the communication constraints. The damper helps in stabilizing the system by damping the motion whereas the spring acts as a communication link relaying relative position information between two connected pendulums. Lyapunov stabilization (energy based stabilization) technique is employed to depict the attitude stabilization and boundedness. Various scenarios involving different values of springs and dampers are simulated and studied. Motivated by the first case study, we study the formation of N 2-link robotic manipulators. The governing EOM for this system is derived using Euler-Lagrange equations. A generalized set of communication constraints are developed for this system using graph theory. The constraints are stabilized using Baumgarte's techniques. The attitude SCT is established for this system and the results are shown for the special case of three 2-link robotic manipulators

  1. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toemme eNoesselt


    Full Text Available Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic imaging (fMRI. Subjects judged the temporal relation of (asynchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (asynchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects’ perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the ‘auditory’ and ‘visual leading areas’ lie closer to ‘synchrony areas’ than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects’ perception of (asynchrony.

  2. Fast alternating projection methods for constrained tomographic reconstruction. (United States)

    Liu, Li; Han, Yongxin; Jin, Mingwu


    The alternating projection algorithms are easy to implement and effective for large-scale complex optimization problems, such as constrained reconstruction of X-ray computed tomography (CT). A typical method is to use projection onto convex sets (POCS) for data fidelity, nonnegative constraints combined with total variation (TV) minimization (so called TV-POCS) for sparse-view CT reconstruction. However, this type of method relies on empirically selected parameters for satisfactory reconstruction and is generally slow and lack of convergence analysis. In this work, we use a convex feasibility set approach to address the problems associated with TV-POCS and propose a framework using full sequential alternating projections or POCS (FS-POCS) to find the solution in the intersection of convex constraints of bounded TV function, bounded data fidelity error and non-negativity. The rationale behind FS-POCS is that the mathematically optimal solution of the constrained objective function may not be the physically optimal solution. The breakdown of constrained reconstruction into an intersection of several feasible sets can lead to faster convergence and better quantification of reconstruction parameters in a physical meaningful way than that in an empirical way of trial-and-error. In addition, for large-scale optimization problems, first order methods are usually used. Not only is the condition for convergence of gradient-based methods derived, but also a primal-dual hybrid gradient (PDHG) method is used for fast convergence of bounded TV. The newly proposed FS-POCS is evaluated and compared with TV-POCS and another convex feasibility projection method (CPTV) using both digital phantom and pseudo-real CT data to show its superior performance on reconstruction speed, image quality and quantification.

  3. Radiogenic isotopes of arc lavas constrain uplift of the Andes (United States)

    Scott, Erin; Allen, Mark B.; Macpherson, Colin; McCaffrey, Ken; Davidson, Jon; Saville, Christopher


    Orogenic plateaux are an ultimate expression of continental tectonics, but the timings and mechanisms of their formation are far from understood. The elevation history of the Andes is of particular importance for climatic reconstructions, as they pose the only barrier to atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. Many varied techniques have been utilized over the last two decades to constrain Andean Plateau (AP) surface uplift. Two conflicting schools of thought are prominent: (1) recent, rapid rise since 10-6 Ma (Late Miocene), and (2) slow, continued uplift from 40 Ma. We propose a new, independent, approach to constrain AP surface uplift through time. By comparing isotopic compositions of Andean Quaternary arc lavas to present day crustal thickness and topography, we show that Sr and Nd isotopes are effective discriminants for the modern extent of the AP. As previously described, these isotopic systems are sensitive to crustal contamination, which in turn relates to crustal thickness, and, via isostasy, to regional surface elevation. We apply this relationship to a new compilation of published, age corrected, isotopic compositions of arc lavas, to constrain the surface uplift history of the Andes from the Jurassic to present day. Our results are consistent with significant AP surface uplift beginning in the Mid to Late Paleogene. We show that by 23 Ma, the AP was established at close to its modern elevations between at least 16-28 deg. S, thereby predating models for Late Miocene surface uplift. Between 23-10 Ma, surface uplift propagated south of 28 deg. S by a further 400 km. Our model has implications for understanding magma plumbing systems in regions of thick, wide crust, especially other orogenic plateaux.

  4. Constrained motion control on a hemispherical surface: path planning. (United States)

    Berman, Sigal; Liebermann, Dario G; McIntyre, Joseph


    Surface-constrained motion, i.e., motion constraint by a rigid surface, is commonly found in daily activities. The current work investigates the choice of hand paths constrained to a concave hemispherical surface. To gain insight regarding paths and their relationship with task dynamics, we simulated various control policies. The simulations demonstrated that following a geodesic path (the shortest path between 2 points on a sphere) is advantageous not only in terms of path length but also in terms of motor planning and sensitivity to motor command errors. These stem from the fact that the applied forces lie in a single plane (that of the geodesic path). To test whether human subjects indeed follow the geodesic, and to see how such motion compares to other paths, we recorded movements in a virtual haptic-visual environment from 11 healthy subjects. The task comprised point-to-point motion between targets at two elevations (30° and 60°). Three typical choices of paths were observed from a frontal plane projection of the paths: circular arcs, straight lines, and arcs close to the geodesic path for each elevation. Based on the measured hand paths, we applied k-means blind separation to divide the subjects into three groups and compared performance indicators. The analysis confirmed that subjects who followed paths closest to the geodesic produced faster and smoother movements compared with the others. The "better" performance reflects the dynamical advantages of following the geodesic path and may also reflect invariant features of control policies used to produce such a surface-constrained motion.

  5. Domain decomposition in time for PDE-constrained optimization (United States)

    Barker, Andrew T.; Stoll, Martin


    PDE-constrained optimization problems have a wide range of applications, but they lead to very large and ill-conditioned linear systems, especially if the problems are time dependent. In this paper we outline an approach for dealing with such problems by decomposing them in time and applying an additive Schwarz preconditioner in time, so that we can take advantage of parallel computers to deal with the very large linear systems. We then illustrate the performance of our method on a variety of problems.

  6. Constraining axion dark matter with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kfir Blum


    Full Text Available We show that Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN significantly constrains axion-like dark matter. The axion acts like an oscillating QCD θ angle that redshifts in the early Universe, increasing the neutron–proton mass difference at neutron freeze-out. An axion-like particle that couples too strongly to QCD results in the underproduction of He4 during BBN and is thus excluded. The BBN bound overlaps with much of the parameter space that would be covered by proposed searches for a time-varying neutron EDM. The QCD axion does not couple strongly enough to affect BBN.

  7. Constrained optimal duct shapes for conjugate laminar forced convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, T.S.; Torrance, K.E. [Cornell Univ., Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ithaca, NY (United States)


    The complex variable boundary element method (CVBEM) is used to analyse conjugate heat transfer in solids with cooling passages of general, convex cross section. The method is well-suited to duct cross sections with high curvature and high aspect ratios because the whole-domain boundary integrals are path independent and analytic. The effects of channel boundary curvature on overall heat transfer are quantified for the first time. Shape-constrained optimal solutions involving fixed pressure drop and fixed pump work are presented. Increased channel boundary curvature is shown to decrease the optimal distance between parallel channels by increasing fin efficiency. (Author)

  8. Free and constrained expansion of fire ant aggregations (United States)

    Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Anderson, Caleb

    We revisit the classical free and constrained expansion of ideal gases with fire ant aggregations. We use rectangular parallel plates to confine fire ants to two-dimensions and watch how these expand when the plates are horizontal or when these are vertical. In the first case, the ants expand in a rather disorganized fashion, while in the second case, when there is work involved, the expansion is rather organized. The behavior is reminiscent of what is expected from the so called reversible process theorems of classical thermodynamics despite the ant aggregation is intrinsically out of equilibrium. This talk will focus on these results and in related observations in the same experimental setting.

  9. Frequency Constrained ShiftCP Modeling of Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer H.


    The shift invariant multi-linear model based on the CandeComp/PARAFAC (CP) model denoted ShiftCP has proven useful for the modeling of latency changes in trial based neuroimaging data[17]. In order to facilitate component interpretation we presently extend the shiftCP model such that the extracted...... components can be constrained to pertain to predefined frequency ranges such as alpha, beta and gamma activity. To infer the number of components in the model we propose to apply automatic relevance determination by imposing priors that define the range of variation of each component of the shiftCP model...

  10. On the Integrated Job Scheduling and Constrained Network Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    This paper examines the NP-hard problem of scheduling a number of jobs on a finite set of machines such that the overall profit of executed jobs is maximized. Each job demands a number of resources, which must be sent to the executing machine via constrained paths. Furthermore, two resource demand...... transmissions cannot use the same edge in the same time period. An exact solution approach based on Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition is proposed along with several heuristics. The methods are computationally evaluated on test instances arising from telecommunications with up to 500 jobs and 500 machines. Results...

  11. Constrained Optimization and Optimal Control for Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Leugering, Günter; Griewank, Andreas


    This special volume focuses on optimization and control of processes governed by partial differential equations. The contributors are mostly participants of the DFG-priority program 1253: Optimization with PDE-constraints which is active since 2006. The book is organized in sections which cover almost the entire spectrum of modern research in this emerging field. Indeed, even though the field of optimal control and optimization for PDE-constrained problems has undergone a dramatic increase of interest during the last four decades, a full theory for nonlinear problems is still lacking. The cont

  12. Developing e-course Robust Constrained PID Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ťapák


    Full Text Available This paper informs about the latest development of the blended learning course Robust Constrained PID Control and describes in details problems faced in evaluating independent work of students with real time experiments that represent the main element of the applied “learning by doing” and “learning by experimenting” approach. Basic features of the developed system that evaluates consistency of student’s results with the measured experimental data and possibilities of further system expansion to automation of offering to student constructive feedback are discussed. Simultaneously, by comparing all data of the Matlab workspace the developed system serves although as an excellent anti-plagiarism tool.

  13. A Simple SQP Algorithm for Constrained Finite Minimax Problems (United States)


    A simple sequential quadratic programming method is proposed to solve the constrained minimax problem. At each iteration, through introducing an auxiliary variable, the descent direction is given by solving only one quadratic programming. By solving a corresponding quadratic programming, a high-order revised direction is obtained, which can avoid the Maratos effect. Furthermore, under some mild conditions, the global and superlinear convergence of the algorithm is achieved. Finally, some numerical results reported show that the algorithm in this paper is successful. PMID:24683318

  14. Computational Data Modeling for Network-Constrained Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Speicys, L.; Kligys, A.


    Advances in wireless communications, positioning technology, and other hardware technologies combine to enable a range of applications that use a mobile user’s geo-spatial data to deliver online, location-enhanced services, often referred to as location-based services. Assuming that the service...... users are constrained to a transportation network, this paper develops data structures that model road networks, the mobile users, and stationary objects of interest. The proposed framework encompasses two supplementary road network representations, namely a two-dimensional representation and a graph...

  15. Constrained liners for recurrent dislocations in total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, R; Ovesen, O; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, P


    This study reports the results and complications from treating recurrent hip dislocations with a constrained liner (CL) after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Forty patients who had a CL inserted as a secondary prophylactic treatment were retrospectively reviewed after a median observation period...... of 27 months (range 7-77 months). During the observation period five patients had to be revised: one for deep infection and four on account of re-dislocations. Our results indicate that patients with recurrent THA dislocations can be treated with a CL and has a satisfactory low complication rate...... and a relatively low risk of re-dislocation....

  16. Robust stability in constrained predictive control through the Youla parameterisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    In this article we take advantage of the primary and dual Youla parameterisations to set up a soft constrained model predictive control (MPC) scheme. In this framework it is possible to guarantee stability in face of norm-bounded uncertainties. Under special conditions guarantees are also given f...... arguments on the loop consisting of the primary and dual Youla parameter. This is included in the MPC optimisation as a constraint on the induced gain of the optimisation variable. We illustrate the method with a numerical simulation example....

  17. Constrained Task Assignment and Scheduling On Networks of Arbitrary Topology (United States)

    Jackson, Justin Patrick

    This dissertation develops a framework to address centralized and distributed constrained task assignment and task scheduling problems. This framework is used to prove properties of these problems that can be exploited, develop effective solution algorithms, and to prove important properties such as correctness, completeness and optimality. The centralized task assignment and task scheduling problem treated here is expressed as a vehicle routing problem with the goal of optimizing mission time subject to mission constraints on task precedence and agent capability. The algorithm developed to solve this problem is able to coordinate vehicle (agent) timing for task completion. This class of problems is NP-hard and analytical guarantees on solution quality are often unavailable. This dissertation develops a technique for determining solution quality that can be used on a large class of problems and does not rely on traditional analytical guarantees. For distributed problems several agents must communicate to collectively solve a distributed task assignment and task scheduling problem. The distributed task assignment and task scheduling algorithms developed here allow for the optimization of constrained military missions in situations where the communication network may be incomplete and only locally known. Two problems are developed. The distributed task assignment problem incorporates communication constraints that must be satisfied; this is the Communication-Constrained Distributed Assignment Problem. A novel distributed assignment algorithm, the Stochastic Bidding Algorithm, solves this problem. The algorithm is correct, probabilistically complete, and has linear average-case time complexity. The distributed task scheduling problem addressed here is to minimize mission time subject to arbitrary predicate mission constraints; this is the Minimum-time Arbitrarily-constrained Distributed Scheduling Problem. The Optimal Distributed Non-sequential Backtracking Algorithm

  18. Multiple utility constrained multi-objective programs using Bayesian theory (United States)

    Abbasian, Pooneh; Mahdavi-Amiri, Nezam; Fazlollahtabar, Hamed


    A utility function is an important tool for representing a DM's preference. We adjoin utility functions to multi-objective optimization problems. In current studies, usually one utility function is used for each objective function. Situations may arise for a goal to have multiple utility functions. Here, we consider a constrained multi-objective problem with each objective having multiple utility functions. We induce the probability of the utilities for each objective function using Bayesian theory. Illustrative examples considering dependence and independence of variables are worked through to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed model.

  19. Toward Cognitively Constrained Models of Language Processing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Vogelzang


    Full Text Available Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained computational models, which simulate the cognitive processes involved in language processing. The theoretical claims implemented in cognitive models interact with general architectural constraints such as memory limitations. This way, it generates new predictions that can be tested in experiments, thus generating new data that can give rise to new theoretical insights. This theory-model-experiment cycle is a promising method for investigating aspects of language processing that are difficult to investigate with more traditional experimental techniques. This review specifically examines the language processing models of Lewis and Vasishth (2005, Reitter et al. (2011, and Van Rij et al. (2010, all implemented in the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought—Rational (Anderson et al., 2004. These models are all limited by the assumptions about cognitive capacities provided by the cognitive architecture, but use different linguistic approaches. Because of this, their comparison provides insight into the extent to which assumptions about general cognitive resources influence concretely implemented models of linguistic competence. For example, the sheer speed and accuracy of human language processing is a current challenge in the field of cognitive modeling, as it does not seem to adhere to the same memory and processing capacities that have been found in other cognitive processes. Architecture-based cognitive models of language processing may be able to make explicit which language-specific resources are needed to acquire and process natural language. The review sheds light on cognitively constrained models of language processing from two angles: we

  20. Stress-constrained topology optimization for compliant mechanism design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Leon, Daniel M.; Alexandersen, Joe; Jun, Jun S.


    This article presents an application of stress-constrained topology optimization to compliant mechanism design. An output displacement maximization formulation is used, together with the SIMP approach and a projection method to ensure convergence to nearly discrete designs. The maximum stress...... is approximated using a normalized version of the commonly-used p-norm of the effective von Mises stresses. The usual problems associated with topology optimization for compliant mechanism design: one-node and/or intermediate density hinges are alleviated by the stress constraint. However, it is also shown...

  1. Constraining Light-Quark Yukawa Couplings from Higgs Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bishara, Fady


    We propose a novel strategy to constrain the bottom and charm Yukawa couplings by exploiting LHC measurements of transverse momentum distributions in Higgs production. Our method does not rely on the reconstruction of exclusive final states or heavy-flavour tagging. Compared to other proposals it leads to an enhanced sensitivity to the Yukawa couplings due to distortions of the differential Higgs spectra from emissions which either probe quark loops or are associated to quark-initiated production. We derive constraints using data from LHC Run I, and we explore the prospects of our method at future LHC runs. Finally, we comment on the possibility of bounding the strange Yukawa coupling.

  2. Balance of payments constrained growth models: history and overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Thirlwall


    Full Text Available Thirlwall’s 1979 balance of payments constrained growth model predicts that a country’s long run growth of GDP can be approximated by the ratio of the growth of real exports to the income elasticity of demand for imports assuming negligible effects from real exchange rate movements. The paper surveys developments of the model since then, allowing for capital flows, interest payments on debt, terms of trade movements, and disaggregation of the model by commodities and trading partners. Various tests of the model are discussed, and an extensive list of papers that have examined the model is presented.

  3. Steepest-Ascent Constrained Simultaneous Perturbation for Multiobjective Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClary, Dan; Syrotiuk, Violet; Kulahci, Murat


    The simultaneous optimization of multiple responses in a dynamic system is challenging. When a response has a known gradient, it is often easily improved along the path of steepest ascent. On the contrary, a stochastic approximation technique may be used when the gradient is unknown or costly...... that leverages information about the known gradient to constrain the perturbations used to approximate the others. We apply SP(SA)(2) to the cross-layer optimization of throughput, packet loss, and end-to-end delay in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET), a self-organizing wireless network. The results show that SP...

  4. Simulation of Constrained Musculoskeletal Systems in Task Space. (United States)

    Stanev, Dimitar; Moustakas, Konstantinos


    This work proposes an operational task space formalization of constrained musculoskeletal systems, motivated by its promising results in the field of robotics. The change of representation requires different algorithms for solving the inverse and forward dynamics simulation in the task space domain. We propose an extension to the Direct Marker Control and an adaptation of the Computed Muscle Control algorithms for solving the inverse kinematics and muscle redundancy problems respectively. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that this framework is not only successful in dealing with the inverse dynamics problem, but also provides an intuitive way of studying and designing simulations, facilitating assessment prior to any experimental data collection. The incorporation of constraints in the derivation unveils an important extension of this framework towards addressing systems that use absolute coordinates and topologies that contain closed kinematic chains. Task space projection reveals a more intuitive encoding of the motion planning problem, allows for better correspondence between observable and estimated variables, provides the means to effectively study the role of kinematic and dynamic redundancy and, most importantly, offers an abstract point of view and control, which can be advantageous towards further integration with high level models of the precommand level. Task-based approaches could be adopted in the design of simulation related to the study of constrained musculoskeletal systems. This work proposes an operational task space formalization of constrained musculoskeletal systems, motivated by its promising results in the field of robotics. The change of representation requires different algorithms for solving the inverse and forward dynamics simulation in the task space domain. We propose an extension to the Direct Marker Control and an adaptation of the Computed Muscle Control algorithms for solving the inverse kinematics and muscle redundancy problems

  5. Temporal discounting and inter-temporal choice in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Hwang


    Full Text Available Humans and animals are more likely to take an action leading to an immediate reward than actions with delayed rewards of similar magnitudes. Although such devaluation of delayed rewards has been almost universally described by hyperbolic discount functions, the rate of this temporal discounting varies substantially among different animal species. This might be in part due to the differences in how the information about reward is presented to decision makers. In previous animal studies, reward delays or magnitudes were gradually adjusted across trials, so the animals learned the properties of future rewards from the rewards they waited for and consumed previously. In contrast, verbal cues have been used commonly in human studies. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were trained in a novel inter-temporal choice task in which the magnitude and delay of reward were indicated symbolically using visual cues and varied randomly across trials. We found that monkeys could extract the information about reward delays from visual symbols regardless of the number of symbols used to indicate the delay. The rate of temporal discounting observed in the present study was comparable to the previous estimates in other mammals, and the animal’s choice behavior was largely consistent with hyperbolic discounting. Our results also suggest that the rate of temporal discounting might be influenced by contextual factors, such as the novelty of the task. The flexibility furnished by this new inter-temporal choice task might be useful for future neurobiological investigations on inter-temporal choice in non-human primates.

  6. SU-G-BRA-08: Diaphragm Motion Tracking Based On KV CBCT Projections with a Constrained Linear Regression Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J [City College of New York, New York, NY (United States); Chao, M [The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)


    Purpose: To develop a novel strategy to extract the respiratory motion of the thoracic diaphragm from kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections by a constrained linear regression optimization technique. Methods: A parabolic function was identified as the geometric model and was employed to fit the shape of the diaphragm on the CBCT projections. The search was initialized by five manually placed seeds on a pre-selected projection image. Temporal redundancies, the enabling phenomenology in video compression and encoding techniques, inherent in the dynamic properties of the diaphragm motion together with the geometrical shape of the diaphragm boundary and the associated algebraic constraint that significantly reduced the searching space of viable parabolic parameters was integrated, which can be effectively optimized by a constrained linear regression approach on the subsequent projections. The innovative algebraic constraints stipulating the kinetic range of the motion and the spatial constraint preventing any unphysical deviations was able to obtain the optimal contour of the diaphragm with minimal initialization. The algorithm was assessed by a fluoroscopic movie acquired at anteriorposterior fixed direction and kilovoltage CBCT projection image sets from four lung and two liver patients. The automatic tracing by the proposed algorithm and manual tracking by a human operator were compared in both space and frequency domains. Results: The error between the estimated and manual detections for the fluoroscopic movie was 0.54mm with standard deviation (SD) of 0.45mm, while the average error for the CBCT projections was 0.79mm with SD of 0.64mm for all enrolled patients. The submillimeter accuracy outcome exhibits the promise of the proposed constrained linear regression approach to track the diaphragm motion on rotational projection images. Conclusion: The new algorithm will provide a potential solution to rendering diaphragm motion and ultimately

  7. Temporal Ventriloquism in Sensorimotor Synchronization (United States)

    Parker, Melody Kay

    Perception of time is multisensory and therefore requires integration of the auditory and visual systems. Temporal ventriloquism is a phenomenon in which discrepant temporal aspects of multisensory stimuli are resolved through auditory dominance. Numerous prior experiments have demonstrated temporal ventriloquism using simple flash and click stimuli. The experiment presented herein employed a sensorimotor synchronization task to examine the effect of visual stimulus type across a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA). This study compared sensorimotor response to three visual stimuli: a flash, a baton swinging, and a mallet striking a block. The results of the experiment indicated that the influence of SOA was greatly dependent on stimulus type. In contrast with the transient flash stimulus, the oscillatory visual stimuli provided more spatiotemporal information. This could explain the significantly reduced effect of temporal ventriloquism observed in response to the baton and mallet relative to the flash. Multisensory integration did not absolutely bias the auditory system; predictive visual dynamics proved useful in the unified perception of temporal occurrence.

  8. Envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Tôrres das Neves

    Full Text Available O presente artigo faz uma revisão breve da literatura sobre envelhecimento auditivo, abordando os estudos sobre o envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo, especificamente, estudos sobre detecção de interrupções em sons, por sujeitos adultos de mais idade. São apresentadas definições e descrições da presbiacusia, suas conseqüências, e sua prevalência. São descritos os procedimentos experimentais para estudo de processamento temporal envolvendo a detecção de interrupções em ruídos com faixas amplas de freqüência, a discriminação de sons com reversão temporal, a detecção de mudanças na amplitude de sons, a detecção de interrupções em sons com faixas estreitas de freqüências, a detecção de diferenças de duração entre dois estímulos, bem como a discriminação da ordem temporal de diferentes canais de freqüência componentes de tons complexos. São revisados, adicionalmente, estudos que descrevem as características psicofísicas do processamento auditivo temporal em idosos. Finalmente, são apresentadas sugestões sobre direções futuras para pesquisa.

  9. Envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Vera Tôrres das


    Full Text Available O presente artigo faz uma revisão breve da literatura sobre envelhecimento auditivo, abordando os estudos sobre o envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo, especificamente, estudos sobre detecção de interrupções em sons, por sujeitos adultos de mais idade. São apresentadas definições e descrições da presbiacusia, suas conseqüências, e sua prevalência. São descritos os procedimentos experimentais para estudo de processamento temporal envolvendo a detecção de interrupções em ruídos com faixas amplas de freqüência, a discriminação de sons com reversão temporal, a detecção de mudanças na amplitude de sons, a detecção de interrupções em sons com faixas estreitas de freqüências, a detecção de diferenças de duração entre dois estímulos, bem como a discriminação da ordem temporal de diferentes canais de freqüência componentes de tons complexos. São revisados, adicionalmente, estudos que descrevem as características psicofísicas do processamento auditivo temporal em idosos. Finalmente, são apresentadas sugestões sobre direções futuras para pesquisa.

  10. Exploring the Metabolic and Perceptual Correlates of Self-Selected Walking Speed under Constrained and Un-Constrained Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Godsiff, Shelly Coe, Charlotte Elsworth-Edelsten, Johnny Collett, Ken Howells, Martyn Morris, Helen Dawes


    Full Text Available Mechanisms underpinning self-selected walking speed (SSWS are poorly understood. The present study investigated the extent to which SSWS is related to metabolism, energy cost, and/or perceptual parameters during both normal and artificially constrained walking. Fourteen participants with no pathology affecting gait were tested under standard conditions. Subjects walked on a motorized treadmill at speeds derived from their SSWS as a continuous protocol. RPE scores (CR10 and expired air to calculate energy cost ( and carbohydrate (CHO oxidation rate ( were collected during minutes 3-4 at each speed. Eight individuals were re-tested under the same conditions within one week with a hip and knee-brace to immobilize their right leg. Deflection in RPE scores (CR10 and CHO oxidation rate ( were not related to SSWS (five and three people had deflections in the defined range of SSWS in constrained and unconstrained conditions, respectively (p > 0.05. Constrained walking elicited a higher energy cost ( and slower SSWS (p 0.05. SSWS did not occur at a minimum energy cost ( in either condition, however, the size of the minimum energy cost to SSWS disparity was the same (Froude {Fr} = 0.09 in both conditions (p = 0.36. Perceptions of exertion can modify walking patterns and therefore SSWS and metabolism/ energy cost are not directly related. Strategies which minimize perceived exertion may enable faster walking in people with altered gait as our findings indicate they should self-optimize to the same extent under different conditions.

  11. Autonomous Navigation with Constrained Consistency for C-Ranger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Zhang


    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs have become the most widely used tools for undertaking complex exploration tasks in marine environments. Their synthetic ability to carry out localization autonomously and build an environmental map concurrently, in other words, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, are considered to be pivotal requirements for AUVs to have truly autonomous navigation. However, the consistency problem of the SLAM system has been greatly ignored during the past decades. In this paper, a consistency constrained extended Kalman filter (EKF SLAM algorithm, applying the idea of local consistency, is proposed and applied to the autonomous navigation of the C-Ranger AUV, which is developed as our experimental platform. The concept of local consistency (LC is introduced after an explicit theoretical derivation of the EKF-SLAM system. Then, we present a locally consistency-constrained EKF-SLAM design, LC-EKF, in which the landmark estimates used for linearization are fixed at the beginning of each local time period, rather than evaluated at the latest landmark estimates. Finally, our proposed LC-EKF algorithm is experimentally verified, both in simulations and sea trials. The experimental results show that the LC-EKF performs well with regard to consistency, accuracy and computational efficiency.

  12. Lilith: a tool for constraining new physics from Higgs measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernon, Jeremy [Universite Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Dumont, Beranger [Universite Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The properties of the observed Higgs boson with mass around 125 GeV can be affected in a variety of ways by new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The wealth of experimental results, targeting the different combinations for the production and decay of a Higgs boson, makes it a non-trivial task to assess the compatibility of a non-SM-like Higgs boson with all available results. In this paper we present Lilith, a new public tool for constraining new physics from signal strength measurements performed at the LHC and the Tevatron. Lilith is a Python library that can also be used in C and C++/ROOT programs. The Higgs likelihood is based on experimental results stored in an easily extensible XML database, and is evaluated from the user input, given in XML format in terms of reduced couplings or signal strengths.The results of Lilith can be used to constrain a wide class of new physics scenarios. (orig.)

  13. Hummingbird: Ultra-Lightweight Cryptography for Resource-Constrained Devices (United States)

    Engels, Daniel; Fan, Xinxin; Gong, Guang; Hu, Honggang; Smith, Eric M.

    Due to the tight cost and constrained resources of high-volume consumer devices such as RFID tags, smart cards and wireless sensor nodes, it is desirable to employ lightweight and specialized cryptographic primitives for many security applications. Motivated by the design of the well-known Enigma machine, we present a novel ultra-lightweight cryptographic algorithm, referred to as Hummingbird, for resource-constrained devices in this paper. Hummingbird can provide the designed security with small block size and is resistant to the most common attacks such as linear and differential cryptanalysis. Furthermore, we also present efficient software implementation of Hummingbird on the 8-bit microcontroller ATmega128L from Atmel and the 16-bit microcontroller MSP430 from Texas Instruments, respectively. Our experimental results show that after a system initialization phase Hummingbird can achieve up to 147 and 4.7 times faster throughput for a size-optimized and a speed-optimized implementations, respectively, when compared to the state-of-the-art ultra-lightweight block cipher PRESENT[10] on the similar platforms.

  14. Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Trucco


    Full Text Available For linear arrays with fixed steering and an inter-element spacing smaller than one half of the wavelength, end-fire steering of a data-independent beamformer offers better directivity than broadside steering. The introduction of a lower bound on the white noise gain ensures the necessary robustness against random array errors and sensor mismatches. However, the optimum broadside performance can be obtained using a simple processing architecture, whereas the optimum end-fire performance requires a more complicated system (because complex weight coefficients are needed. In this paper, we reconsider the oversteering technique as a possible way to simplify the processing architecture of equally spaced end-fire arrays. We propose a method for computing the amount of oversteering and the related real-valued weight vector that allows the constrained directivity to be maximized for a given inter-element spacing. Moreover, we verify that the maximized oversteering performance is very close to the optimum end-fire performance. We conclude that optimized oversteering is a viable method for designing end-fire arrays that have better constrained directivity than broadside arrays but with a similar implementation complexity. A numerical simulation is used to perform a statistical analysis, which confirms that the maximized oversteering performance is robust against sensor mismatches.

  15. Constraining Factors in Hungarian Carp Farming: An Econometric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergő Gyalog


    Full Text Available Although carp farming had a key role in the Blue Revolution at a global level, European carp aquaculture has stagnated over the past 25 years without achieving any productivity gains. The objective of this study was to identify the factors and mechanisms constraining production and productivity growth in pond-based carp farming in Hungary, as the country is a good representative of the EU pond-based farming sector. By using data from 44 carp farms, different specifications of the Cobb-Douglas production function were parameterized to investigate the determinants of yields and to assess the extent of economies of scale. Descriptive statistics show that large differences exist in productivity between individual farms, meaning that it is hard to implement technical standards and to ensure repeatability in extensive carp farming technology. Econometric analysis demonstrates that economies of scale do not prevail in pond-based farming in Hungary, so a concentration of farms would not stimulate a growth in carp farming. This may explain the stagnation of carp aquaculture, as the only European aquaculture segments which can grow are those that can exploit economies of scale. Further analysis demonstrates that labour is an important factor of production, and a decreasing workforce may constrain the intensification process of production. On the other hand, mechanisation did not prove to be a significant contributing factor to yields, indicating that large investment in equipment has a limited role in carp farming.

  16. Integrated radar-photometry sensor based on constrained optical flow (United States)

    Fablet, Youenn; Agam, Gady; Cohen, Paul


    Robotic teleoperation is a major research area with numerous applications. Efficient teleoperation, however, greatly depends on the provided sensory information. In this paper, an integrated radar- photometry sensor is presented. The developed sensor relies on the strengths of the two main modalties: robust radar-based range data, and high resolution dynamic photometric imaging. While radar data has low resolution and depth from motion in photometric images is susceptible to poor visibility conditions, the integrated sensor compensates for the flaws of the individual components. The integration of the two modalities is achieved by us ing the radar based range data in order to constrain the optical flow estimation, and fusing the resulting depth maps. The optical flow computation is constrained by a model flow field based upon the radar data, by using a rigidity constraint, and by incorporating edge information into the optical flow estimation. The data fusion is based upon a confidence estimation of the image based depth computation. Results with simulated data demonstrate the good potential of the approach.

  17. Multiplicative algorithms for constrained non-negative matrix factorization

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin


    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) provides the advantage of parts-based data representation through additive only combinations. It has been widely adopted in areas like item recommending, text mining, data clustering, speech denoising, etc. In this paper, we provide an algorithm that allows the factorization to have linear or approximatly linear constraints with respect to each factor. We prove that if the constraint function is linear, algorithms within our multiplicative framework will converge. This theory supports a large variety of equality and inequality constraints, and can facilitate application of NMF to a much larger domain. Taking the recommender system as an example, we demonstrate how a specialized weighted and constrained NMF algorithm can be developed to fit exactly for the problem, and the tests justify that our constraints improve the performance for both weighted and unweighted NMF algorithms under several different metrics. In particular, on the Movielens data with 94% of items, the Constrained NMF improves recall rate 3% compared to SVD50 and 45% compared to SVD150, which were reported as the best two in the top-N metric. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Mixed-Integer Constrained Optimization Based on Memetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lin


    Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms (EAs are population-based global search methods. They have been successfully applied tomany complex optimization problems. However, EAs are frequently incapable of finding a convergence solution indefault of local search mechanisms. Memetic Algorithms (MAs are hybrid EAs that combine genetic operators withlocal search methods. With global exploration and local exploitation in search space, MAs are capable of obtainingmore high-quality solutions. On the other hand, mixed-integer hybrid differential evolution (MIHDE, as an EA-basedsearch algorithm, has been successfully applied to many mixed-integer optimization problems. In this paper, amemetic algorithm based on MIHDE is developed for solving mixed-integer optimization problems. However, most ofreal-world mixed-integer optimization problems frequently consist of equality and/or inequality constraints. In order toeffectively handle constraints, an evolutionary Lagrange method based on memetic algorithm is developed to solvethe mixed-integer constrained optimization problems. The proposed algorithm is implemented and tested on twobenchmark mixed-integer constrained optimization problems. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithmcan find better optimal solutions compared with some other search algorithms. Therefore, it implies that the proposedmemetic algorithm is a good approach to mixed-integer optimization problems.

  19. Mixed-Integer Constrained Optimization Based on Memetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C. Lin


    Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms (EAs are population-based global search methods. They have been successfully applied to many complex optimization problems. However, EAs are frequently incapable of finding a convergence solution in default of local search mechanisms. Memetic Algorithms (MAs are hybrid EAs that combine genetic operators with local search methods. With global exploration and local exploitation in search space, MAs are capable of obtaining more high-quality solutions. On the other hand, mixed-integer hybrid differential evolution (MIHDE, as an EA-based search algorithm, has been successfully applied to many mixed-integer optimization problems. In this paper, a memetic algorithm based on MIHDE is developed for solving mixed-integer optimization problems. However, most of real-world mixed-integer optimization problems frequently consist of equality and/or inequality constraints. In order to effectively handle constraints, an evolutionary Lagrange method based on memetic algorithm is developed to solve the mixed-integer constrained optimization problems. The proposed algorithm is implemented and tested on two benchmark mixed-integer constrained optimization problems. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can find better optimal solutions compared with some other search algorithms. Therefore, it implies that the proposed memetic algorithm is a good approach to mixed-integer optimization problems.

  20. Constraining cosmological ultralarge scale structure using numerical relativity (United States)

    Braden, Jonathan; Johnson, Matthew C.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Aguirre, Anthony


    Cosmic inflation, a period of accelerated expansion in the early universe, can give rise to large amplitude ultralarge scale inhomogeneities on distance scales comparable to or larger than the observable universe. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy on the largest angular scales is sensitive to such inhomogeneities and can be used to constrain the presence of ultralarge scale structure (ULSS). We numerically evolve nonlinear inhomogeneities present at the beginning of inflation in full general relativity to assess the CMB quadrupole constraint on the amplitude of the initial fluctuations and the size of the observable universe relative to a length scale characterizing the ULSS. To obtain a statistically meaningful ensemble of simulations, we adopt a toy model in which inhomogeneities are injected along a preferred direction. We compute the likelihood function for the CMB quadrupole including both ULSS and the standard quantum fluctuations produced during inflation. We compute the posterior given the observed CMB quadrupole, finding that when including gravitational nonlinearities, ULSS curvature perturbations of order unity are allowed by the data, even on length scales not too much larger than the size of the observable universe. To demonstrate the robustness of our conclusions, we also explore a semianalytic model for the ULSS which reproduces our numerical results for the case of planar symmetry, and which can be extended to ULSS with a three-dimensional inhomogeneity structure. Our results illustrate the utility and importance of numerical relativity for constraining early universe cosmology.

  1. Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Detection Using Constrained GMM and Curve Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Freifeld


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the detection and segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis (MS lesions in magnetic resonance (MRI brain images. To capture the complex tissue spatial layout, a probabilistic model termed Constrained Gaussian Mixture Model (CGMM is proposed based on a mixture of multiple spatially oriented Gaussians per tissue. The intensity of a tissue is considered a global parameter and is constrained, by a parameter-tying scheme, to be the same value for the entire set of Gaussians that are related to the same tissue. MS lesions are identified as outlier Gaussian components and are grouped to form a new class in addition to the healthy tissue classes. A probability-based curve evolution technique is used to refine the delineation of lesion boundaries. The proposed CGMM-CE algorithm is used to segment 3D MRI brain images with an arbitrary number of channels. The CGMM-CE algorithm is automated and does not require an atlas for initialization or parameter learning. Experimental results on both standard brain MRI simulation data and real data indicate that the proposed method outperforms previously suggested approaches, especially for highly noisy data.

  2. Chance constrained compromise mixed allocation in multivariate stratified sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummatul Fatima


    Full Text Available Consider a multivariate stratified population with  strata and  characteristics. Let the estimation of the population means be of interest. In such cases the traditional individual optimum allocations may differ widely from characteristic to characteristic and there will be no obvious compromise between them unless they are highly correlated. As a result there does not exist a single set of allocations  that can be practically implemented on all characteristics. Assuming the characteristics independent many authors worked out allocations based on different compromise criterion such allocations are called compromise allocation. These allocations are optimum for all characteristics in some sense. Ahsan et al. (2005 introduced the concept of ‘Mixed allocation’ in univariate stratified sampling. Later on Varshney et al. (2011 extended it for multivariate case and called it a ‘Compromise Mixed Allocation’. Ahsan et al. (2013 worked on mixed allocation in stratified sampling by using the ‘Chance Constrained Programming Technique’, that allows the cost constraint to be violated by a specified small probability. This paper presents a more realistic approach to the compromise mixed allocation by formulating the problem as a Chance Constrained Nonlinear Programming Problem in which the per unit measurement costs in various strata are random variables. The application of this approach is exhibited through a numerical example assuming normal distributions of the random parameters.

  3. Characterizing constraining forces in the alignment phase of orthodontic treatment. (United States)

    Gibson, Christopher G; Lin, Feng-Chang; Phillips, Ceib; Edelman, Alex; Ko, Ching-Chang


    To describe the frictional forces (FF) that constrain wire sliding in the initial alignment phase of treatment using a new term, the "constraining force" (CF), and to hypothesize that CF is dependent on two factors: the hyperelastic behavior of archwires and the specific type of tooth geometric malalignment present. A laboratory device that simulates the four distinct malalignment types (in-out, rotation, tipping, and vertical step) was used to couple with an Instron testing apparatus. Incremental CF data for the four types of malalignment were recorded. Each type had five trials per increment of severity, from which the CF was averaged using 0.016-inch copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) archwires. Two types of friction curves were obtained: a traditional step function response and a power regression response. For all malalignment types, increasing degrees of irregularity increased power regression responses and CF. A severity turning point, displayed as a sudden increase in CF, occurred for each malalignment. The rotation type of malalignment yielded the lowest CF, while the vertical step type resulted in the highest CF. The data infer a hypothesis that malrotation type having weak CF might act as a limiting factor in the alignment phase to unravel the neighboring teeth. Future investigations to compare clinical and bench data can help explain more fully the constraints impeding alignment resolution and the factors governing the ability to bring malaligned teeth into alignment.

  4. Constraining annihilating dark matter by x-ray data (United States)

    Chan, Man Ho


    In the past decade, gamma-ray observations and radio observations put strong constraints on the parameters of dark matter annihilation. In this article, we suggest another robust way to constrain the parameters of dark matter annihilation. We expect that the electrons and positrons produced from dark matter annihilation would scatter with the cosmic microwave background photons and boost the photon energy to ˜ keV order. Based on the x-ray data from the Draco dwarf galaxy, the new constraints for some of the annihilation channels are generally tighter than the constraints obtained from 6 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) gamma-ray observations of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies. The lower limits of dark matter mass annihilating via e+e-, μ+μ-, τ+τ-, gg, u\\bar{u} and b\\bar{b} channels are 40 GeV, 28 GeV, 30 GeV, 57 GeV, 58 GeV and 66 GeV respectively with the canonical thermal relic cross section. This method is particularly useful to constrain dark matter annihilating via e+e-, μ+μ-, gg, u\\bar{u} and b\\bar{b} channels.

  5. Applying Atmospheric Measurements to Constrain Parameters of Terrestrial Source Models (United States)

    Hyer, E. J.; Kasischke, E. S.; Allen, D. J.


    Quantitative inversions of atmospheric measurements have been widely applied to constrain atmospheric budgets of a range of trace gases. Experiments of this type have revealed persistent discrepancies between 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' estimates of source magnitudes. The most common atmospheric inversion uses the absolute magnitude as the sole parameter for each source, and returns the optimal value of that parameter. In order for atmospheric measurements to be useful for improving 'bottom-up' models of terrestrial sources, information about other properties of the sources must be extracted. As the density and quality of atmospheric trace gas measurements improve, examination of higher-order properties of trace gas sources should become possible. Our model of boreal forest fire emissions is parameterized to permit flexible examination of the key uncertainties in this source. Using output from this model together with the UM CTM, we examined the sensitivity of CO concentration measurements made by the MOPITT instrument to various uncertainties in the boreal source: geographic distribution of burned area, fire type (crown fires vs. surface fires), and fuel consumption in above-ground and ground-layer fuels. Our results indicate that carefully designed inversion experiments have the potential to help constrain not only the absolute magnitudes of terrestrial sources, but also the key uncertainties associated with 'bottom-up' estimates of those sources.

  6. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks. (United States)

    Sampangi, Raghav V; Sampalli, Srinivas


    Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG), and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis.

  7. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav V. Sampangi


    Full Text Available Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG, and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis.

  8. A Collective Neurodynamic Approach to Constrained Global Optimization. (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Fan, Jianchao; Wang, Jun


    Global optimization is a long-lasting research topic in the field of optimization, posting many challenging theoretic and computational issues. This paper presents a novel collective neurodynamic method for solving constrained global optimization problems. At first, a one-layer recurrent neural network (RNN) is presented for searching the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker points of the optimization problem under study. Next, a collective neuroydnamic optimization approach is developed by emulating the paradigm of brainstorming. Multiple RNNs are exploited cooperatively to search for the global optimal solutions in a framework of particle swarm optimization. Each RNN carries out a precise local search and converges to a candidate solution according to its own neurodynamics. The neuronal state of each neural network is repetitively reset by exchanging historical information of each individual network and the entire group. Wavelet mutation is performed to avoid prematurity, add diversity, and promote global convergence. It is proved in the framework of stochastic optimization that the proposed collective neurodynamic approach is capable of computing the global optimal solutions with probability one provided that a sufficiently large number of neural networks are utilized. The essence of the collective neurodynamic optimization approach lies in its potential to solve constrained global optimization problems in real time. The effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed approach are illustrated by using benchmark optimization problems.

  9. Hybrid Biogeography Based Optimization for Constrained Numerical and Engineering Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengqiang Mi


    Full Text Available Biogeography based optimization (BBO is a new competitive population-based algorithm inspired by biogeography. It simulates the migration of species in nature to share information. A new hybrid BBO (HBBO is presented in the paper for constrained optimization. By combining differential evolution (DE mutation operator with simulated binary crosser (SBX of genetic algorithms (GAs reasonably, a new mutation operator is proposed to generate promising solution instead of the random mutation in basic BBO. In addition, DE mutation is still integrated to update one half of population to further lead the evolution towards the global optimum and the chaotic search is introduced to improve the diversity of population. HBBO is tested on twelve benchmark functions and four engineering optimization problems. Experimental results demonstrate that HBBO is effective and efficient for constrained optimization and in contrast with other state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms (EAs, the performance of HBBO is better, or at least comparable in terms of the quality of the final solutions and computational cost. Furthermore, the influence of the maximum mutation rate is also investigated.

  10. Constrained low-rank gamut completion for robust illumination estimation (United States)

    Zhou, Jianshen; Yuan, Jiazheng; Liu, Hongzhe


    Illumination estimation is an important component of color constancy and automatic white balancing. According to recent survey and evaluation work, the supervised methods with a learning phase are competitive for illumination estimation. However, the robustness and performance of any supervised algorithm suffer from an incomplete gamut in training image sets because of limited reflectance surfaces in a scene. In order to address this problem, we present a constrained low-rank gamut completion algorithm, which can replenish gamut from limited surfaces in an image, for robust illumination estimation. In the proposed algorithm, we first discuss why the gamut completion is actually a low-rank matrix completion problem. Then a constrained low-rank matrix completion framework is proposed by adding illumination similarities among the training images as an additional constraint. An optimization algorithm is also given out by extending the augmented Lagrange multipliers. Finally, the completed gamut based on the proposed algorithm is fed into the support vector regression (SVR)-based illumination estimation method to evaluate the effect of gamut completion. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world image sets show that the proposed gamut completion model not only can effectively improve the performance of the original SVR method but is also robust to the surface insufficiency in training samples.

  11. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.


    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  12. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Nickels


    Full Text Available The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome.

  13. SILAC-Based Temporal Phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francavilla, Chiara; Hekmat, Omid; Blagoev, Blagoy


    In recent years, thanks to advances in Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics, studies on signaling pathways have moved from a detailed description of individual components to system-wide analysis of entire signaling cascades, also providing spatio-temporal views of intracellular...... tyrosines by immunoaffinity and then further enriched for phosphorylated serine/threonine peptides by strong cation exchange in combination with titanium dioxide-beads chromatography. Analysis of enriched peptides on Orbitrap-based MS results in comprehensive and accurate reconstruction of temporal changes...... signaling events. Here we provide an optimized SILAC-based proteomic workflow to analyze temporal changes in phosphoproteomes, which involve a generic three step enrichment protocol for phosphopeptides. SILAC-labeled peptides from digested whole cell lysates are as a first step enriched for phosphorylated...

  14. [Temporal orientation and cognitive impairment]. (United States)

    Fernandez-Turrado, T; Pascual-Millan, L F; Aguilar-Palacio, I; Burriel-Rosello, A; Santolaria-Martinez, L; Perez-Lazaro, C


    Temporal orientation is a component of most screening tests for diagnosing cognitive impairment. Correct temporal orientation involves activating both semantic information (concepts of the calendar date) and episodic information (remembering the current date). The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of a technique for evaluating temporal orientation, which was open-ended, and scoring the semantic and episodic information thus generated (0-10 points). A total of 24 subjects without impairment, 77 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 62 patients with dementia were evaluated by means of a 30-point mini-mental/mini-examination, semantic verbal fluency test, global deterioration scale, mini-mental-type temporal orientation and open-ended temporal orientation tests. The areas under the curve (aROC), sensitivity and specificity for dementia and cognitive impairment at any degree (MCI and dementia) were analysed. Open-ended temporal orientation presented a greater area under the curve (aROC: 0.90) for discrimination between patients with dementia and without dementia (MCI and without impairment) and an aROC of 0.83 for discrimination between patients with MCI or dementia and without impairment. For dementia, with a cut-off point equal to or below 6, sensitivity was 0.96 and specificity was 0.68, and for MCI with dementia, with a cut-off point equal to or below 7, sensitivity was 0.72 and specificity was 0.92. The usefulness, conciseness and strategic position of this technique in examining mental status make it suitable as an instrument for screening for cognitive impairment. It has a high level of sensitivity with low specificity for dementia and low sensitivity with high specificity for any degree of impairment.

  15. Optical noise and temporal coherence (United States)

    Chavel, P.


    Previous articles have been devoted to the study of optical noise as a function of spatial coherence. The present one completes this study by considering temporal coherence. Noise arising from defects in the pupil plane and affecting the high spatial frequencies of an image is notably reduced by white-light illumination. Temporal coherence has little effect on noise arising from defects in the object plane. However, impulse noise due to small isolated defects is reduced in size. Physical arguments are presented to explain these phenomena and a mathematical study of partially coherent imaging in the presence of random defects is given.

  16. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger


    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...... in this work. As the academic abilities of students evolve during their studies, so does their writing style. These changes in writing style form a type of temporal context, which we study for the authorship attribution process by focussing on the students’ more recent writing samples. Experiments with real...

  17. Emotions are temporal interpersonal systems. (United States)

    Butler, Emily A


    Several characteristics of emotions are that they: first, evolve dynamically over time, second, extend beyond the individual to incorporate multiple people, and third, function as a system. In other words, emotions can be seen as temporal interpersonal systems. This review summarizes current models for temporal interpersonal emotion systems (TIES), evidence they matter beyond levels of emotional responding, their connections with relationship quality and interpersonal regulation, and some of the challenges for studying them. Important directions for future research include distinguishing between different patterns of interpersonal emotional dynamics and extending theory and experimental work to uncover mechanisms for altering harmful TIES and promoting beneficial ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Temporal hypometabolism at the onset of cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheja, P.; Kuwert, T.; Weckesser, M.; Schober, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Luedemann, P.; Kellinghaus, C.; Diehl, B.; Ringelstein, E.B. [Dept. of Neurology, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Schuierer, G. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Muenster Univ. (Germany)


    Most patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) exhibit temporal glucose hypometabolism. The reasons for the development of this abnormality are as yet unclear. The current notion is that an initial injury causes seizures, which in turn give rise to hypometabolism. The aim of this study was to assess whether temporal reductions in glucose metabolism in non-lesional TLE are the result of repeated seizures or whether hypometabolism represents an initial disturbance at the onset of disease. Glucose consumption was assessed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) in 62 patients with cryptogenic non-refractory TLE in different stages of disease. Twelve subjects without neurological illness served as controls. Patients with onset of epilepsy at least 3 years prior to the PET scan were defined as having chronic TLE. Using this criterion, the whole patient cohort included 27 patients with de novo TLE and 35 patients with chronic TLE. The groups were matched for age and sex. The appearance of high-resolution magnetic resonance images of the brain was unremarkable in all patients. In the total cohort, number, duration and frequency of seizures had a significant relation to the magnitude of hypometabolism. Temporal hypometabolism was exhibited by 26 of the 62 patients (42%), including 8 out of 27 (30%) with newly diagnosed TLE and 18 out of 35 (51%) with chronic TLE. The disturbances were more extensive and more severe in patients with chronic TLE. It is concluded that temporal hypometabolism may already be present at the onset of TLE, but is less frequent and less severe in newly diagnosed than in chronic TLE. The metabolic disturbance correlates with the number of seizures. These findings suggest that an initial dysfunction is present in a considerable number of patients and that hypometabolism is worsened by continuing epileptic activity. (orig.)

  19. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus. (United States)

    Noesselt, Tömme; Bergmann, Daniel; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas; Spence, Charles


    Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects judged the temporal relation of (a)synchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c) and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (a)synchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects' perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the "auditory leading (A(L))" and "visual leading (V(L)) areas" lie closer to "synchrony areas" than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects' perception of (a)synchrony.

  20. Constraining model parameters on remotely sensed evaporation: justification for distribution in ungauged basins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Winsemius


    Full Text Available In this study, land surface related parameter distributions of a conceptual semi-distributed hydrological model are constrained by employing time series of satellite-based evaporation estimates during the dry season as explanatory information. The approach has been applied to the ungauged Luangwa river basin (150 000 (km2 in Zambia. The information contained in these evaporation estimates imposes compliance of the model with the largest outgoing water balance term, evaporation, and a spatially and temporally realistic depletion of soil moisture within the dry season. The model results in turn provide a better understanding of the information density of remotely sensed evaporation. Model parameters to which evaporation is sensitive, have been spatially distributed on the basis of dominant land cover characteristics. Consequently, their values were conditioned by means of Monte-Carlo sampling and evaluation on satellite evaporation estimates. The results show that behavioural parameter sets for model units with similar land cover are indeed clustered. The clustering reveals hydrologically meaningful signatures in the parameter response surface: wetland-dominated areas (also called dambos show optimal parameter ranges that reflect vegetation with a relatively small unsaturated zone (due to the shallow rooting depth of the vegetation which is easily moisture stressed. The forested areas and highlands show parameter ranges that indicate a much deeper root zone which is more drought resistent. Clustering was consequently used to formulate fuzzy membership functions that can be used to constrain parameter realizations in further calibration. Unrealistic parameter ranges, found for instance in the high unsaturated soil zone values in the highlands may indicate either overestimation of satellite-based evaporation or model structural deficiencies. We believe that in these areas, groundwater uptake into the root zone and lateral movement of

  1. A Tightly Constrained Composition Model of Earth's Core (United States)

    Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Guyot, F.


    We measure compressional sound velocities in light-element alloys of iron (FeO, FeSi, FeS, and FeS2) at high pressure in the diamond anvil cell. Combining this data set with pressure-density (equation of state) systematics, and constraining them with radial seismic models, we propose an average composition model of Earth's inner core that matches both the seismically observed densities and compressional sound speeds. We show that sulphur cannot be the only light alloying element in the core, because it cannot satisfy all at once the needed density, sound velocity, and abundance (from cosmochemical models). On the other hand, the incorporation of silicon or oxygen is compatible with geophysical observations and geochemical abundances. We therefore propose a preferred model, where the inner core contains 2.3 wt% silicon and traces of oxygen, whereas the outer core contains 5.3 wt% oxygen and 2.8 wt% silicon. Our model is in excellent agreement with recent high-pressure silicon solubility data in molten iron. Our model's oxygen-content in the outer core is constrained by high-pressure oxygen solubility data in molten iron. Our compositional model is constrained by seismology, petrology, and mineral physics. Using existing solubility data, we can infer a range of equilibration parameters that provide as many constraints to the pressure- temperature conditions as well as the depth at the base of the magma ocean during core formation. References N. Takafuji, K. Hirose, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, Solubilities of O and Si in liquid iron in equilibrium with (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite and the light elements in the core, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32 (2005). T. Sakai, T. Kondo, E. Ohtani, H. Terasaki, N. Endo, T. Kuba, T. Suzuki, T. Kikegawa, Interaction between iron and post- perovskite at core-mantle boundary and core signature in plume source region, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33 (2006). J. Badro, G. Fiquet, F. Guyot, E. Gregoryanz, F. Occelli, D. Antonangeli, M. d'Astuto, Effect of light

  2. Spatial and Temporal Ray Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Schjøth, Lars; Erleben, Kenny

    We consider ray bundles emanating from a source such as a camera or light source. We derive the full spatial and temporal structure to ¿rst order of the intersection of ray bundles with scene geometry, where scene geometry given as any implicit function. Further, we present the full details of 2...

  3. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.


    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  4. Temporal Processing Dysfunction in Schizophrenia (United States)

    Carroll, Christine A.; Boggs, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P.


    Schizophrenia may be associated with a fundamental disturbance in the temporal coordination of information processing in the brain, leading to classic symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder and disorganized and contextually inappropriate behavior. Despite the growing interest and centrality of time-dependent conceptualizations of the…

  5. Temporal Structures in Shell Models


    Okkels, Fridolin


    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent GOY shell-model is characterised by a single type of burst-like structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell-amplitudes revealing a approximative chaotic attractor of the dynamics.

  6. Semiology of temporal lobe epilepsies. (United States)

    Abou-Khalil, Bassel W


    Temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE) represent the majority of the partial symptomatic/cryptogenic epilepsies. Excellent results of epilepsy surgery in well-selected patients have encouraged a search for localizing and lateralizing signs that could assist in the identification of the best surgical candidates. Seizure types in TLE include simple partial, complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures. Temporal lobe seizures most often arise in the amygdalo-hippocampal region. More than 90% of patients with mesial TLE report an aura, most commonly an epigastric sensation that often has a rising character. Other autonomic symptoms, psychic symptoms, and certain sensory phenomena (such as olfactory) also occur. The complex partial seizures of mesial TLE often involve motor arrest, oroalimentary automatisms or non-specific extremity automatisms at onset. Ictal manifestations that have lateralizing value include dystonic posturing (contralateral), early head turning (usually ipsilateral), and adversive head turning in transition to generalization (contralateral). Well-formed ictal language favors right temporal localization. Ictal vomiting, spitting, and drinking tend to be right sided. The duration of TLE complex partial seizures is generally greater than one minute and postictal confusion usually occurs. When postictal aphasia is noted a left-sided lateralization is favored. A lateral temporal onset is less common in TLE, and is most often suggested by an auditory aura. Somatosensory and visual auras are highly unlikely with TLE, and suggest neocortical extratemporal localization. A cephalic aura is non-specific, but is more common in frontal lobe epilepsy.

  7. Temporal scaling in information propagation. (United States)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi


    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  8. Temporal scaling in information propagation (United States)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi


    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  9. Navigability of multiplex temporal network (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qiao-Zhen


    Real world complex systems have multiple levels of relationships and in many cases, they need to be modeled as multiplex networks where the same nodes can interact with each other in different layers, such as social networks. However, social relationships only appear at prescribed times so the temporal structures of edge activations can also affect the dynamical processes located above them. To consider both factors are simultaneously, we introduce multiplex temporal networks and propose three different walk strategies to investigate the concurrent dynamics of random walks and the temporal structure of multiplex networks. Thus, we derive analytical results for the multiplex centrality and coverage function in multiplex temporal networks. By comparing them with the numerical results, we show how the underlying topology of the layers and the walk strategy affect the efficiency when exploring the networks. In particular, the most interesting result is the emergence of a super-diffusion process, where the time scale of the multiplex is faster than that of both layers acting separately.

  10. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina


    temporal forms by letting a series of expert designers reflect upon them. We borrow a framework from Boorstin’s film theory in which he distinguishes between the voyeuristic, the vicarious, and the visceral experience. We show how to use rhythms, complexity, gentle or forceful behavior, etc., to create...

  11. Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Masato; Koyama, Yukiko; Enomoto, Fuyuki; Ichikawa, Ginichiro [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine


    We report a case of temporal bone necrosis that emerged after radiotherapy for epipharyngeal carcinoma performed 13 years ago. The patient was a 51-year-old male. His major complaint was left facial swelling. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Co 60, 6120 rad), as the treatment of that period, for epipharyngeal carcinoma from September 30, 1986 to January 31, 1987. He also underwent lobectomy of the left temporal lobe in brain surgery for left temporal lobe necrosis in August, 1989. After that operation, we saw constriction in his left external acoustic meatus and continued the follow-up. On October 22, 1999 he felt a left facial swelling. We found skin defects and ulcer formation in the front part of his left ear. Although we administered an antiseptic and antibiotic to the diseased area, his condition did not improve. He was hospitalized for the purpose of undergoing medical treatment on January 6, 2000. We found extensive skin necrosis and defects in his left auricular area. The corrupted temporal bone reached the zygomatic, the bone department external acoustic meatus and the mastoid process was exposing. We performed debridement of the diseased area on January 19, 2000. On February 23, we performed reconstruction by left trapezius muscle flap after debridement once again. One year after the operation, the flap was completely incorporated. (author)

  12. Algorithms for Simple Temporal Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, L.R.


    This dissertation describes research into new methods for automated temporal reasoning. For this purpose, several frameworks are available in literature. Chapter 1 presents a concise literature survey that provides a new overview of their interrelation. In the remainder of the dissertation, the

  13. How examples may (and may not) constrain creativity. (United States)

    Marsh, R L; Landau, J D; Hicks, J L


    Three experiments were performed to test Smith, Ward, and Schumacher's (1993) conformity hypothesis-that people's ideas will conform to examples they are shown in a creative generation task. Conformity was observed in all three experiments; participants tended to incorporate critical features of experimenter-provided examples. However, examination of total output, elaborateness of design, and the noncritical features did not confirm that the conformity effect constrained creative output in any of the three experiments. Increasing the number of examples increased the conformity effect (Experiment 1). Examples that covaried features that are naturally uncorrelated in the real world led to a greater subjective rating of creativity (Experiment 2). A delay between presentation and test increased conformity (Experiment 3), just as models of inadvertent plagiarism would predict. The explanatory power of theoretical accounts such as activation, retrieval blocking, structured imagination, and category abstraction are evaluated.

  14. Formation of current singularity in a topologically constrained plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yao [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences; Huang, Yi-Min [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences; Qin, Hong [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences; Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Modern Phys, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences


    Recently a variational integrator for ideal magnetohydrodynamics in Lagrangian labeling has been developed. Its built-in frozen-in equation makes it optimal for studying current sheet formation. We use this scheme to study the Hahm-Kulsrud-Taylor problem, which considers the response of a 2D plasma magnetized by a sheared field under sinusoidal boundary forcing. We obtain an equilibrium solution that preserves the magnetic topology of the initial field exactly, with a fluid mapping that is non-differentiable. Unlike previous studies that examine the current density output, we identify a singular current sheet from the fluid mapping. These results are benchmarked with a constrained Grad-Shafranov solver. The same signature of current singularity can be found in other cases with more complex magnetic topologies.

  15. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino


    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square constraint given by forbidding neighboring 1s and provide novel results for the constraint that no uniform 2...... £ 2 squares contains all 0s or all 1s. The maximum values of the entropy for the constraints are estimated and binary PRF satisfying the constraint are characterized and optimized w.r.t. the entropy. The maximum binary PRF entropy is 0.839 bits/symbol for the no uniform squares constraint. The entropy...

  16. Fuzzy Constrained Probabilistic Inventory Models Depending on Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona F. El-Wakeel


    Full Text Available We discussed two different cases of the probabilistic continuous review mixture shortage inventory model with varying and constrained expected order cost, when the lead time demand follows some different continuous distributions. The first case is when the total cost components are considered to be crisp values, and the other case is when the costs are considered as trapezoidal fuzzy number. Also, some special cases are deduced. To investigate the proposed model in the crisp case and the fuzzy case, illustrative numerical example is added. From the numerical results we will conclude that Uniform distribution is the best distribution to get the exact solutions, and the exact solutions for fuzzy models are considered more practical and close to the reality of life and get minimum expected total cost less than the crisp models.

  17. High resolution image reconstruction with constrained, total-variation minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Sidky, Emil Y; Duchin, Yuval; Ullberg, Christer; Pan, Xiaochuan


    This work is concerned with applying iterative image reconstruction, based on constrained total-variation minimization, to low-intensity X-ray CT systems that have a high sampling rate. Such systems pose a challenge for iterative image reconstruction, because a very fine image grid is needed to realize the resolution inherent in such scanners. These image arrays lead to under-determined imaging models whose inversion is unstable and can result in undesirable artifacts and noise patterns. There are many possibilities to stabilize the imaging model, and this work proposes a method which may have an advantage in terms of algorithm efficiency. The proposed method introduces additional constraints in the optimization problem; these constraints set to zero high spatial frequency components which are beyond the sensing capability of the detector. The method is demonstrated with an actual CT data set and compared with another method based on projection up-sampling.

  18. Reinforcement Learning for Constrained Energy Trading Games With Incomplete Information. (United States)

    Wang, Huiwei; Huang, Tingwen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Chen, Guo


    This paper considers the problem of designing adaptive learning algorithms to seek the Nash equilibrium (NE) of the constrained energy trading game among individually strategic players with incomplete information. In this game, each player uses the learning automaton scheme to generate the action probability distribution based on his/her private information for maximizing his own averaged utility. It is shown that if one of admissible mixed-strategies converges to the NE with probability one, then the averaged utility and trading quantity almost surely converge to their expected ones, respectively. For the given discontinuous pricing function, the utility function has already been proved to be upper semicontinuous and payoff secure which guarantee the existence of the mixed-strategy NE. By the strict diagonal concavity of the regularized Lagrange function, the uniqueness of NE is also guaranteed. Finally, an adaptive learning algorithm is provided to generate the strategy probability distribution for seeking the mixed-strategy NE.

  19. Constraining cyclic peptides to mimic protein structure motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Timothy A.; Shepherd, Nicholas E.; Diness, Frederik


    Many proteins exert their biological activities through small exposed surface regions called epitopes that are folded peptides of well-defined three-dimensional structures. Short synthetic peptide sequences corresponding to these bioactive protein surfaces do not form thermodynamically stable...... protein-like structures in water. However, short peptides can be induced to fold into protein-like bioactive conformations (strands, helices, turns) by cyclization, in conjunction with the use of other molecular constraints, that helps to fine-tune three-dimensional structure. Such constrained cyclic...... peptides can have protein-like biological activities and potencies, enabling their uses as biological probes and leads to therapeutics, diagnostics and vaccines. This Review highlights examples of cyclic peptides that mimic three-dimensional structures of strand, turn or helical segments of peptides...

  20. Position and locality constrained soft coding for human action recognition (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Yu; Xiao, Wenhua; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Maojun


    Although the traditional bag-of-words model has shown promising results for human action recognition, in the feature coding phase, the ambiguous features from different body parts are still difficult to distinguish. Furthermore, it also suffers from serious representation error. We propose an innovative coding strategy called position and locality constrained soft coding (PLSC) to overcome these limitations. PLSC uses the feature position in a human oriented region of interest (ROI) to distinguish the ambiguous features. We first construct a subdictionary for each feature by selecting the bases from their spatial neighbor in human ROI. Then, a modified soft coding with locality constraint is adopted to alleviate the quantization error and preserve the manifold structure of features. This novel coding algorithm increases both the representation accuracy and discriminative power with low computational cost. The human action recognition experimental results on KTH, Weizmann, and UCF sports datasets show that PLSC can achieve a better performance than previous competing feature coding methods.

  1. Nucleosome breathing and remodeling constrain CRISPR-Cas9 function. (United States)

    Isaac, R Stefan; Jiang, Fuguo; Doudna, Jennifer A; Lim, Wendell A; Narlikar, Geeta J; Almeida, Ricardo


    The CRISPR-Cas9 bacterial surveillance system has become a versatile tool for genome editing and gene regulation in eukaryotic cells, yet how CRISPR-Cas9 contends with the barriers presented by eukaryotic chromatin is poorly understood. Here we investigate how the smallest unit of chromatin, a nucleosome, constrains the activity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We find that nucleosomes assembled on native DNA sequences are permissive to Cas9 action. However, the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA to Cas9 is variable over several orders of magnitude depending on dynamic properties of the DNA sequence and the distance of the PAM site from the nucleosome dyad. We further find that chromatin remodeling enzymes stimulate Cas9 activity on nucleosomal templates. Our findings imply that the spontaneous breathing of nucleosomal DNA together with the action of chromatin remodelers allow Cas9 to effectively act on chromatin in vivo.

  2. The evolutionary value of recombination is constrained by genome modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren P Martin


    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is a fundamental evolutionary mechanism promoting biological adaptation. Using engineered recombinants of the small single-stranded DNA plant virus, Maize streak virus (MSV, we experimentally demonstrate that fragments of genetic material only function optimally if they reside within genomes similar to those in which they evolved. The degree of similarity necessary for optimal functionality is correlated with the complexity of intragenomic interaction networks within which genome fragments must function. There is a striking correlation between our experimental results and the types of MSV recombinants that are detectable in nature, indicating that obligatory maintenance of intragenome interaction networks strongly constrains the evolutionary value of recombination for this virus and probably for genomes in general.

  3. Constrained choices: adolescents speak on sexuality in Peru. (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M; Tsui, Amy O; Hindin, Michelle J


    While numerous studies have explored young people's sexual behaviour in Peru, to date few have explored how adolescents situate sexuality within the context of their broader lives. This information is needed to inform policies and programmes. Life history interviews were conducted with 20 12-17-year-old young women and men from a low-income settlement near Lima, Peru. Data were analysed using holistic content analysis and grounded theory. Sexuality had a strong presence in respondents' lives. However, interviewees viewed the full expression of their sexuality as a constrained choice. Particular constraints derive from the belief that sexual intercourse always results in pregnancy; the nature of sex education; the provision of proscriptive advice; and the family tensions, economic problems, racism and violence present in young people's lives. The results of this study can inform policies and programmes to support young people as they make sexuality-related decisions.

  4. Reversible patterning of spherical shells through constrained buckling (United States)

    Marthelot, J.; Brun, P.-T.; Jiménez, F. López; Reis, P. M.


    Recent advances in active soft structures envision the large deformations resulting from mechanical instabilities as routes for functional shape morphing. Numerous such examples exist for filamentary and plate systems. However, examples with double-curved shells are rarer, with progress hampered by challenges in fabrication and the complexities involved in analyzing their underlying geometrical nonlinearities. We show that on-demand patterning of hemispherical shells can be achieved through constrained buckling. Their postbuckling response is stabilized by an inner rigid mandrel. Through a combination of experiments, simulations, and scaling analyses, our investigation focuses on the nucleation and evolution of the buckling patterns into a reticulated network of sharp ridges. The geometry of the system, namely, the shell radius and the gap between the shell and the mandrel, is found to be the primary ingredient to set the surface morphology. This prominence of geometry suggests a robust, scalable, and tunable mechanism for reversible shape morphing of elastic shells.

  5. Block-triangular preconditioners for PDE-constrained optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Rees, Tyrone


    In this paper we investigate the possibility of using a block-triangular preconditioner for saddle point problems arising in PDE-constrained optimization. In particular, we focus on a conjugate gradient-type method introduced by Bramble and Pasciak that uses self-adjointness of the preconditioned system in a non-standard inner product. We show when the Chebyshev semi-iteration is used as a preconditioner for the relevant matrix blocks involving the finite element mass matrix that the main drawback of the Bramble-Pasciak method-the appropriate scaling of the preconditioners-is easily overcome. We present an eigenvalue analysis for the block-triangular preconditioners that gives convergence bounds in the non-standard inner product and illustrates their competitiveness on a number of computed examples. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Transmission-constrained oligopoly in the Japanese electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Makoto [National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS), 7-22-1 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-8677 (Japan)


    We simulate the Japanese wholesale electricity market as a transmission-constrained Cournot market using a linear complementarity approach. First, we investigate the effects of upgrading the bottleneck transmission line between the eastern and western regions, focusing on the mitigation of transmission congestion. Although increasing the bottleneck capacity would lead to welfare gains, they might not be substantial particularly when transmission capacity costs are taken into account. Second, we examine the effects of splitting the largest electric power company, which is located in the eastern region, focusing on the mitigation of market power. Splitting the largest company into two companies would lead to a 25% reduction in the eastern price, and a 50% reduction in deadweight loss. The divestiture of the largest company would have a significant effect of mitigating market power in the Japanese electricity market. (author)

  7. Convex Relaxations of Chance Constrained AC Optimal Power Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venzke, Andreas; Halilbasic, Lejla; Markovic, Uros


    High penetration of renewable energy sources and the increasing share of stochastic loads require the explicit representation of uncertainty in tools such as the optimal power flow (OPF).Current approaches follow either a linearized approach or an iterative approximation of non-linearities. This p......High penetration of renewable energy sources and the increasing share of stochastic loads require the explicit representation of uncertainty in tools such as the optimal power flow (OPF).Current approaches follow either a linearized approach or an iterative approximation of non......-linearities. This paper proposes a semidefinite relaxation of a chance constrained AC-OPF which is able to provide guarantees for global optimality. Using a piecewise affine policy, we can ensure tractability, accurately model large power deviations, and determine suitable corrective control policies for active power......-global optimality guarantees....

  8. A Collective Neurodynamic Approach to Distributed Constrained Optimization. (United States)

    Liu, Qingshan; Yang, Shaofu; Wang, Jun


    This paper presents a collective neurodynamic approach with multiple interconnected recurrent neural networks (RNNs) for distributed constrained optimization. The objective function of the distributed optimization problems to be solved is a sum of local convex objective functions, which may be nonsmooth. Subject to its local constraints, each local objective function is minimized individually by using an RNN, with consensus among others. In contrast to existing continuous-time distributed optimization methods, the proposed collective neurodynamic approach is capable of solving more general distributed optimization problems. Simulation results on three numerical examples are discussed to substantiate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed approach. In addition, an application to the optimal placement problem is delineated to demonstrate the viability of the approach.

  9. Non-rigid registration by geometry-constrained diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt; Nielsen, Mads


    Assume that only partial knowledge about a non-rigid registration is given so that certain point, curves, or surfaces in one 3D image map to certain points, curves, or surfaces in another 3D image. We are facing the aperture problem because along the curves and surfaces, point correspondences...... are not given. We will advocate the viewpoint that the aperture and the 3D interpolation problem may be solved simultaneously by finding the simplest displacement field. This is obtained by a geometry-constrained diffusion which yields the simplest displacement field in a precise sense. The point registration...... obtained may be used for growth modelling, shape statistics, or kinematic interpolation. The algorithm applies to geometrical objects of any dimensionality. We may thus keep any number of fiducial points, curves, and/or surfaces fixed while finding the simplest registration. Examples of inferred point...

  10. Constraining regional extreme temperature projections of the CMIP5 ensemble (United States)

    Vogel, Martha Marie; Seneviratne, Sonia Isabelle


    Temperature extremes are expected to increase in frequency and intensity in the future under enhanced global warming. Associated with the future projections of hot extremes are large uncertainties in different regions such as Central Europe. Given the severe impacts it is important to understand physical mechanisms leading to the projected amplified warming of regional extremes. Soil moisture- temperature feedbacks are strongly relevant for these projections as they are a key contributor to the development of regional hot extremes. Since soil moisture itself and soil moisture-temperature feedbacks are subject to change in future they likely contribute to the uncertainties of extreme temperature projections. In this work we link projections of changes in extreme temperatures to changes in land-atmosphere interactions with a particular focus on Central Europe. For this purpose, we employ observational data sets to constrain the model ensemble in the current climate, and consequently the extreme temperature projections.

  11. Flexible waveform-constrained optimization design method for cognitive radar (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Wang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xingzhao


    The problem of waveform optimization design for cognitive radar (CR) in the presence of extended target with unknown target impulse response (TIR) is investigated. On the premise of ensuring the TIR estimation precision, a flexible waveform-constrained optimization design method taking both target detection and range resolution into account is proposed. In this method, both the estimate of TIR and transmitted waveform can be updated according to the environment information fed back by the receiver. Moreover, rather than optimizing waveforms for a single design criterion, the framework can synthesize waveforms that provide a trade-off between competing design criteria. The trade-off is determined by the parameter settings, which can be adjusted according to the requirement of radar performance in each cycle of CR. Simulation results demonstrate that CR with the proposed waveform performs better than a traditional radar system with a fixed waveform and offers more flexibility and practicability.

  12. Constraining fundamental plasma physics processes using doped capsule implosions (United States)

    Garbett, W. J.; James, S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Wilson, D. C.; Benage, J.; Wysocki, F. J.; Gunderson, M.; Frenje, J.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V. Y.; Yaakobi, B.


    A standard technique in inertial confinement fusion research is the use of low levels of spectroscopic dopants as a passive diagnostic of fuel conditions. Using higher dopant levels it becomes possible to modify the plasma conditions. Doped capsule experiments may thus provide a way to control and study fundamental plasma physics processes in the inertial fusion regime. As a precursor to eventual experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we have performed a series of capsule implosions using the Omega laser. These are intended to guide the modelling of high-Z dopants and explore the feasibility of using such capsule implosions for quantitative physics experiments. We have fielded thin glass shells filled with D-He3 fuel and varying levels of Ar, Kr and Xe dopants. X-ray emission spectroscopy is combined with simultaneous measurements of primary neutron and proton yields and energy spectra in an attempt to fully constrain capsule behaviour.

  13. A new approach to nonlinear constrained Tikhonov regularization

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi


    We present a novel approach to nonlinear constrained Tikhonov regularization from the viewpoint of optimization theory. A second-order sufficient optimality condition is suggested as a nonlinearity condition to handle the nonlinearity of the forward operator. The approach is exploited to derive convergence rate results for a priori as well as a posteriori choice rules, e.g., discrepancy principle and balancing principle, for selecting the regularization parameter. The idea is further illustrated on a general class of parameter identification problems, for which (new) source and nonlinearity conditions are derived and the structural property of the nonlinearity term is revealed. A number of examples including identifying distributed parameters in elliptic differential equations are presented. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Dynamical Scaling and Phase Coexistence in Topologically Constrained DNA Melting (United States)

    Fosado, Y. A. G.; Michieletto, D.; Marenduzzo, D.


    There is a long-standing experimental observation that the melting of topologically constrained DNA, such as circular closed plasmids, is less abrupt than that of linear molecules. This finding points to an important role of topology in the physics of DNA denaturation, which is, however, poorly understood. Here, we shed light on this issue by combining large-scale Brownian dynamics simulations with an analytically solvable phenomenological Landau mean field theory. We find that the competition between melting and supercoiling leads to phase coexistence of denatured and intact phases at the single-molecule level. This coexistence occurs in a wide temperature range, thereby accounting for the broadening of the transition. Finally, our simulations show an intriguing topology-dependent scaling law governing the growth of denaturation bubbles in supercoiled plasmids, which can be understood within the proposed mean field theory.

  15. An improved partial bundle method for linearly constrained minimax problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunming Tang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improved partial bundle method for solving linearly constrained minimax problems. In order to reduce the number of component function evaluations, we utilize a partial cutting-planes model to substitute for the traditional one. At each iteration, only one quadratic programming subproblem needs to be solved to obtain a new trial point. An improved descent test criterion is introduced to simplify the algorithm. The method produces a sequence of feasible trial points, and ensures that the objective function is monotonically decreasing on the sequence of stability centers. Global convergence of the algorithm is established. Moreover, we utilize the subgradient aggregation strategy to control the size of the bundle and therefore overcome the difficulty of computation and storage. Finally, some preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is effective.

  16. Total energy control system autopilot design with constrained parameter optimization (United States)

    Ly, Uy-Loi; Voth, Christopher


    A description is given of the application of a multivariable control design method (SANDY) based on constrained parameter optimization to the design of a multiloop aircraft flight control system. Specifically, the design method is applied to the direct synthesis of a multiloop AFCS inner-loop feedback control system based on total energy control system (TECS) principles. The design procedure offers a structured approach for the determination of a set of stabilizing controller design gains that meet design specifications in closed-loop stability, command tracking performance, disturbance rejection, and limits on control activities. The approach can be extended to a broader class of multiloop flight control systems. Direct tradeoffs between many real design goals are rendered systematic by proper formulation of the design objectives and constraints. Satisfactory designs are usually obtained in few iterations. Performance characteristics of the optimized TECS design have been improved, particularly in the areas of closed-loop damping and control activity in the presence of turbulence.

  17. SAR image segmentation using MPM and constrained stochastic relaxation (United States)

    Zhao, Huiyan; Cao, Yongfeng; Yang, Wen


    A segmentation method using maximization of the Posterior marginals (MPM) and constrained stochastic relaxation (CSR) for SAR images is proposed. This method improves the regularity of MPM based segmentation result by introducing CSR. Multi-Level Logistic (MLL) model is used for the underlying label image to introduce regularity prior of segmentation. Gamma distribution is used for SAR intensity data. The hyper parameters of MLL model are supposed to be known a priori. This method is an iterative scheme consists of two alternating steps: to approximate the MPM estimation of the pixel class labels and to estimate gamma distribution parameters. The weight of the prior energy in goal energy function is increased slowly versus the increasing iteration times until certain number of iteration has finished. The segmentation results for synthetic and real SAR images show that the proposed method has a good performance.

  18. Constrained basin stability for studying transient phenomena in dynamical systems (United States)

    van Kan, Adrian; Jegminat, Jannes; Donges, Jonathan F.; Kurths, Jürgen


    Transient dynamics are of large interest in many areas of science. Here, a generalization of basin stability (BS) is presented: constrained basin stability (CBS) that is sensitive to various different types of transients arising from finite size perturbations. CBS is applied to the paradigmatic Lorenz system for uncovering nonlinear precursory phenomena of a boundary crisis bifurcation. Further, CBS is used in a model of the Earth's carbon cycle as a return time-dependent stability measure of the system's global attractor. Both case studies illustrate how CBS's sensitivity to transients complements BS in its function as an early warning signal and as a stability measure. CBS is broadly applicable in systems where transients matter, from physics and engineering to sustainability science. Thus CBS complements stability analysis with BS as well as classical linear stability analysis and will be a useful tool for many applications.

  19. Interpolation techniques in robust constrained model predictive control (United States)

    Kheawhom, Soorathep; Bumroongsri, Pornchai


    This work investigates interpolation techniques that can be employed on off-line robust constrained model predictive control for a discrete time-varying system. A sequence of feedback gains is determined by solving off-line a series of optimal control optimization problems. A sequence of nested corresponding robustly positive invariant set, which is either ellipsoidal or polyhedral set, is then constructed. At each sampling time, the smallest invariant set containing the current state is determined. If the current invariant set is the innermost set, the pre-computed gain associated with the innermost set is applied. If otherwise, a feedback gain is variable and determined by a linear interpolation of the pre-computed gains. The proposed algorithms are illustrated with case studies of a two-tank system. The simulation results showed that the proposed interpolation techniques significantly improve control performance of off-line robust model predictive control without much sacrificing on-line computational performance.

  20. Diameter constrained reliability of ladders and Spanish fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancela Héctor


    Full Text Available We are given a graph G = (V, E, terminal set K  V and diameter d > 0. Links fail stochastically and independently with known probabilities. The diameter-constrained reliability (DCR for short, is the probability that the K-diameter is not greater than d in the subgraph induced by non-failed links. The contributions of this paper are two-fold. First, the computational complexity of DCR-subproblems is discussed in terms of the number of terminals k = jKj and diameter d. Here, we prove that when d > 2 the problem is NP-Hard when K = V. Second, we compute the DCR efficiently for Ladders and Spanish Fans. Open problems and trends for future work are discussed in the conclusions.

  1. Constraining the Milky Way potential using the dynamical kinematic substructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoja T.


    Full Text Available We present a method to constrain the potential of the non-axisymmetric components of the Galaxy using the kinematics of stars in the solar neighborhood. The basic premise is that dynamical substructures in phase-space (i.e. due to the bar and/or spiral arms are associated with families of periodic or irregular orbits, which may be easily identified in orbital frequency space. We use the “observed” positions and velocities of stars as initial conditions for orbital integrations in a variety of gravitational potentials. We then compute their characteristic frequencies, and study the structure present in the frequency maps. We find that the distribution of dynamical substructures in velocity- and frequency-space is best preserved when the integrations are performed in the “true” gravitational potential.

  2. Environment determines evolutionary trajectory in a constrained phenotypic space. (United States)

    Fraebel, David T; Mickalide, Harry; Schnitkey, Diane; Merritt, Jason; Kuhlman, Thomas E; Kuehn, Seppe


    Constraints on phenotypic variation limit the capacity of organisms to adapt to the multiple selection pressures encountered in natural environments. To better understand evolutionary dynamics in this context, we select Escherichia coli for faster migration through a porous environment, a process which depends on both motility and growth. We find that a trade-off between swimming speed and growth rate constrains the evolution of faster migration. Evolving faster migration in rich medium results in slow growth and fast swimming, while evolution in minimal medium results in fast growth and slow swimming. In each condition parallel genomic evolution drives adaptation through different mutations. We show that the trade-off is mediated by antagonistic pleiotropy through mutations that affect negative regulation. A model of the evolutionary process shows that the genetic capacity of an organism to vary traits can qualitatively depend on its environment, which in turn alters its evolutionary trajectory.

  3. Late time CMB anisotropies constrain mini-charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, C.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jaeckel, J. [Univ. of Durham, Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology (United Kingdom)


    Observations of the temperature anisotropies induced as light from the CMB passes through large scale structures in the late universe are a sensitive probe of the interactions of photons in such environments. In extensions of the Standard Model which give rise to mini-charged particles, photons propagating through transverse magnetic fields can be lost to pair production of such particles. Such a decrement in the photon flux would occur as photons from the CMB traverse the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters. Therefore late time CMB anisotropies can be used to constrain the properties of mini- charged particles. We outline how this test is constructed, and present new constraints on mini-charged particles from observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Coma cluster. (orig.)

  4. Lifetime of the solar nebula constrained by meteorite paleomagnetism. (United States)

    Wang, Huapei; Weiss, Benjamin P; Bai, Xue-Ning; Downey, Brynna G; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jiajun; Suavet, Clément; Fu, Roger R; Zucolotto, Maria E


    A key stage in planet formation is the evolution of a gaseous and magnetized solar nebula. However, the lifetime of the nebular magnetic field and nebula are poorly constrained. We present paleomagnetic analyses of volcanic angrites demonstrating that they formed in a near-zero magnetic field (nebula field, and likely the nebular gas, had dispersed by this time. This sets the time scale for formation of the gas giants and planet migration. Furthermore, it supports formation of chondrules after 4563.5 million years ago by non-nebular processes like planetesimal collisions. The core dynamo on the angrite parent body did not initiate until about 4 to 11 million years after solar system formation. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Before or After: Prepositions in Spatially Constrained Systems (United States)

    Richter, Kai-Florian; Klippel, Alexander

    Cognitive agents use different strategies to identify relevant spatial information in communication. The chosen strategy depends on the agents' conceptualization of the spatial situation at hand. This situation is determined by structural and functional aspects that are induced by the environment and the actions performed or intended therein. In this paper, we are interested in conceptualizations in the context of route directions. We focus on the meaning of prepositions used to characterize movements (actions) in spatially constrained systems such as street networks. We report on different strategies employed by people to disambiguate turning actions at intersections and demonstrate how these can be reflected in automatically generated route directions, again concentrating on the assignment of prepositions for anchoring movement. Including methods that focus on the most successful strategies people use in computational systems is a prerequisite for route directions that respect for human conceptualizations of spatial situations and that become, thus, cognitively ergonomic route directions.

  6. A constraint consensus memetic algorithm for solving constrained optimization problems (United States)

    Hamza, Noha M.; Sarker, Ruhul A.; Essam, Daryl L.; Deb, Kalyanmoy; Elsayed, Saber M.


    Constraint handling is an important aspect of evolutionary constrained optimization. Currently, the mechanism used for constraint handling with evolutionary algorithms mainly assists the selection process, but not the actual search process. In this article, first a genetic algorithm is combined with a class of search methods, known as constraint consensus methods, that assist infeasible individuals to move towards the feasible region. This approach is also integrated with a memetic algorithm. The proposed algorithm is tested and analysed by solving two sets of standard benchmark problems, and the results are compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. The comparisons show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other similar algorithms. The algorithm has also been applied to solve a practical economic load dispatch problem, where it also shows superior performance over other algorithms.

  7. The Compton-thick Growth of Supermassive Black Holes constrained (United States)

    Buchner, Johannes; Georgakakis, Antonis; Nandra, Kirpal; Brightman, Murray; Menzel, Marie-Luise; Liu, Zhu; Hsu, Li-Ting; Salvato, Mara; Rangel, Cyprian; Aird, James


    A heavily obscured growth phase of supermassive black holes (SMBH) is thought to be important in the co-evolution with galaxies. X-rays provide a clean and efficient selection of unobscured and obscured AGN. Recent work with deeper observations and improved analysis methodology allowed us to extend constraints to Compton-thick number densities. We present the first luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN at z=0.5-4 and constrain the overall mass density locked into black holes over cosmic time, a fundamental constraint for cosmological simulations. Recent studies including ours find that the obscuration is redshift and luminosity-dependent in a complex way, which rules out entire sets of obscurer models. A new paradigm, the radiation-lifted torus model, is proposed, in which the obscurer is Eddington-rate dependent and accretion creates and displaces torus clouds. We place observational limits on the behaviour of this mechanism.

  8. Reliable Event Detectors for Constrained Resources Wireless Sensor Node Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Trinidad MarcoAntonio


    Full Text Available Abstract A novel event detector algorithm, which points out in-door acoustic human activities, for constrained wireless sensor node hardware is proposed in the present paper. In our approach, event detections are computed from the signal energy statistics change rate at two instants separated by an samples interval. The experimentation is run in two phases: (i the detector characterisation and tuning seek detector configurations that enable event detections from three acoustic human activities: closing a door, dropping a plastic bottle, and clapping;(ii event detector validation tests measure the reliability to signal events from general acoustic activities, people talking particularly. The test results, which included emulated node hardware, actual sensor node, and a one-hop WSN, demonstrate the detector implementations signaled successfully events. And for the WSN, we found that event detections decay in a nonlinear fashion as the distance , between the acoustic signal source and the sensor, is increased.

  9. Constrained recycling: a framework to reduce landfilling in developing countries. (United States)

    Diaz, Ricardo; Otoma, Suehiro


    This article presents a model that integrates three branches of research: (i) economics of solid waste that assesses consumer's willingness to recycle and to pay for disposal; (ii) economics of solid waste that compares private and social costs of final disposal and recycling; and (iii) theories on personal attitudes and social influence. The model identifies two arenas where decisions are made: upstream arena, where residents are decision-makers, and downstream arena, where municipal authorities are decision-makers, and graphically proposes interactions between disposal and recycling, as well as the concept of 'constrained recycling' (an alternative to optimal recycling) to guide policy design. It finally concludes that formative instruments, such as environmental education and benchmarks, should be combined with economic instruments, such as subsidies, to move constraints on source separation and recycling in the context of developing countries.

  10. Constraining Light-Quark Yukawa Couplings from Higgs Distributions. (United States)

    Bishara, Fady; Haisch, Ulrich; Monni, Pier Francesco; Re, Emanuele


    We propose a novel strategy to constrain the bottom and charm Yukawa couplings by exploiting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) measurements of transverse momentum distributions in Higgs production. Our method does not rely on the reconstruction of exclusive final states or heavy-flavor tagging. Compared to other proposals, it leads to an enhanced sensitivity to the Yukawa couplings due to distortions of the differential Higgs spectra from emissions which either probe quark loops or are associated with quark-initiated production. We derive constraints using data from LHC run I, and we explore the prospects of our method at future LHC runs. Finally, we comment on the possibility of bounding the strange Yukawa coupling.

  11. Constrain the SED Type of Unidentified Fermi Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Li Tsai


    Full Text Available 2FGL J1823.8+4312 and 2FGL J1304.1-2415 are two unidentified Fermi objects which are associated with cluster of galaxies. In order to exam the possibility of cluster of galaxies as gamma-ray emitters, we search for counterpart of these two unidentified Fermi objects in other wavebands. However, we find other candidate to be more likely the counterpart of the unidentified Fermi object for both sources. We compare their light curves and SEDs in order to identify their source types. However, data at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavebands, which is important for us to constrain the SED at synchrotron peak, is lacking of measurement. Therefore, we proposed to SMA observation for these two sources. We have got data and are doing further analysis.

  12. Constraining the evolution of the Hubble Parameter using cosmic chronometers (United States)

    Dickinson, Hugh


    Substantial investment is being made in space- and ground-based missions with the goal of revealing the nature of the observed cosmic acceleration. This is one of the most important unsolved problems in cosmology today.We propose here to constrain the evolution of the Hubble parameter [H(z)] between 1.3 grisms data obtained by the WISP, 3D-HST+AGHAST, FIGS, and CLEAR surveys will yield a sample of 140 suitable standard clocks, expanding existing samples by a factor of five. These additional data will enable us to improve existing constraints on the evolution of H at high redshift, and insodoing to better understand the fundamental nature of dark energy.

  13. The expanded Lagrangian system for constrained optimization problems (United States)

    Poore, A. B.; Al-Hassan, Q.


    Smooth penalty functions can be combined with numerical continuation/bifurcation techniques to produce a class of robust and fast algorithms for constrained optimization problems. The key to the development of these algorithms is the Expanded Lagrangian System which is derived and analyzed in this work. This parameterized system of nonlinear equations contains the penalty path as a solution, provides a smooth homotopy into the first-order necessary conditions, and yields a global optimization technique. Furthermore, the inevitable ill-conditioning present in a sequential optimization algorithm is removed for three penalty methods: the quadratic penalty function for equality constraints, and the logarithmic barrier function (an interior method) and the quadratic loss function (an interior method) for inequality constraints. Although these techniques apply to optimization in general and to linear and nonlinear programming, calculus of variations, optimal control and parameter identification in particular, the development is primarily within the context of nonlinear programming.

  14. A weakly constrained $W'$ at the early LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Grojean, Christophe; Torre, Riccardo


    We study, within an effective approach, the phenomenology of a charged W' vector which transforms as an isosinglet under the Standard Model gauge group. We discuss bounds from present data, finding that these are quite weak for suitable choices of the right-handed quark mixing matrix. Then we study the resonant production at the early LHC of such a weakly constrained W'. We start discussing the reach in the dijet final state, which is one of the channels where the first W' signal would most likely appear, and then we analyse prospects for the more challenging discovery of W' decays into W{\\gamma} and WZ. We show in particular that the former can be used to gain insight on the possibly composite nature of the resonance.

  15. Active flutter control using discrete optimal constrained dynamic compensators (United States)

    Broussard, J. R.; Halyo, N.


    A method for synthesizing digital active flutter suppression controllers using the concept of optimal output feedback is presented. A recently developd convergent algorithm is employed to determine constrained control law parameters that minimize an infinite-time discrete quadratic performance index. Low-order compensator dynamics are included in the control law and the compensator parameters are computed along with the output feedback gain as part of the optimization process. An input noise adjustment procedure is used to improve the stability margins of the digital active flutter controller. Results from investigations into sample rate variation, prefilter pole variation, and effects of varying flight condtions are discussed. The study indicates that a digital control law which accommodates computation delay can stabilize the wing with reasonable rms performance and adequate stability margins.

  16. Computational strategies in the dynamic simulation of constrained flexible MBS (United States)

    Amirouche, F. M. L.; Xie, M.


    This research focuses on the computational dynamics of flexible constrained multibody systems. At first a recursive mapping formulation of the kinematical expressions in a minimum dimension as well as the matrix representation of the equations of motion are presented. The method employs Kane's equation, FEM, and concepts of continuum mechanics. The generalized active forces are extended to include the effects of high temperature conditions, such as creep, thermal stress, and elastic-plastic deformation. The time variant constraint relations for rolling/contact conditions between two flexible bodies are also studied. The constraints for validation of MBS simulation of gear meshing contact using a modified Timoshenko beam theory are also presented. The last part deals with minimization of vibration/deformation of the elastic beam in multibody systems making use of time variant boundary conditions. The above methodologies and computational procedures developed are being implemented in a program called DYAMUS.

  17. Stochastic Dynamics with Correct Sampling for Constrained Systems. (United States)

    Peters, E A J F; Goga, N; Berendsen, H J C


    In this paper we discuss thermostatting using stochastic methods for molecular simulations where constraints are present. For so-called impulsive thermostats, like the Andersen thermostat, the equilibrium temperature will differ significantly from the imposed temperature when a limited number of particles are picked and constraints are applied. We analyze this problem and give two rigorous solutions for it. A correct general treatment of impulsive stochastic thermostatting, including pairwise dissipative particle dynamics and stochastic forcing in the presence of constraints, is given and it is shown that the constrained canonical distribution is sampled rigorously. We discuss implementation issues such as second order Trotter expansions. The method is shown to rigorously maintain the correct temperature for the case of extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water simulations.

  18. Constraining viscous dark energy models with the latest cosmological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Yan, Yang-Jie; Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China)


    Based on the assumption that the dark energy possessing bulk viscosity is homogeneously and isotropically permeated in the universe, we propose three new viscous dark energy (VDE) models to characterize the accelerating universe. By constraining these three models with the latest cosmological observations, we find that they just deviate very slightly from the standard cosmological model and can alleviate effectively the current H{sub 0} tension between the local observation by the Hubble Space Telescope and the global measurement by the Planck Satellite. Interestingly, we conclude that a spatially flat universe in our VDE model with cosmic curvature is still supported by current data, and the scale invariant primordial power spectrum is strongly excluded at least at the 5.5σ confidence level in the three VDE models as the Planck result. We also give the 95% upper limits of the typical bulk viscosity parameter η in the three VDE scenarios. (orig.)

  19. Temporal Coding of Volumetric Imagery (United States)

    Llull, Patrick Ryan

    'Image volumes' refer to realizations of images in other dimensions such as time, spectrum, and focus. Recent advances in scientific, medical, and consumer applications demand improvements in image volume capture. Though image volume acquisition continues to advance, it maintains the same sampling mechanisms that have been used for decades; every voxel must be scanned and is presumed independent of its neighbors. Under these conditions, improving performance comes at the cost of increased system complexity, data rates, and power consumption. This dissertation explores systems and methods capable of efficiently improving sensitivity and performance for image volume cameras, and specifically proposes several sampling strategies that utilize temporal coding to improve imaging system performance and enhance our awareness for a variety of dynamic applications. Video cameras and camcorders sample the video volume (x,y,t) at fixed intervals to gain understanding of the volume's temporal evolution. Conventionally, one must reduce the spatial resolution to increase the framerate of such cameras. Using temporal coding via physical translation of an optical element known as a coded aperture, the compressive temporal imaging (CACTI) camera emonstrates a method which which to embed the temporal dimension of the video volume into spatial (x,y) measurements, thereby greatly improving temporal resolution with minimal loss of spatial resolution. This technique, which is among a family of compressive sampling strategies developed at Duke University, temporally codes the exposure readout functions at the pixel level. Since video cameras nominally integrate the remaining image volume dimensions (e.g. spectrum and focus) at capture time, spectral (x,y,t,lambda) and focal (x,y,t,z) image volumes are traditionally captured via sequential changes to the spectral and focal state of the system, respectively. The CACTI camera's ability to embed video volumes into images leads to exploration

  20. Network-constrained forest for regularized classification of omics data. (United States)

    Anděl, Michael; Kléma, Jiří; Krejčík, Zdeněk


    Contemporary molecular biology deals with wide and heterogeneous sets of measurements to model and understand underlying biological processes including complex diseases. Machine learning provides a frequent approach to build such models. However, the models built solely from measured data often suffer from overfitting, as the sample size is typically much smaller than the number of measured features. In this paper, we propose a random forest-based classifier that reduces this overfitting with the aid of prior knowledge in the form of a feature interaction network. We illustrate the proposed method in the task of disease classification based on measured mRNA and miRNA profiles complemented by the interaction network composed of the miRNA-mRNA target relations and mRNA-mRNA interactions corresponding to the interactions between their encoded proteins. We demonstrate that the proposed network-constrained forest employs prior knowledge to increase learning bias and consequently to improve classification accuracy, stability and comprehensibility of the resulting model. The experiments are carried out in the domain of myelodysplastic syndrome that we are concerned about in the long term. We validate our approach in the public domain of ovarian carcinoma, with the same data form. We believe that the idea of a network-constrained forest can straightforwardly be generalized towards arbitrary omics data with an available and non-trivial feature interaction network. The proposed method is publicly available in terms of miXGENE system (, the workflow that implements the myelodysplastic syndrome experiments is presented as a dedicated case study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Traversable geometric dark energy wormholes constrained by astrophysical observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-he [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, State Key Lab of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)


    In this paper, we introduce the astrophysical observations into the wormhole research. We investigate the evolution behavior of the dark energy equation of state parameter ω by constraining the dark energy model, so that we can determine in which stage of the universe wormholes can exist by using the condition ω < -1. As a concrete instance, we study the Ricci dark energy (RDE) traversable wormholes constrained by astrophysical observations. Particularly, we find from Fig. 5 of this work, when the effective equation of state parameter ω{sub X} < -1 (or z < 0.109), i.e., the null energy condition (NEC) is violated clearly, the wormholes will exist (open). Subsequently, six specific solutions of statically and spherically symmetric traversable wormhole supported by the RDE fluids are obtained. Except for the case of a constant redshift function, where the solution is not only asymptotically flat but also traversable, the five remaining solutions are all non-asymptotically flat, therefore, the exotic matter from the RDE fluids is spatially distributed in the vicinity of the throat. Furthermore, we analyze the physical characteristics and properties of the RDE traversable wormholes. It is worth noting that, using the astrophysical observations, we obtain the constraints on the parameters of the RDE model, explore the types of exotic RDE fluids in different stages of the universe, limit the number of available models for wormhole research, reduce theoretically the number of the wormholes corresponding to different parameters for the RDE model, and provide a clearer picture for wormhole investigations from the new perspective of observational cosmology. (orig.)

  2. Constraining interacting dark energy with CMB and BAO future surveys (United States)

    Santos, Larissa; Zhao, Wen; Ferreira, Elisa G. M.; Quintin, Jerome


    In this paper, we perform a forecast analysis to test the capacity of future baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to constrain phenomenological interacting dark energy models using the Fisher matrix formalism. We consider a Euclid-like experiment, in which BAO measurements are one of the main goals, to constrain the cosmological parameters of alternative cosmological models. Moreover, additional experimental probes can more efficiently provide information on the parameters forecast, justifying also the inclusion in the analysis of a future ground-based CMB experiment mainly designed to measure the polarization signal with high precision. In the interacting dark energy scenario, a coupling between dark matter and dark energy modifies the conservation equations such that the fluid equations for both constituents are conserved as the total energy density of the dark sector. In this context, we consider three phenomenological models that have been deeply investigated in literature over the past years. We find that the combination of both CMB and BAO information can break degeneracies among the dark sector parameters for all three models, although to different extents. We find powerful constraints on, for example, the coupling constant when comparing it with present limits for two of the models, and their future statistical 3 σ bounds could potentially exclude the null interaction for the combination of probes that is considered. However, for one of the models, the constraint on the coupling parameter does not improve the present result (achieved using a large combination of surveys), and a larger combination of probes appears to be necessary to eventually claim whether or not interaction is favored in that context.

  3. Detecting Community Structure by Using a Constrained Label Propagation Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hou Chin

    Full Text Available Community structure is considered one of the most interesting features in complex networks. Many real-world complex systems exhibit community structure, where individuals with similar properties form a community. The identification of communities in a network is important for understanding the structure of said network, in a specific perspective. Thus, community detection in complex networks gained immense interest over the last decade. A lot of community detection methods were proposed, and one of them is the label propagation algorithm (LPA. The simplicity and time efficiency of the LPA make it a popular community detection method. However, the LPA suffers from instability detection due to randomness that is induced in the algorithm. The focus of this paper is to improve the stability and accuracy of the LPA, while retaining its simplicity. Our proposed algorithm will first detect the main communities in a network by using the number of mutual neighbouring nodes. Subsequently, nodes are added into communities by using a constrained LPA. Those constraints are then gradually relaxed until all nodes are assigned into groups. In order to refine the quality of the detected communities, nodes in communities can be switched to another community or removed from their current communities at various stages of the algorithm. We evaluated our algorithm on three types of benchmark networks, namely the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi (LFR, Relaxed Caveman (RC and Girvan-Newman (GN benchmarks. We also apply the present algorithm to some real-world networks of various sizes. The current results show some promising potential, of the proposed algorithm, in terms of detecting communities accurately. Furthermore, our constrained LPA has a robustness and stability that are significantly better than the simple LPA as it is able to yield deterministic results.

  4. Isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions towards cyclic constrained peptidomimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Koopmanschap


    Full Text Available In the recent past, the design and synthesis of peptide mimics (peptidomimetics has received much attention. This because they have shown in many cases enhanced pharmacological properties over their natural peptide analogues. In particular, the incorporation of cyclic constructs into peptides is of high interest as they reduce the flexibility of the peptide enhancing often affinity for a certain receptor. Moreover, these cyclic mimics force the molecule into a well-defined secondary structure. Constraint structural and conformational features are often found in biological active peptides. For the synthesis of cyclic constrained peptidomimetics usually a sequence of multiple reactions has been applied, which makes it difficult to easily introduce structural diversity necessary for fine tuning the biological activity. A promising approach to tackle this problem is the use of multicomponent reactions (MCRs, because they can introduce both structural diversity and molecular complexity in only one step. Among the MCRs, the isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (IMCRs are most relevant for the synthesis of peptidomimetics because they provide peptide-like products. However, these IMCRs usually give linear products and in order to obtain cyclic constrained peptidomimetics, the acyclic products have to be cyclized via additional cyclization strategies. This is possible via incorporation of bifunctional substrates into the initial IMCR. Examples of such bifunctional groups are N-protected amino acids, convertible isocyanides or MCR-components that bear an additional alkene, alkyne or azide moiety and can be cyclized via either a deprotection–cyclization strategy, a ring-closing metathesis, a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or even via a sequence of multiple multicomponent reactions. The sequential IMCR-cyclization reactions can afford small cyclic peptide mimics (ranging from four- to seven-membered rings, medium-sized cyclic constructs or peptidic

  5. Isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions towards cyclic constrained peptidomimetics. (United States)

    Koopmanschap, Gijs; Ruijter, Eelco; Orru, Romano Va


    In the recent past, the design and synthesis of peptide mimics (peptidomimetics) has received much attention. This because they have shown in many cases enhanced pharmacological properties over their natural peptide analogues. In particular, the incorporation of cyclic constructs into peptides is of high interest as they reduce the flexibility of the peptide enhancing often affinity for a certain receptor. Moreover, these cyclic mimics force the molecule into a well-defined secondary structure. Constraint structural and conformational features are often found in biological active peptides. For the synthesis of cyclic constrained peptidomimetics usually a sequence of multiple reactions has been applied, which makes it difficult to easily introduce structural diversity necessary for fine tuning the biological activity. A promising approach to tackle this problem is the use of multicomponent reactions (MCRs), because they can introduce both structural diversity and molecular complexity in only one step. Among the MCRs, the isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (IMCRs) are most relevant for the synthesis of peptidomimetics because they provide peptide-like products. However, these IMCRs usually give linear products and in order to obtain cyclic constrained peptidomimetics, the acyclic products have to be cyclized via additional cyclization strategies. This is possible via incorporation of bifunctional substrates into the initial IMCR. Examples of such bifunctional groups are N-protected amino acids, convertible isocyanides or MCR-components that bear an additional alkene, alkyne or azide moiety and can be cyclized via either a deprotection-cyclization strategy, a ring-closing metathesis, a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or even via a sequence of multiple multicomponent reactions. The sequential IMCR-cyclization reactions can afford small cyclic peptide mimics (ranging from four- to seven-membered rings), medium-sized cyclic constructs or peptidic macrocycles (>12

  6. Constraining the cosmology of the phantom brane using distance measures (United States)

    Alam, Ujjaini; Bag, Satadru; Sahni, Varun


    The phantom brane has several important distinctive features: (i) Its equation of state is phantomlike, but there is no future "big rip" singularity, and (ii) the effective cosmological constant on the brane is dynamically screened, because of which the expansion rate is smaller than that in Λ CDM at high redshifts. In this paper, we constrain the Phantom braneworld using distance measures such as type-Ia supernovae (SNeIa), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and the compressed cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We find that the simplest braneworld models provide a good fit to the data. For instance, BAO +SNeIa data can be accommodated by the braneworld for a large region in parameter space 0 ≤Ωℓ≲0.3 at 1 σ . The Hubble parameter can be as high as H0≲78 km s-1 Mpc-1 , and the effective equation of state at present can show phantomlike behavior with w0≲-1.2 at 1 σ . We note a correlation between H0 and w0, with higher values of H0 leading to a lower, and more phantomlike, value of w0. Inclusion of CMB data provides tighter constraints Ωℓ≲0.1 . (Here Ωℓ encodes the ratio of the five- and four-dimensional Planck mass.) The Hubble parameter in this case is more tightly constrained to H0≲71 km s-1 Mpc-1 , and the effective equation of state to w0≲-1.1 . Interestingly, we find that the Universe is allowed to be closed or open, with -0.5 ≲Ωκ≲0.5 , even on including the compressed CMB data. There appears to be some tension in the low and high-z BAO data which may either be resolved by future data, or act as a pointer to interesting new cosmology.

  7. The power of evolutionary rescue is constrained by genetic load. (United States)

    Stewart, Gavin S; Morris, Madeline R; Genis, Allison B; Szűcs, Marianna; Melbourne, Brett A; Tavener, Simon J; Hufbauer, Ruth A


    The risk of extinction faced by small isolated populations in changing environments can be reduced by rapid adaptation and subsequent growth to larger, less vulnerable sizes. Whether this process, called evolutionary rescue, is able to reduce extinction risk and sustain population growth over multiple generations is largely unknown. To understand the consequences of adaptive evolution as well as maladaptive processes in small isolated populations, we subjected experimental Tribolium castaneum populations founded with 10 or 40 individuals to novel environments, one more favorable, and one resource poor, and either allowed evolution, or constrained it by replacing individuals one-for-one each generation with those from a large population maintained in the natal environment. Replacement individuals spent one generation in the target novel environment before use to standardize effects due to the parental environment. After eight generations we mixed a subset of surviving populations to facilitate admixture, allowing us to estimate drift load by comparing performance of mixed to unmixed groups. Evolving populations had reduced extinction rates, and increased population sizes in the first four to five generations compared to populations where evolution was constrained. Performance of evolving populations subsequently declined. Admixture restored their performance, indicating high drift load that may have overwhelmed the beneficial effects of adaptation in evolving populations. Our results indicate that evolution may quickly reduce extinction risk and increase population sizes, but suggest that relying solely on adaptation from standing genetic variation may not provide long-term benefits to small isolated populations of diploid sexual species, and that active management facilitating gene flow may be necessary for longer term persistence.

  8. Advanced techniques for constrained internal coordinate molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Wagner, Jeffrey R; Balaraman, Gouthaman S; Niesen, Michiel J M; Larsen, Adrien B; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan


    Internal coordinate molecular dynamics (ICMD) methods provide a more natural description of a protein by using bond, angle, and torsional coordinates instead of a Cartesian coordinate representation. Freezing high-frequency bonds and angles in the ICMD model gives rise to constrained ICMD (CICMD) models. There are several theoretical aspects that need to be developed to make the CICMD method robust and widely usable. In this article, we have designed a new framework for (1) initializing velocities for nonindependent CICMD coordinates, (2) efficient computation of center of mass velocity during CICMD simulations, (3) using advanced integrators such as Runge-Kutta, Lobatto, and adaptive CVODE for CICMD simulations, and (4) cancelling out the "flying ice cube effect" that sometimes arises in Nosé-Hoover dynamics. The Generalized Newton-Euler Inverse Mass Operator (GNEIMO) method is an implementation of a CICMD method that we have developed to study protein dynamics. GNEIMO allows for a hierarchy of coarse-grained simulation models based on the ability to rigidly constrain any group of atoms. In this article, we perform tests on the Lobatto and Runge-Kutta integrators to determine optimal simulation parameters. We also implement an adaptive coarse-graining tool using the GNEIMO Python interface. This tool enables the secondary structure-guided "freezing and thawing" of degrees of freedom in the molecule on the fly during molecular dynamics simulations and is shown to fold four proteins to their native topologies. With these advancements, we envision the use of the GNEIMO method in protein structure prediction, structure refinement, and in studying domain motion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Updating representations of temporal intervals. (United States)

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt


    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings.

  10. Acoustic temporal modulation detection in normal-hearing and cochlear implanted listeners: effects of hearing mechanism and development. (United States)

    Park, Min-Hyun; Won, Jong Ho; Horn, David L; Rubinstein, Jay T


    Temporal modulation detection ability matures over many years after birth and may be particularly sensitive to experience during this period. Profound hearing loss during early childhood might result in greater perceptual deficits than a similar loss beginning in adulthood. We tested this idea by measuring performance in temporal modulation detection in profoundly deaf children and adults fitted with cochlear implants (CIs). At least two independent variables could constrain temporal modulation detection performance in children with CIs: altered encoding of modulation information due to the CI-auditory nerve interface, and atypical development of central processing of sound information provided by CIs. The effect of altered encoding was investigated by testing subjects with one of two different hearing mechanisms (normal hearing vs. CI) and the effect of atypical development was studied by testing two different age groups. All subjects were tested for their ability to detect acoustic temporal modulations of sound amplitude. A comparison of the slope, or cutoff frequency, of the temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) among the four subject groups revealed that temporal resolution was mainly constrained by hearing mechanism: normal-hearing listeners could detect smaller amplitude modulations at high modulation frequencies than CI users. In contrast, a comparison of the height of the TMTFs revealed a significant interaction between hearing mechanism and age group on overall sensitivity to temporal modulation: sensitivity was significantly poorer in children with CIs, relative to the other three groups. Results suggest that there is an age-specific vulnerability of intensity discrimination or non-sensory factors, which subsequently affects sensitivity to temporal modulation in prelingually deaf children who use CIs.

  11. The Temporality of Power and the Power of Temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher


    This paper extends existing understandings of power, resistance and subjectivity in professional service organizations by developing an analysis of how these relate to temporality. Drawing in particular on Hoy’s reading of the Foucauldian account of temporality, we conceive of disciplinary power...... regimes and resistance as inherently future-oriented, or, to use Ybema’s term, postalgic. In moving beyond the extant research focus on self-disciplined and/or counter-resistant professional selves, we draw attention to the imaginary future self as an employee response to disciplinary power. In contrast...... to the future orientation of disciplinary power, this response envisages the future as a discontinuous break with the present which we examine as a form of resistant postalgia. Building on in-depth qualitative data gathered at two professional service firms, we explain how imaginary future selves can shed new...

  12. Temporally and spatially partitioned behaviours of spinner dolphins: implications for resilience to human disturbance. (United States)

    Tyne, Julian A; Johnston, David W; Christiansen, Fredrik; Bejder, Lars


    Selective forces shape the evolution of wildlife behavioural strategies and influence the spatial and temporal partitioning of behavioural activities to maximize individual fitness. Globally, wildlife is increasingly exposed to human activities which may affect their behavioural activities. The ability of wildlife to compensate for the effects of human activities may have implications for their resilience to disturbance. Resilience theory suggests that behavioural systems which are constrained in their repertoires are less resilient to disturbance than flexible systems. Using behavioural time-series data, we show that spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) spatially and temporally partition their behavioural activities on a daily basis. Specifically, spinner dolphins were never observed foraging during daytime, where resting was the predominant activity. Travelling and socializing probabilities were higher in early mornings and late afternoons when dolphins were returning from or preparing for nocturnal feeding trips, respectively. The constrained nature of spinner dolphin behaviours suggests they are less resilient to human disturbance than other cetaceans. These dolphins experience the highest exposure rates to human activities ever reported for any cetaceans. Over the last 30 years human activities have increased significantly in Hawaii, but the spinner dolphins still inhabit these bays. Recent abundance estimates (2011 and 2012) however, are lower than all previous estimates (1979-1981, 1989-1992 and 2003), indicating a possible long-term impact. Quantification of the spatial and temporal partitioning of wildlife behavioural schedules provides critical insight for conservation measures that aim to mitigate the effects of human disturbance.

  13. Methods and tools for temporal knowledge harvesting


    Wang, Yafang


    To extend the traditional knowledge base with temporal dimension, this thesis offers methods and tools for harvesting temporal facts from both semi-structured and textual sources. Our contributions are briefly summarized as follows. 1. Timely YAGO: A temporal knowledge base called Timely YAGO (T-YAGO) which extends YAGO with temporal attributes is built. We define a simple RDF-style data model to support temporal knowledge. 2. PRAVDA: To be able to harvest as many temporal facts from free...

  14. A data assimilation framework for constraining upscaled cropland carbon flux seasonality and biometry with MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sus


    Full Text Available Agroecosystem models are strongly dependent on information on land management patterns for regional applications. Land management practices play a major role in determining global yield variability, and add an anthropogenic signal to the observed seasonality of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is still little knowledge on spatial and temporal variability of important farmland activities such as crop sowing dates, and thus these remain rather crudely approximated within carbon cycle studies. In this study, we present a framework allowing for spatio-temporally resolved simulation of cropland carbon fluxes under observational constraints on land management and canopy greenness. We apply data assimilation methodology in order to explicitly account for information on sowing dates and model leaf area index. MODIS 250 m vegetation index data were assimilated both in batch-calibration for sowing date estimation and sequentially for improved model state estimation, using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF, into a crop carbon mass balance model (SPAc. In doing so, we are able to quantify the multiannual (2000–2006 regional carbon flux and biometry seasonality of maize–soybean crop rotations surrounding the Bondville Ameriflux eddy covariance site, averaged over 104 pixel locations within the wider area. (1 Validation at the Bondville site shows that growing season C cycling is simulated accurately with MODIS-derived sowing dates, and we expect that this framework allows for accurate simulations of C cycling at locations for which ground-truth data are not available. Thus, this framework enables modellers to simulate current (i.e. last 10 yr carbon cycling of major agricultural regions. Averaged over the 104 field patches analysed, relative spatial variability for biometry and net ecosystem exchange ranges from ∼7% to ∼18%. The annual sign of net biome productivity is not significantly different from carbon neutrality. (2 Moreover

  15. Constraining high-energy neutrino emission from choked jets in stripped-envelope supernovae (United States)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter


    There are indications that γ-ray dark objects such as supernovae (SNe) with choked jets, and the cores of active galactic nuclei may contribute to the diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos measured by the IceCube observatory. In particular, stripped-envelope SNe have received much attention since they are capable of producing relativistic jets and could explain the diversity in observations of collapsar explosions (e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), low-luminosity GRBs, and Type Ibc SNe). We use an unbinned maximum likelihood method to search for spatial and temporal coincidences between Type Ibc core-collapse SNe, which may harbor a choked jet, and muon neutrinos from a sample of IceCube up-going track-like events measured from May 2011–May 2012. In this stacking analysis, we find no significant deviation from a background-only hypothesis using one year of data, and are able to place upper limits on the total amount of isotropic equivalent energy that choked jet core-collapse SNe deposit in cosmic rays Script Ecr and the fraction of core-collapse SNe which have a jet pointed towards Earth fjet. This analysis can be extended with yet to be made public IceCube data, and the increased amount of optically detected core-collapse SNe discovered by wide field-of-view surveys such as the Palomar Transient Factory and All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae. The choked jet SNe/high-energy cosmic neutrino connection can be more tightly constrained in the near future.

  16. Using Jovian Oscillations to Constrain Interiors and Understanding Why They Exist (United States)

    Dederick, Ethan; JIVE (Jovian Interiors Velocimetry Experiment) in NM, JOVIAL (Jovian Oscillations through radial Velocimetry ImAging observations at several Longitudes


    Planetary oscillations are excellent tools for probing unknown properties about their respective interiors, particularly quantities that pertain to formation theories such as core size. Recently, there have been very suggestive indications of detections of oscillations on Jupiter, and several have been confirmed on Saturn. Saturn is a unique case for seismic exploration as its ring structures act as a global seismograph. The seismic signatures in the rings provide information on the frequency of oscillations, which we can exploit to probe Saturn’s interior. Here we describe a comprehensive approach to detecting and utilizing oscillations to constrain the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn. The aforementioned Saturnian oscillations have already been detected via spiral density structures in the C ring as inferred from Cassini occultation data. Jovian oscillations will be detected in the upcoming years with a global network of Doppler imaging spectrometers established by the JIVE in NM (Jovian Interiors Velocimetry Experiment) and JOVIAL (Jovian Oscillations through radial Velocimetry ImAging observations at several Longitudes) groups. This network of instrumentation is optimized for observing Jovian oscillations including a high duty cycle allowing for limited temporal interruptions and thus high precision frequency data. In addition, unlike most oscillating bodies, we are unaware of the excitation mechanism behind Jovian oscillations. Therefore, we also explore mode excitation mechanisms that can excite Jupiter’s oscillations, primarily moist convection in the atmosphere. We will show under what conditions moist convection can be responsible for mode excitation and what this reveals about thunderstorm density on Jupiter. In regards to Saturn, we apply adapted helioseismic concepts to understand its fundamental mode (f-mode) oscillations and develop the framework for Jupiter for once its mode data becomes available. We will show initial inversion results for Saturn

  17. APOE ɛ4 constrains engagement of encoding-related compensatory networks in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. (United States)

    Prieto del Val, Laura; Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes


    People with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), compared to healthy older adults (HO), benefit less from semantic congruent cues during episodic encoding. The presence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 makes this congruency benefit smaller, but the neural correlates of this deficit are unknown. Here, we estimated the source generators of EEG oscillatory activity associated with successful encoding of face-location associations preceded by semantically congruent and incongruent cues in HO (N = 26) and aMCI subjects (N = 34), 16 of which were ɛ4 carriers (ɛ4(+) ) and 18 ɛ4 noncarriers (ɛ4(-) ). Source estimation was performed in those spectrotemporal windows where the power of low-alpha, high-alpha, and beta oscillatory activity differed either between congruent and incongruent faces or between groups. Differences in high-alpha and beta-oscillatory dynamics indicated that aMCI ɛ4(+) are unable to activate lateral regions of the temporal lobe involved in associative memory and congruency benefit in HO. Interestingly, and regardless of APOE genotype, aMCI activated additional regions relative to HO, through alpha oscillations. However, only activation in a distributed fronto-temporo-parietal network in ɛ4 noncarriers was paralleled by enhanced memory. On the contrary, the redundant prefrontal activation shown by aMCI ɛ4(+) did not prevent performance from decreasing. These results indicate that the effect of aMCI-related degeneracy on functional networks is constrained by the presence of APOE ɛ4. Whereas individuals with aMCI ɛ4(-) activate attentional, perceptual and semantic compensatory networks, aMCI ɛ4(+) show reduced processing efficiency and capacity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Fast emission estimates in China and South Africa constrained by satellite observations (United States)

    Mijling, Bas; van der A, Ronald


    Emission inventories of air pollutants are crucial information for policy makers and form important input data for air quality models. Unfortunately, bottom-up emission inventories, compiled from large quantities of statistical data, are easily outdated for emerging economies such as China and South Africa, where rapid economic growth change emissions accordingly. Alternatively, top-down emission estimates from satellite observations of air constituents have important advantages of being spatial consistent, having high temporal resolution, and enabling emission updates shortly after the satellite data become available. However, constraining emissions from observations of concentrations is computationally challenging. Within the GlobEmission project (part of the Data User Element programme of ESA) a new algorithm has been developed, specifically designed for fast daily emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric species on a mesoscopic scale (0.25 × 0.25 degree) from satellite observations of column concentrations. The algorithm needs only one forward model run from a chemical transport model to calculate the sensitivity of concentration to emission, using trajectory analysis to account for transport away from the source. By using a Kalman filter in the inverse step, optimal use of the a priori knowledge and the newly observed data is made. We apply the algorithm for NOx emission estimates in East China and South Africa, using the CHIMERE chemical transport model together with tropospheric NO2 column retrievals of the OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments. The observations are used to construct a monthly emission time series, which reveal important emission trends such as the emission reduction measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, and the impact and recovery from the global economic crisis. The algorithm is also able to detect emerging sources (e.g. new power plants) and improve emission information for areas where proxy data are not or badly known (e

  19. A Network-Constrained Integrated Method for Detecting Spatial Cluster and Risk Location of Traffic Crash: A Case Study from Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Nie


    Full Text Available Research on spatial cluster detection of traffic crash (TC at the city level plays an essential role in safety improvement and urban development. This study aimed to detect spatial cluster pattern and identify riskier road segments (RRSs of TC constrained by network with a two-step integrated method, called NKDE-GLINCS combining density estimation and spatial autocorrelation. The first step is novel and involves in spreading TC count to a density surface using Network-constrained Kernel Density Estimation (NKDE. The second step is the process of calculating local indicators of spatial association (LISA using Network-constrained Getis-Ord Gi* (GLINCS. GLINCS takes the smoothed TC density as input value to identify locations of road segments with high risk. This method was tested using the TC data in 2007 in Wuhan, China. The results demonstrated that the method was valid to delineate TC cluster and identify risk road segments. Besides, it was more effective compared with traditional GLINCS using TC counting as input. Moreover, the top 20 road segments with high-high TC density at the significance level of 0.1 were listed. These results can promote a better identification of RRS, which is valuable in the pursuit of improving transit safety and sustainability in urban road network. Further research should address spatial-temporal analysis and TC factors exploration.

  20. Imaging memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: predicting the effects of temporal lobe resection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonelli, Silvia B; Powell, Robert H W; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Samson, Rebecca S; Symms, Mark R; Thompson, Pamela J; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S


    .... In patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, evaluation of preoperative verbal and visual memory function is important as anterior temporal lobe resections may result in material specific...