Sample records for temporal onset differences

  1. Temporal-lobe morphology differs between healthy adolescents and those with early-onset of depression

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    Mahdi Ramezani


    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD has previously been linked to structural changes in several brain regions, particularly in the medial temporal lobes (Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2010; Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2011. This has been determined using voxel-based morphometry, segmentation algorithms, and analysis of shape deformations (Bell-McGinty et al., 2002; Bergouignan et al., 2009; Posener et al., 2003; Vasic et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2008: these are methods in which information related to the shape and the pose (the size, and anatomical position and orientation of structures is lost. Here, we incorporate information about shape and pose to measure structural deformation in adolescents and young adults with and without depression (as measured using the Beck Depression Inventory and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. As a hypothesis-generating study, a significance level of p < 0.05, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, was used, so that subtle morphological differences in brain structures between adolescent depressed individuals and control participants could be identified. We focus on changes in cortical and subcortical temporal structures, and use a multi-object statistical pose and shape model to analyze imaging data from 16 females (aged 16–21 and 3 males (aged 18 with early-onset MDD, and 25 female and 1 male normal control participants, drawn from the same age range. The hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, putamen, and superior, inferior and middle temporal gyri in both hemispheres of the brain were automatically segmented using the LONI Probabilistic Brain Atlas (Shattuck et al., 2008 in MNI space. Points on the surface of each structure in the atlas were extracted and warped to each participant's structural MRI. These surface points were analyzed to extract the pose and shape features. Pose differences were detected between the two groups, particularly in the left and right putamina, right hippocampus

  2. Onset of leptin resistance shows temporal differences related to dose or pulsed treatment (United States)

    Strehler, Kevin Y.E.; Matheny, Michael; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Sakarya, Yasemin; Bruce, Erin; Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Carter, Christy S.; Morgan, Drake; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J.


    Leptin administration results in leptin resistance presenting a significant barrier to therapeutic use of leptin. Consequently, we examined two hypotheses. The first examined the relationship between leptin dose and development of physiological and biochemical signs of leptin resistance. We hypothesized lower doses of leptin would produce proportional reductions in body weight without the adverse leptin-induced leptin resistance. The second compared pulsed central leptin infusion to continuous leptin infusion. We hypothesized that pulsed infusion at specific times of the day would evoke favorable body weight reductions while tempering the development of leptin-induced leptin resistance. The first experiment examined leptin responsiveness, including food intake, body weight and hypothalamic STAT3 phosphorylation to increasing doses of viral gene delivery of leptin. Varying the dose proved inconsequential with respect to long-term therapy and demonstrated proportional development of leptin resistance. The second experiment examined leptin responsiveness to pulsed central leptin infusion, comparing pulsed versus constant infusion of 3 ug/day leptin or a 2 h morning versus a 2 h evening pulsed leptin infusion. Pulsed delivery of the supramaximal dose of 3 ug/day was not different than constant delivery. Morning pulsed infusion of the submaximal dose of 0.25 ug reduces food intake only over subsequent immediate meal period and was associated with body weight reductions, but results in cellular leptin resistance. Evening pulsed infusion did not decrease food intake but reduces body weight and maintains full leptin signaling. The positive benefit for pulsed delivery remains speculative, yet potentially may provide an alternative mode of leptin therapy. PMID:27012992

  3. Temporal hypometabolism at the onset of cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Matheja, P.; Kuwert, T.; Weckesser, M.; Schober, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Luedemann, P.; Kellinghaus, C.; Diehl, B.; Ringelstein, E.B. [Dept. of Neurology, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Schuierer, G. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Muenster Univ. (Germany)


    Most patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) exhibit temporal glucose hypometabolism. The reasons for the development of this abnormality are as yet unclear. The current notion is that an initial injury causes seizures, which in turn give rise to hypometabolism. The aim of this study was to assess whether temporal reductions in glucose metabolism in non-lesional TLE are the result of repeated seizures or whether hypometabolism represents an initial disturbance at the onset of disease. Glucose consumption was assessed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) in 62 patients with cryptogenic non-refractory TLE in different stages of disease. Twelve subjects without neurological illness served as controls. Patients with onset of epilepsy at least 3 years prior to the PET scan were defined as having chronic TLE. Using this criterion, the whole patient cohort included 27 patients with de novo TLE and 35 patients with chronic TLE. The groups were matched for age and sex. The appearance of high-resolution magnetic resonance images of the brain was unremarkable in all patients. In the total cohort, number, duration and frequency of seizures had a significant relation to the magnitude of hypometabolism. Temporal hypometabolism was exhibited by 26 of the 62 patients (42%), including 8 out of 27 (30%) with newly diagnosed TLE and 18 out of 35 (51%) with chronic TLE. The disturbances were more extensive and more severe in patients with chronic TLE. It is concluded that temporal hypometabolism may already be present at the onset of TLE, but is less frequent and less severe in newly diagnosed than in chronic TLE. The metabolic disturbance correlates with the number of seizures. These findings suggest that an initial dysfunction is present in a considerable number of patients and that hypometabolism is worsened by continuing epileptic activity. (orig.)

  4. Temporal Discrimination: Mechanisms and Relevance to Adult-Onset Dystonia

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    Antonella Conte


    Full Text Available Temporal discrimination is the ability to determine that two sequential sensory stimuli are separated in time. For any individual, the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT is the minimum interval at which paired sequential stimuli are perceived as being asynchronous; this can be assessed, with high test–retest and inter-rater reliability, using a simple psychophysical test. Temporal discrimination is disordered in a number of basal ganglia diseases including adult-onset dystonia, of which the two most common phenotypes are cervical dystonia and blepharospasm. The causes of adult-onset focal dystonia are unknown; genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors are relevant. Abnormal TDTs in adult-onset dystonia are associated with structural and neurophysiological changes considered to reflect defective inhibitory interneuronal processing within a network which includes the superior colliculus, basal ganglia, and primary somatosensory cortex. It is hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination is a mediational endophenotype and, when present in unaffected relatives of patients with adult-onset dystonia, indicates non-manifesting gene carriage. Using the mediational endophenotype concept, etiological factors in adult-onset dystonia may be examined including (i the role of environmental exposures in disease penetrance and expression; (ii sexual dimorphism in sex ratios at age of onset; (iii the pathogenesis of non-motor symptoms of adult-onset dystonia; and (iv subcortical mechanisms in disease pathogenesis.

  5. Temporal relationship between onset of Graves' ophthalmopathy and onset of thyroidal Graves' disease

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    Wiersinga, W. M.; Smit, T.; van der Gaag, R.; Koornneef, L.


    The temporal relationship between the onset of Graves' ophthalmopathy and the onset of thyroidal Graves' disease was evaluated in 125 consecutive patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Thyroidal Graves' disease--past or present--was clinically evident in 99 patients (79%): hyperthyroidism in 3 cases.

  6. Medial temporal atrophy in early and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease


    Cavedo, Enrica; Pievani, Michela; Boccardi, Marina; Galluzzi, Samantha; Bocchetta, Martina; Bonetti, Matteo; Thompson, Paul M.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.


    Late-onset and early-onset Alzhemer’s disease (LOAD, EOAD) affect different neural systems and may be separate nosographic entities. The most striking differences is in the medial temporal lobe, severely affected in LOAD and relatively spared in EOAD. We assessed amygdalar morphology and volume in 18 LOAD and 18 EOAD patients and 36 aged-matched controls, and explored their relationship with hippocampal volume. 3D amygdalar shape was reconstructed with the Radial Atrophy Mapping technique, hi...

  7. Age at onset in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis: impact on clinical manifestations and postsurgical outcome. (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Sperling, Michael R


    To evaluate the demographic and clinical manifestations and postsurgical outcome of childhood-onset mesial temporal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy (MTS-TLE) and establishing the potential differences as compared to the patients with adult-onset MTS-TLE. In this retrospective study all patients with a clinical diagnosis of medically refractory TLE due to mesial temporal sclerosis, who underwent epilepsy surgery at Jefferson comprehensive epilepsy center, were recruited. Patients were prospectively registered in a database from 1986 through 2014. Postsurgical outcome was classified into two groups; seizure-free or relapsed. Clinical manifestations and outcome were compared between patients with childhood-onset MTS-TLE (i.e., age at onset of the first afebrile habitual seizure below 10 years) and those with adult-onset MTS-TLE (i.e., age at onset of the first afebrile habitual seizure 20 years or above). One hundred and twelve patients had childhood-onset MTS-TLE and 76 had adult-onset MTS-TLE. Demographic, clinical, EEG and MRI characteristics of these two groups were similar. Postoperative outcome was not statistically different between these two groups of patients (P=0.9). Temporal lobe epilepsy due to mesial temporal sclerosis is a common cause of epilepsy that can start from early childhood to late adulthood. The etiology of MTS-TLE may be different in various age groups, but it seems that when mesial temporal sclerosis is the pathological substrate of TLE, clinical manifestations and response to surgical treatment of patients are very similar in patients with childhood-onset MTS-TLE compared to those with adult-onset disease. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Predictive of Seizure Outcome in New-Onset Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

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    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available A community-based cohort of 77 children with new-onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE were followed prospectively and reviewed at 7 and 14 years after seizure onset, and clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging findings and seizure outcome are reported from the Royal Children's Hospital and University of Melbourne, Australia, and Starship Children's Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

  9. Global and Temporal Cortical Folding in Patients with Early-Onset Schizophrenia (United States)

    Penttila, Jani; Paillere-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Burke, Lisa; Corrigall, Richard; Frangou, Sophia; Cachia, Arnaud


    Disturbances in the temporal lobes and alterations in cortical folding in adult on-set schizophrenia are studied using magnetic resonance T1 images of 51 patients. The study showed that patients with early on-set schizophrenia had lower global sulcal indices in both hemispheres and the left collateral sulcus has a lower sulcal index irrespective…

  10. Sporadic adult onset primary torsion dystonia is a genetic disorder by the temporal discrimination test.

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    Kimmich, Okka


    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia. The aim was to determine the frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and their first-degree relatives. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first relatives would be compatible with an autosomal dominant endophenotype. Temporal discrimination thresholds were examined in 61 control subjects (39 subjects <50 years of age; 22 subjects >50 years of age), 32 patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (cervical dystonia n = 30, spasmodic dysphonia n = 1 and Meige\\'s syndrome n = 1) and 73 unaffected first-degree relatives (36 siblings, 36 offspring and one parent) using visual and tactile stimuli. Z-scores were calculated for all subjects; a Z > 2.5 was considered abnormal. Abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds were found in 1\\/61 (2%) control subjects, 27\\/32 (84%) patients with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and 32\\/73 (44%) unaffected relatives [siblings (20\\/36; 56%), offspring (11\\/36; 31%) and one parent]. When two or more relatives were tested in any one family, 22 of 24 families had at least one first-degree relative with an abnormal temporal discrimination threshold. The frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first-degree relatives of patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is compatible with an autosomal dominant disorder and supports the hypothesis that apparently sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is genetic in origin.

  11. Late onset temporal lobe epilepsy with MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis following acute neurocysticercosis. Case report

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    Kobayashi, Eliane; Guerreiro, Carlos A.M.; Cendes, Fernando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia]. E-mail:


    The objective of this case report is to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) in a patient with new onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and acute neurocysticercosis with multiple cysts. A 56 years old man with new onset headache, Simple Partial Seizures and Complex Partial Seizures underwent CT scan and lumbar puncture as diagnose proceeding. Multiple cysts and meningitis were identified, with a positive immunology for cysticercosis. Seizures were recorded over the left temporal region in a routine EEG. Treatment with al bendazole was performed for 21 days, with clinical improvement and seizure remission after 4 months. An MRI scan 11 months after treatment, showed complete resolution of those cystic lesions and a left hippocampal atrophy (HA) with hyperintense T2 signal. The presence of HA and hyperintense T 2 signal in this patient has not, to date, been associated with a poor seizure control. Conclusions: This patient presented with MRI evidence of left MTS after new onset partial seizures of left temporal lobe origin. Although we did not have a previous MRI scan, it is likely that this hippocampal abnormality was due to the acute inflammatory response to cysticercosis associated to repeated partial seizures. This suggests that acute neurocysticercosis associated with repeated seizures may cause MTS and late onset TLE. (author)

  12. Decrease in temporal gyrus gray matter volume in first-episode, early onset schizophrenia: an MRI study.

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    Jinsong Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Loss of gray matter has been previously found in early-onset schizophrenic patients. However, there are no consistent findings between studies due to different methods used to measure grey matter volume/density and influences of confounding factors. METHODS: The volume of gray matter (GM was measured in 29 first episode early-onset schizophrenia (EOS and 34 well-matched healthy controls by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. The correlations between the GM volume and PANSS scores, age of psychosis onset, duration of psychosis, and chlorpromazine (CPZ equivalent value were investigated. RESULTS: Relative to healthy subjects, the patients with first episode EOS showed significantly lower GM volume in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus. The loss of GM volume negatively correlated with PANSS-positive symptoms (p = 0.002, but not with PANSS-negative symptoms, PANSS-general psychopathology, and PANSS-total score. No significant correlation was found between GM volume and age of psychosis onset, duration of psychosis, and CPZ equivalent value. CONCLUSION: Patients with first episode EOS have evidence of reduced GM in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus. Structural abnormalities in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  13. Update on differences between childhood-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (United States)


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease and occurs worldwide in both children and adults. The estimated annual incidence among children is 2.22/100,000 and among adults is 23.2/100,000 in the United States. There is increasing understanding about differences in disease manifestations, medication use, and disease severity between those with childhood-onset SLE as compared with adult-onset SLE. Children have a more fulminant disease onset and course than adults with SLE, resulting in two to three times higher mortality. In future years, we anticipate more insight into the genetics between childhood-onset SLE and adult-onset SLE to help delineate the best therapies for both subsets of patients. PMID:23998441

  14. Age at onset and seizure frequency affect white matter diffusion coefficient in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Nagy, Szilvia A; Horváth, Réka; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Barsi, Péter; John, Flóra; Horváth, Andrea; Kovács, Norbert; Bogner, Péter; Ábrahám, Hajnalka; Bóné, Beáta; Gyimesi, Csilla; Dóczi, Tamás; Janszky, József


    In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), structural abnormalities are present not only in the hippocampus but also in the white matter with ipsilateral predominance. Although the timing of epilepsy onset is commonly associated with clinical and semiological dissimilarities, limited data exist regarding white matter diffusion changes with respect to age at epilepsy onset. The aim of this study was to investigate diffusion changes in the white matter of patients with unilateral MTLE-HS with respect to clinical parameters and to compare them with an age- and sex-matched healthy control group. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were derived using monoexponential approaches from 22 (11 early and 11 late age at onset) patients with unilateral MTLE-HS and 22 age- and sex-matched control subjects after acquiring diffusion-weighted images on a 3T MRI system. Data were analyzed using two-tailed t-tests and multiple linear regression models. In the group with early onset MTLE-HS, ADC was significantly elevated in the ipsilateral hemispheric (p=0.04) and temporal lobe white matter (p=0.01) compared with that in controls. These differences were not detectable in late onset MTLE-HS patients. Apparent diffusion coefficient of the group with early onset MTLE-HS was negatively related to age at epilepsy onset in the ipsilateral hemispheric white matter (p=0.03) and the uncinate fasciculus (p=0.03), while in patients with late onset MTLE-HS, ADC was no longer dependent on age at epilepsy onset itself but rather on the seizure frequency in the ipsilateral uncinate fasciculus (p=0.03). Such diffusivity pattern has been associated with chronic white matter degeneration, reflecting myelin loss and higher extracellular volume which are more pronounced in the frontotemporal regions and also depend on clinical features. In the group with early onset MTLE-HS, the timing of epilepsy seems to be the major cause of white matter abnormalities while in late

  15. Different alterations of cerebral regional homogeneity in early-onset and late-onset Parkinson's disease

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    Ke Sheng


    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Early-onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD is distinct from late-onset PD (LOPD as it relates to the clinical profile and response to medication. The objective is to investigate whether characteristics of spontaneous brain activity in the resting state are associated with the age of disease onset. Methods: We assessed the correlation between neural activity and age-at-onset in a sample of 39 PD patients (18 EOPD and 21 LOPD and 37 age-matched normal control subjects. Regional homogeneity (ReHo approaches were employed using ANOVA with two factors: PD and age.Results: In the comparisons between LOPD and EOPD, EOPD revealed lower ReHo values in the right putamen gyrus and higher ReHo values in the left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with age-matched control subjects, EOPD exhibited lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left inferior temporal gyrus; however, LOPD showed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and left insula. The ReHo values were negatively correlated with the UPDRS total scores in the right putamen in LOPD, but a correlation between the ReHo value and UPDRS score was not detected in EOPD. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that age at onset is associated with the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity in the resting state and suggest that disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset.

  16. Phenotypic differences between pregnancy-onset and postpartum-onset major depressive disorder. (United States)

    Altemus, Margaret; Neeb, Christine C; Davis, Alida; Occhiogrosso, Mallay; Nguyen, Theresa; Bleiberg, Kathryn L


    To compare clinical features of major depression that begins during pregnancy to clinical features of postpartum-onset depression. The hormonal environments of pregnancy and postpartum periods are quite different and therefore may promote distinct subtypes of major depression. Data were collected from medical records of 229 women who were evaluated in an academic medical center reproductive psychiatry clinic. All patients evaluated between 2005 and 2010 who were pregnant or in the first year postpartum and received a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder were included. Comparisons between the pregnancy-onset and postpartum-onset subjects included demographics, psychiatric diagnostic history, psychosocial stressors, reproductive history, and current episode symptoms. Time of onset within trimesters of pregnancy and within the postpartum year as well as the effects of discontinuation of antidepressant medication were also examined. Women with major depressive episodes that began during pregnancy had higher rates of prior episodes of postpartum and nonperinatal major depression (both P values depression that began during pregnancy was also more commonly associated with psychosocial stressors. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and psychotic symptoms were more common in postpartum-onset depression. These findings were also evident in the subgroup of 176 subjects who did not discontinue antidepressant medication during the year prior to development of perinatal depression. The onset of 94% of postpartum major depressive episodes occured within the first 4 months postpartum. Episodes of major depression during pregnancy were more likely to develop in the first trimester for women who discontinued antidepressant medication within the past year; otherwise, depression onset was more evenly distributed across trimesters. Women with a history of perinatal and nonperinatal major depression are more likely to relapse during pregnancy than postpartum, a finding that points to

  17. Temporal adaptation to audiovisual asynchrony generalizes across different sound frequencies

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    Jordi eNavarra


    Full Text Available The human brain exhibits a highly-adaptive ability to reduce natural asynchronies between visual and auditory signals. Even though this mechanism robustly modulates the subsequent perception of sounds and visual stimuli, it is still unclear how such a temporal realignment is attained. In the present study, we investigated whether or not temporal adaptation generalizes across different sound frequencies. In a first exposure phase, participants adapted to a fixed 220-ms audiovisual asynchrony or else to synchrony for 3min. In a second phase, the participants performed simultaneity judgments (SJs regarding pairs of audiovisual stimuli that were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs and included either the same tone as in the exposure phase (a 250Hz beep, another low-pitched beep (300Hz, or a high-pitched beep (2500Hz. Temporal realignment was always observed (when comparing SJ performance after exposure to asynchrony vs. synchrony, regardless of the frequency of the sound tested. This suggests that temporal recalibration influences the audiovisual perception of sounds in a frequency non-specific manner and may imply the participation of non-primary perceptual areas of the brain that are not constrained by certain physical features such as sound frequency.

  18. Temporomandibular disorders in fibromyalgia patients: are there different pain onset? (United States)

    Fujarra, Fábio J C; Kaziyama, Helena Hideko Seguchi; Siqueira, Silvia Regina D T de; Yeng, Lin Tchia; Camparis, Cinara M; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli de


    To identify temporomandibular disorders (TMD) symptoms in two groups of fibromyalgia patients according to the temporal relation between the onset of facial pain (FP) and generalized body pain (GBP). CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-three consecutive women with fibromyalgia and FP were stratified according to the onset of orofacial pain: Group-A (mean age 47.30 ± 14.20 years old), onset of FP preceded GBP; Group-B (mean age 51.33 ± 11.03 years old), the FP started concomitant or after GBP. Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders and the Visual Analogue Scale. Myofascial pain with mouth opening limitation (p = 0.038); right disc displacement with reduction (p = 0.012) and jaw stiffness (p = 0.004) were predominant in Group A. Myofascial pain without mouth opening limitation (p = 0.038) and numbness/burning were more common in Group B. All patients had temporomandibular joint symptoms, mainly muscle disorders. The prevalence of myofascial pain with limited mouth opening and right TMJ disc displacement with reduction were higher in Group A.

  19. Childhood-onset narcolepsy, obesity and puberty in four consecutive children: a close temporal link. (United States)

    Perriol, M-P; Cartigny, M; Lamblin, M-D; Poirot, I; Weill, J; Derambure, P; Monaca, C


    Narcolepsy is a rare but disabling condition that causes excessive daytime sleepiness. Interestingly, weight gain is frequent in patients with narcolepsy and it has sometimes been described very early in the course of the disease. Here, we report four consecutive obese children who were referred to our sleep laboratory for excessive daytime sleepiness and suspected sleep apnoea syndrome. They underwent nocturnal polysomnography associated with multiple sleep latency tests. Narcolepsy was diagnosed in all children with a close temporal link between the onset of narcolepsy, obesity and puberty. Scientifically, the relationship between sleep, weight, growth rate and puberty onset is striking and merits further investigation. From the clinical point of view, narcolepsy must be investigated in obese sleepy children along with obstructive sleep apnoea. Indeed, it can be controlled with appropriate treatment but the proper diagnosis relies not only upon nocturnal polysomnography but involves the systematic use of multiple sleep latency tests.

  20. Temporal discrimination threshold: VBM evidence for an endophenotype in adult onset primary torsion dystonia.

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    Bradley, D


    Familial adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance. Most adult-onset primary torsion dystonia patients are sporadic cases. Disordered sensory processing is found in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia patients; if also present in their unaffected relatives this abnormality may indicate non-manifesting gene carriage. Temporal discrimination thresholds (TDTs) are abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia, but their utility as a possible endophenotype has not been examined. We examined 35 adult-onset primary torsion dystonia patients (17 familial, 18 sporadic), 42 unaffected first-degree relatives of both familial and sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia patients, 32 unaffected second-degree relatives of familial adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD) patients and 43 control subjects. TDT was measured using visual and tactile stimuli. In 33 unaffected relatives, voxel-based morphometry was used to compare putaminal volumes between relatives with abnormal and normal TDTs. The mean TDT in 26 control subjects under 50 years of age was 22.85 ms (SD 8.00; 95% CI: 19.62-26.09 ms). The mean TDT in 17 control subjects over 50 years was 30.87 ms (SD 5.48; 95% CI: 28.05-33.69 ms). The upper limit of normal, defined as control mean + 2.5 SD, was 42.86 ms in the under 50 years group and 44.58 ms in the over 50 years group. Thirty out of thirty-five (86%) AOPTD patients had abnormal TDTs with similar frequencies of abnormalities in sporadic and familial patients. Twenty-two out of forty-two (52%) unaffected first-degree relatives had abnormal TDTs with similar frequencies in relatives of sporadic and familial AOPTD patients. Abnormal TDTs were found in 16\\/32 (50%) of second-degree relatives. Voxel-based morphometry analysis comparing 13 unaffected relatives with abnormal TDTs and 20 with normal TDTs demonstrated a bilateral increase in putaminal grey matter in unaffected relatives with abnormal

  1. Gender differences in the onset of diabetic neuropathy. (United States)

    Aaberg, Melanie L; Burch, Draion M; Hud, Zarinah R; Zacharias, Michael P


    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the more common complications plaguing individuals with type 2 diabetes. The development and progression of such complications are responsible for much of the morbidity and mortality related to this disease. Few studies have evaluated age at onset of diabetic neuropathy between genders. A difference in the progression of diabetic neuropathy between men and women may exist. This investigation evaluated gender differences in the age at onset of neuropathy among patients with type 2 diabetes. The study, a retrospective chart analysis, reviewed 376 inpatient and outpatient medical records between January 2004 and January 2006 from a Cleveland, Ohio, hospital. Onset of neuropathy was determined by the date the neuropathy International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code was first included in the medical chart; for this study, onset was equated with the date of first identification. Data were analyzed via a tailed independent t test. Of the 376 inpatient and outpatient charts reviewed, 156 were for male patients and 220 were for female patients (41% and 59%, respectively). All patients had type 2 diabetes; however, 23% (n=86) required insulin therapy at the time of the study. Males developed neuropathic complications at 63 years, approximately 4 years earlier than did females (at 67 years). The t test revealed a statistically significant difference in age at onset of diabetic neuropathy between the male and female subjects. This study demonstrates that the males in the study population developed neuropathy earlier than did the females. It may then be hypothesized that earlier interventions in the male population may improve disease outcomes.

  2. Differences between early and late-onset Alzheimer's disease in neuropsychological tests.

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    Francisca eSá


    Full Text Available Although patients with Alzheimer disease (AD share clinical and histological features regardless of age of onset, the hypothesis that early-onset AD constitutes a distinct subgroup prevails. Some authors suggest that early attention or language impairment constitute patterns of differentiation in terms of neuropsychological profile. However, investigations are not consensual in terms of cognitive domains affected in each group.Aim: To investigate whether there is early neuropsychological difference between two types of AD using the conventional dividing line of 65 years.Methods: We evaluated the results obtained in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and in a comprehensive neuropsychological battery – Battery of Lisbon for the Assessment of Dementia (BLAD, at a Dementia clinic in the University Hospital of Coimbra and a Memory Clinic. Consecutive patients with a clinical probable diagnosis of mild to moderate AD, using standard criteria (DSMIV and NINCDS-ADRDA, were selected. Statistical analysis was performed using Qui-square and U-Mann-Whitney, for categorical and non-categorical variables.Results: The sample included 280 patients: 109 with early-onset AD and 171 with a late-onset form. Groups were comparable in gender, education, severity of disease and MMSE. In BLAD, the early onset group had lower scores in Naming (p=0,025, Right-Left Orientation (p=0,029 and Praxis (p=0,001, and better performances in Orientation (p=0,001 and Visual Memory (p=0,022. After application of Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons only Praxis and Orientation could differentiate the two groups.Discussion: The results are suggestive of dissociated profiles between early and late-onset AD. Younger patients have a major impairment in Praxis and a tendency for a great impairment in neocortical temporal functions. Late-onset form had a tendency for worse performances in Visual Memory and Orientation, suggesting a more localized disease to the limbic

  3. Ictal onset patterns of local field potentials, high frequency oscillations, and unit activity in human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Weiss, Shennan Aibel; Alvarado-Rojas, Catalina; Bragin, Anatol; Behnke, Eric; Fields, Tony; Fried, Itzhak; Engel, Jerome; Staba, Richard


    To characterize local field potentials, high frequency oscillations, and single unit firing patterns in microelectrode recordings of human limbic onset seizures. Wide bandwidth local field potential recordings were acquired from microelectrodes implanted in mesial temporal structures during spontaneous seizures from six patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In the seizure onset zone, distinct epileptiform discharges were evident in the local field potential prior to the time of seizure onset in the intracranial EEG. In all three seizures with hypersynchronous (HYP) seizure onset, fast ripples with incrementally increasing power accompanied epileptiform discharges during the transition to the ictal state (p local level. Patterns of incrementally increasing fast ripple power are consistent with observations in rats with experimental hippocampal epilepsy, suggesting that limbic seizures arise when small clusters of synchronously bursting neurons increase in size, coalesce, and reach a critical mass for propagation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  4. Temporal discrimination thresholds in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia: an analysis by task type and by dystonia phenotype.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bradley, D


    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD) is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance. Sensory abnormalities are present in AOPTD and also in unaffected relatives, possibly indicating non-manifesting gene carriage (acting as an endophenotype). The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous. We aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of three different TDT tasks (visual, tactile and mixed\\/visual-tactile). We also aimed to examine the sensitivity of TDTs in different AOPTD phenotypes. To examine tasks, we tested TDT in 41 patients and 51 controls using visual (2 lights), tactile (non-painful electrical stimulation) and mixed (1 light, 1 electrical) stimuli. To investigate phenotypes, we examined 71 AOPTD patients (37 cervical dystonia, 14 writer\\'s cramp, 9 blepharospasm, 11 spasmodic dysphonia) and 8 musician\\'s dystonia patients. The upper limit of normal was defined as control mean +2.5 SD. In dystonia patients, the visual task detected abnormalities in 35\\/41 (85%), the tactile task in 35\\/41 (85%) and the mixed task in 26\\/41 (63%); the mixed task was less sensitive than the other two (p = 0.04). Specificity was 100% for the visual and tactile tasks. Abnormal TDTs were found in 36 of 37 (97.3%) cervical dystonia, 12 of 14 (85.7%) writer\\'s cramp, 8 of 9 (88.8%) blepharospasm, 10 of 11 (90.1%) spasmodic dysphonia patients and 5 of 8 (62.5%) musicians. The visual and tactile tasks were found to be more sensitive than the mixed task. Temporal discrimination threshold results were comparable across common adult-onset primary torsion dystonia phenotypes, with lower sensitivity in the musicians.

  5. Differences of symptoms and standardized weight index between patients with early-onset and late-onset anorexia nervosa. (United States)

    Matsumoto, H; Takei, N; Kawai, M; Saito, F; Kachi, K; Ohashi, Y; Takeuchi, H; Mori, N


    There have so far been no studies that directly compared clinical features between patients with early- and late-onset anorexia nervosa (AN). We identified 64 patients with DSM-III-R AN. We defined individuals as an early-onset group, who had an age of onset before 14 years (N = 31), and the remaining as a late-onset group (N = 33). The clinical symptoms, body weight and weight index, were compared between the two groups. Subjects were dichotomized into those with extremely low weight and those remaining. We compared the proportion of the patients with extremely low weight between the two groups. The rates of 'self-induced vomiting' and 'purging' were significantly lower in a group of patients with early-onset AN than in those with late-onset AN. There were significantly fewer subjects with extremely low weight in early-onset than in late-onset AN group. We found clear differences in clinical features between early- and late-onset AN groups.

  6. Impaired Facial Expression Recognition in Children with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Impact of Early Seizure Onset on Fear Recognition (United States)

    Golouboff, Nathalie; Fiori, Nicole; Delalande, Olivier; Fohlen, Martine; Dellatolas, Georges; Jambaque, Isabelle


    The amygdala has been implicated in the recognition of facial emotions, especially fearful expressions, in adults with early-onset right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The present study investigates the recognition of facial emotions in children and adolescents, 8-16 years old, with epilepsy. Twenty-nine subjects had TLE (13 right, 16 left) and…

  7. Differences between early and late onset adult depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann Bukh, Jens; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj


    Background: It is unclear, whether age-of-onset identifies subgroups of depression. Aim: To assess the clinical presentation of depression with onset in the early adult age (18-30 years) as compared to depression with later onset (31-70 years). Method: A total number of 301 patients with first......, t-tests for continuous parametric data and Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous nonparametric data. Logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to adjust the analyses for potentially confounding variables. Results: Patients with early onset of depression were characterised by a higher...

  8. Similarities and differences in adolescence-onset versus adulthood-onset sexual abuse incidents. (United States)

    McKillop, Nadine; Brown, Sarah; Smallbone, Stephen; Pritchard, Karlyn


    A sample of males who had first committed sexual offences against children in either adolescence (n=230; M=14.0 years, SD=1.5) or adulthood (n=280; M=34.4 years, SD=11.7) were compared on measures relating to the circumstances of their first known sexual abuse incident. Considerable diversity in the circumstances of these first incidents was observed for both groups. However, adulthood-onset sexual abuse most often occurred following a long-standing familial relationship with a female victim, and in a home setting. The first incident for adolescence-onset offenders also tended to occur in the context of a long-term relationship and against a female child in a home setting, but more commonly against a nonfamilial victim. Adulthood-onset offenders abused older children, were more likely to engage in penetrative sexual behaviors, and went on to abuse over a longer duration than adolescence-onset offenders. Adolescence-onset offences were more likely to be witnessed by a third party. Findings and their implications for prevention are considered from a situational crime prevention perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporal change in N/sub 2/O and dinitrogen from denitrification following onset of anaerobiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, M.K.; Tiedje, J.M.


    Similar temporal patterns were found in three mineral soils for the composition of the gaseous products of denitrification following the onset of anaerobic conditions. During the early period of anaerobiosis (0 up to 1 to 3 h), N/sub 2/ was the dominant product of denitrification. The NO/sub 3//sup -/ ..-->.. N/sub 2/O activity then increased, but was not accompanied by a corresponding increase in N/sub 2/O-reducing activity. This resulted in a relatively extended period of time (1 to 3 up to 16 to 33 h) during which N/sub 2/O was a major product. Eventually (after 16 to 33 h), an increase in N/sub 2/O-reducing activity occurred without a comparable increase in the N/sub 2/O-producing activity. The increase in the rate of N/sub 2/O reduction did not occur in the presence of chloramphenicol and required the presence of N/sub 2/O or NO/sub 3//sup -/ during the preceding anaerobic incubation. During the final period (16 to 33, up to 48 h), N/sub 2/ was generally the sole product of denitrification, since the rate of N/sub 2/O reduction exceeded the rate of N/sub 2/O production. A similar sequential pattern was also found for a culture of a denitrifying Flavobacterium sp. shifted to anaerobic growth. A staggered synthesis of the enzymes in the denitrification sequence apparently occurred in response to anoxia, which caused first a net production of N/sub 2/O followed by consumption of N/sub 2/O.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Pajhouhi


    Full Text Available Pretibial myxedema is an uncommon manifestation of Graves' disease and because of its rarity, information regarding its natural course and its relationship with other manifestations of Graves' disease is not sufficient."nWe reviewed 150 consecutive cases diagnosed as having pretibial myxedema in a twenty-year period in a tertiary care center. Only one patient in this group did not have ophthalmopathy, and the majority of cases had significant proptosis and ophthalmopathy, 30% required orbital decompression surgery. Dermopathy is a late manifestation of the Graves' disease and its onset is usually after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy. In a few patients, dermopathy preceded diagnosis of hyperthyroidism or the onset of ophthalmopathy. Fourteen patients have never had hyperthyroid, eleven patients in this group had developed spontaneous hypothyroidism."nAll cases showed the involvement of the lower extremities, and only one patient showed to have combined upper and lower extremities involvement. The most common form of thyroid dermopathy was non-pitting edema. Nodular and plaque forms were also relatively common and occurred with equal frequency. Polypoid form occurred in one patient and elephantiatic form in another. There was no consistent correlation among different types of dermopathy and severity of eye disease."nDuring a three-month to nineteen-year follow up in 120 patients, complete remission was observed only in twelve patients. Partial remission was more common and occurred more frequently in patients who had local steroid therapy. it is possible that patients with remission might have been excluded of the follow up program.Thus, the remission data should be interpreted cautiously.

  11. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.


    Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  12. Patterns of striatal functional connectivity differ in early and late onset Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Hou, Yanbing; Yang, Jing; Luo, Chunyan; Ou, Ruwei; Song, Wei; Liu, Wanglin; Gong, Qiyong; Shang, Huifang


    To map functional connectivity (FC) patterns of early onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) and late onset PD (LOPD) in drug-naïve early stage. MRI was used to assess atrophy and resting-state FC focusing on striatal subregions of EOPD and LOPD in two subgroups of 18 patients matched for disease duration and severity, relative to age- and sex- matched healthy controls. Compared with controls, both PD subgroups showed FC alterations in cortico-striatal and cerebello-striatal loops but with different patterns in resting state. EOPD patients showed widespread increased FC between striatum and sensorimotor cortex, middle frontal gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, superior and inferior temporal gyri, and cerebellum. While LOPD patients were evidenced with increased FC in cerebello-striatal circuit and decreased FC between orbitofrontal gyrus and striatum. In addition, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III scores were negatively correlated with the increased FC between the caudate nucleus and sensorimotor cortex (r = -0.571, p = 0.013) in EOPD patients, while negatively correlated with the increased FC between the putamen and cerebellum (r = -0.478, p = 0.045) in LOPD patients, suggesting that increased FC is here likely to reflect compensatory mechanism. FC changes in EOPD and LOPD share common features and have differences, which may suggest that the responses to defective basal ganglia are different between the two subtypes. Improved insights into the onset-related subtypes of PD and its disruptive FC pattern will be valuable for improving our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease.

  13. Functional connectivity changes differ in early and late-onset Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Gour, Natalina; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Koric, Lejla; Gueriot, Claude; Chanoine, Valérie; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Guye, Maxime; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Ranjeva, Jean Philippe


    At a similar stage, patients with early onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) have greater neocortical but less medial temporal lobe dysfunction and atrophy than the late-onset form of the disease (LOAD). Whether the organization of neural networks also differs has never been investigated. This study aims at characterizing basal functional connectivity (FC) patterns of EOAD and LOAD in two groups of 14 patients matched for disease duration and severity, relative to age-matched controls. All subjects underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify atrophy and resting-state FC focusing on : the default mode network (DMN), found impaired in earlier studies on AD, and the anterior temporal network (ATN) and dorso-lateral prefrontal network (DLPFN), respectively involved in declarative memory and executive functions. Patterns of atrophy and cognitive impairment in EOAD and LOAD were in accordance with previous reports. FC within the DMN was similarly decreased in both EOAD and LOAD relative to controls. However, a double-dissociated pattern of FC changes in ATN and DLPFN was found. EOAD exhibited decreased FC in the DLPFN and increased FC in the ATN relative to controls, while the reverse pattern was found in LOAD. In addition, ATN and DLPFN connectivity correlated respectively with memory and executive performances, suggesting that increased FC is here likely to reflect compensatory mechanisms. Thus, large-scale neural network changes in EOAD and LOAD endorse both common features and differences, probably related to a distinct distribution of pathological changes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ethnic differences in age of onset and prevalence of disordered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 3, 2010 ... eating disorders among black female South Africans only appeared. Abstract. Objectives: To determine the age of onset and prevalence figures for disordered eating for diverse ethnic groups among a sample of South ... is largely directed at treatment outcomes in adults (18 years and above), and thus it is ...

  15. Focal cortical dysplasia of the temporal lobe with late-onset partial epilepsy: serial quantitative MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, J.; Seitz, R.J. [Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf (Germany); Aulich, A. [Department of Radiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Reifenberger, G. [Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kiwit, J.C.W. [Department of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Langen, K.J.; Schmidt, D. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany)


    We describe serial studies of focal cortical dysplasia causing temporal lobe seizures and progressive aphasia in a 54-year-old woman. Initially, MRI volumetry of the temporal lobes showed significant left cortical thickening corresponding to an elevated aminoacid uptake in the left temporoparietal and inferior frontal cortex on SPECT using 3-[{sup 123}I]iodo-{alpha}-methyl-l-tyrosine (IMT). After 1 year there was severe shrinkage of the left temporal lobe, possibly the result of recurrent complex partial seizures. (orig.)

  16. Assessing racial/ethnic differences in the social consequences of early-onset psychiatric disorder. (United States)

    Lê Cook, Benjamin; Carson, Nicholas; Alegria, Margarita


    Individuals with early onset of psychiatric disorder have worse social outcomes than individuals with adult onset. It is unknown whether this association varies by racial/ ethnic group. Identifying groups at risk for poor social outcomes is important for improving clinical and policy interventions. We compared unemployment, high school dropout, arrest, and welfare participation by race/ethnicity and time of onset using a nationally representative sample of Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Latinos with lifetime psychiatric disorder. Early onset was associated with worse social outcomes than adult onset. Significant Black-White and Latino-White differences in social outcomes were identified. The association between early onset and negative social outcomes was similar across Whites, Latinos, and Blacks. For Asians, the association between unemployment and early onset was opposite that of Whites. Increasing early detection and treatment of psychiatric illness should be prioritized. Further study will clarify the association between onset and social outcomes among sub-ethnic populations.

  17. Understanding onsets of rainfall in Southern Africa using temporal probabilistic modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cheruiyot, D


    Full Text Available . Using rainfall observations from Botswana, this work has shown that three month lead time of Southern Oscillation Index (SOI); geopotential height anomalies at 500hpa level and wind anomalies at 700 hpa parameters are better indicators for the onset...

  18. Bipolar disorder in the elderly; different effects of age and of age of onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oostervink, Frits; Boomsma, Maarten M; Nolen, Willem A


    Information about differences between younger and elderly patients with bipolar disorder and between elderly patients with early and late age of onset of illness is limited.......Information about differences between younger and elderly patients with bipolar disorder and between elderly patients with early and late age of onset of illness is limited....

  19. Nasotemporal ERP differences: evidence for increased inhibition of temporal distractors. (United States)

    Huber-Huber, Christoph; Grubert, Anna; Ansorge, Ulrich; Eimer, Martin


    Previous research has demonstrated behavioral advantages for stimuli in the temporal relative to the nasal visual hemifield. To investigate whether this nasotemporal asymmetry reflects a genuinely attentional bias, we recorded event-related potentials in a task where participants identified a color-defined target digit in one visual hemifield that was accompanied by an irrelevant distractor in the opposite hemifield (experiment 1). To dissociate the processing of stimuli in nasal and temporal visual hemifields, an eye-patching procedure was used. Targets triggered N2pc components that marked their attentional selection. Unexpectedly, these N2pc components were larger and emerged earlier for nasal relative to temporal targets. Experiment 2 provided evidence that this nasotemporal asymmetry for the N2pc is linked to an increased attentional inhibition of temporal distractors. Relative to nasal distractors, temporal distractors elicited an increased inhibition-related contralateral positivity, resulting in more pronounced differences between contralateral and ipsilateral event-related potentials on trials with temporal distractors and nasal targets. These results provide novel evidence for a genuinely attentional contribution to nasotemporal asymmetries and suggest that such asymmetries are associated with top-down controlled distractor inhibition. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Formal learning theory dissociates brain regions with different temporal integration. (United States)

    Gläscher, Jan; Büchel, Christian


    Learning can be characterized as the extraction of reliable predictions about stimulus occurrences from past experience. In two experiments, we investigated the interval of temporal integration of previous learning trials in different brain regions using implicit and explicit Pavlovian fear conditioning with a dynamically changing reinforcement regime in an experimental setting. With formal learning theory (the Rescorla-Wagner model), temporal integration is characterized by the learning rate. Using fMRI and this theoretical framework, we are able to distinguish between learning-related brain regions that show long temporal integration (e.g., amygdala) and higher perceptual regions that integrate only over a short period of time (e.g., fusiform face area, parahippocampal place area). This approach allows for the investigation of learning-related changes in brain activation, as it can dissociate brain areas that differ with respect to their integration of past learning experiences by either computing long-term outcome predictions or instantaneous reinforcement expectancies.

  1. Structural connectivity differences in left and right temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Besson, Pierre; Dinkelacker, Vera; Valabregue, Romain; Thivard, Lionel; Leclerc, Xavier; Baulac, Michel; Sammler, Daniela; Colliot, Olivier; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Samson, Séverine; Dupont, Sophie


    Our knowledge on temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis has evolved towards the view that this syndrome affects widespread brain networks. Diffusion weighted imaging studies have shown alterations of large white matter tracts, most notably in left temporal lobe epilepsy, but the degree of altered connections between cortical and subcortical structures remains to be clarified. We performed a whole brain connectome analysis in 39 patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (20 right and 19 left) and 28 healthy subjects. We performed whole-brain probabilistic fiber tracking using MRtrix and segmented 164 cortical and subcortical structures with Freesurfer. Individual structural connectivity graphs based on these 164 nodes were computed by mapping the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) onto each tract. Connectomes were then compared using two complementary methods: permutation tests for pair-wise connections and Network Based Statistics to probe for differences in large network components. Comparison of pair-wise connections revealed a marked reduction of connectivity between left TLE patients and controls, which was strongly lateralized to the ipsilateral temporal lobe. Specifically, infero-lateral cortex and temporal pole were strongly affected, and so was the perisylvian cortex. In contrast, for right TLE, focal connectivity loss was much less pronounced and restricted to bilateral limbic structures and right temporal cortex. Analysis of large network components revealed furthermore that both left and right hippocampal sclerosis affected diffuse global and interhemispheric connectivity. Thus, left temporal lobe epilepsy was associated with a much more pronounced pattern of reduced FA, that included major landmarks of perisylvian language circuitry. These distinct patterns of connectivity associated with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis show how a focal pathology influences global network architecture, and how

  2. Temporal versus Superior Limbal Incision: Any difference in visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. C. Pedro-Egbe

    Temporal versus Superior Limbal Incision: Any difference in visual outcome? Initial report of 40 retrospective cases. CN Pedro-Egbe MB;BS, FMCOph, Bassey Fiebai MB;BS. FMCOph. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Aim: To compare the ...

  3. Cognitive replay of visuomotor learning at sleep onset: temporal dynamics and relationship to task performance. (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J; Perry, Karen; Djonlagic, Ina; Reaven, Laura Babkes; Stickgold, Robert


    Studies of neural activity in animals and humans suggest that experiences are "replayed" in cortical and hippocampal networks during NREM sleep. Here, we examine whether memory reactivation in sleeping humans might also be evident within reports of concomitant subjective experience (i.e., dreaming). Participants were trained on an engaging visuomotor learning task across a period of one or more days, and sleep onset mentation was collected at variable intervals using the "Nightcap" home-monitoring device. Verbal reports of sleep onset mentation were obtained either at the beginning of the night, or following 2 h of initial sleep. Data were collected in participants' home environments, via the Nightcap monitoring system, and at The Center for Sleep and Cognition, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA. 43 healthy, medication-free college students (16 males, age 18-25 years). N/A. The learning task exerted a powerful, direct effect on verbal reports of mentation during light NREM sleep (stages 1 and 2). On post-training nights, a full 30% of all verbal reports were related to the task. The nature of this cognitive "replay" effect was altered with increasing durations of sleep, becoming more abstracted from the original experience as time into sleep increased. These observations are interpreted in light of memory consolidation theory, and demonstrate that introspective reports can provide a valuable window on cognitive processing in the sleeping brain.

  4. 3D City Models with Different Temporal Characteristica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars


    3D city models are mostly seen as static or at least as background for various animations types. In the last couple of years, experts have realized that 3D city models (technical maps of the future) should be maintained in order to be used in a continuous and dynamical planning and administration....... Therefore it is important that temporal information is attached to the different parts of a city model so that it can be used as part of metadata for city models. Another and just as important use of time is related to the temporal characteristics of the 3D city models. There is a huge difference between...... traditional static city models and those models that are built for realtime applications. The difference between the city models applies both to the spatial modelling and also when using the phenomenon time in the models. If the city models are used in visualizations without any variation in time or when...

  5. On the temporal onset of postmortem animal scavenging. "Motivation" of the animal. (United States)

    Rothschild, M A; Schneider, V


    During an initial investigation, postmortem scavenging by pets (dogs, cats, etc.), which sometimes occurs, may sometimes lead to the suspicion that a crime has been committed. In most cases however, the death was due to natural causes. The time of the onset of postmortem scavenging by animals can often not be exactly determined because the interval between the time of death and discovery of the body is usually considerable. In this paper we deal with the case of a 31-year-old man, who committed suicide by shooting himself in the mouth and whose face exhibited extensive postmortem animal bite marks caused by the victim's Alsatian, which must have occurred during the 45 minute period between the fatal shot and the discovery of the body. Hunger, frequently discussed as a reason for postmortem animal mutilating injuries, could not have been responsible for the injuries in this case. In the room where the victim was found, there was also a bowl with sufficient dog food and while being transported to an animal sanctuary in a police van the dog vomited about 400 g of dog food as well as human tissue.

  6. Early and late age of seizure onset have a differential impact on brain resting-state organization in temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Doucet, Gaëlle E; Sharan, Ashwini; Pustina, Dorian; Skidmore, Christopher; Sperling, Michael R; Tracy, Joseph I


    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with abnormalities which extend into the entire brain. While the age of seizure onset (SO) has a large impact on brain plasticity, its effect on brain connectivity at rest remains unclear, especially, in interaction with factors such as the presence of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). In this context, we investigated whole-brain and regional functional connectivity (FC) organization in 50 TLE patients who underwent a resting-state fMRI scan, in comparison to healthy controls, using graph-theory measures. We first classified TLE patients according to the presence of MTS or not. Then, we categorized the patients based on their age of SO into two subgroups (early or late age of SO). Results revealed whole-brain differences with both reduced functional segregation and increased integration in the patients, regardless of the age of SO and MTS, relative to the controls. At a local level, we revealed that the connectivity of the ictal hippocampus remains the most impaired for an early SO, even in the absence of MTS. Importantly, we showed that the impact of age of SO on whole-brain and regional resting-state FC depends on the presence of MTS. Overall, our results highlight the importance of investigating the effect of age of SO when examining resting-state activity in TLE, as this factor leads different perturbations of network modularity and connectivity at the global and local level, with different implications for regional plasticity and adaptive organization.

  7. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS: is there a difference based on onset of symptoms - pediatric versus adult?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Nilay


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS is a well-recognized functional gastrointestinal disorder in children but its presentation is poorly understood in adults. Genetic differences in pediatric-onset (presentation before age 18 and adult-onset CVS have been reported recently but their clinical features and possible differences in response to therapy have not been well studied. Methods This was a retrospective review of 101 CVS patients seen at the Medical College of Wisconsin between 2006 and 2008. Rome III criteria were utilized to make the diagnosis of CVS. Results Our study population comprised of 29(29% pediatric-onset and 72 (71% adult-onset CVS patients. Pediatric-onset CVS patients were more likely to be female (86% vs. 57%, p = 0.005 and had a higher prevalence of CVS plus (CVS + neurocognitive disorders as compared to adult-onset CVS patients (14% vs. 3%, p = 0.05. There was a longer delay in diagnosis (10 ± 7 years in the pediatric-onset group when compared to (5 ± 7 years adult-onset CVS group (p = 0.001. Chronic opiate use was less frequent in the pediatric-onset group compared to adult-onset patients (0% vs. 23%, p = 0.004. Aside from these differences, the two groups were similar with regards to their clinical features and the time of onset of symptoms did not predict response to standard treatment. The majority of patients (86% responded to treatment with tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants (topiramate, coenzyme Q-10, and L-carnitine. Non-response to therapy was associated with coalescence of symptoms, chronic opiate use and more severe disease as characterized by longer episodes, greater number of emergency department visits in the year prior to presentation, presence of disability and non-compliance on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, only compliance to therapy was associated with a response. (88% vs. 38%, Odds Ratio, OR 9.6; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.18-77.05. Conclusion Despite reported

  8. A prospective study of 287 patients with polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arteritis: clinical and laboratory manifestations at onset of disease and at the time of diagnosis. (United States)

    Myklebust, G; Gran, J T


    A prospective study of 287 patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA), including polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and temporal arteritis (TA), was conducted during 1987-1994. All patients were evaluated prior to the start of drug treatment. During the same period, 31 patients with GCA, of whom 12 cases had TA, were admitted to other departments in the hospital. At onset of disease, all patients were > or = 50 yr of age. Peripheral arthritis was found in 24.4% of patients with PMR, while none of the patients with TA exhibited such manifestations. Clinical features at onset of disease differed from those appearing at presentation to the hospital. Thus, the gradual development of a full-blown clinical picture may be responsible for the delay in diagnosis of GCA. The majority of cases (80%) presented with "pure' PMR without clinical signs or symptoms of concomitant TA. In a random sample of 68 patients with "pure' PMR, histological examinations of biopsy specimens of the temporal artery revealed inflammatory changes in three patients only (4.4%). Consequently, arterial biopsy in patients with clinical features of PMR only, appears to be unnecessary. Among patients with TA referred to the department of internal medicine, general malaise, loss of weight and sustained fever were prominent manifestations. Such features may thus necessitate a diagnostic arterial biopsy even in the absence of clinical arteritis or myalgia. Both ESR and CRP were within normal levels in 1.2% of the cases. Further clinical and laboratory examinations performed at diagnosis of GCA disclosed only one case of malignancy. Routine chest X-rays did not reveal unexpected pathological findings. Permanent and complete blindness due to arteritis was observed in one patient only. No association between GCA and thyroid dysfunction was detected.

  9. Temporal weighting functions for interaural time and level differences. IV. Effects of carrier frequency. (United States)

    Stecker, G Christopher


    Temporal variation in listeners' sensitivity to interaural time and level differences (ITD and ILD, respectively) was measured for sounds of different carrier frequency using the temporal weighting function (TWF) paradigm [Stecker and Hafter (2002) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112,1046-1057]. Listeners made lateralization judgments following brief trains of filtered impulses (Gabor clicks) presented over headphones with overall ITD and/or ILD ranging from ±500 μs ITD and/or ±5 dB ILD across trials. Individual clicks within each train varied by an additional ±100 μs ITD or ±2 dB ILD to allow TWF calculation by multiple regression. In separate conditions, TWFs were measured for carrier frequencies of 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz. Consistent with past studies, TWFs demonstrated high weight on the first click for stimuli with short interclick interval (ICI = 2 ms), but flatter weighting for longer ICI (5-10 ms). Some conditions additionally demonstrated greater weight for clicks near the offset than near the middle of the train. Results support a primary role of the auditory periphery in emphasizing onset and offset cues in rapidly modulated low-frequency sounds. For slower modulations, sensitivity to ongoing high-frequency ILD and low-frequency ITD cues appears subject to recency effects consistent with the effects of leaky temporal integration of binaural information.

  10. Differences in age at onset and familial aggregation between clinical types of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Korchounov, Alexei; Schipper, Hayo I; Preobrazhenskaya, Irina S; Kessler, Kirn R; Yakhno, Nikolay N


    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) can be subdivided by its patterns of motor symptoms into tremor-dominant (TDT), akinetic-rigid (ART), and mixed type (MT). Our objective was to determine whether age at onset and family history are different in these three types. In total, 366 patients with PD were assigned in a standardized approach to one of the three subtypes. Age at onset and family history were obtained in all patients and all presumably affected family members were examined. Mean ages at disease onset were similar in all three groups, but distribution of age at onset was markedly different: monophasic in TDT with a peak around 60 years, biphasic in ART with two peaks, one in the middle of the sixth decade (earlier onset, ART-EO), another during the first half of the seventh decade (later onset, ART-LO), and increasing with age only in MT patients A positive family history was significantly associated only with TDT (odds ratio = 5.7) and ART-EO (odds ratio = 7.8), but not with MT or ART-LO patients. Segregation analysis suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission in ART-EO and an autosomal dominant mode of transmission in TDT.

  11. SCOPE-mTL: A non-invasive tool for identifying and lateralizing mesial temporal lobe seizures prior to scalp EEG ictal onset. (United States)

    Lam, Alice D; Maus, Douglas; Zafar, Sahar F; Cole, Andrew J; Cash, Sydney S


    In mesial temporal lobe (mTL) epilepsy, seizure onset can precede the appearance of a scalp EEG ictal pattern by many seconds. The ability to identify this early, occult mTL seizure activity could improve lateralization and localization of mTL seizures on scalp EEG. Using scalp EEG spectral features and machine learning approaches on a dataset of combined scalp EEG and foramen ovale electrode recordings in patients with mTL epilepsy, we developed an algorithm, SCOPE-mTL, to detect and lateralize early, occult mTL seizure activity, prior to the appearance of a scalp EEG ictal pattern. Using SCOPE-mTL, 73% of seizures with occult mTL onset were identified as such, and no seizures that lacked an occult mTL onset were identified as having one. Predicted mTL seizure onset times were highly correlated with actual mTL seizure onset times (r=0.69). 50% of seizures with early mTL onset were lateralizable prior to scalp ictal onset, with 94% accuracy. SCOPE-mTL can identify and lateralize mTL seizures prior to scalp EEG ictal onset, with high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Quantitative analysis of scalp EEG can provide important information about mTL seizures, even in the absence of a visible scalp EEG ictal correlate. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Features in Juvenile-Onset Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Carrying Different B27 Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikun Mou


    Full Text Available Background. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a common rheumatic disease and is characterized by inflammation of the axial skeleton. HLA-B27 is strongly associated with AS. Juvenile-onset AS (JAS with disease onset before 16 years of age differs from adult-onset AS (AAS in many respects. Objective. To compare the clinical features in JAS with different B27 subtypes and analyze the differences between JAS and AAS. Methods. 145 JAS and 360 AAS patients were included. The demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory markers, Bath AS indices, and B27 subtypes were recorded. Results. Peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, BASDAI, ESR, and CRP were significantly higher in JAS patients with HLA-B*2704 than those with B27-negative. Enthesitis and ESR were significantly higher in patients with HLA-B*2705 than those with B27-negative. The onset age of HLA-B*2715 group was much earlier than the other groups. The peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, and hip joint involvement in JAS with HLA-B*2704 were significantly higher than those in AAS with HLA-B*2704. Conclusion. JAS with different B27 subtypes had similar features in most of manifestations; JAS and AAS patients with the same subtype could have distinctive courses. Early diagnosis, hip detection, and control of systemic active inflammation in JAS patients will be helpful for improving the prognosis.

  13. Bipolar disorder in the elderly; different effects of age and of age of onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostervink, Frits; Boomsma, Maarten M.; Nolen, Willem A.

    Background: Information about differences between younger and elderly patients with bipolar disorder and between elderly patients with early and late age of onset of illness is limited. Method: The European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication (EMBLEM) study was a 2-year

  14. Clinical characteristics of young-onset hypertension-implications for different genders. (United States)

    Chen, Jaw-Wen; Wu, San-Yu; Pan, Wen-Harn


    Hypertension may develop early, before the age of 40 years, in both genders, so-called young-onset hypertension. The clinical characteristics of young-onset hypertension have not been well defined. The personal history and clinical characteristics were evaluated in a series of patients with young-onset hypertension. With the individual-matching, case-controlled design, patients were initially matched for age, gender and residence with the first control (C1) group in either 2:1 or 1:1 fashion. They were then additionally matched for body mass index (BMI) with the second control (C2) group in 1:1 fashion. To elucidate the possible difference between genders, all the comparisons were conducted in males and females separately. A total of 82 consecutive patients, 56 males and 26 females, with young-onset hypertension were included. Compared with the 148 subjects in C1 group, hypertensive patients were relatively highly educated and had less alcohol drinking in either gender. BMI (25.10+/-0.49 vs. 22.34+/-0.31 kg/m(2), Pgender. Interestingly, serum cholesterol level in female patients was lower than that in either C1 or C2 group. Further, serum triglyceride level was significantly correlated to BMI, serum cholesterol and glucose level in male patients but only to serum uric acid level in female ones. Clinical characteristics of young-onset hypertension were unique and different by gender. Though consistently increased in patients of either gender, serum triglyceride level was correlated to BMI, serum cholesterol and glucose level only in males, suggesting the gender-specific presence of metabolic syndrome in young-onset hypertension.

  15. Sex differences in temporal arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. (United States)

    Narvaez, Javier; Nolla-Solé, Joan M; Valverde-García, José; Roig-Escofet, Daniel


    Sex-specific differences in treatment outcomes have been observed in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and temporal arteritis (TA), with a significantly longer course of treatment in women than in men. We analyzed whether these sex differences are related to differences in disease presentation and severity of the inflammatory response. The records of 163 cases of PMR and/or TA diagnosed over a 15 year period were reviewed. A comparative study of clinical and laboratory features between men and women was performed. Of 163 patients, 90 had isolated PMR and 73 had TA. Among patients with TA, 49 women and 24 men were identified, with a ratio of 2. While there were no differences in the frequency of classic disease manifestations, the presence of constitutional syndrome (malaise, anorexia, and weight loss) and fever were significantly more frequent in women than in men. Of note, evaluation of laboratory measures at time of diagnosis also revealed more marked laboratory abnormalities reflecting inflammation in the female group. Among patients with isolated PMR, 58 women and 32 men were identified, a ratio of 1.8. Comparing the clinical features at presentation, significant sex differences were also found, with a higher frequency of constitutional syndrome and lower values of hemoglobin in women. Moreover, women also had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate values, and higher prevalence of fever and hepatic involvement, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. Modest differences were found in disease expression between women and men with TA and/or PMR. In both conditions, the inflammatory response seemed to be more severe in women. The strong inflammatory response in women could explain the longer duration of treatment reported in this subgroup of patients.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Onset of the Growing Season on Svalbard, Arctic Norway — Measured by MODIS-NDVI Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Rune Karlsen


    Full Text Available The Arctic is among the regions with the most rapid changes in climate and has the expected highest increase in temperature. Changes in the timing of phenological phases, such as onset of the growing season observed from remote sensing, are among the most sensitive bio-indicators of climate change. The study area here is the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, located between 76°30ʹ and 80°50ʹN. The goal of this study was to use MODIS Terra data (the MOD09Q1 and MOD09A1 surface reflectance products, both with 8-day temporal composites to map the onset of the growing season on Svalbard for the 2000–2013 period interpreted from field observations. Due to a short and intense period with greening-up and frequent cloud cover, all the cloud free data is needed, which requires reliable cloud masks. We used a combination of three cloud removing methods (State QA values, own algorithms, and manual removal. This worked well, but is time-consuming as it requires manual interpretation of cloud cover. The onset of the growing season was then mapped by a NDVI threshold method, which showed high correlation (r2 = 0.60, n = 25, p < 0.001 with field observations of flowering of Salix polaris (polar willow. However, large bias was found between NDVI-based mapped onset and field observations in bryophyte-dominated areas, which indicates that the results in these parts must be interpreted with care. On average for the 14-year period, the onset of the growing season occurs after July 1st in 68.4% of the vegetated areas of Svalbard. The mapping revealed large variability between years. The years 2000 and 2008 were extreme in terms of late onset of the growing season, and 2002 and 2013 had early onset. Overall, no clear trend in onset of the growing season for the 2000–2013 period was found.

  17. Temporal-difference reinforcement learning with distributed representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeb Kurth-Nelson


    Full Text Available Temporal-difference (TD algorithms have been proposed as models of reinforcement learning (RL. We examine two issues of distributed representation in these TD algorithms: distributed representations of belief and distributed discounting factors. Distributed representation of belief allows the believed state of the world to distribute across sets of equivalent states. Distributed exponential discounting factors produce hyperbolic discounting in the behavior of the agent itself. We examine these issues in the context of a TD RL model in which state-belief is distributed over a set of exponentially-discounting "micro-Agents", each of which has a separate discounting factor (gamma. Each microAgent maintains an independent hypothesis about the state of the world, and a separate value-estimate of taking actions within that hypothesized state. The overall agent thus instantiates a flexible representation of an evolving world-state. As with other TD models, the value-error (delta signal within the model matches dopamine signals recorded from animals in standard conditioning reward-paradigms. The distributed representation of belief provides an explanation for the decrease in dopamine at the conditioned stimulus seen in overtrained animals, for the differences between trace and delay conditioning, and for transient bursts of dopamine seen at movement initiation. Because each microAgent also includes its own exponential discounting factor, the overall agent shows hyperbolic discounting, consistent with behavioral experiments.

  18. [The relationship between accommodative accuracy at different near-work distances and early-onset myopia]. (United States)

    Yu, Q W; Zhang, P; Zhou, S B; Hu, Y; Ji, M X; Luo, Y C; You, H L; Yao, Z X


    To observe the accommodative accuracy of children with early-onset myopia at different near-work distances, and discuss the relationship between accommodative accuracy and early-onset myopia. This was a case-control study. Thirty-seven emmetropic children, 41 early-onset myopic children without correction, and 39 early-onset myopic children with spectacles, aged 7 to 13 years, were included. Measures of refractive errors and accommodative accuracy at four near-work distances, including 50 cm, 40 cm, 30 cm, and 20 cm, were made using the binocular fusion cross cylinder (FCC) of an automatic phoropter. Most candidates showed accommodative lags, including the children with emmetropia. The ratio of lags in all candidates at different near-work distances was 75.21% (50 cm), 87.18% (40 cm), 92.31% (30 cm), and 98.29% (20 cm), respectively. All accommodative accuracies became worse, and the accommodative lag ratio and values of FCC increased, along with the shortening of the distance. The difference in accommodative accuracy among groups was statistically significant at 30 cm (χ(2)=7.852, P= 0.020) and 20 cm (χ(2)=6.480, P=0.039). The values of FCC among groups were significantly different at 30 cm (F=3.626, P=0.030) and 20 cm (F=3.703, P=0.028), but not at 50 cm and 40 cm (P>0.05). In addition, the FCC values of 30 cm and 20 cm had a statistically significant difference between myopic children without correction [(1.25±0.44) D and (1.76±0.43) D] and emmetropic children [(0.95±0.52) D and (1.41±0.58) D] (P=0.012, 0.008). The correlation between diopters of myopia and accommodative accuracy at different nearwork distances was not statistically significant (P>0.05). However, the correlation between diopters of myopia and the accommodative lag value (FCC) at 20 cm was statistically significant (r=0.246, P=0.028). The closer the near-work distance is, the worse the accommodative accuracy is. This is more significant in early-onset myopia, especially myopia without

  19. Genetic architecture differences between pediatric and adult-onset inflammatory bowel diseases in the Polish population. (United States)

    Ostrowski, Jerzy; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Lazowska, Izabella; Ambrozkiewicz, Filip; Goryca, Krzysztof; Kulecka, Maria; Rawa, Tomasz; Karczmarski, Jakub; Dabrowska, Michalina; Zeber-Lubecka, Natalia; Tomecki, Roman; Kluska, Anna; Balabas, Aneta; Piatkowska, Magdalena; Paczkowska, Katarzyna; Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Socha, Piotr; Lodyga, Michal; Rydzewska, Grazyna; Klopocka, Maria; Mierzwa, Grazyna; Iwanczak, Barbara; Krzesiek, Elzbieta; Bak-Drabik, Katarzyna; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Klincewicz, Beata; Radwan, Piotr; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Landowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Korczowski, Bartosz; Starzynska, Teresa; Albrecht, Piotr; Mikula, Michal


    Most inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are classic complex disorders represented by common alleles. Here we aimed to define the genetic architecture of pediatric and adult-onset IBDs for the Polish population. A total of 1495 patients were recruited, including 761 patients with Crohn's disease (CD; 424 pediatric), 734 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC; 390 pediatric), and 934 healthy controls. Allelotyping employed a pooled-DNA genome-wide association study (GWAS) and was validated by individual genotyping. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on 44 IBD patients diagnosed before 6 years of age, 45 patients diagnosed after 40 years of age, and 18 healthy controls. Altogether, out of 88 selected SNPs, 31 SNPs were replicated for association with IBD. A novel BRD2 (rs1049526) association reached significance of P = 5.2 × 10 -11 and odds ratio (OR) = 2.43. Twenty SNPs were shared between pediatric and adult patients; 1 and 7 were unique to adult-onset and pediatric-onset IBD, respectively. WES identified numerous rare and potentially deleterious variants in IBD-associated or innate immunity-associated genes. Deleterious alleles in both groups were over-represented among rare variants in affected children. Our GWAS revealed differences in the polygenic architecture of pediatric- and adult-onset IBD. A significant accumulation of rare and deleterious variants in affected children suggests a contribution by yet unexplained genetic components.

  20. Differences in uterine artery blood flow and fetal growth between the early and late onset of pregnancy-induced hypertension. (United States)

    Mitsui, Takashi; Masuyama, Hisashi; Maki, Jota; Tamada, Shoko; Hirano, Yumika; Eto, Eriko; Nobumoto, Etsuko; Hayata, Kei; Hiramatsu, Yuji


    We continuously measured bilateral uterine artery (UA) blood flow and compared differences in UA blood flow to investigate the differences in pathophysiology between early- and late-onset pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and the usefulness of continuous monitoring of UA blood flow for the prediction of early-onset PIH. The subjects were 76 PIH patients. The mean pulsatility index of bilateral UA (UAPI), an early diastolic notch in the velocity waveform, and regression curves were retrospectively examined and compared between early- and late-onset groups and the groups with and without fetal growth restriction (FGR). Regression curves of the UAPI in the early-onset group persisted at +2.0 standard deviations or more from the second to third trimester, while the UAPI in the late-onset group stayed within the normal range. A significantly higher mean UAPI with a high frequency of an early diastolic notch was observed in the early-onset group compared with the late-onset group in all pregnancy trimesters. There was a significant difference in UA resistance between the mild and severe groups and between the FGR and non-FGR groups, but to a small extent compared with the onset period. There was a difference in pathophysiology between early- and late-onset PIH. Continuous monitoring of UA blood flow might be useful for the prediction of early-onset PIH if high UA resistance has been observed.

  1. Thematic and taxonomic priming effects at different length stimulus onset asynchronies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Conclusions: There was a greater taxonomic priming effect at 500ms than at the longer SOA. However, the temporal pattern for thematic priming did not concur with previous findings. These results will be compared with Malaysian participants, as research has found categorisation differences in Western and Asian participants.

  2. Individual talker differences in voice-onset-time: Contextual influences1


    Theodore, Rachel M.; Miller, Joanne L.; DeSteno, David


    Previous research indicates that talkers differ in phonetically relevant properties of speech, including voice-onset-time (VOT) in word-initial stop consonants; some talkers have characteristically shorter VOTs than others. Previous research also indicates that VOT is robustly affected by contextual influences, including speaking rate and place of articulation. This paper examines whether these contextual influences on VOT are themselves talker-specific. Many tokens of alveolar ∕ti∕ (experime...

  3. Comparison of success rate and onset time of two different anesthesia techniques (United States)

    Haghighat, Abbas; Hasheminia, Dariush; Samandari, Mohammad-Hasan; Safarian, Vajihe; Davoudi, Amin


    Background Using local anesthetic is common to control the pain through blocking the nerve reversibly in dental procedures. Gow-Gates (GG) technique has a high success rate but less common. This study aimed to compare the onset time and success rate in GG and standard technique of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). Material and Methods This descriptive, single blind study was consisted of 136 patients (59 males and 77 females) who were randomly received GG or IANB for extraction of mandibular molar teeth. Comparisons between the successes of two anesthetic injection techniques were analyzed with Chi-square test. Incidence of pulpal anesthesia and soft tissue anesthesia were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier method. Mean onset times of pulpal anesthesia, soft tissue and lip numbness were analyzed with Log-Rank test. Comparisons were considered significant at P≤0.05 by using SPSS software ver.15. Results The incidence of pulpal anesthesia in the IANB group (canine 49.3%, premolar 60.3%) were not significantly different from the GG group (canine 41.3%, premolar 74.6%) (P=0.200 and P=0.723). The success rate in the IANB group (80.82%) was not significantly different from the GG group (92.02%) (P=0.123). Furthermore, onset time of lip and buccal soft tissue numbness in GG group (3.25, 4.96 minutes) was quite similar to IANB group (3.22, 4.89 minutes) (all Pvalues >0.05). Conclusions Although this study demonstrated higher clinical success rate for GG than IANB technique, no significant differences in success rates and onset time were observed between two techniques. Key words: Anesthesia, Inferior alveolar nerve, nerve block, success rate. PMID:25858085

  4. Sexual differences in onset of disease and response to exercise in a transgenic model of ALS. (United States)

    Veldink, J H; Bär, P R; Joosten, E A J; Otten, M; Wokke, J H J; van den Berg, L H


    Transgenic mice that overexpress the mutant human SOD1 gene (hSOD1) serve as an animal model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Age and sex are recognized as risk factors for ALS, but physical activity remains controversial. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exercise on the phenotype of male and female hSOD1 mice. Onset of disease, progression of disease and survival were measured in low-copy and high-copy hSOD1 mice that were randomized to an exercise or sedentary group. We found that onset of disease was different for the two sexes: significantly earlier in male than in female hSOD1 mice. Exercise delayed the onset of disease in female but not in male hSOD1 mice. Also, exercise delayed the total survival time in female high-copy hSOD1 mice. Muscle morphometry and motor neuron counts were similar in all experimental groups at the end of training. Sedentary female hSOD1 mice showed more frequently irregular estrous cycles suggesting a higher estrogen exposure in exercising female mice. These results suggest a possible neuroprotective effect of female sex hormones and support the view that ALS patients should not avoid regular exercise.

  5. Temporal versus Superior Limbal Incision: Any difference in visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To compare the visual outcome of a superiorly placed limbal incision with a temporal limbal incision in extracapsular cataract surgery. The main outcome measures are visual acuity and the degree of stigmatism based on refraction. Method: A retrospective non randomized comparative study. Medical records of 40 ...

  6. Differential microRNA expression in breast cancer with different onset age. (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Pei; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Li, Chien-Fan; Chien, Huei-Tzu; Chen, Shin-Cheh


    The lower breast cancer incidence in Asian populations compared with Western populations has been speculated to be caused by environmental and genetic variation. Early-onset breast cancer occupies a considerable proportion of breast cancers in Asian populations, but the reason for this is unclear. We aimed to examine miRNA expression profiles in different age-onset groups and pathological subtypes in Asian breast cancer. At the first stage, 10 samples (tumor: n = 6, normal tissue: n = 4) were analyzed with an Agilent microRNA 470 probe microarray. Candidate miRNAs with expression levels that were significantly altered in breast cancer samples or selected from a literature review were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of 145 breast cancer samples at the second stage of the process. Correlations between clinicopathological parameters of breast cancer patients from different age groups and candidate miRNA expression were elucidated. In the present study, the tumor subtypes were significantly different in each age group, and an onset age below 40 had poor disease-free and overall survival rates. For all breast cancer patients, miR-335 and miR-145 were down-regulated, and miR-21, miR-200a, miR-200c, and miR-141 were up-regulated. In very young patients (age cancer. Differential miRNA expressions between normal and tumor tissues were observed in different age groups and tumor subtypes. Evolutionarily conserved miRNA clusters, which initiate malignancy transformation, were up-regulated in the breast cancers of very young patients. None of the significantly altered miRNAs were observed in postmenopausal patients.

  7. Surface water - groundwater interactions at different spatial and temporal scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebök, Éva

    As there is a growing demand for the protection and optimal management of both the surface water and groundwater resources, the understanding of their exchange processes is of great importance. This PhD study aimed at describing the natural spatial and temporal variability of these interactions...... in lowland catchments, mainly exploring and assessing Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) which by detecting variability in temperatures at the Sediment-Water Interface (SWI) can indirectly map variability in groundwater discharge at several spatial and temporal scales. On the small-scale (... streambeds which were shown to influence DTS data by sedimentation and scouring processes. A new methodology was therefore developed for the long-term monitoring of surface water-groundwater exchanges in soft-bedded streams....

  8. Management of early onset neonatal sepsis differs in the north and south of Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drageset, Martin; Fjalstad, Jon Widding; Mortensen, Sven


    AIM: This study compared the management and outcomes of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in two tertiary neonatal units in Denmark and Norway. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all infants diagnosed with EONS between April 2010 and March 2013 and managed at Odense University Hospital, Denmark...... blood cultures had higher C-reactive protein levels than patients with negative blood cultures and higher sepsis-attributable mortality. Lumbar punctures were performed more frequently in Denmark. CONCLUSION: There were marginal differences in the management of EONS between units in Denmark and Norway...

  9. Managing different time granularities of clinical information by an interval-based temporal data model. (United States)

    Combi, C; Pinciroli, F; Pozzi, G


    In the field of databases, time management at different levels of granularity has been an issue for several years, for instance when dealing with clinical information from different databases using different time units, dealing with natural language expressions, or when dealing with temporal uncertainty. A temporal data model is proposed to manage the temporal aspect of data, presented at various and mixed levels of granularity. The concept of temporal assertions shapes the entire temporal information. The model provides a temporal dimension to the data by using intervals that can be specified at different granularities. The model supports a three-valued logic, where True, False and Undefined are the truth values. The temporal data model allows to manage some degrees of uncertainty when establishing temporal relationships between intervals or between temporal assertions, expressed at different granularities. The logical connectives and quantifiers can manage each of the three truth-values. We applied the temporal data model by implementing an object-oriented database system for managing follow-up clinical data from patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

  10. New onset somnambulism associated with different dosage of mirtazapine: a case report. (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Wei; Chen, Chun-Hsiung; Feng, Hui-Ming; Wang, Sheng-Chiang; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Chen, Chih-Kang


    Somnambulism consists of variously complex behaviors that may result in harm to self or to others. Many different medications have been reported to induce somnambulism, and a few of them are newer antidepressants. A 40-year-old woman with history of major depression who experienced new onset somnambulism for successive 3 nights, whereas the antidepressant mirtazapine was increased from 30 to 45 mg/d. The notable and complex sleepwalking symptoms terminated dramatically on the first night after withdrawal of mirtazapine. There is clearly a cause-and-effect relationship between the treatment of higher-dosage mirtazapine and development of somnambulism. It might be related to the different affinities to 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 (5-HT(2)) and H(1) receptors at different dosages of mirtazapine, which explain the patient experiencing sleepwalking episodes exclusively at higher doses of mirtazapine. Clinical physicians should be aware of this adverse effect and taper or discontinue the regimen if sleepwalking develops.

  11. Sex differences in voice onset time: A developmental study of phonetic context effects in British English (United States)

    Whiteside, Sandra P.; Henry, Luisa; Dobbin, Rachel


    Voice onset time (VOT) data for the plosives /p b t d k g/ in two vowel contexts (eye opena) for 5 groups of 46 boys and girls aged 5; 8 (5 years, 8 months) to 13;2 years were investigated to examine patterns of sex differences. Results indicated that there was some evidence of females displaying longer VOT values than the males. In addition, these were found to be most marked for the data of the 13;2-year olds. Furthermore, the sex differences in the VOT values displayed phonetic context effects. For example, the greatest sex differences were observed for the voiceless plosives, and within the context of the vowel /i/.

  12. Differences in impulsivity and sensation seeking between early- and late-onset alcoholics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dom, G.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.


    The personality traits of impulsivity and sensation seeking have been proposed as important features of early-onset alcoholism. Early-onset (EOA, n = 62) and late-onset (LOA, n = 68 ) alcoholic inpatients were compared as to the severity of their substance use and related problems, and self-report

  13. Acute diffusion abnormalities in the hippocampus of children with new-onset seizures: the development of mesial temporal sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C. Besta, Milan (Italy); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Bergqvist, C.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Haselgrove, J.; Hunter, J.V.; Bilaniuk, L.T. [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States)


    We studied the role of early diffusion-weighted imaging DWI in the investigation of children with new-onset prolonged seizures which eventually result in unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). We carried out MRI on five children aged 17 months to 7 years including conventional and diffusion-weighted sequences. We calculated apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) for the affected and the normal opposite hippocampus. Follow-up examinations were performed, including DWI and ADC measurements in four. We studied four children within 3 days of the onset of prolonged psychomotor seizures and showed increased signal on T2-weighted images, and DWI, indicating restricted diffusion, throughout the affected hippocampus. The ADC were reduced by a mean of 14.4% in the head and by 15% in the body of the hippocampus. In one child examined 15 days after the onset of seizures, the ADC were the same on both sides. All five patients showed hippocampal atrophy on follow-up 2-18 months later. In the four patients in whom ADC were obtained on follow-up, they were increased by 19% in the head and 17% in the body. DWI may represent a useful adjunct to conventional MRI for identifying acute injury to the hippocampus which results in sclerosis. (orig.)

  14. Temporal differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagai, Akshay; McNally, Bryan F.; Al-Khatib, Sana M.


    Understanding temporal differences in the incidence and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has important implications for developing preventative strategies and optimizing systems for OHCA care.......Understanding temporal differences in the incidence and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has important implications for developing preventative strategies and optimizing systems for OHCA care....

  15. Sex differences in athletic performance emerge coinciding with the onset of male puberty. (United States)

    Handelsman, David J


    Male performance in athletic events begins to exceed that of age-matched females during early adolescence, but the timing of this divergence relative to the onset of male puberty and the rise in circulating testosterone remains poorly defined. This study is a secondary quantitative analysis of four published sources which aimed to define the timing of the gender divergence in athletic performance and relating it to the rise in circulating testosterone due to male puberty. Four data sources reflecting elite swimming and running and jumping track and field events as well as hand-grip strength in nonathletes were analysed to define the age-specific gender differences through adolescence and their relationship to the rising circulating testosterone during male puberty. The onset and tempo of gender divergence were very similar for swimming, running and jumping events as well as the hand-grip strength in nonathletes, and all closely paralleled the rise in circulating testosterone in adolescent boys. The gender divergence in athletic performance begins at the age of 12-13 years and reaches adult plateau in the late teenage years with the timing and tempo closely parallel to the rise in circulating testosterone in boys during puberty. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Temporal weighting of binaural information at low frequencies: Discrimination of dynamic interaural time and level differences. (United States)

    Diedesch, Anna C; Stecker, G Christopher


    The importance of sound onsets in binaural hearing has been addressed in many studies, particularly at high frequencies, where the onset of the envelope may carry much of the useful binaural information. Some studies suggest that sound onsets might play a similar role in the processing of binaural cues [e.g., fine-structure interaural time differences (ITD)] at low frequencies. This study measured listeners' sensitivity to ITD and interaural level differences (ILD) present in early (i.e., onset) and late parts of 80-ms pure tones of 250-, 500-, and 1000-Hz frequency. Following previous studies, tones carried static interaural cues or dynamic cues that peaked at sound onset and diminished to zero at sound offset or vice versa. Although better thresholds were observed in static than dynamic conditions overall, ITD discrimination was especially impaired, regardless of frequency, when cues were not available at sound onset. Results for ILD followed a similar pattern at 1000 Hz; at lower frequencies, ILD thresholds did not differ significantly between dynamic-cue conditions. The results support the "onset" hypothesis of Houtgast and Plomp [(1968). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 807-812] for ITD discrimination, but not necessarily ILD discrimination, in low-frequency pure tones.

  17. Influences of gender role and anxiety on sex differences in temporal summation of pain. (United States)

    Robinson, Michael E; Wise, Emily A; Gagnon, Christine; Fillingim, Roger B; Price, Donald D


    Previous research has consistently shown moderate to large differences between pain reports of men and women undergoing experimental pain testing. These differences have been shown for a variety of types of stimulation. However, only recently have sex differences been demonstrated for temporal summation of second pain. This study examined sex differences in response to temporal summation of second pain elicited by thermal stimulation of the skin. The relative influences of state anxiety and gender role expectations on temporal summation were investigated. Asymptomatic undergraduates (37 women and 30 men) underwent thermal testing of the thenar surface of the hand in a temporal summation protocol. Our results replicated those of Fillingim et al indicating that women showed increased temporal summation compared to men. We extended those findings to demonstrate that temporal summation is influenced by anxiety and gender role stereotypes about pain responding. When anxiety and gender role stereotypes are taken into account, sex is no longer a significant predictor of temporal summation. These findings highlight the contribution of social learning factors in the differences between sexes' pain perception. Results of this study demonstrate that psychosocial variables influence pain mechanisms. Temporal summation was related to gender role expectations of pain and anxiety. These variables explain a significant portion of the differences between men and women's pain processing, and may be related to differences in clinical presentation.

  18. Differences in MRI findings between subgroups of recent-onset childhood arthritis

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    Kirkhus, Eva [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Flatoe, Berit; Smith, Hans-Joergen [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet and University of Oslo, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Riise, Oeystein [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Pediatrics, Oslo (Norway); Reiseter, Tor [Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway)


    MRI is sensitive for joint inflammation, but its ability to separate subgroups of arthritis in children has been questioned. Infectious arthritis (IA), postinfectious arthritis (PA), transient arthritis (TA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are subgroups that may need early, different treatment. To determine whether MRI findings differ in IA, PA/TA and JIA in recent-onset childhood arthritis. Fifty-nine children from a prospective study of incidence of arthritis (n = 216) were, based on clinical and biochemical criteria, examined by MRI. Joint fluid, synovium, bone marrow, soft tissue and cartilage were scored retrospectively and analysed by Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Fifty-nine children had MRI of one station. IA was suggested by bone marrow oedema (OR 7.46, P = 0.011) and absence of T1-weighted and T2-weighted low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 0.06, P = 0.015). Furthermore, soft-tissue oedema and reduced contrast enhancement in the epiphyses were more frequent in children with IA. JIA correlated positively with low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 13.30, P < 0.001) and negatively with soft-tissue oedema (OR 0.20, P = 0.018). No significant positive determinants were found for PA/TA, but bone marrow oedema, soft-tissue oedema, irregular thickened synovium and low signal intensity synovial tissue was less frequent than in IA/JIA. In children with high clinical suspicion of recent onset arthritis, there was a significant difference in the distribution of specific MRI features among the diagnostic groups. (orig.)

  19. Examining gender difference in adult-onset psychosis in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Hui, Christy L-M; Leung, Chung-Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry K-W; Lee, Edwin H-M; Chen, Eric Y-H


    Gender-specific treatment strategies for psychosis have been suggested in recent years. Data on gender difference were largely consistent regarding premorbid functioning, age of onset and negative symptoms; however, results regarding neurocognitive function and duration of untreated psychosis were mixed and inconclusive. In this study, we aimed at a thorough examination on the gender differences in 360 Chinese patients with first-episode psychosis in Hong Kong. From June 2009 to August 2011, participants were consecutively recruited from a population-based territory-wide study of early psychosis targeting first-episode psychosis in Hong Kong. Comprehensive data on basic demographics, premorbid functioning and schizoid and schizotypal traits, clinical, functioning, medication side effects and a battery of neurocognitive measures were collected upon entry into the service. In 360 patients with first-episode psychosis aged between 26 and 55 years, 43.6% (n = 157) were male and 56.4% (n = 203) were female. Males had poorer premorbid functioning and adjustment, earlier age of onset, more negative symptoms and poorer functioning in terms of work productivity, independent living and immediate social network relationships at presentation of first-episode psychosis. Interestingly, our data indicate that males tend to be more educated, and also characterized by higher IQ, better neurocognitive performance on visual domain compared with females. Duration of untreated psychosis was not different between the two genders. Data from this homogeneous cohort of Chinese populations enabled tailored and culturally sensitive recommendation on gender-specific treatment strategies, hence improving patients' care and facilitate better diagnostic and interventional decisions for patients with psychosis. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Risk factors for binge eating and purging eating disorders: differences based on age of onset. (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Oddy, Wendy H; Schmidt, Ulrike; Crosby, Ross D


    To (1) determine whether childhood risk factors for early onset binge eating and purging eating disorders also predict risk for later-onset binge eating and purging disorders, and (2) compare the utility of childhood and early adolescent variables in predicting later-onset disorders. Participants (N = 1,383) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to age 20. Eating disorders were assessed when participants were aged 14, 17, and 20. Risk factors for early onset eating disorders have been reported previously (Allen et al., J Am Acad Child Psychiat, 48, 800-809, 2009). This study used logistic regression to determine whether childhood risk factors for early onset disorders, as previously identified, would also predict risk for later-onset disorders (n = 145). Early adolescent predictors of later-onset disorders were also examined. Consistent with early onset cases, female sex and parent-perceived child overweight at age 10 were significant multivariate predictors of binge eating and purging disorders with onset in later adolescence. Eating, weight, and shape concerns at age 14 were also significant in predicting later-onset disorders. In the final stepwise multivariate model, female sex and eating, weight, and shape concerns at age 14 were significant in predicting later-onset eating disorders, while parent-perceived child overweight at age 10 was not. There is overlap between risk factors for binge eating and purging disorders with early and later onset. However, childhood exposures may be more important for early than later onset cases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Pattern-level temporal difference learning, data fusion, and chess (United States)

    Levinson, Robert; Weber, Ryan J.


    Our research group is using chess as a vehicle for studying the fusion of adaptation, multiple representation, and search technologies for real-time decision making. Chess systems like Deep Blue have achieved Grandmaster chess play with a brute-force search of the game tree and human- supplied information, like piece-values and opening books. However, subtle aspects of chess, including positional features and advanced concepts, are not capable of being represented or processed efficiently with the standard method. Since 1989, Morph I-III have exhibited more autonomy and learning ability than traditional chess programs in `adaptive pattern-oriented chess'. Like its predecessors, Morph IV is a reinforcement learner, but it also uses a new technique we call pattern-level TD and Q-learning to mathematically map the state space and effectively learn to classify situations. Its three knowledge sources include two traditional ones: material and a piece-square table, and a new method called Distance. These are combined using a simple genetic algorithm and a decision tree. This paper shows the effectiveness of fusing knowledge to replace search in real-time situations, since an agent which combines all sources is capable of consistently beating an agent which employs any of the individual knowledge sources. Surprisingly, the pattern-level TD agent is slightly superior to the pattern-level Q-learning agent, despite the fact that the Q-learning agent updates more Q-values on each temporal step.

  2. Novel Stimulation Paradigms with Temporally-Varying Parameters to Reduce Synchronous Activity at the Onset of High Frequency Stimulation in Rat Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyan Cai


    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS has shown wide applications for treating various disorders in the central nervous system by using high frequency stimulation (HFS sequences of electrical pulses. However, upon the onset of HFS sequences, the narrow pulses could induce synchronous firing of action potentials among large populations of neurons and cause a transient phase of “onset response” that is different from the subsequent steady state. To investigate the transient onset phase, the antidromically-evoked population spikes (APS were used as an electrophysiological marker to evaluate the synchronous neuronal reactions to axonal HFS in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats. New stimulation paradigms with time-varying intensity and frequency were developed to suppress the “onset responses”. Results show that HFS paradigms with ramp-up intensity at the onset phase could suppress large APS potentials. In addition, an intensity ramp with a slower ramp-up rate or with a higher pulse frequency had greater suppression on APS amplitudes. Therefore, to reach a desired pulse intensity rapidly, a stimulation paradigm combining elevated frequency and ramp-up intensity was used to shorten the transition phase of initial HFS without evoking large APS potentials. The results of the study provide important clues for certain transient side effects of DBS and for development of new adaptive stimulation paradigms.

  3. Surgical outcome in adolescents with mesial temporal sclerosis: Is it different? (United States)

    Farooque, Pue; Hirsch, Lawrence; Levy, Susan; Testa, Francine; Mattson, Richard; Spencer, Dennis


    There are extensive studies evaluating mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) in adults and limited studies in children, with adolescents being included within both patient populations. Our aim was to evaluate predictors of surgical outcome solely in adolescent patients with MRI- and pathology -proven MTS. The Yale Epilepsy Surgery Database was reviewed from 1987 to 2012 for adolescent patients with confirmed MTS on MRI and pathology who underwent temporal lobectomy and had greater than two-year postsurgical follow-up. Clinical and electrographic data were reviewed. Eighteen patients were identified. Eleven patients (61%) were seizure-free. All seven patients (39%) who were not seizure-free free were found to have lateralized ictal onset within one hemisphere involving two or more lobes on scalp EEG (p<0.001). Of the 7 patients who were not seizure-free, 4 had a history of status epilepticus (compared to 1/11 seizure-free patients; p=0.047), and 4 had lateralized hypometabolism involving two or more lobes within a hemisphere seen on PET (compared to 0/8 seizure-free patients; p=0.002). A novel finding in our study was that lateralized (rather than localized) ictal onset on scalp EEG, lateralized hypometabolism on PET, and history of status epilepticus were risk factors for not attaining seizure freedom in adolescents with MTS who underwent temporal lobectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in Gene-Gene Interactions in Graves' Disease Patients Stratified by Age of Onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Jurecka-Lubieniecka

    Full Text Available Graves' disease (GD is a complex disease in which genetic predisposition is modified by environmental factors. Each gene exerts limited effects on the development of autoimmune disease (OR = 1.2-1.5. An epidemiological study revealed that nearly 70% of the risk of developing inherited autoimmunological thyroid diseases (AITD is the result of gene interactions. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of the interactions of multiple loci on the genetic predisposition to GD. The aim of our analyses was to identify pairs of genes that exhibit a multiplicative interaction effect.A total of 709 patients with GD were included in the study. The patients were stratified into more homogeneous groups depending on the age at time of GD onset: younger patients less than 30 years of age and older patients greater than 30 years of age. Association analyses were performed for genes that influence the development of GD: HLADRB1, PTPN22, CTLA4 and TSHR. The interactions among polymorphisms were analyzed using the multiple logistic regression and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR methods.GD patients stratified by the age of onset differed in the allele frequencies of the HLADRB1*03 and 1858T polymorphisms of the PTPN22 gene (OR = 1.7, p = 0.003; OR = 1.49, p = 0.01, respectively. We evaluated the genetic interactions of four SNPs in a pairwise fashion with regard to disease risk. The coexistence of HLADRB1 with CTLA4 or HLADRB1 with PTPN22 exhibited interactions on more than additive levels (OR = 3.64, p = 0.002; OR = 4.20, p < 0.001, respectively. These results suggest that interactions between these pairs of genes contribute to the development of GD. MDR analysis confirmed these interactions.In contrast to a single gene effect, we observed that interactions between the HLADRB1/PTPN22 and HLADRB1/CTLA4 genes more closely predicted the risk of GD onset in young patients.

  5. Prevalence and onset of comorbidities in the CDKL5 disorder differ from Rett syndrome. (United States)

    Mangatt, Meghana; Wong, Kingsley; Anderson, Barbara; Epstein, Amy; Hodgetts, Stuart; Leonard, Helen; Downs, Jenny


    Initially described as an early onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome, the CDKL5 disorder is now considered as an independent entity. However, little is currently known about the full spectrum of comorbidities that affect these patients and available literature is limited to small case series. This study aimed to use a large international sample to examine the prevalence in this disorder of comorbidities of epilepsy, gastrointestinal problems including feeding difficulties, sleep and respiratory problems and scoliosis and their relationships with age and genotype. Prevalence and onset were also compared with those occurring in Rett syndrome. Data for the CDKL5 disorder and Rett syndrome were sourced from the International CDKL5 Disorder Database (ICDD), InterRett and the Australian Rett syndrome Database (ARSD). Logistic regression (multivariate and univariate) was used to analyse the relationships between age group, mutation type and the prevalence of various comorbidities. Binary longitudinal data from the ARSD and the equivalent cross-sectional data from ICDD were examined using generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the failure function for the two disorders and the log-rank test was used to compare the two functions. The likelihood of experiencing epilepsy, GI problems, respiratory problems, and scoliosis in the CDKL5 disorder increased with age and males were more vulnerable to respiratory and sleep problems than females. We did not identify any statistically significant relationships between mutation group and prevalence of comorbidities. Epilepsy, GI problems and sleep abnormalities were more common in the CDKL5 disorder than in Rett syndrome whilst scoliosis and respiratory problems were less prevalent. This study captured a much clearer picture of the CDKL5 disorder than previously possible using the largest sample available to date. There were differences in the presentation of

  6. Comparison of clinical and serological differences among juvenile-, adult-, and late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus in Korean patients. (United States)

    Choi, J H; Park, D J; Kang, J H; Yim, Y R; Lee, K E; Lee, J W; Wen, L; Kim, T J; Park, Y W; Lee, J K; Lee, S S


    We investigated whether systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients could be distinguished based on the time of disease onset and, if so, whether the groups differed in their clinical and laboratory features in ethnically homogeneous Korean patients. We enrolled 201 SLE patients with available clinical data at the time of onset of SLE from the lupus cohort at Chonnam National University Hospital. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data, including autoantibodies, and concomitant diseases were found at the time of diagnosis of SLE by reviewing patient charts. We divided SLE patients according to age at SLE diagnosis into three groups: juvenile-onset SLE (JSLE, diagnosed at ≤ 18 years), adult-onset SLE (ASLE, diagnosed at 19-50 years), and late-onset SLE (LSLE, diagnosed at >50 years), and compared baseline demographic, clinical, and relevant laboratory findings. Of the 201 patients, 27 (14.4%), 149 (74.1%), and 25 (12.4%) were JSLE, ASLE, and LSLE patients, respectively. Fever, oral ulcers, nephritis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia were more common in JSLE patients than ASLE or LSLE patients (p manifestations according to age at disease onset. JSLE patients have more severe disease activity and more frequent renal involvement and LSLE patients have milder disease activity, more commonly accompanied by Sjögren's syndrome, at disease onset. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Pregnancy-Related Group A Streptococcal Infections: Temporal Relationships Between Bacterial Acquisition, Infection Onset, Clinical Findings, and Outcome (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephanie M.; Stevens, Dennis L.; Bryant, Amy E.


    Puerperal sepsis caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) remains an important cause of maternal and infant mortality worldwide, including countries with modern antibiotic regimens, intensive care measures and infection control practices. To provide insights into the genesis of modern GAS puerperal sepsis, we reviewed the published cases and case series from 1974 to 2009, specifically seeking relationships between the likely source of pathogen acquisition, clinical signs, and symptoms at infection onset and patient outcomes that could provide clues for early diagnosis. Results suggest that the pathogenesis of pregnancy-related GAS infections in modern times is complex and not simply the result of exposure to GAS in the hospital setting. Additional research is needed to further explore the source of GAS, the specific M types involved, and the pathogenesis of these pregnancy-related infections to generate novel preventative and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23645851

  8. Predictive value of cognition for different domains of outcome in recent-onset schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthausen, Esther A. E.; Wiersma, Durk; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.; Dingemans, Peter M.; Schene, Aart H.; van den Bosch, Robert J.


    The aim of this study was to see whether and how cognition predicts outcome in recent-onset schizophrenia in a large range of domains such as course of illness, self-care, interpersonal functioning, vocational functioning and need for care. At inclusion, 115 recent-onset patients were tested on a

  9. Racial and ethnic differences among children with new-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes (United States)

    To compare demographic and clinical characteristics among children from ethnic minorities and non-Hispanic white children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes. We analyzed a single-center series of 712 children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes between January 2008 and March 2011. The m...

  10. A Psychophysical Investigation of Differences between Synchrony and Temporal Order Judgments (United States)

    Love, Scott A.; Petrini, Karin; Cheng, Adam; Pollick, Frank E.


    Background Synchrony judgments involve deciding whether cues to an event are in synch or out of synch, while temporal order judgments involve deciding which of the cues came first. When the cues come from different sensory modalities these judgments can be used to investigate multisensory integration in the temporal domain. However, evidence indicates that that these two tasks should not be used interchangeably as it is unlikely that they measure the same perceptual mechanism. The current experiment further explores this issue across a variety of different audiovisual stimulus types. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants were presented with 5 audiovisual stimulus types, each at 11 parametrically manipulated levels of cue asynchrony. During separate blocks, participants had to make synchrony judgments or temporal order judgments. For some stimulus types many participants were unable to successfully make temporal order judgments, but they were able to make synchrony judgments. The mean points of subjective simultaneity for synchrony judgments were all video-leading, while those for temporal order judgments were all audio-leading. In the within participants analyses no correlation was found across the two tasks for either the point of subjective simultaneity or the temporal integration window. Conclusions Stimulus type influenced how the two tasks differed; nevertheless, consistent differences were found between the two tasks regardless of stimulus type. Therefore, in line with previous work, we conclude that synchrony and temporal order judgments are supported by different perceptual mechanisms and should not be interpreted as being representative of the same perceptual process. PMID:23349971

  11. Individual talker differences in voice-onset-time: Contextual influences1 (United States)

    Theodore, Rachel M.; Miller, Joanne L.; DeSteno, David


    Previous research indicates that talkers differ in phonetically relevant properties of speech, including voice-onset-time (VOT) in word-initial stop consonants; some talkers have characteristically shorter VOTs than others. Previous research also indicates that VOT is robustly affected by contextual influences, including speaking rate and place of articulation. This paper examines whether these contextual influences on VOT are themselves talker-specific. Many tokens of alveolar ∕ti∕ (experiment 1) or labial ∕pi∕ and velar ∕ki∕ (experiment 2) were elicited from talkers across a range of rates. VOT and vowel duration (a metric of rate) were measured for each token. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that (1) VOT increased as rate decreased for all talkers, but the magnitude of the increase varied significantly across talkers; thus the effect of rate on VOT was talker-specific; (2) the talker-specific effect of rate was stable across a change in place of articulation; and (3) for all talkers VOTs were shorter for labial than velar stops, and there was no significant variability in the magnitude of this displacement across talkers; thus the effect of place on VOT was not talker-specific. The implications of these findings for how listeners might accommodate talker differences in VOT during speech perception are discussed. PMID:19507979

  12. Developmental pathways for different subtypes of early-onset bipolarity in youths. (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Mucci, Maria; Pfanner, Chiara; Berloffa, Stefano; Magazù, Angela; Perugi, Giulio


    Two main patterns of comorbidity have been described in bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: the first including preexisting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related disruptive behavior disorders and the second including anxiety disorders, namely, the association of co-occurring multiple anxiety disorders, usually predating the onset of bipolarity. This study was aimed at exploring whether ADHD and multiple anxiety disorders may exhibit different pathways to specific bipolar phenotypes. We compared 49 youths (7 to 18 years) with bipolar disorder + ADHD without anxiety, 76 youths with bipolar disorder + multiple anxiety disorders without ADHD, and 52 youths with bipolar disorder without ADHD or multiple anxiety disorders who were referred to a third-level hospital and diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR in the period 2005-2011. Subjects were evaluated for current and lifetime Axis I psychiatric disorders by using a structured clinical interview (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version) and followed up for at least 6 months. Compared to both patients with bipolar disorder + multiple anxiety disorders and patients with bipolar disorder without ADHD and multiple anxiety disorders, patients with bipolar disorder + ADHD without anxiety were more frequently male, were younger, had an earlier onset of bipolar disorder, had a prevalent chronic course and irritable mood, were more likely to present with a bipolar disorder not otherwise specified diagnosis, had a greater clinical severity and functional impairment, had a manic/mixed index episode, had a higher risk of conduct disorder, and were more resistant to treatments, according to the CGI-Improvement scores (P bipolar disorder + multiple anxiety disorders were similar to those with bipolar disorder without ADHD or multiple anxiety disorders, except for a higher rate of diagnosis of bipolar II disorder, more use of

  13. Complex partial seizures of temporal lobe origin in children of different age groups. (United States)

    Brockhaus, A; Elger, C E


    The semiology of complex partial seizures (CPS) of temporal lobe origin in adults is well known and is important in establishing seizure localization in patients considered for epilepsy surgery. In contrast, the behavioral features of temporal lobe seizures (TLS) in children described in the literature have not been consistent. In the present study, we investigated children with TLS to compare their attacks to TLS occurring in adults. The study was based on video recordings of 29 children with TLS aged 18 months to 16 years. Children were included, if they became seizure-free after temporal lobectomy (except 4 children with a marked reduction in seizure frequency and 1 with isolated auras), and if clear unitemporal seizure onset in ictal EEG-recordings, unilateral radiological lesions, and corresponding histopathological findings were detected. Children aged > 6 years had TLS with features similar to those of adults. In younger children, typical semiology included symmetric motor phenomena of the limbs, postures similar to frontal lobe seizures in adults, and head nodding as in infantile spasms. We concluded that the clinical features of TLS in younger children can be misleading and should therefore be considered with caution in selecting patients for surgical procedures on the temporal lobe.

  14. Temporal Differences in Remarriage Timing: Comparing Divorce and Widowhood. (United States)

    James, Spencer L; Shafer, Kevin


    One gap in the remarriage literature to date concerns the timing of remarriage among different groups. This paper begins to fill this gap by examining the tempo of remarriage among individuals whose first marriages ended in divorce and individuals whose first marriages ended in spousal death. Drawing on event-history models, the results suggest that divorced individuals remarry quicker than individuals whose first marriage ended in spousal death. Interestingly, results also indicate that this relationship is moderated by both gender and parity, suggesting demographic and life course factors can impede or encourage post-marital union formation.

  15. Acute and chronic onset of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS): are they different entities? (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher H; Sharples, Linda D; McNeil, Keith; Stewart, Susan; Wallwork, John


    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), defined as an irreversible, staged decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), is an established marker of obliterative bronchiolitis. Potential causes of BOS include sub-clinical chronic rejection and/or exaggerated healing response following acute injury. BOS may thus result from two or more distinct processes, both acute and chronic. A total of 5,916 measurements of FEV(1) from 204 lung transplant recipients surviving at least 6 months after transplantation were analyzed. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 13 years. By adjusting for the acute effects of rejection, pulmonary infection and measurement variation on FEV(1) trace, patients either had a linear decline characterized by a single acute drop in FEV(1) of >15% at BOS onset, or a chronic linear decline in FEV(1). The fraction having acute onset was estimated. Acute events occurring within the first 6 months were assessed as risk factors for acute onset BOS. Of the 204 patients, 8% died before BOS onset and 18% were BOS-free at analysis. For 18% of patients, BOS onset followed a chronic linear decline in FEV(1) of 3.7% per year, with a median time of BOS onset >99 months. For 56% of patients, BOS onset followed an acute drop in FEV(1) of median 33.8% (95% CI 19.1% to 39.7%), with median onset time of 52 months. During the first 6 months, acute rejection was significantly and independently associated with acute onset of BOS (relative risk = 1.15 per episode, 95% CI [1.03 to 1.29], p = 0.01), whereas pulmonary infection and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were not. Acute BOS onset followed a documented acute event in the previous 6 months in 38 of 114 (33%) of cases. BOS likely reflects more than one process. Compared with those who had a slow linear decline in lung function, acute BOS onset was associated with acute rejection in the first 6 months, was often triggered by an acute event and had poor prognosis, with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) the main

  16. Psychological differences between early- and late-onset psoriasis: a study of personality traits, anxiety and depression in psoriasis. (United States)

    Remröd, C; Sjöström, K; Svensson, A


    Onset of psoriasis may occur at any age. Early negative experiences often influence personality development, and may lead to physical disease, anxiety and depression in adulthood. Knowledge about onset of psoriasis and psychopathology is limited. To examine whether patients with early-onset psoriasis differ psychologically from patients with late-onset psoriasis, regarding personality traits, anxiety and depression. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 101 consecutively recruited outpatients with psoriasis. A psychosocial interview was performed followed by self-assessment of validated questionnaires: Swedish Universities Scales of Personality (SSP), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Psoriasis severity was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with early-onset psoriasis (age personality traits: SSP-embitterment, -trait irritability, -mistrust and -verbal trait aggression. Our results indicate that early detection of psychological vulnerability when treating children and adolescents with psoriasis seems to be of great importance. Traits of psychological vulnerability and pessimistic personality traits were found to be significantly associated with the early onset of psoriasis, but not with disease duration in this study. These traits may be seen as a consequence of psoriasis, and/or as individual traits modulating and impairing clinical course and efforts to cope with psoriasis. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. An Individual Differences Approach to Temporal Integration and Order Reversals in the Attentional Blink Task. (United States)

    Willems, Charlotte; Saija, Jefta D; Akyürek, Elkan G; Martens, Sander


    The reduced ability to identify a second target when it is presented in close temporal succession of a first target is called the attentional blink (AB). Studies have shown large individual differences in AB task performance, where lower task performance has been associated with more reversed order reports of both targets if these were presented in direct succession. In order to study the suggestion that reversed order reports reflect loss of temporal information, in the current study, we investigated whether individuals with a larger AB have a higher tendency to temporally integrate both targets into one visual event by using an AB paradigm containing symbol target stimuli. Indeed, we found a positive relation between the tendency to temporally integrate information and individual AB magnitude. In contrast to earlier work, we found no relation between order reversals and individual AB magnitude. The occurrence of temporal integration was negatively related to the number of order reversals, indicating that individuals either integrated or separated and reversed information. We conclude that individuals with better AB task performance use a shorter time window to integrate information, and therefore have higher preservation of temporal information. Furthermore, order reversals observed in paradigms with alphanumeric targets indeed seem to at least partially reflect temporal integration of both targets. Given the negative relation between temporal integration and 'true' order reversals observed with the current symbolic target set, these two behavioral outcomes seem to be two sides of the same coin.

  18. Two years' outcome of acute mania in bipolar disorder : different effects of age and age of onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostervink, Frits; Nolen, Willem A.; Kok, Rob M.

    BackgroundInformation about differences between younger and older patients with bipolar disorder and between older patients with early and late age of onset of illness during long-term treatment is scarce. ObjectivesThis study aimed to investigate the differences in treatment and treatment outcome

  19. Clinical characteristics and long-term response to mood stabilizers in patients with bipolar disorder and different age at onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Dell’Osso


    Full Text Available Bernardo Dell’Osso1, Massimiliano Buoli1, Riccardo Riundi2, Nazario D’Urso1, Sara Pozzoli1, Roberta Bassetti2, Emanuela Mundo1,  A Carlo Altamura11Department of Psychiatry, University of Milan, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Milano, Italy; 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Luigi Sacco, Milano, ItalyIntroduction: Bipolar disorder (BD is a prevalent, comorbid, and impairing condition. Potential predictors of response to pharmacological treatment are object of continuous investigation in patients with BD. The present naturalistic study was aimed to assess clinical features and longterm response to mood stabilizers in a sample of bipolar subjects with different ages at onset. Methods: The study sample included 108 euthymic patients, diagnosed as affected by BD, either type I or II, according to the DSM-IV-TR, who were started on mood stabilizer treatment. Patients were followed-up for 24 months and the occurrence of any mood episode collected. At the end of the follow-up, patients were divided in three subgroups according to the age at onset (early-onset ≤30 years, middle-onset >30–≤45 years, and late-onset >45 years, respectively and the long-term response to mood stabilizers was compared between them along with other clinical features.Results: The three subgroups showed significant differences in terms of clinical and demographic features and, with respect to long-term response to mood stabilizers, the early-onset subgroup showed a better outcome in terms of reduction of major depressive episodes during the 24-month follow-up compared to the other subgroups (one way ANOVA, F = 3.57, p = 0.032. Conclusions: Even though further controlled studies are needed to clarify the relationship between age at onset and outcome in BD, the present follow-up study suggests clinical peculiarities and different patterns of response to mood stabilizers across distinct subgroups of patients with BD and

  20. Different brain circuits underlie motor and perceptual representations of temporal intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueti, Doemnica; Walsh, Vincent; Frith, Christopher


    mechanisms. However, only in the reproduction task was activity observed in a wider cortical network including the right pre- SMA, left middle frontal gyrus, left premotor cortex, with a more reliable activity in the right inferior parietal cortex, left fusiform gyrus, and the right extrastriate visual area...... information when either a motor or a perceptual representation is used. Participants viewed two identical sequences of visual stimuli and used the information differently to perform either a temporal reproduction or a temporal estimation task. By comparing brain activity evoked by these tasks and control...... conditions, we explored commonalities and differences in brain areas involved in reproduction and estimation of temporal intervals. The basal ganglia and the cerebellum were commonly active in both temporal tasks, consistent with suggestions that perception and production of time are subserved by the same...


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    Huang, K. Y.; Tung, Y. H.; Lin, H. M.; Wang, S. Y.; Lehner, M. J.; Wang, J. H.; Wen, C. Y. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Urata, Y.; Ip, W. H. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Xin, L. P.; Qiu, Y.; Wei, J. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yoshida, M. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Zheng, W.; Akerlof, C. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianco, F. B. [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Kawai, N. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-21-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kuroda, D. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Kamogata, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Marshall, S. L. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Schwamb, M. E. [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520-8121 (United States); and others


    We present a study on GRB 071112C X-ray and optical light curves. In these two wavelength ranges, we have found different temporal properties. The R-band light curve showed an initial rise followed by a single power-law decay, while the X-ray light curve was described by a single power-law decay plus a flare-like feature. Our analysis shows that the observed temporal evolution cannot be described by the external shock model in which the X-ray and optical emission are produced by the same emission mechanism. No significant color changes in multi-band light curves and a reasonable value of the initial Lorentz factor ({Gamma}{sub 0} = 275 {+-} 20) in a uniform interstellar medium support the afterglow onset scenario as the correct interpretation for the early R band rise. The result suggests that the optical flux is dominated by afterglow. Our further investigations show that the X-ray flux could be created by an additional feature related to energy injection and X-ray afterglow. Different theoretical interpretations indicate the additional feature in X-ray can be explained by either late internal dissipation or local inverse-Compton scattering in the external shock.

  2. Minimal Clinically Important Differences of Disease Activity Indices in Childhood-onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (United States)

    Brunner, Hermine I.; Higgins, Gloria C.; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa S.; Lapidus, Sivia K.; Olson, Judyann C.; Onel, Karen; Punaro, Marilynn; Ying, Jun; Giannini, Edward H.


    Objective To determine the minimal clinically important differences (MCID) of validated measures of SLE disease activity in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE). Methods cSLE patients (n=98) were followed every 3 months for up to 7 visits (total number of visits 623). Disease activity measures (ECLAM, SLEDAI, SLAM, BILAG, RIFLE) were completed at the time of each visit. Physician-rated changes in the disease course (clinically relevant improvement, no change, clinically relevant worsening) between visits served as the criterion standard. Results MCID defined by mean change scores with improvement and worsening, or those based on the standard error of measurement with stable disease were both small and did not discriminate well between disease courses (detection rates for improvement or worsening were all MCID based on discriminant and classification analyses yielded similar results. Alternative MCID, defined by a 70% predicted probability of improvement or worsening as per discrimination analysis, were larger but underestimated the proportion of patients with change. The RIFLE only correctly identified 26% and 8% episodes of clinically important worsening and improvement of cSLE, respectively. Conclusions The MCID of cSLE disease activity measures are often small but similar to those reported for adults with SLE. Thus even small changes in disease activity scores can be clinically relevant. Low correct detection rates of these MCID thresholds for changes in disease course support the notion that worsening and improvement with cSLE, or its response to therapy, is unlikely to be captured adequately by validated measures of disease activity alone. PMID:20589695

  3. Brain Differences in Infants at Differential Genetic Risk for Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease A Cross-sectional Imaging Study (United States)

    Dean, Douglas C.; Jerskey, Beth A.; Chen, Kewei; Protas, Hillary; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Roontiva, Auttawat; O’Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dirks, Holly; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Lehman, Katie; Siniard, Ashley L.; Turk, Mari N.; Hua, Xue; Madsen, Sarah K.; Thompson, Paul M.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Deoni, Sean C. L.; Reiman, Eric M.


    IMPORTANCE Converging evidence suggests brain structure alterations may precede overt cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease by several decades. Early detection of these alterations holds inherent value for the development and evaluation of preventive treatment therapies. OBJECTIVE To compare magnetic resonance imaging measurements of white matter myelin water fraction (MWF) and gray matter volume (GMV) in healthy infant carriers and noncarriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele, the major susceptibility gene for late-onset AD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Quiet magnetic resonance imaging was performed at an academic research imaging center on 162 healthy, typically developing 2- to 25-month-old infants with no family history of Alzheimer disease or other neurological or psychiatric disorders. Cross-sectional measurements were compared in the APOE ε4 carrier and noncarrier groups. White matter MWF was compared in one hundred sixty-two 2- to 25-month-old sleeping infants (60 ε4 carriers and 102 noncarriers). Gray matter volume was compared in a subset of fifty-nine 6- to 25-month-old infants (23 ε4 carriers and 36 noncarriers), who remained asleep during the scanning session. The carrier and noncarrier groups were matched for age, gestational duration, birth weight, sex ratio, maternal age, education, and socioeconomic status. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Automated algorithms compared regional white matter MWF and GMV in the carrier and noncarrier groups and characterized their associations with age. RESULTS Infant ε4 carriers had lower MWF and GMV measurements than noncarriers in precuneus, posterior/middle cingulate, lateral temporal, and medial occipitotemporal regions, areas preferentially affected by AD, and greater MWF and GMV measurements in extensive frontal regions and measurements were also significant in the subset of 2- to 6-month-old infants (MWF differences, P < .05, after correction for multiple comparisons; GMV differences, P < .001

  4. Ethnic differences in the timely diagnosis of children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands: clinical presentation at onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, J. J. N.; Grishchenko, M.; van Wouwe, J. P.; Stronks, K.


    AIMS: Little is known about ethnic differences in the timely diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). This study aimed to assess ethnic inequalities in the timely diagnosis of Type 1 DM, as indicated by a more adverse clinical condition at onset. In addition, we assessed whether these

  5. Cost-effectiveness of different treatment strategies with intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Rijnders, M.E.B.; Dommelen, P. van; Fekkes, M.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Amelink-Verburg, M.P.; Verkerk, P.H.


    Objective: To estimate the costs and effects of different treatment strategies with intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) disease in the Netherlands. The treatment strategies include a risk-based strategy, a screening-based strategy, a combined

  6. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences (United States)

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit


    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  7. Different patterns of gray matter atrophy in early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, C.; Vrenken, H.; Jiskoot, L.; Versteeg, A.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.


    We assessed patterns of gray matter atrophy according to-age-at-onset in a large sample of 215 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 129 control subjects with voxel-based morphometry using 3-Tesla 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Local gray matter amounts were compared between late- and

  8. Predicting the fragmentation onset velocity for different metallic projectiles using numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livingstone, I.H.G.; Verolme, K.; Hayhurst, C.J.


    For cubes and spheres under high velocity impact there exists for each system of projectile and target, a threshold velocity that is just sufficient to shatter the projectile. This velocity, usually above 2km/s for metallic projectiles, is known as the fragmentation onset velocity. To determine the

  9. Early-onset gastric cancers have a different molecular expression profile than conventional gastric cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, Anya N. A.; Carvalho, Ralph; Morsink, Folkert M.; Musler, Alex R.; de Leng, Wendy W. J.; Ristimäki, Ari; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.


    Many studies examine the molecular genetics of gastric cancer, but few look at young patients in particular and there is no comparison of molecular expression between early-onset gastric cancer (

  10. Different regional gray matter loss in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gray matter loss in the limbic structures was found in recent onset post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients. In the present study, we measured regional gray matter volume in trauma survivors to verify the hypothesis that stress may cause different regional gray matter loss in trauma survivors with and without recent onset PTSD. METHOD: High resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were obtained from coal mine flood disaster survivors with (n = 10 and without (n = 10 recent onset PTSD and 20 no trauma exposed normal controls. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM method was used to measure the regional gray matter volume in three groups, the correlations of PTSD symptom severities with the gray matter volume in trauma survivors were also analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS: Compared with normal controls, recent onset PTSD patients had smaller gray matter volume in left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and non PTSD subjects had smaller gray matter volume in the right pulvinar and left pallidum. The gray matter volume of the trauma survivors correlated negatively with CAPS scores in the right frontal lobe, left anterior and middle cingulate cortex, bilateral cuneus cortex, right middle occipital lobe, while in the recent onset PTSD, the gray matter volume correlated negatively with CAPS scores in bilateral superior medial frontal lobe and right ACC. CONCLUSION: The present study identified gray matter loss in different regions in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure. The gray matter volume of left dorsal ACC associated with the development of PTSD, while the gray matter volume of right pulvinar and left pallidum associated with the response to the severe stress. The atrophy of the frontal and limbic cortices predicts the symptom severities of the PTSD.

  11. Nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents (United States)

    Sivan, Y.; Rozenberg, S.; Halstuch, A.; Ishaaya, A. A.


    We study the nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents. Unlike the well-understood mixing of quasi-monochromatic waves, this configuration is highly non-intuitive due to the complex coupling between the spatial and temporal degrees of freedom of the interacting pulses. We illustrate the process intuitively with transitions between different branches of the dispersion curves and interpret it in terms of spectral exchange between the interacting pulses. We verify our interpretation with an example whereby a spectrally-narrow pulse “inherits” the wide spectrum of a pump pulse centered at a different wavelength, using exact numerical simulations, as well as a simplified coupled mode analysis and an asymptotic analytical solution. The latter also provides a simple and intuitive quantitative interpretation. The complex wave mixing process studied here may enable flexible spatio-temporal shaping of short pulses and is the starting point of the study of more complicated systems.

  12. Differences in anxiety among patients with early- versus late-onset Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Kaiser, Natalie C; Liang, Li-Jung; Melrose, Rebecca J; Wilkins, Stacy S; Sultzer, David L; Mendez, Mario F


    The authors sought to evaluate the incidence and correlates of anxiety in early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) versus the more typical late-onset AD (LOAD). A group of 23 EOAD and 22 LOAD patients were compared by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Anxiety subscale. Demographic and disease-related relationships with anxiety were evaluated, as well as types of anxiety symptoms that were endorsed. EOAD patients had significantly more anxiety symptoms than LOAD patients. Among those with EOAD, anxiety was associated with male gender, higher Mini-Mental State Exam score, and separation from caregivers. Among LOAD patients, anxiety was associated with psychotic and activating psychiatric symptoms. These results have implications for the management and alleviation of anxiety in AD.

  13. Temporal weighting functions for interaural time and level differences. IV. Effects of carrier frequency


    Stecker, G. Christopher


    Temporal variation in listeners' sensitivity to interaural time and level differences (ITD and ILD, respectively) was measured for sounds of different carrier frequency using the temporal weighting function (TWF) paradigm [Stecker and Hafter (2002) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112,1046–1057]. Listeners made lateralization judgments following brief trains of filtered impulses (Gabor clicks) presented over headphones with overall ITD and/or ILD ranging from ±500 μs ITD and/or ±5 dB ILD across trials. In...

  14. Sex differences in verbal and nonverbal learning before and after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. (United States)

    Berger, Justus; Oltmanns, Frank; Holtkamp, Martin; Bengner, Thomas


    Women outperform men in a host of episodic memory tasks, yet the neuroanatomical basis for this effect is unclear. It has been suggested that the anterior temporal lobe might be especially relevant for sex differences in memory. In the current study, we investigated whether temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has an influence on sex effects in learning and memory and whether women and men with TLE differ in their risk for memory deficits after epilepsy surgery. 177 patients (53 women and 41 men with left TLE, 42 women and 41 men with right TLE) were neuropsychologically tested before and one year after temporal lobe resection. We found that women with TLE had better verbal, but not figural, memory than men with TLE. The female advantage in verbal memory was not affected by temporal lobe resection. The same pattern of results was found in a more homogeneous subsample of 84 patients with only hippocampal sclerosis who were seizure-free after surgery. Our findings challenge the concept that the anterior temporal lobe plays a central role in the verbal memory advantage for women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial connections in regional climate model rainfall outputs at different temporal scales: Application of network theory (United States)

    Naufan, Ihsan; Sivakumar, Bellie; Woldemeskel, Fitsum M.; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Vu, Minh Tue; Liong, Shie-Yui


    Understanding the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall has always been a great challenge, and the impacts of climate change further complicate this issue. The present study employs the concepts of complex networks to study the spatial connections in rainfall, with emphasis on climate change and rainfall scaling. Rainfall outputs (during 1961-1990) from a regional climate model (i.e. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that downscaled the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF ERA-40 reanalyses) over Southeast Asia are studied, and data corresponding to eight different temporal scales (6-hr, 12-hr, daily, 2-day, 4-day, weekly, biweekly, and monthly) are analyzed. Two network-based methods are applied to examine the connections in rainfall: clustering coefficient (a measure of the network's local density) and degree distribution (a measure of the network's spread). The influence of rainfall correlation threshold (T) on spatial connections is also investigated by considering seven different threshold levels (ranging from 0.5 to 0.8). The results indicate that: (1) rainfall networks corresponding to much coarser temporal scales exhibit properties similar to that of small-world networks, regardless of the threshold; (2) rainfall networks corresponding to much finer temporal scales may be classified as either small-world networks or scale-free networks, depending upon the threshold; and (3) rainfall spatial connections exhibit a transition phase at intermediate temporal scales, especially at high thresholds. These results suggest that the most appropriate model for studying spatial connections may often be different at different temporal scales, and that a combination of small-world and scale-free network models might be more appropriate for rainfall upscaling/downscaling across all scales, in the strict sense of scale-invariance. The results also suggest that spatial connections in the studied rainfall networks in Southeast Asia are

  16. Participation and Life Satisfaction in Aged People with Spinal Cord Injury: Does Age at Onset Make a Difference? (United States)

    Post, Marcel W M; Reinhardt, Jan D


    Few studies have reported on outcomes in samples of elderly people with SCI and the impact of the age at onset of SCI is unclear. To study levels of participation and life satisfaction in individuals with SCI aged 65 years or older and to analyze differences in participation and life satisfaction scores between individuals injured before or after 50 years of age. This cross-sectional survey included 128 individuals with SCI who were at least 65 years old. Age at onset was dichotomized as life satisfaction was measured with 5 items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life abbreviated form. Participants who were injured before 50 years of age showed similar levels of functional status and numbers of secondary health conditions but higher participation and life satisfaction scores compared to participants injured at older age. In the multiple regression analysis of participation, lower current age, higher education, and having paraplegia were significant independent determinants of increased participation (explained variance, 25.7%). In the regression analysis of life satisfaction, lower age at onset and higher education were significant independent determinants of higher life satisfaction (explained variance, 15.3%). Lower age at onset was associated with better participation and life satisfaction. This study did not reveal indications for worsening participation or life satisfaction due to an accelerated aging effect in this sample of persons with SCI.

  17. Paths to first treatment and duration of untreated illness in anorexia nervosa: are there differences according to age of onset? (United States)

    Neubauer, Karolin; Weigel, Angelika; Daubmann, Anne; Wendt, Hanna; Rossi, Maddalena; Löwe, Bernd; Gumz, Antje


    This study examined paths to first treatment and the duration of untreated illness in 140 anorexia nervosa patients using validated questionnaires and a clinical interview. The differences between individuals with an early (≤14 years, n = 40), intermediate (15-18 years, n = 53) and late onset (≥19 years, n = 47) were investigated. Participants were most commonly informed about their diagnosis and first treatment facility through general practitioners and paediatricians. The duration of untreated illness exceeded 2 years in the complete sample (25.14 months) and was longest for individuals with an early onset. The early onset group was more often externally vs. internally motivated and more frequently informed about treatment options by their social network, e.g. parents, than patients with a late onset. The results emphasize the relevance of training general practitioners and paediatricians about anorexia, the need to include parents and teachers in eating disorder prevention and to improve targeting young individuals in early interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Racial differences in cancer risk among relatives of patients with early onset lung cancer. (United States)

    Naff, Jessica L; Coté, Michele L; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Schwartz, Ann G


    Relatives of patients with early onset lung cancer are at increased risk for lung cancer, and this risk varies by race. This study evaluates whether first-degree relatives of patients with early onset lung cancer are at increased risk for cancer at sites other than lung. Family histories were ascertained from 673 lung cancer patients < 50 years of age identified from the Metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program, and 773 age-, race-, and sex-matched control subjects were obtained via random-digit dialing. Data were collected for 3,556 case relatives (mothers, fathers, and siblings) and 3,943 control relatives, and unconditional logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among case relatives, African Americans were 2.44-fold more likely to have head and neck cancers and 1.86-fold more likely to have any tobacco-related cancer compared to white case relatives (95% CI, 1.04 to 5.69% and 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.76, respectively). African-American case relatives were at increased risk for head and neck cancers (OR, 13.42; 95% CI, 1.65 to 109.01), all tobacco-related cancers (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 2.16 to 6.55), tobacco-related cancers other than lung (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.56 to 10.79), and cancer at any site (OR, 1.45, 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.02) compared to African-American control relatives. These results can be used to counsel family members of patients with early onset lung cancer, and suggest target populations for preventive strategies, including smoking cessation and appropriate screening.

  19. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ort, C.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; Berset, J.-D.; Bijlsma, L.; Castiglioni, S.; Covaci, A.; de Voogt, P.; Emke, E.; Fatta-Kassinos, D.; Griffiths, P; Hernández, F.; González-Mariño, I.; Grabic, R.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Mastroianni, N; Meierjohann, A.; Nefau, T.; Östman, M.; Pico, Y.; Racamonde, I; Reid, M.; Slobodnik, J.; Terzic, S.; Thomaidis, N; Thomas, K.V.


    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across

  20. Critical factors in the empirical performance of temporal difference and evolutionary methods for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Taylor, M.E.; Stone, P.


    Temporal difference and evolutionary methods are two of the most common approaches to solving reinforcement learning problems. However, there is little consensus on their relative merits and there have been few empirical studies that directly compare their performance. This article aims to address

  1. An ecological framework for temporal and individual differences in color preferences. (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E


    There are well-known and extensive differences in color preferences between individuals, but there are also within-individual differences from one time to another. Despite the seeming independence between these individual and temporal effects, we propose that they have the same underlying cause: people's ecological experiences with color-associated objects and events. Our approach is motivated by the Ecological Valence Theory (EVT; Palmer & Schloss, 2010) which states that preference for a given color is determined by the combined valence (liking/disliking) of all objects and events associated with that color. We define three ecologically-based hypotheses for explaining temporal and individual differences in color preferences concerning: (1) differences in object valences, (2) differences in color-object associations, and (3) differences in object activations in the mind when preferences are measured. We review prior studies that support these hypotheses and raise open research questions about untested predictions. We also extend the computational framework of the EVT by defining a single weighted average equation that captures both individual and temporal differences in color preferences. Finally, we consider other factors that potentially contribute to color preferences, including abstract symbolic associations, color in design, and psychophysical and/or physiological factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. HLA-DQ haplotypes differ by ethnicity in patients with childhood-onset diabetes. (United States)

    Lipton, Rebecca B; Drum, Melinda; Greeley, Siri Atma W; Danielson, Kirstie K; Bell, Graeme I; Hagopian, William A


    To understand the etiology of childhood-onset diabetes, we examined genetic risk markers, autoantibodies, and β-cell function in a mixed race group of young patients. One hundred and forty-five patients aged 0-17 at diagnosis (54% African American, 22% Caucasian, 16% Latino, 8% mixed-other) were studied at mean duration 6.9 ± 5.7 (range 0.1-28.5) yr, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQA1-DQB1 genotyping, stimulated C peptide (CP), glutamic acid decarboxylase, and insulinoma-associated antigen 2 antibodies (ABs). Based on no residual β-cell function (CP-) and islet autoantibodies (AB+), 111 patients were classified with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), 22 were CP+ and AB- and thus considered to have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 12 patients had features of both T1DM and T2DM or mixed phenotype. Based on the presence of two high-risk HLA-DQA1/B1 haplotypes, 39% of African Americans, 81% of Caucasians, 70% of Latinos, and 67% of mixed-others were at high genetic risk. In patients with T1DM, 41% of African Americans, 80% of Caucasians, 73% of Latinos, and 63% of mixed-others were genetically susceptible. Thirty-one percent of African Americans, including 29% of those with T1DM, could not be characterized because their haplotypes had unknown T1DM associations. These unusual haplotypes comprised 11% in T1DM, 14% in T2DM, and 8% in patients with mixed phenotype. Fifty-nine percent of childhood-onset patients with T1DM were identified with high genetic risk based on known HLA-DQA1/B1 associations. Many non-Caucasian patients carry HLA-DQ alleles whose association with T1DM is undetermined. Genetic approaches can provide insights into the etiology and appropriate treatment of childhood-onset diabetes but only if sufficient data are available in diverse ethnic groups. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Are there meaningful individual differences in temporal inconsistency in self-reported personality? (United States)

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A; Oishi, Shigehiro


    The current project had three goals. The first was to examine whether it is meaningful to refer to across-time variability in self-reported personality as an individual differences characteristic. The second was to investigate whether negative affect was associated with variability in self-reported personality, while controlling for mean levels, and correcting for measurement errors. The third goal was to examine whether variability in self-reported personality would be larger among young adults than among older adults, and whether the relation of variability with negative affect would be stronger at older ages than at younger ages. Two moderately large samples of participants completed the International Item Pool Personality questionnaire assessing the Big Five personality dimensions either twice or thrice, in addition to several measures of negative affect. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that within-person variability in self-reported personality is a meaningful individual difference characteristic. Some people exhibited greater across-time variability than others after removing measurement error, and people who showed temporal instability in one trait also exhibited temporal instability across the other four traits. However, temporal variability was not related to negative affect, and there was no evidence that either temporal variability or its association with negative affect varied with age.

  4. Mushroom biomass and diversity are driven by different spatio-temporal scales along Mediterranean elevation gradients (United States)

    Alday, Josu G.; Martínez de Aragón, Juan; de-Miguel, Sergio; Bonet, José Antonio


    Mushrooms are important non-wood-forest-products in many Mediterranean ecosystems, being highly vulnerable to climate change. However, the ecological scales of variation of mushroom productivity and diversity, and climate dependence has been usually overlooked due to a lack of available data. We determined the spatio-temporal variability of epigeous sporocarps and the climatic factors driving their fruiting to plan future sustainable management of wild mushrooms production. We collected fruiting bodies in Pinus sylvestris stands along an elevation gradient for 8 consecutive years. Overall, sporocarp biomass was mainly dependent on inter-annual variations, whereas richness was more spatial-scale dependent. Elevation was not significant, but there were clear elevational differences in biomass and richness patterns between ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic guilds. The main driver of variation was late-summer-early-autumn precipitation. Thus, different scale processes (inter-annual vs. spatial-scale) drive sporocarp biomass and diversity patterns; temporal effects for biomass and ectomycorrhizal fungi vs. spatial scale for diversity and saprotrophic fungi. The significant role of precipitation across fungal guilds and spatio-temporal scales indicates that it is a limiting resource controlling sporocarp production and diversity in Mediterranean regions. The high spatial and temporal variability of mushrooms emphasize the need for long-term datasets of multiple spatial points to effectively characterize fungal fruiting patterns.

  5. Chronic neck pain patients with traumatic or non-traumatic onset: Differences in characteristics. A cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Ris, Inge; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Boyle, Eleanor; Kongsted, Alice; Manniche, Claus; Søgaard, Karen


    Patients with chronic neck pain can present with disability, low quality of life, psychological factors and clinical symptoms. It is unclear whether patients with a traumatic onset differ from those with a non-traumatic onset, by having more complex and severe symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation of chronic neck pain patients with and without traumatic onset by examining cervical mobility, sensorimotor function, cervical muscle performance and pressure pain threshold in addition to the following self-reported characteristics: quality of life, neck pain and function, kinesiophobia, depression, and pain bothersomeness. This cross-sectional study included 200 participants with chronic neck pain: 120 with traumatic onset and 80 with non-traumatic onset. Participants were recruited from physiotherapy clinics in primary and secondary health care. For participants to be included, they were required to be at least 18 years of age, have had neck pain for at least 6 months, and experienced neck-related activity limitation as determined by a score of at least 10 on the Neck Disability Index. We conducted the following clinical tests of cervical range of motion, gaze stability, eye movement, cranio-cervical flexion, cervical extensors, and pressure pain threshold. The participants completed the following questionnaires: physical and mental component summary of the Short Form Health Survey, EuroQol-5D, Neck Disability Index, Patient-Specific Functional Scale, Pain Bothersomeness, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and TAMPA scale of kinesiophobia. The level of significance for all analyses was defined as p<0.01. Differences between groups for the continuous data were determined using either a Student's t-test or Mann Whitney U test. In both groups, the majority of the participants were female (approximately 75%). Age, educational level, working situation and sleeping patterns were similar in both groups. The traumatic group had symptoms

  6. Decoding Temporal Structure in Music and Speech Relies on Shared Brain Resources but Elicits Different Fine-Scale Spatial Patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abrams, Daniel A; Bhatara, Anjali; Ryali, Srikanth; Balaban, Evan; Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod


    .... Although the same manipulation of temporal structure elicited brain activation level differences of similar magnitude for both music and speech stimuli, multivariate classification analysis revealed...

  7. Local but not long-range microstructural differences of the ventral temporal cortex in developmental prosopagnosia. (United States)

    Song, Sunbin; Garrido, Lúcia; Nagy, Zoltan; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Steel, Adam; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Ray J; Duchaine, Bradley; Furl, Nicholas


    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) experience face recognition impairments despite normal intellect and low-level vision and no history of brain damage. Prior studies using diffusion tensor imaging in small samples of subjects with DP (n=6 or n=8) offer conflicting views on the neurobiological bases for DP, with one suggesting white matter differences in two major long-range tracts running through the temporal cortex, and another suggesting white matter differences confined to fibers local to ventral temporal face-specific functional regions of interest (fROIs) in the fusiform gyrus. Here, we address these inconsistent findings using a comprehensive set of analyzes in a sample of DP subjects larger than both prior studies combined (n=16). While we found no microstructural differences in long-range tracts between DP and age-matched control participants, we found differences local to face-specific fROIs, and relationships between these microstructural measures with face recognition ability. We conclude that subtle differences in local rather than long-range tracts in the ventral temporal lobe are more likely associated with developmental prosopagnosia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Individual Differences in Temporal Selective Attention as Reflected in Pupil Dilation.

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    Charlotte Willems

    Full Text Available Attention is restricted for the second of two targets when it is presented within 200-500 ms of the first target. This attentional blink (AB phenomenon allows one to study the dynamics of temporal selective attention by varying the interval between the two targets (T1 and T2. Whereas the AB has long been considered as a robust and universal cognitive limitation, several studies have demonstrated that AB task performance greatly differs between individuals, with some individuals showing no AB whatsoever.Here, we studied these individual differences in AB task performance in relation to differences in attentional timing. Furthermore, we investigated whether AB magnitude is predictive for the amount of attention allocated to T1. For both these purposes pupil dilation was measured, and analyzed with our recently developed deconvolution method. We found that the dynamics of temporal attention in small versus large blinkers differ in a number of ways. Individuals with a relatively small AB magnitude seem better able to preserve temporal order information. In addition, they are quicker to allocate attention to both T1 and T2 than large blinkers. Although a popular explanation of the AB is that it is caused by an unnecessary overinvestment of attention allocated to T1, a more complex picture emerged from our data, suggesting that this may depend on whether one is a small or a large blinker.The use of pupil dilation deconvolution seems to be a powerful approach to study the temporal dynamics of attention, bringing us a step closer to understanding the elusive nature of the AB. We conclude that the timing of attention to targets may be more important than the amount of allocated attention in accounting for individual differences.

  9. Age differences in temporal discounting: the role of dispositional affect and anticipated emotions. (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; O'Donoghue, Ted; Dunning, David


    We examined age differences in temporal discounting, the tendency to devalue delayed outcomes relative to immediate ones, with particular emphasis on the role of affective responses. A life-span sample completed an incentive-compatible temporal discounting task involving both monetary gains and losses. Covariates included demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning, personality traits, affective responses, and subjective health. Advanced age was associated with a lower tendency to discount the future, but this effect reached statistical significance only for the discounting of delayed gains. An examination of covariates suggested that age effects were associated with age differences in mental health and affective responses rather than demographic or cognitive variables. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of spatio-temporal evolution of droughts in Luanhe River Basin using different drought indices


    Kai-yan Wang; Qiong-fang Li; Yong Yang; Ming Zeng; Peng-cheng Li; Jie-xiang Zhang


    Based on the monthly precipitation and air temperature from 1960 to 1989 in the Luanhe River Basin, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and standardized precipitation index (SPI) at three- and six-month time scales and the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (sc-PDSI) were calculated to evaluate droughts in the study area. Temporal variations of the drought severity from 1960 to 1989 were analyzed and compared based on the results of different drought ind...

  11. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis


    Ort, C.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; Berset, J.-D.; Bijlsma, L.; Castiglioni, S.; Covaci, A.; de Voogt, P.; Emke, E.; Fatta-Kassinos, D.; Griffiths, P; Hernández, F.; González-Mariño, I.; Grabic, R.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Mastroianni, N


    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total popula- tion 24.74 million). Measurements...

  12. From indoor to outdoor: Behavioural response of fish to noise exposure of different temporal structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yik Yaw Neo


    Full Text Available Human activities, such as shipping and pile driving, produce substantial amounts of man-made noise underwater. The noise may negatively affect fish, causing physical injuries, hearing loss, physiological stress, acoustic masking and behavioural changes. Among these effects, behavioural changes are most problematic, but are understudied, especially under well-controlled field conditions. Moreover, man-made noise varies widely in terms of acoustic characteristics. The influence of temporal patterns of noise on the impacts is largely unknown. We exposed groups of European seabass to sound treatments of different temporal patterns, varying in intermittency, interval regularity and presence of amplitude 'ramp-up'. The study took place in a large octagonal floating pen (⌀ = ~12.5m in Oosterschelde, a marine inlet in the Netherlands. We tracked the fish swimming trajectories with an acoustic 3D telemetry system and looked into the behavioural changes and recovery. Upon noise exposure, the fish swam to greater depths in tighter shoals, similar to previous studies conducted in a basin. Moreover, the fish swam away from the noise source, suggesting avoidance behaviour. The different temporal patterns seemed to differ in their impact strengths although the results were not significant. These findings may carry important scientific and management implications.

  13. Regulation of Chlamydia Gene Expression by Tandem Promoters with Different Temporal Patterns. (United States)

    Rosario, Christopher J; Tan, Ming


    Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria with an unusual intracellular developmental cycle marked by temporal waves of gene expression. The three main temporal groups of chlamydial genes are proposed to be controlled by separate mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. However, we have noted genes with discrepancies, such as the early gene dnaK and the midcycle genes bioY and pgk, which have promoters controlled by the late transcriptional regulators EUO and σ(28). To resolve this issue, we analyzed the promoters of these three genes in vitro and in Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria grown in cell culture. Transcripts from the σ(28)-dependent promoter of each gene were detected only at late times in the intracellular infection, bolstering the role of σ(28) RNA polymerase in late gene expression. In each case, however, expression prior to late times was due to a second promoter that was transcribed by σ(66) RNA polymerase, which is the major form of chlamydial polymerase. These results demonstrate that chlamydial genes can be transcribed from tandem promoters with different temporal profiles, leading to a composite expression pattern that differs from the expression profile of a single promoter. In addition, tandem promoters allow a gene to be regulated by multiple mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, such as DNA supercoiling or late regulation by EUO and σ(28). We discuss how tandem promoters broaden the repertoire of temporal gene expression patterns in the chlamydial developmental cycle and can be used to fine-tune the expression of specific genes. Chlamydia is a pathogenic bacterium that is responsible for the majority of infectious disease cases reported to the CDC each year. It causes an intracellular infection that is characterized by coordinated expression of chlamydial genes in temporal waves. Chlamydial transcription has been shown to be regulated by DNA supercoiling, alternative forms of RNA polymerase, and transcription factors, but the number

  14. Sex differences in lateralization of semantic verbal fluency in temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Eichstaedt, Katie E; Soble, Jason R; Kamper, Joel E; Bozorg, Ali M; Benbadis, Selim R; Vale, Fernando L; Schoenberg, Mike R


    When differences exist, women tend to outperform men on measures of verbal fluency, possibly due to greater bilateral language representation. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have a higher rate of atypical cortical language representation than the general population, making them a population of interest for the study of language. For the current study, 78 TLE patients (51% male, 51% left temporal focus) underwent pre-surgical neuropsychological evaluations. Retrospective data analyses investigated the impact of seizure laterality and sex on letter and semantic verbal fluency. Results indicated an interaction between sex and laterality for semantic, but not letter, verbal fluency. Males with left TLE exhibited significantly worse semantic fluency than males with right TLE, whereas females' semantic fluency did not differ by seizure focus. These data indicate that females with TLE may indeed engage in more bilateral hemispheric processing of semantic verbal fluency, whereas males may be more reliant on left temporal cortical function for this task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relative Weight of Temporal Envelope Cues in Different Frequency Regions for Mandarin Sentence Recognition

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    Yang Guo


    Full Text Available Acoustic temporal envelope (E cues containing speech information are distributed across the frequency spectrum. To investigate the relative weight of E cues in different frequency regions for Mandarin sentence recognition, E information was extracted from 30 contiguous bands across the range of 80–7,562 Hz using Hilbert decomposition and then allocated to five frequency regions. Recognition scores were obtained with acoustic E cues from 1 or 2 random regions from 40 normal-hearing listeners. While the recognition scores ranged from 8.2% to 16.3% when E information from only one region was available, the scores ranged from 57.9% to 87.7% when E information from two frequency regions was presented, suggesting a synergistic effect among the temporal E cues in different frequency regions. Next, the relative contributions of the E information from the five frequency regions to sentence perception were computed using a least-squares approach. The results demonstrated that, for Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, the temporal E cues of Frequency Region 1 (80–502 Hz and Region 3 (1,022–1,913 Hz contributed more to the intelligence of sentence recognition than other regions, particularly the region of 80–502 Hz, which contained fundamental frequency (F0 information.

  16. Concurrent temporal channels for auditory processing: Oscillatory neural entrainment reveals segregation of function at different scales.

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    Xiangbin Teng


    Full Text Available Natural sounds convey perceptually relevant information over multiple timescales, and the necessary extraction of multi-timescale information requires the auditory system to work over distinct ranges. The simplest hypothesis suggests that temporal modulations are encoded in an equivalent manner within a reasonable intermediate range. We show that the human auditory system selectively and preferentially tracks acoustic dynamics concurrently at 2 timescales corresponding to the neurophysiological theta band (4-7 Hz and gamma band ranges (31-45 Hz but, contrary to expectation, not at the timescale corresponding to alpha (8-12 Hz, which has also been found to be related to auditory perception. Listeners heard synthetic acoustic stimuli with temporally modulated structures at 3 timescales (approximately 190-, approximately 100-, and approximately 30-ms modulation periods and identified the stimuli while undergoing magnetoencephalography recording. There was strong intertrial phase coherence in the theta band for stimuli of all modulation rates and in the gamma band for stimuli with corresponding modulation rates. The alpha band did not respond in a similar manner. Classification analyses also revealed that oscillatory phase reliably tracked temporal dynamics but not equivalently across rates. Finally, mutual information analyses quantifying the relation between phase and cochlear-scaled correlations also showed preferential processing in 2 distinct regimes, with the alpha range again yielding different patterns. The results support the hypothesis that the human auditory system employs (at least a 2-timescale processing mode, in which lower and higher perceptual sampling scales are segregated by an intermediate temporal regime in the alpha band that likely reflects different underlying computations.

  17. Gender differences in life events prior to onset of major depressive disorder: the moderating effect of age. (United States)

    Harkness, Kate L; Alavi, Nazanin; Monroe, Scott M; Slavich, George M; Gotlib, Ian H; Bagby, R Michael


    Theoretical models attempting to explain why approximately twice as many women as men suffer from depression often involve the role of stressful life events. However, detailed empirical evidence regarding gender differences in rates of life events that precede onset of depression is lacking, due in part to the common use of checklist assessments of stress that have been shown to possess poor validity. The present study reports on a combined sample of 375 individuals drawn from 4 studies in which all participants were diagnosed with major depressive disorder and assessed with the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (Bifulco et al., 1989), a state-of-the-art contextual interview and life stress rating system. Women reported significantly more severe and nonsevere, independent and dependent, and other-focused and subject-focused life events prior to onset of depression than did men. Further, these relations were significantly moderated by age, such that gender differences in rates of most types of events were found primarily in young adulthood. These results are discussed in term of their implications for understanding the etiological role of stressful life events in depression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Magnetoencephalographic correlates of different types of aura in temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Fukao, Kenjiro; Inoue, Yushi; Yagi, Kazuichi


    To estimate magnetoencephalography (MEG) correlates of different types of aura in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). MEG study was performed on 57 patients (26 male and 31 female) with TLE, whose ages ranged from 14-46 years (mean 27 years). Interictal magnetoencephalograms showing discharges were analyzed, and spike-dipole clusters were categorized into left and right inferotemporal-horizontal (IH) and superotemporal-vertical (SV) types. Auras were classified into autonomic, auditory, and psychic seizures. The correlation between the four types of interictal spike-dipole and three types of aura was analyzed using Fisher's exact probability test. IH type correlated with autonomic seizures (p = 0.0004), whereas SV type correlated with both auditory (p = 0.0002) and psychic seizures (p = 0.042). When subdivided into left and right, left IH type correlated with autonomic seizures (p = 0.046), but right IH type did not. Right SV type correlated with both auditory (p = 0.014) and psychic seizures (p = 0.002), but left SV did not correlate with either. Both types did not correlate with "no aura." Using our proposed classification of spike-dipoles, MEG distinguishes auras of mesial temporal origin from those of lateral temporal region. Furthermore, by adopting our classification, laterality of spike-dipoles is clearly demonstrated in auditory and psychic seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Distinct disease phenotypes linked to different combinations of GAA mutations in a large late-onset GSDII sibship. (United States)

    Sampaolo, Simone; Esposito, Teresa; Farina, Olimpia; Formicola, Daniela; Diodato, Daria; Gianfrancesco, Fernando; Cipullo, Federica; Cremone, Gaetana; Cirillo, Mario; Del Viscovo, Luca; Toscano, Antonio; Angelini, Corrado; Di Iorio, Giuseppe


    Glycogenosis type II (GSDII or Pompe disease) is an autosomal recessive disease, often characterized by a progressive accumulation of glycogen within lysosomes caused by a deficiency of α-1,4-glucosidase (GAA; acid maltase), a key enzyme of the glycogen degradation pathway. To date, more than 326 different mutations in the GAA gene have been identified in patients with GSDII but the course of the disease is difficult to be predicted on the basis of molecular genetic changes. Studies on large informative families are advisable to better define how genetics and non genetics factors like exercise and diet may influence the clinical phenotype. In this study, we report on clinical, instrumental, and pathological features as well as on molecular analysis of a family with 10 out of 13 siblings affected by late-onset Pompe disease. Three mutations segregated in the family, two of which are novel mutations. Siblings showing a more severe phenotype were compound heterozygous for c.118C > T [p.R40X] and c.2647-7G > A [p.N882fs] on GAA, whereas, two patients showing a mild phenotype were compound heterozygous c.2647-7G > A [p.N882fs] and c.2276G > C [p.G759A] mutations. Quantitative expression analysis showed, in the patients carrying p.R40X/ p.N882fs, a significant (p 0.01) correlation between the levels of expression of the mutated allele and the age at onset of the disease. As far as we know, this is the largest informative family with late-onset Pompe disease described in the literature showing a peculiar complex set of mutations of GAA gene that may partially elucidate the clinical heterogeneity of this family.

  20. Temporal dynamics of action perception: differences on ERP evoked by object-related and non-object-related actions. (United States)

    Wamain, Yannick; Pluciennicka, Ewa; Kalénine, Solène


    While neuropsychological dissociations suggest that distinct processes are involved in execution or perception of transitive (object-related) and intransitive (non-object-related) actions, the few neuroimaging studies that directly contrasted the brain activations underlying transitive and intransitive gesture perception failed to find substantial differences between the two action types. However, the distinction could be visible on brain activity timing within the fronto-parietal network. In this study, we used Event-Related Potential (ERP) method to assess the temporal dynamics of object-related and non-object-related action processing. Although both meaningful, only object-related actions involve object motor features. Accordingly, perception of the two action types would show distinct neural correlates. Participants were presented with four movie types (ORA, Object-Related Action, NORA: Non-Object-Related Action and 2 control movies) and were instructed to perform tasks that required explicit or implicit action recognition (specific action recognition or color change detection). Movies were presented as Point-Light Display (PLD) and thus provided only information about gesture kinematics regardless of action type. ERP were computed during movie visual perception and analyzed as a function of movie type and task. The main result revealed a difference between ORA and NORA on the amplitude of the P3a component in the fronto-parietal region. The difference observed around 250 ms after movie onset do not likely origin from variation in low-level visual features or attention resource allocation. Instead, we suggest that it reflects incidental recruitment of object attributes during object-related action perception. The exact nature of these attributes is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Strain and sex differences in puberty onset and the effects of THC administration on weight gain and brain volumes. (United States)

    Keeley, R J; Trow, J; McDonald, R J


    The use of recreational marijuana is widespread and frequently begins and persists through adolescence. Some research has shown negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use, but this is not seen across studies, and certain factors, like genetic background and sex, may influence the results. It is critical to identify which characteristics predispose an individual to be susceptible to the negative consequences of chronic exposure to marijuana in adolescence on brain health and behavior. To this end, using males and females of two strains of rats, Long-Evans hooded (LER) and Wistar (WR) rats, we explored whether these anatomically and behaviorally dimorphic strains demonstrated differences in puberty onset and strain-specific effects of adolescent exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana. Daily 5 mg/kg treatment began on the day of puberty onset and continued for 14 days. Of particular interest were metrics of growth and volumetric estimates of brain areas involved in cognition that contain high densities of cannabinoid receptors, including the hippocampus and its subregions, the amygdala, and the frontal cortex. Brain volumetrics were analyzed immediately following the treatment period. LER and WR females started puberty at different ages, but no strain differences were observed in brain volumes. THC decreased weight gain throughout the treatment period for all groups. Only the hippocampus and some of its subregions were affected by THC, and increased volumes with THC administration was observed exclusively in females, regardless of strain. Long-term treatment of THC did not affect all individuals equally, and females displayed evidence of increased sensitivity to the effects of THC, and by extension, marijuana. Identifying differences in adolescent physiology of WR and LER rats could help determine the cause for strain and sex differences in brain and behavior of adults and help to refine the use of animal models

  2. Does Theory of Mind Performance Differ in Children with Early-Onset and Regressive Autism? (United States)

    Matthews, Nicole L.; Goldberg, Wendy A.; Lukowski, Angela F.; Osann, Kathryn; Abdullah, Maryam M.; Ly, Agnes R.; Thorsen, Kara; Spence, M. Anne


    A deficit in theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to infer the mental states of others, has been implicated as one of the major characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); however, little attention has been devoted to possible differences in ToM ability within ASD. The current study examined ToM performance in children with early-onset…

  3. Parental report of vaccine receipt in children with autism spectrum disorder: Do rates differ by pattern of ASD onset? (United States)

    Goin-Kochel, Robin P; Mire, Sarah S; Dempsey, Allison G; Fein, Rachel H; Guffey, Danielle; Minard, Charles G; Cunningham, Rachel M; Sahni, Leila C; Boom, Julie A


    A contentious theory espoused by some parents is that regressive-onset of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is triggered by vaccines. If this were true, then vaccine receipt should be higher in children with regressive-onset ASD compared with other patterns of onset. Parental report of rate of receipt for six vaccines (DPT/DTaP, HepB, Hib, polio, MMR, varicella) was examined in children with ASD (N=2755) who were categorized by pattern of ASD onset (early onset, plateau, delay-plus-regression, regression). All pairwise comparisons were significantly equivalent within a 10% margin for all vaccines except varicella, for which the delay-plus-regression group had lower rates of receipt (81%) than the early-onset (87%) and regression (87%) groups. Findings do not support a connection between regressive-onset ASD and vaccines in this cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An imperfect dopaminergic error signal can drive temporal-difference learning.

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    Wiebke Potjans


    Full Text Available An open problem in the field of computational neuroscience is how to link synaptic plasticity to system-level learning. A promising framework in this context is temporal-difference (TD learning. Experimental evidence that supports the hypothesis that the mammalian brain performs temporal-difference learning includes the resemblance of the phasic activity of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons to the TD error and the discovery that cortico-striatal synaptic plasticity is modulated by dopamine. However, as the phasic dopaminergic signal does not reproduce all the properties of the theoretical TD error, it is unclear whether it is capable of driving behavior adaptation in complex tasks. Here, we present a spiking temporal-difference learning model based on the actor-critic architecture. The model dynamically generates a dopaminergic signal with realistic firing rates and exploits this signal to modulate the plasticity of synapses as a third factor. The predictions of our proposed plasticity dynamics are in good agreement with experimental results with respect to dopamine, pre- and post-synaptic activity. An analytical mapping from the parameters of our proposed plasticity dynamics to those of the classical discrete-time TD algorithm reveals that the biological constraints of the dopaminergic signal entail a modified TD algorithm with self-adapting learning parameters and an adapting offset. We show that the neuronal network is able to learn a task with sparse positive rewards as fast as the corresponding classical discrete-time TD algorithm. However, the performance of the neuronal network is impaired with respect to the traditional algorithm on a task with both positive and negative rewards and breaks down entirely on a task with purely negative rewards. Our model demonstrates that the asymmetry of a realistic dopaminergic signal enables TD learning when learning is driven by positive rewards but not when driven by negative rewards.

  5. Sex Differences in Facial, Prosodic, and Social Context Emotional Recognition in Early-Onset Schizophrenia

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    Julieta Ramos-Loyo


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine sex differences in facial, prosodic, and social context emotional recognition in schizophrenia (SCH. Thirty-eight patients (SCH, 20 females and 38 healthy controls (CON, 20 females participated in the study. Clinical scales (BPRS and PANSS and an Affective States Scale were applied, as well as tasks to evaluate facial, prosodic, and within a social context emotional recognition. SCH showed lower accuracy and longer response times than CON, but no significant sex differences were observed in either facial or prosody recognition. In social context emotions, however, females showed higher empathy than males with respect to happiness in both groups. SCH reported being more identified with sad films than CON and females more with fear than males. The results of this study confirm the deficits of emotional recognition in male and female patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy subjects. Sex differences were detected in relation to social context emotions and facial and prosodic recognition depending on age.

  6. Sex Differences in Facial, Prosodic, and Social Context Emotional Recognition in Early-Onset Schizophrenia (United States)

    Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; Mora-Reynoso, Leonor; Sánchez-Loyo, Luis Miguel; Medina-Hernández, Virginia


    The purpose of the present study was to determine sex differences in facial, prosodic, and social context emotional recognition in schizophrenia (SCH). Thirty-eight patients (SCH, 20 females) and 38 healthy controls (CON, 20 females) participated in the study. Clinical scales (BPRS and PANSS) and an Affective States Scale were applied, as well as tasks to evaluate facial, prosodic, and within a social context emotional recognition. SCH showed lower accuracy and longer response times than CON, but no significant sex differences were observed in either facial or prosody recognition. In social context emotions, however, females showed higher empathy than males with respect to happiness in both groups. SCH reported being more identified with sad films than CON and females more with fear than males. The results of this study confirm the deficits of emotional recognition in male and female patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy subjects. Sex differences were detected in relation to social context emotions and facial and prosodic recognition depending on age. PMID:22970365

  7. Indexes of temporal myocardial repolarization dispersion and sudden cardiac death in heart failure: any difference? (United States)

    Piccirillo, Gianfranco; Rossi, Pietro; Mitra, Marilena; Quaglione, Raffaele; Dell'Armi, Annalaura; Di Barba, Daniele; Maisto, Damiana; Lizio, Andrea; Barillà, Francesco; Magrì, Damiano


    The QT variability index, calculated between Q- and the T-wave end (QTend VI), is an index of temporal myocardial repolarization lability associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD) in chronic heart failure (CHF). Little is known about temporal variability in the other two temporal myocardial repolarization descriptors obtained from Q-Tpeak and Tpeak -Tend intervals. We therefore investigated differences between these indexes in patients with CHF who died suddenly and in those who survived with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35% or >35%. We selected 127 ECG and systolic blood pressure (SPB) recordings from outpatients with CHF all of whom had been followed up for 30 months. We calculated RR and SPB variability by power spectral analysis and QTend VI, QTpeak VI, Tpeak Tend VI. We then subdivided data patients into three groups SCD, LVEF ≤ 35%, and LVEF > 35%. The LVEF was higher in the SCD than in the LVEF ≤ 35% group, whereas no difference was found between the SCD and LVEF > 35% groups. QTend VI, QTpeak VI, and Tpeak Tend VI were higher in the SCD and LVEF ≤ 35% groups than in the LVEF > 35% group. Multivariate analysis detected a negative relationship between all repolarization variability indexes, low frequency obtained from RR intervals and LVEF. Our data show that variability in the first (QTpeak VI) and second halves of the QT interval (Tpeak -Tend VI) significantly contributes to the QTend VI in patients with CHF. Further studies should investigate whether these indexes might help stratify the risk of SCD in patients with a moderately depressed LVEF. ©2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. An investigation into the influence of different parameters on the onset of boiling in minichannels

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    Piasecka Magdalena


    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental studies on boiling heat transfer in rectangular minichannels. The investigations focus on the transition from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, i.e., in the zone of boiling incipience. The experiment has been carried out with FC-72, R-123 and R-11 at the Reynolds number below 4700, corresponding to mass flow rate range 95-710 kg/(m s. The main part of the test section is a minichannel of pre-set depth from 0.7 to 2 mm and width (20, 40 and 60 mm, with different spatial orientations from vertical to horizontal and 30% inclination angle adjustment. The objective of the paper includes the impact of selected parameters (liquid flow velocity, pressure and inlet liquid subcooling, channel dimensions and spatial orientation on the boiling incipience in minichannels. The investigations are intended to develop a correlation for the calculations of the Nusselt number under the conditions of boiling incipience in the minichannel as a function of changeable parameters.

  9. An investigation into the influence of different parameters on the onset of boiling in minichannels (United States)

    Piasecka, Magdalena


    The paper presents experimental studies on boiling heat transfer in rectangular minichannels. The investigations focus on the transition from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, i.e., in the zone of boiling incipience. The experiment has been carried out with FC-72, R-123 and R-11 at the Reynolds number below 4700, corresponding to mass flow rate range 95-710 kg/(m s). The main part of the test section is a minichannel of pre-set depth from 0.7 to 2 mm and width (20, 40 and 60 mm), with different spatial orientations from vertical to horizontal and 30% inclination angle adjustment. The objective of the paper includes the impact of selected parameters (liquid flow velocity, pressure and inlet liquid subcooling, channel dimensions and spatial orientation) on the boiling incipience in minichannels. The investigations are intended to develop a correlation for the calculations of the Nusselt number under the conditions of boiling incipience in the minichannel as a function of changeable parameters.

  10. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis. (United States)

    Ort, Christoph; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Griffiths, Paul; Hernández, Félix; González-Mariño, Iria; Grabic, Roman; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Mastroianni, Nicola; Meierjohann, Axel; Nefau, Thomas; Ostman, Marcus; Pico, Yolanda; Racamonde, Ines; Reid, Malcolm; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Terzic, Senka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos; Thomas, Kevin V


    To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million). Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Prenatal Particulate Air Pollution and Asthma Onset in Urban Children. Identifying Sensitive Windows and Sex Differences. (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Coull, Brent A; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Lee, Alison; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J


    The influence of particulate air pollution on respiratory health starts in utero. Fetal lung growth and structural development occurs in stages; thus, effects on postnatal respiratory disorders may differ based on timing of exposure. We implemented an innovative method to identify sensitive windows for effects of prenatal exposure to particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) on children's asthma development in an urban pregnancy cohort. Analyses included 736 full-term (≥37 wk) children. Each mother's daily PM2.5 exposure was estimated over gestation using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporal resolved model. Using distributed lag models, we examined associations between weekly averaged PM2.5 levels over pregnancy and physician-diagnosed asthma in children by age 6 years. Effect modification by sex was also examined. Most mothers were ethnic minorities (54% Hispanic, 30% black), had 12 or fewer years of education (66%), and did not smoke in pregnancy (80%). In the sample as a whole, distributed lag models adjusting for child age, sex, and maternal factors (education, race and ethnicity, smoking, stress, atopy, prepregnancy obesity) showed that increased PM2.5 exposure levels at 16-25 weeks gestation were significantly associated with early childhood asthma development. An interaction between PM2.5 and sex was significant (P = 0.01) with sex-stratified analyses showing that the association exists only for boys. Higher prenatal PM2.5 exposure at midgestation was associated with asthma development by age 6 years in boys. Methods to better characterize vulnerable windows may provide insight into underlying mechanisms.

  12. EEG activities during elicited sleep onset REM and NREM periods reflect different mechanisms of dream generation. Electroencephalograms. Rapid eye movement. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tomoka; Ogilvie, Robert D; Murphy, Timothy I; Ferrelli, Anthony V


    To be the first to compare EEG power spectra during sleep onset REM periods (SOREMP) and sleep onset NREM periods (NREMP) in normal individuals and relate this to dream appearance processes underlying these different types of sleep periods. Eight healthy undergraduates spent 7 consecutive nights in the sleep lab including 4 nights for SOREMP elicitation using the Sleep Interruption Technique. This enabled us to control preceding sleep processes between SOREMP and NREMP. EEG power spectra when participants did and did not report 'dreams' were compared between both types of sleep. Sleep stages, subjective measurements including dream property scores, sleepiness, mood, and tiredness after awakenings were also examined to determine their consistency with EEG findings. Increased alpha EEG activities (11.72-13.67 Hz) observed mainly in the central area were related to the absence of SOREMP dreams and appearance of NREMP dreams. Analyses of sleep stages combining two studies (16 participants) also supported the Fast Fourier Transform findings, showing that when dreams were reported there were decreased amounts of stage 2 and increased stage REM in SOREMP and increased stage W in NREMP. SOREMP dreams were more bizarre than NREMP dreams. Participants felt more tired after SOREMP with dreams than without dreams, while the opposite was observed after NREMP episodes. EEG power spectra patterns reflected different physiological mechanisms underlying generation of SOREMP and NREMP dreams. The same relationships were also reflected by sleep stage analyses as well as subjective measurements including dream properties and tiredness obtained after awakenings. This study not only supports the hypothesized relationships between REM mechanisms and REM dreams as well as arousal processes and NREM dreams, it also provides a new perspective to dream research due to its unique techniques to awaken participants and collect REM dreams during experimentally induced SOREMP.

  13. Concurrent sensorimotor temporal recalibration to different lags for the left and right hand

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    Yoshimori eSugano


    Full Text Available Perception of temporal synchrony between one's own action and the sensory feedback of that action is quite flexible. We examined whether sensorimotor temporal recalibration (TR involves central or motor-specific components by concurrently exposing the left and right hands to different lags. The experiment was composed of a pre-test, an adaptation phase, and a post-test. During the adaptation phase, participants tapped their left and right index fingers in alternating fashion while each tap induced an auditory feedback signal (a short click sound. One hand was exposed to a long delay between the tap and the sound (~150 ms, while the other hand was exposed to a subjective no-delay (~50 ms. Before and after the adaptation phase (the pre- and post-test, participants tried to tap in synchrony with pacer tones (ISI = 1000 ms. The results showed that the hand that was exposed to the delayed sound corrected for this delay by tapping earlier (a larger anticipation error than the no-delay hand, indicating TR. Different amounts of TR were found when the left and right hand were concurrently exposed to the same versus different delays. With different exposure- delays for the two hands, there was a TR even for the hand that did not experience any delay in the feedback signal. However, it is not the case with the same exposure-delay for the two hands. TR of the hand that experienced delayed feedback also occurred faster and was more complete (~40 % greater than that of the hand with no subjective delay if the two hands were exposed to the same rather than different delays (~20 % greater than that of the hand with no subjective delay. These results suggest the existence of cross-talk between the hands, where both central and motor-specific components might be involved.

  14. Components of antioxidant system of Picrorhiza kurrooa exhibit different spatio-temporal behavior. (United States)

    Gangola, Manu Pratap; Parkash, Jai; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Dutt, Som


    Antioxidant system is one of the important factors in regulating plant growth, development and adaptation. Thus, in order to have better insights into molecular mechanisms of growth and adaptation of a plant it is prerequisite to have known the status of various components of the antioxidant system of the plant. Here we studied the status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of the antioxidant system of picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurrooa). Picrorhiza is an important medicinal herb of western Himalayan region and has been listed in the Red Data Book as an endangered species. Spatio-temporal analysis of ascorbic acid and glutathione in leaf, root and rhizome during different stages of development revealed differential status of these antioxidant molecules. Of the three tissues, ascorbic acid was found to be highest in leaves and lowest in roots. Interestingly, just opposite to that, glutathione was highest in roots and lowest in leaves. Using degenerate primers based approach followed by rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends method, full length cDNAs of three important genes namely Picrorhiza kurrooa ascorbate peroxidase (pkapx), Picrorhiza kurrooa monodehydroascorbate reductase (pkmdhar) and Picrorhiza kurrooa glutathione reductase (pkgr) of antioxidant system were cloned from picrorhiza. Complementary DNAs of pkapx, pkmdhar and pkgr contained 1,049, 2,016 and 1,664 bp, respectively. Expression analysis showed differential spatio-temporal expression of these genes. Expressions of all the three genes were found higher in roots as compared to rhizome and leaves. Temporal expression analysis of pkapx, pkmdhar and pkgr revealed differential transcript levels. Expression of pkapx exhibited negative correlation with the light intensity. Just opposite to the pkapx, expression pattern of pkgr revealed its positive correlation with light intensity. Expression pattern of pkmdhar revealed its light independent expression behavior. The findings may be useful to

  15. Processing Spatial-Temporal Information in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia: The Study of Short-Term Memory and Its Susceptibility to Distraction (United States)

    Cellard, Caroline; Tremblay, Sebastien; Lehoux, Catherine; Roy, Marc-Andre


    Memory impairment is a core feature in schizophrenia (SZ). The aim of this study was to investigate short-term memory (STM) and its sensitivity to distraction with visual-spatial material. This study comprised 23 recent-onset SZ patients and 23 healthy controls. The degree of disruption upon recall from interleaving irrelevant items within a…

  16. Spatio-temporal distribution of malaria vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) across different climatic zones of Iran. (United States)

    Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Vatandoost, Hassan; Charrahy, Zabihollah


    Malaria is a main vector-borne public health problem in Iran. The last studies on Iranian mosquitoes show 31 Anopheles species including different sibling species and genotypes, eight of them are reported to play role in malaria transmission. The objective of this study is to provide a reference for malaria vectors of Iran and to map their spatial and temporal distribution in different climatic zones. Shape files of administrative boundaries and climates of Iran were provided by National Cartographic Center. Data on distribution and seasonal activity of malaria vectors were obtained from different sources and a databank in district level was created in Excel 2003, inserted to the shape files and analyzed by ArcGIS 9.2 to provide the maps. Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles dthali Patton, Anopheles fluviatilis James s.l., Anopheles maculipennis Meigen s.l., Anopheles sacharovi Favre, Anopheles stephensi Liston, and Anopheles superpictus Grassi have been introduced as primary and secondary malaria vectors and Anopheles pulcherrimus Theobald as a suspected vector in Iran. Temporal distribution of anopheline mosquitoes is restricted to April-December in northern Iran, however mosquitoes can be found during the year in southern region. Spatial distribution of malaria vectors is different based on species, thus six of them (except for Anopheles maculipennis s.l. and Anopheles sacharovi) are reported from endemic malarious area in southern and southeastern areas of Iran. The climate of this part is usually warm and humid, which makes it favorable for mosquito rearing and malaria transmission. Correlation between climate conditions and vector distribution can help to predict the potential range of activity for each species and preparedness for malaria epidemics. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Torpor expression in juvenile and adult Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) differs in frequency, duration and onset in response to a daily cycle in ambient temperature. (United States)

    Diedrich, Victoria; Bank, Jonathan H; Scherbarth, Frank; Steinlechner, Stephan


    In addition to morphological and physiological traits of short-day acclimatisation, Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) from Central Asia exhibit spontaneous daily torpor to decrease energy demands during winter. Environmental factors such as food scarcity and low temperatures have been shown to facilitate the use of this temporal reduction in metabolism and body temperature. We investigated the effect of a daily cycle in ambient temperature on short-day acclimation and torpor expression in juvenile and adult Djungarian hamsters. The animals were exposed to a cold dark phase (6°C) and a warmer light phase (18°C) and were compared with control hamsters kept at a constant ambient temperature of 18°C. Under constant conditions, torpor expression did not differ between adult and juvenile hamsters. Although the daily temperature cycle evoked an increased metabolic rate in adult and juvenile hamsters during the dark phase and strengthened the synchronization between torpor entrance and the beginning of the light phase, it did not induce the expected torpor facilitation. In adult hamsters, torpor expression profiles did not differ from those under constant conditions at all. In contrast, juvenile hamsters showed a delayed onset of torpor season, a decreased torpor frequency, depth and duration, as well as an increased number of early torpor terminations coinciding with the rise in ambient temperature after the beginning of the light phase. While the temperature challenge appeared to be of minor importance for energy balance and torpor expression in adult hamsters, it profoundly influenced the overall energy saving strategy of juvenile hamsters, promoting torpor-alleviating active foragers over torpor-prone energy-savers. In addition, our data suggest a more efficient acclimation in juvenile hamsters under additional energy challenges, which reduces the need for torpor expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impulsivity in abstinent early- and late-onset alcoholics : differences in self-report measures and a discounting task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dom, G.; D'Haene, P.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.


    Aims: To test the hypothesis that early-onset alcoholics (EOAs) can be differentiated from late-onset alcoholics (LOAs) by more severe substance-related problems and higher levels of impulsivity and aggression. Design and measurements: A cross-sectional patient survey with a community comparison

  19. The influence of snow on discharge at different temporal scales in Switzerland (United States)

    Rössler, Ole; Weingartner, Rolf


    The temporal storage of precipitation as snow plays an important role for discharge generation. This is indicated for example by the frequent occurrence of snowmelt floods and rain-on-snow floods in the Alps. In terms of the former, it can be questioned whether the spring flood is a direct function of the winter snow amount; concerning the latter, it is known that flood forecasting is very challenging after short term snow accumulation. Hence, there is a need to improve our understanding of the role of snow on runoff generation. In this study we exemplarily studied the influence of snow on runoff at different time scales. First, the importance of the temporal storage of water as snow on a short time scale is illustrated by analyzing the snow melt contribution during a rain-on-snow event in October 2011 in Switzerland. This flood was a non-forecasted rain-on-snow flood that generated severe damages. We analyzed why the existing models were not able to forecast the event. Second, the seasonal influence of winter snow cover on spring floods are estimated by evaluating observational data from the Bernese Oberland, Switzerland, during the last 15 years. In addition, we set up a model-experiment combining the last 15 years of snow data with the last 15 years of weather conditions during springtime. Assuming that these years cover at least a part of the natural variability, exceedance probabilities for different winter snow amounts or different weather conditions can be derived. We found that the snow amount causes primarily higher mean flow values while the effect on spring flood peaks are a function of weather. Finally, we want to give an outlook, how these dispositions and exceedance probabilities might change under climate change conditions.

  20. Clinically significant differences exist between curves in operative idiopathic early-onset scoliosis and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. (United States)

    McElroy, Mark J; Sponseller, Paul D; Fuhrhop, Sara K; Russell, Colin J; Newton, Peter O; Marks, Michelle C; Sanders, James O; Yazici, Muharrem; Pawelek, Jeff B; Akbarnia, Behrooz A


    Retrospective analysis. To determine if statistically significant differences exist between operative idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (IEOS) and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in primary curve characteristics, stable vertebra, kyphosis, or lumbar deformity and, if so, to identify the clinical significance of these differences. To our knowledge, no study has statistically compared radiographical measures of operative IEOS and AIS. We identified operative patients (60, IEOS; 1537, AIS) in 2 multicenter databases and measured preoperative radiographical parameters of interest. The measurements were compared using the Student t test and other appropriate statistical methods (significance, P = 0.05). The IEOS and AIS groups were significantly different in primary curve magnitude (70° ± 20° vs. 54° ± 13°, respectively; P exist between operative IEOS and AIS curves. IEOS curves are greater in magnitude, more kyphotic, less well compensated, and have a more caudal apex and stable vertebra. These findings suggest that younger patients may require more distal instrumentation and that proximal fixation techniques should consider the additional pullout forces created by the greater kyphosis.

  1. Temporal changes of Japanese encephalitits virus in different brain regions of rat

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    Ruchi Srivastava


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV infection results in acute encephalitic illness. The affinity of JEV to different regions of brain and temporal changes in viral load have not been studied. This study was conducted to describe localization of JEV to different regions of the brain at different stages of disease in a rat model of Japanese encephalitis (JE. Methods: Twelve days old Wistar rats were inoculated intracerebrally with a dose of 3 x 10 6 pfu/ml of JEV. After 3, 6, 10 and 20 days post-inoculation, brains were dissected out and different regions of brain (cortex, striatum, thalamus and mid brain were taken. Motor deficit was assessed by the rota rod and JEV RNA copies were evaluated using real-time PCR assay. Results: There was a significant increase in motor deficit in rats inoculated with JEV compared to the controls. JEV RNA copies were present in all studied regions of the brain on days 3, 6 and 10 post-inoculation. Maximum number of JEV RNA copies were present in the mid brain on days 3 and 10 post-inoculation. JEV RNA copies were not detected in any of the brain regions on day 20. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reports JEV RNA load in different brain regions of rat with higher affinity of JEV virus to thalamus and mid brain compared to other regions.

  2. Spatio-temporal correlations in models of collective motion ruled by different dynamical laws

    CERN Document Server

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S; Melillo, Stefania; Viale, Massimiliano


    Information transfer is an essential factor in determining the robustness of collective behaviour in biological systems with distributed control. The most direct way to study the information transfer mechanisms is to experimentally detect the propagation across the system of a signal triggered by some perturbation. However, for field experiments this method is inefficient, as the possibilities of the observer to perturb the group are limited and empirical observations must rely on rare natural perturbations. An alternative way is to use spatio-temporal correlations to assess the information transfer mechanism directly from the spontaneous fluctuations of the system, without the need to have an actual propagating signal on record. We test the approach on ground truth data provided by numerical simulations in three dimensions of two models of collective behaviour characterized by very different dynamical equations and information transfer mechanisms: the classic Vicsek model, describing an overdamped noninertia...

  3. Factors controlling gully erosion at different spatial and temporal scales in rangelands of SW Spain (United States)

    Gómez Gutiérrez, Á.; Schnabel, S.; Lavado Contador, J. F.; Pulido Fernández, M.


    Gully erosion has been recognized as an important soil degradation process in rangelands of SW Spain. However, little is known about gullying processes at different spatial and temporal scales in these areas. Three different approaches were used in this paper to analyze the factors determining gully erosion intensity and rates at different spatial and temporal scales in rangelands of SW Spain. The first approach was based on the monitoring of a permanent valley bottom gully and continuous measurement of rainfall and discharge during the period 2001-2007 in the Parapuños experimental basin. Parapuños is a small catchment (99.5 ha) representative of dehesa land use, with an undulated topography and Mediterranean climate. Gully erosion volume was obtained by means of 28 fixed cross sections measured with a frequency of 6 months. Discharge and rainfall were monitored using a water depth probe installed in a weir at the outlet of the catchment and 6 tipping bucket rain gauges, respectively. The second approach was based on analyzing the development of the same permanent gully located in Parapuños using six series of aerial ortophotographs for the period 1945-2006. This methodology allowed to relate gully evolution with land use and vegetation cover changes. Finally, a relatively new data mining technique, called Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), was applied to construct a model capable of predicting the location of gullies at the regional scale. A large database composed of 36 independent variables related to topography, lithology, soils, rainfall, land use and vegetation cover was used. This statistical technique allowed to determine the importance of the variables involved. This database was gathered in 46 farms representative of rangelands of SW Spain in Extremadura, covering a surface area of 35,459 ha. Farms were quite diverse although their main characteristics were undulating landforms, acid rocks (schists, greywackes and granites), and

  4. Climbing fibers encode a temporal-difference prediction error during cerebellar learning in mice (United States)

    Ohmae, Shogo; Medina, Javier F.


    Climbing fiber inputs to Purkinje cells are thought to play a teaching role by generating the instructive signals that drive cerebellar learning. To investigate how these instructive signals are encoded, we recorded the activity of individual climbing fibers during cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning in mice. Our findings show that climbing fibers signal both the unexpected delivery and the unexpected omission of the periocular airpuff that serves as the instructive signal for eyeblink conditioning. In addition, we report the surprising discovery that climbing fibers activated by periocular airpuffs also respond to stimuli from other sensory modalities, if those stimuli are novel or if they predict that the periocular airpuff is about to be presented. This pattern of climbing fiber activity is strikingly similar to the responses of dopamine neurons during reinforcement learning, which have been shown to encode a particular type of instructive signal known as a temporal difference prediction error. PMID:26551541

  5. Plant traits respond to the competitive neighbourhood at different spatial and temporal scales. (United States)

    Bittebiere, Anne-Kristel; Mony, Cendrine


    Clonal plants can plastically modify their traits in response to competition, but little is known regarding the spatio-temporal scale at which a competitive neighbourhood determines the variability in species traits. This study tests the hypothesis that the local neighbourhood can be expected to influence the processes that are involved in competition tolerance and avoidance, and that this effect depends on organ lifespan. Fragments of the rhizomatous Elytrigia repens (Poaceae) were sampled in 2012 in experimental plant communities that varied in species identity and abundance. These communities had been cultivated since 2009 in mesocosms in a common garden. Fragment performance, shoot and clonal traits were measured, and the effects of past and present local neighbourhoods of five different radius sizes (5-25 cm) were examined. Past and present local neighbourhood compositions were assessed in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Most of the measured traits of E. repens responded to the local neighbourhood (5-10 cm radius), with an additional effect of the larger neighbourhood (20-25 cm radius) on ramet height, leaf dry matter content, maximal internode length and specific rhizome mass. Contrary to the expectation of the hypothesis, the temporal influence was not due to the organ lifespan. Indeed, five of the eight traits studied responded to both the past and present neighbourhoods. With the exception of specific rhizome mass, all trait responses were explained by the abundance of specific species. This study demonstrates that the traits of a single clonal individual can respond to different competitive environments in space and time. The results thus contribute to the understanding of competition mechanisms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Risk assessment of flood disaster and forewarning model at different spatial-temporal scales (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Xu, Jinchao; Guo, Qizhong; Hang, Qingfeng; Chen, Yaqian


    Aiming at reducing losses from flood disaster, risk assessment of flood disaster and forewarning model is studied. The model is built upon risk indices in flood disaster system, proceeding from the whole structure and its parts at different spatial-temporal scales. In this study, on the one hand, it mainly establishes the long-term forewarning model for the surface area with three levels of prediction, evaluation, and forewarning. The method of structure-adaptive back-propagation neural network on peak identification is used to simulate indices in prediction sub-model. Set pair analysis is employed to calculate the connection degrees of a single index, comprehensive index, and systematic risk through the multivariate connection number, and the comprehensive assessment is made by assessment matrixes in evaluation sub-model. The comparison judging method is adopted to divide warning degree of flood disaster on risk assessment comprehensive index with forewarning standards in forewarning sub-model and then the long-term local conditions for proposing planning schemes. On the other hand, it mainly sets up the real-time forewarning model for the spot, which introduces the real-time correction technique of Kalman filter based on hydrological model with forewarning index, and then the real-time local conditions for presenting an emergency plan. This study takes Tunxi area, Huangshan City of China, as an example. After risk assessment and forewarning model establishment and application for flood disaster at different spatial-temporal scales between the actual and simulated data from 1989 to 2008, forewarning results show that the development trend for flood disaster risk remains a decline on the whole from 2009 to 2013, despite the rise in 2011. At the macroscopic level, project and non-project measures are advanced, while at the microcosmic level, the time, place, and method are listed. It suggests that the proposed model is feasible with theory and application, thus

  7. Exploring differences between left and right hand motor imagery via spatio-temporal EEG microstate. (United States)

    Liu, Weifeng; Liu, Xiaoming; Dai, Ruomeng; Tang, Xiaoying


    EEG-based motor imagery is very useful in brain-computer interface. How to identify the imaging movement is still being researched. Electroencephalography (EEG) microstates reflect the spatial configuration of quasi-stable electrical potential topographies. Different microstates represent different brain functions. In this paper, microstate method was used to process the EEG-based motor imagery to obtain microstate. The single-trial EEG microstate sequences differences between two motor imagery tasks - imagination of left and right hand movement were investigated. The microstate parameters - duration, time coverage and occurrence per second as well as the transition probability of the microstate sequences were obtained with spatio-temporal microstate analysis. The results were shown significant differences (P < 0.05) with paired t-test between the two tasks. Then these microstate parameters were used as features and a linear support vector machine (SVM) was utilized to classify the two tasks with mean accuracy 89.17%, superior performance compared to the other methods. These indicate that the microstate can be a promising feature to improve the performance of the brain-computer interface classification.

  8. Analysis of temporal and spatial overlapping of hazards interactions at different scales (United States)

    De Angeli, Silvia; Trasforini, Eva; Taylor, Faith; Rudari, Roberto; Rossi, Lauro


    The aim of this work is to develop a methodological framework to analyse the impact of multiple hazards on complex territorial systems, not only focusing on multi-hazard interactions but evaluating also the multi-risk, i.e. considering the impact of multiple hazards also in terms of exposure and vulnerability. Impacts generated by natural hazards in the last years are growing also because many regions of the world become subject to multiple hazards and cascading effects. The modelling of the multi-hazard dimension is a new challenge that allows the stakeholder to face with the chain effects between hazards and to model the risk in a real holistic way. Despite the recognition of the importance of a multi-hazard approach in risk assessment, there are only a few multi-risk approaches developed up to now. The examination of multiple hazards, in contrast to single-hazard cases, poses a series of challenges in each step of the risk analysis, starting from the assessment of the hazard level, passing trough the vulnerability evaluation, and arriving finally at the resultant risk level. Hazard interactions and hazard contemporaneity arising from their spatial and temporal overlap may not only influence the overall hazard level, but also the vulnerability of elements at risk. In the proposed approach a series of possible interactions between hazards are identified and classified. These interactions are then analysed looking at the temporal and spatial evolution of the hazards and the consequent impacts and represented through an explicative graphical framework. Different temporal dimensions are identified. The time of the impact differs from the time of the damage because, even after the end of the impact, damages remain until recovery and restoration processes are completed. The discrepancy between the time of the impact and time of the damage is very important for the modelling of multi-hazard damage. Whenever a certain interval of time occurs between two impacts

  9. Abnormal functional connectivity of the amygdala in first-episode and untreated adult major depressive disorder patients with different ages of onset. (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Shen, Zonglin; Xu, Xiufeng; Yang, Shuran; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lu, Yi; Liu, Fang; Lu, Jin; Li, Na; Sun, Xuejin; Cheng, Yuqi


    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental disorder with high morbidity. As a part of the limbic system, the amygdala is important in the processing of emotional information. Structural and functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities in the amygdala have been observed in MDD patients. The present study was carried out to identify the features of amygdala FC in adult MDD patients with different ages of onset. Sixty-nine first-episode and untreated MDD patients and 81 healthy controls (CTLs) were included in this study and underwent 3D structural imaging and resting-state functional MRI scanning. The patients and CTLs were divided into two groups according to age of onset: young adult (amygdala seeds to the whole brain of MDD patients and matched CTLs in these two different onset age groups were analysed. We found that the volume of the bilateral amygdala increased to a greater extent in young adult patients compared with old adult patients. We also observed a trend toward different amygdala FC by onset age in MDD patients. In young adult patients, the left amygdala showed more abnormal resting-state FC with other regions compared with matched controls. However, in old adult patients, compared with matched controls, the right amygdala showed more abnormal changes in the resting-state FC with other regions. MDD patients with different ages of onset showed different changes in the structure and FC of the amygdala. These results might help us to understand the high heterogeneity of MDD.

  10. Simulating Spatio-Temporal Slip Evolution of Fault Zones at Different Evolutionary Stages (United States)

    Hillers, G.; Mai, M.; Ben-Zion, Y.


    Previous studies of spatio-temporal evolution of slip on a fault governed by rate-and-state friction (e.g., Rice, 1993; Ben-Zion and Rice, 1995, 1997; Tullis, 1996; Lapusta et al., 2000) employed frictional properties corresponding to fairly homogeneous faults. In most cases, the only types of heterogeneities were the lab-based depth-variations of the parameters a and b that produce transitions between stable velocity-strengthening and unstable velocity-weakening regimes. In this study we use a constant a-b profile and a depth-dependent distribution of the critical slip distance parameter L. In addition, correlated heterogeneities of L along strike are used to model geometrical heterogeneities on faults related to roughness. More specifically, we will perform 3D quasi-static and quasi-dynamic simulations of slip on a strike-slip fault using a family of 2D anisotropic correlated distributions of L having different correlation lengths along strike and downdip. The depth-variation of L over the depth range 3km histories. The 3D code with various cases of anisotropic correlated distributions of L will be used to study many issues related to observed complex behavior of seismogenic faults including: (1) Nucleation and arrest properties of failure episodes on a heterogeneous fault governed by RSD friction. (2) Comparison between properties of final simulated slip histories and those of the inverted slip histories. (3) Frequency-size and temporal statistics of simulated earthquakes on a heterogeneous fault governed by rate-and-state friction.

  11. Temporal Trends of Ecosystem Development on Different Site Types in Reclaimed Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Pinno


    Full Text Available Forest development after land reclamation in the oil sands mining region of northern Alberta, Canada was assessed using long-term monitoring plots from both reclaimed and natural forests. The metrics of ecosystem development analyzed included measures of plant community structure and composition and soil nutrient availability. Early seral reclamation plots were grouped by site type (dry and moist-rich and age categories, and these were compared with mature natural forests. There were few significant differences in ecosystem metrics between reclamation site types, but natural stands showed numerous significant differences between site types. Over time, there were significant changes in most plant community metrics such as species richness and cover of plant community groups (e.g., forbs, shrubs, and non-native species, but these were still substantially different from mature forests 20 years after reclamation. Available soil nitrogen did not change over time or by reclamation site type but available soil phosphorus did, suggesting that phosphorus may be a more suitable indicator of ecosystem development. The significant temporal changes in these reclaimed ecosystems indicate that studies of ecosystem establishment and development on reclaimed areas should be conducted over the long-term, emphasizing the utility of monitoring using long-term plot networks.

  12. Decoding temporal structure in music and speech relies on shared brain resources but elicits different fine-scale spatial patterns. (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Bhatara, Anjali; Ryali, Srikanth; Balaban, Evan; Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod


    Music and speech are complex sound streams with hierarchical rules of temporal organization that become elaborated over time. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain activity patterns in 20 right-handed nonmusicians as they listened to natural and temporally reordered musical and speech stimuli matched for familiarity, emotion, and valence. Heart rate variability and mean respiration rates were simultaneously measured and were found not to differ between musical and speech stimuli. Although the same manipulation of temporal structure elicited brain activation level differences of similar magnitude for both music and speech stimuli, multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct spatial patterns of brain responses in the 2 domains. Distributed neuronal populations that included the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior and anterior superior and middle temporal gyri, and the auditory brainstem classified temporal structure manipulations in music and speech with significant levels of accuracy. While agreeing with previous findings that music and speech processing share neural substrates, this work shows that temporal structure in the 2 domains is encoded differently, highlighting a fundamental dissimilarity in how the same neural resources are deployed.

  13. Audio-visual onset differences are used to determine syllable identity for ambiguous audio-visual stimulus pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T; Wheat, Katherine L; Bien, Nina; van Atteveldt, Nienke


    Content and temporal cues have been shown to interact during audio-visual (AV) speech identification. Typically, the most reliable unimodal cue is used more strongly to identify specific speech features; however, visual cues are only used if the AV stimuli are presented within a certain temporal

  14. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Fang, Peng; An, Jie; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Chen, Fanglin; Wang, Wensheng; Qiu, Shijun; Hu, Dewen


    Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right) mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  15. Differences in graph theory functional connectivity in left and right temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Chiang, Sharon; Stern, John M; Engel, Jerome; Levin, Harvey S; Haneef, Zulfi


    To investigate lateralized differences in limbic system functional connectivity between left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using graph theory. Interictal resting state fMRI was performed in 14 left TLE patients, 11 right TLE patients, and 12 controls. Graph theory analysis of 10 bilateral limbic regions of interest was conducted. Changes in edgewise functional connectivity, network topology, and regional topology were quantified, and then left and right TLE were compared. Limbic edgewise functional connectivity was predominantly reduced in both left and right TLE. More regional connections were reduced in right TLE, most prominently involving reduced interhemispheric connectivity between the bilateral insula and bilateral hippocampi. A smaller number of limbic connections were increased in TLE, more so in left than in right TLE. Topologically, the most pronounced change was a reduction in average network betweenness centrality and concurrent increase in left hippocampal betweenness centrality in right TLE. In contrast, left TLE exhibited a weak trend toward increased right hippocampal betweenness centrality, with no change in average network betweenness centrality. Limbic functional connectivity is predominantly reduced in both left and right TLE, with more pronounced reductions in right TLE. In contrast, left TLE exhibits both edgewise and topological changes that suggest a tendency toward reorganization. Network changes in TLE and lateralized differences thereof may have important diagnostic and prognostic implications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Different Dietary Patterns and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Kidney Transplantation: A Cross-Sectional Study. (United States)

    Centenaro, Analaura; Pedrollo, Elis F; Nicoletto, Bruna B; Manfro, Roberto C; Gonçalves, Luiz Felipe S; Leitão, Cristiane B; Souza, Gabriela C


    To verify the association of dietary patterns and dietary components with new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT). Cross-sectional study. Adult kidney transplant recipients, without history of diabetes before transplantation, who received a kidney transplant and were followed up for at least 1 year. One hundred and sixteen subjects recruited between January 2013 and August 2014. Diagnosis of NODAT was established according to the American Diabetes Association criteria for type 2 diabetes. Demographic, clinical, and anthropometric data were collected. Dietary intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire, administered by a registered dietitian. Dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between dietary patterns and NODAT. Total energy, fiber, and cholesterol intake were calculated. Consumption of macronutrients, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats (total fats and saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids), were expressed in percentage of total energy intake. Twenty-eight patients developed NODAT in the follow-up period. They presented higher body mass index and body fat percentage, as well as higher levels of triglycerides and urinary protein/creatinine ratio than the non-NODAT group. Two dietary patterns, I and II, were identified. Pattern II was characterized by higher intake of total, saturated, monounsaturated, and trans fats than pattern I. No association between the dietary patterns and NODAT was identified (P = .905), and there was no difference in the distribution of macronutrients, dietary fiber, and dietary cholesterol between the groups with and without NODAT. Posttransplant dietary patterns were not different between patients with and without NODAT. Further larger and prospective studies are needed to evaluate a possible relationship between dietary components and NODAT incidence in kidney transplant recipients. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney

  17. Performance of Linear and Nonlinear Two-Leaf Light Use Efficiency Models at Different Temporal Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wu


    Full Text Available The reliable simulation of gross primary productivity (GPP at various spatial and temporal scales is of significance to quantifying the net exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. This study aimed to verify the ability of a nonlinear two-leaf model (TL-LUEn, a linear two-leaf model (TL-LUE, and a big-leaf light use efficiency model (MOD17 to simulate GPP at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales using GPP derived from 58 eddy-covariance flux sites in Asia, Europe and North America as benchmarks. Model evaluation showed that the overall performance of TL-LUEn was slightly but not significantly better than TL-LUE at half-hourly and daily scale, while the overall performance of both TL-LUEn and TL-LUE were significantly better (p < 0.0001 than MOD17 at the two temporal scales. The improvement of TL-LUEn over TL-LUE was relatively small in comparison with the improvement of TL-LUE over MOD17. However, the differences between TL-LUEn and MOD17, and TL-LUE and MOD17 became less distinct at the 8-day scale. As for different vegetation types, TL-LUEn and TL-LUE performed better than MOD17 for all vegetation types except crops at the half-hourly scale. At the daily and 8-day scales, both TL-LUEn and TL-LUE outperformed MOD17 for forests. However, TL-LUEn had a mixed performance for the three non-forest types while TL-LUE outperformed MOD17 slightly for all these non-forest types at daily and 8-day scales. The better performance of TL-LUEn and TL-LUE for forests was mainly achieved by the correction of the underestimation/overestimation of GPP simulated by MOD17 under low/high solar radiation and sky clearness conditions. TL-LUEn is more applicable at individual sites at the half-hourly scale while TL-LUE could be regionally used at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales. MOD17 is also an applicable option regionally at the 8-day scale.

  18. Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Leaf Area Index in Different Forest Types of India Using High Temporal Remote Sensing Data (United States)

    Chhabra, A.; Panigrahy, S.


    Knowledge of temporal variations of Leaf Area Index (LAI) aids in understanding the climate-vegetation interaction of different vegetative systems. This information is amenable from high temporal remote sensing data. India has around 78.37 million hectare, accounting for 23.84% of the geographic area of the country under forest/tree cover. India has a diverse set of vegetation types ranging from tropical evergreen to dry deciduous. We present a detailed spatio-temporal and inter-seasonal analysis of LAI patterns in different forest types of India using MODIS 8-day composites global LAI/fPAR product for the year 2005 at 1-km spatial resolution. A forest cover mask was generated using SPOT 1-km landuse/landcover classification over the Indian region. The range of estimated LAI varied from 0.1-6.9 among the different forest types. Maximum LAI was observed in tropical evergreen forests in North-Eastern region and Western Ghats. Low LAI was observed in Central Indian region due to predominance of dry deciduous forests. The spatial patterns of seasonal variations detected that for most of the forest types, the peak LAI values were observed during September and October months of the autumn season in contrast to minimum LAI during summer season. The mean LAI and standard deviation for each 8-day LAI composite were also computed and mean monthly LAI profiles were derived for each forest type classified on the basis of their geographical locations. These results are useful indicators for detailed understanding of phenological sequence and may also serve as important inputs for deriving bioclimatic indices for different forest types of India.

  19. Neural mechanisms of individual differences in temporal discounting of monetary and primary rewards in adolescents. (United States)

    de Water, Erik; Mies, Gabry W; Figner, Bernd; Yoncheva, Yuliya; van den Bos, Wouter; Castellanos, F Xavier; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Scheres, Anouk


    Adolescents are generally characterized as impulsive. However, impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that involves multiple component processes. Which of these components contribute to adolescent impulsivity is currently unclear. This study focused on the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in distinct components of temporal discounting (TD), i.e., the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Participants were 58 adolescents (12-16 years-old) who performed an fMRI TD task with both monetary and snack rewards. Using mixed-effects modeling, we determined participants' average impatience, and further decomposed TD choices into: 1) amount sensitivity (unique contribution of the magnitude of the immediate reward); and 2) delay sensitivity (unique contribution of delay duration). Adolescents' average impatience was positively correlated with frontoparietal and ventral striatal activity during delayed reward choices, and with ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity during immediate reward choices. Adolescents' amount sensitivity was positively associated with ventral striatal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activity during immediate reward choices. Delay sensitivity was positively correlated with inferior parietal cortex activity during delayed reward choices. As expected, snacks were discounted more steeply than money, and TD of both reward types was associated with overlapping activation in the inferior parietal cortex. Exploring whether testosterone or estradiol were associated with TD and its neural correlates revealed no significant associations. These findings indicate that distinct components contribute uniquely to TD choice and that individual differences in amount sensitivity are uniquely associated with activation of reward valuation areas, while individual differences in delay sensitivity are uniquely associated with activation of cognitive control areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Possible Explanation of the Different Temporal Behaviors of Various Classes of Sunspot Groups (United States)

    Gao, Peng-Xin; Li, Ke-Jun; Li, Fu-Yu


    In order to investigate the periodicity and long-term trends of various classes of sunspot groups (SGs), we separated SGs into two categories: simple SGs (A/U ≤ 4.5, where A represents the total corrected whole spot area of the group in millionths of the solar hemisphere (msh), and U represents the total corrected umbral area of the group in msh); and complex SGs (A/U > 6.2). Based on the revised version of the Greenwich Photoheliographic Results sunspot catalogue, we investigated the periodic behaviors and long-term trends of simple and complex SGs from 1875 to 1976 using the Hilbert-Huang Transform method, and we confirm that the temporal behaviors of simple and complex SGs are quite different. Our main findings are as follows. i) For simple and complex SGs, the values of the Schwabe cycle wax and wane, following the solar activity cycle. ii) There are significant phase differences (almost antiphase) between the periodicity of 53.50 ± 3.79 years extracted from yearly simple SG numbers and the periodicity of 56.21 ± 2.92 years extracted from yearly complex SG numbers. iii) The adaptive trends of yearly simple and complex SG numbers are also quite different: for simple SGs, the values of the adaptive trend gradually increase during the time period of 1875 - 1949, then they decrease gradually from 1949 to 1976, similar to the rise and the maximum phase of a sine curve; for complex SGs, the values of the adaptive trend first slowly increase and then quickly increase, similar to the minimum and rise phase of a sine curve.

  1. Kernel Recursive Least-Squares Temporal Difference Algorithms with Sparsification and Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyuan Zhang


    Full Text Available By combining with sparse kernel methods, least-squares temporal difference (LSTD algorithms can construct the feature dictionary automatically and obtain a better generalization ability. However, the previous kernel-based LSTD algorithms do not consider regularization and their sparsification processes are batch or offline, which hinder their widespread applications in online learning problems. In this paper, we combine the following five techniques and propose two novel kernel recursive LSTD algorithms: (i online sparsification, which can cope with unknown state regions and be used for online learning, (ii L2 and L1 regularization, which can avoid overfitting and eliminate the influence of noise, (iii recursive least squares, which can eliminate matrix-inversion operations and reduce computational complexity, (iv a sliding-window approach, which can avoid caching all history samples and reduce the computational cost, and (v the fixed-point subiteration and online pruning, which can make L1 regularization easy to implement. Finally, simulation results on two 50-state chain problems demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithms.

  2. Temporal and Spatial Differences in Microbial Composition during the Manufacture of a Continental-Type Cheese (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Daniel J.; O'Sullivan, Orla; McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.


    We sought to determine if the time, within a production day, that a cheese is manufactured has an influence on the microbial community present within that cheese. To facilitate this, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to elucidate the microbial community dynamics of brine-salted continental-type cheese in cheeses produced early and late in the production day. Differences in the microbial composition of the core and rind of the cheese were also investigated. Throughout ripening, it was apparent that cheeses produced late in the day had a more diverse microbial population than their early equivalents. Spatial variation between the cheese core and rind was also noted in that cheese rinds were initially found to have a more diverse microbial population but thereafter the opposite was the case. Interestingly, the genera Thermus, Pseudoalteromonas, and Bifidobacterium, not routinely associated with a continental-type cheese produced from pasteurized milk, were detected. The significance, if any, of the presence of these genera will require further attention. Ultimately, the use of high-throughput sequencing has facilitated a novel and detailed analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution of microbes in this complex cheese system and established that the period during a production cycle at which a cheese is manufactured can influence its microbial composition. PMID:25636841

  3. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter. (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio


    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  4. short-temporal variation of soil organic carbon in different land use ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The soil organic carbon (SOC) was determined in 40 sites at two depths .... temporal way to contribute on the application of tools as a conservation, an ...... retention barriers, agroforestry practices, to mention a few, favor the SOC increase up to.

  5. Safety and tolerability of different titration rates of retigabine (ezogabine) in patients with partial-onset seizures. (United States)

    Biton, Victor; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Brodie, Martin J; Derossett, Sarah E; Nohria, Virinder


    Retigabine (RTG; international nonproprietary name)/ezogabine (EZG; US adopted name) is an antiepileptic drug (AED) that prolongs neuronal voltage-gated potassium-channel KCNQ2-5 (Kv 7.2-7.5) opening. This double-blind study evaluated different RTG/EZG dose-titration rates. Patients (N=73) with partial-onset seizures receiving concomitant AEDs were randomized to one of three titration groups, all of which were initiated at RTG/EZG 300mg/day divided into three equal doses. Fast-, medium-, and slow-titration groups received dose increments of 150mg/day every 2, 4, and 7 days, respectively, achieving the target dose of 1200mg/day after 13, 25, and 43 days, respectively. Safety assessments were performed throughout. Discontinuation rates due to treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were numerically higher in the fast- (10/23) and medium- (7/22) titration groups than in the slow-titration group (3/23) but statistical significance was achieved only for the high-titration group compared with the low-titration group (p=0.024). Stratified analysis, with concomitant AEDs divided into enzyme inducers (carbamazepine, phenytoin, oxcarbazepine) or noninducers, showed that the risk of discontinuation due primarily to TEAEs was significantly higher in the fast- (p=0.010) but not in the medium-titration group (p=0.078) when compared with the slow-titration group. Overall, the slow-titration rate appeared to be best tolerated and was used in further efficacy and safety studies with RTG/EZG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Insulin gene mutations resulting in early-onset diabetes: marked differences in clinical presentation, metabolic status, and pathogenic effect through endoplasmic reticulum retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meur, Gargi; Simon, Albane; Harun, Nasret


    quantitated by real-time PCR. RESULTS: A novel coding mutation, L30M, potentially affecting insulin multimerization, was identified in five diabetic individuals (diabetes onset 17-36 years) in a single family. L30M preproinsulin-GFP fluorescence largely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in MIN6...... with early-onset diabetes whose clinical presentation is compatible with MODY. These led to the production of (pre)proinsulin molecules with markedly different trafficking properties and effects on ER stress, demonstrating a range of molecular defects in the beta-cell....

  7. Departure from the onset-onset rule


    Chow, Siu


    Using a signal-detection task, the generality of Turvey's (1973) onset-onset rule was tested in four experiments. After seeing, in succession, (1) one or two letters (target display), (2) a multiletter detection display, and (3) a mask display, subjects decided whether or not the letter or letters in the target display reappeared in the succeeding detection display at different levels of detection-display duration in various situations. The subjects' sensitivity was inconsistent with the onse...

  8. Detecting the Temporal Scaling Behavior of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Time Series in China Using a Detrended Fluctuation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Guo


    Full Text Available Vegetation is an important part of terrestrial ecosystems. Although vegetation dynamics have explicit spatial and temporal dimensions, the study of the temporal process is in its infancy. Evaluation of temporal scaling behavior could provide a unique perspective for exploring the temporal nature of vegetation dynamics. In this study, the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was used to reflect vegetation dynamics, and the temporal scaling behavior of the NDVI in China was determined via detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. Our main objectives were to reveal the temporal scaling behavior of NDVI time series and to understand variation among vegetation types. First, DFA revealed similar exponents, which ranged from 0.6 to 0.9, for all selected pixels, implying that a long-range correlation was generally present in the NDVI time series at the individual pixel scale. We then extended the analysis to all of China and found that 99.30% of the pixel exponents ranged from 0.5 to 1. These results suggest that the NDVI time series displays strong long-range correlation throughout most of China; however, the exponents exhibited regional variability. To explain these differences, we further analyzed the exponents for 12 vegetation types based on a vegetation map of China. All of the vegetation types exhibited well-defined long-range correlation, with exponents ranging from 0.7189 to 0.8436. For all vegetation types, the maximum and average value and standard deviation of the exponents decreased with increasing annual maximum NDVI values, suggesting that low vegetation density is much more sensitive to external factors. These findings may be useful for understanding vegetation dynamics as a complex, temporally varying phenomenon.

  9. The trade-off between spatial and temporal variabilities in reciprocal upper-limb aiming movements of different durations. (United States)

    Danion, Frederic; Bongers, Raoul M; Bootsma, Reinoud J


    The spatial and temporal aspects of movement variability have typically been studied separately. As a result the relationship between spatial and temporal variabilities remains largely unknown. In two experiments we examined the evolution and covariation of spatial and temporal variabilities over variations in the duration of reciprocal aiming movements. Experiments differed in settings: In Experiment 1 participants moved unperturbed whereas in Experiment 2 they were confronted with an elastic force field. Different movement durations-for a constant inter-target distance-were either evoked by imposing spatial accuracy constraints while requiring participants to move as fast as possible, or prescribed by means of an auditory metronome while requiring participants to maximize spatial accuracy. Analyses focused on absolute and relative variabilities, respectively captured by the standard deviation (SD) and the coefficient of variation (CV = SD/mean). Spatial variability (both SDspace and CVspace) decreased with movement duration, while temporal variability (both SDtime and CVtime) increased with movement duration. We found strong negative correlations between spatial and temporal variabilities over variations in movement duration, whether the variability examined was absolute or relative. These findings observed at the level of the full movement contrasted with the findings observed at the level of the separate acceleration and deceleration phases of movement. During the separate acceleration and deceleration phases both spatial and temporal variabilities (SD and CV) were found to increase with their respective durations, leading to positive correlations between them. Moreover, variability was generally larger at the level of the constituent movement phases than at the level of the full movement. The general pattern of results was robust, as it emerged in both tasks in each of the two experiments. We conclude that feedback mechanisms operating to maximize task

  10. The Determinants of Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents with Young-Onset Dementia and the Differences between Dementia Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelhof, Britt; Bakker, C.; Van Duinen-van den Ijssel, Jeannette C L; Zwijsen, Sandra A; Smalbrugge, Martin; Verhey, Frans R. J.; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopnnans, Raymond T. C. M.

    Aims: The aims of this study are to (1) explore the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in nursing home residents with young-onset dementia (YOD), (2) investigate whether there are differences between dementia subtypes (Alzheimer dementia, vascular/mixed dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other)

  11. The Determinants of Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents with Young-Onset Dementia and the Differences between Dementia Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelhof, B.; Bakker, C.; Duinen-van den IJssel, J.C.L. van; Zwijsen, S.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Vugt, M.E. de; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.


    AIMS: The aims of this study are to (1) explore the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in nursing home residents with young-onset dementia (YOD), (2) investigate whether there are differences between dementia subtypes (Alzheimer dementia, vascular/mixed dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other)

  12. Comparison between the different methods developed for determining the onset of the LH surge in urine during the human menstrual cycle. (United States)

    Godbert, Sonya; Miro, Fernando; Shreeves, Chris; Gnoth, Christian; Johnson, Sarah


    To determine whether an optimal method exists for the detection of the luteinising hormone (LH) surge onset in research datasets of urinary hormonal profiles of menstrual cycles. The scientific literature was searched to compare published methodologies for detection of the LH surge onset in urine. Their performance was tested using complete hormonal profiles from 254 ovulatory cycles from 227 women attempting pregnancy (normal regular menstrual cycles; no known infertility). Three major methodologies to determine the onset of the LH surge in urine were identified. The key difference between these methods is how the cycle days that contribute to LH baseline assessment are determined: using fixed days (method #1), based on peak LH day (method #2), based on a provisional estimate of the LH surge (method #3). Method #1 requires no prior cycle information, whereas methods #2 and #3 need to consider complete cycle data. The most reliable method for calculation of baseline LH was using 2 days before the estimated surge day, plus the previous 4/5 days. Different methods for identification of the urinary LH surge can provide very different determinations of LH surge day, thus care must be taken when comparing between studies that apply different methodologies. The optimal method for determining the onset of the LH surge in urine requires retrospective estimation of day of LH surge to identify the most appropriate part of the cycle to consider as the baseline. This method can be adopted for application in population studies.

  13. Onset dominance in lateralization. (United States)

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C


    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  14. Assessing the effect of physical differences in the articulation of consonants and vowels on audiovisual temporal perception (United States)

    Vatakis, Argiro; Maragos, Petros; Rodomagoulakis, Isidoros; Spence, Charles


    We investigated how the physical differences associated with the articulation of speech affect the temporal aspects of audiovisual speech perception. Video clips of consonants and vowels uttered by three different speakers were presented. The video clips were analyzed using an auditory-visual signal saliency model in order to compare signal saliency and behavioral data. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding which speech-stream (auditory or visual) had been presented first. The sensitivity of participants' TOJs and the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) were analyzed as a function of the place, manner of articulation, and voicing for consonants, and the height/backness of the tongue and lip-roundedness for vowels. We expected that in the case of the place of articulation and roundedness, where the visual-speech signal is more salient, temporal perception of speech would be modulated by the visual-speech signal. No such effect was expected for the manner of articulation or height. The results demonstrate that for place and manner of articulation, participants' temporal percept was affected (although not always significantly) by highly-salient speech-signals with the visual-signals requiring smaller visual-leads at the PSS. This was not the case when height was evaluated. These findings suggest that in the case of audiovisual speech perception, a highly salient visual-speech signal may lead to higher probabilities regarding the identity of the auditory-signal that modulate the temporal window of multisensory integration of the speech-stimulus. PMID:23060756

  15. Assessing the effect of physical differences in the articulation of consonants and vowels on audiovisual temporal perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiro eVatakis


    Full Text Available We investigated how the physical differences associated with the articulation of speech affect the temporal aspects of audiovisual speech perception. Video clips of consonants and vowels uttered by three different speakers were presented. The video clips were analysed using an auditory-visual signal saliency model in order to compare signal saliency and behavioural data. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs regarding which speech-stream (auditory or visual had been presented first. The sensitivity of participants’ TOJs and the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS were analyzed as a function of the place, manner of articulation, and voicing for consonants, and the height/backness of the tongue and lip-roundedness for vowels. We expected that in the case of the place of articulation and roundedness, where the visual-speech signal is more salient, temporal perception of speech would be modulated by the visual-speech signal. No such effect was expected for the manner of articulation or height. The results demonstrate that for place and manner of articulation, participants’ temporal percept was affected (although not always significantly by highly-salient speech-signals with the visual-signals requiring smaller visual-leads at the PSS. This was not the case when height was evaluated. These findings suggest that in the case of audiovisual speech perception, a highly salient visual-speech signal may lead to higher probabilities regarding the identity of the auditory-signal that modulate the temporal window of multisensory integration of the speech-stream.

  16. [Childhood-onset mastocytosis]. (United States)

    Siebenhaar, F; Weller, K; Blume-Peytavi, U; Maurer, M


    Mastocytoses are a group of rare diseases characterized, in most cases, by a benign proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in different tissues. In children, mastocytosis affects usually exclusively the skin and differs in many aspects from adult-onset mastocytosis. Except for diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis, which is an uncommon subtype of childhood-onset mastocytosis, involvement of the bone marrow or additional extracutaneous organs is rarely seen in children. The prognosis of childhood-onset mastocytosis is usually very good. Compared to adult patients who most commonly experience chronic-stable or slowly progressive disease, mastocytosis in children is mostly transient and self-limiting. In this review, we present and discuss the subtypes of childhood-onset mastocytosis, recent advances in the understanding of their pathogenesis as well as similarities and differences between adult- and childhood-onset mastocytosis.

  17. Spatio-temporal source cluster analysis reveals fronto-temporal auditory change processing differences within a shared autistic and schizotypal trait phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha C. Ford


    These data demonstrate a deficit in right fronto-temporal processing of an auditory change for those with more of the shared SD phenotype, indicating that right fronto-temporal auditory processing may be associated with psychosocial functioning.

  18. The neural basis of emotions varies over time: different regions go with onset- and offset-bound processes underlying emotion intensity. (United States)

    Résibois, Maxime; Verduyn, Philippe; Delaveau, Pauline; Rotgé, Jean-Yves; Kuppens, Peter; Van Mechelen, Iven; Fossati, Philippe


    According to theories of emotion dynamics, emotions unfold across two phases in which different types of processes come to the fore: emotion onset and emotion offset. Differences in onset-bound processes are reflected by the degree of explosiveness or steepness of the response at onset, and differences in offset-bound processes by the degree of accumulation or intensification of the subsequent response. Whether onset- and offset-bound processes have distinctive neural correlates and, hence, whether the neural basis of emotions varies over time, still remains unknown. In the present fMRI study, we address this question using a recently developed paradigm that allows to disentangle explosiveness and accumulation. Thirty-one participants were exposed to neutral and negative social feedback, and asked to reflect on its contents. Emotional intensity while reading and thinking about the feedback was measured with an intensity profile tracking approach. Using non-negative matrix factorization, the resulting profile data were decomposed in explosiveness and accumulation components, which were subsequently entered as continuous regressors of the BOLD response. It was found that the neural basis of emotion intensity shifts as emotions unfold over time with emotion explosiveness and accumulation having distinctive neural correlates. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Temporal changes and regional differences in treatment uptake of hepatitis C therapy in EuroSIDA* (United States)

    Grint, D; Peters, L; Schwarze-Zander, C; Beniowski, M; Pradier, C; Battegay, M; Jevtovic, D; Soriano, V; Lundgren, JD; Rockstroh, JK; Kirk, O; Mocroft, A


    Objectives All HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with chronic HCV infection and ≥ F2 fibrosis should be considered for HCV therapy. This study aimed to determine the rate of HCV treatment uptake among coinfected patients in Europe. Methods EuroSIDA patients with viraemic HCV infection were included in the study. Poisson regression was used to identify temporal changes and regional differences in HCV treatment uptake. Results A total of 1984 patients were included in the study, with a median follow-up time of 168 months [interquartile range (IQR) 121–204 months]. To date, 501 (25.3%) HIV/HCV-coinfected patients have received HCV therapy. Treatment incidence rose from 0.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16–0.50] per 100 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in 1998 to 5.93 (95% CI 4.49–7.38) in 2007, falling to 3.78 (95% CI 2.50–5.07) in 2009. After adjustment, CD4 cell count > 350 cells/μL [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.33 (95% CI 1.06–1.67) vs. CD4 count 200−350 cells/μL] and ≥F2 liver fibrosis [IRR 1.60 (95% CI 1.14–2.25; P = 0.0065) vs. < F2 fibrosis] were predictors of anti-HCV treatment initiation. However, 22% of patients who remain untreated for HCV, with fibrosis data available, had ≥F2 fibrosis and should have been considered for treatment, while only 36% of treated patients had ≥F2 fibrosis. Conclusions Although treatment incidence for HCV has increased, there remain a large proportion of patients indicated for treatment who have yet to be treated. PMID:23869664

  20. Temporal changes and regional differences in treatment uptake of hepatitis C therapy in EuroSIDA. (United States)

    Grint, D; Peters, L; Schwarze-Zander, C; Beniowski, M; Pradier, C; Battegay, M; Jevtovic, D; Soriano, V; Lundgren, J D; Rockstroh, J K; Kirk, O; Mocroft, A


    All HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with chronic HCV infection and ≥ F2 fibrosis should be considered for HCV therapy. This study aimed to determine the rate of HCV treatment uptake among coinfected patients in Europe. EuroSIDA patients with viraemic HCV infection were included in the study. Poisson regression was used to identify temporal changes and regional differences in HCV treatment uptake. A total of 1984 patients were included in the study, with a median follow-up time of 168 months [interquartile range (IQR) 121-204 months]. To date, 501 (25.3%) HIV/HCV-coinfected patients have received HCV therapy. Treatment incidence rose from 0.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.50] per 100 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in 1998 to 5.93 (95% CI 4.49-7.38) in 2007, falling to 3.78 (95% CI 2.50-5.07) in 2009. After adjustment, CD4 cell count > 350 cells/μL [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.33 (95% CI 1.06-1.67) vs. CD4 count 200-350 cells/μL] and ≥F2 liver fibrosis [IRR 1.60 (95% CI 1.14-2.25; P = 0.0065) vs. < F2 fibrosis] were predictors of anti-HCV treatment initiation. However, 22% of patients who remain untreated for HCV, with fibrosis data available, had ≥F2 fibrosis and should have been considered for treatment, while only 36% of treated patients had ≥F2 fibrosis. Although treatment incidence for HCV has increased, there remain a large proportion of patients indicated for treatment who have yet to be treated. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  1. Different types of working memory binding in epilepsy patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy. (United States)

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P H; Kessels, Roy P C


    The medial temporal lobe is an important structure for long-term memory formation, but its role in working memory is less clear. Recent studies have shown hippocampal involvement during working memory tasks requiring binding of information. It is yet unclear whether this is limited to tasks containing spatial features. The present study contrasted three binding conditions and one single-item condition in patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy. A group of 43 patients with temporal lobectomy (23 left; 20 right) and 20 matched controls were examined with a working memory task assessing spatial relational binding (object-location), non-spatial relational binding (object-object), conjunctive binding (object-colour) and working memory for single items. We varied the delay period (3 or 6s), as there is evidence showing that delay length may modulate working memory performance. The results indicate that performance was worse for patients than for controls in both relational binding conditions, whereas patients were unimpaired in conjunctive binding. Single-item memory was found to be marginally impaired, due to a deficit on long-delay trials only. In conclusion, working memory binding deficits are found in patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy. The role of the medial temporal lobe in working memory is not limited to tasks containing spatial features. Rather, it seems to be involved in relational binding, but not in conjunctive binding. The medial temporal lobe gets involved when working memory capacity does not suffice, for example when relations have to be maintained or when the delay period is long. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extreme value statistics for annual minimum and trough-under-treshold precipitation at different, spatio-temporal scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Martijn J.; de Wit, Marcel J.M.


    The aim of this paper is to quantify meteorological droughts and assign return periods to these droughts. Moreover, the relation between meteorological and hydrological droughts is explored. This has been done for the River Meuse basin in Western Europe at different spatial and temporal scales to

  3. The role of elevated central-peripheral temperature difference in early detection of late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. (United States)

    Ussat, M; Vogtmann, C; Gebauer, C; Pulzer, F; Thome, U; Knüpfer, M


    The study investigated the association between clinical symptoms and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants with the aim of identifying a non-invasive tool for the early detection of LOS. This was a prospective study of 83 episodes of suspected LOS in 67 preterm infants. At the time LOS was suspected, we recorded a standardized set of clinical symptoms. A diagnosis of "clinical LOS" (Clin-LOS), "culture-proven LOS" (Prov-LOS) or "LOS not present" (No-LOS) was made on the basis of C-reactive protein (CrP) and blood culture results where Clin-LOS was defined as CrP>10mg/l, Prov-LOS was defined as CrP>10mg/l AND positive blood cultures, or it was established that there was no sepsis present (No-LOS). We examined univariable associations between clinical signs and LOS using odds ratio (OR) analysis and then adjusted the odds ratio (adOR) through binary regression analysis. Clin-LOS was diagnosed in 20/83 episodes, 19 cases were found to have Prov-LOS. Clinical signs which had a significant association with Clin-LOS were capillary refill time >2s (OR 2.9) and decreased responsiveness (OR 5.2), whereas there was a negative association between gastric residuals and LOS (OR 0.35). However, the most marked association was found for a greater central-peripheral temperature difference (cpTD) >2°C (OR 9). In Prov-LOS an increased heart rate (OR 3.1), prolonged capillary refill time (OR 3.3) and again an increased cpTD (OR 16) had a significant association with LOS, whereas gastric residuals were negatively associated (OR 0.29). Regression analysis showed that cpTD was the most striking clinical sign associated with both Clin- (adOR 6.3) and Prov-LOS (adOR 10.5). Prolonged capillary refill time and - more impressive - elevated cpTD were the most useful clinical symptoms for detection of LOS in preterm infants. We especially suggest using cpTD as a predictor of LOS. It is a cheap, non-invasive and readily available tool for daily routines. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  4. Temporal focus clusters differ meaningfully in terms of anxiety and depressive symptomatology. (United States)

    McKay, Michael T; Cole, Jon C; Percy, Andrew


    The present study examined the relationship between temporal focus profiles and scores on psychiatric symptomatology. Participants were recruited by undergraduate students in a university in the United Kingdom (N = 372; 46% male). Five clusters emerged from hierarchical cluster analysis and were labelled, No Focus, Multi Focus, Past Focus, Future Focus, and Current Focus. The worst outcomes in terms of psychiatric symptomatology were observed for those belonging to the Past Focus cluster. These results build on the only previous study using cluster analysis of Temporal Focus Scale scores, where being past focussed was associated with lower self-esteem in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Individual differences in the discrimination of novel speech sounds: effects of sex, temporal processing, musical and cognitive abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Kempe

    Full Text Available This study examined whether rapid temporal auditory processing, verbal working memory capacity, non-verbal intelligence, executive functioning, musical ability and prior foreign language experience predicted how well native English speakers (N=120 discriminated Norwegian tonal and vowel contrasts as well as a non-speech analogue of the tonal contrast and a native vowel contrast presented over noise. Results confirmed a male advantage for temporal and tonal processing, and also revealed that temporal processing was associated with both non-verbal intelligence and speech processing. In contrast, effects of musical ability on non-native speech-sound processing and of inhibitory control on vowel discrimination were not mediated by temporal processing. These results suggest that individual differences in non-native speech-sound processing are to some extent determined by temporal auditory processing ability, in which males perform better, but are also determined by a host of other abilities that are deployed flexibly depending on the characteristics of the target sounds.

  6. Temporal and spatial differences between taxonomic and trait biodiversity in a large marine ecosystem: Causes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Tim Spaanheden; Pécuchet, Lauréne; Beukhof, Esther


    has led to the exploration of other components of biodiversity, notably the diversity of ecologically important traits. Recent studies taking into account both taxonomic and trait diversity have revealed that the two biodiversity components may exhibit pronounced temporal and spatial differences...... of ecosystems to change. Here we examine temporal and spatial patterns and drivers of multiple marine biodiversity indicators using the North Sea fish community as a case study. Based on long-term spatially resolved survey data on fish species occurrences and biomasses from 1983 to 2014 and an extensive trait...... dataset we: (i) investigate temporal and spatial incongruences between taxonomy and trait-based indicators of both richness and evenness; (ii) examine the underlying environmental drivers and, (iii) interpret the results in the context of assembly rules acting on community composition. Our study shows...

  7. Short-temporal variation of soil organic carbon in different land use ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L C López-Teloxa


    Corresponding author. e-mail: .... Nacional de Estadıstica, Geografıa e Informática. 1976–2013). The maps for spatial and temporal dis- ..... point for the development of a management plan for Ramsar sites in general with low ...

  8. The Consolidation of Object and Context Recognition Memory Involve Different Regions of the Temporal Lobe (United States)

    Balderas, Israela; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Salgado-Tonda, Paloma; Chavez-Hurtado, Julio; McGaugh, James L.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico


    These experiments investigated the involvement of several temporal lobe regions in consolidation of recognition memory. Anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, was infused into the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, insular cortex, or basolateral amygdala of rats immediately after the sample phase of object or object-in-context recognition memory…

  9. Different types of working memory binding in epilepsy patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Kessels, R.P.C.


    The medial temporal lobe is an important structure for long-term memory formation, but its role in working memory is less clear. Recent studies have shown hippocampal involvement during working memory tasks requiring binding of information. It is yet unclear whether this is limited to tasks

  10. Multisite tumor sampling enhances the detection of intratumor heterogeneity at all different temporal stages of tumor evolution. (United States)

    Erramuzpe, Asier; Cortés, Jesús M; López, José I


    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is an inherent process of tumor development that has received much attention in previous years, as it has become a major obstacle for the success of targeted therapies. ITH is also temporally unpredictable across tumor evolution, which makes its precise characterization even more problematic since detection success depends on the precise temporal snapshot at which ITH is analyzed. New and more efficient strategies for tumor sampling are needed to overcome these difficulties which currently rely entirely on the pathologist's interpretation. Recently, we showed that a new strategy, the multisite tumor sampling, works better than the routine sampling protocol for the ITH detection when the tumor time evolution was not taken into consideration. Here, we extend this work and compare the ITH detections of multisite tumor sampling and routine sampling protocols across tumor time evolution, and in particular, we provide in silico analyses of both strategies at early and late temporal stages for four different models of tumor evolution (linear, branched, neutral, and punctuated). Our results indicate that multisite tumor sampling outperforms routine protocols in detecting ITH at all different temporal stages of tumor evolution. We conclude that multisite tumor sampling is more advantageous than routine protocols in detecting intratumor heterogeneity.

  11. A Matched Comparison Across Three Different Sensory Pairs of Cross-Modal Temporal Recalibration From Sustained and Transient Adaptation. (United States)

    Alais, David; Ho, Tam; Han, Shui'er; Van der Burg, Erik


    Sustained exposure to an asynchronous multisensory signal causes perceived simultaneity to shift in the direction of the leading component of the adapting stimulus. This is known as temporal recalibration, and recent evidence suggests that it can occur very rapidly, even after a single asynchronous audiovisual (AV) stimulus. However, this form of rapid recalibration appears to be unique to AV stimuli, in contrast to recalibration following sustained asynchronies which occurs with audiotactile (AT) and visuotactile (VT) stimuli. This study examines temporal recalibration to AV, VT and AT asynchrony with spatially collocated stimuli using a design that produces both sustained and inter-trial recalibration by combining the traditional sustained adaptation approach with an inter-trial analysis of sequential dependencies in an extended test period. Thus, we compare temporal recalibration to both sustained and transient asynchrony in three crossmodal combinations using the same design, stimuli and observers. The results reveal that prolonged exposure to asynchrony produced equivalent temporal recalibration for all combinations: AV, AT and VT. The pattern for rapid, inter-trial recalibration was very different. Rapid recalibration occurred strongly for AV stimuli, weakly for AT and did not occur at all for VT. For all sensory pairings, recalibration from sustained asynchrony decayed to baseline during the test phase while inter-trial recalibration was present and stable throughout testing, suggesting different mechanisms may underlie adaptation at long and short timescales.

  12. Spatial and temporal interpolation of DInSAR data at different scales (United States)

    Tessitore, Serena; Fiaschi, Simone; Achilli, Vladimiro; Ahmed, Ahmed; Calcaterra, Domenico; Di Martire, Diego; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Meisina, Claudia; Ramondini, Massimo; Floris, Mario


    The present study regards the utilization of multi-pass DInSAR algorithms to the ground displacements monitoring at small and large scales. An integration of in situ and DInSAR data to the elaboration of 2D maps of deformation is proposed. A geo-statistical method for "radar-gauge combination" called Ordinary Kriging of Radar Errors (OKRE) has been used. This algorithm uses the punctual values of a primary variable that is represented by measurements of true deformations, whereas radar is comprised as auxiliary information on the spatial distribution (Erdin, 2013). According to this method, is possible to obtain the interpolated map of deformations by subtracting a radar error map from the original interpolated radar map. In particular, the radar error map is carried out by interpolating the differences between radar and in situ data with the OK interpolator. To this aim, in the present work the available standard spirit levelling and GPS data have been used. Moreover, DInSAR data achieved through two different approaches have been taken into account for the spatial analysis and the error map computation at different scales. Specifically, the Persistent Scatterer Technique (PS-InSAR) and the Small BAseline Subset approach (SBAS) have been used to process the ENVISAT SAR images acquired in the period 2002-2010. In the SBAS processing chain, it is possible to activate the Disconnected Blocks tool and perform the SAR data "temporal interpolation". Since the estimation of the results in the processing takes into account the coherence threshold on the input images stack and their connection criteria, only the pixels above the threshold that are fully connected in all the images are solved. By activating the Disconnect Blocks tool, the results are estimated also for those pixels that respect the threshold criteria at least in the 60% of the images even in a not fully connected stack. In this way, the spatial coverage is higher but the reliability of the results is has to

  13. An assessment of SEVIRI imagery at different temporal resolutions and the effect on accurate dust emission mapping (United States)

    Hennen, Mark; White, Kevin; Shahgedanova, Maria


    This paper compares Dust RGB products derived from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data at 15 minute, 30 minute and hourly temporal resolutions. From January 2006 to December 2006, observations of dust emission point sources were observed at each temporal resolution across the entire Middle East region (38.50N; 30.00E - 10.00N; 65.50E). Previous work has demonstrated that 15-minute resolution SEVIRI data can be used to map dust sources across the Sahara by observing dust storms back through sequential images to the point of first emission (Schepanski et al., 2007; 2009; 2012). These observations have improved upon lower resolution maps, based on daily retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD), whose maxima can be biased by prevalent transport routes, not necessarily coinciding with sources of emissions. Based on the thermal contrast of atmospheric dust to the surface, brightness temperature differences (BTD's) in the thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths (8.7, 10.8 and 12.0 µm) highlight dust in the scene irrespective of solar illumination, giving both increased accuracy of dust source areas and a greater understanding of diurnal emission behaviour. However, the highest temporal resolution available (15-minute repeat capture) produces 96 images per day, resulting in significantly higher data storage demands than 30 minute or hourly data. To aid future research planning, this paper investigates what effect lowering the temporal resolution has on the number and spatial distribution of the observed dust sources. The results show a reduction in number of dust emission events observed with each step decrease in temporal resolution, reducing by 17% for 30-minute resolution and 50% for hourly. These differences change seasonally, with the highest reduction observed in summer (34% and 64% reduction respectively). Each resolution shows a similar spatial distribution, with the biggest difference seen near the coastlines, where near-shore convective

  14. Digital sleep logs reveal potential impacts of modern temporal structure on class performance in different chronotypes. (United States)

    Smarr, Benjamin Lee


    Stability of sleep and circadian rhythms are important for healthy learning and memory. While experimental manipulations of lifestyle and learning outcomes present major obstacles, the ongoing increase in data sources allows retrospective data mining of people's sleep timing variation. Here I use digital sleep-log data generated by 1109 students in a biology lab course at the University of Washington to test the hypothesis that higher variance in time asleep and later sleep-onset times negatively correlate with class performance, used here as a real-world proxy for learning and memory. I find that sleep duration variance and mean sleep-onset times both significantly correlate with class performance. These correlations are powerful on weeknights but undetectable on Friday and Saturday nights ("free nights"). Finally, although these data come with no demographic information beyond sex, the constructed demographic groups of "larks" and "owls" within the sexes reveal a significant decrease in performance of owls relative to larks in male students, whereas the correlation of performance with sleep-onset time for all male students was only a near-significant trend. This provides a proof of concept that deeper demographic mining of digital logs in the future may identify subgroups for which certain sleep phenotypes have greater predictive value for performance outcomes. The data analyzed are consistent with known patterns, including sleep-timing delays from weeknights to free nights and sleep-timing delays in men relative to women. These findings support the hypothesis that modern schedule impositions on sleep and circadian timing have consequences for real-world learning and memory. This study also highlights the low-cost, large-scale benefits of personal, daily, digital records as an augmentation of sleep and circadian studies. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Patterns of cluster reduction in the acquisition of #sC onsets: are bilinguals different from monolinguals? (United States)

    Yavaş, Mehmet


    This article is a comparative look at the cluster reduction patterns of English #sC onsets in three groups of children. Data from 40 monolingual, 40 Spanish-English bilingual and 40 Haitian Creole-English bilingual children were examined. While there were several similarities in the patterns exhibited by the three groups, there was a sharp contrast regarding /sl-/ clusters between monolingual children and the two groups of bilinguals. Among the predictions offered for reduction patterns in recent literature, 'factorial typology' of Pater and Barlow (2003 ) appeared to be the most successful.

  16. Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang


    Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg−1·year−1 for SOM, 438.9 mg·g−1·year−1 for C:P, 5.3 mg·g−1·year−1 for C:K, and −3.23 mg·cm−3·year−1 for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0–80-cm soil profile (P: −4.10 mg·kg−1·year−1; pH: −0.0061 unit·year−1; C:N: 167.1 mg·g−1·year−1; K:P: 371.5 mg·g−1 year−1; N:K: −0.242 mg·g−1·year−1; EC: 0.169 μS·cm−1·year−1), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance. PMID:24772281

  17. Gender Differences in the Developmental Risk of Onset of Alcohol, Nicotine, and Marijuana Use and the Effects of Nicotine and Marijuana Use on Alcohol Outcomes (United States)

    Buu, Anne; Dabrowska, Agata; Mygrants, Marjorie; Puttler, Leon I; Jester, Jennifer M; Zucker, Robert A


    Objective: This study aimed to (a) characterize gender-specific risk of onset of alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana use developmentally; (b) investigate the effects of early-onset status and frequency of nicotine and marijuana use on alcohol outcomes, controlling for the effects of alcohol use; and (c) examine gender differences in the developmental trajectories of alcohol outcomes and the effects of nicotine and marijuana use on alcohol outcomes. Method: This study conducted secondary analysis on a longitudinal study that recruited at-risk youth through fathers’ drunk-driving records and door-to-door canvassing in the midwestern United States. The sample included 160 female–male sibling pairs who were assessed on substance use and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis from early childhood to young adulthood. Results: Although males were at higher risk for being early-onset alcohol users, females tended to be at higher risk for initiating marijuana use at younger ages. When early onset and amount of alcohol use were controlled for, early onset of nicotine and marijuana use did not contribute to alcohol outcomes, but frequencies of nicotine and marijuana use did. We also found the associations of quantity/frequency of alcohol and marijuana use with drinking problems to be stronger among females than among males. Conclusions: Higher frequencies of nicotine and marijuana use may contribute to worse alcohol outcomes above and beyond the effect of alcohol use. Females tend to be at higher risk than males for initiating marijuana use and meeting an alcohol use disorder diagnosis at younger ages as well as being more vulnerable to a negative impact of alcohol and marijuana use. PMID:25208203

  18. Rightward Shift in Temporal Order Judgements in the Wake of the Attentional Blink (United States)

    Perez, Alejandro; Penton, Lorna Garcia; Valdes-Sosa, Mitchell


    The temporal order of two events, each presented in a different visual hemifield, is judged correctly by typical observers even when their onsets differ only slightly. The present study examined the influence of an endogenous process on TOJ, and shows that the perception of temporal order is also affected when available attentional resources are…

  19. Detection of Fetomaternal Genotype Associations in Early-Onset Disorders: Evaluation of Different Methods and Their Application to Childhood Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Healy


    Full Text Available Several designs and analytical approaches have been proposed to dissect offspring from maternal genetic contributions to early-onset diseases. However, lack of parental controls halts the direct verification of the assumption of mating symmetry (MS required to assess maternally-mediated effects. In this study, we used simulations to investigate the performance of existing methods under mating asymmetry (MA when parents of controls are missing. Our results show that the log-linear, likelihood-based framework using a case-triad/case-control hybrid design provides valid tests for maternal genetic effects even under MA. Using this approach, we examined fetomaternal associations between 29 SNPs in 12 cell-cycle genes and childhood pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. We identified putative fetomaternal effects at loci CDKN2A rs36228834 (P=.017 and CDKN2B rs36229158 (P=.022 that modulate the risk of childhood ALL. These data further corroborate the importance of the mother's genotype on the susceptibility to early-onset diseases.

  20. Temporal variability predicts the magnitude of between-group attentional blink differences in developmental dyslexia: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Badcock, Nicholas A; Kidd, Joanna C


    Background. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the between-group main effect (Group Difference) noted in the attentional blink (AB) research focused on specific reading impairment, commonly referred to as developmental dyslexia. The AB effect relates to a limitation in the allocation of attention over time and is examined in a dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. When the second target appears in close temporal proximity to the first target, the second target is reported less accurately. Method. A Web of Science search with terms "attentional blink" & dyslexia returned 13 AB experiments (11 papers) conducted with developmental dyslexia. After exclusions, 12 experiments were included in the meta-analysis. The main pattern of performance from those experiments was lower overall accuracy in groups of individuals with dyslexia relative to typically reading peers; that is, a between-group main effect. This meta-analysis examined the size of the Group Difference in relation to temporal and task-set related features, which differed between and within experiments. Results. Random effects modelling indicated a significant Group Difference of -0.74 standard deviation units, 95% CI [-.96, -.52], p < .001 (excluding one anomalous result): implicating significantly poorer overall dual-target performance in dyslexic readers. Meta-regression analyses indicated two variables related to the Group Difference; pre-RSVP time and temporal variability of the second target relative to the first target within the RSVP. Discussion. It is suggested that the endogenous engagement of the temporal features of task-set is slower or disrupted in developmental dyslexia.

  1. Rich do not rise early: spatio-temporal patterns in the mobility networks of different socio-economic classes (United States)

    Lotero, Laura; Hurtado, Rafael G.; Floría, Luis Mario; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús


    We analyse the urban mobility in the cities of Medellín and Manizales (Colombia). Each city is represented by six mobility networks, each one encoding the origin-destination trips performed by a subset of the population corresponding to a particular socio-economic status. The nodes of each network are the different urban locations whereas links account for the existence of a trip between two different areas of the city. We study the main structural properties of these mobility networks by focusing on their spatio-temporal patterns. Our goal is to relate these patterns with the partition into six socio-economic compartments of these two societies. Our results show that spatial and temporal patterns vary across these socio-economic groups. In particular, the two datasets show that as wealth increases the early-morning activity is delayed, the midday peak becomes smoother and the spatial distribution of trips becomes more localized.

  2. Rich do not rise early: spatio-temporal patterns in the mobility networks of different socio-economic classes. (United States)

    Lotero, Laura; Hurtado, Rafael G; Floría, Luis Mario; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús


    We analyse the urban mobility in the cities of Medellín and Manizales (Colombia). Each city is represented by six mobility networks, each one encoding the origin-destination trips performed by a subset of the population corresponding to a particular socio-economic status. The nodes of each network are the different urban locations whereas links account for the existence of a trip between two different areas of the city. We study the main structural properties of these mobility networks by focusing on their spatio-temporal patterns. Our goal is to relate these patterns with the partition into six socio-economic compartments of these two societies. Our results show that spatial and temporal patterns vary across these socio-economic groups. In particular, the two datasets show that as wealth increases the early-morning activity is delayed, the midday peak becomes smoother and the spatial distribution of trips becomes more localized.

  3. Value learning and arousal in the extinction of probabilistic rewards: the role of dopamine in a modified temporal difference model. (United States)

    Song, Minryung R; Fellous, Jean-Marc


    Because most rewarding events are probabilistic and changing, the extinction of probabilistic rewards is important for survival. It has been proposed that the extinction of probabilistic rewards depends on arousal and the amount of learning of reward values. Midbrain dopamine neurons were suggested to play a role in both arousal and learning reward values. Despite extensive research on modeling dopaminergic activity in reward learning (e.g. temporal difference models), few studies have been done on modeling its role in arousal. Although temporal difference models capture key characteristics of dopaminergic activity during the extinction of deterministic rewards, they have been less successful at simulating the extinction of probabilistic rewards. By adding an arousal signal to a temporal difference model, we were able to simulate the extinction of probabilistic rewards and its dependence on the amount of learning. Our simulations propose that arousal allows the probability of reward to have lasting effects on the updating of reward value, which slows the extinction of low probability rewards. Using this model, we predicted that, by signaling the prediction error, dopamine determines the learned reward value that has to be extinguished during extinction and participates in regulating the size of the arousal signal that controls the learning rate. These predictions were supported by pharmacological experiments in rats.

  4. Use of soil moisture dynamics and patterns at different spatio-temporal scales for the investigation of subsurface flow processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Blume


    Full Text Available Spatial patterns as well as temporal dynamics of soil moisture have a major influence on runoff generation. The investigation of these dynamics and patterns can thus yield valuable information on hydrological processes, especially in data scarce or previously ungauged catchments. The combination of spatially scarce but temporally high resolution soil moisture profiles with episodic and thus temporally scarce moisture profiles at additional locations provides information on spatial as well as temporal patterns of soil moisture at the hillslope transect scale. This approach is better suited to difficult terrain (dense forest, steep slopes than geophysical techniques and at the same time less cost-intensive than a high resolution grid of continuously measuring sensors. Rainfall simulation experiments with dye tracers while continuously monitoring soil moisture response allows for visualization of flow processes in the unsaturated zone at these locations. Data was analyzed at different spacio-temporal scales using various graphical methods, such as space-time colour maps (for the event and plot scale and binary indicator maps (for the long-term and hillslope scale. Annual dynamics of soil moisture and decimeter-scale variability were also investigated. The proposed approach proved to be successful in the investigation of flow processes in the unsaturated zone and showed the importance of preferential flow in the Malalcahuello Catchment, a data-scarce catchment in the Andes of Southern Chile. Fast response times of stream flow indicate that preferential flow observed at the plot scale might also be of importance at the hillslope or catchment scale. Flow patterns were highly variable in space but persistent in time. The most likely explanation for preferential flow in this catchment is a combination of hydrophobicity, small scale heterogeneity in rainfall due to redistribution in the canopy and strong gradients in unsaturated conductivities leading to

  5. Don't start what you can't stop: differentiating individual differences in ruminative onset and ruminative persistence, and their contributions to dysphoria. (United States)

    Grafton, Ben; MacLeod, Colin


    There is much evidence to suggest that rumination and dysphoria share a close relationship. The tendency to ruminate is considered a stable individual difference, reflecting variation in repetitive thoughts concerning the causes and consequences of distress. In the present study, we evaluated the veracity of a proposed distinction between 2 hypothetical dimensions of ruminative tendency, which plausibly represent dissociable facets of dispositional rumination, and whose interactive influence may make a particularly strong contribution to dysphoria. These dimensions are ruminative onset, the probability of experiencing ruminative symptoms when feeling upset, and ruminative persistence, the continuation of ruminative symptoms once initiated. The findings indicate that ruminative onset and ruminative persistence do indeed represent dissociable dimensions of ruminative disposition. Furthermore, as hypothesized, it is the interaction between these 2 facets of rumination that makes the greatest contribution to the prediction of variance in dysphoria.

  6. Assessing signal-driven mechanism in neonates: brain responses to temporally and spectrally different sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo eMinagawa-Kawai


    Full Text Available Past studies have found that in adults that acoustic properties of sound signals (such as fast vs. slow temporal features differentially activate the left and right hemispheres, and some have hypothesized that left-lateralization for speech processing may follow from left-lateralization to rapidly changing signals. Here, we tested whether newborns’ brains show some evidence of signal-specific lateralization responses using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and auditory stimuli that elicits lateralized responses in adults, composed of segments that vary in duration and spectral diversity. We found significantly greater bilateral responses of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb in the temporal areas for stimuli with a minimum segment duration of 21 ms, than stimuli with a minimum segment duration of 667 ms. However, we found no evidence for hemispheric asymmetries dependent on the stimulus characteristics. We hypothesize that acoustic-based functional brain asymmetries may develop throughout early infancy, and discuss their possible relationship with brain asymmetries for language.

  7. ERP measures of partial semantic knowledge: left temporal indices of skill differences and lexical quality. (United States)

    Frishkoff, Gwen A; Perfetti, Charles A; Westbury, Chris


    This study examines the sensitivity of early event-related potentials (ERPs) to degrees of word semantic knowledge. Participants with strong, average, or weak vocabulary skills made speeded lexical decisions to letter strings. To represent the full spectrum of word knowledge among adult native-English speakers, we used rare words that were orthographically matched with more familiar words and with pseudowords. Since the lexical decision could not reliably be made on the basis of word form, subjects were obliged to use semantic knowledge to perform the task. A d' analysis suggested that high-skilled subjects adopted a more conservative strategy in response to rare versus more familiar words. Moreover, the high-skilled participants showed a trend towards an enhanced "N2c" to rare words, and a similar posterior temporal effect reached significance approximately 650 ms. Generators for these effects were localized to left temporal cortex. We discuss implications of these results for word learning and for theories of lexical semantic access.

  8. Expertise differences in anticipatory judgements during a temporally and spatially occluded task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Causer

    Full Text Available There is contradictory evidence surrounding the role of critical cues in the successful anticipation of penalty kicks in soccer. In the current study, skilled and less-skilled soccer goalkeepers were required to anticipate when viewing penalty kicks that were both spatially (full body; hip region and temporally (-160 ms, -80 ms before, foot-ball contact occluded. The skilled group outperformed the less-skilled group in all conditions. Participants performed better in the full body condition when compared to hip region condition. Performance in the hip only condition was significantly better than chance for the skilled group across all occlusion conditions. However, the less-skilled group were no better than chance in the hip condition for the early occlusion points when predicting direction and height. Later temporal occlusion conditions were associated with increased performance both in the correct response and correct direction analyses, but not for correct height. These data suggest that postural information solely from the hip region may be used by skilled goalkeepers to make accurate predictions of penalty kick direction, however, information from other sources are needed in order to make predictions of height. Findings demonstrate how the importance of anticipation cues evolve over time, which has implications for the design of training programs to enhance perceptual-cognitive skill.

  9. The Impact of Feedback on the Different Time Courses of Multisensory Temporal Recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. De Niear


    Full Text Available The capacity to rapidly adjust perceptual representations confers a fundamental advantage when confronted with a constantly changing world. Unexplored is how feedback regarding sensory judgments (top-down factors interacts with sensory statistics (bottom-up factors to drive long- and short-term recalibration of multisensory perceptual representations. Here, we examined the time course of both cumulative and rapid temporal perceptual recalibration for individuals completing an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task in which they were provided with varying degrees of feedback. We find that in the presence of feedback (as opposed to simple sensory exposure temporal recalibration is more robust. Additionally, differential time courses are seen for cumulative and rapid recalibration dependent upon the nature of the feedback provided. Whereas cumulative recalibration effects relied more heavily on feedback that informs (i.e., negative feedback rather than confirms (i.e., positive feedback the judgment, rapid recalibration shows the opposite tendency. Furthermore, differential effects on rapid and cumulative recalibration were seen when the reliability of feedback was altered. Collectively, our findings illustrate that feedback signals promote and sustain audiovisual recalibration over the course of cumulative learning and enhance rapid trial-to-trial learning. Furthermore, given the differential effects seen for cumulative and rapid recalibration, these processes may function via distinct mechanisms.

  10. Temporal dynamics of spectral bioindicators evidence biological and ecological differences among functional types in a cork oak open woodland. (United States)

    Cerasoli, Sofia; Costa E Silva, Filipe; Silva, João M N


    The application of spectral vegetation indices for the purpose of vegetation monitoring and modeling increased largely in recent years. Nonetheless, the interpretation of biophysical properties of vegetation through their spectral signature is still a challenging task. This is particularly true in Mediterranean oak forest characterized by a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In this study, the temporal dynamics of vegetation indices expected to be related with green biomass and photosynthetic efficiency were compared for the canopy of trees, the herbaceous layer, and two shrub species: cistus (Cistus salviifolius) and ulex (Ulex airensis). coexisting in a cork oak woodland. All indices were calculated from in situ measurements with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder, USA). Large differences emerged in the temporal trends and in the correlation between climate and vegetation indices. The relationship between spectral indices and temperature, radiation, and vapor pressure deficit for cork oak was opposite to that observed for the herbaceous layer and cistus. No correlation was observed between rainfall and vegetation indices in cork oak and ulex, but in the herbaceous layer and in the cistus, significant correlations were found. The analysis of spectral vegetation indices with fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) and quantum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence (ΔF/Fm') evidenced strongest relationships with the indices Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)512, respectively. Our results, while confirms the ability of spectral vegetation indices to represent temporal dynamics of biophysical properties of vegetation, evidence the importance to consider ecosystem composition for a correct ecological interpretation of results when the spatial resolution of observations includes different plant functional types.

  11. Temporal dynamics of spectral bioindicators evidence biological and ecological differences among functional types in a cork oak open woodland (United States)

    Cerasoli, Sofia; Costa e Silva, Filipe; Silva, João M. N.


    The application of spectral vegetation indices for the purpose of vegetation monitoring and modeling increased largely in recent years. Nonetheless, the interpretation of biophysical properties of vegetation through their spectral signature is still a challenging task. This is particularly true in Mediterranean oak forest characterized by a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In this study, the temporal dynamics of vegetation indices expected to be related with green biomass and photosynthetic efficiency were compared for the canopy of trees, the herbaceous layer, and two shrub species: cistus ( Cistus salviifolius) and ulex ( Ulex airensis). coexisting in a cork oak woodland. All indices were calculated from in situ measurements with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder, USA). Large differences emerged in the temporal trends and in the correlation between climate and vegetation indices. The relationship between spectral indices and temperature, radiation, and vapor pressure deficit for cork oak was opposite to that observed for the herbaceous layer and cistus. No correlation was observed between rainfall and vegetation indices in cork oak and ulex, but in the herbaceous layer and in the cistus, significant correlations were found. The analysis of spectral vegetation indices with fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) and quantum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence ( ΔF/ Fm') evidenced strongest relationships with the indices Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)512, respectively. Our results, while confirms the ability of spectral vegetation indices to represent temporal dynamics of biophysical properties of vegetation, evidence the importance to consider ecosystem composition for a correct ecological interpretation of results when the spatial resolution of observations includes different plant functional types.

  12. Trading of dynamic interaural time and level difference cues and its effect on the auditory motion-onset response measured with electroencephalography. (United States)

    Altmann, Christian F; Ueda, Ryuhei; Bucher, Benoit; Furukawa, Shigeto; Ono, Kentaro; Kashino, Makio; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao


    Interaural time (ITD) and level differences (ILD) constitute the two main cues for sound localization in the horizontal plane. Despite extensive research in animal models and humans, the mechanism of how these two cues are integrated into a unified percept is still far from clear. In this study, our aim was to test with human electroencephalography (EEG) whether integration of dynamic ITD and ILD cues is reflected in the so-called motion-onset response (MOR), an evoked potential elicited by moving sound sources. To this end, ITD and ILD trajectories were determined individually by cue trading psychophysics. We then measured EEG while subjects were presented with either static click-trains or click-trains that contained a dynamic portion at the end. The dynamic part was created by combining ITD with ILD either congruently to elicit the percept of a right/leftward moving sound, or incongruently to elicit the percept of a static sound. In two experiments that differed in the method to derive individual dynamic cue trading stimuli, we observed an MOR with at least a change-N1 (cN1) component for both the congruent and incongruent conditions at about 160-190 ms after motion-onset. A significant change-P2 (cP2) component for both the congruent and incongruent ITD/ILD combination was found only in the second experiment peaking at about 250 ms after motion onset. In sum, this study shows that a sound which - by a combination of counter-balanced ITD and ILD cues - induces a static percept can still elicit a motion-onset response, indicative of independent ITD and ILD processing at the level of the MOR - a component that has been proposed to be, at least partly, generated in non-primary auditory cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Treating autism by targeting the temporal lobes. (United States)

    Chi, Richard P; Snyder, Allan W


    Compelling new findings suggest that an early core signature of autism is a deficient left anterior temporal lobe response to language and an atypical over-activation of the right anterior temporal lobe. Intriguingly, our recent results from an entirely different line of reasoning and experiments also show that applying cathodal stimulation (suppressing) at the left anterior temporal lobe together with anodal stimulation (facilitating) at the right anterior temporal lobe, by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can induce some autistic-like cognitive abilities in otherwise normal adults. If we could briefly induce autistic like cognitive abilities in healthy individuals, it follows that we might be able to mitigate some autistic traits by reversing the above stimulation protocol, in an attempt to restore the typical dominance of the left anterior temporal lobe. Accordingly, we hypothesize that at least some autistic traits can be mitigated, by applying anodal stimulation (facilitating) at the left anterior temporal lobe together with cathodal stimulation (suppressing) at the right anterior temporal lobe. Our hypothesis is supported by strong convergent evidence that autistic symptoms can emerge and later reverse due to the onset and subsequent recovery of various temporal lobe (predominantly the left) pathologies. It is also consistent with evidence that the temporal lobes (especially the left) are a conceptual hub, critical for extracting meaning from lower level sensory information to form a coherent representation, and that a deficit in the temporal lobes underlies autistic traits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Five-year follow-up study of disability pension rates in first-onset schizophrenia with special focus on regional differences and mortality. (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marjo; Suvisaari, Jaana; Pirkola, Sami; Läksy, Kristian; Häkkinen, Unto; Isohanni, Matti; Hakko, Helinä


    To evaluate the rate and regional determinants of disability pension in first-admission schizophrenia. In addition, we investigated whether patients with disability pension had increased mortality rates during follow-up. A nationwide register-based 5-year follow-up study of all patients with onset of schizophrenia between 1998 and 2001 (n=3,875). A total of 1944 (50.2%) first-onset schizophrenia patients retired on disability pension during the 5-year follow-up. Males retired on pension at an earlier age and more often than females. Regional disability pension rates and retirement times for schizophrenia varied between hospital districts. Patients on disability pension had lower overall and suicide mortality, and they had less physical illness, depression and more psychotropic medication use than patients without disability pension. In regions with a short median time from onset time to retirement, there was significantly higher regional overall mortality and suicide mortality. Disability pension rates were also higher in regions with high involuntary treatment rate. Half of the schizophrenia patients were pensioned off in 5 years. Lower mortality, especially suicide mortality among disability pensioners, suggests that the decision on a permanent disability pension, indicating for its part the activation of the service system, might be a relief to schizophrenic patients, helping them cope with illness. The retirement process has regional differences, which may be caused by the regional nature of treatment and resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Racial/ethnic and gender differences in the incidence and onset age of DSM-IV alcohol use disorder symptoms among adolescents. (United States)

    Wagner, Eric F; Lloyd, Donald A; Gil, Andrés G


    Several investigators have questioned the validity of the DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorders criteria for diagnosing alcohol use problems among teenagers, with specific concerns about their utility across different subgroups. In the current study, we examined whether particular racial/ethnic or gender subgroups varied in the incidence and onset age of Alcohol Use Disorder symptoms. Members of a sample composed of 1,045 community-dwelling "drinkers" (59.4% male; 13.8% black, 21.2% foreign-born Hispanic, 30.7% U.S.-born Hispanic and 33.6% non-Hispanic white) were interviewed retrospectively using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The first occurrence of each DSM-IV symptom in a participant was examined by race/ethnicity and gender. Discrete-time event history analysis compared onset patterns from ages 14 through 20 years. The cumulative incidence of Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence diagnoses, as well as one alcohol abuse symptom and four dependence symptoms, varied by race/ethnicity. The incidence of both diagnoses, as well as two alcohol abuse symptoms, varied by gender. Event history analysis revealed no significant subgroup variation in first onset patterns for only three of the eleven symptoms. Racial/ethnic variation, but not gender variation, was significant for three symptoms, and both racial/ethnic variation and gender variation was significant for the remaining five symptoms. Our findings indicate that most of the DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorder symptoms, when applied to adolescents, demonstrate significant subgroup variation in incidence and onset age patterns. These results speak to the urgent need for additional research concerning the nosology and diagnosis of alcohol use problems among younger drinkers, especially among specific racial/ethnic and gender subgroups.

  16. Different clinical expression of patients with ankylosing spondylitis according to gender in relation to time since onset of disease. Data from REGISPONSER. (United States)

    Ortega Castro, Rafaela; Font Ugalde, Pilar; Castro Villegas, M Carmen; Calvo Gutiérrez, Jerusalén; Muñoz Gomariz, Elisa; Zarco Montejo, Pedro; Almodóvar, Raquel; Mulero Mendoza, Juan; Torre-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Gratacós Masmitjá, Jordi; Juanola Roura, Xavier; Ariza Ariza, Rafael; Fernández Dapica, Pilar; Linares Ferrando, Luis Francisco; Brito Brito, M Elia; Cuende Quintana, Eduardo; Vázquez Galeano, Carlos; Moreno Ramos, Manuel José; Giménez Úbeda, Eugenio; Rodríguez Lozano, José Carlos; Fernández Prada, Manuel; Queiro Silva, Rubén; Moreno Ruzafa, Estefanía; Júdez Navarro, Enrique; Más, Antonio Juan; Medrano Le Quement, Cristina; Ornilla, Enrique; Montilla Morales, Carlos; Pujol Busquets, Manuel; Clavaguera Poch, Teresa; Fernández-Espartero, M Cruz; Carmona Ortell, Loreto; Collantes Estévez, Eduardo


    To describe the differential characteristics by gender and time since disease onset in patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) attending the Spanish rheumatology clinics, including those on the "Spanish Registry of spondyloarthritis" (REGISPONSER), as well as the diagnostic and therapeutic implications that this entails. This is a transversal and observational study of 1514 patients with AS selected from 2367 spondyloarthritis cases included in REGISPONSER. For each patient, the demographics, epidemiology, geriatric, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and therapeutic aspects were were evaluated and comprehensively recorded under the aegis of REGISPONSER, constituting the Minimum Basic identifying data for the disease. Physical function was assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Clinical activity was evaluated using erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Each patient underwent pelvic anteroposterior, anteroposterior and lateral lumbar spine as well as lateral cervical spine x rays; they were scored according to the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Radiographic Index, which measures structural damage. Of the 1514 patients screened, 1131 (74.7%) were men. We found significant differences in age at onset of symptoms as well as in the day of inclusion, between the two groups, being lower in men. We also obtained differences in the duration of the disease, which was lower in women. As for the existence of a history of AS among first-degree relatives, family forms were more common among women. The mean BASDAI score was also higher in women, regardless of time since onset of disease. In contrast, the improvement of pain with the use of NSAID's and radiological severity were higher in men, both reaching statistical significance. Among the Spanish AS patients, there are some differences in the clinical manifestations, even when the time since onset of disease

  17. Facial emotion recognition in childhood-onset bipolar I disorder: an evaluation of developmental differences between youths and adults (United States)

    Wegbreit, Ezra; Weissman, Alexandra B; Cushman, Grace K; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Leibenluft, Ellen; Dickstein, Daniel P


    Objectives Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental illness with high healthcare costs and poor outcomes. Increasing numbers of youths are diagnosed with BD, and many adults with BD report their symptoms started in childhood, suggesting BD can be a developmental disorder. Studies advancing our understanding of BD have shown alterations in facial emotion recognition in both children and adults with BD compared to healthy comparison (HC) participants, but none have evaluated the development of these deficits. To address this, we examined the effect of age on facial emotion recognition in a sample that included children and adults with confirmed childhood-onset type-I BD, with the adults having been diagnosed and followed since childhood by the Course and Outcome in Bipolar Youth study. Methods Using the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy, we compared facial emotion recognition errors among participants with BD (n = 66; ages 7–26 years) and HC participants (n = 87; ages 7–25 years). Complementary analyses investigated errors for child and adult faces. Results A significant diagnosis-by-age interaction indicated that younger BD participants performed worse than expected relative to HC participants their own age. The deficits occurred for both child and adult faces and were particularly strong for angry child faces, which were most often mistaken as sad. Our results were not influenced by medications, comorbidities/substance use, or mood state/global functioning. Conclusions Younger individuals with BD are worse than their peers at this important social skill. This deficit may be an important developmentally salient treatment target, i.e., for cognitive remediation to improve BD youths’ emotion recognition abilities. PMID:25951752

  18. Differences in spatio-temporal parameters between trained runners and untrained participants. (United States)

    Gómez-Molina, Josué; Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Stickley, Christopher; Tobalina, Jesus Camara; Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Jon; García-López, Juan


    The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill. Physiological (VO2max, heart rate, running economy, peak speed…) and biomechanical variables (contact and flight times, step rate and length) were simultaneously registered. Trained runners showed higher step rate and shorter step length than the Untrained group at the same running speeds (between 4-7%, p Untrained group. In conclusion, adopting higher step rate and shorter step length may be an adaptive mechanism of the Trained group to reduce injury risk and possibly improve running economy. However, contact and flight times were consistent regardless of training level.

  19. Temporal and spatial differences between taxonomic and trait biodiversity in a large marine ecosystem: Causes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Tim Spaanheden; Pécuchet, Lauréne; Beukhof, Esther


    that taxonomy and trait-based biodiversity indicators differ in time and space and that these differences are correlated to natural and anthropogenic drivers, notably temperature, depth and substrate richness. Our findings show that trait-based biodiversity indicators add information regarding community......Biodiversity is a multifaceted concept, yet most biodiversity studies have taken a taxonomic approach, implying that all species are equally important. However, species do not contribute equally to ecosystem processes and differ markedly in their responses to changing environments. This recognition...... has led to the exploration of other components of biodiversity, notably the diversity of ecologically important traits. Recent studies taking into account both taxonomic and trait diversity have revealed that the two biodiversity components may exhibit pronounced temporal and spatial differences...

  20. Comparison of the induced astigmatism after temporal clear corneal tunnel incisions of different sizes. (United States)

    Kohnen, T; Dick, B; Jacobi, K W


    A prospective, randomized study compared the surgically induced astigmatism after 3.5 mm, 4.0 mm, and 5.0 mm temporal corneal tunnel incisions over six months. We studied 60 eyes of 60 patients who had phacoemulsification through a two-step clear corneal tunnel incision and implantation of one of three posterior chamber intraocular lenses (IOLs). Patients were divided into three groups of 20 each: Group A, cartridge injection of a foldable plate-haptic silicone IOL through a 3.5 mm self-sealing incision; Group B, cartridge injection of a disc silicone IOL through a 4.0 mm self-sealing incision; Group C, 5.0 mm optic poly(methyl methacrylate) IOL through a 5.0 mm incision with one radial suture. Corneal topography data were obtained using a computerized videokeratographic analysis system preoperatively and one week and six months postoperatively. Vector analysis was performed to calculate the surgically induced astigmatism. After the first postoperative week, mean induced astigmatism was 0.63 diopters (D) (+/- 0.41) in Group A, 0.64 D (+/- 0.35) in Group B, and 0.91 D (+/- 0.77) in Group C. After six months, it was 0.37 D (+/- 0.14) in Group A, 0.56 D (+/- 0.34) in Group B, and 0.70 D (+/- 0.50) in Group C. Surgically induced astigmatism was significantly lower in Group A than in Group B (P incisions induced clinically minimal astigmatism over six months postoperatively depending on incision size.

  1. Effects of uncertainty in soil properties on simulated hydrological states and fluxes at different spatio-temporal scales (United States)

    Baroni, Gabriele; Zink, Matthias; Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis; Attinger, Sabine


    Soil properties show high heterogeneity at different spatial scales and their correct characterization remains a crucial challenge over large areas. The aim of the study is to quantify the impact of different types of uncertainties that arise from the unresolved soil spatial variability on simulated hydrological states and fluxes. Three perturbation methods are presented for the characterization of uncertainties in soil properties. The methods are applied on the soil map of the upper Neckar catchment (Germany), as an example. The uncertainties are propagated through the distributed mesoscale hydrological model (mHM) to assess the impact on the simulated states and fluxes. The model outputs are analysed by aggregating the results at different spatial and temporal scales. These results show that the impact of the different uncertainties introduced in the original soil map is equivalent when the simulated model outputs are analysed at the model grid resolution (i.e. 500 m). However, several differences are identified by aggregating states and fluxes at different spatial scales (by subcatchments of different sizes or coarsening the grid resolution). Streamflow is only sensitive to the perturbation of long spatial structures while distributed states and fluxes (e.g. soil moisture and groundwater recharge) are only sensitive to the local noise introduced to the original soil properties. A clear identification of the temporal and spatial scale for which finer-resolution soil information is (or is not) relevant is unlikely to be universal. However, the comparison of the impacts on the different hydrological components can be used to prioritize the model improvements in specific applications, either by collecting new measurements or by calibration and data assimilation approaches. In conclusion, the study underlines the importance of a correct characterization of uncertainty in soil properties. With that, soil maps with additional information regarding the unresolved soil

  2. Diferencias sexuales en la dentición temporal Sex differences in primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Sánchez Torres


    Full Text Available Se estudia una muestra de 165 niños de 5 años de ambos sexos conformada a partir de un universo de 568 alumnos de 21 grupos de preescolar del municipio de Santa Clara. Se seleccionaron los que presentaron dentición temporal completa. A todos se les realizó un estudio de la oclusión, incluyendo aspectos morfológicos y funcionales, con el objetivo de comparar su comportamiento en ambos sexos. Se utilizó la técnica de CHAID para detectar cuáles son las variables que más se distinguen por sexo y las otras variables que puedan interactuar con estas. Entre las morfológicas se encontró una sola que se distingue: La medición de Bogué, y las funcionales que más se distinguen se pueden resumir como: hábito de succión, interferencias en lateralidad desde distintos puntos de vista, y lateralidad máxima. De esta manera se logra predecir, según el CHAID, las características oclusales más probables en cada sexo.A sample of 165 five-years-old children of both sexes, taken from a universe of 568 children making up 21 kindergarten groups in Santa Clara municipality, was studied. Those children who presented with their complete primary dentition were selected. An occlusion study including morphological and functional aspects was performed to compare occlusion in both sexes using CHAID techniques to detect the most outstanding variables by sex and the other variables that may interact with the former. The only noticeable morphological variable was Bogue´s measurement whereas the most evident functional variables were sucking habits, interference in laterality from several viewpoints and maximum laterality. In this way, it is possible to predict the most likely occlusal characteristics by sex according to the CHAID technique.

  3. We Will Be Different! Ageism and the Temporal Construction of Old Age (United States)

    Jonson, Hakan


    Ageism has been described as different from other forms of discrimination and paradoxical in the sense that "nonold" people discriminate against their "future selves." The argument of this article is that nonold people may uphold ideas about older people as "the other" by constructing their own future selves as "essentially different" from that of…

  4. Music listening engages specific cortical regions within the temporal lobes: differences between musicians and non-musicians. (United States)

    Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Aubé, William; Peretz, Isabelle; Barrios, Fernando A; Armony, Jorge L; Concha, Luis


    Music and speech are two of the most relevant and common sounds in the human environment. Perceiving and processing these two complex acoustical signals rely on a hierarchical functional network distributed throughout several brain regions within and beyond the auditory cortices. Given their similarities, the neural bases for processing these two complex sounds overlap to a certain degree, but particular brain regions may show selectivity for one or the other acoustic category, which we aimed to identify. We examined 53 subjects (28 of them professional musicians) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using a paradigm designed to identify regions showing increased activity in response to different types of musical stimuli, compared to different types of complex sounds, such as speech and non-linguistic vocalizations. We found a region in the anterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) (planum polare) that showed preferential activity in response to musical stimuli and was present in all our subjects, regardless of musical training, and invariant across different musical instruments (violin, piano or synthetic piano). Our data show that this cortical region is preferentially involved in processing musical, as compared to other complex sounds, suggesting a functional role as a second-order relay, possibly integrating acoustic characteristics intrinsic to music (e.g., melody extraction). Moreover, we assessed whether musical experience modulates the response of cortical regions involved in music processing and found evidence of functional differences between musicians and non-musicians during music listening. In particular, bilateral activation of the planum polare was more prevalent, but not exclusive, in musicians than non-musicians, and activation of the right posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (planum temporale) differed between groups. Our results provide evidence of functional specialization for music processing in specific

  5. Differences in the onset mode of ventricular tachyarrhythmia between patients with J wave in anterior leads and those with J wave in inferolateral leads. (United States)

    Kamakura, Tsukasa; Wada, Mitsuru; Ishibashi, Kohei; Inoue, Yuko Y; Miyamoto, Koji; Okamura, Hideo; Nagase, Satoshi; Noda, Takashi; Aiba, Takeshi; Yasuda, Satoshi; Shimizu, Wataru; Kamakura, Shiro; Kusano, Kengo


    The pathophysiological mechanism of J wave in anterior leads (A-leads) and inferolateral leads (L-leads) remains unclear. We investigated the onset mode and circadian distribution of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTA) episodes between patients with early repolarization syndrome (ERS) and Brugada syndrome (BrS). The study enrolled 35 patients with ERS and 52 patients with type 1 BrS with spontaneous ventricular fibrillation who were divided into 4 groups: ERS(A+L) (n = 15), patients with ERS who had a non-type 1 Brugada pattern electrocardiogram in any A-leads (second to fourth intercostal spaces) in control and/or after drug provocation tests; ERS(L) (n = 20), patients with ERS with J wave only in L-leads; BrS(A) (n = 24), patients with BrS without J wave in L-leads; and BrS(A+L) (n = 28), patients with BrS with J wave in L-leads. The onset mode of 206 VTAs obtained from electrocardiograms or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and the circadian distribution of 352 VTAs were investigated in the 4 groups. Three groups with J wave in A-leads, ERS(A+L), BrS(A), and BrS(A+L), had higher incidences of nocturnal (63%, 43%, and 47%, respectively) and sudden onset VTAs (67%, 97%, and 86%, respectively) with longer coupling intervals of premature ventricular contractions (388.8, 397.3, and 385.6 ms, respectively) than the ERS(L) group with J wave only in L-leads (25%, P = .0019; 19%, P J wave in A-leads and patients with J wave in only L-leads. The underlying mechanism of J wave may differ between A-leads and L-leads. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic profiling of different ready-to-drink fermented dairy products: A comparative study using Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA), Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and Progressive Profile (PP). (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Castura, John C; Ferraz, Juliana P; Tavares Filho, Elson R; Silva, Ramon; Cruz, Adriano G; Freitas, Mônica Q; Bolini, Helena M A


    Despite the several differences in ingredients, processes and nutritional values, dairy foods as yogurts, fermented milks and milk beverages are widely accepted worldwide, and although they have their sensory profiling normally covered by descriptive analyses, the temporal perception involved during the consumption are rarely considered. In this sense, the present work aimed to assess the dynamic sensory profile of three categories of fermented dairy products using different temporal methodologies: Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS), Progressive Profiling (PP), Temporal CATA (TCATA), and compare the results obtained. The findings showed that the different sensory characteristics among the products are basically related to their commercial identity. Regarding the methods, all of them collected the variations between samples with great correlation between data. In addition, to detect differences in intensities, TCATA showed to be the most sensitive method in detecting textural changes. When using PP, a balanced experimental design considering the number of attributes, time intervals, and food matrix must be weighed. The findings are of interest to guide sensory and consumer practitioners involved in the dairy production to formulate/reformulate their products and help them choosing the most suitable dynamic method to temporally evaluate them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Trade-Off between Spatial and Temporal Variabilities in Reciprocal Upper-Limb Aiming Movements of Different Durations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danion, Frederic; Bongers, Raoul M.; Bootsma, Reinoud J.


    The spatial and temporal aspects of movement variability have typically been studied separately. As a result the relationship between spatial and temporal variabilities remains largely unknown. In two experiments we examined the evolution and covariation of spatial and temporal variabilities over

  8. Self-Play and Using an Expert to Learn to Play Backgammon with Temporal Difference Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco


    A promising approach to learn to play board games is to use reinforcement learning algorithms that can learn a game position evaluation function. In this paper we examine and compare three different methods for generating training games: 1) Learning by self-play, 2) Learning by playing against an

  9. Temporal and spatial dynamics of archaeal communities in two freshwater lakes at different trophic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyin eYang


    Full Text Available In either eutrophic Dianchi Lake or mesotrophic Erhai Lake, the abundance, diversity and structure of archaeaplankton communities in spring were different from those in summer. In summer, archaeaplankton abundance generally decreased in Dianchi Lake but increased in Erhai Lake, while archaeaplankton diversity increased in both lakes. These two lakes had distinct archaeaplankton community structure. Archaeaplankton abundance was influenced by organic content, while trophic status determined archaeaplankton diversity and structure. Moreover, in summer, lake sediment archaeal abundance considerably decreased. Sediment archaeal abundance showed a remarkable spatial change in spring but only a slight one in summer. The evident spatial change of sediment archaeal diversity occurred in both seasons. In Dianchi Lake, sediment archaeal community structure in summer was remarkably different from that in spring. Compared to Erhai Lake, Dianchi Lake had relatively high sediment archaeal abundance but low diversity. These two lakes differed remarkably in sediment archaeal community structure. Trophic status determined sediment archaeal abundance, diversity and structure. Archaeal diversity in sediment was much higher than that in water. Water and sediment habitats differed greatly in archaeal community structure. Euryarchaeota predominated in water column, but showed much lower proportion in sediment. Bathyarchaeota was an important component of sediment archaeal community.

  10. Grapevine water absorption in different soils. A spatio-temporal analysis. (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; Bois, Benjamin; Lévêque, Jean; Mathieu, Olivier


    Hillslope vineyards show complex water dynamics between soil and plants. To gain further insight of this relationship, 8 grapevine plots were monitored during two vintages (2011-2013), on Corton Hill, Burgundy, France. Grapevine water status was monitored weekly by surveying water potential, and at harvest, using δ13C analysis of grape juice. Soil volumetric humidity was also measured weekly, using TDR probes. A pedotransfer function was developed to transform Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) into Soil Volume Water and therefore to spatialise and describe variations in space and time in the Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water (FTSW). During the two years of monitoring, grapevines experienced great variation in water status, which ranged from low to substantial water deficit. With this freshly developed method, it was possible to observe differences in water absorption pattern by roots, in different soils, and at different depth. Great heterogeneity was observed, both laterally and vertically in grapevine water absorption. The contribution of each soil region to plant water status varies according to grapevine water status. It is different between day and night and depends from soil characteristics. It is to our knowledge the first time that water absorption by grapevine is revealed in space (2D) and time, and has therefore allowed a deeper comprehension of plant and soil dynamics in grapevine.

  11. Statistical Analysis of Demographic and Temporal Differences in LANL's 2014 Voluntary Protection Program Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) surveys were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to assess the degree to which workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory feel that their safety is valued by their management and peers. The goal of this analysis is to determine whether the difference between the VPP survey scores in 2013 and 2014 is significant, and to present the data in a way such that it can help identify either positive changes or potential opportunities for improvement. Data for several questions intended to identify the demographic groups of the respondent are included in both the 2013 and 2014 VPP survey results. These can be used to identify any significant differences among groups of employees as well as to identify any temporal trends in these cohorts.

  12. Temporal sequence learning, prediction, and control: a review of different models and their relation to biological mechanisms. (United States)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Porr, Bernd


    In this review, we compare methods for temporal sequence learning (TSL) across the disciplines machine-control, classical conditioning, neuronal models for TSL as well as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). This review introduces the most influential models and focuses on two questions: To what degree are reward-based (e.g., TD learning) and correlation-based (Hebbian) learning related? and How do the different models correspond to possibly underlying biological mechanisms of synaptic plasticity? We first compare the different models in an open-loop condition, where behavioral feedback does not alter the learning. Here we observe that reward-based and correlation-based learning are indeed very similar. Machine control is then used to introduce the problem of closed-loop control (e.g., actor-critic architectures). Here the problem of evaluative (rewards) versus nonevaluative (correlations) feedback from the environment will be discussed, showing that both learning approaches are fundamentally different in the closed-loop condition. In trying to answer the second question, we compare neuronal versions of the different learning architectures to the anatomy of the involved brain structures (basal-ganglia, thalamus, and cortex) and the molecular biophysics of glutamatergic and dopaminergic synapses. Finally, we discuss the different algorithms used to model STDP and compare them to reward-based learning rules. Certain similarities are found in spite of the strongly different timescales. Here we focus on the biophysics of the different calcium-release mechanisms known to be involved in STDP.

  13. A longitudinal study of differences in late- and early-onset geriatric depression: depressive symptoms and psychosocial, cognitive, and neurological functioning. (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Moxley, Jerad; Hames, Jennifer L; Rushing, Nicole C; Sawyer, Kathryn; Joiner, Thomas; Selby, Edward A; Zarit, Steven; Gotlib, Ian H; Steffens, David C


    Studies suggest early-onset depression (EOD) is associated with a more severe course of the depressive disorder, while late-onset depression (LOD) is associated with more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. This study examined if older adults with EOD, compared with those with LOD, would exhibit more severe symptoms of depression and, consistent with the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, have more hippocampal volume loss. A second goal was to determine if LOD, compared with EOD, would demonstrate more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. At regular intervals over a four-year period non-demented, older, depressed adults were assessed on the Mini-Mental Status Examination and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. They were also assessed on magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with LOD, EOD had more depressive symptoms, more suicidal thoughts, and less social support. Growth curve analyses indicated that EOD demonstrated higher levels of residual depressive symptoms over time. The LOD group exhibited a greater decrement in cognitive scores. Contrary to the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, participants with EOD lost right hippocampal volume at a slower rate than did participants with LOD. Right cerebrum gray matter was initially smaller among participants with LOD. EOD is associated with greater severity of depressive illness. LOD is associated with more severe cognitive and neurological changes. These differences are relevant to understanding cognitive impairment in geriatric depression.

  14. Commodity specific rates of temporal discounting: does metabolic function underlie differences in rates of discounting? (United States)

    Charlton, Shawn R; Fantino, Edmund


    Discounting rates vary as a function of commodity type. Previous studies suggest five potential characteristics of the commodity that could explain these differences: type of reinforcer (primary or secondary), if the commodity is perishable, if the commodity is satiable, if the commodity can be directly consumed, and immediacy of consumption. This paper suggests that these characteristics may best be viewed as related to a more fundamental characteristic: metabolic processing. In order to explore the possibility that metabolic processing underlies changes in discount rates, the difference in discounting between food, money, music CDs, DVDs, and books are compared. Music CDs, DVDs, and books share many characteristics in common with food, including gaining value through a physiological process, but are not directly metabolized. Results are consistent with previous findings of commodity specific discount rates and show that metabolic function plays a role in determining discount rates with those commodities that are metabolized being discounted at a higher rate. These results are interpreted as evidence that the discount rate for different commodities lies along a continuum with those that serve an exchange function rather than a direct function (money) anchoring the low end and those that serve a direct metabolic function capping the high end (food, alcohol, drugs).

  15. Distribution and Abundance of Phlebotominae, Vectors of Leishmaniasis, in Argentina: Spatial and Temporal Analysis at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Quintana


    Full Text Available The spatial-temporal analysis of the abundance of insects, vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL and visceral leishmaniasis (VL, was performed in Argentina using spatial-temporal increasing scales. In the microscale (microfocal, the effect of the primary vegetation-crop interface in vector abundance was observed, and also how the shelters, food sources, and other environmental characteristics contribute to habitat microheterogeneity and so to a microheterogeneous vector distribution. In the mesoscale (locality or epidemic focus, the results from different foci of TL (rural and periurban and VL (urban suggested a metapopulation structure determined partially by quantifiable habitat variables that could explain the increase of risk associated to an increase of vector-human contact due to climatic or anthropogenic changes. In the macroscale (regional, captures of vectors and records of human cases allowed the construction of risk maps and predictive models of vector distribution. In conclusion, in order to obtain valid results transferrable to control programs from spatial studies, special attention should be paid in order to assure the consistency between the spatial scales of the hypotheses, data, and analytical tools of each experimental or descriptive design.

  16. Young-Onset Parkinson's (United States)

    ... What Is Parkinson's? › Young Onset Parkinson's Young-Onset Parkinson's 1. Symptoms 2. How Is Young-Onset PD ... of the foot Why Is Distinguishing Young-Onset Parkinson's Important? Socially, people who are affected by PD ...

  17. Dynamic DTI (dDTI) shows differing temporal activation patterns in post-exercise skeletal muscles. (United States)

    Rockel, Conrad; Akbari, Alireza; Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Noseworthy, Michael D


    To assess post-exercise recovery of human calf muscles using dynamic diffusion tensor imaging (dDTI). DTI data (6 directions, b = 0 and 400 s/mm(2)) were acquired every 35 s from seven healthy men using a 3T MRI, prior to (4 volumes) and immediately following exercise (13 volumes, ~7.5 min). Exercise consisted of 5-min in-bore repetitive dorsiflexion-eversion foot motion with 0.78 kg resistance. Diffusion tensors calculated at each time point produced maps of mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and signal at b = 0 s/mm(2) (S0). Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis was performed on five calf muscles: tibialis anterior (ATIB), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) peroneus longus (PER), soleus (SOL), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG). Active muscles (ATIB, EDL, PER) showed significantly elevated initial MD post-exercise, while predicted inactive muscles (SOL, LG) did not (p muscles across the majority of time points (p muscles. These differences are suggested to be related to differences in fiber composition.

  18. Different temporal bases for body and arm movements in volleyball serve reception. (United States)

    Benerink, N H; Bootsma, R J; Zaal, F T J M


    In many sports, successfully intercepting a ball requires players to move both their body and their arms. Yet, studies of interception typically focus on one or the other. We performed an analysis of the moments of first foot and arm movements of elite-level volleyball players during serve reception. Video footage of five international matches of the Netherlands men's national volleyball team allowed the systematic coding and analysis of 347 different serve reception events. For each event, we identified the time of serve (TS) and time of contact (TC). Ball flight time (from TS to TC) varied between and within types of serve (power jump serves, n = 193, and jumping float serves, n = 154). Correlation analyses revealed that foot movement was initiated with respect to time from TS, while arm movement was initiated with respect to time until TC. These results suggest that whole-body and arm movements rely on different control processes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Pilin Processing Follows a Different Temporal Route than That of Archaellins in Methanococcus maripaludis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya B. Nair


    Full Text Available Methanococcus maripaludis has two different surface appendages: type IV-like pili and archaella. Both structures are believed to be assembled using a bacterial type IV pilus mechanism. Each structure is composed of multiple subunits, either pilins or archaellins. Both pilins and archaellins are made initially as preproteins with type IV pilin-like signal peptides, which must be removed by a prepilin peptidase-like enzyme. This enzyme is FlaK for archaellins and EppA for pilins. In addition, both pilins and archaellins are modified with N-linked glycans. The archaellins possess an N-linked tetrasaccharide while the pilins have a pentasaccharide which consists of the archaellin tetrasaccharide but with an additional sugar, an unidentified hexose, attached to the linking sugar. In this report, we show that archaellins can be processed by FlaK in the absence of N-glycosylation and N-glycosylation can occur on archaellins that still retain their signal peptides. In contrast, pilins are not glycosylated unless they have been acted on by EppA to have the signal peptide removed. However, EppA can still remove signal peptides from non-glycosylated pilins. These findings indicate that there is a difference in the order of the posttranslational modifications of pilins and archaellins even though both are type IV pilin-like proteins.

  20. Different FDG-PET metabolic patterns at single-subject level in the behavioral variant of fronto-temporal dementia. (United States)

    Cerami, Chiara; Dodich, Alessandra; Lettieri, Giada; Iannaccone, Sandro; Magnani, Giuseppe; Marcone, Alessandra; Gianolli, Luigi; Cappa, Stefano F; Perani, Daniela


    The diagnosis of probable behavioral variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD) according to current criteria requires the imaging evidence of frontal and/or anterior temporal atrophy or hypoperfusion/hypometabolism. Different variants of this pattern of brain involvement may, however, be found in individual cases, supporting the presence of heterogeneous phenotypes. We examined in a case-by-case approach the FDG-PET metabolic patterns of patients fulfilling clinical criteria for probable bvFTD, assessing the presence and frequency of specific FDG-PET features. Fifty two FDG-PET scans of probable bvFTD patients were retrospectively analyzed together with clinical and neuropsychological data. Neuroimaging experts rated the FDG-PET hypometabolism maps obtained at the single-subject level with optimized voxel-based Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). The functional metabolic heterogeneity was further tested by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Both the SPM maps and cluster analysis identified two major variants of cerebral hypometabolism, namely the "frontal" and the "temporo-limbic", which were correlated with different cognitive profiles. Executive and language deficits were the cognitive hallmark in the "frontal" subgroup, while poor encoding and recall on long-term memory tasks was typical of the "temporo-limbic" subgroup. SPM single-subject analysis indicates distinct patterns of brain dysfunction in bvFTD, coupled with specific clinical features, suggesting different profiles of neurodegenerative vulnerability. These findings have important implications for the early diagnosis of bvFTD and for the application of the recent international consensus criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Different spatio-temporal electroencephalography features drive the successful decoding of binaural and monaural cues for sound localization. (United States)

    Bednar, Adam; Boland, Francis M; Lalor, Edmund C


    The human ability to localize sound is essential for monitoring our environment and helps us to analyse complex auditory scenes. Although the acoustic cues mediating sound localization have been established, it remains unknown how these cues are represented in human cortex. In particular, it is still a point of contention whether binaural and monaural cues are processed by the same or distinct cortical networks. In this study, participants listened to a sequence of auditory stimuli from different spatial locations while we recorded their neural activity using electroencephalography (EEG). The stimuli were presented over a loudspeaker array, which allowed us to deliver realistic, free-field stimuli in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Using a multivariate classification approach, we showed that it is possible to decode sound source location from scalp-recorded EEG. Robust and consistent decoding was shown for stimuli that provide binaural cues (i.e. Left vs. Right stimuli). Decoding location when only monaural cues were available (i.e. Front vs. Rear and elevational stimuli) was successful for a subset of subjects and showed less consistency. Notably, the spatio-temporal pattern of EEG features that facilitated decoding differed based on the availability of binaural and monaural cues. In particular, we identified neural processing of binaural cues at around 120 ms post-stimulus and found that monaural cues are processed later between 150 and 200 ms. Furthermore, different spatial activation patterns emerged for binaural and monaural cue processing. These spatio-temporal dissimilarities suggest the involvement of separate cortical mechanisms in monaural and binaural acoustic cue processing. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The temporal dynamics of zooplankton communities of different types of water bodies within Ichniansky National Park

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    Z. V. Burian


    Full Text Available In recent decades, the influence of anthropogenic impact on aquatic ecosystems has increased. This has led to a restructuring of aquatic ecosystems and affected the structural and functional organization of groups of aquatic organisms, causing qualitative and quantitative changes. Particular attention is drawn to the different types of water bodies of protected areas like IchnyanskyNational Park, which is located in Ichnyansky district of Chernihiv region. This park is a newly created one, so the reduction in intensity of anthropogenic pressure can be traced within its waters. Zooplankton plays an important role in the functioning of trophic networks because it transfers energy from producers and primary consumers to young fish and planktonophagous fish. Therefore, three main groups of zooplankton were chosen as the object of study: rotifers (class Eurotatoria, cladocerans (class Branchiopoda, order Cladocera, different age stages of copepods (class Copepoda, and also ostracods (Class Ostracoda. The zooplankton used as research material was collected in the daytime in spring (April, summer (late July – early August and autumn (late September – early October in the years 2015–2016 from ten experimental stations. During this period 81 species of zooplankton were recorded within heterogeneous reservoirs of IchnianskyNational Park. Monogonont rotifers (subclass Monogononta included 35 species (43% of all species and bdelloid rotifers (subclass Bdelloidea, cladocerns, comprised 28 species (35%, and copepods included 18 species (22%. The faunal range of zooplankton over different years and seasons was characterized by the predominance of the rotator complex in spring, rotator-cladocerans and cladocerans in summer, and of the cladocerans complex in autumn. This was due to the formation during spring and summer of favourable conditions in the waters for filter feeders, which consist generally of rotifers and cladocerans. In autumn the water

  3. [Electromyographic activity of the temporal and masseter muscles at different occlusal positions]. (United States)

    Petrović, Dorde; Horvat-Banić, Sofija


    Normal occlusion or eugnathia, is a morphologically and functionally balanced bite. Differences in the form and function of orofacial structures cause morphological and functional deviations of the orofacial system. Irregular occlusal postitions may consequently change the electromyographic activity of the muscles of orofacial region. The aim of the research was an analysis and a comparative analysis of the bioelectrical activity of masticatory muscles in normal occlusion and distocclusion, in rest position, in the position of the central occlusion of the mandible and at the maximum voluntary muscle contraction. The metodology of the research is based on electromyographic recording of the action potentials of the examined muscles in different mandibular positions. Registration of action potentials of the masticatory muscles was done using, facial, intramuscular, and coaxial electrodes, (Greenfield scheme) and measurements were performed on both sides. The research was carried out on a sample of 60 patients with an average age of 14,25 years. 30 subjects had normal occlusion and 30 had distal occlusion. The results were expressed in microvolts, as average cumulative amplitude voltages of action potentials, by means of which changes in the masticatory muscles were established and the degree of correlation between the electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles and the occlusal type was analyzed. The results of the research show that the bioelectrical activity of the examined masticatory muscles falls in the group of subjects with distal occlusion, which is the result of a decreased number of active muscular tissues, or a decreased number of impulses coming into the muscle, or the combination of both.

  4. Temporal changes and sexual differences in spatial distribution of Burbot in Lake Erie (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Witzel, Larry D.; Cook, Andy


    We used GIS mapping techniques to examine capture data for Burbot Lota lota from annual gill-net surveys in Canadian waters of Lake Erie during late August and September 1994–2011. Adult males were captured over a larger area (3–17% for ≥20% maximum yearly catch [MYC]) than adult females. More males than females were caught in the gill nets in 14 of the 15 study years. Collectively, these results support a hypothesis of greater activity by adult males during summer, when Burbot are actively feeding. The area of capture contracted by more than 60% (for ≥20% MYC) for both sexes during the time period, which is consistent with the documented decrease of the Burbot population in the lake. The sex ratio (females: males) varied over the time series but declined steadily from 0.97 in 2001 to 0.59 in 2011. The overlap in the capture areas of adult males and females was scale dependent. The depth distribution at which adult Burbot were caught did not change over the time series, and there was no difference in the median depths (about 30 m) at which adult male and female Burbot were caught. The last results are consistent with the Burbot's reliance on coldwater habitats. Additional research is recommended, including telemetry to describe daily and seasonal movements and assessment of gender bias in active and passive capture gear.

  5. Age-related differences in the temporal dynamics of prospective memory retrieval: a lifespan approach. (United States)

    Mattli, Florentina; Zöllig, Jacqueline; West, Robert


    The efficiency of prospective memory (PM) typically increases from childhood to young adulthood and then decreases in later adulthood. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the development of the neural correlates of processes associated with the detection of a PM cue, switching from the ongoing activity to the prospective task, retrieval of the intention from memory or task set configuration, and strategic monitoring of the environment. The study included 99 participants that were 7.5-83 years of age. Slow wave activity related to strategic monitoring was reliable across the lifespan suggesting that all ages were able to allocate attentional resources to facilitate PM. Additionally, components of the ERPs related to cue detection, switching, and task configuration were reliable across the lifespan, suggesting that similar processes contribute to PM at all ages. In children, PM errors may have resulted from a decoupling of processes supporting cue detection and switching from the ongoing activity to the prospective element of the task. In younger and older adults, PM errors appeared to result from the failure to detect PM cues in the environment. These findings lead to the conclusion that different processes may contribute to variation in PM across the lifespan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gait variability is altered in older adults when listening to auditory stimuli with differing temporal structures. (United States)

    Kaipust, Jeffrey P; McGrath, Denise; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas


    Gait variability in the context of a deterministic dynamical system may be quantified using nonlinear time series analyses that characterize the complexity of the system. Pathological gait exhibits altered gait variability. It can be either too periodic and predictable, or too random and disordered, as is the case with aging. While gait therapies often focus on restoration of linear measures such as gait speed or stride length, we propose that the goal of gait therapy should be to restore optimal gait variability, which exhibits chaotic fluctuations and is the balance between predictability and complexity. In this context, our purpose was to investigate how listening to different auditory stimuli affects gait variability. Twenty-seven young and 27 elderly subjects walked on a treadmill for 5 min while listening to white noise, a chaotic rhythm, a metronome, and with no auditory stimulus. Stride length, step width, and stride intervals were calculated for all conditions. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was then performed on these time series. A quadratic trend analysis determined that an idealized inverted-U shape described the relationship between gait variability and the structure of the auditory stimuli for the elderly group, but not for the young group. This proof-of-concept study shows that the gait of older adults may be manipulated using auditory stimuli. Future work will investigate which structures of auditory stimuli lead to improvements in functional status in older adults.

  7. Age-related differences in medial temporal lobe involvement during conceptual fluency (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Dew, Ilana T. Z.; Cabeza, Roberto


    Not all memory processes are equally affected by aging. A widely accepted hypothesis is that older adults rely more on familiarity-based processing, typically linked with the perirhinal cortex (PRC), in the context of impaired recollection, linked with the hippocampus (HC). However, according to the dedifferentiation hypothesis, healthy aging reduces the specialization of MTL memory subregions so that they may mediate different memory processes than in young adults. Using fMRI, we tested this possibility using a conceptual fluency manipulation known to induce familiarity-related PRC activity. The study yielded two main findings. First, although fluency equivalently affected PRC in both young (18–28; N = 14) and older (62–80; N=15) adults, it also uniquely affected HC activity in older adults. Second, the fluency manipulation reduced functional connectivity between HC and PRC in young adults, but it increased it in older adults. Taken together, the results suggest that aging may result in reduced specialization of the HC for recollection, such that the HC may be recruited when fluency increases familiarity-based responding. PMID:25305568

  8. Evaluation of Error in IMERG Precipitation Estimates under Different Topographic Conditions and Temporal Scales over Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandy G. Mayor


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the precipitation product of the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG over the Mexican region during the period between April 2014 and October 2015 using three different time scales for cumulative precipitation (hourly, daily and seasonal. Also, the IMERG data have been analyzed as a function of elevation given the rain gauges from the automatic meteorological stations network, located within the area of study, which are used as a reference. In the present study, continuous and categorical statistics are used to evaluate IMERG. It was found that IMERG showed better performance at the daily and seasonal time scale resolutions. While hourly precipitation estimates reached a mean correlation coefficient of 0.35, the daily and seasonal precipitation estimates achieved correlations over 0.51. In addition, the IMERG precipitation product was able to reproduce the diurnal and daily cycles of the average precipitation with a trend towards overestimating rain gauges. However, extreme precipitation events were highly underestimated, as shown by relative biases of −61% and −46% for the hourly and daily precipitation analysis, respectively. It was also found that IMERG tends to improve precipitation detection and to decrease magnitude errors over the higher terrain elevations of Mexico.

  9. Remote temporal camouflage: contextual flicker disrupts perceived visual temporal order. (United States)

    Cass, John; Van der Burg, Erik


    Correctly perceiving the temporal order of events is essential to many tasks. Despite this, the factors constraining our ability to make timing judgments remain largely unspecified. Here we present a new phenomenon demonstrating that perceived timing of visual events may be profoundly impaired by the mere presence of irrelevant events elsewhere in the visual field. Human observers saw two abrupt luminance events presented across a range of onset asynchronies. Temporal order judgment (TOJ) just noticeable differences (JNDs) provided a behavioural index of temporal precision. When target events were presented in isolation or in static distractor environments temporal resolution was very precise (JNDs ∼20ms). However, when surrounded by dynamic distractor events, performance deteriorated more than a factor of four. This contextual effect we refer to as Remote Temporal Camouflage (RTC) operates across large spatial and temporal distances and possesses a unique spatial distribution conforming to neither the predictions of attentional capture by transient events, nor by stimulus dependencies associated with other contextual phenomena such as surround suppression, crowding, object-substitution masking or motion-induced blindness. We propose that RTC is a consequence of motion-related masking whereby irrelevant motion signals evoked by dynamic distractors interfere with TOJ-relevant target-related apparent motion. Consistent with this we also show that dynamic visual distractors do not interfere with audio-visual TOJs. Not only is RTC the most spatially extensive contextual effect ever reported, it offers vision science a new technique with which to investigate temporal order performance, free of motion-related sensory contributions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Temporal and spatial variations of soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes at three differently managed grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Imer


    Full Text Available A profound understanding of temporal and spatial variabilities of soil carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is needed to reliably quantify these fluxes and to develop future mitigation strategies. For managed grassland ecosystems, temporal and spatial variabilities of these three soil greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes occur due to changes in environmental drivers as well as fertilizer applications, harvests and grazing. To assess how such changes affect soil GHG fluxes at Swiss grassland sites, we studied three sites along an altitudinal gradient that corresponds to a management gradient: from 400 m a.s.l. (intensively managed to 1000 m a.s.l. (moderately intensive managed to 2000 m a.s.l. (extensively managed. The alpine grassland was included to study both effects of extensive management on CH4 and N2O fluxes and the different climate regime occurring at this altitude. Temporal and spatial variabilities of soil GHG fluxes and environmental drivers on various timescales were determined along transects of 16 static soil chambers at each site. All three grasslands were N2O sources, with mean annual soil fluxes ranging from 0.15 to 1.28 nmol m−2 s−1. Contrastingly, all sites were weak CH4 sinks, with soil uptake rates ranging from −0.56 to −0.15 nmol m−2 s−1. Mean annual soil and plant respiration losses of CO2, measured with opaque chambers, ranged from 5.2 to 6.5 μmol m−2 s−1. While the environmental drivers and their respective explanatory power for soil N2O emissions differed considerably among the three grasslands (adjusted r2 ranging from 0.19 to 0.42, CH4 and CO2 soil fluxes were much better constrained (adjusted r2 ranging from 0.46 to 0.80 by soil water content and air temperature, respectively. Throughout the year, spatial heterogeneity was particularly high for soil N2O and CH4 fluxes. We found permanent hot spots for soil N2O emissions as well as

  11. Temporal pattern of questing tick Ixodes ricinus density at differing elevations in the coastal region of western Norway. (United States)

    Qviller, Lars; Grøva, Lise; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Klingen, Ingeborg; Mysterud, Atle


    Climate change can affect the activity and distribution of species, including pathogens and parasites. The densities and distribution range of the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) and it's transmitted pathogens appears to be increasing. Thus, a better understanding of questing tick densities in relation to climate and weather conditions is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to test predictions regarding the temporal pattern of questing tick densities at two different elevations in Norway. We predict that questing tick densities will decrease with increasing elevations and increase with increasing temperatures, but predict that humidity levels will rarely affect ticks in this northern, coastal climate with high humidity. We described the temporal pattern of questing tick densities at ~100 and ~400 m a.s.l. along twelve transects in the coastal region of Norway. We used the cloth lure method at 14-day intervals during the snow-free season to count ticks in two consecutive years in 20 m2 plots. We linked the temporal pattern of questing tick densities to local measurements of the prevailing weather. The questing tick densities were much higher and the season was longer at ~100 compared to at ~400 m a.s.l. There was a prominent spring peak in both years and a smaller autumn peak in one year at ~100 m a.s.l.; but no marked peak at ~400 m a.s.l. Tick densities correlated positively with temperature, from low densities 15-17°C. We found no evidence for reduced questing densities during the driest conditions measured. Tick questing densities differed even locally linked to elevation (on the same hillside, a few kilometers apart). The tick densities were strongly hampered by low temperatures that limited the duration of the questing seasons, whereas the humidity appeared not to be a limiting factor under the humid conditions at our study site. We expect rising global temperatures to increase tick densities and lead to a transition from a short questing season with low

  12. Rainfall Interpolation and Uncertainty Assessment at different Temporal and Spatial Scales (United States)

    Bárdossy, A.; Pegram, G.


    Spatial interpolation of rainfall over different time and spatial scales is necessary in many applications of hydrometeorology including (i) catchment modelling, (ii) blending/conditioning of radar-rainfall images and (iii) correction of remote sensing estimates of rainfall (for example using TRMM) which are known to be biased, to name three. The specific problems encountered in rainfall interpolation include: • the large number of calculations which need to be performed automatically • the quantification of the influence of topography, usually the most influential of exogenous variables • how to use observed zero (dry) values in interpolation, because their proportion increases with shorter time scales • the need to estimate a reasonable uncertainty of the modelled point/pixel distributions • the difficulty of estimating uncertainty of accumulations over a range of spatial scales The approaches used and described in the presentation employ the variables rainfall and altitude. The methods of interpolation, restricted to 10 controls neighbouring the target, include (i) Ordinary Kriging of the rainfall without altitude, (ii) External Drift Kriging with altitude as an exogenous variable, and less conventionally, (iii) truncated Gaussian copulas and v-copulas, both omitting and including the altitude of the control stations as well as that of the target. It is found that truncated Gaussian copulas, with the target's and all control the stations' altitudes included as exogenous variables, produce the lowest Mean Square error in cross-validation and, as a bonus, model with the least bias. In contrast, the uncertainty of interpolation is better described by the v-copulas, but the Gaussian copulas have the computational advantage (by three orders of magnitude) which justifies their use in practice. It turns out that the uncertainty estimates of the OK and EDK interpolants are not competitive at any time scale, from daily to annual.

  13. Evaluating spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China based on improved FORCCHN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhao

    Full Text Available An improved individual-based forest ecosystem carbon budget model for China (FORCCHN was applied to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China. In this study, the forests of northeastern China were categorized into four ecological types according to their habitats and generic characteristics (evergreen broadleaf forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The results showed that distribution and change of forest NPP in northeastern China were related to the different forest types. From 1981 to 2002, among the forest types in northeastern China, per unit area NPP and total NPP of deciduous broadleaf forest were the highest, with the values of 729.4 gC/(m(2•yr and 106.0 TgC/yr, respectively, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest, deciduous needleleaf forest and evergreen needleleaf forest. From 1981 to 2002, per unit area NPP and total NPP of different forest types in northeastern China exhibited significant trends of interannual increase, and rapid increase was found between the 1980s and 1990s. The contribution of the different forest type's NPP to total NPP in northeastern China was clearly different. The greatest was deciduous broadleaf forest, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The smallest was evergreen needleleaf forest. Spatial difference in NPP between different forest types was remarkable. High NPP values of deciduous needleleaf forest, mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest were found in the Daxing'anling region, the southeastern of Xiaoxing'anling and Jilin province, and the Changbai Mountain, respectively. However, no regional differences were found for evergreen needleleaf NPP. This study provided not only an estimation NPP of different forest types in northeastern China but also a useful methodology for estimating forest

  14. Temporal Trends in Sex Differences With Regard to Stroke Incidence: The Dijon Stroke Registry (1987-2012). (United States)

    Giroud, Marie; Delpont, Benoit; Daubail, Benoit; Blanc, Christelle; Durier, Jérôme; Giroud, Maurice; Béjot, Yannick


    We evaluated temporal trends in stroke incidence between men and women to determine whether changes in the distribution of vascular risk factors have influenced sex differences in stroke epidemiology. Patients with first-ever stroke including ischemic stroke, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and undetermined stroke between 1987 and 2012 were identified through the population-based registry of Dijon, France. Incidence rates were calculated for age groups, sex, and stroke subtypes. Sex differences and temporal trends (according to 5-year time periods) were evaluated by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with Poisson regression. Four thousand six hundred and fourteen patients with a first-ever stroke (53.1% women) were recorded. Incidence was lower in women than in men (112 versus 166 per 100 000/y; IRR, 0.68; P stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. From 1987 to 2012, the lower incidence of overall stroke in women was stable (IRR ranging between 0.63 and 0.72 according to study periods). When considering stroke subtype, a slight increase in the incidence of ischemic stroke was observed in both men (IRR, 1.011; 95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.016; P =0.001) and women (IRR, 1.013; 95% confidence interval, 1.007-1.018; P =0.001). The sex gap in incidence remained unchanged in ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. Conversely, the lower subarachnoid hemorrhage incidence in women vanished with time because of an increasing incidence. The sex gap in stroke incidence did not change with time except for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Despite lower rates, more women than men experience an incident stroke each year because of a longer life expectancy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Temporal differences in gamma-hydroxybutyrate overdoses involving injecting drug users versus recreational drug users in Helsinki: a retrospective study

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    Boyd James J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL have been profiled as 'party drugs' used mainly at dance parties and in nightclubs on weekend nights. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of injecting drug use among GHB/GBL overdose patients and whether there are temporal differences in the occurrence of GHB/GBL overdoses of injecting drug and recreational drug users. Methods In this retrospective study, the ambulance and hospital records of suspected GHB- and GBL overdose patients treated by the Helsinki Emergency Medical Service from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2007 were reviewed. According to the temporal occurrence of the overdose, patients were divided in two groups. In group A, the overdose occurred on a Friday-Saturday or Saturday-Sunday night between 11 pm-6 am. Group B consisted of overdoses occurring on outside this time frame. Results Group A consisted of 39 patient contacts and the remaining 61 patient contacts were in group B. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in (group A vs. B, respectively: history of injecting drug abuse (33% vs. 59%, p = 0.012, reported polydrug and ethanol use (80% vs. 62%, p = 0.028, the location where the patients were encountered (private or public indoors or outdoors, 10%, 41%, 41% vs. 25%, 18%, 53%, p = 0.019 and how the knowledge of GHB/GBL use was obtained (reported by patient/bystanders or clinical suspicion, 72%, 28% vs. 85%, 10%, p = 0.023. Practically all (99% patients were transported to emergency department after prehospital care. Conclusion There appears to be at least two distinct groups of GHB/GBL users. Injecting drug users represent the majority of GHB/GBL overdose patients outside weekend nights.

  16. Hypocretin deficiency develops during onset of human narcolepsy with cataplexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savvidou, Andri; Knudsen, Stine; Olsson-Engman, Mia


    Although hypothesized through animal studies, a temporal and causal association between hypocretin deficiency and the onset of narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) has never been proven in humans.......Although hypothesized through animal studies, a temporal and causal association between hypocretin deficiency and the onset of narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) has never been proven in humans....

  17. Worldwide variation in within-canopy photosynthetic acclimation: differences in temporal and environmental controls among plant functional types (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Keenan, Trevor


    Major light gradients, characteristically 10- to 50-fold, constitute the most prominent feature of plant canopies. These gradients drive within-canopy variation in foliage structural, chemical and physiological traits. As a key acclimation response to variation in light availability, foliage photosynthetic capacity per area (Aarea) increases with increasing light availability within the canopy, maximizing whole canopy photosynthesis. Recently, a worldwide database including 831 within-canopy gradients with standardized light estimates for 304 species belonging to major vascular plant functional types was constructed and within-canopy variation in photosynthetic acclimation was characterized (Niinemets Ü, Keenan TF, Hallik L (2015) Tansley review. A worldwide analysis of within-canopy variations in leaf structural, chemical and physiological traits across plant functional types. The New Phytologist 205: 973-993). However, the understanding of how within-canopy photosynthetic gradients vary during the growing season and in response to site and stand characteristics is still limited. Here we analyzed temporal, environmental and site (nutrient availability, stand density, ambient CO2 concentration, water availability) sources of variation in within-canopy photosynthetic acclimation in different plant functional types. Variation in key structural (leaf dry mass per unit area, MA), chemical (nitrogen content per dry mass, NM, and area, NA) and physiological (photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, EN) photosynthetic capacity per dry mass, Amass and area, Aarea) was examined. The analysis demonstrates major, typically 1.5-2-fold, time-, environment and site-dependent modifications in within-canopy variation in foliage photosynthetic capacity. However, the magnitude and direction of temporal and environmental variations in plasticity significantly varied among functional types. Species with longer leaf life span and low rates of canopy expansion or flush-type canopy

  18. How much difference does the age at onset make in early arthritis patients? Comparison between the ACR 1987 and the ACR/EULAR 2010 classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis at the time of diagnosis. (United States)

    Tamas, Maria-Magdalena; Felea, Ioana; Rednic, Simona


    The age at onset in early arthritis (EA) may influence the disease activity and its evolution. The aim of the current study is to identify possible differences regarding the "old" and the "new" classification criteria between patients with early-onset and late-onset early arthritis. The study included 64 patients. They were divided in two groups, according to the mean age: early-onset EA--less or equal than 45 years old (group A) and late-onset EA--over 45 years old (group B). The "old" criteria as well as the "new" ones were assessed for all patients, at the time of the first visit to the rheumatologist. The initiation of treatment with Methotrexate was used as "gold standard" to calculate the sensitivity and the specificity of both criteria. "New" criteria were fulfilled in 51% (A) and 72% of cases (B), while "old" criteria were fulfilled in 37% of patients (A) and 62% (B). Methotrexate was initiated in 82% of patients (B) and in 51% (A), p = 0.01. "New" criteria demonstrated a sensitivity of 77.7% (A) and 83.3% (B), while "old" criteria had a sensitivity of 50% (A) and 66.6% (B). Patients with late onset had significantly higher disease activity scores: 76% (B) versus 40% (A), p = 0.04. The sensitivity and the specificity of the "new" criteria for RA are comparable in patients with early-onset and late-onset EA, and the sensitivity of these criteria is increased compared to the "old" criteria. Patients with late onset fulfilling the "old" criteria had poor prognostic factors and higher disease activity at the time of diagnosis, which may have possible implications for the disease course.

  19. Deciphering Phosphate Deficiency-Mediated Temporal Effects on Different Root Traits in Rice Grown in a Modified Hydroponic System (United States)

    Negi, Manisha; Sanagala, Raghavendrarao; Rai, Vandna; Jain, Ajay


    Phosphate (Pi), an essential macronutrient for growth and development of plant, is often limiting in soils. Plants have evolved an array of adaptive strategies including modulation of root system architecture (RSA) for optimal acquisition of Pi. In rice, a major staple food, RSA is complex and comprises embryonically developed primary and seminal roots and post-embryonically developed adventitious and lateral roots. Earlier studies have used variant hydroponic systems for documenting the effects of Pi deficiency largely on primary root growth. Here, we report the temporal effects of Pi deficiency in rice genotype MI48 on 15 ontogenetically distinct root traits by using easy-to-assemble and economically viable modified hydroponic system. Effects of Pi deprivation became evident after 4 days- and 7 days-treatments on two and eight different root traits, respectively. The effects of Pi deprivation for 7 days were also evident on different root traits of rice genotype Nagina 22 (N22). There were genotypic differences in the responses of primary root growth along with lateral roots on it and the number and length of seminal and adventitious roots. Notably though, there were attenuating effects of Pi deficiency on the lateral roots on seminal and adventitious roots and total root length in both these genotypes. The study thus revealed both differential and comparable effects of Pi deficiency on different root traits in these genotypes. Pi deficiency also triggered reduction in Pi content and induction of several Pi starvation-responsive (PSR) genes in roots of MI48. Together, the analyses validated the fidelity of this modified hydroponic system for documenting Pi deficiency-mediated effects not only on different traits of RSA but also on physiological and molecular responses. PMID:27200025

  20. Temporal lobe epilepsy semiology. (United States)

    Blair, Robert D G


    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  1. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles. (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Emmanuel S; Nikolopoulos, Christos; Badekas, Athanasios; Vagenas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Athanasopoulos, Spyros


    Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG) activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i) without brace, ii) with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii) with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter) was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris) activation onset. The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter) was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately stimulated by the brace application and therefore are not able to

  2. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles

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    Papadakis Stamatios A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Methods Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i without brace, ii with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris activation onset. Results The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. Conclusion These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately

  3. Temporal maps in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. (United States)

    Taylor, Kathleen M; Joseph, Victory; Zhao, Alice S; Balsam, Peter D


    Previous research suggests animals may integrate temporal information into mental representations, or temporal maps. We examined the parameters under which animals integrate temporal information in three appetitive conditioning experiments. In Experiment 1 the temporal relationship between 2 auditory cues was established during sensory preconditioning (SPC). Subsequently, rats were given first order conditioning (FOC) with one of the cues. Results showed integration of the order of cues between the SPC and FOC training phases. In subsequent experiments we tested the hypothesis that quantitative temporal information can be integrated across phases. In Experiment 2, SPC of two short auditory cues superimposed on a longer auditory cue was followed by FOC of either one of the short cues, or of the long cue at different times in the cue. Contrary to our predictions we did not find evidence of integration of temporal information across the phases of the experiment and instead responding to the SPC cues in Experiment 2 appeared to be dominated by generalization from the FOC cues. In Experiment 3 shorter auditory cues were superimposed on a longer duration light cue but with asynchronous onset and offset of the superimposed cues. There is some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that quantitative discrimination of whether reward should be expected during the early or later parts of a cue could be integrated across experiences. However, the pattern of responding within cues was not indicative of integration of quantitative temporal information. Generalization of expected times of reward during FOC seems to be the dominant determinant of within-cue response patterns in these experiments. Consequently, while we clearly demonstrated the integration of temporal order in the modulation of this dominant pattern we did not find strong evidence of integration of precise quantitative temporal information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Associative and Temporal

  4. Validation of suitable reference genes for expression studies in different pilocarpine-induced models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales Marques

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that the reference gene in a RT-qPCR should be properly validated to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. We investigated eight potential reference genes in two different pilocarpine PILO-models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKepeer softwares. Then, as a validation strategy, we conducted a relative expression analysis of the Gfap gene. Our results indicate that in the systemic PILO-model Actb, Gapdh, Rplp1, Tubb2a and Polr1a mRNAs were highly stable in hippocampus of rats from all experimental and control groups, whereas Gusb revealed to be the most variable one. In fact, we observed that using Gusb for normalization, the relative mRNA levels of the Gfap gene differed from those obtained with stable genes. On the contrary, in the intrahippocampal PILO-model, all softwares included Gusb as a stable gene, whereas B2m was indicated as the worst candidate gene. The results obtained for the other reference genes were comparable to those observed for the systemic Pilo-model. The validation of these data by the analysis of the relative expression of Gfap showed that the upregulation of the Gfap gene in the hippocampus of rats sacrificed 24 hours after status epilepticus (SE was undetected only when B2m was used as the normalizer. These findings emphasize that a gene that is stable in one pathology model may not be stable in a different experimental condition related to the same pathology and therefore, the choice of reference genes depends on study design.

  5. Temporal evolution in PPCP removal from urban wastewater by constructed wetlands of different configuration: a medium-term study. (United States)

    Reyes-Contreras, Carolina; Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; Bayona, Josep M; Bécares, Eloy


    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely distributed in urban wastewaters and can be removed to some extent by constructed wetlands (CWs). The medium-term (3-5 years) behaviour of these systems regarding PPCP removal is still unknown. Seven mesocosm-scale (1 m(2)) CWs of different configurations were operated outdoors for 39 months under the same conditions to assess their PPCP removal ability and temporal evolution. CWs differed in some design parameters, namely plant presence, species chosen (Typha angustifolia vs Phragmites australis), flow configuration and presence/absence of gravel bed (floating macrophytes surface flow, FM-SF; free-water surface flow, FW-SF; free-water subsurface flow, FW-SSF; or conventional horizontal subsurface flow, SSF). PPCP efficiencies decreased throughout time and performance differences among CWs disappeared with the systems aging. This could be due to a homogenization process in the systems caused by detrimental factors like saturation, clogging and shading. Winter efficiencies were lower than summer ones for salicylic acid, caffeine, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide, and seasonal biological activities seem key factors to explain this fact. Maximal removal efficiencies were achieved in an unplanted-FW-SSF for ketoprofen (47-81%), naproxen (58-81%) and salicylic acid (76-98%); in an unplanted-SSF for caffeine (65-99%); in a Phragmites-FM-SF for ibuprofen (49-96%) and diclofenac (16-68%); in a Typha-FM-SF for carbamazepine (35-71%); and in a Typha-FW-SSF for methyl dihydrojasmonate (71-96%), galaxolide (67-82%) and tonalide (55-74%). Photodegradation could be involved in ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac removal. Carbamazepine and diclofenac were moderately removed by the most efficient CWs studied. Carbamazepine might be eliminated by vegetal uptake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial-temporal distribution and risk assessment of mercury in different fractions in surface sediments from the Yangtze River estuary. (United States)

    Wang, Qingrui; Liu, Ruimin; Men, Cong; Xu, Fei; Guo, Lijia; Shen, Zhenyao


    The temporal and spatial distributions of mercury in different fractions and its potential ecological risk were investigated in sediments from the Yangtze River estuary (YRE) by analyzing data collected from the study area. The results showed that mercury in the organic and residual fractions had dominant proportions, from 15.2% to 48.52% and from 45.96% to 81.59%, respectively. The fractions were more susceptible to seasonal changes than other fractions. Higher proportions of mercury in organic fraction were found in wet seasons; the opposite was true for mercury in residual fraction. With respect to the spatial distribution, the concentration mercury in exchangeable, carbonate and Fe-Mn oxide fractions showed a decreasing trend from the inner estuary to the outer estuary, but no obvious trends were found in the distributions of mercury in the organic and residual fractions. The risk assessment code (RAC) was used to evaluate the potential ecological risk in the study area based on the proportions of exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The average RAC values during the four periods were 6.00%, 2.20%, 2.83%, and 0.61%. Although these values show that the risk in the study area is generally low, the distribution of RAC values indicates that the inner estuary has a medium risk, with a value up to 10%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase temporally coordinate different modes of actin-based motility during embryonic wound healing (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Siwei; Soto, Ximena; Woolner, Sarah; Amaya, Enrique


    Summary Embryonic wound healing provides a perfect example of efficient recovery of tissue integrity and homeostasis, which is vital for survival. Tissue movement in embryonic wound healing requires two functionally distinct actin structures: a contractile actomyosin cable and actin protrusions at the leading edge. Here, we report that the discrete formation and function of these two structures is achieved by the temporal segregation of two intracellular upstream signals and distinct downstream targets. The sequential activation of ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling divides Xenopus embryonic wound healing into two phases. In the first phase, activated ERK suppresses PI3K activity, and is responsible for the activation of Rho and myosin-2, which drives actomyosin cable formation and constriction. The second phase is dominated by restored PI3K signalling, which enhances Rac and Cdc42 activity, leading to the formation of actin protrusions that drive migration and zippering. These findings reveal a new mechanism for coordinating different modes of actin-based motility in a complex tissue setting, namely embryonic wound healing. PMID:23986484

  8. Temporal and depth-related differences in prokaryotic communities in abyssal sediments associated with particulate organic carbon flux (United States)

    Moeseneder, M. M.; Smith, K. L.; Ruhl, H. A.; Jones, D. O. B.; Witte, U.; Prosser, J. I.


    Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux is hypothesized to be the most important parameter influencing activity and biomass of prokaryotic and faunal communities in the abyssal seafloor, but there is little evidence of POC-related changes in community composition of prokaryotes. This hypothesis was tested by 16S rRNA-gene-based analysis of prokaryotic DNA and RNA extracted from abyssal seafloor sediments during periods of low and high POC flux. Fingerprint analysis of prokaryotic communities indicated that approximately 50% of the phylotypes were identical at each sediment horizon, regardless of the temporal variations in POC flux. However, phylotypes were also detected that represented a relatively dynamic component of these communities and were probably strongly influenced by the prevalent POC flux regime. These patterns were also detected in deeper sediment horizons. DNA- and RNA-based community profiles differed, although both approaches had similar community dynamics. Crenarchaeota showed the strongest shift in community composition in response to availability of labile POC, indicating that POC flux may have a more pronounced impact on crenarchaeal communities than on bacterial communities. The high number of phylotypes common to each sample time suggests that both standing stock and active prokaryotic communities are stable.

  9. The Influencing Factors, Regional Difference and Temporal Variation of Industrial Technology Innovation: Evidence with the FOA-GRNN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhang


    Full Text Available Technology innovation is a motivating force for sustainable development. The recognition and measurement of influencing factors are a basic prerequisite of technology innovation research. In response to the gaps and shortages of existing theories and methods, this paper builds the impact indicators of technology innovation, the proposed FOA-GRNN model, and analyzes the influencing factors, regional differences and temporal variations of technology innovation based on industrial above-scale enterprises of 31 provinces in China from 2008 to 2015. The empirical results show that innovation investment is a determinant of technology innovation in China, and is more and more significant; meanwhile a wide gap of innovation resource between Eastern China and Western China exists. In general, the enterprise scale has a negative effect: with enlargement of enterprise in China, the innovation efficiency of enterprise will decline, while the effect has regional disparity, with positive influence in Central and Western China, and negative influence in Eastern China. Government support has negative effects on technology innovation: indirect equity investment contributes more to technology innovation than direct fund support. Innovation environment has positive and weak effects on technology innovation, but it is the biggest obstacle in Western China, and the innovation environment in China has improved continuously. This paper provides new evidence that can shine some light on determining the factors affecting technology innovation, and also presents a novel approach, which comprises characteristics of nonlinear function approximation, high accuracy and a small sample.

  10. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto


    The paper attempts theoretically to clarify the interrelation between various levels of descriptions used in the modelling and the programming of information systems. We suggest an analysis where we characterise the description levels with respect to how precisely they may handle information about...... given types of properties, and examine how descriptions on higher levels translate into descriptions on lower levels. Our example looks at temporal properties where the information is concerned with the existence in time. In a high level temporal model with information kept in a three-dimensional space...... the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...

  11. Functional substrate for memory function differences between patients with left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis. (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee


    Little is known about the functional substrate for memory function differences in patients with left or right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) from an electrophysiological perspective. To characterize these differences, we hypothesized that hippocampal theta connectivity in the resting-state might be different between patients with left and right mTLE with HS and be correlated with memory performance. Resting-state hippocampal theta connectivity, identified via whole-brain magnetoencephalography, was evaluated. Connectivity and memory function in 41 patients with mTLE with HS (left mTLE=22; right mTLE=19) were compared with those in 46 age-matched healthy controls and 28 patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) but without HS. Connectivity between the right hippocampus and the left middle frontal gyrus was significantly stronger in patients with right mTLE than in patients with left mTLE. Moreover, this connectivity was positively correlated with delayed verbal recall and recognition scores in patients with mTLE. Patients with left mTLE had greater delayed recall impairment than patients with right mTLE and FCD. Similarly, delayed recognition performance was worse in patients with left mTLE than in patients with right mTLE and FCD. No significant differences in memory function between patients with right mTLE and FCD were detected. Patients with right mTLE showed significantly stronger hippocampal theta connectivity between the right hippocampus and left middle frontal gyrus than patients with FCD and left mTLE. Our results suggest that right hippocampal-left middle frontal theta connectivity could be a functional substrate that can account for differences in memory function between patients with left and right mTLE. This functional substrate might be related to different compensatory mechanisms against the structural hippocampal lesions in left and right mTLE groups. Given the positive correlation between

  12. Surgical timing for facial paralysis after temporal bone trauma. (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Jin, Aiyan; Dai, Baoqiang; Li, Ruijie; Li, Yefeng

    To explore surgical timing of facial paralysis after temporal bone trauma. The clinical data of the patients with facial paralysis after temporal bone trauma who underwent subtotal facial nerve decompression were retrospectively collected, and 80 cases followed-up for one year were enrolled in the study. They were divided into different subgroups according to the age, onset, and interval between facial paralysis and surgery, and the outcomes of facial nerve between different subgroups were compared. The number of patients who achieved good recovery of HB Grade I or II was 52 of 80 (65.0%). 43 of 66 cases (65.2%) in the younger group had good recovery of facial nerve in contrast to 9 of 14 cases (64.3%) in the elderly group, without significant difference (p>0.05). 9 of 13 cases (69.2%) in the delayed onset group had good recovery, while 43 of 67 cases (64.2%) in the immediate onset group had good recovery, without significant difference (p>0.05). The good recovery rate of the 6months group (P0.05). This study demonstrated that the good recovery rate of facial paralysis after temporal bone trauma was uncorrelated with age and onset. It was better to perform surgical decompression within 3months after facial paralysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Congenitally blind humans use different stimulus selection strategies in hearing: an ERP study of spatial and temporal attention. (United States)

    Röder, Brigitte; Krämer, Ulrike M; Lange, Kathrin


    Superior temporal processing skills, both in the auditory and tactile system have been reported in blind as compared to sighted humans. The present experiment tested whether blind people prefer, as a possible consequence, temporal rather than spatial stimulus selection strategies. Eight congenitally blind adults were tested in a selective attention experiment that simultaneously manipulated spatial and temporal attention. Participants had to attend to an auditory offset stimulus demarcating the end of a short (600 ms) or long (1200 ms) interval. They had to detect slightly less intense offset markers at the attended point in time presented in the left (half of the trials) or right (other half of the trials) hemifield. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded throughout the experiment. Whereas the N1 was significantly enhanced by both spatial and temporal attention in the sighted (see Lange, Kramer, & Röder, 2006), only a temporal attention effect was found in the blind. Moreover, in both groups a second, longer lasting negativity was observed for offset markers presented at the attended as compared to the unattended spatial location. This negativity was modulated by temporal attention only in the blind. These results are consistent with the assumption of a higher priority of time for stimulus selection in the absence of vision from birth.

  14. Differences in onset and abuse/dependence episodes between prescription opioids and heroin: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannelli P


    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1, George E Woody2, Chongming Yang3, Paolo Mannelli1, Dan G Blazer11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAObjectives: To examine patterns of onset and abuse/dependence episodes of prescription opioid (PO and heroin use disorders in a national sample of adults, and to explore differences by gender and substance abuse treatment status.Methods: Analyses of data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 43,093.Results: Of all respondents, 5% (n = 1815 reported a history of nonmedical PO use (NMPOU and 0.3% (n = 150 a history of heroin use. Abuse was more prevalent than dependence among NMPOUs (PO abuse, 29%; dependence, 7% and heroin users (heroin abuse, 63%; dependence, 28%. Heroin users reported a short mean interval from first use to onset of abuse (1.5 years or dependence (2.0 years, and a lengthy mean duration for the longest episode of abuse (66 months or dependence (59 months; the corresponding mean estimates for PO abuse and dependence among NMPOUs were 2.6 and 2.9 years, respectively, and 31 and 49 months, respectively. The mean number of years from first use to remission from the most recent episode was 6.9 years for PO abuse and 8.1 years for dependence; the mean number of years from first heroin use to remission from the most recent episode was 8.5 years for heroin abuse and 9.7 years for dependence. Most individuals with PO or heroin use disorders were remitted from the most recent episode. Treated individuals, whether their problem was heroin or POs, tended to have a longer mean duration of an episode than untreated individuals.Conclusion: Periodic remissions

  15. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

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    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  16. Basal Ganglia Neuromodulation Over Multiple Temporal and Structural Scales—Simulations of Direct Pathway MSNs Investigate the Fast Onset of Dopaminergic Effects and Predict the Role of Kv4.2

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    Robert Lindroos


    Full Text Available The basal ganglia are involved in the motivational and habitual control of motor and cognitive behaviors. Striatum, the largest basal ganglia input stage, integrates cortical and thalamic inputs in functionally segregated cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loops, and in addition the basal ganglia output nuclei control targets in the brainstem. Striatal function depends on the balance between the direct pathway medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs that express D1 dopamine receptors and the indirect pathway MSNs that express D2 dopamine receptors. The striatal microstructure is also divided into striosomes and matrix compartments, based on the differential expression of several proteins. Dopaminergic afferents from the midbrain and local cholinergic interneurons play crucial roles for basal ganglia function, and striatal signaling via the striosomes in turn regulates the midbrain dopaminergic system directly and via the lateral habenula. Consequently, abnormal functions of the basal ganglia neuromodulatory system underlie many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Neuromodulation acts on multiple structural levels, ranging from the subcellular level to behavior, both in health and disease. For example, neuromodulation affects membrane excitability and controls synaptic plasticity and thus learning in the basal ganglia. However, it is not clear on what time scales these different effects are implemented. Phosphorylation of ion channels and the resulting membrane effects are typically studied over minutes while it has been shown that neuromodulation can affect behavior within a few hundred milliseconds. So how do these seemingly contradictory effects fit together? Here we first briefly review neuromodulation of the basal ganglia, with a focus on dopamine. We furthermore use biophysically detailed multi-compartmental models to integrate experimental data regarding dopaminergic effects on individual membrane conductances with the aim to explain the resulting

  17. Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with advanced leukemia: differences in ATG dosage are key. (United States)

    Fu, Haixia; Xu, Lanping; Liu, Daihong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Kaiyan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Yu; Han, Wei; Han, Tingting; Huang, Xiaojun


    Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (LOHC) is a common complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but its cause remains obscure. More attention to risk factors for LOHC is needed. We retrospectively analyzed patients with advanced leukemia who had been treated with ATG-containing conditioning regimens to evaluate the influence of different doses of ATG on LOHC after haploidentical HSCT. Seventy-five patients undergoing haploidentical HSCT from January 2003 to February 2011 were evaluated. A total of 39 patients receiving transplantation before June 2008 were treated with high-dose ATG (10 mg/kg), whereas 36 patients received low-dose ATG (6 mg/kg) thereafter. LOHC occurred in 16.7% of the patients with low-dose ATG, and in 38.5% of the patients with high-dose ATG (P = 0.027). Univariate analysis showed high-dose ATG, male gender and cytomegalovirus reactivation to be significant risk factors for LOHC. However, only high-dose ATG (HR 2.96, 95% CI 1.143-7.663, P = 0.025) and male gender (HR 4.033, 95% CI 1.355-12.008, P = 0.012) were independent risk factors, as shown by multivariate analysis. In the setting of haploidentical HSCT, we concluded that LOHC is more prevalent in recipients of high-dose ATG and male patients. Future studies should focus on immune reconstitution and virus infection after haploidentical HSCT with 6 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg ATG.

  18. [Genetic analysis of the structure of predisposition to diabetes mellitus. III. Genetic heterogeneity of diabetes mellitus with different ages of onset]. (United States)

    Sergeev, A S; Kerimi, N B; Mazovetskiĭ, A G; Kuraeva, T L


    The results of genetical-epidemiological analysis of the three conventional forms of diabetes mellitus (DM) differentiated for age-at-onset are presented (the form I - from 0 to 29 y. the form II - from 30 to 59 y. the form III - 60 y. and older). The estimates of heritability of liability to the forms I, II and III of DM were 0.57, 0.70 and 0.65, respectively. It was shown that genetic components of the forms I and II are virtually different: genetic correlation between these forms was rA = 0.216 +/- 0.203, which is statistically insignificant. These data support the hypothesis assuming genetic independence of juvenile and adult forms of DM. On the other hand, the forms II and III were found to have an essential number of genes in common: genetic correlation was rA = 0.495 +/- 0.134, being significant at the 5% level. Thus, the forms II and III of DM are not to be considered as two genetically distinct diseases. The low recurrence risks of the form I for siblings (not more than 3.6%) allow to reject the hypothesis of simple monogenic inheritance of juvenile DM and to propose multifactorial nature of the disease.

  19. Two different types of diabetes mellitus in pancreatic cancer population. Comparative study between new onset and long standing diabetes mellitus on 76 patients with pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Tanţău, Alina; Negrean, V; Alexescu, Teodora; Para, Ioana; Tărmure, Simina; Casoinic, F; Sâmpelean, D; Mocanu, Teodora; Tanţău, M


    There are some studies which have reported a higher diagnosis probability for PC if the DM occurred within the past 2-3 years. Information on the clinical profile of pancreatic cancer (PC) associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) is limited. The aim of the study was to compare clinic-morphological features in patients with new onset DM and PC and long lasting DM and PC, in order to detect new factors or markers which can help in early diagnosis of PC. This study included 76 patients with pancreatic cancer admitted between 2000-2009 in the 4th Medical Clinic Cluj-Napoca; in group A 56 patients with PC and new onset of DM (diabetes (> 60 months duration) were included. We compared the demographic, clinical, biochemical and morphological characteristics of new onset or long lasting DM and pancreatic cancer. New onset DM was more prevalent (74% vs. 26%, p alcohol and cigarettes consumption, between group A and B. New onset DM was more significantly frequent than long lasting DM in patients with PC. New onset diabetes DM associated with PC is frequent, mild and non-decompensated. In patients with PC and long lasting DM, the metabolic status and diabetes are imbalanced.

  20. The Determinants of Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents with Young-Onset Dementia and the Differences between Dementia Subtypes. (United States)

    Appelhof, Britt; Bakker, Christian; Van Duinen-van den Ijssel, Jeannette C L; Zwijsen, Sandra A; Smalbrugge, Martin; Verhey, Frans R J; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Zuidema, Sytse U; Koopmans, Raymond T C M


    The aims of this study are to (1) explore the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in nursing home residents with young-onset dementia (YOD), (2) investigate whether there are differences between dementia subtypes (Alzheimer dementia, vascular/mixed dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other) regarding these determinants, and (3) compare QoL profiles of YOD nursing home residents across dementia subtypes. This cross-sectional study included 207 nursing home residents. Multilevel modeling was used to determine the relationships between QoL and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), dementia severity, psychotropic drug use (PDU), dementia subtype, age, and gender. Additional multilevel models were used to compare aspects of QoL between dementia subtypes. Residents' QoL was negatively associated with advanced dementia, PDU, and NPS. In general, the relationships between the determinants and QoL were similar across the dementia subtypes. Aspects of QoL differed by dementia subtype. Residents with frontotemporal dementia showed less negative emotions, accepted more help and experienced better quality of relationships with professional caregivers, had a more positive self-image, felt more comfortable in the nursing home environment, and experienced lower quality of social relationships. Considering the high rates of NPS and PDU in YOD residents and their negative associations with QoL, we recommend emphasizing services to manage and reduce NPS and PDU in nursing home residents with YOD. Furthermore, our findings suggest accounting for differences in aspects of QoL by dementia subtype to address specific needs and thereby improve QoL. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Striatal and Tegmental Neurons Code Critical Signals for Temporal-Difference Learning of State Value in Domestic Chicks. (United States)

    Wen, Chentao; Ogura, Yukiko; Matsushima, Toshiya


    To ensure survival, animals must update the internal representations of their environment in a trial-and-error fashion. Psychological studies of associative learning and neurophysiological analyses of dopaminergic neurons have suggested that this updating process involves the temporal-difference (TD) method in the basal ganglia network. However, the way in which the component variables of the TD method are implemented at the neuronal level is unclear. To investigate the underlying neural mechanisms, we trained domestic chicks to associate color cues with food rewards. We recorded neuronal activities from the medial striatum or tegmentum in a freely behaving condition and examined how reward omission changed neuronal firing. To compare neuronal activities with the signals assumed in the TD method, we simulated the behavioral task in the form of a finite sequence composed of discrete steps of time. The three signals assumed in the simulated task were the prediction signal, the target signal for updating, and the TD-error signal. In both the medial striatum and tegmentum, the majority of recorded neurons were categorized into three types according to their fitness for three models, though these neurons tended to form a continuum spectrum without distinct differences in the firing rate. Specifically, two types of striatal neurons successfully mimicked the target signal and the prediction signal. A linear summation of these two types of striatum neurons was a good fit for the activity of one type of tegmental neurons mimicking the TD-error signal. The present study thus demonstrates that the striatum and tegmentum can convey the signals critically required for the TD method. Based on the theoretical and neurophysiological studies, together with tract-tracing data, we propose a novel model to explain how the convergence of signals represented in the striatum could lead to the computation of TD error in tegmental dopaminergic neurons.

  2. Striatal and Tegmental Neurons Code Critical Signals for Temporal-Difference Learning of State Value in Domestic Chicks

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    Chentao Wen


    Full Text Available To ensure survival, animals must update the internal representations of their environment in a trial-and-error fashion. Psychological studies of associative learning and neurophysiological analyses of dopaminergic neurons have suggested that this updating process involves the temporal-difference (TD method in the basal ganglia network. However, the way in which the component variables of the TD method are implemented at the neuronal level is unclear. To investigate the underlying neural mechanisms, we trained domestic chicks to associate color cues with food rewards. We recorded neuronal activities from the medial striatum or tegmentum in a freely behaving condition and examined how reward omission changed neuronal firing. To compare neuronal activities with the signals assumed in the TD method, we simulated the behavioral task in the form of a finite sequence composed of discrete steps of time. The three signals assumed in the simulated task were the prediction signal, the target signal for updating, and the TD-error signal. In both the medial striatum and tegmentum, the majority of recorded neurons were categorized into three types according to their fitness for three models, though these neurons tended to form a continuum spectrum without distinct differences in the firing rate. Specifically, two types of striatal neurons successfully mimicked the target signal and the prediction signal. A linear summation of these two types of striatum neurons was a good fit for the activity of one type of tegmental neurons mimicking the TD-error signal. The present study thus demonstrates that the striatum and tegmentum can convey the signals critically required for the TD method. Based on the theoretical and neurophysiological studies, together with tract-tracing data, we propose a novel model to explain how the convergence of signals represented in the striatum could lead to the computation of TD error in tegmental dopaminergic neurons.

  3. Temporal variation of aqueous-extractable Ca, Mg and K in acidified forest mountainous soils under different vegetation cover (United States)

    Tejnecky, V.; Bradová, M.; Boruvka, L.; Vasat, R.; Nemecek, K.; Ash, C.; Sebek, O.; Rejzek, J.; Drabek, O.


    Acidification of forest soils is a natural degradation process which can be significantly enhanced by anthropogenic activities. Inputs of basic cations (BC - Ca, Mg and K) via precipitation, litter and soil organic matter decomposition and also via inter-soil weathering may partially mitigate the consequences of this degradation process. The aim of this study is to assess the temporal variation of aqueous-extractable Ca, Mg and K in acidified forest mountainous soils under different vegetation cover. The Jizera Mountains region (Czech Republic, northern Bohemia) was chosen as a representative soil mountainous ecosystem strongly affected by acidification. Soil and precipitation samples were collected at monthly basis from April till October/ November during the years 2009-2011. Study spots were delimited under two contrasting vegetation covers - beech and spruce monoculture. Prevailing soil types were classified as Alumic Cambisols under beech and Entic Podzols under spruce stands (according to FAO classification). Soil samples were collected from surface fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons and subsurface B horizons (cambic or spodic). The collected soil samples were analyzed immediately under laboratory condition in a "fresh" state. Unsieved fresh samples were extracted by deionised water. The content of main elements (Ca, Mg, K, Al and Fe) was determined by ICP-OES. The content of major anions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl- and F-) was determined by ion-exchange chromatography (IC). Content of major anions and main elements were determined in the precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow and bulk) as well. Besides computing the basic statistical parameters (mean, median, variance, maximum, minimum, etc.) we also employed other statistical methods such as T-test and ANOVA to assess the differences between beech and spruce vegetation spots. To carry out the temporal variability in the data we used the time series analysis and short-term forecasting by Holt

  4. Optimization of ecosystem model parameters with different temporal variabilities using tower flux data and an ensemble Kalman filter (United States)

    He, L.; Chen, J. M.; Liu, J.; Mo, G.; Zhen, T.; Chen, B.; Wang, R.; Arain, M.


    Terrestrial ecosystem models have been widely used to simulate carbon, water and energy fluxes and climate-ecosystem interactions. In these models, some vegetation and soil parameters are determined based on limited studies from literatures without consideration of their seasonal variations. Data assimilation (DA) provides an effective way to optimize these parameters at different time scales . In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is developed and applied to optimize two key parameters of an ecosystem model, namely the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS): (1) the maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (Vcmax) at 25 °C, and (2) the soil water stress factor (fw) for stomatal conductance formulation. These parameters are optimized through assimilating observations of gross primary productivity (GPP) and latent heat (LE) fluxes measured in a 74 year-old pine forest, which is part of the Turkey Point Flux Station's age-sequence sites. Vcmax is related to leaf nitrogen concentration and varies slowly over the season and from year to year. In contrast, fw varies rapidly in response to soil moisture dynamics in the root-zone. Earlier studies suggested that DA of vegetation parameters at daily time steps leads to Vcmax values that are unrealistic. To overcome the problem, we developed a three-step scheme to optimize Vcmax and fw. First, the EnKF is applied daily to obtain precursor estimates of Vcmax and fw. Then Vcmax is optimized at different time scales assuming fw is unchanged from first step. The best temporal period or window size is then determined by analyzing the magnitude of the minimized cost-function, and the coefficient of determination (R2) and Root-mean-square deviation (RMSE) of GPP and LE between simulation and observation. Finally, the daily fw value is optimized for rain free days corresponding to the Vcmax curve from the best window size. The optimized fw is then used to model its relationship with soil moisture. We found that

  5. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode


    Qiang Sheng; Jie Sun; Qian Wang; Wen Wang; Hua Sheng Wang


    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of ...

  6. A Preliminary Study of the Influence of Age of Onset and Childhood Trauma on Cortical Thickness in Major Depressive Disorder

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    Natalia Jaworska


    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD neural underpinnings may differ based on onset age and childhood trauma. We assessed cortical thickness in patients who differed in age of MDD onset and examined trauma history influence. Methods. Adults with MDD (N=36 and controls (HC; N=18 underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty patients had MDD onset 25 years of age (adult onset. The MDD group was also subdivided into those with (N=12 and without (N=19 physical and/or sexual abuse as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Cortical thickness was analyzed with FreeSurfer software. Results. Thicker frontal pole and a tendency for thinner transverse temporal cortices existed in MDD. The former was driven by the pediatric onset group and abuse history (independently, particularly in the right frontal pole. Inverse correlations existed between CTQ scores and frontal pole cortex thickness. A similar inverse relation existed with left inferior and right superior parietal cortex thickness. The superior temporal cortex tended to be thinner in pediatric versus adult onset groups with childhood abuse. Conclusions. This preliminary work suggests neural differences between pediatric and adult MDD onset. Trauma history also contributes to cytoarchitectural modulation. Thickened frontal pole cortices as a compensatory mechanism in MDD warrant evaluation.

  7. Oak tree-rings record spatial-temporal pollution trends from different sources in Terni (Central Italy). (United States)

    Perone, A; Cocozza, C; Cherubini, P; Bachmann, O; Guillong, M; Lasserre, B; Marchetti, M; Tognetti, R


    Monitoring atmospheric pollution in industrial areas near urban center is essential to infer past levels of contamination and to evaluate the impact for environmental health and safety. The main aim of this study was to understand if the chemical composition of tree-ring wood can be used for monitoring spatial-temporal variability of pollutants in Terni, Central Italy, one of the most polluted towns in Italy. Tree cores were taken from 32 downy oaks (Quercus pubescens) located at different distances from several pollutant sources, including a large steel factory. Trace element (Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Hg, Mo, Ni, Tl, W, U, V, and Zn) index in tree-ring wood was determined using high-resolution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). We hypothesized that the presence of contaminants detected in tree-rings reflected industrial activities over time. The accumulation of contaminants in tree-rings was affected by anthropogenic activities in the period 1958-2009, though signals varied in intensity with the distance of trees from the industrial plant. A stronger limitation of tree growth was observed in the proximity of the industrial plant in comparison with other pollutant sources. Levels of Cr, Ni, Mo, V, U and W increased in tree-ring profiles of trees close to the steel factory, especially during the 80's and 90's, in correspondence to a peak of pollution in this period, as recorded by air quality monitoring stations. Uranium contents in our tree-rings were difficult to explain, while the higher contents of Cu, Hg, Pb, and Tl could be related to the contaminants released from an incinerator located close to the industrial plant. The accumulation of contaminants in tree-rings reflected the historical variation of environmental pollution in the considered urban context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender differences and temporal variation in the incidence of type 1 diabetes : results of 8012 cases in the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden 1983-2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostman, J.; Lonnberg, G.; Arnqvist, H. J.; Blohme, G.; Bolinder, J.; Schnell, A. Ekbom; Eriksson, J. W.; Gudbjornsdottir, S.; Sundkvist, G.; Nystrom, L.

    Objectives. To establish the gender difference amongst newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients aged 15-34 years, considering age at diagnosis, temporal trend and seasonal variation at time of diagnosis. Study design. A population-based prospective study with a mean annual population at risk of 2.3

  9. Evolution of the postoperative sagittal spinal profile in early-onset scoliosis: is there a difference between rib-based and spine-based growth-friendly instrumentation? (United States)

    Chen, Zhonghui; Li, Song; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Zezhang; Chen, Xi; Xu, Liang; Sun, Xu


    OBJECTIVE Although the vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) and growing rod instrumentation (GRI) encourage spinal growth via regular lengthening, they can create different results because of their different fixation patterns and mechanisms in correcting scoliosis. Previous studies have focused comparisons on coronal plane deformity with minimal attention to the sagittal profile. In this retrospective study, the authors aimed to compare the evolution of the sagittal spinal profile in early-onset scoliosis (EOS) treated with VEPTR versus GRI. METHODS The data for 11 patients with VEPTR and 22 with GRI were reviewed. All patients had more than 2 years' follow-up with more than 2 lengthening procedures. Radiographic measurements were performed before and after the index surgery and at the latest follow-up. The complications in both groups were recorded. RESULTS Patients in both groups had similar diagnoses, age at the index surgery, and number of lengthening procedures. The changes in the major coronal Cobb angle and T1-S1 spinal height were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Compared with the GRI group, the VEPTR group had less correction in thoracic kyphosis (23% ± 12% vs 44% ± 16%, p < 0.001) after the index surgery and experienced a greater correction loss in thoracic kyphosis (46% ± 18% vs 11% ± 8%, p < 0.001) at the latest follow-up. Although the increase in the proximal junctional angle was not significantly different (VEPTR: 7° ± 4° vs GRI: 8° ± 5°, p = 0.569), the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis was relatively lower in the VEPTR group (VEPTR: 18.2% vs GRI: 22.7%). No significant changes in the spinopelvic parameters were observed, while the sagittal vertical axis showed a tendency toward a neutral position in both groups. The overall complication rate was higher in the VEPTR group than in the GRI group (72.7% vs 54.5%). CONCLUSIONS The VEPTR had coronal correction and spinal growth results similar to those

  10. Event Related Potentials Index Rapid Recalibration to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony (United States)

    Simon, David M.; Noel, Jean-Paul; Wallace, Mark T.


    Asynchronous arrival of multisensory information at the periphery is a ubiquitous property of signals in the natural environment due to differences in the propagation time of light and sound. Rapid adaptation to these asynchronies is crucial for the appropriate integration of these multisensory signals, which in turn is a fundamental neurobiological process in creating a coherent perceptual representation of our dynamic world. Indeed, multisensory temporal recalibration has been shown to occur at the single trial level, yet the mechanistic basis of this rapid adaptation is unknown. Here, we investigated the neural basis of rapid recalibration to audiovisual temporal asynchrony in human participants using a combination of psychophysics and electroencephalography (EEG). Consistent with previous reports, participant’s perception of audiovisual temporal synchrony on a given trial (t) was influenced by the temporal structure of stimuli on the previous trial (t−1). When examined physiologically, event related potentials (ERPs) were found to be modulated by the temporal structure of the previous trial, manifesting as late differences (>125 ms post second-stimulus onset) in central and parietal positivity on trials with large stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). These findings indicate that single trial adaptation to audiovisual temporal asynchrony is reflected in modulations of late evoked components that have previously been linked to stimulus evaluation and decision-making. PMID:28381993

  11. Sex differences in the effect of wheel running on subsequent nicotine-seeking in a rat adolescent-onset self-administration model. (United States)

    Sanchez, Victoria; Moore, Catherine F; Brunzell, Darlene H; Lynch, Wendy J


    Wheel running attenuates nicotine-seeking in male adolescent rats; however, it is not known if this effect extends to females. To determine if wheel running during abstinence would differentially attenuate subsequent nicotine-seeking in male and female rats that had extended access to nicotine self-administration during adolescence. Male (n = 49) and female (n = 43) adolescent rats self-administered saline or nicotine (5 μg/kg) under an extended access (23-h) paradigm. Following the last self-administration session, rats were moved to polycarbonate cages for an abstinence period where they either had access to a locked or unlocked running wheel for 2 h/day. Subsequently, nicotine-seeking was examined under a within-session extinction/cue-induced reinstatement paradigm. Due to low levels of nicotine-seeking in females in both wheel groups, additional groups were included that were housed without access to a running wheel during abstinence. Females self-administered more nicotine as compared to males; however, within males and females, intake did not differ between groups prior to wheel assignment. Compared to saline controls, males and females that self-administered nicotine showed a significant increase in drug-seeking during extinction. Wheel running during abstinence attenuated nicotine-seeking during extinction in males. In females, access to either locked or unlocked wheels attenuated nicotine-seeking during extinction. While responding was reinstated by cues in both males and females, levels were modest and not significantly affected by exercise in this adolescent-onset model. While wheel running reduced subsequent nicotine-seeking in males, access to a wheel, either locked or unlocked, was sufficient to suppress nicotine-seeking in females.

  12. Mapping Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery at Different Lithologies of Taygetos mt (greece) with Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Data (United States)

    Vassilakis, Emmanuel; Mallinis, George; Christopoulou, Anastasia; Farangitakis, Georgios-Pavlos; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Arianoutsou, Margarita


    Mt Taygetos (2407m), located at southern Peloponnese (Greece) suffered a large fire during the summer of 2007. The fire burned approximately 45% of the area covered by the endemic Greek fir (Abies cephalonica) and Black Pine (Pinus nigra) forest ecosystems. The aim of the current study is to examine the potential differences on post-fire vegetation recovery imposed by the lithology as well as the geomorphology of the given area over sites of the same climatic and landscape conditions (elevation, aspect, slope etc.). The main lithologies consist of carbonate, permeable, not easily erodible formations (limestones and marbles) and clastic, impermeable (schists, slate and flysch) erodible ones. A time-series of high spatial resolution satellite images were interpreted, analyzed and compared in order to detect changes in vegetation coverage which could prioritize areas of interest for fieldwork campaigns. The remote sensing datasets were acquired before (Ikonos-2), a few months after (Quickbird-2) and some years after (Worldview-3) the 2007 fire. High resolution Digital Elevation Model was used for the ortho-rectification and co-registration of the remote sensing data, but also for the extraction of the mountainous landscape characteristics. The multi-temporal image dataset was analyzed through GEographic-Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA). Objects corresponding to different vegetation types through time were identified through spectral and textural features. The classification results were combined with basic layers such as lithological outcrops, pre-fire vegetation, landscape morphology etc., supplementing a spatial geodatabase used for classifying burnt areas with varying post-fire plant community recovery. We validated the results of the classification during fieldwork and found that at a local scale, where the landscape features are quite similar, the bedrock type proves to be an important factor for vegetation recovery, as it clearly defines the soil generation

  13. Logistic regression accuracy across different spatial and temporal scales for a wide-ranging species, the marbled murrelet (United States)

    Carolyn B. Meyer; Sherri L. Miller; C. John Ralph


    The scale at which habitat variables are measured affects the accuracy of resource selection functions in predicting animal use of sites. We used logistic regression models for a wide-ranging species, the marbled murrelet, (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in a large region in California to address how much changing the spatial or temporal scale of...

  14. Different Phases of Long-Term Memory Require Distinct Temporal Patterns of PKA Activity after Single-Trial Classical Conditioning (United States)

    Michel, Maximilian; Kemenes, Ildiko; Muller, Uli; Kemenes, Gyorgy


    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is known to play a critical role in both transcription-independent short-term or intermediate-term memory and transcription-dependent long-term memory (LTM). Although distinct phases of LTM already have been demonstrated in some systems, it is not known whether these phases require distinct temporal patterns…

  15. Effects of diet on early stage cortical perception and discrimination of syllables differing in voice-onset time: A longitudinal ERP study in 3 and 6 month old infants (United States)

    The influence of infant diet on early stage cortical processing of syllables was examined in 239 healthy infants who were breastfed (BF) or fed milk-based formula (MF) or soy formula (SF). Using an oddball paradigm, event-related potentials to consonant-vowel syllables differing in voice-onset time ...

  16. Effects of Diet on Early Stage Cortical Perception and Discrimination of Syllables Differing in Voice-Onset Time: A Longitudinal ERP Study in 3 and 6 Month Old Infants (United States)

    Pivik, R. T.; Andres, Aline; Badger, Thomas M.


    The influence of diet on cortical processing of syllables was examined at 3 and 6 months in 239 infants who were breastfed or fed milk or soy-based formula. Event-related potentials to syllables differing in voice-onset-time were recorded from placements overlying brain areas specialized for language processing. P1 component amplitude and latency…

  17. Neural correlates of audiovisual temporal processing--comparison of temporal order and simultaneity judgments. (United States)

    Binder, M


    Multisensory integration is one of the essential features of perception. Though the processing of spatial information is an important clue to understand its mechanisms, a complete knowledge cannot be achieved without taking into account the processing of temporal information. Simultaneity judgments (SJs) and temporal order judgments (TOJs) are the two most widely used procedures for explicit estimation of temporal relations between sensory stimuli. Behavioral studies suggest that both tasks recruit different sets of cognitive operations. On the other hand, empirical evidence related to their neuronal underpinnings is still scarce, especially with regard to multisensory stimulation. The aim of the current fMRI study was to explore neural correlates of both tasks using paradigm with audiovisual stimuli. Fifteen subjects performed TOJ and SJ tasks grouped in 18-second blocks. Subjects were asked to estimate onset synchrony or temporal order of onsets of non-semantic auditory and visual stimuli. Common areas of activation elicited by both tasks were found in the bilateral fronto-parietal network, including regions whose activity can be also observed in tasks involving spatial selective attention. This can be regarded as an evidence for the hypothesis that tasks involving selection based on temporal information engage the similar regions as the attentional tasks based on spatial information. The direct contrast between the SJ task and the TOJ task did not reveal any regions showing stronger activity for SJ task than in TOJ task. The reverse contrast revealed a number of left hemisphere regions which were more active during the TOJ task than the SJ task. They were found in the prefrontal cortex, the parietal lobules (superior and inferior) and in the occipito-temporal regions. These results suggest that the TOJ task requires recruitment of additional cognitive operations in comparison to SJ task. They are probably associated with forming representations of stimuli as

  18. Temporal naturalism (United States)

    Smolin, Lee


    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  19. Temporal resolution and spectral sensitivity of the visual system of three coastal shark species from different light environments. (United States)

    McComb, D Michelle; Frank, Tamara M; Hueter, Robert E; Kajiura, Stephen M


    Visual temporal resolution and scotopic spectral sensitivity of three coastal shark species (bonnethead Sphyrna tiburo, scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini, and blacknose shark Carcharhinus acronotus) were investigated by electroretinogram. Temporal resolution was quantified under photopic and scotopic conditions using response waveform dynamics and maximum critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFF). Photopic CFF(max) was significantly higher than scotopic CFF(max) in all species. The bonnethead had the shortest photoreceptor response latency time (23.5 ms) and the highest CFF(max) (31 Hz), suggesting that its eyes are adapted for a bright photic environment. In contrast, the blacknose had the longest response latency time (34.8 ms) and lowest CFF(max) (16 Hz), indicating its eyes are adapted for a dimmer environment or nocturnal lifestyle. Scotopic spectral sensitivity revealed maximum peaks (480 nm) in the bonnethead and blacknose sharks that correlated with environmental spectra measured during twilight, which is a biologically relevant period of heightened predation.

  20. Cortical pitch response components index stimulus onset/offset and dynamic features of pitch contours (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan


    Voice pitch is an important information-bearing component of language that is subject to experience dependent plasticity at both early cortical and subcortical stages of processing. We’ve already demonstrated that pitch onset component (Na) of the cortical pitch response (CPR) is sensitive to flat pitch and its salience. In regards to dynamic pitch, we do not yet know whether the multiple pitch-related transient components of the CPR reflect specific temporal attributes of such stimuli. Here we examine the sensitivity of the multiple transient components of CPR to changes in pitch acceleration associated with the Mandarin high rising lexical tone. CPR responses from Chinese listeners were elicited by three citation forms varying in pitch acceleration and duration. Results showed that the pitch onset component (Na) was invariant to changes in acceleration. In contrast, Na-Pb and Pb-Nb showed a systematic increase in the interpeak latency and decrease in amplitude with increase in pitch acceleration that followed the time course of pitch change across the three stimuli. A strong correlation with pitch acceleration was observed for these two components only – a putative index of pitch-relevant neural activity associated with the more rapidly-changing portions of the pitch contour. Pc-Nc marks unambiguously the stimulus offset. We therefore propose that in the early stages of cortical sensory processing, a series of neural markers flag different temporal attributes of a dynamic pitch contour: onset of temporal regularity (Na); changes in temporal regularity between onset and offset (Na-Pb, Pb-Nb); and offset of temporal regularity (Pc-Nc). At the temporal electrode sites, the stimulus with the most gradual change in pitch acceleration evoked a rightward asymmetry. Yet within the left hemisphere, stimuli with more gradual change were indistinguishable. These findings highlight the emergence of early hemispheric preferences and their functional roles as related to

  1. a Comparison Study of Different Kernel Functions for Svm-Based Classification of Multi-Temporal Polarimetry SAR Data (United States)

    Yekkehkhany, B.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.; Hasanlou, M.


    In this paper, a framework is developed based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) for crop classification using polarimetric features extracted from multi-temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imageries. The multi-temporal integration of data not only improves the overall retrieval accuracy but also provides more reliable estimates with respect to single-date data. Several kernel functions are employed and compared in this study for mapping the input space to higher Hilbert dimension space. These kernel functions include linear, polynomials and Radial Based Function (RBF). The method is applied to several UAVSAR L-band SAR images acquired over an agricultural area near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. In this research, the temporal alpha features of H/A/α decomposition method are used in classification. The experimental tests show an SVM classifier with RBF kernel for three dates of data increases the Overall Accuracy (OA) to up to 3% in comparison to using linear kernel function, and up to 1% in comparison to a 3rd degree polynomial kernel function.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yekkehkhany


    Full Text Available In this paper, a framework is developed based on Support Vector Machines (SVM for crop classification using polarimetric features extracted from multi-temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imageries. The multi-temporal integration of data not only improves the overall retrieval accuracy but also provides more reliable estimates with respect to single-date data. Several kernel functions are employed and compared in this study for mapping the input space to higher Hilbert dimension space. These kernel functions include linear, polynomials and Radial Based Function (RBF. The method is applied to several UAVSAR L-band SAR images acquired over an agricultural area near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. In this research, the temporal alpha features of H/A/α decomposition method are used in classification. The experimental tests show an SVM classifier with RBF kernel for three dates of data increases the Overall Accuracy (OA to up to 3% in comparison to using linear kernel function, and up to 1% in comparison to a 3rd degree polynomial kernel function.

  3. Imbalance of different types of CD4(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) T cells in patients with new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Ma, L; Zhao, P; Jiang, Z; Shan, Y; Jiang, Y


    The aim of this study was to examine the numbers of CD4(+) CD25(-) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) , CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) and CD4(+) CXCR5(+) FoxP3(+) T cells in patients with new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The numbers of CD4(+) CD25(-) FoxP3(+) , CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) and CD4(+) CXCR5(+) FoxP3(+) T cells and the concentrations of serum interleukin (IL)-10 in 23 patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were measured. The potential correlations between CD4(+) FoxP3(+) T cells, serum IL-10 and clinical measures in SLE patients were analysed. In comparison with that in the HC, significantly reduced numbers of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) and CD4(+) CXCR5(+) FoxP3(+) T cells, but increased numbers of CD4(+) CD25(-) FoxP3(+) T cells, were detected, accompanied by significantly lower levels of serum IL-10 in the patients. Stratification analysis indicated the numbers of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) and CD4(+) CXCR5(+) FoxP3(+) T cells and serum IL-10 levels in the patients with seropositive anti-dsDNA were significantly less than that in those with seronegative anti-dsDNA. Treatment with the anti-SLE therapy, particularly with prednisone, leflunomide and methotrexate, significantly improved the imbalance of these types of FoxP3(+) T cells and increased the concentrations of serum IL-10 in the drug-responding patients. The numbers of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T cells were correlated negatively with the values of SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), whereas the numbers of CD4(+) CD25(-) FoxP3(+) T cells were correlated positively with the values of SLEDAI, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum C3. In addition, the concentrations of serum IL-10 were correlated positively with the numbers of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T cells, but negatively with the values of SLEDAI, serum C3, CRP and ESR in these patients. Our data indicate that the imbalance of different types of FoxP3(+) CD4(+) T cells may contribute to the development of SLE in Chinese patients. © 2013

  4. Alzheimer's disease: a mathematical model for onset and progression

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsch, Michiel; Marcello, Norina; Tesi, Maria Carla; Tosin, Andrea


    In this paper we propose a mathematical model for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease based on transport and diffusion equations. We regard brain neurons as a continuous medium, and structure them by their degree of malfunctioning. Two different mechanisms are assumed to be relevant for the temporal evolution of the disease: i) diffusion and agglomeration of soluble polymers of amyloid, produced by damaged neurons; ii) neuron-to-neuron prion-like transmission. We model these two processes by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration, coupled to a kinetic-type transport equation for the distribution function of the degree of malfunctioning of neurons. The second equation contains an integral term describing the random onset of the disease as a jump process localized in particularly sensitive areas of the brain. Even though we deliberately neglect many aspects of the complexity of the brain and the disease, numerical simulations are in good qualitative agreement with clinical...

  5. Temporal-spatial variation and controls of soil respiration in different primary succession stages on glacier forehead in Gongga Mountain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Luo

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR is an important process in the global carbon cycle. It is difficult to estimate SR emission accurately because of its temporal and spatial variability. Primary forest succession on Glacier forehead provides the ideal environment for examining the temporal-spatial variation and controlling factors of SR. However, relevant studies on SR are relatively scarce, and variations, as well as controlling factors, remain uncertain in this kind of region. In this study, we used a static chamber system to measure SR in six sites which represent different stages of forest succession on forehead of a temperate glacier in Gongga Mountain, China. Our results showed that there was substantial temporal (coefficient of variation (CV ranged from 39.3% to 73.9% and spatial (CV ranged from 12.3% to 88.6% variation in SR. Soil temperature (ST at 5 cm depth was the major controlling factor of temporal variation in all six sites. Spatial variation in SR was mainly caused by differences in plant biomass and Total N among the six sites. Moreover, soil moisture (SM, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, soil organic carbon (SOC, pH and bulk density could influence SR by directly or indirectly affecting plant biomass and Total N. Q(10 values (ranged from 2.1 to 4.7 increased along the forest succession, and the mean value (3.3 was larger than that of temperate ecosystems, which indicated a general tendency towards higher-Q(10 in colder ecosystems than in warmer ecosystems. Our findings provided valuable information for understanding temporal-spatial variation and controlling factors of SR.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov


    Full Text Available Purpose. Analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines with different design allowing and development of recommendations for the design of active screening systems by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Methodology. Analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing is made on the basis of Maxwell's equations solutions in the quasi-stationary approximation. Determination of the number, configuration, spatial arrangement and the compensation coil currents is formulated in the form of multiobjective optimization problem that is solved by multi-agent multiswarm stochastic optimization based on Pareto optimal solutions. Results of active screening system for the synthesis of various types of transmission lines with different numbers of windings controlled. The possibility of a significant reduction in the level of the flux density of the magnetic field source within a given region of space. Originality. For the first time an analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of power lines with different types and based on findings developed recommendations for the design of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Practical value. Practical recommendations on reasonable choice of the number and spatial arrangement of compensating windings of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing for the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field. Results of active screening system synthesis of the magnetic field of industrial frequency generated by single-circuit 110 kV high voltage power lines with the supports have 330 - 1T «triangle» rotating magnetic field with full polarization in a residential five-storey building, located near the power lines. The system contains three compensating coil and reduces

  7. Resting-state fMRI revealed different brain activities responding to valproic acid and levetiracetam in benign epilepsy with central-temporal spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qirui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Qiang; Wu, Han; Li, Zhipeng; Lu, Guangming [Nanjing University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing (China); Yang, Fang; Li, Qian [Nanjing University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing (China); Hu, Zheng [Nanjing Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Nanjing (China); Dante, Mantini [Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven (Belgium); Li, Kai [Suzhou University, Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Suzhou (China)


    Our aim was to investigate regional difference in brain activities in response to antiepileptic drug (AED) medications in benign epilepsy with central-temporal spikes (BECTS) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifty-seven patients with BECTS underwent resting-state fMRI scans after receiving either valproic acid (VPA) (n = 15), levetiracetam (LEV) (n = 21), or no medication (n = 21). fMRI regional homogeneity (ReHo) parameter among the three groups of patients were compared and were correlated with total doses of AED in the two medicated groups. Compared with patients on no-medication, patients receiving either VPA or LEV showed decreased ReHo in the central-temporal region, frontal cortex, and thalamus. In particular, the VPA group showed greater ReHo decrease in the thalamus and milder in cortices and caudate heads compared with the LEV group. In addition, the VPA group demonstrated a negative correlation between ReHo values in the central-temporal region and medication dose. Both VPA and LEV inhibit resting-state neural activity in the central-temporal region, which is the main epileptogenic focus of BECTS. VPA reduced brain activity in the cortical epileptogenic regions and thalamus evenly, whereas LEV reduced brain activity predominantly in the cortices. Interestingly, VPA showed a cumulative effect on inhibiting brain activity in the epileptogenic regions in BECTS. (orig.)

  8. Binaural interference: effects of temporal interferer fringe and interstimulus interval. (United States)

    Camalier, Corrie R; Grantham, D Wesley; Bernstein, Leslie R


    Binaural interference refers to the phenomenon in which the potency of binaural cues conveyed by a "target" stimulus occupying one spectral region is degraded by the presence of an "interferer" stimulus occupying a spectral region remote from the target. It is typified by conditions in which thresholds for detection of interaural temporal difference conveyed by a high-frequency target are elevated when the target is accompanied by a spectrally remote low-frequency interferer. This study explored effects of temporal relations between targets and interferers on binaural interference. In the first experiment, duration by which the interferer preceded and/or trailed the target (onset and offset "fringes") was varied. Results indicated binaural interference decreased with total duration of the temporal fringe, but did not depend on whether that duration was composed of onset, offset, or onset + offset fringes. In the second experiment, binaural interference was measured as a function of the interstimulus interval (ISI) between the two presentations of the target. Results indicated that shorter ISIs increased thresholds in both the interferer and no-interferer conditions, but did not affect binaural interference. These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying the effects of manipulations of the interferer temporal fringe and manipulation of the ISI are essentially independent.

  9. Age-group differences in speech identification despite matched audiometrically normal hearing: contributions from auditory temporal processing and cognition. (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C J; Stone, Michael A


    Hearing loss with increasing age adversely affects the ability to understand speech, an effect that results partly from reduced audibility. The aims of this study were to establish whether aging reduces speech intelligibility for listeners with normal audiograms, and, if so, to assess the relative contributions of auditory temporal and cognitive processing. Twenty-one older normal-hearing (ONH; 60-79 years) participants with bilateral audiometric thresholds ≤ 20 dB HL at 0.125-6 kHz were matched to nine young (YNH; 18-27 years) participants in terms of mean audiograms, years of education, and performance IQ. Measures included: (1) identification of consonants in quiet and in noise that was unmodulated or modulated at 5 or 80 Hz; (2) identification of sentences in quiet and in co-located or spatially separated two-talker babble; (3) detection of modulation of the temporal envelope (TE) at frequencies 5-180 Hz; (4) monaural and binaural sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS); (5) various cognitive tests. Speech identification was worse for ONH than YNH participants in all types of background. This deficit was not reflected in self-ratings of hearing ability. Modulation masking release (the improvement in speech identification obtained by amplitude modulating a noise background) and spatial masking release (the benefit obtained from spatially separating masker and target speech) were not affected by age. Sensitivity to TE and TFS was lower for ONH than YNH participants, and was correlated positively with speech-in-noise (SiN) identification. Many cognitive abilities were lower for ONH than YNH participants, and generally were correlated positively with SiN identification scores. The best predictors of the intelligibility of SiN were composite measures of cognition and TFS sensitivity. These results suggest that declines in speech perception in older persons are partly caused by cognitive and perceptual changes separate from age-related changes in audiometric

  10. Heritable differences in the dopaminergic regulation of sensorimotor gating. II. Temporal, pharmacologic and generational analyses of apomorphine effects on prepulse inhibition. (United States)

    Swerdlow, Neal R; Shoemaker, Jody M; Auerbach, Pamela P; Pitcher, Leia; Goins, Jana; Platten, Amanda


    The disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle in rats by dopamine agonists has been used in a predictive model for antipsychotics, and more recently, to study the neural basis of strain differences in dopaminergic function. We have previously reported that Sprague-Dawley (SDH) and Long Evans (LEH) rats differed in their sensitivity to the PPI-disruptive effects of the D(1)/D(2) agonist apomorphine (APO) in two distinct ways: 1) compared to LEH rats, SDH rats were more sensitive to the ability of APO to disrupt PPI with relatively long prepulse intervals (60-120 ms), and 2) APO enhanced PPI in LEH rats with 10-30 ms prepulse intervals, but this effect was limited to 10 ms prepulse intervals in SDH rats. In the present study, we replicated this temporal profile in SDH versus LEH rats, assessed the role of D(1) versus D(2) substrates in the two components of this strain difference, and assessed the heritability of these temporally distinct processes. Pharmacologic studies revealed that: 1) D(2) blockade prevented the long interval PPI-disruptive effects of APO in both strains, and extended the temporal range of the PPI-enhancing effects of APO from 10 to 30 ms in SDH rats, and 2) D(1) blockade increased PPI and blocked the PPI-enhancing effects of APO at short intervals in both strains. Generational studies in adult F0 (SDH and LEH), F1 (SDHxLEH) and N2 (SDHxF1) rats demonstrated that sensitivity to APO of both short and long interval PPI were inherited in a manner suggestive of relatively simple additive effects of multiple genes. The present findings demonstrate that inherited differences in the dopaminergic regulation of sensorimotor gating are manifested not only in quantitative shifts (more versus less), but also in qualitative shifts in the temporal properties of sensorimotor gating that appear to be under separate control of D(1) and D(2) substrates.

  11. Simulating the effects of different spatio-temporal fire regimes on plant metapopulation persistence in a Mediterranean-type region


    Groeneveld, J; Enright, NJ; Lamont, Byron B


    Spatio-temporal fire regimes are likely to shift with changes in land use and climate. Such a shift in the disturbance regime has been proposed from recent reconstructions of the regional fire history in the Mediterranean-type woodlands and shrublands of Western Australia which suggest that fire was much more frequent before 1930 (local fire intervals of 3?5 years) than it is today (local fire intervals of 8?15 years). To investigate the potential biodiversity consequences of such changes in ...

  12. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries. (United States)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M


    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders

  13. Factor analysis of symptom profile in early onset and late onset OCD. (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Sarkar, Siddharth; Gupta, Gourav; Kate, Natasha; Ghosh, Abhishek; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit


    This study aimed to assess the factor structure of early and late onset OCD. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted in the same sample to assess the applicability of the factors. 345 participants were assessed with Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Patients were classified as early onset (onset of symptoms at age ≤ 18 years) and late onset (onset at age > 18 years) OCD depending upon the age of onset of the symptoms. Factor analysis and cluster analysis of early-onset and late-onset OCD was conducted. The study sample comprised of 91 early onset and 245 late onset OCD subjects. Males were more common in the early onset group. Differences in the frequency of phenomenology related to contamination related, checking, repeating, counting and ordering/arranging compulsions were present across the early and late onset groups. Factor analysis of YBOCS revealed a 3 factor solution for both the groups, which largely concurred with each other. These factors were named as hoarding and symmetry (factor-1), contamination (factor-2) and aggressive, sexual and religious factor (factor-3). To conclude this study shows that factor structure of symptoms of OCD seems to be similar between early-onset and late-onset OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Seizure semiology identifies patients with bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Loesch, Anna Mira; Feddersen, Berend; Tezer, F Irsel; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl


    Laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy is usually defined by EEG and imaging results. We investigated whether the analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena identifies bilateral independent temporal lobe seizure onset. We investigated the seizure semiology in 17 patients in whom invasive EEG-video-monitoring documented bilateral temporal seizure onset. The results were compared to 20 left and 20 right consecutive temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who were seizure free after anterior temporal lobe resection. The seizure semiology was analyzed using the semiological seizure classification with particular emphasis on the sequence of seizure phenomena over time and lateralizing seizure phenomena. Statistical analysis included chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Bitemporal lobe epilepsy patients had more frequently different seizure semiology (100% vs. 40%; psemiology for the identification of bilateral TLE was high (100%) with a specificity of 60%. Lateralizing seizure phenomena had a low sensitivity (59%) but a high specificity (89%). The combination of lateralizing seizure phenomena and different seizure semiology showed a high specificity (94%) but a low sensitivity (59%). The analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena adds important clinical information to identify patients with bilateral TLE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dissociating Medial Temporal and Striatal Memory Systems With a Same/Different Matching Task: Evidence for Two Neural Systems in Human Recognition. (United States)

    Sinha, Neha; Glass, Arnold Lewis


    The medial temporal lobe and striatum have both been implicated as brain substrates of memory and learning. Here, we show dissociation between these two memory systems using a same/different matching task, in which subjects judged whether four-letter strings were the same or different. Different RT was determined by the left-to-right location of the first letter different between the study and test string, consistent with a left-to-right comparison of the study and test strings, terminating when a difference was found. This comparison process results in same responses being slower than different responses. Nevertheless, same responses were faster than different responses. Same responses were associated with hippocampus activation. Different responses were associated with both caudate and hippocampus activation. These findings are consistent with the dual-system hypothesis of mammalian memory and extend the model to human visual recognition.

  16. Clinical Differences between Men and Women with Psoriatic Arthritis: Relevance of the Analysis of Genes and Polymorphisms in the Major Histocompatibility Complex Region and of the Age at Onset of Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Queiro


    Full Text Available It has been shown that males with spondyloarthritis tend to suffer from more severe spinal disease while females are more likely to have peripheral joint involvement. Nevertheless, gender-related differences have not been thoroughly explored in psoriatic arthritis (PsA. In PsA, males accumulate more peripheral and axial joint damage compared to women. However, it is not clear whether these findings are secondary to differences in occupational physical activity, hormonal changes, or other factors. The present study analyzed the differences in clinical expression of PsA between men and women. We have also evaluated the possible existence of gender-linked differences in the distribution of genes and polymorphisms within the major histocompatibility complex and whether patients’ age at the onset of psoriasis established any differences in these aspects. Women suffered more polyarthritis, greater functional impairment, and a larger number of swollen joints during followup. We appreciated a differential expression of certain MHC genes according to gender and age at onset of psoriasis. Our results point to the need to include patient’s age at the onset of psoriasis and gender as key stratification elements in future studies of genetic associations in PsA.

  17. Wheat seed weight and quality differ temporally in sensitivity to warm or cool conditions during seed development and maturation. (United States)

    Nasehzadeh, M; Ellis, R H


    Short periods of extreme temperature may affect wheat (Triticum aestivum) seed weight, but also quality. Temporal sensitivity to extreme temperature during seed development and maturation was investigated. Plants of 'Tybalt' grown at ambient temperature were moved to growth cabinets at 29/20°C or 34/20°C (2010), or 15/10°C or 34/20°C (2011), for successive 7-d periods from 7 DAA (days after anthesis) onwards, and also 7-65 DAA in 2011. Seed samples were harvested serially and moisture content, weight, ability to germinate, subsequent longevity in air-dry storage and bread-making quality were determined. High temperature (34/20°C) reduced final seed weight, with greatest temporal sensitivity at 7-14 or 14-21 DAA. Several aspects of bread-making quality were also most sensitive to high temperature then, but whereas protein quality decreased protein and sulphur concentrations improved. Early exposure to high temperature provided earlier development of ability to germinate and tolerate desiccation, but had little effect on maximum germination capacity. All treatments at 15/10°C resulted in ability to germinate declining between 58 and 65 DAA. Early exposure to high temperature hastened improvement in seed storage longevity, but the subsequent decline in late maturation preceded that in the control. Long (7-65 DAA) exposure to 15/10°C disrupted the development of seed longevity, with no improvement after seed filling ended. Longevity improved during maturation drying in other treatments. Early (7-14 DAA) exposure to high temperature reduced and low temperature increased subsequent longevity at harvest maturity, whereas late (35 or 42-49 DAA) exposure to high temperature increased and low temperature reduced it. Temporal sensitivity to extreme temperature was detected. It varied considerably amongst the contrasting seed variables investigated. Subsequent seed longevity at harvest maturity responded negatively to temperature early in development, but positively

  18. Comparison of HSPF and PRMS model simulated flows using different temporal and spatial scales in the Black Hills, South Dakota (United States)

    Chalise, D. R.; Haj, Adel E.; Fontaine, T.A.


    The hydrological simulation program Fortran (HSPF) [Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran version 12.2 (Computer software). USEPA, Washington, DC] and the precipitation runoff modeling system (PRMS) [Precipitation Runoff Modeling System version 4.0 (Computer software). USGS, Reston, VA] models are semidistributed, deterministic hydrological tools for simulating the impacts of precipitation, land use, and climate on basin hydrology and streamflow. Both models have been applied independently to many watersheds across the United States. This paper reports the statistical results assessing various temporal (daily, monthly, and annual) and spatial (small versus large watershed) scale biases in HSPF and PRMS simulations using two watersheds in the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Pearson correlation coefficient (r">rr), and coefficient of determination (R2">R2R2) statistics for the daily, monthly, and annual flows were used to evaluate the models’ performance. Results from the HSPF models showed that the HSPF consistently simulated the annual flows for both large and small basins better than the monthly and daily flows, and the simulated flows for the small watershed better than flows for the large watershed. In comparison, the PRMS model results show that the PRMS simulated the monthly flows for both the large and small watersheds better than the daily and annual flows, and the range of statistical error in the PRMS models was greater than that in the HSPF models. Moreover, it can be concluded that the statistical error in the HSPF and the PRMSdaily, monthly, and annual flow estimates for watersheds in the Black Hills was influenced by both temporal and spatial scale variability.

  19. Congenital encephalomyopathy and adult-onset myopathy and diabetes mellitus: Different phenotypic associations of a new heteroplasmic mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation

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    Hanna, M.G.; Nelson, I.; Sweeney, M.G.; Cooper, J.M.; Watkins, P.J.; Morgan-Hughes, J.A.; Harding, A.E. [Kings College Hospital, London (United Kingdom)


    We report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic findings in a family with an unusual mitochondrial disease phenotype harboring a novel mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation at position 14709. The proband and his sister presented with congenital myopathy and mental retardation and subsequently developed cerebellar ataxia. Other family members had either adult-onset diabetes mellitus with muscle weakness or adult-onset diabetes mellitus alone. Ragged-red and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-negative fibers were present in muscle biopsies. Biochemical studies of muscle mitochondria showed reduced complex I and IV activities. The mtDNA mutation was heteroplasmic in blood and muscle in all matrilineal relatives analyzed. Primary myoblast, but not fibroblast, cultures containing high proportions of mutant mtDNA exhibited impaired mitochondrial translation. These observations indicate that mtDNA tRNA point mutations should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital myopathy. In addition they illustrate the diversity of phenotypes associated with this mutation in the same family and further highlight the association between mtDNA mutations and diabetes mellitus. 43 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Quantitative relaxometry and diffusion MRI for lateralization in MTS and non-MTS temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Khan, Ali R; Goubran, Maged; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Hammond, Robert R; Burneo, Jorge G; Parrent, Andrew G; Peters, Terry M


    We developed novel methodology for investigating the use of quantitative relaxometry (T1 and T2) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for lateralization in temporal lobe epilepsy. Patients with mesial temporal sclerosis confirmed by pathology (N=8) and non-MTS unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (N=6) were compared against healthy controls (N=19) using voxel-based analysis restricted to the anterior temporal lobes, and laterality indices for each MRI metric (T1, T2, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, axial and radial diffusivities) were computed based on the proportion of significant voxels on each side. The diffusivity metrics were the most lateralizing MRI metrics in MTS and non-MTS subsets, with significant differences also seen with FA, T1 and T2. Patient-specific multi-modal laterality indices were also computed and were shown to clearly separate the left-onset and right-onset patients. Marked differences between left-onset and right-onset patients were also observed, with left-onset patients exhibiting stronger laterality indices. Finally, neocortical abnormalities were found to be more common in the non-MTS patients. These preliminary results on a small sample size support the further investigation of quantitative MRI and multi-modal image analysis in clinical determination of seizure onset. The presence of more neocortical abnormalities in the non-MTS group suggests a role in seizure onset or propagation and motivates the investigation of more sensitive histopathological analysis to detect and delineate potentially subtle neocortical pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Diferentes modelos de terapia fonoaudiológica nos casos de simplificação do onset complexo com alongamento compensatório Different types of speech therapy in cases of simplifying the complex onset with compensatory lengthening

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    Vanessa Giacchini


    [] and [l]. In the total of people, two were submitted to phonological therapy (PT, based on the model of the minimum pair and two therapy phonetic-articulatory (TA emphasizing the co-articulation of the sound, the use of visual clues, tactile/kinesthetic and auditory, and articulatory training. Children received two weekly visits for the acquisition of CCV (80% of correct structure in spontaneous speech. To check the difference in time of phonetic and phonological therapy was applied the T Test for independent samples of 5% significance level. The therapeutic advances of the subjects were analyzed in a qualitative. RESULTS: in the comparison of the results in the sessions between the average obtained with each therapeutic model, we found that children receiving TA needed half of the time of the subjects that underwent PT, although not statistically significant (p = 0.40. It is relevant to highlight the difference in time of treatment in clinical practice,. CONCLUSION: children using SCL, benefit when submitted to therapy in order to promote an phonetic implementation and not the phonological organization, since that the patients who were exposed to TA obtained faster progresses when compared to the phonological model.

  2. Differences in Early Stages of Tactile ERP Temporal Sequence (P100 in Cortical Organization during Passive Tactile Stimulation in Children with Blindness and Controls.

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    Tomás Ortiz Alonso

    Full Text Available Compared to their seeing counterparts, people with blindness have a greater tactile capacity. Differences in the physiology of object recognition between people with blindness and seeing people have been well documented, but not when tactile stimuli require semantic processing. We used a passive vibrotactile device to focus on the differences in spatial brain processing evaluated with event related potentials (ERP in children with blindness (n = 12 vs. normally seeing children (n = 12, when learning a simple spatial task (lines with different orientations or a task involving recognition of letters, to describe the early stages of its temporal sequence (from 80 to 220 msec and to search for evidence of multi-modal cortical organization. We analysed the P100 of the ERP. Children with blindness showed earlier latencies for cognitive (perceptual event related potentials, shorter reaction times, and (paradoxically worse ability to identify the spatial direction of the stimulus. On the other hand, they are equally proficient in recognizing stimuli with semantic content (letters. The last observation is consistent with the role of P100 on somatosensory-based recognition of complex forms. The cortical differences between seeing control and blind groups, during spatial tactile discrimination, are associated with activation in visual pathway (occipital and task-related association (temporal and frontal areas. The present results show that early processing of tactile stimulation conveying cross modal information differs in children with blindness or with normal vision.

  3. Differences in Early Stages of Tactile ERP Temporal Sequence (P100) in Cortical Organization during Passive Tactile Stimulation in Children with Blindness and Controls. (United States)

    Ortiz Alonso, Tomás; Santos, Juan Matías; Ortiz Terán, Laura; Borrego Hernández, Mayelin; Poch Broto, Joaquín; de Erausquin, Gabriel Alejandro


    Compared to their seeing counterparts, people with blindness have a greater tactile capacity. Differences in the physiology of object recognition between people with blindness and seeing people have been well documented, but not when tactile stimuli require semantic processing. We used a passive vibrotactile device to focus on the differences in spatial brain processing evaluated with event related potentials (ERP) in children with blindness (n = 12) vs. normally seeing children (n = 12), when learning a simple spatial task (lines with different orientations) or a task involving recognition of letters, to describe the early stages of its temporal sequence (from 80 to 220 msec) and to search for evidence of multi-modal cortical organization. We analysed the P100 of the ERP. Children with blindness showed earlier latencies for cognitive (perceptual) event related potentials, shorter reaction times, and (paradoxically) worse ability to identify the spatial direction of the stimulus. On the other hand, they are equally proficient in recognizing stimuli with semantic content (letters). The last observation is consistent with the role of P100 on somatosensory-based recognition of complex forms. The cortical differences between seeing control and blind groups, during spatial tactile discrimination, are associated with activation in visual pathway (occipital) and task-related association (temporal and frontal) areas. The present results show that early processing of tactile stimulation conveying cross modal information differs in children with blindness or with normal vision.

  4. Different horse's paces during hippotherapy on spatio-temporal parameters of gait in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy: A feasibility study. (United States)

    Antunes, Fabiane Nunes; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Kleiner, Ana Francisca Rozin; Salazar, Ana Paula; Eltz, Giovana Duarte; de Oliveira Junior, Alcyr Alves; Cechetti, Fernanda; Galli, Manuela; Pagnussat, Aline Souza


    Hippotherapy is often carried out for the rehabilitation of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), with the horse riding at a walking pace. This study aimed to explore the immediate effects of a hippotherapy protocol using a walk-trot pace on spatio-temporal gait parameters and muscle tone in children with Bilateral Spastic CP (BS-CP). Ten children diagnosed with BS-CP and 10 healthy aged-matched children (reference group) took part in this study. The children with BS-CP underwent two sessions of hippotherapy for one week of washout between them. Two protocols (lasting 30min) were applied on separate days: Protocol 1: the horse's pace was a walking pace; and Protocol 2: the horse's pace was a walk-trot pace. Children from the reference group were not subjected to treatment. A wireless inertial measurement unit measured gait spatio-temporal parameters before and after each session. The Modified Ashworth Scale was applied for muscle tone measurement of hip adductors. The participants underwent the gait assessment on a path with surface irregularities (ecological context). The comparisons between BS-CP and the reference group found differences in all spatio-temporal parameters, except for gait velocity. Within-group analysis of children with BS-CP showed that the swing phase did not change after the walk pace and after the walk-trot pace. The percentage of rolling phase and double support improved after the walk-trot. The spasticity of the hip adductors was significantly reduced as an immediate result of both protocols, but this decrease was more evident after the walk-trot. The walk-trot protocol is feasible and is able to induce an immediate effect that improves the gait spatio-temporal parameters and the hip adductors spasticity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Empirical prediction of the onset dates of South China Sea summer monsoon (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim


    The onset of South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSSM) signifies the commencement of the wet season over East Asia. Predicting the SCSSM onset date is of significant importance. In this study, we establish two different statistical models, namely the physical-empirical model (PEM) and the spatial-temporal projection model (STPM) to predict the SCSSM onset. The PEM is constructed from the seasonal prediction perspective. Observational diagnoses reveal that the early onset of the SCSSM is preceded by (a) a warming tendency in middle and lower troposphere (850-500 hPa) over central Siberia from January to March, (b) a La Niña-like zonal dipole sea surface temperature pattern over the tropical Pacific in March, and (c) a dipole sea level pressure pattern with negative center in subtropics and positive center over high latitude of Southern Hemisphere in January. The PEM built on these predictors achieves a cross-validated reforecast temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill of 0.84 for the period of 1979-2004, and an independent forecast TCC skill of 0.72 for the period 2005-2014. The STPM is built on the extended-range forecast perspective. Pentad data are used to predict a zonal wind index over the South China Sea region. Similar to PEM, the STPM is constructed using 1979-2004 data. Based on the forecasted zonal wind index, the independent forecast of the SCSSM onset dates achieves a TCC skill of 0.90 for 2005-2014. The STPM provides more detailed information for the intraseasonal evolution during the period of the SCSSM onset (pentad 25-35). The two models proposed herein are expected to facilitate the real-time prediction of the SCSSM onset.

  6. Decision-making by a soaring bird: time, energy and risk considerations at different spatio-temporal scales. (United States)

    Harel, Roi; Duriez, Olivier; Spiegel, Orr; Fluhr, Julie; Horvitz, Nir; Getz, Wayne M; Bouten, Willem; Sarrazin, François; Hatzofe, Ohad; Nathan, Ran


    Natural selection theory suggests that mobile animals trade off time, energy and risk costs with food, safety and other pay-offs obtained by movement. We examined how birds make movement decisions by integrating aspects of flight biomechanics, movement ecology and behaviour in a hierarchical framework investigating flight track variation across several spatio-temporal scales. Using extensive global positioning system and accelerometer data from Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in Israel and France, we examined soaring-gliding decision-making by comparing inbound versus outbound flights (to or from a central roost, respectively), and these (and other) home-range foraging movements (up to 300 km) versus long-range movements (longer than 300 km). We found that long-range movements and inbound flights have similar features compared with their counterparts: individuals reduced journey time by performing more efficient soaring-gliding flight, reduced energy expenditure by flapping less and were more risk-prone by gliding more steeply between thermals. Age, breeding status, wind conditions and flight altitude (but not sex) affected time and energy prioritization during flights. We therefore suggest that individuals facing time, energy and risk trade-offs during movements make similar decisions across a broad range of ecological contexts and spatial scales, presumably owing to similarity in the uncertainty about movement outcomes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Spatial and Temporal Heavy Metal Distribution and Surface Water Characterization of Kanjli Wetland (a Ramsar site), India Using Different Indices. (United States)

    Singh, Navdeep; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur Katnoria, Jatinder


    Suitability of surface water of Kanjli wetland, Punjab (India) during the period of 2013-2015 was assessed for drinking, irrigation and aquatic life using a water quality index (WQI), heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and aquatic toxicity index (ATI). WQI was calculated using 14 physico-chemical parameters while HPI determination used nine heavy metals like As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. WQI revealed that Kanjli wetland contained medium quality water (irrigation and aquatic life). Cr, Cd and Co exceeded desirable limits of World Health Organization (WHO, Guidelines for drinking-water quality, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2011) and Indian drinking water standard (2012) during all the three seasons (monsoon, post monsoon and winter). HPI values from all sites exceeded critical pollution index value of 100 during monsoon season. Few sites were unsuitable for normal fish life as per ATI. The study recommends planned spatial, temporal and periodic monitoring of wetland using WQI and HPI to sustain good water quality (drinking, irrigation and aquatic life).

  8. A Proposed Study Examining Individual Differences in Temporal Profiles of Cardiovascular Responses to Head Down Tilt During Fluid Loading (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William; Winther, Sean; Martinez, Jacqueline; Dominguez, Margaret


    Susceptibility of healthy astronauts to orthostatic hypotension and presyncope is exacerbated upon return from spaceflight. The effect of altered gravity during space flight and planetary transition on human cardiovascular function is of critical importance to maintenance of astronaut health and safety. Hypovolemia, reduced plasma volume, is suspected to play an important role in cardiovascular deconditioning following exposure to spaceflight, which may lead to increased peripheral resistance, attenuated arterial baroreflex, and changes in cardiac function. A promising countermeasure for post-flight orthostatic intolerance is fluid loading used to restore lost plasma volume by giving crew salt tablets and water prior to re-entry. The main purpose of the proposed study is to define the temporal profile of cardiac responses to simulated 0-G conditions before and following a fluid loading countermeasure. 8 men and 8 women will be tested during 4 hour exposures at 6o head down tilt (HDT). Each subject will be given two exposures to HDT on separate days, one with and one without fluid loading (one liter of 0.9% saline solution). Stand tests (orthostatic stress) will be done before and after each HDT. Cardiac measures will be obtained with both impedance cardiography and echo ultrasound

  9. Spatial and temporal accuracy of asynchrony-tolerant finite difference schemes for partial differential equations at extreme scales (United States)

    Kumari, Komal; Donzis, Diego


    Highly resolved computational simulations on massively parallel machines are critical in understanding the physics of a vast number of complex phenomena in nature governed by partial differential equations. Simulations at extreme levels of parallelism present many challenges with communication between processing elements (PEs) being a major bottleneck. In order to fully exploit the computational power of exascale machines one needs to devise numerical schemes that relax global synchronizations across PEs. This asynchronous computations, however, have a degrading effect on the accuracy of standard numerical schemes.We have developed asynchrony-tolerant (AT) schemes that maintain order of accuracy despite relaxed communications. We show, analytically and numerically, that these schemes retain their numerical properties with multi-step higher order temporal Runge-Kutta schemes. We also show that for a range of optimized parameters,the computation time and error for AT schemes is less than their synchronous counterpart. Stability of the AT schemes which depends upon history and random nature of delays, are also discussed. Support from NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Indeterministic Temporal Logic

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    Trzęsicki Kazimierz


    Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.

  11. Early and phasic cortical metabolic changes in vestibular neuritis onset.

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    Marco Alessandrini

    Full Text Available Functional brain activation studies described the presence of separate cortical areas responsible for central processing of peripheral vestibular information and reported their activation and interactions with other sensory modalities and the changes of this network associated to strategic peripheral or central vestibular lesions. It is already known that cortical changes induced by acute unilateral vestibular failure (UVF are various and undergo variations over time, revealing different cortical involved areas at the onset and recovery from symptoms. The present study aimed at reporting the earliest change in cortical metabolic activity during a paradigmatic form of UVF such as vestibular neuritis (VN, that is, a purely peripheral lesion of the vestibular system, that offers the opportunity to study the cortical response to altered vestibular processing. This research reports [(18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography brain scan data concerning the early cortical metabolic activity associated to symptoms onset in a group of eight patients suffering from VN. VN patients' cortical metabolic activity during the first two days from symptoms onset was compared to that recorded one month later and to a control healthy group. Beside the known cortical response in the sensorimotor network associated to vestibular deafferentation, we show for the first time the involvement of Entorhinal (BAs 28, 34 and Temporal (BA 38 cortices in early phases of symptomatology onset. We interpret these findings as the cortical counterparts of the attempt to reorient oneself in space counteracting the vertigo symptom (Bas 28, 34 and of the emotional response to the new pathologic condition (BA 38 respectively. These interpretations were further supported by changes in patients' subjective ratings in balance, anxiety, and depersonalization/derealization scores when tested at illness onset and one month later. The present findings contribute in expanding

  12. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghiu, E.


    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity

  13. Differential Cortical Gray Matter Deficits in Adolescent- and Adult-Onset First-Episode Treatment-Naïve Patients with Schizophrenia. (United States)

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Wang, Qiang; Ni, Peiyan; Deng, Wei; Li, Yinfei; Zhao, Liansheng; Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Yingcheng; Yu, Hua; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Pingping; Meng, Yajing; Liang, Sugai; Li, Mingli; Li, Tao


    The current study aimed to explore age-variant trait differences of cortical gray matter volume (GMV) in a unique sample of first-episode and treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia. A total of 158 subjects, including 26 adolescent-onset patients and 49 adult-onset patients as well as 83 age- and gender-matched controls were scanned using a 3T MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to explore group differences between patients and controls in regional GMV. We found that patients with schizophrenia had decreased GMV in the left parietal postcentral region that extended to the left frontal regions, the right middle temporal gyrus, the occipital lobe and the right cerebellum posterior pyramis. Further analysis showed a distinct pattern of gray matter alterations in adolescent-onset patients compared with both healthy controls and adult-onset patients. Relative to healthy controls, adolescent-onset patients showed GMV alterations in the left parietal postcentral gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and right cerebellum posterior pyramis, while GMV deficits in adult-onset patients were focused on the cingulo-fronto-temporal module and right occipital regions. Our study identified differential cortical gray matter deficits between adolescent- and adulthood-onset patients with schizophrenia, which suggests that the cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia are likely adjusted by the developmental community structure of the human brain.

  14. Unconscious Cueing via the Superior Colliculi: Evidence from Searching for Onset and Color Targets

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    Ulrich Ansorge


    Full Text Available According to the bottom-up theory of attention, unconscious abrupt onsets are highly salient and capture attention via the Superior Colliculi (SC. Crucially, abrupt onsets increase the perceived contrast. In line with the SC hypothesis, unconscious abrupt-onset cues capture attention regardless of the cue color when participants search for abrupt-onset targets (Experiment 1. Also, stronger cueing effects occur for higher than lower contrast cues (Experiment 2 and for temporally, rather than nasally, presented stimuli (Experiment 3. However, in line with the known color-insensitivity of the SC, the SC pathway is shunted and unconscious abrupt-onset cues no longer capture attention when the participants have to search for color-defined targets (Experiment 4 or color-singleton targets (Experiment 5. When using color change cues instead of abrupt-onset cues, the cueing effect also vanishes (Experiment 6. Together the results support the assumption that unconscious cues can capture attention in different ways, depending on the exact task of the participants, but that one way is attentional capture via the SC. The present findings also offer a reconciliation of conflicting results in the domain of unconscious attention.

  15. Simulating the effects of different spatio-temporal fire regimes on plant metapopulation persistence in a Mediterranean-type region. (United States)

    Groeneveld, J; Enright, Nj; Lamont, Byron B


    Spatio-temporal fire regimes are likely to shift with changes in land use and climate. Such a shift in the disturbance regime has been proposed from recent reconstructions of the regional fire history in the Mediterranean-type woodlands and shrublands of Western Australia which suggest that fire was much more frequent before 1930 (local fire intervals of 3-5 years) than it is today (local fire intervals of 8-15 years).To investigate the potential biodiversity consequences of such changes in fire regime for fire-killed woody species, we developed a spatial model for the serotinous shrub Banksia hookeriana that grows on sand dunes of the Eneabba Plain, Western Australia. We sought to identify the envelope of fire regimes under which the spatially separated populations in this species are able to persist, and whether this encompasses the fire regimes proposed by recent fire-history reconstructions.We tested two fire frequency-size distribution scenarios: (1) a scenario where fire size depends on the spatial patch configuration; and (2) a scenario depending also on available fuel (time since last fire), which reduces fire size at short inter-fire intervals.In scenario 1, metapopulation persistence was only likely for mean ignition intervals at the landscape scale of 6 years. In scenario 2, persistence was likely for the whole range of fire interval distributions at the landscape scale suggested by the empirical data. However, persistence was almost impossible if the mean return fire interval at the local scale (i.e. for individual dunes) is fire regimes at the landscape scale, so long as there are buffering mechanisms at work (e.g. feedback between fire spread and vegetation age) which reduces the probability of large fires at short intervals. Our findings demonstrate that at least some parts of the landscape must burn substantially less frequently on average than suggested by the empirical fire reconstructions for the early and pre-European period if populations of

  16. Hippocampal asymmetry: differences in the left and right hippocampus proteome in the rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Sadeghi, Leila; Rizvanov, Albert Anatolyevich; Salafutdinov, Ilnur Ildusovich; Dabirmanesh, Bahareh; Sayyah, Mohammad; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Khajeh, Khosro


    The hippocampus is a complex brain structure and undergoes severe sclerosis and gliosis in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) as the most common type of epilepsy. The key features of the TLE may be reported in chronic animal models of epilepsy, such as pilocarpine model. Therefore, the current study was conducted in a rat pilocarpine model of acquired epilepsy. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic technique was used to compare the proteome map of the left and right hippocampus in both control and epileptic rats. Generally, 95 differentially expressed spots out of 1300 spots were identified in the hippocampus proteome using MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. Within identified proteins, some showed asymmetric expression related to the mechanisms underlying TLE imposed by pilocarpine. Assessment of lateralization at the molecular level demonstrated that expression of proteins involved in dopamine synthesis was significantly more in the right hippocampus than the left one. In the epileptic model, reduction in dopamine pathway proteins was accompanied by an increase in the expression of proteins involved in polyamine synthesis, referring to a new regulating mechanism. Our results revealed changes in the laterality of protein expression due to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus that could present some new proteins as potential candidates for antiepileptic drug design. In the current study, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based proteomic technique was used to profile changes in the left and right hippocampus proteome after pilocarpine induced status epilepticus. Spots of proteome maps for two hemispheres were excised and identified with MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. Analysis of proteome map of the left and right hippocampus revealed a lateralization at the molecular level, in which the expression of proteins involved in dopamine synthesis and release were significantly more in right hippocampi than the left ones in the normal rats. Also, the expression of proteins involved in

  17. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset. (United States)

    Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W


    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin warming and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was warmed. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin warming. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems.

  18. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode. (United States)

    Sheng, Qiang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Wang, Hua Sheng


    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of surface tensions on the formations of nanoscale droplets and film. We reveal the formation mechanisms of different condensation modes at nanoscale based on our simulation results and classical nucleation theory, which supplements the 'classical hypotheses' of the onset of dropwise condensation. We also reveal the transition mechanism between different condensation modes based on the competition between surface tensions and reveal that dropwise condensation represents the transition states from no-condensation to filmwise condensation.

  19. Temporal Trends and Sex Differences in Revascularization and Outcomes of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Younger Adults in the United States. (United States)

    Khera, Sahil; Kolte, Dhaval; Gupta, Tanush; Subramanian, Kathir Selvan; Khanna, Neel; Aronow, Wilbert S; Ahn, Chul; Timmermans, Robert J; Cooper, Howard A; Fonarow, Gregg C; Frishman, William H; Panza, Julio A; Bhatt, Deepak L


    Older women presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are less likely to receive revascularization and have worse outcomes relative to their male counterparts. This study sought to determine temporal trends and sex differences in revascularization and in-hospital outcomes of younger patients with STEMI. We used the 2004 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients age 18 to 59 years hospitalized with STEMI. Temporal trends and sex differences in revascularization strategies, in-hospital mortality, and length of stay were analyzed. From 2004 to 2011, of 1,363,492 younger adults (age revascularization for STEMI and have higher in-hospital mortality as compared with younger men. Use of percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI and in-hospital mortality have increased, whereas length of stay has decreased in both sexes over the past several years. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Young-onset dementia. (United States)

    Kuruppu, Dulanji K; Matthews, Brandy R


    Young-onset dementia is a neurologic syndrome that affects behavior and cognition of patients younger than 65 years of age. Although frequently misdiagnosed, a systematic approach, reliant upon attainment of a detailed medical history, a collateral history, neuropsychological testing, laboratory studies, and neuroimaging, may facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis with subsequent intervention. The differential diagnosis of young-onset dementia is extensive and includes early-onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementias, Huntington's disease, and prion disease. Late-onset forms of childhood neurodegenerative conditions may also present as young-onset dementia and include mitochondrial disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, and leukodystrophies. Potentially reversible etiologies including inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases, toxic/metabolic abnormalities, transient epileptic amnesia, obstructive sleep apnea, and normal pressure hydrocephalus also represent important differential diagnostic considerations in young-onset dementia. This review will present etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and options for management of young-onset dementia with comprehensive summary tables for clinical reference. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. An fMRI study of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with different pathological basis using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei WEI


    Full Text Available Objective To study the distinction of abnormal brain activity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS or other pathogical basis, and to discuss their underlying pathophysiological mechanism in mTLE.  Methods Thirty mTLE patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS and 30 mTLE patients with occupying lesion in unilateral temporal lobe (mTLE-OL were investigated by comparing with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. MRI data were collected using a Siemens 3.0T scanner, and all of the participants were studied using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF analysis of resting state fMRI. A cost-function modification was used for image preprocessing, then the difference of extratemporal mALFF changes between the two groups of mTLE patients were analyzed with two-sample t test, and the correlation between mALFF and epilepsy duration of mTLE were also investigated.  Results In the resting state, mTLE-HS patients and mTLE-OL patients all showed significant changes in mALFF in extratemporal structures, but the distribution patterns of changes in brain were different. Compared with mTLE-HS, the mTLE-OL patients showed increased mALFF in bilateral inferior parietal lobes, precuneus, angular gyrus, middle and posterior cingulate gyrus and contralateral middle temporal gyrus, while mALFF reducing was observed in contralateral postcentral gyrus, bilateral middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum (P < 0.05, AlphaSim corrected, that is to say, the default mode network (DMN in mTLE-HS were inhibited more seriously than in mTLE-OL patients. Correlation analysis showed that no significant correlation was found between mALFF and epilepsy duration in mTLE-HS patients; mALFF in bilateral middle and posterior cingulate gyrus was positively correlated with epilepsy duration in mTLE-OL patients (r = 0.687, P = 0.000, while mALFF in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus was negatively correlated with epilepsy duration (r

  2. The fragmented worker? : ICTs, coping strategies and gender differences in the temporal and spatial fragmentation of paid labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubers, C.G.T.M.; Dijst, M.; Schwanen, T.


    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are often proclaimed to facilitate the fragmentation of activities, a process whereby a certain activity is divided into several smaller pieces, which are performed at different times and/or locations. This study analyzes two-day combined activity,

  3. Analysis of biostimulated microbial communities from two field experiments reveals temporal and spatial differences in proteome profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callister, S.J.; Wilkins, M.J.; Nicora, C.D.; Williams, K.H.; Banfield, J.F.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Hettich, R.L.; NGuessan, A.L.; Mouser, P.J.; Elifantz, H.; Smith, R.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Lipton, M.S.; Long, P.E.


    Stimulated by an acetate-amendment field experiment conducted in 2007, anaerobic microbial populations in the aquifer at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado reduced mobile U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). During this experiment, planktonic biomass was sampled at various time points to quantitatively evaluate proteomes. In 2008, an acetate-amended field experiment was again conducted in a similar manner to the 2007 experiment. As there was no comprehensive metagenome sequence available for use in proteomics analysis, we systematically evaluated 12 different organism genome sequences to generate sets of aggregate genomes, or “pseudo-metagenomes”, for supplying relative quantitative peptide and protein identifications. Proteomics results support previous observations of the dominance of Geobacteraceae during biostimulation using acetate as sole electron donor, and revealed a shift from an early stage of iron reduction to a late stage of iron reduction. Additionally, a shift from iron reduction to sulfate reduction was indicated by changes in the contribution of proteome information contributed by different organism genome sequences within the aggregate set. In addition, the comparison of proteome measurements made between the 2007 field experiment and 2008 field experiment revealed differences in proteome profiles. These differences may be the result of alterations in abundance and population structure within the planktonic biomass samples collected for analysis.

  4. The fragmented worker? : ICTs, coping strategies and gender differences in the temporal and spatial fragmentation of paid labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubers, C.G.T.M.; Dijst, M.; Schwanen, T.


    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are often proclaimed to facilitate the fragmentation of activities, a process whereby a certain activity is divided into several smaller pieces, which are performed at different times and/or locations. This study analyzes two-day combined activity,

  5. Detecting small-scale spatial differences and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks: a comparison between automatic chamber-derived C budgets and repeated soil inventories (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Garcia Alba, Juana; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Schmidt, Marten; Huth, Vytas; Rogasik, Helmut; Rieckh, Helene; Verch, Gernot; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen


    of the study period. AC-based ΔSOC values corresponded well with the tendencies and magnitude of the results observed in the repeated soil inventory. The period of maximum plant growth was identified as being most important for the development of spatial differences in annual ΔSOC. Hence, we were able to confirm that AC-based C budgets are able to reveal small-scale spatial and short-term temporal dynamics of ΔSOC.

  6. Temporal and spatial differences in intracellular Ca++ changes elicited by K+ and glutamate in single cultured neocortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Frandsen, A; Schousboe, A


    Changes as a function of time in the intracellular Ca++ concentration ([Ca++]i) in cultured cerebral cortical neurons were monitored after exposure of the cells to either 55 mM KCl or 100 microM glutamate using the fluorescent Ca++ chelator fura-2. The changes in [Ca++]i were followed in both cell...... after exposure to K+. The Ca++ channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine affecting N- and L-type channels, respectively had differential effects on K+ stimulated increases in [Ca++]i. Nifedipine only affected the increase marginally whereas verapamil inhibited the response by 50-60% both in cell bodies...... and neurites. The glutamate-induced increase in [Ca++]i was inhibited by nifedipine by 60% in neurites whereas no effect was observed in cell bodies. The results show that depolarization elicited by K+ and glutamate has different effects in different parts of the neurons and that the pharmacological...

  7. Different prion disease phenotypes result from inoculation of cattle with two temporally separated sources of sheep scrapie from Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkins Steve AC


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the theoretical proposal that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE could have originated from sheep scrapie, this study investigated the pathogenicity for cattle, by intracerebral (i.c. inoculation, of two pools of scrapie agents sourced in Great Britain before and during the BSE epidemic. Two groups of ten cattle were each inoculated with pools of brain material from sheep scrapie cases collected prior to 1975 and after 1990. Control groups comprised five cattle inoculated with sheep brain free from scrapie, five cattle inoculated with saline, and for comparison with BSE, naturally infected cattle and cattle i.c. inoculated with BSE brainstem homogenate from a parallel study. Phenotypic characterisation of the disease forms transmitted to cattle was conducted by morphological, immunohistochemical, biochemical and biological methods. Results Disease occurred in 16 cattle, nine inoculated with the pre-1975 inoculum and seven inoculated with the post-1990 inoculum, with four cattle still alive at 83 months post challenge (as at June 2006. The different inocula produced predominantly two different disease phenotypes as determined by histopathological, immunohistochemical and Western immunoblotting methods and biological characterisation on transmission to mice, neither of which was identical to BSE. Whilst the disease presentation was uniform in all scrapie-affected cattle of the pre-1975 group, the post-1990 inoculum produced a more variable disease, with two animals sharing immunohistochemical and molecular profile characteristics with animals in the pre-1975 group. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that cattle inoculated with different pooled scrapie sources can develop different prion disease phenotypes, which were not consistent with the phenotype of BSE of cattle and whose isolates did not have the strain typing characteristics of the BSE agent on transmission to mice.

  8. Spatial and temporal oxygen distribution measured with oxygen microsensors in growing media with different levels of compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian


    Oxygen microsensors were used to determine oxygen profiles in situ from the top to the bottom layer of the growing medium for potted plants of Rosa sp. ‘Dior’. The growing medium was peat- based and compacted uniformly to 3 different bulk densities of 0.14, 0.18 and 0.23 g cm-3 (0, 20 and 40% com...... in growing media and how this was affected by the physical characteristics of the growing media....

  9. [Spatio-Temporal Bioelectrical Brain Activity Organization during Reading Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Collocations by Students with Different Foreign Language Proficiency]. (United States)

    Sokolova, L V; Cherkasova, A S


    Texts or words/pseudowords are often used as stimuli for human verbal activity research. Our study pays attention to decoding processes of grammatical constructions consisted of two-three words--collocations. Russian and English collocation sets without any narrative were presented to Russian-speaking students with different English language skill. Stimulus material had two types of collocations: paradigmatic and syntagmatic. 30 students (average age--20.4 ± 0.22) took part in the study, they were divided into two equal groups depending on their English language skill (linguists/nonlinguists). During reading brain bioelectrical activity of cortex has been registered from 12 electrodes in alfa-, beta-, theta-bands. Coherent function reflecting cooperation of different cortical areas during reading collocations has been analyzed. Increase of interhemispheric and diagonal connections while reading collocations in different languages in the group of students with low knowledge of foreign language testifies of importance of functional cooperation between the hemispheres. It has been found out that brain bioelectrical activity of students with good foreign language knowledge during reading of all collocation types in Russian and English is characterized by economization of nervous substrate resources compared to nonlinguists. Selective activation of certain cortical areas has also been observed (depending on the grammatical construction type) in nonlinguists group that is probably related to special decoding system which processes presented stimuli. Reading Russian paradigmatic constructions by nonlinguists entailed increase between left cortical areas, reading of English syntagmatic collocations--between right ones.

  10. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway (United States)

    Patton, Allison P.; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.


    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in neighborhoods along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km2. Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Spearman correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient conditions in individual near

  11. The effects of noise-bandwidth, noise-fringe duration, and temporal signal location on the binaural masking-level difference. (United States)

    Yasin, Ifat; Henning, G Bruce


    The effects of forward and backward noise fringes on binaural signal detectability were investigated. Masked thresholds for a 12-ms, 250-Hz, sinusoidal signal masked by Gaussian noise, centered at 250 Hz, with bandwidths from 3 to 201 Hz, were obtained in N(0)S(0) and N(0)S(π) configurations. The signal was (a) temporally centered in a 12-ms noise burst (no fringe), (b) presented at the start of a 600-ms noise burst (backward fringe), or (c) temporally centered in a 600-ms noise burst (forward-plus-backward fringe). For noise bandwidths between 3 and 75 Hz, detection in N(0)S(0) improved with the addition of a backward fringe, improving further with an additional forward fringe; there was little improvement in N(0)S(π). The binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) increased from 0 to 8 dB with a forward-plus-backward fringe as noise bandwidths increased to 100 Hz, increasing slightly to 10 dB at 201 Hz. This two-stage increase was less pronounced with a backward fringe. With no fringe, the BMLD was about 10-14 dB at all bandwidths. Performance appears to result from the interaction of across-time and across-frequency listening strategies and the possible effects of gain reduction and suppression, which combine in complex ways. Current binaural models are, as yet, unable to account fully for these effects.

  12. The Sense of Verisimilitude Has Different Spatial-Temporal Characteristics from Those Producing the Sense of Presence in the Evaluation Process of Audiovisual Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kanda


    Full Text Available Realization of high-definition multimodal displays is keenly required for the advancement of information and communications technologies. As an index of high-definition display systems, the sense of presence has been widely investigated. Both theoretically and empirically such sense has been found to relate more dominantly to background components contained in a scene. In contrast, the appreciative role of foreground components in multimodal contents has not been investigated in detail. Therefore, we have been focusing on the sense of verisimilitude as another index. We recently studied how the sense of verisimilitude and the sense of presence were affected by temporal asynchrony between foreground audio-visual components of a Japanese garden and suggested that the sense of verisimilitude has significantly different characteristics from the sense of presence. To investigate whether this result would be valid more generally, we conducted an experiment using other audio-visual content, namely, a clip of western orchestral music. Results showed the sense of verisimilitude is more sensitive to audiovisual synchronicity than to display size, while the sense of presence is more sensitive to spatial size than the temporal property. Hence, the sense of verisimilitude can be another useful index, distinguishable from the sense of presence.

  13. Early-onset schizophrenia


    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak


    Early-onset schizophrenia is defined as schizophrenia with onset before the age of 18 years. While schizophrenia is a very rare disorder in childhood, it becomes increasingly common during adolescence and peaks in early adulthood. Even though childhood and adolescent schizophrenia lie on a continuum with adult schizophrenia and show roughly the same clinical picture, they both have some developmental specifics. They display greater symptom variability making the ...

  14. Differences in temporal aspects of mutagenesis and cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster cells treated with methylating agents and thymidine. (United States)

    Peterson, A R; Peterson, H


    Equitoxic concentrations of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and methyl methanesulfonate (MeMes) produced different frequencies of 8-azaguanine-resistant mutants and different amounts of N7-methylguanine, O6-methylguanine (m6G), and N3-methyladenine in the DNA of V79 Chinese hamster cells. Thus, neither the cytotoxicities nor the mutagenicities of these methylating agents could be attributed solely to nitrogen or to oxygen methylations in the DNA. However, MNNG produced 12-fold more m6G and 5-fold more mutants than did MeMes, indicating that a substantial part of the MNNG-induced mutations resulted from m6G--thymine mispairing during DNA replication. The expression as mutants of mutagenic oxygen methylations in the DNA of cells treated with MNNG was enhanced by thymidine (dThd) and deoxycytidine (dCyd), but these nucleosides did not significantly enhance MeMes-induced mutagenesis. The cytotoxicities of MNNG and MeMes were also increased by 10 microM dThd in proportion to the amount of m6G in the DNA. These increases in cytotoxicity were abolished by dCyd, which did not greatly reduce the dThd-induced enhancements of mutagenesis. Moreover, when dThd was present only during the 2-hr treatment with MNNG, maximal cytotoxicity occurred, but MNNG-induced mutagenesis was not increased. Maximal mutagenesis occurred when the dThd was present throughout the first doubling time of the MNNG-treated cells. Thus, the expression of the cytotoxicity and the mutagenicity associated with m6G in the DNA of V79 cells occurred by quite different mechanisms. PMID:6951203

  15. Coastal fish indicators response to natural and anthropogenic drivers-variability at temporal and different spatial scales (United States)

    Bergström, L.; Bergström, U.; Olsson, J.; Carstensen, J.


    Ecological indicators are increasingly used in marine and freshwater management but only few are developed towards full operationalization with known patterns of variability and documented responses to natural and anthropogenic environmental drivers. Here, we evaluate potential sources of indicator variability at two different spatial scales in three coastal fish-based indicators of environmental status in the Baltic Sea; abundance of cyprinids, abundance of perch and the proportion of larger perch. The study was performed on a data set covering 41 monitoring areas subject to different levels of anthropogenic impact, at a latitudinal range of 56-66°N and a salinity range of 2-8. Interannual variation was clearly minor relative to spatial variation. Small-scale spatial variation was related to water depth, wave exposure and water temperature. The remaining variation was assessed in relation to differences in natural and anthropogenic drivers between monitoring areas. Cyprinids showed a clear inverse relationship to water transparency, which was used as a proxy for eutrophication, indicating increased abundances in nutrient enriched areas. None of the indicators showed an expected negative relationship to the level of coastal commercial fisheries catches. Rather, a positive relationship for Perch suggested that the coastal fisheries were concentrated to areas with strong perch populations in the studied areas. The effect of salinity and climate (temperature during the growth season) among monitoring areas were small. The results emphasize the importance of assigning area-specific boundary levels to define good environmental status in the coastal fish indicators, in order to account for natural sources of variability. Further, although long-term monitoring in reference areas is crucial for obtaining a historical baseline, our results suggest that the status assessment of coastal fish would generally gain precision by increasingly including spatially based assessments

  16. Temporal properties of stereopsis (United States)

    Gheorghiu, E.


    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity processing, are based on psychophysical experiments and computational model analysis. In chapter 1 we investigated which processes of binocular depth perception in dynamic random-dot stereograms (DRS), i.e., tolerance for interocular delays and temporal integration of correlation, are responsible for the temporal flexibility of the stereoscopic system. Our results demonstrate that (i) disparities from simultaneous monocular inputs dominate those from interocular delayed inputs; (ii) stereopsis is limited by temporal properties of monocular luminance mechanisms; (iii) depth perception in DRS results from cross-correlation-like operation on two simultaneous monocular inputs that represent the retinal images after having been subjected to a process of monocular temporal integration of luminance. In chapter 2 we examined what temporal information is exploited by the mechanisms underlying stereoscopic motion in depth. We investigated systematically the influence of temporal frequency on binocular depth perception in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS. Our results show that disparity-defined depth is judged differently in temporally correlated and uncorrelated DRS above a temporal frequency of about 3 Hz. The results and simulations indicate that: (i) above about 20 Hz, the complete absence of stereomotion is caused by temporal integration of luminance; (ii) the difference in perceived depth in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS for temporal frequencies between 20 and 3 Hz, is caused by temporal integration of disparity. In chapter 3 we investigated temporal properties of stereopsis at different spatial scales in response to sustained and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostareva Elena Nikolaevna


    Full Text Available In article the question of interrelation of features of consciousness and life experience of the person is considered. Results of empirical research, which purpose - the comparative analysis existential psychosemantics structures of consciousness of women with different experience of motherhood are submitted. In structure self-consiousness of the women having children, the personal value of family well-being integrating senses of child-parental and matrimonial relations, a material prosperity and dialogue is revealed. In self-consciousness women who are not having children, the potential personal values of motherhood not connected among themselves and the leisure, focused on the future and specifying alternative variants of development and self-determination of women are found out. On the basis of methodology of synergetrics parameters of the system - structural analysis of consciousness are proved. The consciousness of the women having children is established, that, made structurally out and differs relative orderliness and stability. The consciousness of the women who are not having children, is made structurally out, but characterized by instability and rather smaller orderliness.

  18. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  19. Temporal Variation in Water Quality Parameters under Different Vegetative Communities in Two Flooded Forests of the Northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil (United States)

    Couto, E. G.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Johnson, M. S.


    The Pantanal is one of the largest flood plains in the world, and is characterized by large variability in vegetative communities and flooding dynamics. Some woody plant species have been observed to colonize large areas forming monospecific stands. We measured chemical parameters of flood waters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as physical parameters such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature (Tw), turbidity (Turb) and water levels (WL). These chemical and physical measurements were conducted with the intent to characterize spatial and temporal differences of monospecific stands in order to understand if these different formations alter the biogeochemistry of the Pantanal waters. Water sample campaigns were conducted during the inundation period of January to May 2013 in two areas located in the Private Reserve of the Brazilian Social Service of Commerce (RPPN-SESC) near Poconé, Mato Grosso. Research sites included: (1) a flooded tall-stature forest (known as Cambarazal) dominated by the Vochysia divergens species; and (2) in a flooded scrub forest (known as Baia das Pedras) dominated by the Combretum lanceolatum species. Results showed three principal factors which explained 80% of variance in aquatic physical and chemical parameters. The first factor (PCA-1) explained 38% of variance (DO, PAR and WL), PCA-2 explained 23% (NO3, Tw, DOC), while PCA-3 explained only 19% of variance (CO2 and Turb). During the entire study period, the major concentration of variables were observed in the flooded forest. Physical variables presented small alterations, with the exception of water levels, that were greater in the flooded forest. With respect to temporal variables, all chemical parameters were greater at the beginning of the inundation and gradually dropped with the water level. With this work, we observed that the different monospecific formations influenced water

  20. Ictal Spread of Medial Temporal Lobe Seizures With and Without Secondary Generalization: An Intracranial EEG Analysis (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Yeoun; Farooque, Pue; Chen, William; Youngblood, Mark W.; Zaveri, Hitten P.; Gerrard, Jason L.; Spencer, Dennis D.; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Blumenfeld, Hal


    Summary Objective Secondary generalization of seizures has devastating consequences for patient safety and quality of life. The aim of this intracranial EEG (icEEG) study was to investigate the differences in onset and propagation patterns of temporal lobe seizures that remained focal vs. those with secondary generalization in order to better understand the mechanism of secondary generalization. Methods A total of 39 seizures were analyzed in 9 patients who met the following criteria: 1) icEEG-video monitoring with at least 1 secondarily generalized tonic clonic seizure (GTC), 2) pathologically proven hippocampal sclerosis, and 3) no seizures for at least 1 year after anteromedial temporal lobe resection. Seizures were classified as focal or secondary generalized by behavioral analysis of video. Onset and propagation patterns were compared by analysis of icEEG. Results We obtained data from 22 focal seizures without generalization (FS), and 17 GTC. Seizure onset patterns did not differ between FS and GTCs, but there were differences in later propagation. All seizures started with low voltage fast activity except 7 seizures in one patient (6 FS, 1 GTC), which started with sharply contoured theta activity. 15 of 39 seizures started from the hippocampus and 24 seizures (including 6 seizures in a patient without hippocampal contacts) started from other medial temporal lobe areas. We observed involvement or more prominent activation of the posterior-lateral temporal regions in GTCs prior to propagation to the other cortical regions, vs. FS which had no involvement or less prominent activation of the posterior lateral temporal cortex. Occipital contacts were not involved at the time of clinical secondary generalization. Significance The posterior-lateral temporal cortex may serve as an important “gateway” controlling propagation of medial temporal lobe seizures to other cortical regions. Identifying the mechanisms of secondary generalization of focal seizures may

  1. Temporal dynamics of soil microbial communities under different moisture regimes: high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Zhuravleva, Anna; Semenov, Vyacheslav; Yevdokimov, Ilya; Larionova, Alla


    Recent climate scenarios predict not only continued global warming but also an increased frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as strong changes in temperature and precipitation regimes. Microorganisms are well known to be more sensitive to changes in environmental conditions than to other soil chemical and physical parameters. In this study, we determined the shifts in soil microbial community structure as well as indicative taxa in soils under three moisture regimes using high-throughput Illumina sequencing and range of bioinformatics approaches for the assessment of sequence data. Incubation experiments were performed in soil-filled (Greyic Phaeozems Albic) rhizoboxes with maize and without plants. Three contrasting moisture regimes were being simulated: 1) optimal wetting (OW), a watering 2-3 times per week to maintain soil moisture of 20-25% by weight; 2) periodic wetting (PW), with alternating periods of wetting and drought; and 3) constant insufficient wetting (IW), while soil moisture of 12% by weight was permanently maintained. Sampled fresh soils were homogenized, and the total DNA of three replicates was extracted using the FastDNA® SPIN kit for Soil. DNA replicates were combined in a pooled sample and the DNA was used for PCR with specific primers for the 16S V3 and V4 regions. In order to compare variability between different samples and replicates within a single sample, some DNA replicates treated separately. The products were purified and submitted to Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Sequence data were evaluated by alpha-diversity (Chao1 and Shannon H' diversity indexes), beta-diversity (UniFrac and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity), heatmap, tagcloud, and plot-bar analyses using the MiSeq Reporter Metagenomics Workflow and R packages (phyloseq, vegan, tagcloud). Shannon index varied in a rather narrow range (4.4-4.9) with the lowest values for microbial communities under PW treatment. Chao1 index varied from 385 to 480, being a more flexible

  2. Urban green spaces and plant diversity at different spatial–temporal scales: A case study from Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, H. F.


    Full Text Available Beijing, the capital city of China, is one of the largest and most rapidly-urbanizing cities in the world. In this work, we present the main results of one decade’s research on urban vegetation and plant diversity changes in different urban structural units. Urban vegetation/plant diversity has been studied at two different levels: at the landscape level (greening percentage, fragmentation degree and at the plant species level (structure, composition, and origin. Finally, concerns with the ability to study Beijing’s plant urban ecology are discussed.Pekín, la capital de China, es una de las urbes más pobladas y a la vez con una de las tasas de expansión urbana más rápidas del mundo. En el presente trabajo, se presentan los principales resultados tras una década de estudio de los cambios en la vegetación y diversidad vegetal urbana a lo largo de las diferentes unidades estructurales urbanas. La vegetación y la diversidad vegetal urbana se han estudiado a dos niveles: a nivel de paisaje (porcentaje de zonas verdes, grado de fragmentación y a nivel de especie (estructura, composición y origen. En último lugar se discuten algunos aspectos relacionados con la metodología de estudio de la ecología urbana en Pekín. [zh] 不同时空尺度上的城市绿地和植物多样性:以北京市为例。— 中国的首都北京是世界上最大且发展最快的城 市之一。本文展示了过去10余年间北京不同城市结构单元中城市绿地和植物多样性变化的主要研究结果。我 们对城市绿地和植物多样性在两个不同的尺度上进行了研究:在景观尺度上(如绿化率,破碎化程度等)和 植物群落尺度上(植物结构,组成和来源等)。最后,我们对未来城市植物学研究谈了几点看法。

  3. Temporal differences in plant growth and root exudation of two Brachiaria grasses in response to low phosphorus supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Louw-Gaume


    Full Text Available Exploiting the natural variability of Brachiaria forage germplasm to identify forage grasses adapted to infertile acid soils that contain very low available phosphorus (P is an important research objective for improving livestock production in the tropics. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the release of root biochemical markers, i.e. carboxylates and acid phosphatases (APases, during the development of P deficiency in signalgrass and ruzigrass. We used the hydroxyapatite pouch system in hydroponics to simulate conditions of low P supply in acid soils to test the response of well-adapted signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, CIAT 606 and less-adapted ruzigrass (B. ruziziensis cv. Kennedy, CIAT 654. We monitored shoot and root growth and other physiological and biochemical components that are important for root functionality at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. We found that monocarboxylate exudation was not associated with the plant’s physiological P status, while exudation of oxalate and secreted-APases increased with declining plant P concentrations in both grasses. Ruzigrass showed higher exudation rates and grew faster than signalgrass, but could not maintain its initial fast growth rate when P concentrations in plant tissue declined to 1.0 mg P/g dry matter. Oxalate was the dominant exuded carboxylate for signalgrass after 21 days of growth and this response might confer some eco-physiological advantages in signalgrass when grown in low-P acid soils.

  4. Quantifying different types of urban growth and the change dynamic in Guangzhou using multi-temporal remote sensing data (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Wu, Zhi-feng; Lv, Zhi-qiang; Yao, Na; Wei, Jian-bing


    There is a widespread concern about urban sprawl. It has negative impacts on natural resources, economic health, and community character. Without a universal definition of urban sprawl, its quantification and modeling is difficult. Traditionally, urban sprawl was described using qualitative terms, and landscape patterns. Quantitative methods are required to help local, regional and state land use planners to better identify, understand and address it. In this study, an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS was used to identify three urban growth types of infilling growth, outlying growth and edge-expansion growth at the city of Guangzhou, China. Spatial metrics were used to characterize long-term trends and patterns of urban growth. Result shows that the proposed method can identify and visualize different urban growth types. Infilling growth is the dominant expansion type. Edge-expansion is concentrated at suburban areas. Outlying growth mainly occurs relatively far from the urban core. The analysis shows that initially the urban area expands mainly as outlying growth, causing increased fragmentation and dispersion of urban areas. Next, growth filled in vacant non-urban area inwards, resulting into a more compact and aggregated urban pattern. The study shows an improved understanding of urban growth, and helps to provide an effective way for urban planning.

  5. Temporal physiological and biochemical changes in Hippeastrum vittatum ‘Red Lion’ bulbs stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Yu


    Full Text Available Starch and soluble sugar concentrations, α-amylase activity and soluble protein of Hippeastrum vittatum ‘Red Lion’ bulbs were assessed under different storage temperatures and storage periods. Bulbs were stored for 45 days at 20°, 12°, 8° or 4°C. Starch concentration decreased most at 4°C on the 45th day, changing from 29.7% to 10.9% in the exterior scales and from 33.0% to 13.0% in the interior scales. The α-amylase activity in the exterior scales, except at 4° and 8°C, decreased significantly between 0 and 15 days of storage, and then increased significantly from the 15th day until the end of the trial. The soluble sugar concentration increased most at 4°C: in the exterior scales it changed from 54.73 to 153.93 mg•g-1 while in the interior scales it increased from 39.67 to 148.11 mg•g-1. The soluble protein concentration in all treatments peaked on the 30th day at 8°C in the exterior scales (2.15 mg•g-1 and at 12°C in the interior scales (2.17 mg•g-1. Understanding these physiological and biochemical changes in the bulbs of H. vittatum after storage would serve as a reference for bulb dormancy mechanisms in future studies.

  6. Water vapor motion signal extraction from FY-2E longwave infrared window images for cloud-free regions: The temporal difference technique (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Wang, Zhenhui; Chu, Yanli; Zhao, Hang; Tang, Min


    The aim of this study is to calculate the low-level atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) in clear areas with FY-2E IR2 window (11.59-12.79 μm) channel imagery, where the traditional cloud motion wind technique fails. A new tracer selection procedure, which we call the temporal difference technique, is demonstrated in this paper. This technique makes it possible to infer low-level wind by tracking features in the moisture pattern that appear as brightness temperature ( T B) differences between consecutive sequences of 30-min-interval FY-2E IR2 images over cloud-free regions. The T B difference corresponding to a 10% change in water vapor density is computed with the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN4) radiative transfer model. The total contribution from each of the 10 layers is analyzed under four typical atmospheric conditions: tropical, midlatitude summer, U.S. standard, and midlatitude winter. The peak level of the water vapor weighting function for the four typical atmospheres is assigned as a specific height to the T B "wind". This technique is valid over cloud-free ocean areas. The proposed algorithm exhibits encouraging statistical results in terms of vector difference (VD), speed bias (BIAS), mean vector difference (MVD), standard deviation (SD), and root-mean-square error (RMSE), when compared with the wind field of NCEP reanalysis data and rawinsonde observations.

  7. Mapping temporal dynamics in social interactions with unified structural equation modeling: A description and demonstration revealing time-dependent sex differences in play behavior. (United States)

    Beltz, Adriene M; Beekman, Charles; Molenaar, Peter C M; Buss, Kristin A


    Developmental science is rich with observations of social interactions, but few available methodological and statistical approaches take full advantage of the information provided by these data. The authors propose implementation of the unified structural equation model (uSEM), a network analysis technique, for observational data coded repeatedly across time; uSEM captures the temporal dynamics underlying changes in behavior at the individual level by revealing the ways in which a single person influences - concurrently and in the future - other people. To demonstrate the utility of uSEM, the authors applied it to ratings of positive affect and vigor of activity during children's unstructured laboratory play with unfamiliar, same-sex peers. Results revealed the time-dependent nature of sex differences in play behavior. For girls more than boys, positive affect was dependent upon peers' prior positive affect. For boys more than girls, vigor of activity was dependent upon peers' current vigor of activity.

  8. Differences in risk factors for the onset of albuminuria and decrease in glomerular filtration rate in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: implications for the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. (United States)

    Takagi, M; Babazono, T; Uchigata, Y


    To determine differences in predictors of albuminuria and decreased estimated GFR in Japanese people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus without chronic kidney disease. This single-centre observational cohort study involved 1802 Japanese people with Type 2 diabetes with normoalbuminuria and estimated GFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (740 women; mean ± sd age 58 ± 12 years). Two separate outcomes were evaluated: onset of albuminuria ( ≥ 30 mg/g creatinine, albuminuria cohort; n = 1655) and decrease in estimated GFR ( albuminuria cohort and 8.0 years for the estimated GFR cohort, 181 and 316 individuals reached the respective outcome. The 5-year cumulative incidence of albuminuria was 8.3%, and that of decreased estimated GFR was 10.4%. In the multivariate Cox model, greater urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, presence of diabetic retinopathy and higher HbA1c levels were associated with both outcomes. Unique risk factors for onset of albuminuria were male gender and higher uric acid levels; those for decreased estimated GFR were older age, greater systolic blood pressure, and lower baseline estimated GFR and HDL cholesterol levels. Identification of both common and distinct predictive factors for onset of albuminuria and decreased estimated GFR support the hypothesis that both common and distinct pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in the development of these two manifestations of chronic kidney disease in diabetes. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  9. Awareness and Its Association With Affective Symptoms in Young-onset and Late-onset Alzheimer Disease: A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, D.; de Vugt, M.E.; Kohler, S.; Aalten, P.; Bakker, C.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Verhey, F. R. J.


    Background: It is unknown whether there are differences between young-onset dementia and late-onset dementia in awareness levels and whether awareness is differentially associated with affective symptoms in both groups. The present study assesses possible differences between young-onset (YO-AD) and

  10. Awareness and Its Association With Affective Symptoms in Young-onset and Late-onset Alzheimer Disease: A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, D. van; Vugt, M.E. de; Kohler, S.; Aalten, P.; Bakker, C.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Verhey, F.R.J.


    BACKGROUND:: It is unknown whether there are differences between young-onset dementia and late-onset dementia in awareness levels and whether awareness is differentially associated with affective symptoms in both groups. The present study assesses possible differences between young-onset (YO-AD) and

  11. Differences in spatio-temporal behavior of zebrafish in the open tank paradigm after a short-period confinement into dark and bright environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis B Rosemberg

    Full Text Available The open tank paradigm, also known as novel tank diving test, is a protocol used to evaluate the zebrafish behavior. Several characteristics have been described for this species, including scototaxis, which is the natural preference for dark environments in detriment of bright ones. However, there is no evidence regarding the influence of "natural stimuli" in zebrafish subjected to novelty-based paradigms. In this report, we evaluated the spatio-temporal exploratory activity of the short-fin zebrafish phenotype in the open tank after a short-period confinement into dark/bright environments. A total of 44 animals were individually confined during a 10-min single session into one of three environments: black-painted, white-painted, and transparent cylinders (dark, bright, and transparent groups. Fish were further subjected to the novel tank test and their exploratory profile was recorded during a 15-min trial. The results demonstrated that zebrafish increased their vertical exploratory activity during the first 6-min, where the bright group spent more time and travelled a higher distance in the top area. Interestingly, all behavioral parameters measured for the dark group were similar to the transparent one. These data were confirmed by automated analysis of track and occupancy plots and also demonstrated that zebrafish display a classical homebase formation in the bottom area of the tank. A detailed spatio-temporal study of zebrafish exploratory behavior and the construction of representative ethograms showed that the experimental groups presented significant differences in the first 3-min vs. last 3-min of test. Although the main factors involved in these behavioral responses still remain ambiguous and require further investigation, the current report describes an alternative methodological approach for assessing the zebrafish behavior after a forced exposure to different environments. Additionally, the analysis of ethologically

  12. The diagnosis of young-onset dementia (United States)

    Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Warren, Jason D


    A diagnosis of dementia is devastating at any age but diagnosis in younger patients presents a particular challenge. The differential diagnosis is broad as late presentation of metabolic disease is common and the burden of inherited dementia is higher in these patients than in patients with late-onset dementia. The presentation of the common degenerative diseases of late life, such as Alzheimer's disease, can be different when presenting in the fifth or sixth decade. Moreover, many of the young-onset dementias are treatable. The identification of causative genes for many of the inherited degenerative dementias has led to an understanding of the molecular pathology, which is also applicable to later-onset sporadic disease. This understanding offers the potential for future treatments to be tailored to a specific diagnosis of both young-onset and late-onset dementia. PMID:20650401

  13. Clinical features of late-onset ankylosing spondylitis: comparison with early-onset disease. (United States)

    Montilla, Carlos; Del Pino-Montes, Javier; Collantes-Estevez, Eduardo; Font, Pilar; Zarco, Pedro; Mulero, Juan; Gratacós, Jordi; Rodríguez, Carlos; Juanola, Xavier; Fernández-Sueiro, Jose Luis; Almodovar, Raquel


    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is generally observed in young patients but can occur later in life or in persons ≥ 50 years of age. Our objective was to characterize the clinical features of late-onset AS in a large multicenter national cohort. We studied late-onset AS in the National Registry of Spondyloarthritis of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (REGISPONSER database) cohort (n = 1257), of whom 3.5% had onset at age ≥ 50 years versus a control group with onset at < 50 years. There were no differences between late-onset and early-onset AS according to sex and family history of spondyloarthropathies. Patients in the late-onset group more often showed involvement of the cervical spine (22.7% vs 9.7%; p = 0.03) and arthritis of the upper (13.6% vs 3.0%; p = 0.002) and lower limbs (27.3% vs 15.2%; p = 0.03) as first manifestations than did patients in the early-onset group. A higher percentage of mixed forms (axial and peripheral joint disease) during the course of the disease was also recorded in the late-onset group (50% vs 24%; p = 0.0001). Our study suggests that age at onset of AS affects the patients' presenting clinical form. Arthritis of the upper limbs requires a differential diagnosis with other conditions frequent in patients over 50 years of age, such as rheumatoid arthritis or crystal-induced arthropathy.

  14. Gender differences in "luxury food intake" owing to temporal distribution of eating occasions among adults of Hindu communities in lowland Nepal. (United States)

    Sudo, Noriko; Sekiyama, Makiko; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Maharjan, Makhan


    Our previous studies in developing countries have indicated that gender differences in intake of luxury foods incur risk of micronutrient deficiencies among women. As the next step, we examined the causes of gender differences in food intake by comparing eating patterns, including meal frequency (skipping) and temporal distribution of food consumption throughout the day among adults of Hindu communities in lowland Nepal. A total of 321 adults (126 men and 195 women) aged 20 years and above were randomly selected from 94 households in three rural communities. A face-to-face questionnaire-based 24-hour dietary recall interview was conducted whereby foods eaten throughout the six eating occasions (morning snack, breakfast, lunch, daytime snack, dinner, and evening snack) were recorded and analyzed. Results shows that men frequently skipped lunch (p luxury foods such as tea with sugar and milk (p = 0.008) and samosa (p = 0.049) as daytime snack. The six-eating occasion analysis revealed that gender differences in food intake of rural Nepalese adults occurred during lunch and daytime snack, attributing to gender differences in daily activity patterns.

  15. Comparison of information content of temporal response of chemoresistive gas sensor under three different temperature modulation regimes for gas detection of different feature reduction methods (United States)

    Hosseini-Golgoo, S. M.; Salimi, F.; Saberkari, A.; Rahbarpour, S.


    In the present work the feature extraction of transient response of a resistive gas sensor under temperature cycling, temperature transient, and temperature combination methods were compared. So, the heater were stimulated by three pulse (cycling), ramp (transient) and staircase (combination) waveforms. The period or duration of all waves was equal to 40 s. Methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, toluene and acetone each at 11 different concentration levels in the range of 100 to 2000 ppm were used as the target gases. The utilized sensor was TGS-813 that made by Figaro Company. Recorded results were studied and heuristic features such as peak, rise time, slope and curvature of recorded responses were extracted for each heater waveform. Results showed that although application of this feature extraction method to all waveforms led to gas diagnoses, best results were achieved in the case of staircase waveform. The combination waveform had enough information to separate all examined target gases.

  16. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli


    , to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...... the risk of systemic effects. However, most recommendations are based on extrapolation from findings in younger patients. Comorbidities are very common in patients with late-onset asthma and need to be taken into account in the management of the disease. In conclusion, late-onset asthma is poorly...

  17. Spatio-temporal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with glomalin-related soil protein and soil enzymes in different managed semiarid steppes. (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Bao, Yuying; Liu, Xiaowei; Du, Guoxin


    Temporal and spatial patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and glomalin and soil enzyme activities were investigated in different managed semiarid steppes located in Inner Mongolia, North China. Soils were sampled in a depth up to 30 cm from non-grazed, overgrazed, and naturally restored steppes from June to September. Roots of Leymus chinense (Trin.) Tzvel. and Stipagrandis P. Smirn. were also collected over the same period. Results showed that overgrazing significantly decreased the total mycorrhizal colonization of S. grandis; total colonization of L. chinensis roots was not significantly different in the three managed steppes. Nineteen AMF species belonging to six genera were isolated. Funneliformis and Glomus were dominant genera in all three steppes. Spore density and species richness were mainly influenced by an interaction between plant growth stage and management system (P soil depth. AMF species richness was significantly positively correlated with soil acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and two Bradford-reactive soil protein (BRSP) fractions (P soil glomalin and phosphatase activity in different managed semiarid steppes. Based on these observations, AMF communities could be useful indicators for evaluating soil quality and function of semiarid grassland ecosystems.

  18. Temporal and morphological differences in post-embryonic differentiation of the mushroom bodies in the brain of workers, queens, and drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae). (United States)

    Roat, Thaisa Cristina; da Cruz Landim, Carminda


    The mushroom bodies are structures present in the insect brain described as centers for the neural basis of learning, memory, and other higher functions. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are insects with a sophisticated system of spatial orientation and possess well-developed learning and memory capabilities, which are associated with neural and brain structures. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the mushroom bodies during post-embryonic development and in newly emerged males, workers, and queens using light and transmission electron microscopy to examine how differential morphological characteristics are established during development. Measurements of structures were also taken in several post-embryonic developmental phases in order to evaluate size differences during the process and in the adult organs. The results show that workers, queens, and males exhibit temporal and size differences during the post-embryonic development of mushroom bodies, probably as adaptations to differences in behavior complexity. The mushroom bodies of workers are precociously formed and are larger than those of queens and drones. Thus, workers have the largest mushroom bodies resulting from differential development during metamorphosis.

  19. Laminar differences in response to simple and spectro-temporally complex sounds in the primary auditory cortex of ketamine-anesthetized gerbils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus K Schaefer

    Full Text Available In mammals, acoustic communication plays an important role during social behaviors. Despite their ethological relevance, the mechanisms by which the auditory cortex represents different communication call properties remain elusive. Recent studies have pointed out that communication-sound encoding could be based on discharge patterns of neuronal populations. Following this idea, we investigated whether the activity of local neuronal networks, such as those occurring within individual cortical columns, is sufficient for distinguishing between sounds that differed in their spectro-temporal properties. To accomplish this aim, we analyzed simple pure-tone and complex communication call elicited multi-unit activity (MUA as well as local field potentials (LFP, and current source density (CSD waveforms at the single-layer and columnar level from the primary auditory cortex of anesthetized Mongolian gerbils. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis was used to evaluate the degree of "call-specificity" in the evoked activity. The results showed that whole laminar profiles segregated 1.8-2.6 times better across calls than single-layer activity. Also, laminar LFP and CSD profiles segregated better than MUA profiles. Significant differences between CSD profiles evoked by different sounds were more pronounced at mid and late latencies in the granular and infragranular layers and these differences were based on the absence and/or presence of current sinks and on sink timing. The stimulus-specific activity patterns observed within cortical columns suggests that the joint activity of local cortical populations (as local as single columns could indeed be important for encoding sounds that differ in their acoustic attributes.

  20. Onset Age of Obesity and Variables of Personality and Biography. (United States)

    Steinberg, Carol

    Three hypotheses derived from Hilde Bruch's formulations regarding onset differences among the obese were tested. In Bruch's theory, adult-onset, or reactive, obesity is a result of psychological trauma; the individual uses eating as a defense against anxiety and depression. Child-onset, or developmental, obesity results from a mixture of…

  1. Differences in visual vs. verbal memory impairments as a result of focal temporal lobe damage in patients with traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Ariza, Mar; Pueyo, Roser; Junqué, Carme; Mataró, María; Poca, María Antonia; Mena, Maria Pau; Sahuquillo, Juan


    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of lesion in a sample of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) was related to material-specific memory impairment. Fifty-nine patients with TBI were classified into three groups according to whether the site of the lesion was right temporal, left temporal or diffuse. Six-months post-injury, visual (Warrington's Facial Recognition Memory Test and Rey's Complex Figure Test) and verbal (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test) memories were assessed. Visual memory deficits assessed by facial memory were associated with right temporal lobe lesion, whereas verbal memory performance assessed with a list of words was related to left temporal lobe lesion. The group with diffuse injury showed both verbal and visual memory impairment. These results suggest a material-specific memory impairment in moderate and severe TBI after focal temporal lesions and a non-specific memory impairment after diffuse damage.

  2. Identification of different mechanisms leading to PAX6 down-regulation as potential events contributing to the onset of Hirschsprung disease (United States)

    Enguix-Riego, María Valle; Torroglosa, Ana; Fernández, Raquel María; Moya-Jiménez, María José; de Agustín, Juan Carlos; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Borrego, Salud


    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is attributed to a failure of neural crest derived cells to migrate, proliferate, differentiate or survive in the bowel wall during embryonic Enteric Nervous System (ENS) development. This process requires a wide and complex variety of molecules and signaling pathways which are activated by transcription factors. In an effort to better understand the etiology of HSCR, we have designed a study to identify new transcription factors participating in different stages of the colonization process. A differential expression study has been performed on a set of transcription factors using Neurosphere-like bodies from both HSCR and control patients. Differential expression levels were found for CDYL, MEIS1, STAT3 and PAX6. A significantly lower expression level for PAX6 in HSCR patients, would suit with the finding of an over-representation of the larger tandem (AC)m(AG)n repeats within the PAX6 promoter in HSCR patients, with the subsequent loss of protein P300 binding. Alternatively, PAX6 is a target for DNMT3B-dependant methylation, a process already proposed as a mechanism with a role in HSCR. Such decrease in PAX6 expression may influence in the proper function of signaling pathways involved in ENS with the confluence of additional genetic factors to the manifestation of HSCR phenotype. PMID:26879676

  3. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration. (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T


    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.

  4. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J.; Thomson, Scott L.; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T.


    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.

  5. Short-temporal variation of soil organic carbon in different land use systems in the Ramsar site 2027 `Presa Manuel Ávila Camacho' Puebla (United States)

    López-Teloxa, L. C.; Cruz-Montalvo, A.; Tamaríz-Flores, J. V.; Pérez-Avilés, R.; Torres, E.; Castelán-Vega, R.


    The soil organic carbon (SOC) was determined in 40 sites at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm) for different uses of soil during one year (February 2014-February 2015). The total SOC stored in the analysed soil from the Ramsar site was 9{,}67 × 105 t, from which 40% was stored in induced pasture, followed by the red oak forest with shrubbery secondary vegetation, rain-fed agriculture and human settlements (24%, 23%, and 13%, respectively); the last was evaluated to determine how the proximity of the city impacts the SOC. The SOC concentrations present significant differences with respect to soil depth (p=0.0) and land use (p=0.0). The temporal distribution maps showed that SOC did not present significant variations in the short-term. A relation between SOC and bulk density was found (r = -0.654, p=0.00), with respect to other physicochemical properties. Moreover, a significant relation between SOC and stored total nitrogen (r = 0.585; p = 0.00) was found. This work represents the first study that analyses the current condition of the soils in the Ramsar site `Presa Manuel Ávila Camacho'.

  6. Factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempts in Spain for different age groups. Prevalence before and after the onset of the economic crisis. (United States)

    Miret, Marta; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Huerta-Ramírez, Raúl; Moneta, María Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Chatterji, Somnath; Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis


    Little is known about whether the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts has changed in the wake of the economic crisis. The aim of this study was to estimate current prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts in the general population in Spain, to compare it with the prevalence found before the economic crisis, and to analyse the factors associated with suicidality in different age groups. A total of 4583 non-institutionalised adults were interviewed in a cross-sectional household survey of a nationally representative sample in Spain. Several modules of an adapted version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were administered to the participants, and logistic regression models were employed in each age group. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts in Spain were respectively, 3.67% and 1.46%. Mental disorders presented the highest significant effects on lifetime suicidal ideation. Marital status, heavy alcohol consumption, and occupational status were associated with lifetime suicidal ideation in people aged 18-49, whereas loneliness was associated with the 50-64 group, and financial problems with the 65+ group. A younger age, poor health status and the presence of depression were all associated with lifetime suicide attempts. The cross-sectional design of the study represents a methodological limitation. The current prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts in Spain is similar to the one found ten years ago, before the recent economic crisis. The factors associated with suicidality vary among age groups. Suicide prevention programmes should focus on early detection and prevention for depression and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid temporal recalibration to visuo-tactile stimuli. (United States)

    Lange, Joachim; Kapala, Katharina; Krause, Holger; Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons


    For a comprehensive understanding of the environment, the brain must constantly decide whether the incoming information originates from the same source and needs to be integrated into a coherent percept. This integration process is believed to be mediated by temporal integration windows. If presented with temporally asynchronous stimuli for a few minutes, the brain adapts to this new temporal relation by recalibrating the temporal integration windows. Such recalibration can occur even more rapidly after exposure to just a single trial of asynchronous stimulation. While rapid recalibration has been demonstrated for audio-visual stimuli, evidence for rapid recalibration of visuo-tactile stimuli is lacking. Here, we investigated rapid recalibration in the visuo-tactile domain. Subjects received visual and tactile stimuli with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) and were asked to report whether the visuo-tactile stimuli were presented simultaneously. Our results demonstrate visuo-tactile rapid recalibration by revealing that subjects' simultaneity reports were modulated by the temporal order of stimulation in the preceding trial. This rapid recalibration effect, however, was only significant if the SOA in the preceding trial was smaller than 100 ms, while rapid recalibration could not be demonstrated for SOAs larger than 100 ms. Since rapid recalibration in the audio-visual domain has been demonstrated for SOAs larger than 100 ms, we propose that visuo-tactile recalibration works at shorter SOAs, and thus faster time scales than audio-visual rapid recalibration.

  8. Effect of myopia onset time for macula choroidal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Wang


    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of onset time(Tfor macula choroidal thickness(CTin myopia patient. METHODS:A prospective cohort study was designed.One hundred and twenty-two myopia patients(244 eyes; 67 male and 55 female; aged 30~41 years, mean 35.1±4.6 years oldwho received preoperative examinations from March 2014 to April 2015 were recruited in this study. The patients were divided into three groups according to onset time(T:group A(T≤5a, group B(5aF=1.56,P>0.05,age(F=2.13,P>0.05,best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, F=1.41,P>0.05,corneal curvature(F=1.65,P>0.05and axial length(F=1.89,P>0.05among the three groups. The choroid in macular region was measured by enhanced depth imaging(EDIusing spectral-domain optical coherence tomography(SD-OCT. This study recorded the CT at subfoveal(SFCT, 1mm at temporal(T1mm, nasal(N1mm, superior(S1mmand inferior(I1mmto the fovea and 3mm temporal(T3mm, nasal(N3mm, superior(S3mmand inferior(I3mmto the fovea, respectively. The differences of CT at the same position among the three groups were analyzed.RESULTS:The mean SFCT for group A,B,C were 238.32±57.95μm, 230.58±67.21μm, 221.63±62.37μm respectively in this study. The CT was found no significant difference in different locations except N3mm(tA-B=4.34,P3mm(tB-C=7.61,P3mm(t=0.76,P>0.05between group A and C. Significant difference was found at N3mm(tA-B=4.31,t B-C=7.59,tA-C=12.18; PCONCLUSION:The choroidal thickness decreases as the myopia onset time is earlier, especially at nasal.

  9. Semiology of temporal lobe epilepsies. (United States)

    Abou-Khalil, Bassel W


    Temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE) represent the majority of the partial symptomatic/cryptogenic epilepsies. Excellent results of epilepsy surgery in well-selected patients have encouraged a search for localizing and lateralizing signs that could assist in the identification of the best surgical candidates. Seizure types in TLE include simple partial, complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures. Temporal lobe seizures most often arise in the amygdalo-hippocampal region. More than 90% of patients with mesial TLE report an aura, most commonly an epigastric sensation that often has a rising character. Other autonomic symptoms, psychic symptoms, and certain sensory phenomena (such as olfactory) also occur. The complex partial seizures of mesial TLE often involve motor arrest, oroalimentary automatisms or non-specific extremity automatisms at onset. Ictal manifestations that have lateralizing value include dystonic posturing (contralateral), early head turning (usually ipsilateral), and adversive head turning in transition to generalization (contralateral). Well-formed ictal language favors right temporal localization. Ictal vomiting, spitting, and drinking tend to be right sided. The duration of TLE complex partial seizures is generally greater than one minute and postictal confusion usually occurs. When postictal aphasia is noted a left-sided lateralization is favored. A lateral temporal onset is less common in TLE, and is most often suggested by an auditory aura. Somatosensory and visual auras are highly unlikely with TLE, and suggest neocortical extratemporal localization. A cephalic aura is non-specific, but is more common in frontal lobe epilepsy.

  10. Young-Onset Dementia


    Kuruppu, Dulanji K; Matthews, Brandy R.


    Young-onset dementia (YOD) is an neurological syndrome that affects behavior and cognition of patients younger than 65 years of age. Although frequently misdiagnosed, a systematic approach, reliant upon attainment of detailed medical history, collateral history from an informant, neuropsychological testing, laboratory studies, and neuroimaging, may facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis with subsequent intervention. The differential diagnosis of YOD is extensive and includes early-ons...

  11. Alzheimer's disease: a mathematical model for onset and progression. (United States)

    Bertsch, Michiel; Franchi, Bruno; Marcello, Norina; Tesi, Maria Carla; Tosin, Andrea


    In this article we propose a mathematical model for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease based on transport and diffusion equations. We regard brain neurons as a continuous medium and structure them by their degree of malfunctioning. Two different mechanisms are assumed to be relevant for the temporal evolution of the disease: i) diffusion and agglomeration of soluble polymers of amyloid, produced by damaged neurons and ii) neuron-to-neuron prion-like transmission. We model these two processes by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration, coupled to a kinetic-type transport equation for the distribution function of the degree of malfunctioning of neurons. The second equation contains an integral term describing the random onset of the disease as a jump process localized in particularly sensitive areas of the brain. Our numerical simulations are in good qualitative agreement with clinical images of the disease distribution in the brain which vary from early to advanced stages. © The authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  12. Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD). (United States)

    Wu, Liyong; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Masellis, Mario; Black, Sandra E; Jia, Jianping; Gauthier, Serge


    Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD) is a condition characterized by early onset dementia (age at onset family history for dementia. To date, 230 mutations in presenilin (PS1, PS2) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) genes have been identified in EOFAD. The mutations within these three genes (PS1/PS2/APP) affect a common pathogenic pathway in APP synthesis and proteolysis, which lead to excessive production of amyloid β. Compared with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), EOFAD has some distinctive features including early age at onset, positive familial history, a variety of non-cognitive neurological symptoms and signs, and a more aggressive course. There is marked phenotypic heterogeneity among different mutations of EOFAD. Studies in presymptomatic mutation carriers reveal biomarkers abnormalities. EOFAD diagnosis is based on clinical and family history, neurological symptoms and examination, biomarker features, as well as genotyping in some cases. New therapeutic agents targeting amyloid formation may benefit EOFAD individuals.

  13. Late onset depression: A recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mahapatra


    Full Text Available Late onset depression has recently emerged as a serious mental health issue in the geriatric population with significant public health implications. It is often challenging to diagnose and treat this entity. Various theories have been postulated to elucidate the etiology of late onset depression, but a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Although the vascular hypothesis is most researched; a complex interaction of multiple vulnerability factors is the current focus of attention. Numerous psychosocial variables have been implicated to play a significant role in predicting the onset and severity of late-life depression. Phenomenological differences have been delineated from depression occurring at a younger age, but the findings are equivocal. A better understanding of the natural trajectory of depression in the elderly is required for early diagnosis and effective treatment. This review attempts to summarize the current status of evidence regarding epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and treatment options available for late-onset depression.

  14. Adolescent-Onset Depression: Are Obesity and Inflammation Developmental Mechanisms or Outcomes? (United States)

    Byrne, Michelle L; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Mitchell, Sarah A; Allen, Nicholas B


    Depression often has its first onset during adolescence and is associated with obesity. Furthermore, inflammatory processes have been implicated in both depression and obesity, although research amongst adolescents is limited. This review explores associations between depression and obesity, depression and inflammation, and obesity and inflammation from a developmental perspective. The temporal relations between these factors are examined to explore whether obesity and elevated inflammation act as either risk factors for, or outcomes of, adolescent-onset depression. Sex differences in these processes are also summarized. We propose a model whereby increases in sex hormones during puberty increase risk for depression for females, which can lead to obesity, which in turn increases levels of inflammation. Importantly, this model suggests that inflammation and obesity are outcomes of adolescent depression, rather than initial contributing causes. Further research on biological and psychosocial effects of sex hormones is needed, as is longitudinal research with children and adolescents.

  15. Association between mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, Jordi; de Jonge, Peter; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Liu, Zhaorui; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Borges, Guilherme; Ciutan, Marius; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fiestas, Fabian; Maria Haro, Josep; Hu, Chiyi; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Scott, Kate M.


    Background and objectives: Associations between asthma and anxiety and mood disorders are well established, but little is known about their temporal sequence. We examined associations between a wide range of DSM-IV mental disorders with adult onset of asthma and whether observed associations remain

  16. Functional neuroimaging in early-onset anorexia nervosa. (United States)

    Lask, Bryan; Gordon, Isky; Christie, Deborah; Frampton, Ian; Chowdhury, Uttom; Watkins, Beth


    Previous neuroimaging studies in early-onset anorexia nervosa provide evidence of limbic system dysfunction. The current study adds support to the possibility by revealing a significant association between unilateral reduction of blood flow in the temporal region and impaired visuospatial ability, impaired visual memory, and enhanced speed of information processing. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Temporal coordination in joint music performance: effects of endogenous rhythms and auditory feedback. (United States)

    Zamm, Anna; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Palmer, Caroline


    Many behaviors require that individuals coordinate the timing of their actions with others. The current study investigated the role of two factors in temporal coordination of joint music performance: differences in partners' spontaneous (uncued) rate and auditory feedback generated by oneself and one's partner. Pianists performed melodies independently (in a Solo condition), and with a partner (in a duet condition), either at the same time as a partner (Unison), or at a temporal offset (Round), such that pianists heard their partner produce a serially shifted copy of their own sequence. Access to self-produced auditory information during duet performance was manipulated as well: Performers heard either full auditory feedback (Full), or only feedback from their partner (Other). Larger differences in partners' spontaneous rates of Solo performances were associated with larger asynchronies (less effective synchronization) during duet performance. Auditory feedback also influenced temporal coordination of duet performance: Pianists were more coordinated (smaller tone onset asynchronies and more mutual adaptation) during duet performances when self-generated auditory feedback aligned with partner-generated feedback (Unison) than when it did not (Round). Removal of self-feedback disrupted coordination (larger tone onset asynchronies) during Round performances only. Together, findings suggest that differences in partners' spontaneous rates of Solo performances, as well as differences in self- and partner-generated auditory feedback, influence temporal coordination of joint sensorimotor behaviors.

  18. Discovering metric temporal constraint networks on temporal databases. (United States)

    Álvarez, Miguel R; Félix, Paulo; Cariñena, Purificación


    In this paper, we propose the ASTPminer algorithm for mining collections of time-stamped sequences to discover frequent temporal patterns, as represented in the simple temporal problem (STP) formalism: a representation of temporal knowledge as a set of event types and a set of metric temporal constraints among them. To focus the mining process, some initial knowledge can be provided by the user, also expressed as an STP, that acts as a seed pattern for the searching procedure. In this manner, the mining algorithm will search for those frequent temporal patterns consistent with the initial knowledge. Health organisations demand, for multiple areas of activity, new computational tools that will obtain new knowledge from huge collections of data. Temporal data mining has arisen as an active research field that provides new algorithms for discovering new temporal knowledge. An important point in defining different proposals is the expressiveness of the resulting temporal knowledge, which is commonly found in the bibliography in a qualitative form. ASTPminer develops an Apriori-like strategy in an iterative algorithm where, as a result of each iteration i, a set of frequent temporal patterns of size i is found that incorporates three distinctive mechanisms: (1) use of a clustering procedure over distributions of temporal distances between events to recognise similar occurrences as temporal patterns; (2) consistency checking of every combination of temporal patterns, which ensures the soundness of the resultant patterns; and (3) use of seed patterns to allow the user to drive the mining process. To validate our proposal, several experiments were conducted over a database of time-stamped sequences obtained from polysomnography tests in patients with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. ASTPminer was able to extract well-known temporal patterns corresponding to different manifestations of the syndrome. Furthermore, the use of seed patterns resulted in a reduction in the size of

  19. The nosological status of early onset anorexia nervosa. (United States)

    Cooper, P J; Watkins, B; Bryant-Waugh, R; Lask, B


    Although cases of early onset anorexia nervosa have been described, there has been no systematic comparison of early onset cases with classic cases of later onset, or with other forms of early onset eating disturbance. A consecutive series of patients referred to two specialist child and adolescent eating disorder services with a clinical diagnosis of eating disorder (N = 126) was systematically assessed using a child version of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and the K-SADS interview. Of 86 patients with a diagnosis of eating disorder of early onset, 38 received a clinical diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN). The remainder were mainly diagnosed as having food avoidance emotional disorder (25 patients) and selective eating (17 patients). Six received other diagnoses (bulimia nervosa, or functional dysphasia). These 48 patients were combined to form a group of early onset non-AN eating disturbance. In terms of specific eating disorder psychopathology and general psychopathology, the early onset AN group was very similar to the late onset AN sample. When the two early onset groups were compared, there was a marked difference between them in terms of eating disorder psychopathology. A discriminant function analysis using the EDE information produced a clear discrimination, with the EDE restraint and shape concern subscales doing most of the discrimination work. The specific psychopathology of AN of early onset is very similar to that of classic adolescent onset AN. Other forms of early onset eating disorder do not evidence this specific psychopathology.

  20. Association between mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma. (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; de Jonge, Peter; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Liu, Zhaorui; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Borges, Guilherme; Ciutan, Marius; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fiestas, Fabian; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kessler, Ronald C; Lépine, Jean Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Scott, Kate M


    Associations between asthma and anxiety and mood disorders are well established, but little is known about their temporal sequence. We examined associations between a wide range of DSM-IV mental disorders with adult onset of asthma and whether observed associations remain after mental comorbidity adjustments. During face-to-face household surveys in community-dwelling adults (n = 52,095) of 19 countries, the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Asthma was assessed by self-report of physician's diagnosis together with age of onset. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma, without and with comorbidity adjustment. 1860 adult onset (21 years+) asthma cases were identified, representing a total of 2,096,486 person-years of follow up. After adjustment for comorbid mental disorders several mental disorders were associated with subsequent adult asthma onset: bipolar (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.3-2.5), panic (OR = 1.4; 95%CI 1.0-2.0), generalized anxiety (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.7), specific phobia (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.6); post-traumatic stress (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1-1.9); binge eating (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.9) and alcohol abuse (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1-2.0). Mental comorbidity linearly increased the association with adult asthma. The association with subsequent asthma was stronger for mental disorders with an early onset (before age 21). A wide range of temporally prior mental disorders are significantly associated with subsequent onset of asthma in adulthood. The extent to which asthma can be avoided or improved among those with early mental disorders deserves study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Precuneus atrophy in early-onset Alzheimer's disease: a morphometric structural MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, Giorgos [Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Scheltens, Philip; Jones, Bethany [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Clinical Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rombouts, Serge [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics and Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schijndel, Ronald van [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Image Analysis Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics and Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Klein, Martin [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Medical Psychology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje van der [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrenken, Hugo [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Image Analysis Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barkhof, Frederik [Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Image Analysis Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) usually first presents in elderly patients, but may also develop at an earlier age. Patients with an early age at onset tend to present with complaints other than memory impairment, such as visuospatial problems or apraxia, which may reflect a different distribution of cortical involvement. In this study we set out to investigate whether age at onset in patients with AD determines the pattern of atrophy on cerebral MRI scans. We examined 55 patients with AD over a wide age range and analyzed their 3-D T1-weighted structural MRI scans in standard space using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Regression analysis was performed to estimate loss of grey matter as a function of age, corrected for mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores and sex. The VBM analyses identified multiple areas (including the temporal and parietal lobes), showing more atrophy with advancing age. By contrast, a younger age at onset was found to be associated with lower grey matter density in the precuneus. Regionalized volumetric analysis of this region confirmed the existence of disproportionate atrophy in the precuneus in patients with early-onset AD. Application of a multivariate model with precuneus grey matter density as input, showed that precuneal and hippocampal atrophy are independent from each other. Additionally, we found that a smaller precuneus is associated with impaired visuospatial functioning. Our findings support the notion that age at onset modulates the distribution of cortical involvement, and that disproportionate precuneus atrophy is more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. (orig.)

  2. Major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder show different autonomic dysregulations revealed by heart-rate variability analysis in first-onset drug-naïve patients without comorbidity. (United States)

    Shinba, Toshikazu


    The aim of the present study was to examine whether depression and anxiety disorder manifest different autonomic dysregulations using heart-rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) measurements. HRV and HR were recorded both at rest and during task execution (random-number generation) in first-onset drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 14) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, n = 11) as well as in healthy controls (n = 41). The patients showed no comorbidity of depression and anxiety disorder. GAD patients did not exhibit panic or phobic symptoms at the time of measurement. Following power spectrum analysis of HR trend, the high- (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, the sum (LF + HF), and the LF/HF ratio were compared among the groups. In the MDD patients, as previously reported, HF was low and the LF/HF ratio was high during the initial-rest condition, and HF was less reactive to the task. In contrast, GAD patients showed significantly high HF, although autonomic reactivity was not impaired. The results indicate that baseline autonomic activity and its reactivity to behavioral changes are different between MDD and GAD in the early stage of illness. High parasympathetic tone in GAD may reflect responses of the parasympathetic system to anxiety. MDD is accompanied by an autonomic shift toward sympathetic activation and a reduced reactivity to task. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. Alpha Oscillatory Dynamics Index Temporal Expectation Benefits in Working Memory. (United States)

    Wilsch, Anna; Henry, Molly J; Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Obleser, Jonas


    Enhanced alpha power compared with a baseline can reflect states of increased cognitive load, for example, when listening to speech in noise. Can knowledge about "when" to listen (temporal expectations) potentially counteract cognitive load and concomitantly reduce alpha? The current magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiment induced cognitive load using an auditory delayed-matching-to-sample task with 2 syllables S1 and S2 presented in speech-shaped noise. Temporal expectation about the occurrence of S1 was manipulated in 3 different cue conditions: "Neutral" (uninformative about foreperiod), "early-cued" (short foreperiod), and "late-cued" (long foreperiod). Alpha power throughout the trial was highest when the cue was uninformative about the onset time of S1 (neutral) and lowest for the late-cued condition. This alpha-reducing effect of late compared with neutral cues was most evident during memory retention in noise and originated primarily in the right insula. Moreover, individual alpha effects during retention accounted best for observed individual performance differences between late-cued and neutral conditions, indicating a tradeoff between allocation of neural resources and the benefits drawn from temporal cues. Overall, the results indicate that temporal expectations can facilitate the encoding of speech in noise, and concomitantly reduce neural markers of cognitive load. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G [Earth Cryosphere Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Epstein, H E; Yu, Q [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E [Arctic Center, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (Finland); Comiso, J C [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD (United States); Jia, G J [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Kaplan, J O [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kumpula, T [University of Joensuu, Joensuu (Finland); Kuss, P [University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Matyshak, G [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  5. Altered organization of face-processing networks in temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Riley, Jeffrey D; Fling, Brett W; Cramer, Steven C; Lin, Jack J


    Deficits in social cognition are common and significant in people with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the functional and structural underpinnings remain unclear. The present study investigated how the side of seizure focus impacts face-processing networks in temporal lobe epilepsy. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of a face-processing paradigm to identify face-responsive regions in 24 individuals with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (left = 15; right = 9) and 19 healthy controls. fMRI signals of face-responsive regions ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of seizure onset were delineated in TLE and compared to the healthy controls with right and left sides combined. Diffusion tensor images were acquired to investigate structural connectivity between face regions that differed in fMRI signals between the two groups. In TLE, activation of the cortical face-processing networks varied according to side of seizure onset. In temporal lobe epilepsy, the laterality of amygdala activation was shifted to the side contralateral to the seizure focus, whereas controls showed no significant asymmetry. Furthermore, compared to controls, patients with TLE showed decreased activation of the occipital face-responsive region on the ipsilateral side and an increased activity of the anterior temporal lobe in the side contralateral to the seizure focus. Probabilistic tractography revealed that the occipital face area and anterior temporal lobe are connected via the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which in individuals with TLE showed reduced integrity. Taken together, these findings suggest that brain function and white matter integrity of networks subserving face processing are impaired on the side of seizure onset, accompanied by altered responses on the side contralateral to the seizure. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Integration of spatial and temporal data for the definition of different landslide hazard scenarios in the area north of Lisbon (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Zêzere


    Full Text Available A general methodology for the probabilistic evaluation of landslide hazard is applied, taking in account both the landslide susceptibility and the instability triggering factors, mainly rainfall. The method is applied in the Fanhões-Trancão test site (north of Lisbon, Portugal where 100 shallow translational slides were mapped and integrated into a GIS database. For the landslide susceptibility assessment it is assumed that future landslides can be predicted by statistical relationships between past landslides and the spatial data set of the predisposing factors (slope angle, slope aspect, transversal slope profile, lithology, superficial deposits, geomorphology, and land use. Susceptibility is evaluated using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Bayesian model over unique-condition terrain units in a raster basis. The landslide susceptibility map is prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel susceptibility value in descending order. In order to validate the results of the susceptibility ana- lysis, the landslide data set is divided in two parts, using a temporal criterion. The first subset is used for obtaining a prediction image and the second subset is compared with the prediction results for validation. The obtained prediction-rate curve is used for the quantitative interpretation of the initial susceptibility map. Landslides in the study area are triggered by rainfall. The integration of triggering information in hazard assessment includes (i the definition of thresholds of rainfall (quantity-duration responsible for past landslide events; (ii the calculation of the relevant return periods; (iii the assumption that the same rainfall patterns (quantity/duration which produced slope instability in the past will produce the same effects in the future (i.e. same types of landslides and same total affected area. The landslide hazard is present as the probability of each pixel to be affected by a slope movement

  7. Temporal stability of soil moisture under different land uses/cover in the Loess Plateau based on a finer spatiotemporal scale (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Fu, B. J.; Lü, N.; Gao, G. Y.; Lü, Y. H.; Wang, S.


    The Temporal stability of soil moisture (TSSM) is an important factor to evaluate the value of available water resources in a water-controlled ecosystem. In this study we used the evapotranspiration-TSSM (ET-TSSM) model and a new sampling design to examine the soil water dynamics and water balance of different land uses/cover types in a hilly landscape of the Loess Plateau under a finer spatiotemporal scale. Our primary focus is to examine the difference among soil water processes, including the wet-to-dry (WTD) process triggered by precipitation and the dry-to-wet (DTW) process caused by radiation among varied land uses/cover types. Three vegetation types and bare land were selected in the sampling scheme. For each land uses/cover type, four microplots (60 cm × 60cm) were established, and the soil moisture was measured at the central point (CP) and four ambient points (AP). The results indicated that (1) the bare land (plot1) was sensitive to the influence of rainfall and radiation compared with other land uses types; (2) Andropogon (plot2) and Spiraea pubescens (plot4) more efficiently represented the average soil moisture of the different land uses/cover in the WTD and DTW processes, respectively, in the CP position. In contrast, the bare land and Artemisia coparia (plot3) seemed to be more representative of the average soil water content in the AP position; (3) the ET-TSSM model demonstrated that, in the WTD processes, although Spiraea pubescens land use reached the net deficit of the soil water storage condition was longest, the vegetated land uses have a higher capacity of water consumption than bare land and more easily affected the serious condition of the soil water deficiency at the end of WTD processes. We concluded that a finer spatiotemporal scale in the TSSM study could be a new method to describe the effect of plant on soil moisture dynamics triggered by precipitation or radiation and that the improvement of the application of the TSSM-based model

  8. Temporal Concordance of Anxiety Disorders and Child Sexual Abuse: Implications for Direct Versus Artifactual Effects of Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Silovsky, Jane F.; Vaughn, Christy


    This study examined the temporal concordance between the onset of childhood anxiety disorders and the points of onset and ending of child sexual abuse (CSA). Sexually abused children (N = 158) were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews. Onset ages for lifetime prevalence anxiety disorders were combined and sequenced with the onset and…

  9. Early onset dementia. (United States)

    Fadil, Halim; Borazanci, Aimee; Ait Ben Haddou, Elhachmia; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Korniychuk, Elena; Jaffe, Stephen L; Minagar, Alireza


    Dementia is characterized by a decline in cognitive faculties and occurrence of behavioral abnormalities which interfere with an individual's activities of daily living. Dementing disorders usually affect elderly individuals but may occur in individuals younger than 65 years (early-onset dementia or EOD). EOD is often misdiagnosed or its diagnosis is delayed due to the fact that it has a more varied differential diagnosis than late-onset dementia. EOD affects individuals at the height of their career and productivity and produces devastating consequences and financial loss for the patient's family as well as society. EOD is not uncommon and is diagnosed in up to a third of patients presenting with dementia. Most importantly, some of the causes of EOD are curable which makes the need for a specific and timely diagnosis crucial. The present chapter presents a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of EOD and provides readers with the clinical and neuroimaging features of these disorders as well as important considerations for their diagnostic evaluation. Specifically, the nuances of assessing the history and examination are discussed with careful attention to the various methods of cognitive and behavioral evaluation. A step-wise approach to diagnostic testing is followed by a discussion of anatomical localization, which often aids in identifying specific etiologies. Finally, in order to organize the subject for the reader, the various etiologies are grouped under the general categories of vascular, infectious, toxic-metabolic, immune-mediated, neoplastic/metastatic, and neurodegenerative.

  10. Temporal Ventriloquism in Sensorimotor Synchronization (United States)

    Parker, Melody Kay

    Perception of time is multisensory and therefore requires integration of the auditory and visual systems. Temporal ventriloquism is a phenomenon in which discrepant temporal aspects of multisensory stimuli are resolved through auditory dominance. Numerous prior experiments have demonstrated temporal ventriloquism using simple flash and click stimuli. The experiment presented herein employed a sensorimotor synchronization task to examine the effect of visual stimulus type across a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA). This study compared sensorimotor response to three visual stimuli: a flash, a baton swinging, and a mallet striking a block. The results of the experiment indicated that the influence of SOA was greatly dependent on stimulus type. In contrast with the transient flash stimulus, the oscillatory visual stimuli provided more spatiotemporal information. This could explain the significantly reduced effect of temporal ventriloquism observed in response to the baton and mallet relative to the flash. Multisensory integration did not absolutely bias the auditory system; predictive visual dynamics proved useful in the unified perception of temporal occurrence.

  11. Cerebellar pathology in childhood-onset vs. adult-onset essential tremor. (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Tate, William J; Kelly, Geoffrey C; Faust, Phyllis L


    Although the incidence of ET increases with advancing age, the disease may begin at any age, including childhood. The question arises as to whether childhood-onset ET cases manifest the same sets of pathological changes in the cerebellum as those whose onset is during adult life. We quantified a broad range of postmortem features (Purkinje cell [PC] counts, PC axonal torpedoes, a host of associated axonal changes [PC axonal recurrent collateral count, PC thickened axonal profile count, PC axonal branching count], heterotopic PCs, and basket cell rating) in 60 ET cases (11 childhood-onset and 49 adult-onset) and 30 controls. Compared to controls, childhood-onset ET cases had lower PC counts, higher torpedo counts, higher heterotopic PC counts, higher basket cell plexus rating, and marginally higher PC axonal recurrent collateral counts. The median PC thickened axonal profile count and median PC axonal branching count were two to five times higher in childhood-onset ET than controls, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Childhood-onset and adult-onset ET had similar PC counts, torpedo counts, heterotopic PC counts, basket cell plexus rating, PC axonal recurrent collateral counts, PC thickened axonal profile count and PC axonal branching count. In conclusion, we found that childhood-onset and adult-onset ET shared similar pathological changes in the cerebellum. The data suggest that pathological changes we have observed in the cerebellum in ET are a part of the pathophysiological cascade of events in both forms of the disease and that both groups seem to reach the same pathological endpoints at a similar age of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal variability of CO2 and N2O emissions in an agricultural long-term field trial regarding effects of different management practices and extreme weather effects (United States)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles


    In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, modern agronomic management practices need to be established. Therefore, to assess the effect of different farming practices on greenhouse gas emissions, reliable data are required. The experiment covers and compares main aspects of agricultural management for a better implementation of sustainable land use. The focus lies on the determination and interpretation of greenhouse gas emissions, where the effects of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practices of an integrated farming system as well as the impacts of extreme weather conditions are observed. In addition, with analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the observed cycle of matter in the soil, especially the nitrogen and carbon cycle, is enabled. Measurements have been carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term integrated farming system trial was started in 1992. Since then parcels of land (each around 0.2-0.4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted with the same crop rotation, tillage and fertilisation practice referring to integrated farming management. Thus, the management impacts on the soil of more than 20 years have been examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 have been monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (0.4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit. Precipitation and temperature data have been observed for the experimental field to include weather effects. The main outcomes are the analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions influenced by management

  13. Age at onset of DSM-IV pathological gambling in a non-treatment sample: Early- versus later-onset. (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff


    Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and impairing public health problem. In this study we assessed age at onset in men and women with PG and compared the demographic and clinical picture of early- vs. later-onset individuals. We also compared age at onset in PG subjects and their first-degree relatives with PG. Subjects with DSM-IV PG were recruited during the conduct of two non-treatment clinical studies. Subjects were evaluated with structured interviews and validated questionnaires. Early-onset was defined as PG starting prior to age 33years. Age at onset of PG in the 255 subjects ranged from 8 to 80years with a mean (SD) of 34.0 (15.3) years. Men had an earlier onset than women. 84% of all subjects with PG had developed the disorder by age 50years. Early-onset subjects were more likely to be male, to prefer action games, and to have substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trait impulsiveness, and social anxiety disorder. Later-onset was more common in women and was associated with a preference for slots and a history of sexual abuse. Age at onset of PG is bimodal and differs for men and women. Early-onset PG and later-onset PG have important demographic and clinical differences. The implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S


    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  15. Premarital first births: The influence of the timing of sexual onset versus post-onset risks in the United States. (United States)

    Wu, Lawrence L; Martin, Steven P


    Motivated by long-standing debates between abstinence proponents and sceptics, we examine how socio-economic factors influence premarital first births via: (i) age at first sexual intercourse and (ii) the risk of a premarital first birth following the onset of sexual activity. Factors associated with an earlier age at first intercourse will imply more premarital first births owing to increased exposure to risk, but many of these same factors will also be associated with higher risks of a premarital first birth following onset. Our analyses confirm previous findings that women from disadvantaged backgrounds are younger at first intercourse and have higher premarital first-birth risks than women from more advantaged backgrounds. However, differences in onset timing have a strikingly smaller influence on premarital first-birth probabilities than do differences in post-onset risks. Our findings thus suggest that premarital first births result primarily from differences in post-onset risk behaviours as opposed to differences in onset timing.

  16. Predictors of the onset of manic symptoms and a (hypomanic episode in patients with major depressive disorder.

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    Lynn Boschloo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One third of patients with a major depressive episode also experience manic symptoms or, even, a (hypomanic episode. Retrospective studies on the temporal sequencing of symptomatology suggest that the majority of these patients report depressive symptoms before the onset of manic symptoms. However, prospective studies are scarce and this study will, therefore, prospectively examine the onset of either manic symptoms or a (hypomanic episode in patients with a major depressive disorder. In addition, we will consider the impact of a large set of potential risk factors on both outcomes. METHODOLOGY: Four-year follow-up data were used to determine the onset of manic symptoms as well as a CIDI-based (hypomanic episode in a large sample (n = 889, age: 18-65 years of outpatients with a major depressive disorder and without manic symptoms at baseline. Baseline vulnerability (i.e., sociodemographics, family history of depression, childhood trauma, life-events and clinical (i.e., isolated manic symptoms, depression characteristics, and psychiatric comorbidity factors were considered as potential risk factors. RESULTS: In our sample of depressed patients, 15.9% developed manic symptoms and an additional 4.7% developed a (hypomanic episode during four years. Baseline isolated manic symptoms and comorbid alcohol dependence predicted both the onset of manic symptoms and a (hypomanic episode. Low education only predicted the onset of manic symptoms, whereas male gender, childhood trauma and severity of depressive symptoms showed strong associations with, especially, the onset of (hypomanic episodes. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion (20.6% of patients with a major depressive disorder later developed manic symptoms or a (hypomanic episode. Interestingly, some identified risk factors differed for the two outcomes, which may indicate that pathways leading to the onset of manic symptoms or a (hypomanic episode might be different. Our findings

  17. Identification of appropriate lags and temporal resolutions for low flow indicators in the River Rhine to forecast low flows with different lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, M.C.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    The aim of this paper is to assess the relative importance of low flow indicators for the River Rhine and to identify their appropriate temporal lag and resolution. This is done in the context of low flow forecasting with lead times of 14 and 90 days. First, the Rhine basin is subdivided into seven

  18. Enlarged temporal integration window in schizophrenia indicated by the double-flash illusion. (United States)

    Haß, Katharina; Sinke, Christopher; Reese, Tanya; Roy, Mandy; Wiswede, Daniel; Dillo, Wolfgang; Oranje, Bob; Szycik, Gregor R


    In the present study we were interested in the processing of audio-visual integration in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. The amount of sound-induced double-flash illusions served as an indicator of audio-visual integration. We expected an altered integration as well as a different window of temporal integration for patients. Fifteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were included in this study. We used stimuli with eight different temporal delays (stimulus onset asynchronys (SOAs) 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 200 and 300 ms) to induce a double-flash illusion. Group differences and the widths of temporal integration windows were calculated on percentages of reported double-flash illusions. Patients showed significantly more illusions (ca. 36-44% vs. 9-16% in control subjects) for SOAs 150-300. The temporal integration window for control participants went from SOAs 25 to 200 whereas for patients integration was found across all included temporal delays. We found no significant relationship between the amount of illusions and either illness severity, chlorpromazine equivalent doses or duration of illness in patients. Our results are interpreted in favour of an enlarged temporal integration window for audio-visual stimuli in schizophrenia patients, which is consistent with previous research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi Atluri


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preeclampsia is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, the exact aetiology of which is still unknown. The concept of early and late pre-eclampsia depending on gestational age at onset is more modern and is widely accepted that these two entities have different aetiologies and should be considered as different forms of the disease. Even though the presenting features overlap, these two entities of preeclampsia differ by biochemical markers, maternal and foetal outcomes. Aim of the Study- This study compares early-onset preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia with respect to their clinical presentation, laboratory parameters, management options, maternal and foetal outcomes which gives us an idea that these two preeclampsia subtypes have different pathological processes and a need for varied clinical approach to prevent adverse outcomes. METHODS This is a prospective comparative study conducted in JSS Hospital, Mysore from November, 2014 to June, 2016. All Antenatal cases (both booked and unbooked with gestational age ≥20 weeks between 18 yrs. and 40 yrs. of age diagnosed as preeclampsia as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria attending the outpatient department or admitted were selected and divided in to two groups, early onset preeclampsia (EOP group if gestational age at onset of preeclampsia is before 34 weeks and late onset preeclampsia if gestational age at onset is at 34 weeks or later were observed until delivery and early postpartum period and babies till early neonatal period. RESULTS A total of 158 patients at >20 weeks of gestation with preeclampsia were enrolled for this study. Early-onset Preeclampsia (EOP and Late-onset Preeclampsia (LOP had 75 and 83 pre eclamptic women respectively. Early onset group had severe clinical picture with deranged laboratory findings (Thrombocytopenia, altered liver enzymes, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH levels, urea and creatinine levels compared to

  20. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph

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    Lia Matuzaki


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m2, and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences.

  1. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph. (United States)

    Matuzaki, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia


    The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m(2), and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences.

  2. Visual Activity before and after the Onset of Juvenile Myopia (United States)

    Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Mutti, Donald O.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Sims, Janene R.


    Purpose. To investigate visual activities before and after the onset of juvenile myopia. Methods. The subjects were 731 incident myopes (−0.75 D or more myopia on cycloplegic autorefraction in both meridians) and 587 emmetropes (between −0.25 and +1.00 D) in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Parents supplied visual activity data annually. Data from myopic children 5 years before through 5 years after myopia onset were compared to data from age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched models of children who remained emmetropic. Results. Hours per week spent reading or using a computer/playing video games did not differ between the groups before myopia onset; however, hours per week for both activities were significantly greater in myopes than in emmetropes at onset and in 4 of the 5 years after onset by 0.7 to 1.6 hours per week. Hours per week spent in outdoor/sports activities were significantly fewer for children who became myopic 3 years before onset through 4 years after onset by 1.1 to 1.8 hours per week. Studying and TV watching were not significantly different before myopia onset. Conclusions. Before myopia onset, near work activities of future myopic children did not differ from those of emmetropes. Those who became myopic had fewer outdoor/sports activity hours than the emmetropes before, at, and after myopia onset. Myopia onset may influence children's near work behavior, but the lack of difference before onset argues against a major causative role for near work. Less outdoor/sports activity before myopia onset may exert a stronger influence on development than near work. PMID:20926821

  3. Prognostic factors in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Eighty-four patients submitted to anterior temporal lobectomy were evaluated retrospectively in order to correlate the different type of simple partial seizure (SPS and their prognostic implications in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The patients were divided in two groups following the classification of Engel; Group 1 (53 patients included patients Class I (without seizures or of good outcome and Group 2 (31 patients included Classes II, III and IV (with seizures or of bad outcome. The two groups were compared and results showed no statistical difference in relation to the demographic aspects as sex, side of surgery, age at onset of seizures and time of the patients' postoperative follow-up. Statistical analysis revealed no relationship between type of SPS and outcome. SPS did not show a statistical value in localizing the side of pathology. However, when the two groups were compared statistically in terms of patients' ages at the time of surgery, and the time elapsed from the onset of the seizures to the surgical intervention, it was observed that Group 1 (of good outcome had seizures for smaller interval (p <0.05 and was operated at an earlier age (p<0.02 than Group 2 (of bad outcome. The presence or the type of SPS can not be used as a prognostic measure; surgical therapy must be considered as soon as clinical resistance is demonstrated.

  4. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten


    of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry......BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  5. Younger Onset Dementia. (United States)

    Sansoni, Janet; Duncan, Cathy; Grootemaat, Pamela; Capell, Jacquelin; Samsa, Peter; Westera, Anita


    This literature review focused on the experience, care, and service requirements of people with younger onset dementia. Systematic searches of 10 relevant bibliographic databases and a rigorous examination of the literature from nonacademic sources were undertaken. Searches identified 304 articles assessed for relevance and level of evidence, of which 74% were academic literature. The review identified the need for (1) more timely and accurate diagnosis and increased support immediately following diagnosis; (2) more individually tailored services addressing life cycle issues; (3) examination of the service needs of those living alone; (4) more systematic evaluation of services and programs; (5) further examination of service utilization, costs of illness, and cost effectiveness; and (6) current Australian clinical surveys to estimate prevalence, incidence, and survival rates. Although previous research has identified important service issues, there is a need for further studies with stronger research designs and consideration of the control of potentially confounding factors.

  6. Early Onset Werner Syndrome

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    Berna İmge Aydoğan


    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a rare autosomal recessive adult-onset progeroid disorder characterized by the early onset of aged-appearance and age-related metabolic disorders. Symptoms of premature aging usually first develop in the second-third decades of life. We report a 27-year-old female who was admitted to our clinic at the age of eighteen with hyperglycemia. She was diagnosed with diabetes and type 4 dyslipidemia at the age of seven. In her family history, her parents were first cousins and she had three healthy brothers. On her first physical examination; she had bird-like face appearance, global hair loss, beaked nose, short stature and she was overweight. She had global hair loss with gray and thin hair. Hoarseness of voice and hyperkeratosis of skin were observed. She had bilateral cataracts and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. On psychiatric examination, borderline mental retardation was detected. She had severe insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia despite levothyroxine, gemfibrozil, omega-3 and intensive insulin treatment. Routine lipid apheresis was performed to lower the triglyceride levels reaching 5256 mg/dL. She also had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, hepatosteatosis, osteoporosis and epilepsy. Disease was accompanied by several congenital deformities, such as Rathke’s cleft cyst, angiomyolipoma and femoral neck hypoplasia. WS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple endocrine manifestations as well as soft tissue changes. We present a case of early disturbances that were diagnosed before typical clinical signs and symptoms. We propose that WS should be kept in mind when type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia are diagnosed early in childhood. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 99-104

  7. Dementia syndrome and the onset of mind

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    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Meguro, Kenichi; Ueda, Masamichi; Matsui, Hiroshige


    The present report is designed to make clear the mechanism of dementia syndrome and the onset area of the mind. The plan of the statistic studies with X-CT, MRI and PET to find out the focus of dementia in the cortex was an absolute failure. A large number of patients having infarction of varying numbers and sizes in the cortex was neuropsychologically normal. With MRI, quantitative changes of atrophy and destruction were observed in the amygdaloid and hippocampal system bilaterally in both multiinfarct dementia (MID) and Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. With PET, the activity or excitability of the cortices was estimated by measuring the glucose utilization with /sup 18/F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose in response to musical stimulation (a Japanese popular song entitled Sakura, Sakura=cherry blossoms, cherry blossoms) while having the eyes closed, (1) Not only normal volunteers but also with cases of MID and AD, the primary sensory and motor areas were stimulated. (2) In cases of MID and AD, the glucose utilization, was reduced drastically in the bilateral temporal and parietal association cortices. The impulses from all the primary sensory areas drain into the amygdala. Furthermore the impulses from the amygdala drain directly or indirectly into the hippocampus, and the impulses flow into the temporal cortex. Recognition may take place in this temporal cortex. Then, the impulses come to the parietal cortex. Conception may be completed there. Any damage to the amygdaloid and hippocampal system would result in abnormalities in memory, recognition, conception and various emotions. This is a possible mechanism of dementia syndrome. In view of this data the system also can be said to be the onset area of the mind. (author).

  8. Gender differences in cumulative life-course socioeconomic position and social mobility in relation to new onset diabetes in adults-the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane V; Giatti, Luana; Duncan, Bruce B; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria


    We investigated gender-specific associations of cumulative socioeconomic position across life course and social mobility with new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in over 12,000 civil servants in Brazil. We used data from ELSA-Brasil baseline (2008-2010). The accumulation of risk was assessed using an education-based score and an occupation-based score. Educational and occupational social mobility were also evaluated. In minimally adjusted models, NODM increased with increasing exposure to life-course social disadvantages, especially in men. This gender difference was pronounced when cumulative processes were evaluated by education-based scores (high vs. low cumulative social disadvantage, odds ratio [OR] = 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6-8.5 in men and OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.6 in women). After including proximal diabetes risk factors possibly acting as mediators, these associations remained high only in men (high vs. low cumulative social disadvantage, OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 2.4-8.1). Social mobility was associated with NODM in men. Compared to the high-stable trajectory, downward had greater associations than upward mobility. In women, when considering metabolic syndrome-related variables, changes in social hierarchy did not seem to have an influence on their risk of diabetes. Accumulation of risk and social mobility were associated with NODM with gender-specific patterns, suggesting differences in mechanisms connecting life-course socioeconomic position and diabetes in men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures with and without shoes on single-limb balance, electromyographic activation onset and peroneal reaction time of lower limb muscles. (United States)

    Papadopoulos, E S; Nikolopoulos, C S; Athanasopoulos, S


    Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures, with and without shoes, on quiet single-limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG) activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Twelve male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured with and without shoes under three ankle brace conditions: (i) without brace, (ii) with brace and 30 kilopascals (kPa) application pressure and (iii) with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single-limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter) was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris) activation onset. Peroneus longus reaction time was also measured by provoking a sudden subtalar inversion stress test using a trap-door. The results showed that the application of athletic footwear resulted in a significant difference between the condition with shoes and without shoes, with a significantly increased anteroposterior sway and sway velocity, in all three ankle brace application conditions with shoes (F=50.9, d.f.=1, plower limb muscles. Lastly, ankle brace application with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures, with and without athletic footwear, led to a significant delay in the peroneus longus reaction time (F=9.71, d.f.=2, plimb balance, and peroneal reaction time. The application of athletic footwear, further adversely affects these parameters significantly. Further research is needed in this area with more dynamic and functional measurements, before the safe use of ankle bracing can be widely recommended.

  10. Age-at-Onset in Late Onset Alzheimer Disease is Modified by Multiple Genetic Loci (United States)

    Naj, Adam C.; Jun, Gyungah; Reitz, Christiane; Kunkle, Brian W.; Perry, William; Park, YoSon; Beecham, Gary W.; Rajbhandary, Ruchita A.; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Wang, Li-San; Kauwe, John S.K.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Myers, Amanda J.; Bird, Thomas D.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Crane, Paul K.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Barmada, Michael M.; Demirci, F. Yesim; Cruchaga, Carlos; Kramer, Patricia; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Hardy, John; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Green, Robert C.; Larson, Eric B.; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Evans, Denis; Schneider, Julie A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Saykin, Andrew J.; Reiman, Eric M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.; Morris, John C.; Montine, Thomas J.; Goate, Alison M.; Blacker, Deborah; Tsuang, Debby W.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Martin, Eden R.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Mayeux, Richard; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.


    Importance As APOE locus variants contribute to both risk of late-onset Alzheimer disease and differences in age-at-onset, it is important to know if other established late-onset Alzheimer disease risk loci also affect age-at-onset in cases. Objectives To investigate the effects of known Alzheimer disease risk loci in modifying age-at-onset, and to estimate their cumulative effect on age-at-onset variation, using data from genome-wide association studies in the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC). Design, Setting and Participants The ADGC comprises 14 case-control, prospective, and family-based datasets with data on 9,162 Caucasian participants with Alzheimer’s occurring after age 60 who also had complete age-at-onset information, gathered between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites by participating studies. Data on genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most significantly associated with risk at ten confirmed LOAD loci were examined in linear modeling of AAO, and individual dataset results were combined using a random effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis approach to determine if they contribute to variation in age-at-onset. Aggregate effects of all risk loci on AAO were examined in a burden analysis using genotype scores weighted by risk effect sizes. Main Outcomes and Measures Age at disease onset abstracted from medical records among participants with late-onset Alzheimer disease diagnosed per standard criteria. Results Analysis confirmed association of APOE with age-at-onset (rs6857, P=3.30×10−96), with associations in CR1 (rs6701713, P=7.17×10−4), BIN1 (rs7561528, P=4.78×10−4), and PICALM (rs561655, P=2.23×10−3) reaching statistical significance (P<0.005). Risk alleles individually reduced age-at-onset by 3-6 months. Burden analyses demonstrated that APOE contributes to 3.9% of variation in age-at-onset (R2=0.220) over baseline (R2=0.189) whereas the other nine loci together contribute to 1.1% of

  11. Evidence for allelic heterogeneity in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J. Hardy (John); A.M. Goate (Alison); M.N. Rossor (Martin); A. Vandenberghe (Anton); J-J. Martin (Jean-Jacques); M.J. Mullan; C. van Broeckhoven (Christine); A. Hofman (Albert)


    textabstractAge of onset was examined for 139 members of 30 families affected by early-onset AD. Most (77%) of the variance of age of onset derived from differences between rather than within families. The constancy of age of onset within families was also observed in an analysis restricted to

  12. Increased diffusivity in gray matter in recent onset schizophrenia is associated with clinical symptoms and social cognition. (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sun; Kim, Chang-Yoon; Joo, Yeon Ho; Newell, Dominick; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E; Kubicki, Marek


    Diffusion weighted MRI (dMRI) is a method sensitive to pathological changes affecting tissue microstructure. Most dMRI studies in schizophrenia, however, have focused solely on white matter. There is a possibility, however, that subtle changes in diffusivity exist in gray matter (GM). Accordingly, we investigated diffusivity in GM in patients with recent onset schizophrenia. We enrolled 45 patients and 21 age and sex-matched healthy controls. All subjects were evaluated using the short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the video based social cognition scale. DMRI and T1W images were acquired on a 3 Tesla magnet, and mean Fractional Anisotropy (FA), Trace (TR) and volume were calculated for each of the 68 cortical GM Regions of Interest parcellated using FreeSurfer. There was no significant difference of FA and GM volume between groups after Bonferroni correction. For the dMRI measures, however, patients evinced increased TR in the left bank of the superior temporal sulcus, the right inferior parietal, the right inferior temporal, and the right middle temporal gyri. In addition, higher TR in the right middle temporal gyrus and the right inferior temporal gyrus, respectively, was associated with decreased social function and higher PANSS score in patients with schizophrenia. This study demonstrates high sensitivity of dMRI to subtle pathology in GM in recent onset schizophrenia, as well as an association between increased diffusivity in temporal GM regions and abnormalities in social cognition and exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. MRI-based cerebrovascular reactivity using transfer function analysis reveals temporal group differences between patients with sickle cell disease and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Leung, MASc


    Conclusions: We demonstrated that conventional CVR analysis underestimates vessel reactivity and this effect is more prominent in patients with SCD. By using TFA, the resulting Gain and Phase measures more accurately characterize the BOLD response as it accounts for the temporal dynamics responsible for the CVR underestimation. We suggest that the additional information offered through TFA can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying CVR compromise in cerebrovascular diseases.

  14. Eye movements show similar adaptations in temporal coordination to movement planning conditions in both people with and without cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Payne, Alexander R; Plimmer, Beryl; McDaid, Andrew; Davies, T Claire


    The effects of cerebral palsy on movement planning for simple reaching tasks are not well understood. Movement planning is complex and entails many processes which could be affected. This study specifically sought to evaluate integrating task information, decoupling movements, and adjusting to altered mapping. For a reaching task, the asynchrony between the eye onset and the hand onset was measured across different movement planning conditions for participants with and without cerebral palsy. Previous research shows people without cerebral palsy vary this temporal coordination for different planning conditions. Our measurements show similar adaptations in temporal coordination for groups with and without cerebral palsy, to three of the four variations in planning condition tested. However, movement durations were still longer for the participants with cerebral palsy. Hence for simple goal-directed reaching, movement execution problems appear to limit activity more than movement planning deficits.

  15. Causes for Late onset Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Andersen, Kjeld

    a full read and quality assessment, only eight studies were included in the final review. Results Inherent differences in measurements, methodologies and outcome measures in the studies, made it impossible to do a meta-analysis. Instead, we performed a descriptive assessment of the results from...... not increase the risk for late-onset AUD. However, the data was insufficient to give a reliable quantification of these associations. Discussion A common problem for the studies included (and the ones excluded as well) was the lack of common def