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Sample records for temporal mesial paradigma

  1. Mesial temporal sclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    2005-07-29

    Jul 29, 2005 ... Introduction. Mesial temporal sclerosis is the commonest cause of partial complex seizures. The aetiology of this condi- tion is controversial, but it is postulat- ed that both acquired and develop- mental processes may be involved. Familial cases have also been reported. Magnetic resonance imaging. (MRI) ...

  2. Patterns of altered functional connectivity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pittau, Francesca; Grova, Christophe; Moeller, Friederike; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:  In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) the epileptogenic area is confined to the mesial temporal lobe, but other cortical and subcortical areas are also affected and cognitive and psychiatric impairments are usually documented...

  3. Surgical Considerations of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W. Boling

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Surgery of temporal lobe epilepsy is the best opportunity for seizure freedom in medically intractable patients. The surgical approach has evolved to recognize the paramount importance of the mesial temporal structures in the majority of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who have a seizure origin in the mesial temporal structures. For those individuals with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, a selective amygdalohippocampectomy surgery can be done that provides an excellent opportunity for seizure freedom and limits the resection to temporal lobe structures primarily involved in seizure genesis.

  4. Time-shift homotopic connectivity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q; Zhang, Z; Liao, W; Xiang, L; Yang, F; Wang, Z; Chen, G; Tan, Q; Jiao, Q; Lu, G

    2014-09-01

    Voxel-mirrored intrinsic functional connectivity allows the depiction of interhemispheric homotopic connections in the human brain, whereas time-shift intrinsic functional connectivity allows the detection of the extent of brain injury by measuring hemodynamic properties. We combined time-shift voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity analyses to investigate the alterations in homotopic connectivity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and assessed the value of applying this approach to epilepsy lateralization and the prediction of surgical outcomes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Resting-state functional MR imaging data were acquired from patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (n=62) (31 left- and 31 right-side) and healthy controls (n=33). Dynamic interhemispheric homotopic architecture seeding from each hemisphere was individually calculated by 0, 1, 2, and 3 repetition time time-shift voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity. Voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity maps were compared between the patient and control groups by using 1-way ANOVA for each time-shift condition, separately. Group comparisons were further performed on the laterality of voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity in each time-shift condition. Finally, we correlated the interhemispheric homotopic connection to the surgical outcomes in a portion of the patients (n=20). The patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy showed decreased homotopic connectivity in the mesial temporal structures, temporal pole, and striatum. Alterations of the bihemispheric homotopic connectivity were lateralized along with delays in the time-shift in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. The patients with unsuccessful surgical outcomes presented larger interhemispheric voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity differences. This study showed whole patterns of dynamic alterations of interhemispheric homotopic connectivity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, extending the knowledge of abnormalities in interhemispheric

  5. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Rolston

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy continue to have seizures despite medical therapy. For these patients, one recourse is surgical resection of the mesial temporal lobe, with its attendant risks. Noninvasive treatment with Gamma Knife radiosurgery is under active investigation as a possible alternative to open surgery. Accumulated evidence from multiple studies shows radiosurgery to be comparable in outcomes to surgical resection. A definitive randomized, controlled trial, the Radiosurgery or Open Surgery for Epilepsy (ROSE trial, is currently underway, and further investigation of this promising treatment is crucial in our advancement of alternative therapies to treat refractory epilepsy.

  6. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy - An overview of surgical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzumdar, Dattatraya; Patil, Manoj; Goel, Atul; Ravat, Sangeeta; Sawant, Nina; Shah, Urvashi

    2016-12-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is one of the commonest indications for epilepsy surgery. Presurgical evaluation for drug resistant epilepsy and identification of appropriate candidates for surgery is essential for optimal seizure freedom. The anatomy of mesial temporal lobe is complex and needs to be understood in the context of the advanced imaging, ictal and interictal Video_EEG monitoring, neuropsychology and psychiatric considerations. The completeness of disconnection of epileptogenic neural networks is paramount and is correlated with the extent of resection of the mesial temporal structures. In the Indian subcontinent, a standard but extended anterior temporal lobectomy is a viable option in view of the diverse socioeconomic, cultural and pathological considerations. The maximum utilization of epilepsy surgery services in this region is also a challenge. There is a need for regional comprehensive epilepsy care teams in a tertiary care academic hospital to form centers of excellence catering to a large population. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Auras in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Nei, Maromi; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-05-15

    We investigated auras in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). We also investigated the clinical differences between patients with MTS and abdominal auras and those with MTS and non-mesial temporal auras. All patients with drug-resistant TLE and unilateral MTS who underwent epilepsy surgery at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 1986 through 2014 were evaluated. Patients with good postoperative seizure outcome were investigated. One hundred forty-nine patients (71 males and 78 females) were studied. Thirty-one patients (20.8%) reported no auras, while 29 patients (19.5%) reported abdominal aura, and 30 patients (20.1%) reported non-mesial temporal auras; 16 patients (10.7%) had sensory auras, 11 patients (7.4%) had auditory auras, and five patients (3.4%) reported visual auras. A history of preoperative tonic-clonic seizures was strongly associated with non-mesial temporal auras (odds ratio 3.8; 95% CI: 1.15-12.98; p=0.02). About one-fifth of patients who had MTS in their MRI and responded well to surgery reported auras that are historically associated with non-mesial temporal structures. However, the presence of presumed non-mesial temporal auras in a patient with MTS may herald a more widespread epileptogenic zone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determinants of brain metabolism changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassoux, Francine; Artiges, Eric; Semah, Franck; Desarnaud, Serge; Laurent, Agathe; Landre, Elisabeth; Gervais, Philippe; Devaux, Bertrand; Helal, Ourkia Badia

    2016-06-01

    To determine the main factors influencing metabolic changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS). We prospectively studied 114 patients with MTLE (62 female; 60 left HS; 15- to 56-year-olds) with (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and correlated the results with the side of HS, structural atrophy, electroclinical features, gender, age at onset, epilepsy duration, and seizure frequency. Imaging processing was performed using statistical parametric mapping. Ipsilateral hypometabolism involved temporal (mesial structures, pole, and lateral cortex) and extratemporal areas including the insula, frontal lobe, perisylvian regions, and thalamus, more extensively in right HS (RHS). A relative increase of metabolism (hypermetabolism) was found in the nonepileptic temporal lobe and in posterior areas bilaterally. Voxel-based morphometry detected unilateral hippocampus atrophy and gray matter concentration decrease in both frontal lobes, more extensively in left HS (LHS). Regardless of the structural alterations, the topography of hypometabolism correlated strongly with the extent of epileptic networks (mesial, anterior-mesiolateral, widespread mesiolateral, and bitemporal according to the ictal spread), which were larger in RHS. Notably, widespread perisylvian and bitemporal hypometabolism was found only in RHS. Mirror hypermetabolism was grossly proportional to the hypometabolic areas, coinciding partly with the default mode network. Gender-related effect was significant mainly in the contralateral frontal lobe, in which metabolism was higher in female patients. Epilepsy duration correlated with the contralateral temporal metabolism, positively in LHS and negatively in RHS. Opposite results were found with age at onset. High seizure frequency correlated negatively with the contralateral metabolism in LHS. Epileptic networks, as assessed by electroclinical correlations, appear to be the main determinant of

  9. Adult absence semiology misinterpreted as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Rebecca; Chiota-McCollum, Nicole; Tatum, William

    2014-12-01

    Correct diagnosis of seizure type and epilepsy syndrome is the foundation for appropriate antiepileptic drug selection. Inappropriate medication choices occur in the treatment of generalized epilepsy and may aggravate some seizure types, including absence seizures, potentially leading to pseudo-drug resistance. Fortunately, a correct diagnosis of absence seizures is usually not difficult, though rarely demonstrates electroclinical overlap with focal seizures. EEG can be especially misleading when secondary bilateral synchronous discharges occur in patients with focal seizures. However, the semiology of focal seizures associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy has a characteristic and consistent semiology that is the mark of this common epilepsy syndrome in adulthood. We recently encountered a 53-year-old female with refractory seizures and a semiology strongly suggesting mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Instead of focal seizures, prolonged absence seizures were validated by video-EEG monitoring and she became seizure-free after a change to broad-spectrum antiepileptic drugs. This case further expands our understanding of the complexity of semiology in electroclinical classification and the spectrum that may occur in adult absence seizures. It serves to underscore the need for ictal EEG recordings and the importance of concordance with the clinical course during the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with lesions and drug-resistant epilepsy. [Published with video sequences].

  10. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy diminishes functional connectivity during emotion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Bettina K; Muller, Angela M; Spirig, Esther; Toller, Gianina; Jokeit, Hennric

    2017-08-01

    Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions. Correspondingly, imaging studies showed decreased activity of the amygdala and cortical face processing regions in response to emotional faces. However, functional connectivity among regions involved in emotion perception has not been studied so far. To address this, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) modulated by the perception of dynamic fearful faces among the amygdala and limbic, frontal, temporal and brainstem regions. Regions of interest were identified in an activation analysis by presenting a block-design with dynamic fearful faces and dynamic landscapes to 15 healthy individuals. This led to 10 predominately right-hemispheric regions. Functional connectivity between these regions during the perception of fearful faces was examined in drug-refractory patients with left- (n=16) or right-sided (n=17) MTLE, epilepsy patients with extratemporal seizure onset (n=15) and a second group of 15 healthy controls. Healthy controls showed a widespread functional network modulated by the perception of fearful faces that encompassed bilateral amygdalae, limbic, cortical, subcortical and brainstem regions. In patients with left MTLE, a downsized network of frontal and temporal regions centered on the right amygdala was present. Patients with right MTLE showed almost no significant functional connectivity. A maintained network in the epilepsy control group indicates that findings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy could not be explained by clinical factors such as seizures and antiepileptic medication. Functional networks underlying facial emotion perception are considerably changed in left and right MTLE. Alterations are present for both hemispheres in either MTLE group, but are more pronounced in right MTLE. Disruption of the functional network architecture possibly contributes to deficits in facial emotion recognition frequently

  11. Quantitative analysis of structural neuroimaging of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Negar; Thompson, Paul M; Engel, Jerome; Staba, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common of the surgically remediable drug-resistant epilepsies. MRI is the primary diagnostic tool to detect anatomical abnormalities and, when combined with EEG, can more accurately identify an epileptogenic lesion, which is often hippocampal sclerosis in cases of MTLE. As structural imaging technology has advanced the surgical treatment of MTLE and other lesional epilepsies, so too have the analysis techniques that are used to measure different structural attributes of the brain. These techniques, which are reviewed here and have been used chiefly in basic research of epilepsy and in studies of MTLE, have identified different types and the extent of anatomical abnormalities that can extend beyond the affected hippocampus. These results suggest that structural imaging and sophisticated imaging analysis could provide important information to identify networks capable of generating spontaneous seizures and ultimately help guide surgical therapy that improves postsurgical seizure-freedom outcomes. PMID:24319498

  12. Electroencephalography in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidan, Manouchehr

    2012-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has an important role in the diagnosis and classification of epilepsy. It can provide information for predicting the response to antiseizure drugs and to identify the surgically remediable epilepsies. In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) seizures could originate in the medial or lateral neocortical temporal region, and many of these patients are refractory to medical treatment. However, majority of patients have had excellent results after surgery and this often relies on the EEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in presurgical evaluation. If the scalp EEG data is insufficient or discordant, invasive EEG recording with placement of intracranial electrodes could identify the seizure focus prior to surgery. This paper highlights the general information regarding the use of EEG in epilepsy, EEG patterns resembling epileptiform discharges, and the interictal, ictal and postictal findings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy using scalp and intracranial recordings prior to surgery. The utility of the automated seizure detection and computerized mathematical models for increasing yield of non-invasive localization is discussed. This paper also describes the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of EEG for seizure recurrence after withdrawal of medications following seizure freedom with medical and surgical therapy. PMID:22957235

  13. Chronic deep brain stimulation in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boëx, Colette; Seeck, Margitta; Vulliémoz, Serge; Rossetti, Andrea O; Staedler, Claudio; Spinelli, Laurent; Pegna, Alan J; Pralong, Etienne; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Foletti, Giovanni; Pollo, Claudio

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and the effects of changes in parameters of chronic amygdala-hippocampal deep brain stimulation (AH-DBS) in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Eight pharmacoresistant patients, not candidates for ablative surgery, received chronic AH-DBS (130 Hz, follow-up 12-24 months): two patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and six patients with non-lesional mesial TLE (NLES). The effects of stepwise increases in intensity (0-Off to 2 V) and stimulation configuration (quadripolar and bipolar), on seizure frequency and neuropsychological performance were studied. The two HS patients obtained a significant decrease (65-75%) in seizure frequency with high voltage bipolar DBS (≥1 V) or with quadripolar stimulation. Two out of six NLES patients became seizure-free, one of them without stimulation, suggesting a microlesional effect. Two NLES patients experienced reductions of seizure frequency (65-70%), whereas the remaining two showed no significant seizure reduction. Neuropsychological evaluations showed reversible memory impairments in two patients under strong stimulation only. AH-DBS showed long-term efficiency in most of the TLE patients. It is a valuable treatment option for patients who suffer from drug resistant epilepsy and who are not candidates for resective surgery. The effects of changes in the stimulation parameters suggest that a large zone of stimulation would be required in HS patients, while a limited zone of stimulation or even a microlesional effect could be sufficient in NLES patients, for whom the importance of the proximity of the electrode to the epileptogenic zone remains to be studied. Further studies are required to ascertain these latter observations. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Verbal memory after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery in children: Do only mesial structures matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Nicole; Benifla, Mony; Rutka, James; Smith, Mary Lou

    2017-02-01

    Previous findings have been mixed regarding verbal memory outcome after left temporal lobectomy in children, and there are few studies comparing verbal memory change after lateral versus mesial temporal lobe resections. We compared verbal memory outcome associated with sparing or including the mesial structures in children who underwent left or right temporal lobe resection. We also investigated predictors of postsurgical verbal memory change. We retrospectively assessed verbal memory change approximately 1 year after unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy surgery using a list learning task. Participants included 23 children who underwent temporal lobe surgery with sparing of the mesial structures (13 left), and 40 children who had a temporal lobectomy that included resection of mesial structures (22 left). Children who underwent resection from the left lateral and mesial temporal lobe were the only group to show decline in verbal memory. Furthermore, when we considered language representation in the left temporal resection group, patients with left language representation and spared mesial structures showed essentially no change in verbal memory from preoperative to follow-up, whereas those with left language representation and excised mesial structures showed a decline. Postoperative seizure status had no effect on verbal memory change in children after left temporal lobe surgery. Finally, we found that patients with intact preoperative verbal memory experienced a significant decline compared to those with below average preoperative verbal memory. Our findings provide evidence of significant risk factors for verbal memory decline in children, specific to left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Children who undergo left temporal lobe surgery that includes mesial structures may be most vulnerable for verbal memory decline, especially when language representation is localized to the left hemisphere and when preoperative verbal memory is intact. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Outcome in Patients with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Oddo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare pre- and postsurgical neuropsychological outcome in individuals suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, in order to evaluate prognosis. The selected thirty-five patients had medically mTLE and had undergone an anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL. Neuropsychological evaluation was performed in three different stages: before ATL, 6 months after resection, and a year afterwards. Neuropsychological protocol evaluated attention, verbal memory, visual memory, executive function, language, intelligence, and handedness. There was a significant improvement (=0.030 in the group with visual memory deficit after surgery, whereas no changes were observed across patients with verbal memory deficit. No changes were observed in language after surgery. Executive function showed significant improvement 6 months after surgery (=0.035. Postoperative outcome of cognitive impairments depends on baseline neuropsychological status of the patients with TLE. In our case series, deficits found in patients with mTLE after ATL did not result in a subjective complaint.

  16. Prognostic factors in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PREVEDELLO DANIEL M. S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-four patients submitted to anterior temporal lobectomy were evaluated retrospectively in order to correlate the different type of simple partial seizure (SPS and their prognostic implications in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The patients were divided in two groups following the classification of Engel; Group 1 (53 patients included patients Class I (without seizures or of good outcome and Group 2 (31 patients included Classes II, III and IV (with seizures or of bad outcome. The two groups were compared and results showed no statistical difference in relation to the demographic aspects as sex, side of surgery, age at onset of seizures and time of the patients' postoperative follow-up. Statistical analysis revealed no relationship between type of SPS and outcome. SPS did not show a statistical value in localizing the side of pathology. However, when the two groups were compared statistically in terms of patients' ages at the time of surgery, and the time elapsed from the onset of the seizures to the surgical intervention, it was observed that Group 1 (of good outcome had seizures for smaller interval (p <0.05 and was operated at an earlier age (p<0.02 than Group 2 (of bad outcome. The presence or the type of SPS can not be used as a prognostic measure; surgical therapy must be considered as soon as clinical resistance is demonstrated.

  17. Machine learning classification of mesial temporal sclerosis in epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudie, Jeffrey D; Colby, John B; Salamon, Noriko

    2015-11-01

    Novel approaches applying machine-learning methods to neuroimaging data seek to develop individualized measures that will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of brain-based disorders such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Using a large cohort of epilepsy patients with and without mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), we sought to automatically classify MTS using measures of cortical morphology, and to further relate classification probabilities to measures of disease burden. Our sample consisted of high-resolution T1 structural scans of 169 adults with epilepsy collected across five different 1.5T and four different 3T scanners at UCLA. We applied a multiple support vector machine recursive feature elimination algorithm to morphological measures generated from FreeSurfer's automated segmentation and parcellation in order to classify Epilepsy patients with MTS (n=85) from those without MTS (N=84). In addition to hippocampal volume, we found that alterations in cortical thickness, surface area, volume and curvature in inferior frontal and anterior and inferior temporal regions contributed to a classification accuracy of up to 81% (p=1.3×10(-17)) in identifying MTS. We also found that MTS classification probabilities were associated with a longer duration of disease for epilepsy patients both with and without MTS. In addition to implicating extra-hippocampal involvement of MTS, these findings shed further light on the pathogenesis of TLE and may ultimately assist in the development of automated tools that incorporate multiple neuroimaging measures to assist clinicians in detecting more subtle cases of TLE and MTS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, E-S; Sui, C-B; Wang, T-X; Sun, G-L

    2016-12-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (RS) is a potential option for some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the pooled seizure-free rate and the time interval to seizure cessation in patients with lesions in the mesial temporal lobe, and who were eligible for either stereotactic or gamma knife RS. We searched the Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases using combinations of the following terms: RS, stereotactic radiosurgery, gamma knife, and TLE. We screened 103 articles and selected 13 for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Significant study heterogeneity was detected; however, the included studies displayed an acceptable level of quality. We show that approximately half of the patients were seizure free over a follow-up period that ranged from 6 months to 9 years [pooled estimate: 50.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.381-0.636)], with an average of 14 months to seizure cessation [pooled estimate: 14.08 months (95% confidence interval: 11.95-12.22 months)]. Nine of 13 included studies reported data for adverse events (AEs), which included visual field deficits and headache (the two most common AEs), verbal memory impairment, psychosis, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and dysphasia. Patients in the individual studies experienced AEs at rates that ranged from 8%, for non-epileptic seizures, to 85%, for headache. Our findings indicate that RS may have similar or slightly less efficacy in some patients compared with invasive surgery. Randomized controlled trials of both treatment regimens should be undertaken to generate an evidence base for patient decision-making. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Altered functional connectivity and small-world in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Pan, Zhengyong; Mantini, Dante; Ding, Jurong; Duan, Xujun; Luo, Cheng; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2010-01-01

    .... In this study, we investigated alterations related to mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging on 18 mTLE patients and 27 healthy controls...

  20. Radiosurgery for Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Resulting from Mesial Temporal Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaris, Thomas; Witt, Thomas; Barbaro, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is perhaps the most well-defined epilepsy syndrome that is responsive to structural interventions such as surgery. Several minimally invasive techniques have arisen that provide additional options for the treatment of MTS while potentially avoiding many of open surgery's associated risks. By evading these risks, they also open up treatment options to patients who otherwise are poor surgical candidates. Radiosurgery is one of the most intensively studied of these alternatives and has found a growing role in the treatment of medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Age-Dependent Mesial Temporal Lobe Lateralization in Language FMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeta, Leigh N.; Berl, Madison M.; Wilke, Marko; You, Xiaozhen; Mehta, Meera; Xu, Benjamin; Inati, Sara; Dustin, Irene; Khan, Omar; Austermuehle, Alison; Theodore, William H.; Gaillard, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective FMRI activation of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) may be important for epilepsy surgical planning. We examined MTL activation and lateralization during language fMRI in children and adults with focal epilepsy. Methods 142 controls and patients with left hemisphere focal epilepsy (Pediatric: epilepsy, n = 17, mean age = 9.9 ± 2.0; controls, n = 48; mean age = 9.1 ± 2.6; Adult: epilepsy, n = 20, mean age = 26.7 ± 5.8; controls, n = 57, mean age = 26.2 ± 7.5) underwent 3T fMRI using a language task (auditory description decision task). Image processing and analyses were conducted in SPM8; ROIs included MTL, Broca’s area, and Wernicke’s area. We assessed group and individual MTL activation, and examined degree of lateralization. Results Patients and controls (pediatric and adult) demonstrated group and individual MTL activation during language fMRI. MTL activation was left lateralized for adults but less so in children (p’s < 0.005). Patients did not differ from controls in either age group. Stronger left-lateralized MTL activation was related to older age (p = 0.02). Language lateralization (Broca’s and Wernicke’s) predicted 19% of the variance in MTL lateralization for adults (p = 0.001), but not children. Significance Language fMRI may be used to elicit group and individual MTL activation. The developmental difference in MTL lateralization and its association with language lateralization suggests a developmental shift in lateralization of MTL function, with increased left lateralization across the age span. This shift may help explain why children have better memory outcomes following resection compared to adults. PMID:26696589

  2. Hyperventilation induces sympathetic overactivation in mesial temporal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, Giovanni; Mecarelli, Oriano; Tombini, Mario; Pulitano, Patrizia; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Benvenga, Antonella; Assenza, Federica; Campana, Chiara; Di Pino, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2015-02-01

    Hyperventilation (HV) during electroencephalography (EEG) is a standard clinical procedure to trigger seizures in patients affected by mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Despite the pathophysiology of this susceptibility to HV is not definitively understood, it may be hypothesized to be related to ictal and interictal sympathetic nervous system abnormalities, the presence of which is well known in MTLE patients. In order to test this hypothesis we investigated the HV effect on heart rate variability (HRV) in a group of MTLE patients, compared to a matched group of healthy controls. Forty patients affected by MTLE and 40 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. In those subjects, a standard electroencephalographic recording has been acquired and the high and the low frequency components (HF, LF) of heart rate variability (HRV) and their ratio (LF/HF) have been analyzed at rest and during the HV. Indeed, LF/HF is a reliable index of sympathetic tone modulation. HRV did not differ between MTLE and healthy subjects at rest, whereas HV induced a significant LF/HF increase only in MTLE. Within the MTLE group, males showed higher LF/HF increase during HV respect to females, while no differences related to the side of the epileptic focus were found. MTLE patients showed an increased sympathetic response to HV compared to healthy subjects. HRV analysis points towards an autonomic overactivation as a pathophysiological pathway subtending seizure triggered by hyperventilation in MTLE. Autonomic susceptibility in MTLE may help to explain the increased prevalence of arrhythmic events in these patients, potentially predisposing to Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacodynamics of remifentanil. Induced intracranial spike activity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Troels Wesenberg; Hogenhaven, Hans; Lee, Andrea P

    2017-01-01

    activity in the temporal neocortex and hippocampus. We examined 65 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy during surgery, prior to resection. We used a 20-lead grid on the cortex and a 4-lead strip in the lateral ventricle on the hippocampus. At least two 3-min periods of ECoG were recorded - before...

  4. Paradigma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2006-01-01

    Paradigma var et dansk tidsskrift, der havde undertitlen "Tidskrift om videnskab og virkeligheder" og som udkom fra 1986 til 1990. Det præsenterede dansk og udenlandsk forskning i fysik, biologi, sociologi, filosofi mv., som udfordrede velkendte videnskabelige paradigmer.......Paradigma var et dansk tidsskrift, der havde undertitlen "Tidskrift om videnskab og virkeligheder" og som udkom fra 1986 til 1990. Det præsenterede dansk og udenlandsk forskning i fysik, biologi, sociologi, filosofi mv., som udfordrede velkendte videnskabelige paradigmer....

  5. Influence of Resting-State Network on Lateralization of Functional Connectivity in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L; An, J; Ma, Q; Qiu, S; Hu, D

    2015-08-01

    Although most studies on epilepsy have focused on the epileptogenic zone, epilepsy is a system-level disease characterized by aberrant neuronal synchronization among groups of neurons. Increasingly, studies have indicated that mesial temporal lobe epilepsy may be a network-level disease; however, few investigations have examined resting-state functional connectivity of the entire brain, particularly in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. This study primarily investigated whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity abnormality in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and right hippocampal sclerosis during the interictal period. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity of 21 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with right hippocampal sclerosis and 21 neurologically healthy controls. A multivariate pattern analysis was used to identify the functional connections that most clearly differentiated patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with right hippocampal sclerosis from controls. Discriminative analysis of functional connections indicated that the patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with right hippocampal sclerosis exhibited decreased resting-state functional connectivity within the right hemisphere and increased resting-state functional connectivity within the left hemisphere. Resting-state network analysis suggested that the internetwork connections typically obey the hemispheric lateralization trend and most of the functional connections that disturb the lateralization trend are the intranetwork ones. The current findings suggest that weakening of the resting-state functional connectivity associated with the right hemisphere appears to strengthen resting-state functional connectivity on the contralateral side, which may be related to the seizure-induced damage and underlying compensatory mechanisms. Resting-state network-based analysis indicated that the compensatory mechanism among

  6. Time reversibility of intracranial human EEG recordings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heyden, M. J.; Diks, C.; Pijn, J. P. M.; Velis, D. N.

    1996-02-01

    Intracranial electroencephalograms from patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were tested for time reversibility. If the recorded time series is irreversible, the input of the recording system cannot be a realisation of a linear Gaussian random process. We confirmed experimentally that the measurement equipment did not introduce irreversibility in the recorded output when the input was a realisation of a linear Gaussian random process. In general, the non-seizure recordings are reversible, whereas the seizure recordings are irreversible. These results suggest that time reversibility is a useful property for the characterisation of human intracranial EEG recordings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  7. Improved Cerebral Function in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy after Subtemporal Amygdalohippocampectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Mitsueda, Takahiro; Satow, Takeshi; Taki, Junya; Kinoshita, Masako; Miyamoto, Susumu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Ikeda, Akio; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2009-01-01

    The functional changes that occur throughout the human brain after the selective removal of an epileptogenic lesion remain unclear. Subtemporal selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) has been advocated as a minimally invasive surgical procedure for patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We evaluated the effects…

  8. Fluoxetine Restores Spatial Learning but Not Accelerated Forgetting in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkas, Lisa; Redhead, Edward; Taylor, Matthew; Shtaya, Anan; Hamilton, Derek A.; Gray, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Learning and memory dysfunction is the most common neuropsychological effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, and because the underlying neurobiology is poorly understood, there are no pharmacological strategies to help restore memory function in these patients. We have demonstrated impairments in the acquisition of an allocentric spatial task,…

  9. Temporal resolution deficits in patients with refractory complex partial seizures and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindkumar, Rajasekaran; Shivashankar, N; Satishchandra, P; Sinha, Sanjib; Saini, J; Subbakrishna, D K

    2012-05-01

    We studied the temporal resolution ability in patients with refractory complex partial seizures and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) using Gaps-In-Noise (GIN) test in a prospective cross-sectional study. Thirteen patients with right MTS (age: 31±7.67 years; M:F=8:5) and 13 patients with left MTS (age: 25.76±8.26 years; M:F=9:4) having normal hearing and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score of >23/30 were recruited. Fifty healthy volunteers (26.3±5.17 years; M:F=28:22) formed the control group. Gaps-In-Noise test demonstrated impaired temporal resolution: 69.2% of patients with right MTS (RMTS) and 76.9% of patients with left MTS (LMTS) had abnormal scores in the right ear for gap detection threshold (GDT) measure. Similarly, 53.8% of patients in the RMTS group and 76.9% of patients in the LMTS group had abnormal scores in the left ear. In percentage of correct identification (PCI), 46.1% of patients with RMTS and 69.2% of patients with LMTS had poorer scores in the right ear, whereas 46.1% of patients with RMTS and 61.5% of patients with LMTS had poorer scores in the left ear. Both patient groups, viz., RMTS and LMTS, demonstrated bilateral temporal resolution deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recognition memory of serially or simultaneously presented words or figures, of epilepsy patients with or without mesial temporal sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.P.H.; Kampen, A. van; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Vlugt, H. van der; Alpherts, W.C.J.; Vermeulen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies, examining short-term recognition memory in patients with partial seizures as a consequence of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) have reported inconsistent findings. Dependent on the paradigms used for measuring recognition memory, some studies have demonstrated that the mesial

  11. Carbamazepine reduces memory induced activation of mesial temporal lobe structures: a pharmacological fMRI-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okujava Michael

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose It is not known whether carbamazepine (CBZ; a drug widely used in neurology and psychiatry influences the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast changes induced by neuronal activation and measured by functional MRI (fMRI. We aimed to investigate the influence of CBZ on memory induced activation of the mesial temporal lobes in patients with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Material and Methods Twenty-one individual patients with refractory symptomatic TLE with different CBZ serum levels and 20 healthy controls were studied using BOLD fMRI. Mesial temporal lobe (MTL activation was induced by a task that is based on the retrieval of individually familiar visuo-spatial knowledge. The extent of significant MTL fMRI activation was measured and correlated with the CBZ serum level. Results In TLE patients, the extent of significant fMRI activation over both MTL was negatively correlated to the CBZ serum level (Spearman r = -0.654, P Conclusions In TLE patients, carbamazepine reduces the fMRI-detectable changes within the mesial temporal lobes as induced by effortful memory retrieval. FMRI appears to be suitable to study the effects of chronic drug treatment in patients with epilepsy.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with partial epilepsy; Special emphasis on mesial temporal lesions

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    Kodama, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Toshio; Noda, Shingo (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-12-01

    Fourty-three patients with partial epilepsy were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 0.5 tesla. Transverse and coronal MR imagings were carried out with long SE sequences (TR=2080 or 2000 or 2200 msec; TE=80 or 160 msec) (T{sub 2}-weighted images) and IR sequence (TR=2080 msec; TI=500 msec) (T{sub 1}-weighted image). All patients were subdivided into four groups according to abnormalities on MR images. Two patients (group a) had mesial temporal abnormalities (long T{sub 2} lesion) at both transerve and coronal views. These lesions were unifocal and in the same side of temporal lobe with the epileptogenic focus as shown by electroencephalography. CT and T{sub 1}-weighted images failed to depict the mesial temporal abnormality. These long T{sub 2} lesions may reflect the increase in tissue water contents associated with gliosis. Focal signal increase in T{sub 2}-weighted images occurred in the mesial temporal region only at transverse view in four patients (group b). All focal signal-increased areas were also unifocal. Repeat MRI studies were carried out in two patients of group b. Disappearance of signal-increased areas was shown in both patients. As to the nature of these findings, some functional changes (partly reversible) related to epileptogenicity might be reflected in these signal-increased areas. In addition, we can't ignore the possibility of artifacts. One of them might be the vascular ghost artifact and another might be the partial volume effect from the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle, hippocampal fissure and from the inferior surface of the temporal lobe. The other types of abnormal MRI were demonstrated in eleven patients (group c). Six patients in group c had organic brain diseases such as tuberous sclerosis, callosal lipoma, brain tumor, Japanese encephalitis, meningitis and Sjoegren syndrome. The remaining twenty-six patients had no abnormal MRI (group d). (J.P.N.).

  13. Triple pathological findings in a surgically amenable patient with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumin Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS is a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy; however, coexistence with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD is less common. Middle fossa epidermoid cysts are rare and may involve the temporal lobe. Most epidermoids are clinically silent, slow-growing, and seldom associated with overt symptomatology, including seizures. We describe a patient with multiple comorbidities including left MTS and a large epidermoid cyst involving the left quadrigeminal plate cistern compressing upon the cerebellar vermis and tail of the left hippocampus, resulting in refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy. The patient underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy. The surgical pathology demonstrated a third pathological finding of left temporal FCD type Ia. The patient has been seizure-free since the surgery. This case provides additional information with regard to the understanding of epileptogenicity and surgical planning in patients with MTS and epidermoid cysts.

  14. Brain-responsive neurostimulation in patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Eric B; Skarpaas, Tara L; Gross, Robert E; Goodman, Robert R; Barkley, Gregory L; Bazil, Carl W; Berg, Michael J; Bergey, Gregory K; Cash, Sydney S; Cole, Andrew J; Duckrow, Robert B; Edwards, Jonathan C; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Fessler, James; Fountain, Nathan B; Goldman, Alicia M; Gwinn, Ryder P; Heck, Christianne; Herekar, Aamar; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Jobst, Barbara C; King-Stephens, David; Labar, Douglas R; Leiphart, James W; Marsh, W Richard; Meador, Kimford J; Mizrahi, Eli M; Murro, Anthony M; Nair, Dileep R; Noe, Katherine H; Park, Yong D; Rutecki, Paul A; Salanova, Vicenta; Sheth, Raj D; Shields, Donald C; Skidmore, Christopher; Smith, Michael C; Spencer, David C; Srinivasan, Shraddha; Tatum, William; Van Ness, Paul C; Vossler, David G; Wharen, Robert E; Worrell, Gregory A; Yoshor, Daniel; Zimmerman, Richard S; Cicora, Kathy; Sun, Felice T; Morrell, Martha J

    2017-06-01

    Evaluate the seizure-reduction response and safety of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) brain-responsive stimulation in adults with medically intractable partial-onset seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin. Subjects with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) were identified from prospective clinical trials of a brain-responsive neurostimulator (RNS System, NeuroPace). The seizure reduction over years 2-6 postimplantation was calculated by assessing the seizure frequency compared to a preimplantation baseline. Safety was assessed based on reported adverse events. There were 111 subjects with MTLE; 72% of subjects had bilateral MTL onsets and 28% had unilateral onsets. Subjects had one to four leads placed; only two leads could be connected to the device. Seventy-six subjects had depth leads only, 29 had both depth and strip leads, and 6 had only strip leads. The mean follow-up was 6.1 ± (standard deviation) 2.2 years. The median percent seizure reduction was 70% (last observation carried forward). Twenty-nine percent of subjects experienced at least one seizure-free period of 6 months or longer, and 15% experienced at least one seizure-free period of 1 year or longer. There was no difference in seizure reduction in subjects with and without mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), bilateral MTL onsets, prior resection, prior intracranial monitoring, and prior vagus nerve stimulation. In addition, seizure reduction was not dependent on the location of depth leads relative to the hippocampus. The most frequent serious device-related adverse event was soft tissue implant-site infection (overall rate, including events categorized as device-related, uncertain, or not device-related: 0.03 per implant year, which is not greater than with other neurostimulation devices). Brain-responsive stimulation represents a safe and effective treatment option for patients with medically intractable epilepsy, including patients with unilateral or bilateral MTLE who are not candidates for

  15. Laser interstitial thermal therapy for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joon Y; Wu, Chengyuan; Tracy, Joseph; Lorenzo, Matthew; Evans, James; Nei, Maromi; Skidmore, Christopher; Mintzer, Scott; Sharan, Ashwini D; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    To describe mesial temporal lobe ablated volumes, verbal memory, and surgical outcomes in patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) treated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided stereotactic laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT). We prospectively tracked seizure outcome in 20 patients at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital with drug-resistant mTLE who underwent MRI-guided LiTT from December 2011 to December 2014. Surgical outcome was assessed at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and at the most recent visit. Volume-based analysis of ablated mesial temporal structures was conducted in 17 patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and results were compared between the seizure-free and not seizure-free groups. Following LiTT, proportions of patients who were free of seizures impairing consciousness (including those with auras only) are as follows: 8 of 15 patients (53%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30.1-75.2%) after 6 months, 4 of 11 patients (36.4%, 95% CI 14.9-64.8%) after 1 year, 3 of 5 patients (60%, 95% CI 22.9-88.4%) at 2-year follow-up. Median follow-up was 13.4 months after LiTT (range 1.3 months to 3.2 years). Seizure outcome after LiTT suggests an all or none response. Four patients had anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) after LiTT; three are seizure-free. There were no differences in total ablated volume of the amygdalohippocampus complex or individual volumes of hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus between seizure-free and non-seizure-free patients. Contextual verbal memory performance was preserved after LiTT, although decline in noncontextual memory task scores were noted. We conclude that MRI-guided stereotactic LiTT is a safe alternative to ATL in patients with medically intractable mTLE. Individualized assessment is warranted to determine whether the reduced odds of seizure freedom are worth the reduction in risk, discomfort, and recovery time. Larger prospective

  16. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in a patient with spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürk, Katrin; Strzelczyk, Adam; Reif, Philipp S; Figueroa, Karla P; Pulst, Stefan M; Zühlke, Christine; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Hamer, Hajo M; Rosenow, Felix

    2013-04-01

    We report a female patient of German descent with a molecular diagnosis of SCA13 who presented with a history of cerebellar ataxia and epilepsy. The underlying mutation R420H had been shown to cause a dominant negative effect on the functional properties of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3. Despite widespread KCNC3 expression in the central nervous system, the patient presented with a left mesiotemporal electroencephalogram focus and left hippocampal sclerosis. This is the first case, which reports an association between mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and spinocerebellar ataxia type 13. This demonstrates that epilepsy of structural-metabolic cause may be contingent upon genetically defined channelopathies.

  17. Benign mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: A clinical cohort and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQassmi, Amal; Burneo, Jorge G; McLachlan, Richard S; Mirsattari, Seyed M

    2016-12-01

    We present a single-center retrospective study of benign mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (bMTLE) between 1995 and 2014. Hospital records and clinic charts were reviewed. The clinical, Eelectroencephalographic (EEG), imaging features, and response to treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were documented. Patients were included in this study if they were seizure-free for a minimum of 24months with or without an AED. Twenty-seven patients were identified. There were 19 (70%) females, mean age at first seizure was 32.2 (range: 15-80years). In all patients, seizures were mild, and seizure freedom was readily achieved with the initiation of AED therapy. Sixteen patients (59%) had mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). In three patients, we attempted to discontinue AED therapy after a prolonged period of remission (5-8years), but all had seizure recurrence within 2 to 4weeks. Not all temporal lobe epilepsy is refractory to medication, despite the presence of MTS. Until clinical trials indicate otherwise, surgery is not indicated but life-long medical treatment is advocated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Suggestive linkage of familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy to chromosome 3q26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanciulli, Manuela; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Egeo, Gabriella; Fattouch, Jinane; Dazzo, Emanuela; Radovic, Slobodanka; Spadotto, Alessandro; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Nobile, Carlo

    2014-02-01

    To describe the clinical findings in a family with a benign form of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and to identify the causative genetic factors. All participants were personally interviewed and underwent neurologic examination. The affected subjects underwent EEG and most of them neuroradiological examinations (MRI). All family members were genotyped with the HumanCytoSNP-12 v1.0 beadchip and linkage analysis was performed with Merlin and Simwalk2 programs. Exome sequencing was performed on HiSeq2000, after exome capture with SureSelect 50 Mb kit v2.0. The family had 6 members with temporal lobe epilepsy. Age at seizure onset ranged from 8 to 13 years. Five patients had epigastric auras often associated to oro-alimentary automatic activity, 3 patients presented loss of contact, and 2 experienced secondary generalizations. Febrile seizures occurred in 2 family members, 1 of whom also had temporal lobe epilepsy. EEG showed focal slow waves and epileptic abnormalities on temporal regions in 1 patient and was normal in the other affected individuals. MRI was normal in all temporal lobe epilepsy patients. We performed single nucleotide polymorphism-array linkage analysis of the family and found suggestive evidence of linkage (LOD score=2.106) to a region on chromosome 3q26. Haplotype reconstruction supported the linkage data and showed that the majority of unaffected family members carried the haplotype at risk. Whole exome sequencing failed to identify pathogenic mutations in genes of the candidate region. Our data suggest the existence of a novel locus for benign familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy on chromosome 3q26. Our failure to identify pathogenic mutations in genes of this region may be due to limitations of the exome sequencing technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors associated with tonic-clonic seizures in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Rostami, Cyrus; Rabiei, Amin H; Sperling, Michael R

    2015-12-15

    Among different seizure types, tonic-clonic seizures are more significant because they are more often associated with morbidity. No prior study has been done to investigate risk factors associated with tonic-clonic seizures in patients with mesial temporal epilepsy. In this retrospective study, all drug-resistant mesial temporal epilepsy patients in the database of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery at Jefferson comprehensive epilepsy center were recruited. These patients were prospectively registered in a database from 1986 till 2014. Patients' age, gender, epilepsy risk factors, age at seizure onset, and preoperative seizure type(s) were registered routinely. Potential risk factors associated with experiencing preoperative tonic-clonic seizures were investigated. Two hundred seventy-five patients (132 males and 143 females) were studied. Aura type was associated with experiencing perioperative tonic-clonic seizures. Patients with epigastric auras less frequently reported having tonic-clonic seizures compared with those who had other types of auras (odds ratio: 0.37 and 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.70; p=0.001) and those who did not have any auras (odds ratio: 0.35 and 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.77; p=0.008). Epigastric auras may indicate that a specific anatomic location is involved in epileptogenesis from which generalization is harder because of that location's poor connections with other brain regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hippocampal deep brain stimulation in nonlesional refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongbo; Li, Wenling; Dong, Changzheng; Wu, Jiang; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhao, Zengyi; Ma, Li; Ma, Fa; Chen, Yao; Liu, Qianwei

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of chronic continuous hippocampal deep brain stimulation (DBS) in nonlesional refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Three adult patients with medically intractable epilepsy treated with hippocampal DBS were studied. Two patients underwent invasive recordings with depth stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) electrodes to localize ictal onset zone prior to implantation of DBS electrodes. All the patients with no lesion in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan received bilateral implantation of DBS electrodes. Chronic continuous high-frequency hippocampal stimulation was applied during treatment. The number of seizures in each patient before and after stimulation was compared. Long-term hippocampal stimulation produced a median reduction in seizure frequency of 93%. Two out of these patients received unilateral activation of the electrodes and experienced a 95% and 92% reduction in seizure frequency after hippocampal DBS respectively. The last patient had bilateral electrode activation and had a seizure-frequency reduction of 91%. None of the patients had neuropsychological deterioration and showed side effects. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures disappeared completely after hippocampal DBS. Chronic continuous hippocampal DBS demonstrated a potential efficiency and safety in nonlesional refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and might represent an effective therapeutic option for these patients. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Small calcified lesions suggestive of neurocysticercosis are associated with mesial temporal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. B. Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a possible relationship between temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS and neurocysticercosis (NC. We performed a case-control study to evaluate the association of NC and MTS. Method: We randomly selected patients with different epilepsy types, including: MTS, primary generalized epilepsy (PGE and focal symptomatic epilepsy (FSE. Patients underwent a structured interview, followed by head computed tomography (CT. A neuroradiologist evaluated the scan for presence of calcified lesions suggestive of NC. CT results were matched with patients’ data. Results: More patients in the MTS group displayed calcified lesions suggestive of NC than patients in the other groups (p=0.002. On multivariate analysis, MTS was found to be an independent predictor of one or more calcified NC lesions (p=0.033. Conclusion: After controlling for confounding factors, we found an independent association between NC calcified lesions and MTS.

  2. Metals and electrolytes in sclerotic hippocampi in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Aleksandar J; Sokić, Dragoslav; Baščarević, Vladimir; Spasić, Snežana; Vojvodić, Nikola; Savić, Slobodan; Raičević, Savo; Kovačević, Maša; Savić, Danijela; Spasojević, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    An altered metal and electrolyte profile has been implicated in the pathologic mechanisms of chronic epilepsy; however, no study has comprehensively measured hippocampal concentrations of these elements in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS). We therefore analyzed hippocampi of 24 patients with drug-resistant mTLE-HS (mean age 35.6 ± 9.4 years) who underwent anterior temporal lobe resection and amygdalohippocampectomy and 17 hippocampi obtained by autopsy from 13 controls (mean age 40.5 ± 12.9 years), using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Epileptic hippocampi showed significantly lower concentrations (μg/g of tissue) of copper (HS: 2.34 ± 0.12; control [C]: 3.57 ± 0.33; p electrolytes in the pathology of HS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Type of preoperative aura may predict postsurgical outcome in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Nei, Maromi; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    As the initial symptoms of epileptic seizures, many types of auras have significant localizing or lateralizing value. In this study, we hypothesized that the type of aura may predict postsurgical outcome in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). In this retrospective study, all patients with a clinical diagnosis of medically refractory TLE due to unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis who underwent epilepsy surgery at the Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were recruited. Patients were prospectively registered in a database from 1986 through 2014. Postsurgical outcome was classified into two groups: seizure freedom or relapse. Outcome was compared between seven groups of patients according to their preoperative auras. Two hundred thirty-seven patients were studied. The chance of becoming free of seizures after surgery in patients with abdominal aura was 65.1%, while in other patients, this was 43.3% (P=0.01). In two-by-two comparisons, no other significant differences were observed. Patients with medically refractory TLE-MTS who reported abdominal auras preceding their seizures fared better postoperatively with regard to seizure control compared with those who did not report auras, which may indicate bitemporal dysfunction, and to patients with other auras, which may indicate a widespread epileptogenic zone in the latter group of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Complications After Surgery for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, Bertrand; Navarro, Vincent; Bielle, Franck; Nguyen-Michel, Vi-Huong; Carpentier, Alexandre; Baulac, Michel; Cornu, Philippe; Adam, Claude; Dupont, Sophie; Clemenceau, Stéphane

    2017-06-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. This study aimed to analyze morbidities related to surgery of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis and to identify possible risk factors for complications. A retrospective analysis of postoperative complications was made for 389 operations performed between 1990 and 2015 on patients aged 15-67 years (mean 36.8). Three surgical approaches were used: anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) (n = 209), transcortical selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) (n = 144), and transsylvian SAH (n = 36). Complications were classified as minor or major if there was a neurologic impairment or if further surgical or medical treatment was necessary. Complications followed 15.4% of operations. They were classed as major for 4.1% of patients, but there were no mortalities. Persistent neurologic deficits occurred in 0.5% of patients. In 3 cases (0.8%) additional surgery was necessary to treat an intracranial hematoma, a delayed hydrocephalus, and a subdural empyema. Symptomatic visual field defects (VFDs) were frequent and included contralateral superior quadrantanopia (8.2%) or hemianopia (1.3%). Overall complications (P = 0.04) and symptomatic VFDs (P = 0.04) were most frequent in operations on men. Major complications occurred most often with the ATL surgical approach than with transcortical SAH (P = 0.03). Major complications occur rarely after mesial temporal surgery on epileptic patients. They occur more often following the ATL rather than transcortical SAH approach. Complications tend to be temporary with symptoms of limited duration for surgery performed by experienced teams on carefully selected and evaluated patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial memory for asymmetrical dot locations predicts lateralization among patients with presurgical mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Franklin C; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Spencer, Dennis D

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the ability of an asymmetrical dot location memory test (Brown Location Test, BLT) and two verbal memory tests (Verbal Selective Reminding Test (VSRT) and California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II)) to correctly lateralize left (LTLE) or right (RTLE) mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that was confirmed with video-EEG. Subjects consisted of 16 patients with medically refractory RTLE and 13 patients with medically refractory LTLE who were left hemisphere language dominant. Positive predictive values for lateralizing TLE correctly were 87.5% for the BLT, 72.7% for the VSRT, and 80% for the CVLT-II. Binary logistic regression indicated that the BLT alone correctly classified 76.9% of patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy and 87.5% of patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy. Inclusion of the verbal memory tests improved this to 92.3% of patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy and 100% correct classification of patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy. Though of a limited sample size, this study suggests that the BLT alone provides strong laterality information which improves with the addition of verbal memory tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [A surgical case of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis and traumatic neocortical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Yu; Jin, Kazutaka; Iwasaki, Masaki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Nakasato, Nobukazu

    2017-11-25

    A 26-year-old right-handed woman, with a history of left temporal lobe contusion caused by a fall at the age of 9 months, started to have complex partial seizures with oral automatism at the age of 7 years. The seizures occurred once or twice a month despite combination therapy with several antiepileptic agents. Her history and imaging studies suggested the diagnosis of epilepsy arising from traumatic neocortical temporal lesion. Comprehensive assessment including long-term video EEG monitoring, MRI, FDG-PET, MEG, and neuropsychological evaluation was performed at the age of 26 years. The diagnosis was left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal atrophy and traumatic temporal cortical lesion. The patient was readmitted for surgical treatment at the age of 27 years. Intracranial EEG monitoring showed that ictal discharges started in the left hippocampus and spread to the traumatic lesion in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus 10 seconds after the onset. This case could not be classified as dual pathology exactly, because the traumatic left temporal cortical lesion did not show independent epileptogenicity. However, the traumatic lesion was highly likely to be the source of the epileptogenicity, and she had right hemispheric dominance for language and functional deterioration in the whole temporal cortex. Therefore, left amygdalo-hippocampectomy and left temporal lobectomy including the traumatic lesion were performed according to the diagnosis of dual pathology. Subsequently, she remained seizure-free for 3 years. Comprehensive assessment of seizure semiology, neurophysiology, neuroradiology, and neuropsychology is important to determine the optimum therapeutic strategies for drug-resistant epilepsy.

  7. The influence of seizure frequency on anterograde and remote memory in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltzenlogel, Virginie; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Hirsch, Edouard; Manning, Liliann

    2014-10-01

    Seizure frequency, although considered as an important factor in memory impairment in mesial temporal epilepsy (mTLE), is mostly confounded with other clinical variables, making it unclear to what extent recurrent seizures actually interfere with memory. The present study focuses on the influence of seizure frequency, studied as a main variable, on anterograde and remote memory. Seventy-one patients with unilateral mTLE were divided into two subgroups, as a function of their seizure frequency (monthly versus weekly seizures). Other seizure-related variables were controlled, namely, lateralisation and type of lesion, age at onset, years of ongoing seizures, etiologic factors, and number of AED. A comprehensive neuropsychological examination, including anterograde memory (verbal and non verbal recognition memory and free recall) tasks together with a large range of tests exploring different domains of remote memory, was carried out. Despite similar results on IQ, executive functions and attention, the low seizure-frequency group performed significantly better than the high seizure-frequency group on anterograde memory tests. Loss of autobiographical episodes and public-events memory, concomitant with spared personal semantic knowledge, was observed in both patient groups compared with healthy subjects. A worsening effect of high seizure frequency was recorded for autobiographical incidents and news-events memory, but unexpectedly, not for memory for famous people. The study of seizure frequency as the main variable leads us to suggest that high seizure frequency, itself, potentiates the effects of mesial temporal lobe damage on episodic memory deficits. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser ablation therapy: An alternative treatment for medically resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy after age 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Hena; Osborn, Katie E; Schoenberg, Mike R; Kelley, Valerie; Bozorg, Ali; Cabello, Daniel; Benbadis, Selim R; Vale, Fernando L

    2015-10-01

    Selective anterior mesial temporal lobe (AMTL) resection is considered a safe and effective treatment for medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, as with any open surgical procedure, older patients (aged 50+) face greater risks. Magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) has shown recent potential as an alternative treatment for MTLE. As a less invasive procedure, MRgLITT could be particularly beneficial to older patients. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the safety and efficacy of MRgLITT in this population. Seven consecutive patients (aged 50+) undergoing MRgLITT for MTLE were followed prospectively to assess surgical time, complications, postoperative pain control, length of stay (LOS), operating room (OR) charges, total hospitalization charges, and seizure outcome. Five of these patients were assessed at the 1-year follow-up for seizure outcome. These data were compared with data taken from 7 consecutive patients (aged 50+) undergoing AMTL resection. Both groups were of comparable age (mean: 60.7 (MRgLITT) vs. 53 (AMTL)). One AMTL resection patient had a complication of aseptic meningitis. One MRgLITT patient experienced an early postoperative seizure, and two MRgLITT patients had a partial visual field deficit. Seizure-freedom rates were comparable (80% (MRgLITT) and 100% (AMTL) (p>0.05)) beyond 1year postsurgery (mean follow-up: 1.0years (MRgLITT) vs. 1.8years (AMTL)). Mean LOS was shorter in the MRgLITT group (1.3days vs. 2.6days (p<0.05)). Neuropsychological outcomes were comparable. Short-term follow-up suggests that MRgLITT is safe and provides outcomes comparable to AMTL resection in this population. It also decreases pain medication requirement and reduces LOS. Further studies are necessary to assess the long-term efficacy of the procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Uncinate fasciculus fiber tracking in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Initial findings

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    Rodrigo, S.; Oppenheim, C.; Meder, J.F. [Universite Paris-Descartes, Faculte de Medecine, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Departement d' Imagerie Morphologique et Fonctionnelle, Paris (France); Chassoux, F. [Universite Paris-Descartes, Faculte de Medecine, Service de Neurochirurgie, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Paris (France); Golestani, N.; Cointepas, Y.; Poupon, C.; Semah, F.; Mangin, J.F.; Le Bihan, D. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA, Orsay (France)

    2007-07-15

    In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS), ictal discharge spread to the frontal and insulo-perisylvian cortex is commonly observed. The implication of white matter pathways in this propagation has not been investigated. We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements along the uncinate fasciculus (UF), a major tract connecting the frontal and temporal lobes, in patients and controls. Ten right-handed patients referred for intractable TLE due to a right HS were investigated on a 1.5-T MR scanner including a DTI sequence. All patients had interictal fluorodeoxyglucose PET showing an ipsilateral temporal hypometabolism associated with insular and frontal or perisylvian hypometabolism. The controls consisted of ten right-handed healthy subjects. UF fiber tracking was performed, and its fractional anisotropy (FA) values were compared between patients and controls, separately for the right and left UF. The left-minus-right FA UF asymmetry index was computed to test for intergroup differences. Asymmetries were found in the control group with right-greater-than-left FA. This asymmetrical pattern was lost in the patient group. Right FA values were lower in patients with right HS versus controls. Although preliminary, these findings may be related to the preferential pathway of seizure spread from the mesial temporal lobe to frontal and insulo-perisylvian areas. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic resonance in the diagnostic imaging study of mesial temporal sclerosis; Diagnostico por imagen con resonancia magnetica de la esclerosis temporal mesial

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    Pastor, E.; Sanchez, J. C.; Rodriguez, I.; Altuzarra, A.; Machado, F. [Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves. Granada (Spain); Aguilar, D. [Hospital Clinico Universitario San Cecilio. Granada (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) consists of hippocampal atrophy and gliosis and is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. The objective of the authors was to establish a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for its diagnosis. A prospective study was carried out in 72 patients with drug resistant complex partial seizures (42 women and 30 men ranging in age from 6 to 66 year: mean: 30 years). Using a 1.5-Tesla magnet, paracoronal sections were made in hippocampi for T1-weighted inversion-recovery images and volume measurements, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) and T2 relaxometry. A control group of 30 health volunteers was included in the study. MTS was considered to be indicated by the presence of atrophy and hyperintensity in hippocampi on T2-weighted images. There were no differences among the hippocampi of the healthy individuals. The confidence intervals (mean{+-} 1.96 SD) were 4169 mm''3-5911 mm''3 for volume of right side, 4097 mm''3-5940 mm''3 for volume of left side and 98-113 ms for T2 relaxation time. MTS was detected in 40 patients (55.5%): 23 cases involving the left side, 13 involving the right and 4 cases of bilateral asymmetric involvement. The 95% confidence intervals for the diagnostic validity of the results (sensitivity/specificity) were (88.8%-97.2%)/(87.6%-96.4%) for T1 volumetry, (88.8%-97.2%)(95.7%-100.3%) for FLAIR and (85.4%-96.6%)/(85.4%-96.6%) for T2 relaxometry. In 5 cases of MTS, astrophy of other extra hippocampal structures was also observed, and MTS was associated with an extra hippocampal lesion (dual pathology), especially neurona migration disorders, in 8 patients. Seventeen patients (23.5%) presented lesions without MTS (tumors, cortical dysplasias and heterotopias) and there was no MRI evidence of anomalies in 15 (21%). Twenty-five patients underwent surgical treatment: 20 with MTS (19 diagnosed according to MRI and one in whom there had been no abnormal findings

  11. Altered functional connectivity and small-world in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The functional architecture of the human brain has been extensively described in terms of functional connectivity networks, detected from the low-frequency coherent neuronal fluctuations that can be observed in a resting state condition. Little is known, so far, about the changes in functional connectivity and in the topological properties of functional networks, associated with different brain diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated alterations related to mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging on 18 mTLE patients and 27 healthy controls. Functional connectivity among 90 cortical and subcortical regions was measured by temporal correlation. The related values were analyzed to construct a set of undirected graphs. Compared to controls, mTLE patients showed significantly increased connectivity within the medial temporal lobes, but also significantly decreased connectivity within the frontal and parietal lobes, and between frontal and parietal lobes. Our findings demonstrated that a large number of areas in the default-mode network of mTLE patients showed a significantly decreased number of connections to other regions. Furthermore, we observed altered small-world properties in patients, along with smaller degree of connectivity, increased n-to-1 connectivity, smaller absolute clustering coefficients and shorter absolute path length. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that the mTLE alterations observed in functional connectivity and topological properties may be used to define tentative disease markers.

  12. Surgical outcome in adolescents with mesial temporal sclerosis: Is it different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Pue; Hirsch, Lawrence; Levy, Susan; Testa, Francine; Mattson, Richard; Spencer, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    There are extensive studies evaluating mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) in adults and limited studies in children, with adolescents being included within both patient populations. Our aim was to evaluate predictors of surgical outcome solely in adolescent patients with MRI- and pathology -proven MTS. The Yale Epilepsy Surgery Database was reviewed from 1987 to 2012 for adolescent patients with confirmed MTS on MRI and pathology who underwent temporal lobectomy and had greater than two-year postsurgical follow-up. Clinical and electrographic data were reviewed. Eighteen patients were identified. Eleven patients (61%) were seizure-free. All seven patients (39%) who were not seizure-free free were found to have lateralized ictal onset within one hemisphere involving two or more lobes on scalp EEG (p<0.001). Of the 7 patients who were not seizure-free, 4 had a history of status epilepticus (compared to 1/11 seizure-free patients; p=0.047), and 4 had lateralized hypometabolism involving two or more lobes within a hemisphere seen on PET (compared to 0/8 seizure-free patients; p=0.002). A novel finding in our study was that lateralized (rather than localized) ictal onset on scalp EEG, lateralized hypometabolism on PET, and history of status epilepticus were risk factors for not attaining seizure freedom in adolescents with MTS who underwent temporal lobectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Navigation-assisted trans-inferotemporal cortex selective amygdalohippocampectomy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy; preserving the temporal stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, Haruhiko; Kato, Amami; Oshino, Satoru; Tani, Naoki; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Khoo, Hui Ming; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Edakawa, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Maki; Tanaka, Masataka; Hosomi, Koichi; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2017-03-01

    Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) can be used to obtain satisfactory seizure control in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Several SAH procedures have been reported to achieve satisfactory outcomes for seizure control, but none yield fully satisfactory outcomes for memory function. We hypothesized that preserving the temporal stem might play an important role. To preserve the temporal stem, we developed a minimally invasive surgical procedure, 'neuronavigation-assisted trans-inferotemporal cortex SAH' (TITC-SAH). TITC-SAH was performed in 23 patients with MTLE (MTLE on the language-non-dominant hemisphere, n = 11). The inferior horn of the lateral ventricle was approached via the inferior or middle temporal gyrus along the inferior temporal sulcus under neuronavigation guidance. The hippocampus was dissected in a subpial manner and resected en bloc together with the parahippocampal gyrus. Seizure control at one year and memory function at 6 months postoperatively were evaluated. One year after TITC-SAH, 20 of the 23 patients were seizure-free (ILAE class 1), 2 were class 2, and 1 was class 3. Verbal memory improved significantly in 13 patients with a diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis, for whom WMS-R scores were available both pre- and post-operatively. Improvements were seen regardless of whether the SAH was on the language-dominant or non-dominant hemisphere. No major complication was observed. Navigation-assisted TITC-SAH performed for MTLE offers a simple, minimally invasive procedure that appears to yield excellent outcomes in terms of seizure control and preservation of memory function, because this procedure does not damage the temporal stem. TITC-SAH should be one of the feasible surgical procedures for MTLE. SAH: Amygdalohippocampectomy; MTLE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE); TITC-SAH: Ttrans-inferotemporal cortex SAH; ILAE: International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE); MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging; EEG

  14. Brain SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison between visual analysis and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping)

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    Amorim, Barbara Juarez; Ramos, Celso Dario; Santos, Allan Oliveira dos; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo, E-mail: juarezbarbara@hotmail.co [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Radiology; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Neurology

    2010-04-15

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of SPM and visual analysis of brain SPECT in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Method: interictal and ictal SPECTs of 22 patients with MTLE were performed. Visual analysis were performed in interictal (VISUAL(inter)) and ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter)) studies. SPM analysis consisted of comparing interictal (SPM(inter)) and ictal SPECTs (SPM(ictal)) of each patient to control group and by comparing perfusion of temporal lobes in ictal and interictal studies among themselves (SPM(ictal/inter)). Results: for detection of the epileptogenic focus, the sensitivities were as follows: VISUAL(inter)=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter)=100%; SPM(inter)=45%; SPM(ictal)=64% and SPM(ictal/inter)=77%. SPM was able to detect more areas of hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion. Conclusion: SPM did not improve the sensitivity to detect epileptogenic focus. However, SPM detected different regions of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion and is therefore a helpful tool for better understand pathophysiology of seizures in MTLE. (author)

  15. Pathophysiogenesis of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Is Prevention of Damage Antiepileptogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curia, G.; Lucchi, C.; Vinet, J.; Gualtieri, F.; Marinelli, C.; Torsello, A.; Costantino, L.; Biagini*,, G.

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis, possibly caused by a primary brain injury that occurred a long time before the appearance of neurological symptoms. This type of epilepsy is characterized by refractoriness to drug treatment, so to require surgical resection of mesial temporal regions involved in seizure onset. Even this last therapeutic approach may fail in giving relief to patients. Although prevention of hippocampal damage and epileptogenesis after a primary event could be a key innovative approach to TLE, the lack of clear data on the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to TLE does not allow any rational therapy. Here we address the current knowledge on mechanisms supposed to be involved in epileptogenesis, as well as on the possible innovative treatments that may lead to a preventive approach. Besides loss of principal neurons and of specific interneurons, network rearrangement caused by axonal sprouting and neurogenesis are well known phenomena that are integrated by changes in receptor and channel functioning and modifications in other cellular components. In particular, a growing body of evidence from the study of animal models suggests that disruption of vascular and astrocytic components of the blood-brain barrier takes place in injured brain regions such as the hippocampus and piriform cortex. These events may be counteracted by drugs able to prevent damage to the vascular component, as in the case of the growth hormone secretagogue ghrelin and its analogues. A thoroughly investigation on these new pharmacological tools may lead to design effective preventive therapies. PMID:24251566

  16. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy in histopathological subgroups of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Hajek, Milan; Dezortova, Monika [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, MR Unit, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Prague (Czech Republic); Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir [Charles University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Marusic, Petr; Tomasek, Martin; Krijtova, Hana [Charles University, Department of Neurology, Prague (Czech Republic); Zamecnik, Josef [Charles University, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Kyncl, Martin [Charles University, Department of Radiology, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the study was to analyze the lateralizing value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) in histopathologically different subgroups of mesial temporal lobe epilepsies (MTLE) and to correlate results with clinical, MRI and seizure outcome data. A group of 35 patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery was retrospectively studied. Hippocampal {sup 1}H MR spectra were evaluated. Metabolite concentrations were obtained using LCModel and NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, NAA/(Cr+Cho), Cho/Cr ratios and coefficients of asymmetry were calculated. MRI correctly lateralized 89% of subjects and {sup 1}H MRS 83%. MRI together with {sup 1}H MRS correctly lateralized 100% of patients. Nineteen subjects had 'classical' hippocampal sclerosis (HS), whereas the remaining 16 patients had 'mild' HS. Nineteen patients had histopathologically proven malformation of cortical development (MCD) in the temporal pole; 16 subjects had only HS. No difference in {sup 1}H MRS findings was found between patients in different histopathological subgroups of MTLE. Our results support the hypothesis that {sup 1}H MRS abnormalities do not directly reflect histopathological changes in MTLE patients. Subjects with non-lateralized {sup 1}H MRS abnormalities did not have a worse postoperative seizure outcome. We found no significant impact of contralateral {sup 1}H MRS abnormality on post-surgical seizure outcome. (orig.)

  17. Late onset temporal lobe epilepsy with MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis following acute neurocysticercosis. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Eliane; Guerreiro, Carlos A.M.; Cendes, Fernando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia]. E-mail: fcendes@unicamp.br

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this case report is to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) in a patient with new onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and acute neurocysticercosis with multiple cysts. A 56 years old man with new onset headache, Simple Partial Seizures and Complex Partial Seizures underwent CT scan and lumbar puncture as diagnose proceeding. Multiple cysts and meningitis were identified, with a positive immunology for cysticercosis. Seizures were recorded over the left temporal region in a routine EEG. Treatment with al bendazole was performed for 21 days, with clinical improvement and seizure remission after 4 months. An MRI scan 11 months after treatment, showed complete resolution of those cystic lesions and a left hippocampal atrophy (HA) with hyperintense T2 signal. The presence of HA and hyperintense T 2 signal in this patient has not, to date, been associated with a poor seizure control. Conclusions: This patient presented with MRI evidence of left MTS after new onset partial seizures of left temporal lobe origin. Although we did not have a previous MRI scan, it is likely that this hippocampal abnormality was due to the acute inflammatory response to cysticercosis associated to repeated partial seizures. This suggests that acute neurocysticercosis associated with repeated seizures may cause MTS and late onset TLE. (author)

  18. Neuroimaging observations linking neurocysticercosis and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Marino M; Velasco, Tonicarlo R; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Araújo, David; Alexandre, Veriano; Scornavacca, Francisco; Escorsi-Rosset, Sara R; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Carlotti, Carlos G; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Sakamoto, Américo C

    2015-10-01

    To test if chronic calcificed neurocysticercosis (cNCC) and hippocampal sclerosis occur more often than by chance ipsilateral to the same brain hemisphere or brain region in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) plus neurocysticercosis. This proof-of-concept would provide important evidence of a direct pathogenic relationship between neurocysticercosis and MTLE-HS. A cohort of 290 consecutive MTLE-HS surgical patients was studied. A test of proportions was used to analyze if the proportion of patients with a single cNCC lesion matching the same brain hemisphere or region of hippocampal sclerosis was significantly greater than 50%, as expected by the chance. Neuroimaging findings of cNCC were observed in 112 (38.6%) of 290 MTLE-HS patients and a single cNCC lesion occurred in 58 (51.8%) of them. There were no differences in main basal clinical characteristics of MTLE-HS patients with single or multiple cNCC lesions. In patients with single cNCC lesions, the lesion matched the side in which hippocampal sclerosis was observed in 43 (74.1%) patients, a proportion significantly greater than that expected to occur by chance (p=0.008). Neurocysticercosis in temporal lobe was ipsilateral to hippocampal sclerosis in 85.0% of patients and accounted mostly for this result. This work is a proof-of-concept that the association of neurocysticercosis and MTLE-HS cannot be explained exclusively by patients sharing common biological or socio-economic predisposing variables. Instead, our results suggest the involvement of more direct pathogenic mechanisms like regional inflammation, repetitive seizures or both. Neurocysticercosis within temporal lobes was particularly related with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis in MTLE-HS, a finding adding new contributions for understanding MTLE-HS plus cNCC or perhaps to other forms of dual pathology in MTLE-HS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-dependent mesial temporal lobe lateralization in language fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeta, Leigh N; Berl, Madison M; Wilke, Marko; You, Xiaozhen; Mehta, Meera; Xu, Benjamin; Inati, Sara; Dustin, Irene; Khan, Omar; Austermuehle, Alison; Theodore, William H; Gaillard, William D

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) may be important for epilepsy surgical planning. We examined MTL activation and lateralization during language fMRI in children and adults with focal epilepsy. One hundred forty-two controls and patients with left hemisphere focal epilepsy (pediatric: epilepsy, n = 17, mean age = 9.9 ± 2.0; controls, n = 48; mean age = 9.1 ± 2.6; adult: epilepsy, n = 20, mean age = 26.7 ± 5.8; controls, n = 57, mean age = 26.2 ± 7.5) underwent 3T fMRI using a language task (auditory description decision task). Image processing and analyses were conducted using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8); regions of interest (ROIs) included MTL, Broca's area, and Wernicke's area. We assessed group and individual MTL activation, and examined degree of lateralization. Patients and controls (pediatric and adult) demonstrated group and individual MTL activation during language fMRI. MTL activation was left lateralized for adults, but less so in children (p's help explain why children have better memory outcomes following resection compared to adults. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Incomplete Circle of Willis: A risk factor for mesial temporal sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyumcu, Gokhan; Byrne, Richard W; Dawe, Robert J; Kocak, Mehmet

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there may be a correlation between the anatomical variants of Circle of Willis (CoW) and presence/laterality of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). We retrospectively identified the CoW variants on Wada angiograms in 71 patients with pathologically proven MTS. Angiograms were interpreted by two radiologists independently and blinded to clinical data. We divided the anterior and posterior components of the CoW into functionally complete and functionally incomplete groups. We then sought its correlation with the presence and laterality of MTS. No statistically significant relationship was found between the functional status of the anterior circulation and the laterality of the MTS (p=0.657). Relationship of the posterior incomplete circle to MTS was statistically significant on both sides (p=0.023 for the left, p=0.04 for the right), with an effect size moderate to large for the left side and moderate for the right side. Although the fetal variant appeared to be related to the ipsilateral MTS, it did not reach to a level of statistical significance (p=0.15). The study demonstrates a statistically significant association of the incomplete posterior circulation of the CoW to the presence of ipsilateral MTS. Further studies in larger patient populations may be needed to seek whether an incomplete circulation may facilitate development of MTS, especially affecting the watershed zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy lateralization using SPHARM-based features of hippocampus and SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Mohammad; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh

    2012-02-01

    This paper improves the Lateralization (identification of the epileptogenic hippocampus) accuracy in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (mTLE). In patients with this kind of epilepsy, usually one of the brain's hippocampi is the focus of the epileptic seizures, and resection of the seizure focus is the ultimate treatment to control or reduce the seizures. Moreover, the epileptogenic hippocampus is prone to shrinkage and deformation; therefore, shape analysis of the hippocampus is advantageous in the preoperative assessment for the Lateralization. The method utilized for shape analysis is the Spherical Harmonics (SPHARM). In this method, the shape of interest is decomposed using a set of bases functions and the obtained coefficients of expansion are the features describing the shape. To perform shape comparison and analysis, some pre- and post-processing steps such as "alignment of different subjects' hippocampi" and the "reduction of feature-space dimension" are required. To this end, first order ellipsoid is used for alignment. For dimension reduction, we propose to keep only the SPHARM coefficients with maximum conformity to the hippocampus shape. Then, using these coefficients of normal and epileptic subjects along with 3D invariants, specific lateralization indices are proposed. Consequently, the 1536 SPHARM coefficients of each subject are summarized into 3 indices, where for each index the negative (positive) value shows that the left (right) hippocampus is deformed (diseased). Employing these indices, the best achieved lateralization accuracy for clustering and classification algorithms are 85% and 92%, respectively. This is a significant improvement compared to the conventional volumetric method.

  2. Scale invariance properties of intracerebral EEG improve seizure prediction in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kais Gadhoumi

    Full Text Available Although treatment for epilepsy is available and effective for nearly 70 percent of patients, many remain in need of new therapeutic approaches. Predicting the impending seizures in these patients could significantly enhance their quality of life if the prediction performance is clinically practical. In this study, we investigate the improvement of the performance of a seizure prediction algorithm in 17 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy by means of a novel measure. Scale-free dynamics of the intracerebral EEG are quantified through robust estimates of the scaling exponents--the first cumulants--derived from a wavelet leader and bootstrap based multifractal analysis. The cumulants are investigated for the discriminability between preictal and interictal epochs. The performance of our recently published patient-specific seizure prediction algorithm is then out-of-sample tested on long-lasting data using combinations of cumulants and state similarity measures previously introduced. By using the first cumulant in combination with state similarity measures, up to 13 of 17 patients had seizures predicted above chance with clinically practical levels of sensitivity (80.5% and specificity (25.1% of total time under warning for prediction horizons above 25 min. These results indicate that the scale-free dynamics of the preictal state are different from those of the interictal state. Quantifiers of these dynamics may carry a predictive power that can be used to improve seizure prediction performance.

  3. Effect of seizure on hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and neocortical epilepsy: an MRS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.K.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, K.K. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Chongno ku, Seoul (Korea); Chung, C.K. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Chongno ku, Seoul (Korea); Song, I.C.; Chang, K.H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chongno ku, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of seizures on the bilateral hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and neocortical epilepsy by single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Forty-one patients with mTLE having unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and 43 patients with a neocortical epilepsy who underwent subsequent epilepsy surgery were recruited. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of N-acetyl aspartate/choline (NAA/Cho) and NAA/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios in 20 healthy control subjects were used as threshold values to determine abnormal NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr. NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were significantly lower in the ipsilateral hippocampus of mTLE and neocortical epilepsy. Using asymmetry indices for patients with bilaterally abnormal ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr in addition to using unilateral abnormal ratio, the seizure focus was correctly lateralized in 65.9% of patients with mTLE and 48.8% of neocortical epilepsy patients. Bilateral NAA/Cho abnormality was significantly related to a poor surgical outcome in mTLE. No significant relationship was found between the results of NAA/Cho or NAA/Cr and surgical outcome in neocortical epilepsy. The mean contralateral NAA/Cr ratio of the hippocampus in mTLE was significantly lower in patients with a history of secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizure (SGTCS) than in those without. (orig.)

  4. Asymmetrical hippocampal connectivity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: evidence from resting state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano Gabriela

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, the most common type of focal epilepsy in adults, is often caused by hippocampal sclerosis (HS. Patients with HS usually present memory dysfunction, which is material-specific according to the hemisphere involved and has been correlated to the degree of HS as measured by postoperative histopathology as well as by the degree of hippocampal atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Verbal memory is mostly affected by left-sided HS, whereas visuo-spatial memory is more affected by right HS. Some of these impairments may be related to abnormalities of the network in which individual hippocampus takes part. Functional connectivity can play an important role to understand how the hippocampi interact with other brain areas. It can be estimated via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI resting state experiments by evaluating patterns of functional networks. In this study, we investigated the functional connectivity patterns of 9 control subjects, 9 patients with right MTLE and 9 patients with left MTLE. Results We detected differences in functional connectivity within and between hippocampi in patients with unilateral MTLE associated with ipsilateral HS by resting state fMRI. Functional connectivity resulted to be more impaired ipsilateral to the seizure focus in both patient groups when compared to control subjects. This effect was even more pronounced for the left MTLE group. Conclusions The findings presented here suggest that left HS causes more reduction of functional connectivity than right HS in subjects with left hemisphere dominance for language.

  5. Electrode location and clinical outcome in hippocampal electrical stimulation for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondallaz, Percy; Boëx, Colette; Rossetti, Andrea O; Foletti, Giovanni; Spinelli, Laurent; Vulliemoz, Serge; Seeck, Margitta; Pollo, Claudio

    2013-06-01

    To study the clinical outcome in hippocampal deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) according to the electrode location. Eight MTLE patients implanted in the hippocampus and stimulated with high-frequency DBS were included in this study. Five underwent invasive recordings with depth electrodes to localize ictal onset zone prior to chronic DBS. Position of the active contacts of the electrode was calculated on postoperative imaging. The distances to the ictal onset zone were measured as well as atlas-based hippocampus structures impacted by stimulation were identified. Both were correlated with seizure frequency reduction. The distances between active electrode location and estimated ictal onset zone were 11±4.3 or 9.1±2.3mm for patients with a >50% or 50% seizure frequency reduction, 100% had the active contacts located 3mm to the subiculum. Decrease of epileptogenic activity induced by hippocampal DBS in refractory MTLE: (1) seems not directly associated with the vicinity of active electrode to the ictal focus determined by invasive recordings; (2) might be obtained through the neuromodulation of the subiculum. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors predicting the outcome following medical treatment of mesial temporal epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sànchez, Javier; Centanaro, Mirella; Solís, Juanita; Delgado, Fabrizio; Yépez, Luis

    2014-06-01

    There is a lack of information from South America regarding factors that predict the clinical outcomes of patients treated medically for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). This study was conducted to determine which of these factors are the most important. This study included 110 South American patients with MTLE-HS treated with antiepileptic drugs. The factors considered included age, gender, age of epilepsy onset, interval between the lesion and the first seizure, central nervous system infection, traumatic brain injury, perinatal asphyxia, febrile convulsion, history of status epilepticus, types of seizures, site of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), extrahippocampal pathology, and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The patients were divided into two groups based on the response to treatment: Group I, seizure free for at least two years; and Group II, not seizure free. On the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with a poor prognosis in terms of seizure frequency and control following treatment included the presence of an early onset of seizure, more than 10 seizures per month before treatment, and EEG abnormalities. The recognition of risk factors, such as early onset of seizures, more than 10 seizures per month before treatment, and EEG abnormalities, could lead to the identification of risk groups among patients with MTLE-HS and refractory epilepsy, possibly designating these individuals as candidates for early epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ictal onset patterns of local field potentials, high frequency oscillations, and unit activity in human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shennan Aibel; Alvarado-Rojas, Catalina; Bragin, Anatol; Behnke, Eric; Fields, Tony; Fried, Itzhak; Engel, Jerome; Staba, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To characterize local field potentials, high frequency oscillations, and single unit firing patterns in microelectrode recordings of human limbic onset seizures. Wide bandwidth local field potential recordings were acquired from microelectrodes implanted in mesial temporal structures during spontaneous seizures from six patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In the seizure onset zone, distinct epileptiform discharges were evident in the local field potential prior to the time of seizure onset in the intracranial EEG. In all three seizures with hypersynchronous (HYP) seizure onset, fast ripples with incrementally increasing power accompanied epileptiform discharges during the transition to the ictal state (p local level. Patterns of incrementally increasing fast ripple power are consistent with observations in rats with experimental hippocampal epilepsy, suggesting that limbic seizures arise when small clusters of synchronously bursting neurons increase in size, coalesce, and reach a critical mass for propagation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Differential gene expression in dentate granule cells in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Nicole G; Wang, Yu; Hulette, Christine M; Halvorsen, Matt; Cronin, Kenneth D; Walley, Nicole M; Haglund, Michael M; Radtke, Rodney A; Skene, J H Pate; Sinha, Saurabh R; Heinzen, Erin L

    2016-03-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common neuropathologic finding in cases of medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of dentate granule cells of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis to show that next-generation sequencing methods can produce interpretable genomic data from RNA collected from small homogenous cell populations, and to shed light on the transcriptional changes associated with hippocampal sclerosis. RNA was extracted, and complementary DNA (cDNA) was prepared and amplified from dentate granule cells that had been harvested by laser capture microdissection from surgically resected hippocampi from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis. Sequencing libraries were sequenced, and the resulting sequencing reads were aligned to the reference genome. Differential expression analysis was used to ascertain expression differences between patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis. Greater than 90% of the RNA-Seq reads aligned to the reference. There was high concordance between transcriptional profiles obtained for duplicate samples. Principal component analysis revealed that the presence or absence of hippocampal sclerosis was the main determinant of the variance within the data. Among the genes up-regulated in the hippocampal sclerosis samples, there was significant enrichment for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. By analyzing the gene expression profiles of dentate granule cells from surgically resected hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis, we have demonstrated the utility of next-generation sequencing methods for producing biologically relevant results from small populations of homogeneous cells, and have provided insight on the transcriptional changes associated with this pathology. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016

  9. Hipometabolismo cerebral em pacientes com esclerose mesial temporal demonstrado pelo FDG-PET

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    DUARTE PAULO S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a extensão do hipometabolismo cerebral em pacientes com esclerose mesial temporal (EMT. MÉTODO: Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu 21 pacientes que apresentavam epilepsia parcial complexa refrataria à terapia e que foram selecionados para cirurgia após análise extensa que incluía: EEG de superfície e estudos de neuroimagem (PET, SPECT e ressonância magnética. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a intervenção cirúrgica e tiveram confirmação histológica de EMT. Uma análise semi-quantitativa foi realizada, utilizando regiões de interesse (ROIs nas seguintes estruturas: lobos frontais, parietais e occipitais, gânglios da base, tálamos, cerebelo e três diferentes regiões nos lobos temporais, que compreendiam o córtex medial, inferior e lateral. Um índice de assimetria (IA foi calculado, comparando as contagens por pixel nas estruturas homólogas em ambos os hemisférios cerebrais. Os IAs das diferentes estruturas foram então correlacionados. RESULTADOS: Uma correlação significativa foi demonstrada entre os IAs do córtex medial dos lobos temporais e aqueles dos lobos frontais, dos lobos parietais, dos gânglios da base e dos tálamos (r = 0,72, 0,62, 0,47 e 0,47 respectivamente com p < 0,05 . Foi demonstrada correlação altamente significativa dos IAs das 3 regiões do lobo temporal entre si (chegando a 0,86 entre os IAs das regiões mediais do lobo temporal e os IAs das regiões inferiores. CONCLUSÃO: Esses dados indicam que o hipometabolismo se estende além do foco epiléptico no lobo temporal em pacientes com epilepsia parcial complexa relacionada a EMT. O metabolismo na porção medial do lobo temporal é mais correlacionado com o metabolismo no lobo frontal do que com aquele de outras estruturas cerebrais externas aos lobos temporais. Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos envolvidos no hipometabolismo continuam controversos.

  10. Large-scale brain networks are distinctly affected in right and left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Brunno Machado; Coan, Ana Carolina; Lin Yasuda, Clarissa; Casseb, Raphael Fernandes; Cendes, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampus sclerosis (HS) is associated with functional and structural alterations extending beyond the temporal regions and abnormal pattern of brain resting state networks (RSNs) connectivity. We hypothesized that the interaction of large-scale RSNs is differently affected in patients with right- and left-MTLE with HS compared to controls. We aimed to determine and characterize these alterations through the analysis of 12 RSNs, functionally parceled in 70 regions of interest (ROIs), from resting-state functional-MRIs of 99 subjects (52 controls, 26 right- and 21 left-MTLE patients with HS). Image preprocessing and statistical analysis were performed using UF(2) C-toolbox, which provided ROI-wise results for intranetwork and internetwork connectivity. Intranetwork abnormalities were observed in the dorsal default mode network (DMN) in both groups of patients and in the posterior salience network in right-MTLE. Both groups showed abnormal correlation between the dorsal-DMN and the posterior salience, as well as between the dorsal-DMN and the executive-control network. Patients with left-MTLE also showed reduced correlation between the dorsal-DMN and visuospatial network and increased correlation between bilateral thalamus and the posterior salience network. The ipsilateral hippocampus stood out as a central area of abnormalities. Alterations on left-MTLE expressed a low cluster coefficient, whereas the altered connections on right-MTLE showed low cluster coefficient in the DMN but high in the posterior salience regions. Both right- and left-MTLE patients with HS have widespread abnormal interactions of large-scale brain networks; however, all parameters evaluated indicate that left-MTLE has a more intricate bihemispheric dysfunction compared to right-MTLE. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3137-3152, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by

  11. A macaque model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy induced by unilateral intrahippocampal injection of kainic Acid.

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    Ning Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to better investigate the cause/effect relationships of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, we hereby describe a new non-human primate model of mTLE. METHODS: Ten macaques were studied and divided into 2 groups: saline control group (n = 4 and kainic acid (KA injection group (n = 6. All macaques were implanted bilaterally with subdural electrodes over temporal cortex and depth electrodes in CA3 hippocampal region. KA was stereotaxically injected into the right hippocampus of macaques. All animals were monitored by video and electrocorticography (ECoG to assess status epilepticus (SE and subsequent spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS. Additionally, in order to evaluate brain injury produced by SE or SRS, we used both neuroimaging, including magnetic resonance image (MRI & magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, and histological pathology, including Nissl stainning and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP immunostaining. RESULTS: The typical seizures were observed in the KA-injected animal model. Hippocampal sclerosis could be found by MRI & MRS. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining and GFAP immunostaining showed neuronal loss, proliferation of glial cells, formation of glial scars, and hippocampal atrophy. Electron microscopic analysis of hippocampal tissues revealed neuronal pyknosis, partial ribosome depolymerization, an abnormal reduction in rough endoplasmic reticulum size, expansion of Golgi vesicles and swollen star-shaped cells. Furthermore, we reported that KA was able to induce SE followed by SRS after a variable period of time. Similar to human mTLE, brain damage is confined to the hippocampus. Accordingly, hippocampal volume is in positive correlations with the neuronal cells count in the CA3, especially the ratio of neuron/glial cell. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a model of mTLE can be developed in macaques by intra-hippocampal injection of KA. Brain damage is confined to the hippocampus which

  12. 3T MRI quantification of hippocampal volume and signal in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy improves detection of hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, A C; Kubota, B; Bergo, F P G; Campos, B M; Cendes, F

    2014-01-01

    In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, MR imaging quantification of hippocampal volume and T2 signal can improve the sensitivity for detecting hippocampal sclerosis. However, the current contributions of these analyses for the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis in 3T MRI are not clear. Our aim was to compare visual analysis, volumetry, and signal quantification of the hippocampus for detecting hippocampal sclerosis in 3T MRI. Two hundred three patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy defined by clinical and electroencephalogram criteria had 3T MRI visually analyzed by imaging epilepsy experts. As a second step, we performed automatic quantification of hippocampal volumes with FreeSurfer and T2 relaxometry with an in-house software. MRI of 79 healthy controls was used for comparison. Visual analysis classified 125 patients (62%) as having signs of hippocampal sclerosis and 78 (38%) as having normal MRI findings. Automatic volumetry detected atrophy in 119 (95%) patients with visually detected hippocampal sclerosis and in 10 (13%) with visually normal MR imaging findings. Relaxometry analysis detected hyperintense T2 signal in 103 (82%) patients with visually detected hippocampal sclerosis and in 15 (19%) with visually normal MR imaging findings. Considered together, volumetry plus relaxometry detected signs of hippocampal sclerosis in all except 1 (99%) patient with visually detected hippocampal sclerosis and in 22 (28%) with visually normal MR imaging findings. In 3T MRI visually inspected by experts, quantification of hippocampal volume and signal can increase the detection of hippocampal sclerosis in 28% of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  13. Right fronto-limbic atrophy is associated with reduced empathy in refractory unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, Gianina; Adhimoolam, Babu; Rankin, Katherine P; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Kurthen, Martin; Jokeit, Hennric

    2015-11-01

    Refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most frequent focal epilepsy and is often accompanied by deficits in social cognition including emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy. Consistent with the neuronal networks that are crucial for normal social-cognitive processing, these impairments have been associated with functional changes in fronto-temporal regions. However, although atrophy in unilateral MTLE also affects regions of the temporal and frontal lobes that underlie social cognition, little is known about the structural correlates of social-cognitive deficits in refractory MTLE. In the present study, a psychometrically validated empathy questionnaire was combined with whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the relationship between self-reported affective and cognitive empathy and gray matter volume in 55 subjects (13 patients with right MTLE, 9 patients with left MTLE, and 33 healthy controls). Consistent with the brain regions underlying social cognition, our results show that lower affective and cognitive empathy was associated with smaller volume in predominantly right fronto-limbic regions, including the right hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus, fusiform gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and in the bilateral midbrain. The only region that was associated with both affective and cognitive empathy was the right mesial temporal lobe. These findings indicate that patients with right MTLE are at increased risk for reduced empathy towards others' internal states and they shed new light on the structural correlates of impaired social cognition frequently accompanying refractory MTLE. In line with previous evidence from patients with neurodegenerative disease and stroke, the present study suggests that empathy depends upon the integrity of right fronto-limbic and brainstem regions and highlights the importance of the right mesial temporal lobe and midbrain

  14. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is a network disorder with altered cortical hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Jeong, Woorim; Chung, Chun Kee

    2015-05-01

    Electrophysiologic hubs within the large-scale functional networks in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) have not been investigated. We hypothesized that mTLE with HS has different resting-state network hubs in their large-scale functional networks compared to the hubs in healthy controls (HC). We also hypothesized that the hippocampus would be a functional hub in mTLE patients with HS. Resting-state functional networks, identified by using magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands, were evaluated. Networks in 44 mTLE patients with HS (left mTLE = 22; right mTLE = 22) were compared with those in 46 age-matched HC. We investigated betweenness centrality at the source-level MEG network. The main network hubs were at the pole of the left superior temporal gyrus in the beta band, the pole of the left middle temporal gyrus in the beta and gamma bands, left hippocampus in the theta and alpha bands, and right posterior cingulate gyrus in all four frequency bands in mTLE patients; all of which were different from the main network hubs in HC. Only patients with left mTLE showed profound differences from HC at the left hippocampus in the alpha band. Our analysis of resting-state MEG signals shows that altered electrophysiologic functional hubs in mTLE patients reflect pathophysiologic brain network reorganization. Because we detected network hubs in both hippocampal and extrahippocampal areas, it is probable that mTLE is a large-scale network disorder rather than a focal disorder. The hippocampus was a network hub in left mTLE but not in right mTLE patients, which may be due to intrinsic functional and structural asymmetries between left and right mTLE patients. The evaluation of cortical hubs, even in the spike-free resting-state, could be a clinical diagnostic marker of mTLE with HS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and the borderland of déjà vu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucca, Piero; Crompton, Douglas E; Bellows, Susannah T; McIntosh, Anne M; Kalincik, Tomas; Newton, Mark R; Vajda, Frank J E; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Kwan, Patrick; O'Brien, Terence J; Tan, K Meng; Berkovic, Samuel F

    2017-08-01

    The cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is often unknown. We ascertained to what extent newly diagnosed nonlesional MTLE actually represents familial MTLE (FMTLE). We identified all consecutive patients presenting to the Austin Health First Seizure Clinic with MTLE and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or MRI evidence of hippocampal sclerosis over a 10-year period. Patients' first-degree relatives and pairwise age- and sex-matched controls underwent a comprehensive epilepsy interview. Each interview transcript was reviewed independently by 2 epileptologists, blinded to relative or control status. Reviewers classified each subject as follows: epilepsy, specifying if MTLE; manifestations suspicious for epilepsy; or unaffected. Physiological déjà vu was noted. Forty-four patients were included. At the Clinic, MTLE had been recognized to be familial in 2 patients only. Among 242 subjects interviewed, MTLE was diagnosed in 9 of 121 relatives versus 0 of 121 controls (p = 0.008). All affected relatives had seizures with intense déjà vu and accompanying features; 6 relatives had not been previously diagnosed. Déjà vu experiences that were suspicious, but not diagnostic, of MTLE occurred in 6 additional relatives versus none of the controls (p = 0.04). Physiological déjà vu was common, and did not differ significantly between relatives and controls. After completing the relatives' interviews, FMTLE was diagnosed in 8 of 44 patients (18.2%). FMTLE accounts for almost one-fifth of newly diagnosed nonlesional MTLE, and it is largely unrecognized without direct questioning of relatives. Relatives of patients with MTLE may experience déjà vu phenomena that clinically lie in the "borderland" between epileptic seizures and physiological déjà vu. Ann Neurol 2017;82:166-176. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  16. Abnormalities of hippocampal signal intensity in patients with familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Coan A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE is associated with hippocampal atrophy and hippocampal signal abnormalities. In our series of familial MTLE (FMTLE, we found a high proportion of hippocampal abnormalities. To quantify signal abnormalities in patients with FMTLE we studied 152 individuals (46 of them asymptomatic with FMTLE. We used NIH-Image® for volumetry and signal quantification in coronal T1 inversion recovery and T2 for all cross-sections of the hippocampus. Values diverging by 2 or more SD from the control mean were considered abnormal. T2 hippocampal signal abnormalities were found in 52% of all individuals: 54% of affected subjects and 48% of asymptomatic subjects. T1 hippocampal signal changes were found in 34% of all individuals: 42.5% of affected subjects and 15% of asymptomatic subjects. Analysis of the hippocampal head (first three slices revealed T2 abnormalities in 73% of all individuals (74% of affected subjects and 72% of asymptomatic subjects and T1 abnormalities in 59% (67% of affected subjects and 41% of asymptomatic subjects. Affected individuals had smaller volumes than controls (P < 0.0001. There was no difference in hippocampal volumes between asymptomatic subjects and controls, although 39% of asymptomatic patients had hippocampal atrophy. Patients with an abnormal hippocampal signal (133 individuals had smaller ipsilateral volume, but no linear correlation could be determined. Hippocampal signal abnormalities in FMTLE were more frequently found in the hippocampal head in both affected and asymptomatic family members, including those with normal volumes. These results indicate that subtle abnormalities leading to an abnormal hippocampal signal in FMTLE are not necessarily related to seizures and may be determined by genetic factors.

  17. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Peng; An, Jie; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Chen, Fanglin; Wang, Wensheng; Qiu, Shijun; Hu, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right) mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  18. Interleukin-1β secretion in hippocampal sclerosis patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Nihal Olgac Dundar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS is a common medically intractable epilepsy syndrome. Although pathogenesis of HS still remains highly controversial, genetics may play a role as a predisposing factor. Previous evidence in a Japanese population revealed that the homozygotes for allele T at position −511 of the interleukin (IL-1β gene promoter region (IL-1β-511 T/T confers susceptibility to the development of HS. However, whether this polymorphism has an effect on IL-1β levels in MTLE-HS patients was not demonstrated. This study aimed to analyze the distribution of this particular polymorphism in a group of Turkish HS patients and correlate the polymorphism with IL-1β secretion from the lymphocytes, thus revealing a functional role for IL-1β in the etiopathogenesis of HS. A single base pair polymorphism at position −511 in the promoter region of the IL-1β gene was analyzed. The spontaneous and 1 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of IL-1β by peripheral blood mononuclear cells after 4 and 24 h of incubation were measured by ELISA method. The heterozygous type (−511 C/T was the most common genotype. There was no difference in frequency of allele −511 T between patients and controls. Analysis of IL-1β levels, genotype and allele distributions showed no significant difference among the groups (P>0.05. Nevertheless, it was seen that patients who carry a T allele at position -511 of the IL-1β gene had increased IL-1β levels. T-allele carriage may be important. Only IL-1β secretion from the lymphocytes has been assessed in this study. Considering the importance of IL-1β in the etiopathogenesis of HS, further studies are needed to evaluate locally produced IL-1β levels.

  19. Age at onset in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis: impact on clinical manifestations and postsurgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Sperling, Michael R

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the demographic and clinical manifestations and postsurgical outcome of childhood-onset mesial temporal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy (MTS-TLE) and establishing the potential differences as compared to the patients with adult-onset MTS-TLE. In this retrospective study all patients with a clinical diagnosis of medically refractory TLE due to mesial temporal sclerosis, who underwent epilepsy surgery at Jefferson comprehensive epilepsy center, were recruited. Patients were prospectively registered in a database from 1986 through 2014. Postsurgical outcome was classified into two groups; seizure-free or relapsed. Clinical manifestations and outcome were compared between patients with childhood-onset MTS-TLE (i.e., age at onset of the first afebrile habitual seizure below 10 years) and those with adult-onset MTS-TLE (i.e., age at onset of the first afebrile habitual seizure 20 years or above). One hundred and twelve patients had childhood-onset MTS-TLE and 76 had adult-onset MTS-TLE. Demographic, clinical, EEG and MRI characteristics of these two groups were similar. Postoperative outcome was not statistically different between these two groups of patients (P=0.9). Temporal lobe epilepsy due to mesial temporal sclerosis is a common cause of epilepsy that can start from early childhood to late adulthood. The etiology of MTS-TLE may be different in various age groups, but it seems that when mesial temporal sclerosis is the pathological substrate of TLE, clinical manifestations and response to surgical treatment of patients are very similar in patients with childhood-onset MTS-TLE compared to those with adult-onset disease. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of diagnostic tests for depressive disorder in drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos Zingano, Bianca; Guarnieri, Ricardo; Diaz, Alexandre Paim; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Bicalho, Maria Alice Horta; Claudino, Lucia Sukys; Markowitsch, Hans J; Wolf, Peter; Lin, Katia; Walz, Roger

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression subscale (HADS-D) as diagnostic tests for depressive disorder in drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). One hundred three patients with drug-resistant MTLE-HS were enrolled. All patients underwent a neurological examination, interictal and ictal video-electroencephalogram (V-EEG) analyses, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Psychiatric interviews were based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and ILAE Commission of Psychobiology classification as a gold standard; HRSD, BDI, HADS, and HADS-D were used as psychometric diagnostic tests, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the optimal threshold scores. For all the scales, the areas under the curve (AUCs) were approximately 0.8, and they were able to identify depression in this sample. A threshold of ≥9 on the HRSD and a threshold of ≥8 on the HADS-D showed a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 80%. A threshold of ≥19 on the BDI and HADS-D total showed a sensitivity of 55% and a specificity of approximately 90%. The instruments showed a negative predictive value of approximately 87% and a positive predictive value of approximately 65% for the BDI and HADS total and approximately 60% for the HRSD and HADS-D. HRSD≥9 and HADS-D≥8 had the best balance between sensitivity (approximately 70%) and specificity (approximately 80%). However, with these thresholds, these diagnostic tests do not appear useful in identifying depressive disorder in this population with epilepsy, and their specificity (approximately 80%) and PPV (approximately 55%) were lower than those of the other scales. We believe that the BDI and HADS total are valid diagnostic tests for depressive disorder in patients with MTLE-HS, as

  1. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Hippocampal Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Daniel; Espinoza López, Dulce Anabel; Vázquez Gregorio, Rafael; Trenado, Carlos; Fernández-González Aragón, Maricarmen; Morales-Quezada, León; Hernandez Ruiz, Axel; Hernandez-González, Flavio; Alcaraz-Guzmán, Alejandro; Anschel, David J; Fregni, Felipe

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been evaluated in medication refractory epilepsy patients. The results have been inconclusive and protocols have varied between studies. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of two protocols of tDCS in adult patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). This is a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial, with 3 arms, 3 sessions, 5 sessions and placebo stimulation. Frequency of seizures (SZs), interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and adverse effects (AEs) were registered before and after treatment, and at 30 and 60 days follow-up. Descriptive statistics, k-related samples, Friedman's test, and relative risk (RR) estimation were used for analysis. We included twenty-eight subjects (3d n = 12, 5d n = 8, placebo n = 8), 16/28 (57%) men, age 37.8(±10.9) years old. There was a significant reduction of the frequency of SZs at one (p = 0.001) and two (p = 0.0001) months following cathodal tDCS compared to baseline in the 3 arms (p = 0.0001). The mean reduction of SZ frequency at two months in both active groups was significantly higher than placebo (-48% vs. -6.25%, p < 0.008). At 3 days (-43.4% vs. -6.25%, p < 0.007) and 5 days (-54.6% vs. -6.25%, p < 0.010) individual groups showed a greater reduction of SZs. A significant IED reduction effect was found between baseline and immediately after interventions (p = 0.041) in all groups. Side effects were minor. Cathodal tDCS technique of 3 and 5 sessions decreased the frequency of SZs and IEDs (between baseline and immediately post-tDCS) in adult patients with MTLE-HS compared to placebo tDCS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Prediction Algorithm for Drug Response in Patients with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Based on Clinical and Genetic Information.

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    Silva-Alves, Mariana S; Secolin, Rodrigo; Carvalho, Benilton S; Yasuda, Clarissa L; Bilevicius, Elizabeth; Alvim, Marina K M; Santos, Renato O; Maurer-Morelli, Claudia V; Cendes, Fernando; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia

    2017-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of adult epilepsy in surgical series. Currently, the only characteristic used to predict poor response to clinical treatment in this syndrome is the presence of hippocampal sclerosis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in genes encoding drug transporter and metabolism proteins could influence response to therapy. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether combining information from clinical variables as well as SNPs in candidate genes could improve the accuracy of predicting response to drug therapy in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. For this, we divided 237 patients into two groups: 75 responsive and 162 refractory to antiepileptic drug therapy. We genotyped 119 SNPs in ABCB1, ABCC2, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 genes. We used 98 additional SNPs to evaluate population stratification. We assessed a first scenario using only clinical variables and a second one including SNP information. The random forests algorithm combined with leave-one-out cross-validation was used to identify the best predictive model in each scenario and compared their accuracies using the area under the curve statistic. Additionally, we built a variable importance plot to present the set of most relevant predictors on the best model. The selected best model included the presence of hippocampal sclerosis and 56 SNPs. Furthermore, including SNPs in the model improved accuracy from 0.4568 to 0.8177. Our findings suggest that adding genetic information provided by SNPs, located on drug transport and metabolism genes, can improve the accuracy for predicting which patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy are likely to be refractory to drug treatment, making it possible to identify patients who may benefit from epilepsy surgery sooner.

  3. The Legacy of Henry Molaison (1926-2008) and the Impact of His Bilateral Mesial Temporal Lobe Surgery on the Study of Human Memory.

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    Dossani, Rimal Hanif; Missios, Symeon; Nanda, Anil

    2015-10-01

    In 1953, neurosurgeon William Beecher Scoville performed a bilateral mesial temporal lobe resection on patient Henry Molaison, who suffered from epilepsy. The operation was novel as a treatment for epilepsy and had an unexpected consequence: a severe compromise of Molaison's anterograde memory. In a landmark 1957 publication, Scoville and Milner concluded that mesial temporal lobe structures, particularly the hippocampi, were integral to the formation of new, recent memories. Over the next 5 decades, more than 100 researchers studied Molaison's memory, behavior, and learning skills, making him one of the most famous patients in the history of cognitive neuroscience. Following his death in 2008, his brain was scanned in situ and ex vivo and then sectioned into 2401 sections. Histological evaluation of Molaison's brain further elucidated which mesial temporal lobe structures were preserved or resected in his operation, shedding new light on the neuroanatomic underpinnings of short-term memory. Scoville regretted Molaison's surgical outcome and spoke vigorously about the dangers of bilateral mesial temporal lobe surgery. This report is the first historical account of Molaison's case in the neurosurgical literature, serving as a reminder of Molaison's contributions and of the perils of bilateral mesial temporal lobe surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Declarative long-term memory and the mesial temporal lobe: Insights from a 5-year postsurgery follow-up study on refractory temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Salvato, Gerardo; Scarpa, Pina; Francione, Stefano; Mai, Roberto; Tassi, Laura; Scarano, Elisa; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Bottini, Gabriella

    2016-11-01

    It is largely recognized that the mesial temporal lobe and its substructure support declarative long-term memory (LTM). So far, different theories have been suggested, and the organization of declarative verbal LTM in the brain is still a matter of debate. In the current study, we retrospectively selected 151 right-handed patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis, with a homogeneous (seizure-free) clinical outcome. We analyzed verbal memory performance within a normalized scores context, by means of prose recall and word paired-associate learning tasks. Patients were tested at presurgical baseline, 6months, 2 and 5years after anteromesial temporal lobe surgery, using parallel versions of the neuropsychological tests. Our main finding revealed a key involvement of the left temporal lobe and, in particular, of the left hippocampus in prose recall rather than word paired-associate task. We also confirmed that shorter duration of epilepsy, younger age, and withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs would predict a better memory outcome. When individual memory performance was taken into account, data showed that females affected by left temporal lobe epilepsy for longer duration were more at risk of presenting a clinically pathologic LTM at 5years after surgery. Taken together, these findings shed new light on verbal declarative memory in the mesial temporal lobe and on the behavioral signature of the functional reorganization after the surgical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Unilateral mesial temporal atrophy after a systemic insult as a possible etiology of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy: case report Esclerose mesial temporal unilateral após insulto sistêmico como possível etiologia de epilepsia refratária do lobo temporal: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Cukiert

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal sclerosis is the main pathological substrate present in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and its presence is often related to the occurrence of febrile seizures in infancy. There is an on-going discussion on the nature of mesial temporal sclerosis as it related to epilepsy: cause or consequence. A previously normal child developed hyperosmolar coma after abdominal surgery at the age of 6. Three months afterwards he developed simple and complex partial seizures with an increasing frequency and refractory to multiple mono-and polytherapic drug regimens. He was evaluated for surgery at the age of 13. Ictal and interictal recordings showed left temporal lobe abnormalities. Early CT scaning suggested left temporal atrophy. MRI showed mesial temporal sclerosis. Neuropsichological testing showed verbal memory deficits and he passed a left carotid artery amytal injection. He was submitted to a cortico-amygdalo-hippocampectomy and has been seizure-free since then. The clinical data obtained from this patient suggest that at least in this case mesial temporal sclerosis would be related to the cause of epilepsy and not resultant from repeated seizure activity.A esclerose mesial temporal é o principal substrato anatomo-patológico envolvido na epilepsia refratária do lobo temporal e está frequentemente associada à ocorrência de convulsões febris na infância. Persiste até o momento intensa discussão se a esclerose mesial seria causa ou consequência da síndrome epiléptica. Uma criança previamente normal, desenvolveu coma hiperosmolar após intercorrência em cirurgia abdominal aos 6 anos de idade. Após 3 meses iniciaram-se crises parciais simples e complexas em frequência ascendente e refratárias a múltiplos esquemas terapêuticos em mono- e politerapia. Ele realizou investigação pré-operatória para epilepsia aos 13 anos de idade. Registros eletrencefalográficos de superfície ictais e interictais mostraram anormalidades

  6. Interictal SPECT in the pre surgical evaluation in epileptic patients with normal MRI or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis

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    Marques, Lucia H.N. [Hospital de Base, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia. Centro Cirurgico de Epilepsia; Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Ferraz-Filho, Jose R.L. [Hospital de Base, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Lins-Filho, Mario L.M. [Hospital de Base, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Maciel, Marina G.; Yoshitake, Rafael; Filetti, Sarah V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of interictal compared to ictal SPECT in the lateralization of the epileptogenic focus in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients that present with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Thirty patients with TLE, for whom MRI examinations were normal or who presented with bilateral MTS, were retrospectively studied. Using a confidence interval of 95% and a level of significance for p-value <0.05, an estimated agreement rate of 73% with a minimum agreement rate of 57% was calculated comparing interictal and ictal SPECTs. In conclusion the interictal SPECT is only useful when associated with the ictal SPECT and does not substitute it in the localization of epileptogenic areas in patients with normal MRI or bilateral MTS. (author)

  7. The role of histopathologic subtype in the setting of hippocampal sclerosis-associated mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, Jordan M; Jehi, Lara; Nowacki, Amy; Prayson, Richard A

    2017-05-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) are among the most common neuropathological findings in those undergoing surgery for refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Existing data regarding differences among the most recent International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) HS subtypes remain limited. This study sought to characterize the roles of HS subtype and coexistent FCD. Epilepsy surgery pathologic specimens in 307 cases of temporal lobe epilepsy with HS were reviewed (mean age±SD, 37±15years; 56% women). HS and coexistent FCD were classified according to ILAE guidelines. Medical records were reviewed for data on seizure recurrence and seizure burden (clinical follow-up mean duration ± SD, 5±4years). Cases of typical HS (ILAE type I) predominated (ILAE type Ia: 41%, Ib: 47%, II: 11%, and III: 0.7%]. The HS subtypes shared similar demographic and etiologic characteristics, as well as associated pathology and postoperative seizure outcomes. Individuals with type Ib HS were more likely to remain seizure free at long-term follow-up when compared with other subtypes, and they had a later age of seizure onset. Two hundred forty-three cases (79%) demonstrated FCD within the adjacent temporal lobe. Its presence was associated with a significantly decreased risk of seizure recurrence (P=.02). When present, FCD was predominantly type I (98%). HS subtype does not appear to affect epilepsy surgery outcomes despite some clinical differences between the subgroups. FCD is often observed in association with HS in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy; the finding of FCD was associated with better postoperative outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. "Tell me how do I feel"--emotion recognition and theory of mind in symptomatic mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Broicher, Sarah D; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Grunwald, Thomas; Krämer, Günter; Kurthen, Martin; Jokeit, Hennric

    2012-01-01

    Specific interictal personality characteristics in epilepsy, sometimes referred to as "Waxman-Geschwind Syndrome", have been recognized for centuries and extensively described. Despite the persevering clinical impression that patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsies (MTLE) suffer from problems in communication and interpersonal relations, uncertainties and controversies remain as to the precise origin of these psychosocial difficulties. Here, we investigated social-cognitive and decision-making abilities using a set of tasks that combine behavioural and psychological measures of social and emotional variables to answer the question of whether patients with MTLE are specifically impaired in social cognition compared to both an epilepsy and a healthy control group. MTLE patients, an epilepsy control group (extra-MTLE; patients with epilepsy, not originating within the frontal or mesial temporal lobe) and healthy controls (HC) were assessed according to their general cognitive status as well as with our Social Cognition Battery, which included tests of basic processes of social cognition, theory of mind, decision making, and various aspects of psychopathology and quality of life. MTLE patients were significantly impaired compared to HC on most measures of the Social Cognition Battery. MTLE patients were predominantly impaired in general emotion recognition compared to extra-MTLE patients. Performance in the epilepsy control group, although not significantly differing from performance in either the MTLE or the healthy control group, lay between these two groups. MTLE can be considered a significant risk factor for the development of deficits in social cognition beyond weaknesses that might be associated with epilepsy as a stigmatized chronic neurological disorder. The presence of deficits in social cognition may explain various behavioural symptoms that have historically driven concepts such as "epileptic personality" or "interictal personality disorder" and may

  9. Aberrant expression of miR-218 and miR-204 in human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis-Convergence on axonal guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaalund, Sanne S; Venø, Morten T; Bak, Mads

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is one of the most common types of the intractable epilepsies and is most often associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), which is characterized by pronounced loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be dysregul...

  10. Combined18F-FDG-PET and diffusion tensor imaging in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Javier; Carreño, Mar; Bargalló, Núria; Setoain, Xavier; Rubí, Sebastià; Rumià, Jordi; Falcón, Carles; Calvo, Anna; Martí-Fuster, Berta; Padilla, Nelly; Boget, Teresa; Pintor, Luís; Donaire, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Several studies using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET) or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have found both temporal and extratemporal abnormalities in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), but data are lacking about the findings of both techniques in the same patients. We aimed to determine whether the extent of 18 F-FDG-PET hypometabolism is related to DTI abnormalities. Twenty-one patients with MTLE-HS underwent comprehensive preoperative evaluation; 18 (86%) of these underwent epilepsy surgery. We analyzed and compared the pattern of white matter (WM) alterations on DTI and cortical hypometabolism on 18 F-FDG-PET. We found widespread temporal and extratemporal 18 F-FDG-PET and DTI abnormalities. Patterns of WM abnormalities and cortical glucose hypometabolism involved similar brain regions, being more extensive in the left than the right MTLE-HS. We classified patients into three groups according to temporal 18 F-FDG-PET patterns: hypometabolism restricted to the anterior third (n = 7), hypometabolism extending to the middle third (n = 7), and hypometabolism extending to the posterior third (n = 7). Patients with anterior temporal hypometabolism showed DTI abnormalities in anterior association and commissural tracts while patients with posterior hypometabolism showed WM alterations in anterior and posterior tracts. Patients with MTLE-HS have widespread metabolic and microstructural abnormalities that involve similar regions. The distribution patterns of these gray and white matter abnormalities differ between patients with left or right MTLE, but also with the extent of the 18 F-FDG-PET hypometabolism along the epileptogenic temporal lobe. These findings suggest a variable network involvement among patients with MTLE-HS.

  11. Relationship between remnant hippocampus and amygdala and memory outcomes after stereotactic surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikova H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hana Malikova,1,2,* Lenka Kramska,3,* Zdenek Vojtech,4,5 Jan Sroubek,6 Jiri Lukavsky,7 Roman Liscak8 1Department of Radiology, Na Homolce Hospital, 2Institute of Anatomy, Second Medical Faculty, Charles University in Prague, 3Department of Clinical Psychology, Na Homolce Hospital, 4Department of Neurology, Na Homolce Hospital, 5Department of Neurology, 3rd Medical Faculty, Charles University in Prague, 6Department of Neurosurgery, Na Homolce Hospital, 7Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 8Department of Radiation and Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and purpose: Mesial temporal structures play an important role in human memory. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, seizure activity is generated from the same structures. Surgery is the definitive treatment for medically intractable MTLE. In addition to standard temporal lobe microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy (SAHE is used as an alternative MTLE treatment. While memory impairments after standard epilepsy surgery are well known, it has been shown that memory decline is not a feature of SAHE. The aim of the present study was to correlate the volume of the remnant hippocampus and amygdala in patients treated by SAHE with changes in memory parameters.Materials and methods: Thirty-seven MTLE patients treated by SAHE (ten right, 27 left were included. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging examinations including hippocampal and amygdalar volumetry and neuropsychological evaluation preoperatively and 1 year after surgery.Results: Using Spearman correlation analyses, larger left-sided hippocampal reductions were associated with lower verbal memory performance (ρ=-0.46; P=0.02. On the contrary, improvement of global memory quotient (MQ was positively correlated with larger right-sided hippocampal reduction (ρ=0.66; P=0

  12. Outcome of lesionectomy in medically refractory epilepsy due to non-mesial temporal sclerosis (non-MTS) lesions.

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    Dhiman, Vikas; Rao, Sudhanva; Sinha, Sanjib; Arimappamagan, Arivazhagan; Mahadevan, Anita; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Saini, Jitender; Jamuna, R; Keshav Kumar, J; Rao, Shobhini L; Chandramouli, Bangalore A; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy; Shankar, Susarla K

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the seizure outcome of lesionectomy for refractory epilepsy secondary to non-mesial temporal sclerosis (non-MTS) lesions. Sixty-eight patients with non-MTS lesions (M:F=42:26; age at onset: 11.7±9.6 years; age at surgery: 21.1±9.4 years), who underwent lesionectomy for refractory epilepsy were analyzed. The age at onset, frequency/type of seizure, MRI findings, video-EEG, histopathology and Engel's grading at 1 year/last follow up were recorded. The duration of epilepsy at surgery was 9.9±6.9 years. The location of lesions were: temporal: 41 (60.3%); frontal: 21 (30.9%); parietal: 6 (8.8%). The type of lesionectomies performed were temporal 41 (60.3%), extra-temporal: 25 (36.8%), temporo-frontal and temporo-parietal: 1 (1.5%) patient each. The histopathological diagnosis were neoplastic: 32 (47.1%), cortical dysplasia: 19 (27.9%), other focal lesions: 17 (25%). At mean follow up of 2.9±2.1 years (median: 2.6 years), outcome was - Engel's class I: 43 (63.2%), IIa: 14 (20.6%), III: 7 (10.3%), IV: 4 (5.9%). Good seizure control (Engel's class I/IIa) was achieved in 57 (83.8%) patients. The good prognostic markers included temporal seizures, extended lesionectomy and AEDs after surgery while poor prognostic marker was gliotic lesion on histopathology. Following lesionectomy due to non-MTS lesions, seizure freedom (Engel I) was noted in about 63.2% of patients, which is comparable to other series and reiterates the effectiveness of lesionectomy for seizure control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. On the relationship between neurocysticercosis and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis: coincidence or a pathogenic relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Marino Muxfeldt; Velasco, Tonicarlo Rodrigues; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) are two common worldwide forms of focal epilepsy. In regions where NCC is endemic, both diseases can be observed in the same patient. There is recent and growing evidence suggesting that NCC might contribute to or even cause MTLE-HS. In this article, we review the literature regarding NCC and temporal lobe epilepsy, specifically addressing the relationship between NCC and MTLE-HS. In addition, we review some scenarios where NCC seems to emerge as a causative agent or contributor to the development of MTLE-HS in some patients. This association is important because it may have an impact on the evaluation and treatment of a sizable proportion of patients with epilepsy. Insights from these clinical observations might also contribute to the understanding of the neurobiology of both NCC and MTLE-HS. We hope that our review might shed some light on this interesting interplay between two of the most common worldwide conditions associated with human focal epilepsy. PMID:23265552

  14. Historical Risk Factors Associated with Seizure Outcome After Surgery for Drug-Resistant Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Nei, Maromi; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the possible influence of risk factors on seizure outcome after surgery for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). This retrospective study recruited patients with drug-resistant MTS-TLE who underwent epilepsy surgery at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center and were followed for a minimum of 1 year. Patients had been prospectively registered in a database from 1986 through 2014. After surgery outcome was classified into 2 groups: seizure-free or relapsed. The possible risk factors influencing long-term outcome after surgery were investigated. A total of 275 patients with MTS-TLE were studied. Two thirds of the patients had Engel's class 1 outcome and 48.4% of the patients had sustained seizure freedom, with no seizures since surgery. Patients with a history of tonic-clonic seizures in the year preceding surgery were more likely to experience seizure recurrence (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval 1.19-4.80; P = 0.01). Gender, race, family history of epilepsy, history of febrile seizure, history of status epilepticus, duration of disease before surgery, intelligence quotient, and seizure frequency were not predictors of outcome. Many patients with drug-resistant MTS-TLE respond favorably to surgery. It is critical to distinguish among different types and etiologies of TLE when predicting outcome after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinctive Structural and Effective Connectivity Changes of Semantic Cognition Network across Left and Right Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaotong; Shang, Kun; Wang, Xiaocui; Wang, Peipei; Shan, Yongzhi; Lu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of language impairment in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients is common and left mTLE patients always exhibit a primary problem with access to names. To explore different neuropsychological profiles between left and right mTLE patients, the study investigated both structural and effective functional connectivity changes within the semantic cognition network between these two groups and those from normal controls. We found that gray matter atrophy of left mTLE patients was more severe than that of right mTLE patients in the whole brain and especially within the semantic cognition network in their contralateral hemisphere. It suggested that seizure attacks were rather targeted than random for patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in the dominant hemisphere. Functional connectivity analysis during resting state fMRI revealed that subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in the left HS patients were no longer effectively connected. Further, we found that, unlike in right HS patients, increased causal linking between ipsilateral regions in the left HS epilepsy patients cannot make up for their decreased contralateral interaction. It suggested that weakened contralateral connection and disrupted effective interaction between subregions of the unitary, transmodal hub of the ATL may be the primary cause of anomia in the left HS patients. PMID:28018680

  16. Parahippocampal Involvement in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis: A Proof of Concept from Memory-Guided Saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colnaghi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS may involve extrahippocampal areas of structural damage and dysfunction. The accuracy of medium-term spatial memory can be tested by memory-guided saccades (MGS to evaluate a functional impairment of the parahippocampal cortex (PHC, while voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis can be used to detect a structural damage of the latter region.MethodsMGS with 3- and 30-s memorization delays were compared between 7 patients affected by right MTLE-HS (r-MTLE-HS, 6 patients affected by left MTLE-HS, and 13 healthy controls. The same subjects underwent brain MRI for a VBM analysis. Correlation analysis was performed between the results of VBM and MGS and with patients’ clinical data.ResultsRight MTLE-HS patients showed impaired accuracy of leftward MGS with a 30-s memorization delay; their gray-matter volume was reduced in the right hippocampus and inferior temporal gyrus, and bilaterally in the cerebellum. Left MTLE-HS patients had normal MGS accuracy; their gray-matter volume was reduced in the left hippocampus, in the right-inferior temporal gyrus and corpus callosus, and bilaterally in the insular cortex and in the cerebellum. The difference between right and left parahippocampal volumes correlated with MGS accuracy, while right and left hippocampal volumes did not. Hippocampal and parahippocampal volume did not correlate with clinical variables such as febrile seizures, age at disease onset, disease duration, and seizure frequency.ConclusionMGS abnormalities suggested the functional involvement of the right PHC in patients with r-MTLE-HS, supporting a right lateralization of spatial memory control and showing a relation between functional impairment and degree of atrophy.

  17. Utility of ictal single photon emission computed tomography in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal atrophy: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Tonicarlo R; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Mathern, Gary W; Araújo, David; Walz, Roger; Bianchin, Marino M; Dalmagro, Charles L; Leite, Joao P; Santos, Antonio C; Assirati, Joao A; Carlotti, Carlos G; Sakamoto, Americo C

    2011-02-01

    The development of newer diagnostic technologies has reduced the need for invasive electroencephalographic (EEG) studies in identifying the epileptogenic zone, especially in adult patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). To evaluate ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the evaluation and treatment of patients with MTLE-HS. MTLE patients were randomly assigned to those with (SPECT, n = 124) and without ictal SPECT (non-SPECT, n = 116) in an intent-to-treat protocol. Primary end points were the proportion of patients with invasive EEG studies, and those offered surgery. Secondary end points were the length of hospital stay and the proportion of patients with secondarily generalized seizures (SGS) during video-EEG, postsurgical seizure outcome, and hospital cost. The proportion of patients offered surgery was similar in the SPECT (85%) and non-SPECT groups (81%), as well as the proportion that had invasive EEG studies (27% vs 23%). The mean duration of hospital stay was 1 day longer for the SPECT group (P stay was associated with increased costs and a higher chance of SGS during video-EEG monitoring. These findings support the notion that a protocol including ictal SPECT is equivalent to one without SPECT in the presurgical evaluation of adult patients with MTLE-HS.

  18. The overall pathological status of the left hippocampus determines preoperative verbal memory performance in left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Juri-Alexander; Coras, Roland; Schramm, Johannes; Becker, Albert J; Elger, Christian E; Blümcke, Ingmar; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Studies on hippocampal cell loss in epilepsy have produced diverging evidence as to which subfields are specifically related to memory. This may be due to rather small and often heterogeneous samples, or to different memory measures. Therefore, the current study examined hippocampal cell densities and memory in a large sample of patients with solely mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), employing measures with proven sensitivity to mesiotemporal pathology. In 104 patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery for mTLE, we evaluated the role of segmental hippocampal cell loss and its underlying factor structure with regard to presurgical verbal and figural memory while controlling for side-of-surgery and hemispheric dominance. First of all, patients showed material-specific memory impairment concordant with the lateralization of epilepsy. Factor analysis of segmental cell loss revealed a single factor reflecting the overall integrity of the hippocampus. The overall pathological status of the left hippocampus correlated with verbal memory parameters (r = 0.33-0.34, P hippocampus and memory function were found, nor did left or right hippocampal pathology explain figural memory parameters. The results suggest that the overall pathological status of the left hippocampus - rather than a specific subfield pathology - is predictive for verbal memory in mTLE. The finding that figural memory parameters, although sensitive to right mTLE, were not related to neuronal cell densities of the right hippocampus, puts the left/right hippocampus verbal/nonverbal memory dichotomy into perspective. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Predictors of spontaneous transient seizure remission in patients of medically refractory epilepsy due to mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Vikas; Sinha, Sanjib; Arimappamagan, Arivazhagan; Mahadevan, Anita; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Saini, Jitender; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Rao, Malla Bhaskar; Shankar, Susrala K; Satishchandra, Parathasarthy

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the predictors of spontaneous transient seizure remission for ≥1 year in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) due to mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). This analysis included 38 patients with DRE (M:F = 20:18, age: 31.7 ± 10.9 years) diagnosed with unilateral MTS (right:left = 16:22). Group I ('remission' group) comprised of patients with seizure remission (M:F = 10:8, age: 32.8 ± 12.3 years, mean seizure free period: 2.2 ± 1.1 years; median: 2.1 years). Group II ('non-remission' group) comprised of age and gender matched 20 patients (M:F = 10:10, age: 30.7 ± 9.7 years) with unilateral MTS who never had seizure remission and subsequently underwent epilepsy surgery. Groups I and II were compared to find the predictors associated with transient seizure remission. The age at onset of seizures in group I was 13.2 ± 11.8 years and in group II was 12.0 ± 7.6 years. The duration of seizure was: group I - 19.7 ± 12.5 years and group II - 19.3 ± 7.7 years. Past history of seizure remissions (p MTS. Future molecular and network studies are required to understand its mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cavernomas de la región temporal mesial: Anatomía microquirúrgica y abordajes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campero, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir la anatomía microquirúrgica y los abordajes a la región temporal mesial (RTM), en relación a cavernomas de dicho sector. Materiales y Método: Cinco cabezas de cadáveres adultos, fijadas en formol e inyectadas con silicona coloreada, fueron estudiadas. Además, desde enero de 2007 a junio de 2014, 7 pacientes con cavernomas localizados en la RTM fueron operados por el autor. Resultados: Anatomia: La RTM fue dividida en 3 sectores: Anterior, medio y posterior. Pacientes: 7 enfermos con cavernomas de la RTM fueron operados por el autor. De acuerdo a la ubicacion en la RTM, 4 cavernomas se ubicaron en el sector anterior, 2 cavernomas se localizaron en el sector medio y 1 cavernoma se ubico en el sector posterior. Para el sector anterior de la RTM se utilizo un abordaje transsilviano-transinsular; para el sector medio de la RTM se utilizo un abordaje transtemporal (lobectomia temporal anterior); y para el sector posterior de la RTM se utilizo un abordaje supracerebeloso-transtentorial. Conclusión: Dividir la RTM en 3 sectores nos permite adecuar el abordaje en función a la localización de la lesión. Así, el sector anterior es bien abordable a través de la fisura silviana; el sector medio a través de una vía transtemporal; y el sector posterior por un abordaje supracerebeloso. PMID:26600986

  1. Functional and structural correlates of memory in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander James Barnett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE often show material-specific memory impairment (verbal for left, visuospatial for right hemisphere which can be exacerbated following surgery aimed at the epileptogenic regions of medial and anterolateral temporal cortex. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that characterization of structural and functional integrity of these regions using MRI can aid in prediction of post-surgical risk of further memory decline. We investigated the nature of the relationship between structural and functional indices of hippocampal integrity with preoperative memory performance in a group of 26 patients with unilateral mTLE. Structural integrity was assessed using hippocampal volumes, while functional integrity was assessed using hippocampal activation during the encoding of novel scenes. We quantified structural and functional integrity in terms of asymmetry, calculated as (L - R / (L + R. Factor scores for verbal and visual memory were calculated from a clinical database and an asymmetry score (verbal – visual was used to characterize memory performance. We found, as expected, a significant difference between left and right mTLE groups for hippocampal volume asymmetry, with each group showing an asymmetry favoring the unaffected temporal lobe. Encoding activation asymmetry showed a similar pattern, with left mTLE patients showing activation preferential to the right hemisphere and right mTLE patients showing the reverse. Finally, we demonstrated that functional integrity mediated the relationship between structural integrity and memory performance for memory asymmetry, suggesting that even if structural changes are evident, ultimately it is the functional integrity of the tissue that most closely explains behavioral performance. Our findings argue for the incorporation of functional imaging data in clinical protocols aimed at determining the functional integrity of the MTL in surgical planning.

  2. Frequency Specificity of fMRI in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyan Song

    Full Text Available Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE is a system-level disease characterized by aberrant neuronal synchronization and widespread alterations in function. Previous studies have focused on the amplitude analysis of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signals to reveal the aberrant alterations in mTLE. However, these methods did not work well in the cases where the amplitudes of two oscillations are correlated but the underlying oscillations are neither phase coherent nor frequency consistent. To address this problem, we investigated the differences of frequency specificity between patients with mTLE and healthy controls using the extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition (ESMD method. In this method, the BOLD signals were decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs and the instantaneous frequency of each IMF was calculated using the direct interpolation strategy. The intrinsic frequency (denoted as Freq for every voxel was obtained by the weighted sum of the instantaneous frequencies of all the IMFs. The Freq was used as an index to evaluate the altered frequency specificity of 41 patients with mTLE (17 right-side, 24 left-side and 24 healthy control subjects. The results show that the peak of frequency distribution curve for the patients moves towards the higher frequency than that for the healthy controls. Compared with the healthy control group, the patients with left mTLE demonstrate higher Freq in the default mode network, middle frontal gyrus, insula, middle temporal gyrus and calcarine gyrus; the patients with right mTLE demonstrate higher Freq in the precuneus and occipital lobe. For the three groups, the distinct frequency distribution appears in the left and right hippocampus due to the hippocampal structural and functional asymmetries. The preliminary results imply that the frequency-specific correlated oscillations in the distributed brain regions can provide information about the nature of diseases affecting the

  3. Frequency Specificity of fMRI in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuyan; Ding, Mingyue; Li, Hong; Song, Xiaopeng; Fan, Wenliang; Zhang, Xuming; Xu, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a system-level disease characterized by aberrant neuronal synchronization and widespread alterations in function. Previous studies have focused on the amplitude analysis of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals to reveal the aberrant alterations in mTLE. However, these methods did not work well in the cases where the amplitudes of two oscillations are correlated but the underlying oscillations are neither phase coherent nor frequency consistent. To address this problem, we investigated the differences of frequency specificity between patients with mTLE and healthy controls using the extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition (ESMD) method. In this method, the BOLD signals were decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and the instantaneous frequency of each IMF was calculated using the direct interpolation strategy. The intrinsic frequency (denoted as Freq) for every voxel was obtained by the weighted sum of the instantaneous frequencies of all the IMFs. The Freq was used as an index to evaluate the altered frequency specificity of 41 patients with mTLE (17 right-side, 24 left-side) and 24 healthy control subjects. The results show that the peak of frequency distribution curve for the patients moves towards the higher frequency than that for the healthy controls. Compared with the healthy control group, the patients with left mTLE demonstrate higher Freq in the default mode network, middle frontal gyrus, insula, middle temporal gyrus and calcarine gyrus; the patients with right mTLE demonstrate higher Freq in the precuneus and occipital lobe. For the three groups, the distinct frequency distribution appears in the left and right hippocampus due to the hippocampal structural and functional asymmetries. The preliminary results imply that the frequency-specific correlated oscillations in the distributed brain regions can provide information about the nature of diseases affecting the brain and the

  4. Relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and memory function in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shenggen; Chen, Lin; Huang, Huapin; Lin, Wanhui

    2017-01-15

    To study memory impairment mechanisms of the medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) by analyzing the functional connectivity (FC) through resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Rs-fMRI data were acquired from 13 patients with left MTLE and 11 patients with right MTLE. Another 13 healthy volunteers were selected as controls. The altered FC pattern between the unilateral hippocampus and other regions of the brain in MTLE patients was compared to that of the normal control group. Then the correlation between the strength of FC and the clinical memory scale scores in patients with MTLE was determined. The scores of the following check points of MTLE patients including point to memory, recognition of nonsense figure, associative learning, the image free recall, portrait characteristic recall and memory quotient were significantly lower than those in the normal group (all Pmemory and recognition of nonsense figure were different between R-MTLE and L-MTLE patients. Different correlations between the strength of FC and the clinical memory scale scores were detected between R-MTLE and L-MTLE patients. The memory function of patients with MTLE was impaired. Patients with L-MTLE showed lower score on pure verbal memory test and those with R-MTLE showed weaker performance on pure visual memory test. Patients with MTLE showed extensive abnormal FC between hippocampus and particular encephalic regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy of mesial temporal lobe epilepsies treated with Gamma knife

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    Hajek, Milan; Dezortova, Monika [MR Unit, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Videnska 1958/9, 140 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Center for Cell Therapy and Tissue Repair, V Uvalu 84, 150 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Liscak, Roman; Vymazal, Josef; Vladyka, Vilibald [Department of Stereotactic and Radiation Neurosurgery, Hospital Na Homolce, 151 19, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2003-05-01

    Proton MR spectroscopy was used to observe long-term post-irradiation metabolic changes in epileptogenic tissue and in the contralateral parts of the brain which are not available with conventional imaging methods. We studied these changes in the temporal lobe in six patients, following radiosurgery on the amygdala and hippocampus. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy at 1.5 T with short and long echo times (TE=10 and 135 ms) were used together with standard MR imaging sequences (T1-, T2-weighted). The treatment was performed by Leksell Gamma Knife with a dose of 50 Gy to the center and a 50% isodose to the margin of the target, represented by the mean volume of approximately 7.5 ml. Magnetic resonance imaging and MR spectroscopy examinations were performed at least once per year for 3 years. The most significant changes in spectra were observed approximately 1 year after the irradiation when edema in irradiated area was observed and strong signal of lipids was identified. Later, edema and lipid signals disappeared and follow-up was characterized by a decrease of NAA, Cr, and Cho concentrations in the ipsilateral region of the brain to the irradiation (LCModel calculation from voxel of interest 3.8-4.5 ml positioned into the centrum of target volume). The concentration of NAA, Cr, and Cho after radiosurgery was significantly different from control values (p<0.05) and also from concentrations in the contralateral part of the brain (p<0.05). In the contralateral part, the concentration of NAA was significantly increased (p<0.05) (NAA: before treatment 8.81, after treatment 11.33 mM). No radiotoxic changes were observed in the contralateral part of the brain or behind the area of target volume. The MR spectroscopy findings precluded MRI observation and MRS results completed data about the development of radiotoxic changes in the target volume. (orig.)

  6. MicroRNA hsa-miR-134 is a circulating biomarker for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Simoni H Avansini

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is misdiagnosed in up to 25% of patients, leading to serious and long-lasting consequences. Recently, circulating microRNAs have emerged as potential biomarkers in a number of clinical scenarios. The purpose of this study was to identify and to validate circulating microRNAs that could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure plasma levels of three candidate microRNAs in two phases of study: an initial discovery phase with 14 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, 13 with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD and 16 controls; and a validation cohort constituted of an independent cohort of 65 patients with MTLE and 83 controls. We found hsa-miR-134 downregulated in patients with MTLE (p = 0.018 but not in patients with FCD, when compared to controls. Furthermore, hsa-miR-134 expression could be used to discriminate MTLE patients with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.75. To further assess the robustness of hsa-miR-134 as a biomarker for MTLE, we studied an independent cohort of 65 patients with MTLE, 27 of whom MTLE patients were responsive to pharmacotherapy, and 38 patients were pharmacoresistant and 83 controls. We confirmed that hsa-miR-134 was significantly downregulated in the plasma of patients with MTLE when compared with controls (p < 0.001. In addition, hsa-miR-134 identified patients with MTLE regardless of their response to pharmacotherapy or the presence of MRI signs of hippocampal sclerosis. We revealed that decreased expression of hsa-miR-134 could be a potential non-invasive biomarker to support the diagnosis of patients with MTLE.

  7. Validation of suitable reference genes for expression studies in different pilocarpine-induced models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales Marques

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that the reference gene in a RT-qPCR should be properly validated to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. We investigated eight potential reference genes in two different pilocarpine PILO-models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKepeer softwares. Then, as a validation strategy, we conducted a relative expression analysis of the Gfap gene. Our results indicate that in the systemic PILO-model Actb, Gapdh, Rplp1, Tubb2a and Polr1a mRNAs were highly stable in hippocampus of rats from all experimental and control groups, whereas Gusb revealed to be the most variable one. In fact, we observed that using Gusb for normalization, the relative mRNA levels of the Gfap gene differed from those obtained with stable genes. On the contrary, in the intrahippocampal PILO-model, all softwares included Gusb as a stable gene, whereas B2m was indicated as the worst candidate gene. The results obtained for the other reference genes were comparable to those observed for the systemic Pilo-model. The validation of these data by the analysis of the relative expression of Gfap showed that the upregulation of the Gfap gene in the hippocampus of rats sacrificed 24 hours after status epilepticus (SE was undetected only when B2m was used as the normalizer. These findings emphasize that a gene that is stable in one pathology model may not be stable in a different experimental condition related to the same pathology and therefore, the choice of reference genes depends on study design.

  8. Features of amygdala in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis: An MRI volumetric and histopathological study.

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    Nakayama, Yoko; Masuda, Hiroshi; Shirozu, Hiroshi; Ito, Yosuke; Higashijima, Takefumi; Kitaura, Hiroki; Fujii, Yukihiko; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Fukuda, Masafumi

    2017-09-01

    It is well-known that there is a correlation between the neuropathological grade of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and neuroradiological atrophy of the hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients. However, there is no strict definition or criterion regarding neuron loss and atrophy of the amygdala neighboring the hippocampus. We examined the relationship between HS and neuronal loss in the amygdala. Nineteen mTLE patients with neuropathological proof of HS were assigned to Group A, while seven mTLE patients without HS were assigned to Group B. We used FreeSurfer software to measure amygdala volume automatically based on pre-operation magnetic resonance images. Neurons observed using Klüver-Barrera (KB) staining in resected amygdala tissue were counted. and the extent of immunostaining with stress marker antibodies was semiquantitatively evaluated. There was no significant difference in amygdala volume between the two groups (Group A: 1.41±0.24; Group B: 1.41±0.29cm 3 ; p=0.98), nor in the neuron cellularity of resected amygdala specimens (Group A: 3.98±0.97; Group B: 3.67±0.67 10× -4 number of neurons/μm 2 ; p=0.40). However, the HSP70 level, representing acute stress against epilepsy, in Group A patients was significantly larger than that in Group B. There was no significant difference in the level of Bcl-2, which is known as a protein that inhibits cell death, between the two groups. Neuronal loss and volume loss in the amygdala may not necessarily follow hippocampal sclerosis. From the analysis of stress proteins, epileptic attacks are as likely to damage the amygdala as the hippocampus but do not lead to neuronal death in the amygdala. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mesial temporal lobe morphology in intractable pediatric epilepsy: so-called hippocampal malrotation, associated findings, and relevance to presurgical assessment.

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    Leach, James L; Awwad, Reem; Greiner, Hansel M; Vannest, Jennifer J; Miles, Lili; Mangano, Francesco T

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Diagnostic criteria for hippocampal malrotation (HIMAL) on brain MRI typically include a rounded hippocampus, vertical collateral sulcus, and architectural blurring. Relationship to epileptogenesis remains speculative, and usefulness for surgical guidance is unknown. The study was performed to determine the prevalence of hippocampal rotational anomalies in a cohort of pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy undergoing evaluation for surgery and to determine the significance of this finding in the context of surgical planning. METHODS Forty-eight surgically treated children with intractable epilepsy were compared with matched healthy subjects; reviewers were blinded to surgical side. Each temporal lobe was evaluated for rounded hippocampus, blurring, vertical collateral sulcus, wide choroidal fissure, enlarged temporal horn, low fornix, hippocampal signal, and findings of hippocampal sclerosis. A mesial temporal lobe (MTL) score was calculated by summing the number of features, and the collateral sulcus angle (CSA) was measured in each temporal lobe. Surgical side, pathological diagnosis, and imaging findings elsewhere in the brain were tabulated. Presence of HIMAL, associated imaging features, and MTL score were compared between sides, between epilepsy and control groups, in relationship to side of surgery, and in relationship to postoperative outcome. RESULTS Only 3 epilepsy patients (6.2%) and no controls exhibited all 3 features of HIMAL (p = 0.12). Eight of 48 (16.7%) epilepsy versus 2 of 48 (4.6%) control subjects had both a rounded hippocampus and vertical collateral sulcus (suggesting HIMAL) (p = 0.045). In control and epilepsy subjects, most findings were more prevalent on the left, and the left CSA was more vertical (p Epilepsy subjects had higher MTL scores (z = -2.95, p = 0.002) and more acute CSAs (p = 0.04) than controls. Only lateralizing raw MTL score had a significant association with surgical side (p = 0.03, OR 7.33); however, this

  10. Results of surgery in patients with bilateral independent temporal lobe spiking (BITLS with normal MRI or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS investigated with bilateral subdural grids Resultados cirúrgicos em pacientes com descargas bilaterais independentes do lobo temporal (DBILT e ressonância magnética normal ou com esclerose mesial bilateral investigados com implante bilateral de grades subdurais

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    ARTHUR CUKIERT

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The introduction of new technologies in the clinical practice have greatly decreased the number of patients submitted to invasive recordings. On the other hand, some patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy have normal MR scans or bilateral potentially epileptogenic lesions. This paper reports the results of invasive neurophysiology and surgical outcome in such patients. METHOD: Sixteen patients were studied. Eleven had normal MRI (Group I and five had bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (Group II. All patients had BITLS and non-localizatory seizures on video-EEG monitoring. All patients were implanted bilaterally with 32-contacts subdural grids. They were submitted to a cortico-amygdalo-total hippocampectomy at the side defined by chronic electrocorticography (ECoG. RESULTS: In Group I, seizures came from a single side in nine patients. In nine patients, seizures started at one side, spread to the ipsolateral contacts and contralaterally afterwards. On the other hand, in two Group I patients seizures started in one mesial region and spread to the contralateral parahippocampus and neocortex before spreading to ipsolateral contacts. All patients in Group II had seizures starting unilaterally with focal EcoG onset in the mesial regions. Eight Group I patients are seizure-free and three are in Engel's class II. Eighty percent of Group II patients are seizure-free after surgery and one patient is in Engel's class II. CONCLUSION: Good surgical results can be obtained in patients with BITLS. Patients with normal MRI seem to have a worse prognosis when compared to patients with unilateral or even bilateral MTS. Extensive subdural coverage is essential in patients with normal MRI.INTRODUÇÃO: A introdução de novas tecnologias na prática clínica tem diminuído em muito a necessidade do estudo com eletrodos invasivos em pacientes epilépticos refratários. Por outro lado, alguns pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal ainda possuem

  11. Age at onset and seizure frequency affect white matter diffusion coefficient in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Nagy, Szilvia A; Horváth, Réka; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Barsi, Péter; John, Flóra; Horváth, Andrea; Kovács, Norbert; Bogner, Péter; Ábrahám, Hajnalka; Bóné, Beáta; Gyimesi, Csilla; Dóczi, Tamás; Janszky, József

    2016-08-01

    In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), structural abnormalities are present not only in the hippocampus but also in the white matter with ipsilateral predominance. Although the timing of epilepsy onset is commonly associated with clinical and semiological dissimilarities, limited data exist regarding white matter diffusion changes with respect to age at epilepsy onset. The aim of this study was to investigate diffusion changes in the white matter of patients with unilateral MTLE-HS with respect to clinical parameters and to compare them with an age- and sex-matched healthy control group. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were derived using monoexponential approaches from 22 (11 early and 11 late age at onset) patients with unilateral MTLE-HS and 22 age- and sex-matched control subjects after acquiring diffusion-weighted images on a 3T MRI system. Data were analyzed using two-tailed t-tests and multiple linear regression models. In the group with early onset MTLE-HS, ADC was significantly elevated in the ipsilateral hemispheric (p=0.04) and temporal lobe white matter (p=0.01) compared with that in controls. These differences were not detectable in late onset MTLE-HS patients. Apparent diffusion coefficient of the group with early onset MTLE-HS was negatively related to age at epilepsy onset in the ipsilateral hemispheric white matter (p=0.03) and the uncinate fasciculus (p=0.03), while in patients with late onset MTLE-HS, ADC was no longer dependent on age at epilepsy onset itself but rather on the seizure frequency in the ipsilateral uncinate fasciculus (p=0.03). Such diffusivity pattern has been associated with chronic white matter degeneration, reflecting myelin loss and higher extracellular volume which are more pronounced in the frontotemporal regions and also depend on clinical features. In the group with early onset MTLE-HS, the timing of epilepsy seems to be the major cause of white matter abnormalities while in late

  12. Cognitive and Surgical Outcome in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis Plus Neurocysticercosis: A Cohort Study

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    Bianchin, Marino M.; Velasco, Tonicarlo R.; Coimbra, Erica R.; Gargaro, Ana C.; Escorsi-Rosset, Sara R.; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Terra, Vera C.; Alexandre, Veriano; Araujo, David; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Fernandes, Regina M. F.; Assirati, João A.; Carlotti, Carlos G.; Leite, João P.; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M.; Markowitsch, Hans J.; Sakamoto, Américo C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Where neurocysticercosis (NCC) is endemic, chronic calcified neurocysticercosis (cNCC) can be observed in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). Considering that both disorders cause recurrent seizures or cognitive impairment, we evaluated if temporal lobectomy is cognitively safe and effective for seizure control in MTLE-HS plus cNCC. Methods Retrospective cohort study of neuropsychological profile and surgical outcome of 324 MTLE-HS patients submitted to temporal lobectomy, comparing the results according to the presence or absence of cNCC. Findings cNCC occurred in 126 (38.9%) of our MTLE-HS patients, a frequency higher than expected, more frequently in women than in men (O.R. = 1.66; 95% C.I. = 1.05–2.61; p = 0.03). Left-side (but not right side) surgery caused impairment in selected neuropsychological tests, but this impairment was not accentuated by the presence of cNCC. Ninety-four (74.6%) patients with MTLE-HS plus cNCC and 153 patients (77.3%) with MTLE-HS alone were Engel class I after surgery (O.R. = 1.16; 95% C.I. = 0.69–1.95; p = 0.58). However, the chances of Engel class IA were significantly lower in MTLE-HS plus cNCC than in patients with MTLE-HS alone (31.7% versus 48.5%; O.R. = 2.02; 95% C.I. = 1.27–3.23; p = 0.003). Patients with MTLE-HS plus cNCC showed higher rates of Engel class ID (15.1% versus 6.6%; O.R. = 2.50; 95% C.I. = 1.20–5.32; p = 0.012). Interpretation cNCC can be highly prevalent among MTLE-HS patients living in areas where neurocysticercosis is endemic, suggesting a cause-effect relationship between the two diseases. cNCC does not add further risk for cognitive decline after surgery in MTLE-HS patients. The rates of Engel class I outcome were very similar for the two groups; however, MTLE-HS plus cNCC patients achieved Engel IA status less frequently, and Engel ID status more frequently. Temporal lobectomy can be

  13. MicroRNA and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: Whole miRNome profiling of human hippocampus.

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    Bencurova, Petra; Baloun, Jiri; Musilova, Katerina; Radova, Lenka; Tichy, Boris; Pail, Martin; Zeman, Martin; Brichtova, Eva; Hermanova, Marketa; Pospisilova, Sarka; Mraz, Marek; Brazdil, Milan

    2017-10-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a severe neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. mTLE is frequently accompanied by neurodegeneration in the hippocampus resulting in hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common morphological correlate of drug resistance in mTLE patients. Incomplete knowledge of pathological changes in mTLE+HS complicates its therapy. The pathological mechanism underlying mTLE+HS may involve abnormal gene expression regulation, including posttranscriptional networks involving microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNA expression deregulation has been reported in various disorders, including epilepsy. However, the miRNA profile of mTLE+HS is not completely known and needs to be addressed. Here, we have focused on hippocampal miRNA profiling in 33 mTLE+HS patients and nine postmortem controls to reveal abnormally expressed miRNAs. In this study, we significantly reduced technology-related bias (the most common source of false positivity in miRNA profiling data) by combining two different miRNA profiling methods, namely next generation sequencing and miRNA-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. These methods combined have identified and validated 20 miRNAs with altered expression in the human epileptic hippocampus; 19 miRNAs were up-regulated and one down-regulated in mTLE+HS patients. Nine of these miRNAs have not been previously associated with epilepsy, and 19 aberrantly expressed miRNAs potentially regulate the targets and pathways linked with epilepsy (such as potassium channels, γ-aminobutyric acid, neurotrophin signaling, and axon guidance). This study extends current knowledge of miRNA-mediated gene expression regulation in mTLE+HS by identifying miRNAs with altered expression in mTLE+HS, including nine novel abnormally expressed miRNAs and their putative targets. These observations further encourage the potential of microRNA-based biomarkers or therapies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against

  14. Functional substrate for memory function differences between patients with left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis.

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    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the functional substrate for memory function differences in patients with left or right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) from an electrophysiological perspective. To characterize these differences, we hypothesized that hippocampal theta connectivity in the resting-state might be different between patients with left and right mTLE with HS and be correlated with memory performance. Resting-state hippocampal theta connectivity, identified via whole-brain magnetoencephalography, was evaluated. Connectivity and memory function in 41 patients with mTLE with HS (left mTLE=22; right mTLE=19) were compared with those in 46 age-matched healthy controls and 28 patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) but without HS. Connectivity between the right hippocampus and the left middle frontal gyrus was significantly stronger in patients with right mTLE than in patients with left mTLE. Moreover, this connectivity was positively correlated with delayed verbal recall and recognition scores in patients with mTLE. Patients with left mTLE had greater delayed recall impairment than patients with right mTLE and FCD. Similarly, delayed recognition performance was worse in patients with left mTLE than in patients with right mTLE and FCD. No significant differences in memory function between patients with right mTLE and FCD were detected. Patients with right mTLE showed significantly stronger hippocampal theta connectivity between the right hippocampus and left middle frontal gyrus than patients with FCD and left mTLE. Our results suggest that right hippocampal-left middle frontal theta connectivity could be a functional substrate that can account for differences in memory function between patients with left and right mTLE. This functional substrate might be related to different compensatory mechanisms against the structural hippocampal lesions in left and right mTLE groups. Given the positive correlation between

  15. Clinical and eeg analysis of mesial and lateral temporal lobe seizures Análise clínica e eletrencefalográfica de crises epilépticas temporais de origem mesial e lateral

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    FÁBIO GALVÃO DANTAS

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the temporal lobe seizures through video-EEG systems shows that they often consist of a sequence of clinical and EEG features which may suggest the localization and the lateralization of the epileptogenic lobe. We analyzed clinical and EEG features of 50 temporal lobe seizures which were separated in group 1 with 25 patients (related to mesial temporal sclerosis and group 2 with 25 patients (other neocortical temporal lesions. Among the auras, the epigastric type was the most frequent and predominated in group 1. There were differences between the two groups, considering dystonic and tonic posturing and versive head and eye movements. Dystonic posturing was always contralateral to the ictal onset and was considered the most useful lateralizing clinical feature. Ictal speech, spitting and blinking automatisms, prolonged disorientation for place and a greatest percentage of postictal language preservation occurred in right temporal seizures. Postictal aphasia and global disorientation predominated in left temporal seizures. EEG was important for lateralizing the epileptogenic lobe, specially considering rhythmic ictal activity and postictal findings.As crises epilépticas do lobo temporal tendem a seguir uma sequência previsível de eventos clínicos e eletrencefalográficos, cuja análise, preferencialmente através de sistemas de vídeo-EEG, sugere a localização e a lateralização do lobo epileptogênico. Para este estudo, foram analisadas 50 crises epilépticas do lobo temporal, do ponto de vista clínico e eletrencefalográfico, sendo 25 relacionadas a esclerose mesial (grupo 1 e 25 a patologias neocorticais (grupo 2. Auras abdominais foram as mais frequentes, predominando no grupo 1. Houve diferenças entre os dois grupos, quanto à instalação e duração da postura distônica, à postura tônica e à versão oculocefálica. Postura distônica unilateral foi o mais importante fenômeno clínico lateralizatório, sempre

  16. A locus identified on chromosome18p11.31 is associated with hippocampal abnormalities in a family with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Claudia Vianna Maurer-Morelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the region harboring a putative candidate gene associated with hippocampal abnormalities (HAb in a family with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE. Genome-wide scan was performed in one large kindred with MTLE using a total of 332 microsatellite markers at ~12cM intervals. An additional 13 markers were genotyped in the candidate region. Phenotypic classes were defined according to the presence of hippocampal atrophy and/or hyperintense hippocampal T2 signal detected on magnetic resonance imaging. We identified a significant positive LOD score on chromosome 18p11.31 with a Zmax of 3.12 at D18S452. Multipoint LOD scores and haplotype analyses localized the candidate locus within a 6cM interval flanked by D18S976 and D18S967. We present here evidence that HAb, which were previously related mainly to environmental risk factors, may be influenced by genetic predisposition. This finding may have major impact in the study of the mechanisms underlying abnormalities in mesial temporal lobe structures and their relationship with MTLE.

  17. Correlação entre atrofia hipocampal e déficit de memória em pacientes com epilepsia de lobo temporal mesial

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    Denise Pacagnella

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: A Epilepsia de Lobo Temporal Mesial (ELTM) é a forma mais frequente de epilepsia focal em adultos e geralmente está associada à atrofia hipocampal (AH) identificável pela ressonância magnética (RM) de alta resolução. Consiste em uma síndrome frequentemente refratária ao tratamento clínico e os pacientes podem apresentar déficits de memória devido a danos no sistema hipocampal, porém pouco se sabe a respeito do impacto da frequência de crises sobre a memória. Portanto, os objetivos do ...

  18. Long-Term Seizure, Quality of Life, Depression, and Verbal Memory Outcomes in a Controlled Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgical Series Using Portuguese-Validated Instruments.

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    Dias, Luis Augusto; Angelis, Geisa de; Teixeira, Wagner Afonso; Casulari, Luiz Augusto

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate long-term surgical outcomes in patients treated for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy compared with a similar group of patients who underwent a preoperative evaluation. Patient interviews were conducted by an independent neuropsychologist and included a sociodemographic questionnaire and validated versions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Adverse Events Profile, Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Seventy-one patients who underwent surgery and 20 who underwent mesial temporal lobe epilepsy preoperative evaluations were interviewed. After an 81-month mean postoperative follow-up, 44% of the surgical patients achieved complete seizure relief according to the Engel classification and 68% according to the International League Against Epilepsy classification. The surgical group had a significantly lower prevalence of depression (P = 0.002) and drug-related adverse effects (P = 0.002). Improvement on unemployment (P = 0.02) was achieved but not on driving or education. Delayed verbal memory recall was impaired in 76% of the surgical and 65% of the control cases (P = 0.32). Regarding the Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31, the operated patients scored higher in their total score (mean, 75.44 vs. mean, 60.08; P < 0.001) and in all but the cognitive functioning domain irrespective of the follow-up length. Seizure control, Beck Depression Score, and Adverse Events Profile severity explained 73% of the variance in the surgical group quality of life. Our study found that, although surgical treatment was effective, its impact on social indicators was modest. Moreover, the self-reported quality of life relied not only on seizure control but also on depressive symptoms and antiepileptic drug burden. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Linkage study of voltage-gated potassium channels in familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy Análise de ligação dos canais de potássio voltagem-dependente na epilepsia de lobo temporal mesial familiar

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    Cláudia Vianna Maurer-Morelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs play a critical role in the regulation of neuronal excitability and have been implicated in some types of epilepsies. Recently, autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE was associated with antibodies against VGKC. In addition, patients with LE showed partial epilepsy and increased T2 signal abnormalities in limbic structures. We have reported familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (FMTLE associated with hippocampal atrophy (HA and other signs of mesial temporal sclerosis detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In order to investigate whether VGKC may be associated to HA present in FMTLE, we perform linkage study in these candidate genes. Seventy-three microsatellites markers were genotyped in different human autosomal chromosome. Two-point LOD scores did not show evidence for linkage with any of the microsatellite markers genotyped (Zmax ranging from 0.11to-9.53 at theta=0.00. In the present study, linkage data showed no evidence that VGKC are involved in the determination of HA in FMTLE.Canais de potássio voltagem-dependentes (CPVD desempenham importante papel na excitabilidade neuronal e estão associados a determinados tipos de epilepsia. Recentemente, um tipo de encefalite límbica autoimune (EL foi associado com anticorpos contra CPVD. Além disso, há relatos de pacientes com EL e epilepsia parcial, além de hipersinal em regiões límbicas detectadas em imagens de ressonância magnética (IRM. Nós temos descrito a epilepsia de lobo temporal mesial familial (ELTMF associada à atrofia hipocampal (AH e outros sinais de esclerose mesial temporal observadas em IRM. Para investigar se os CPVD podem estar associados com a AH identificada na ELTMF, empregamos o estudo de ligação genética nesses genes candidatos. Setenta e três marcadores microssatélites foram genotipados e o LOD score de dois pontos mostrou Zmax variando de 0.11 a -9.53 para teta=0.00. No presente estudo, os dados obtidos com a an

  20. Upregulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGluR3 and mGluR5 in reactive astrocytes in a rat model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, E.; van Vliet, E. A.; Mayboroda, O. A.; Troost, D.; da Silva, F. H.; Gorter, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Reactive gliosis is a prominent morphological feature of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Because astrocytes express glutamate receptors, we examined changes in metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 2/3, mGluR5 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in glial cells of the hippocampal regions in an

  1. A critical evaluation of the lateralizing significance of material-specific memory deficits in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, Malcolm K; Menon, Ramshekhar N; Justus, Sunitha; Alexander, Aley; Sarma, P Sankara; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2013-09-01

    To critically assess the value of material-specific memory deficits in lateralizing temporal lobe dysfunction preoperatively, we compared the neuropsychological data of 50 consecutive patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS; right: 31, left: 19) with those of 50 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects. On case-control comparison, both the subcohorts with left and right MTLE-HS performed poorly on intelligence tests, in addition to individual memory tests. However, comparison of the verbal and visual memory functions between subcohorts with right and left MTLE-HS revealed that learning trials and delayed word list recall were the only tests that hypothesized left temporal lobe dysfunction. We conclude that material-specific memory deficits are largely test driven, but there is a lateralizing role for task-specific deficits in left MTLE-HS. Although neuropsychological data help to define baseline neuropsychological impairment, caution should be exercised in interpreting the lateralizing value of material-specific memory deficits prior to surgery. © 2013.

  2. Determination of epileptic focus side in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy using long-term noninvasive fNIRS/EEG monitoring for presurgical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizki, Edmi Edison; Uga, Minako; Dan, Ippeita; Dan, Haruka; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Yokota, Hidenori; Oguro, Keiji; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive localization of an epileptogenic zone is a fundamental step for presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients. Here, we applied long-term simultaneous functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)/electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring for focus diagnosis in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Six MTLE patients underwent long-term (8-16 h per day for 4 days) fNIRS/EEG monitoring for the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. Four spontaneous seizures were successfully recorded out of the six patients. To determine oxy-Hb amplitude, the period-average values of oxy-Hb across 20 s from the EEG- or clinically defined epileptic onset were calculated for both hemispheres from the simultaneously recorded fNIRS data. The average oxy-Hb values for the temporal lobe at the earlier EEG- or clinically defined epileptic onsets were greater for the epileptic side than for the contralateral side after EEG activity suppression, spike train, and clinical seizure in all four cases. The true laterality was determined based on the relief of seizures by selective amygdalo-hippocampectomy. Thus, oxy-Hb amplitude could be a reliable measure for determining the epileptic focus side. Long-term simultaneous fNIRS/EEG measurement serves as an effective tool for recording spontaneous seizures. Cerebral hemodynamic measurement by fNIRS would serve as a valuable supplementary noninvasive measurement method for presurgical evaluation of MTLE.

  3. Factores de Riesgo para Recurrencia de Convulsiones y Pronóstico a Corto Plazo en Cirugía de Epilepsia para Esclerosis Mesial Temporal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Jaramillo Betancur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo para recurrencia de convulsiones y la clasificación posquirúrgica a corto plazo en pacientes operados por esclerosis mesial temporal (EMT.

    Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles anidado en la cohorte de pacientes con EMT diagnosticados por resonancia magnética con dos años de seguimiento posquirúrgico; se excluyeron pacientes con EMT bilateral. Se evaluaron características clínicas prequirúrgicas, foco epileptogénico en video-EEG y variables quirúrgicas con respecto a recurrencia de convulsiones en los primeros dos años posquirúrgicos y clasificación de Engel en el primer y segundo aniversario de la cirugía.

    Resultados: Entre octubre de 2001 y junio de 2008 se han evaluado 144 pacientes con EMT candidatos a cirugía de epilepsia; a junio de 2007, se han operado 89 pacientes, 51.7% con EMT izquierda. 35.8% de los pacientes presentaron recurrencia de convulsiones antes del segundo año posquirúrgico; el factor de riesgo prequirúrgico asociado a recurrencia fue foco bitemporal o temporal único con diseminación contralateral por video-EEG (OR: 6.32; IC95% 1.64-26.41, y posquirúrgico, la presencia de convulsiones durante el primer mes posoperatorio (p:0.0004; no se encontró asociación con recurrencia para: género, convulsiones tónico-clónicas generalizadas prequirúrgicas, lado de la EMT ni tiempo de evolución prequirúrgica de la epilepsia. 66.3% y 75.8% de los pacientes estaban en Engel I al primer y segundo aniversario de la cirugía, respectivamente. 91% de los pacientes intervenidos estaban en buen pronóstico posquirúrgico a los dos años.

    Conclusión: La localización del foco epileptogénico por electrofisiología es factor determinante en el pronóstico posquirúrgico a corto plazo en EMT.

    Palabras clave

    Cirugía de epilepsia, convulsiones, epilepsia del lóbulo temporal

  4. SCOPE-mTL: A non-invasive tool for identifying and lateralizing mesial temporal lobe seizures prior to scalp EEG ictal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Alice D; Maus, Douglas; Zafar, Sahar F; Cole, Andrew J; Cash, Sydney S

    2017-09-01

    In mesial temporal lobe (mTL) epilepsy, seizure onset can precede the appearance of a scalp EEG ictal pattern by many seconds. The ability to identify this early, occult mTL seizure activity could improve lateralization and localization of mTL seizures on scalp EEG. Using scalp EEG spectral features and machine learning approaches on a dataset of combined scalp EEG and foramen ovale electrode recordings in patients with mTL epilepsy, we developed an algorithm, SCOPE-mTL, to detect and lateralize early, occult mTL seizure activity, prior to the appearance of a scalp EEG ictal pattern. Using SCOPE-mTL, 73% of seizures with occult mTL onset were identified as such, and no seizures that lacked an occult mTL onset were identified as having one. Predicted mTL seizure onset times were highly correlated with actual mTL seizure onset times (r=0.69). 50% of seizures with early mTL onset were lateralizable prior to scalp ictal onset, with 94% accuracy. SCOPE-mTL can identify and lateralize mTL seizures prior to scalp EEG ictal onset, with high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Quantitative analysis of scalp EEG can provide important information about mTL seizures, even in the absence of a visible scalp EEG ictal correlate. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined 18F-FDG-PET and diffusion tensor imaging in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aparicio

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Patients with MTLE-HS have widespread metabolic and microstructural abnormalities that involve similar regions. The distribution patterns of these gray and white matter abnormalities differ between patients with left or right MTLE, but also with the extent of the 18F-FDG-PET hypometabolism along the epileptogenic temporal lobe. These findings suggest a variable network involvement among patients with MTLE-HS.

  6. An fMRI study of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with different pathological basis using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei WEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the distinction of abnormal brain activity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS or other pathogical basis, and to discuss their underlying pathophysiological mechanism in mTLE.  Methods Thirty mTLE patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS and 30 mTLE patients with occupying lesion in unilateral temporal lobe (mTLE-OL were investigated by comparing with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. MRI data were collected using a Siemens 3.0T scanner, and all of the participants were studied using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF analysis of resting state fMRI. A cost-function modification was used for image preprocessing, then the difference of extratemporal mALFF changes between the two groups of mTLE patients were analyzed with two-sample t test, and the correlation between mALFF and epilepsy duration of mTLE were also investigated.  Results In the resting state, mTLE-HS patients and mTLE-OL patients all showed significant changes in mALFF in extratemporal structures, but the distribution patterns of changes in brain were different. Compared with mTLE-HS, the mTLE-OL patients showed increased mALFF in bilateral inferior parietal lobes, precuneus, angular gyrus, middle and posterior cingulate gyrus and contralateral middle temporal gyrus, while mALFF reducing was observed in contralateral postcentral gyrus, bilateral middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum (P < 0.05, AlphaSim corrected, that is to say, the default mode network (DMN in mTLE-HS were inhibited more seriously than in mTLE-OL patients. Correlation analysis showed that no significant correlation was found between mALFF and epilepsy duration in mTLE-HS patients; mALFF in bilateral middle and posterior cingulate gyrus was positively correlated with epilepsy duration in mTLE-OL patients (r = 0.687, P = 0.000, while mALFF in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus was negatively correlated with epilepsy duration (r

  7. Modifications of EEG Power Spectra in Mesial Temporal Lobe during n-back tasks of increasing difficulty. A sLORETA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eImperatori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The n-back task is widely used to investigate the neural basis of Working Memory (WM processes. The principal aim of this study was to explore and compare the EEG power spectra during two n-back tests with different levels of difficulty (1-back vs 3-back.Fourteen healthy subjects were enrolled (7 men and 7 women, mean age 31.21±7.05 years, range: 23-48. EEG was recorded while performing the N-back test, by means of 19 surface electrodes referred to joint mastoids. EEG analysis were conducted by means of the standardized LOw Resolution brain Electric Tomography (sLORETA software. The statistical comparison between EEG power spectra in the two conditions was performed using paired t-statistics on the coherence values after Fisher’s z transformation available in the LORETA program package. The frequency bands considered were: delta (0.5-4 Hz; theta (4.5–7.5 Hz; alpha (8–12.5 Hz; beta (13–30 Hz; gamma (30.5–100 Hz. Significant changes occurred in the delta band: in the 3-back condition an increased delta power was localized in a brain region corresponding to the Brodmann Area (BA 28 in the left posterior entorhinal cortex (T = 3.112; p<0.05 and in the BA 35 in the left peririnhal cortex in the parahippocampal gyrus (T = 2.876; p<0.05. No significant differences were observed in the right hemisphere and in the alpha, theta, beta and gamma frequency bands. Our results indicate that the most prominent modification induced by the increased complexity of the task occur in the mesial left temporal lobe structures.

  8. How do people with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy sleep? A clinical and video-EEG with EOG and submental EMG for sleep staging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vieira Scarlatelli-Lima

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess subjective and objective sleep parameters in a homogeneous group of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE patients through internationally validated clinical questionnaires, video-electroencephalographic (VEEG and polysomnographic (PSG studies. Fifty-six patients with definite diagnosis of MTLE who were candidates for epilepsy surgery underwent a detailed clinical history, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS, neurological examination, 1.5 T brain magnetic resonance imaging, VEEG and PSG. Sixteen percent of patients reported significant daytime sleepiness as measured by ESS and 27% reported low levels of sleep quality as measured by PSQI. Patients with medically resistant epilepsy by MTLE showed increased wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO with mean ± standard deviation of 17.4 ± 15.6, longer non-rapid eye movement (NREM 1 (7.5 ± 4.6% and NREM3 sleep (26.6 ± 11.8%, abnormal rapid eye movement (REM latency in 30/56 patients, shorter REM sleep (16.7 ± 6.6%, and abnormal alpha delta patterns were observed in 41/56 patients. The analysis of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs evidenced highest spiking rate during NREM3 sleep and higher concordance with imaging data when IEDs were recorded in sleep, mainly during REM sleep. We concluded that patients with MTLE showed disrupted sleep architecture that may result in daytime dysfunction and sleep complaints. Furthermore, NREM sleep activated focal IEDs and them - when recorded during sleep - had higher localizing value.

  9. Modifications of EEG power spectra in mesial temporal lobe during n-back tasks of increasing difficulty. A sLORETA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Claudio; Farina, Benedetto; Brunetti, Riccardo; Gnoni, Valentina; Testani, Elisa; Quintiliani, Maria I; Del Gatto, Claudia; Indraccolo, Allegra; Contardi, Anna; Speranza, Anna M; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The n-back task is widely used to investigate the neural basis of Working Memory (WM) processes. The principal aim of this study was to explore and compare the EEG power spectra during two n-back tests with different levels of difficulty (1-back vs. 3-back). Fourteen healthy subjects were enrolled (seven men and seven women, mean age 31.21 ± 7.05 years, range: 23-48). EEG was recorded while performing the N-back test, by means of 19 surface electrodes referred to joint mastoids. EEG analysis were conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution brain Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. The statistical comparison between EEG power spectra in the two conditions was performed using paired t-statistics on the coherence values after Fisher's z transformation available in the LORETA program package. The frequency bands considered were: delta (0.5-4 Hz); theta (4.5-7.5 Hz); alpha (8-12.5 Hz); beta (13-30 Hz); gamma (30.5-100 Hz). Significant changes occurred in the delta band: in the 3-back condition an increased delta power was localized in a brain region corresponding to the Brodmann Area (BA) 28 in the left posterior entorhinal cortex (T = 3.112; p < 0.05) and in the BA 35 in the left perirhinal cortex in the parahippocampal gyrus (T = 2.876; p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the right hemisphere and in the alpha, theta, beta, and gamma frequency bands. Our results indicate that the most prominent modification induced by the increased complexity of the task occur in the mesial left temporal lobe structures.

  10. Identification of endogenous reference genes for the analysis of microRNA expression in the hippocampus of the pilocarpine-induced model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykaella Andrade de Araújo

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing miRNA expression because of its sensitivity and specificity. However, in this type of analysis, a suitable normalizer is required to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies that performed a detailed identification and validation of suitable reference genes for miRNA qPCR during the epileptogenic process. Here, using a pilocarpine (PILO model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, we investigated five potential reference genes, performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. As a validation strategy, we used each one of the candidate reference genes to measure PILO-induced changes in microRNA-146a levels, a gene whose expression pattern variation in the PILO injected model is known. Our results indicated U6SnRNA and SnoRNA as the most stable candidate reference genes. By geNorm analysis, the normalization factor should preferably contain at least two of the best candidate reference genes (snoRNA and U6SnRNA. In fact, when normalized using the best combination of reference genes, microRNA-146a transcripts were found to be significantly increased in chronic stage, which is consistent with the pattern reported in different models. Conversely, when reference genes were individually employed for normalization, we failed to detect up-regulation of the microRNA-146a gene in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. The data presented here support that the combination of snoRNA and U6SnRNA was the minimum necessary for an accurate normalization of gene expression at the different stages of epileptogenesis that we tested.

  11. Identification of endogenous reference genes for the analysis of microRNA expression in the hippocampus of the pilocarpine-induced model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Mykaella Andrade; Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; Taniele-Silva, Jamile; Souza, Fernanda Maria de Araújo; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Gitaí, Daniel Leite Góes

    2014-01-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing miRNA expression because of its sensitivity and specificity. However, in this type of analysis, a suitable normalizer is required to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies that performed a detailed identification and validation of suitable reference genes for miRNA qPCR during the epileptogenic process. Here, using a pilocarpine (PILO) model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), we investigated five potential reference genes, performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. As a validation strategy, we used each one of the candidate reference genes to measure PILO-induced changes in microRNA-146a levels, a gene whose expression pattern variation in the PILO injected model is known. Our results indicated U6SnRNA and SnoRNA as the most stable candidate reference genes. By geNorm analysis, the normalization factor should preferably contain at least two of the best candidate reference genes (snoRNA and U6SnRNA). In fact, when normalized using the best combination of reference genes, microRNA-146a transcripts were found to be significantly increased in chronic stage, which is consistent with the pattern reported in different models. Conversely, when reference genes were individually employed for normalization, we failed to detect up-regulation of the microRNA-146a gene in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. The data presented here support that the combination of snoRNA and U6SnRNA was the minimum necessary for an accurate normalization of gene expression at the different stages of epileptogenesis that we tested.

  12. Importance of neuropsychological and clinical features to predict seizure control in medically treated patients with mesial temporal epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-López, Laia; Jiménez, Marta; Ciurans, Jordi; Cáceres, Cynthia; Becerra, Juan Luis

    2017-04-01

    It is not yet understood why seizures in certain patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) develop resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) while others achieve good seizure control with this treatment. We analyzed clinical and neuropsychological features associated with seizure control in patients with MTLE-HS who had not undergone resective surgery. We enrolled 40 patients with medically treated MTLE-HS and retrospectively collected the following data from prospective databases: sex, febrile seizures, central nervous system infection, history of head trauma, cognitive impairment, psychiatric disturbances, history of status epilepticus, age at onset of epilepsy, aura, seizure type and frequency, electroencephalography abnormalities, HS side, AEDs, global cognitive status, and neuropsychological functions such as cognitive processing speed, attention and executive functions, verbal and visual memory, language, and visuospatial ability. These factors were compared between patients who achieved seizure control (no seizures or a >50% reduction in seizure frequency) with AED treatment and those who continued with poor seizure control (increase or no change in frequency or 2seizures per month before treatment (odds ratio [OR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-4.8, p=0.04), moderate or severe cognitive impairment (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.8-7.6, p=0.02), and impairment of >2 neuropsychological functions (OR 2.88, 95% CI 2-6.6, p=0.04). No associations were observed between poor seizure control and specific neuropsychological function impairment. Poor seizure control in MTLE-HS is associated with moderate-severe cognitive impairment but not with a specific profile of impairment. Recognizing poor prognostic features such as a high frequency of monthly seizures prior to starting AED treatment could help to identify patients with medically intractable MTLE-HS who may be good candidates for early epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  13. Evaluación anátomo-funcional de los sistemas sensoriales auditivo y visual en pacientes con epilepsia del lóbulo temporal mesial fármaco-resistente sometidos a tratamiento quirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    Báez Martín, Margarita Minou

    2015-01-01

    Se estudió una muestra de 28 pacientes con epilepsia del lóbulo temporal mesial fármaco-resistente intervenidos quirúrgicamente en el Centro Internacional de Restauración Neurológica entre los años 2002 y 2012, con el objetivo de evaluar los cambios anatómicos y funcionales de los sistemas sensoriales auditivo y visual secundarios a la lobectomía temporal anterior guiada por electrocorticografía. Se constató la existencia de alteraciones funcionales en los sistemas sensoriales auditivo y visu...

  14. Mesial frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnwongse, Kanjana; Wehner, Tim; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2012-10-01

    Mesial frontal lobe epilepsies can be divided into epilepsies arising from the anterior cingulate gyrus and those of the supplementary sensorimotor area. They provide diagnostic challenges because they often lack lateralizing or localizing features on clinical semiology and interictal and ictal scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A number of unique semiologic features have been described over the last decade in patients with mesial frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). There are few reports of applying advanced neurophysiologic techniques such as electrical source imaging, magnetoencephalography, EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging, or analysis of high-frequency oscillations in patients with mesial FLE. Despite these diagnostic challenges, it seems that patients with mesial FLE benefit from epilepsy surgery to the same extent or even better than patients with FLE do, as a whole.

  15. Protocolo para la evaluación prequirúrgica de las funciones del lenguaje y la memoria en pacientes con epilepsia del lóbulo temporal mesial: estudio de los procesos de plasticidad cerebral y sus consecuencias funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuán Tomás, Ana

    2010-01-01

    La epilepsia del lóbulo temporal mesial (ELT) es la causa más común de epilepsia farmacoresistente y se puede beneficiar de terapias alternativas como la neurocirugía. Las alteraciones cognitivas más frecuentes en estos pacientes son en el lenguaje y la memoria. Mediante técnicas de resonancia magnética funcional, la presente tesis aborda dos objetivos: 1) la creación de un protocolo para la evaluación prequirúrgica de las funciones del lenguaje y la memoria y 2) el estudio de los procesos de...

  16. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for recurrent or residual seizures after anterior temporal lobectomy in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients with hippocampal sclerosis: long-term follow-up results of more than 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Kang, Joong Koo; Kim, Sang Joon; Hong, Seok Ho; Ko, Tae Sung; Lee, Sang Ahm; Lee, Do Heui; Lee, Jung Kyo

    2015-12-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has proven efficacy in the treatment of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) and is comparable to conventional resective surgery. It may be effective as an alternative treatment to reoperation after failed temporal lobe surgery in patients with MTLE-HS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of GKRS in patients with unilateral MTLE-HS who did not achieve seizure control or had recurrent seizures after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL). Twelve patients (8 males; mean age 35.50 ± 9.90 years) with MTLE-HS who underwent GKRS after failed ATL (Engel Classes III-IV) were included. GKRS targets included the remnant tissue or adjacent regions of the previously performed ATL with a marginal dose of 24-25 Gy at the 50% isodose line in all patients. Final seizure outcome was assessed using Engel's modified criteria during the final 2 years preceding data analysis. A comparison between signal changes on follow-up MRI and clinical outcome was performed. All patients were followed up for at least 4 years with a mean duration of 6.18 ± 1.77 years (range 4-8.8 years) after GKRS. At the final assessment, 6 of 12 patients were classified as seizure free (Engel Class Ia, n = 3; Ic, n = 2; and Id, n = 1) and 6 patients were classified as not seizure free (Engel Class II, n = 1; III, n = 2; and IV, n = 3). Neither initial nor late MRI signal changes after GKRS statistically correlated with surgical outcome. Clinical seizure outcome did not differ significantly with initial or late MRI changes after GKRS. GKRS can be considered an alternative option when the patients with MTLE-HS who had recurrent or residual seizures after ATL refuse a second operation.

  17. PARADIGMA PSICOSSOCIAL

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    Alexsandro Barreto Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer la percepción y las intervenciones de equipos de apoyo básicos del centro de salud móvil de emergencia en el estado de crisis psíquica. Investigación cualitativa, descriptiva realizada en el estado de Santa Catarina con profesionales de cuatro equipos de Unidades de Soporte Básico del Servicio de Atención Móvil de Urgencias. Los datos fueron recolectados de abril a junio de 2011 mediante entrevista semiestructurada. Se utilizó el Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo para organizar y analizar los datos y para la discusión el Paradigma Psicosocial. De los resultados emergieron tres discursos con las ideas: crisis como alteración del comportamiento e inestabilidad psicológica; se manifiesta con alucinaciones y agresividad; la intervención surge con contención física, medicamentosa e interconsultas. Se concluye que la concepción de la crisis por los profesionales está ligada al positivismo de la psiquiatría y la atención pre-hospitalaria sigue medidas protocolares en el atendimiento a la persona en crisis psíquica, distante de los principios determinados por el paradigma psicosocial.

  18. Gender, apolipoprotein E genotype, and mesial temporal atrophy: 2-year follow-up in patients with stable mild cognitive impairment and with progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spampinato, M.V.; Patrick, K.E.; Collins, H. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Langdon, B.R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Internal Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Parker, R.O. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Anesthesiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Pravata' , E. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Department of Neuroradiology, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Lugano (Switzerland); Collaboration: For the Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2016-11-15

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between gender, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, and mesial temporal atrophy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with and without progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated 236 MCI patients with (n = 121) and without (n = 115) AD progression. Longitudinal MRI-based hippocampal volumes (HV) and entorhinal cortex (ERC) thickness were obtained. The Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) score was used to assess disease severity. We found a significant effect of APOE, gender, and clinical course (stable MCI versus MCI-AD progression) on HV. There was a significant effect of clinical course and APOE, but not gender, on ERC. Baseline HV and APOE4 status predicted MCI-AD progression in women. Baseline ERC and APOE4 status predicted MCI-AD progression in men. There were significant differences in CDR-SB scores between patients with and without MCI-AD progression, but not between males and females, or APOE4 carriers and non-carriers. HV, but not ERC, is strongly influenced by gender in MCI. The effects of gender and APOE4 on neuroimaging biomarkers have potentially important implications in the prediction of MCI-AD progression and should be taken into account in clinical trials. (orig.)

  19. Bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis and kernicterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksoy, Yahya; Koç, Hasan; Genç, Bülent Oğuz

    2004-01-01

    Two children with mental retardation, choreoathetosis, dystonia, and muscle rigidity are reported. They had a history of severe hyperbilirubinemia after birth as a result of Rh isoimmunization. The history and clinical picture suggested the diagnosis of kernicterus. The magnetic resonance imaging examination showed a bilateral signal intensity increase in the globus pallidus on T2-weighted images. Additionally, our patients showed symmetric bilateral hyperintensity and volume loss in the hippocampus, which is known to be another characteristic area of bilirubin deposition in kernicterus.

  20. Avatares del paradigma conexionista

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    Asier Arias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hace ahora un año que falleciera David Everett Rumelhart, conexionista pionero y editor junto con James Lloyd McClelland de la llamada “biblia del Procesamiento Distribuido en Paralelo” (PDP. Al mismo tiempo, los dos volúmenes de la referida biblia celebraban su vigésimo quinto cumpleaños. También uno de los padres de la inteligencia artificial, John McCarthy, que bautizara de hecho la disciplina, nos abandonó el pasado mes de octubre a los 84 años. Estas tres efemérides nos sirven de pretexto para un breve recorrido por las derivas y obstáculos a los que se ha enfrentado el llamado paradigma conexionista desde su puesta en escena como alternativa al cognitivismo clásico.

  1. Historicismo: notas sobre um paradigma

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    José D’Assunção Barros

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo desenvolver algumas considerações sobre o Historicismo e sua possibilidade de ser examinado como um dos paradigmas que concorrem para o estabelecimento de uma história científica no século XIX. O primeiro ponto tratado é relativo às origens do paradigma Historicista na transição do século XVIII para o século XIX. Na sequência, aproximamo-nos da apropriação conservadora do paradigma historicista no novo contexto no qual a burguesia européia está assentada no Poder, combinando-se com a consolidação dos modernos estados-nações. A especificação das características deste paradigma constituem o principal ponto de análise

  2. del paradigma comprensivo

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    María Luisa Bacarlett Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la distinción planteada por von Wright en su texto ya clásico Explicación y comprensión, se analiza la obra de Giambattista Vico (1668-1744 a la luz de su crítica desarrollada hacia Descartes y la distinción que realiza en tre "crítica" y "tópica". No es aventurado decir que en la propuesta viquiana la actividad propia de la tópica, ligada al uso del lenguaje, la retórica y la elocuencia, se acerca más aquello que von Wright ubica dentro del "paradigma comprensivo"; mientras que la crítica, identificada con el método cartesiano, privilegia la abstracción, la deducción lógica y el análisis matemático; es decir, todo aquello ligado al conocimiento de la naturaleza. La gran diferencia en tre tópica y crítica radica, al final, en el criterio de verdad propio de cada perspectiva: mientras la crítica encuentra la verdad en la exterioridad del mundo natural, en algo que los hombres no hacen; en cambio, la única forma de verdad en el terreno de la tópica es como "verdad hecha" o "verum factum"; es decir, la verdad que nosotros mismos hacemos como agentes históricos, lingüísticos, creadores de cultura, de vida política y social.

  3. Justicia Restaurativa: Un paradigma emergente

    OpenAIRE

    García Gumbau, Erica

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN DE LA TESIS DOCTORAL JUSTICIA RESTAURATIVA: UN PARADIGMA EMERGENTE La tesis profundiza y reflexiona en torno a una nueva concepción de la justicia y su aplicación en la praxis. Actualmente nos encontramos ante una crisis del paradigma retributivo o crisis del modelo de justicia tradicional, dominante hasta ahora en la administración de justicia. Paralelamente, se está empezando a hablar de una nueva filosofía de la administración de justicia. El presente trabajo de i...

  4. Historicismo: notas sobre um paradigma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José D’Assunção Barros

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo tem por objetivo desenvolver algumas considerações sobre o Historicismo e sua possibilidade de ser examinado como um dos paradigmas que concorrem para o estabelecimento de uma história científica no século XIX...

  5. Acerca de los "paradigmas contables"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Santos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available La contabilidad a través de su historia ha construido conocimiento a partir de reflexiones sobre conceptos teóricos y prácticos que se consolidaron como paradigmas, según la clasificación de Ahmed Belkaoui, debido a sus características, intereses, métodos y otra serie de elementos propios de esta forma de aproximación a la ciencia. En este escrito se hace un breve estudio y clasificación de dos paradigmas existentes en contabilidad, el de la ganancia líquida, dividido en los enfoques: a antropológico inductivo y b deductivo de la ganancia líquida y realizada, y el paradigma de la utilidad de la información para la toma de decisiones dividido en: a enfoque de los modelos de decisión y la capacidad predictiva, b enfoque del comportamiento agregado del mercado, c enfoque del inversor individual y, d enfoque del valor económico de la información; al igual que una reseña, en términos de Vicente Pina Martínez, de los "paradigmas emergentes". Finalmente se formulan algunas inquietudes acerca del carácter paradigmático de las nuevas investigaciones y los nuevos campos de aplicación de la contabilidad.

  6. Various modifications of the intrahippocampal kainate model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in rats fail to resolve the marked rat-to-mouse differences in type and frequency of spontaneous seizures in this model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Rebecca; Brandt, Claudia; Töllner, Kathrin; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of acquired epilepsy in adults. TLE can develop after diverse brain insults, including traumatic brain injury, infections, stroke, or prolonged status epilepticus (SE). Post-SE rodent models of TLE are widely used to understand mechanisms of epileptogenesis and develop treatments for epilepsy prevention. In this respect, the intrahippocampal kainate model of TLE in mice is of interest, because highly frequent spontaneous electrographic seizures develop in the kainate focus, allowing evaluation of both anti-seizure and anti-epileptogenic effects of novel drugs with only short EEG recording periods, which is not possible in any other model of TLE, including the intrahippocampal kainate model in rats. In the present study, we investigated whether the marked mouse-to-rat difference in occurrence and frequency of spontaneous seizures is due to a species difference or to technical variables, such as anesthesia during kainate injection, kainate dose, or location of kainate injection and EEG electrode in the hippocampus. When, as in the mouse model, anesthesia was used during kainate injection, only few rats developed epilepsy, although severity or duration of SE was not affected by isoflurane. In contrast, most rats developed epilepsy when kainate was injected without anesthesia. However, frequent electrographic seizures as observed in mice did not occur in rats, irrespective of location of kainate injection (CA1, CA3) or EEG recording electrode (CA1, CA3, dentate gyrus) or dose of kainate injected. These data indicate marked phenotypic differences between mice and rats in this model. Further studies should explore the mechanisms underlying this species difference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. KONSTRUKSI TEORI PARADIGMA THOMAS S. KUHN

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    Nurkhalis Nurkhalis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kuhn memberikan gambaran bahwa kebenaran sains akan ditemukan berkali-kali ataupun berganti-ganti bentuk ilmiahnya walaupun dari satu objek yang sama. Formulasi teori paradigma yang mencetuskan bahwa sebuah kebenaran sains (legatimed truth identik dalam target teleologis yang didasari pada detection dikenal sebagai final cause (end. Kebenaran sains bukan continuous (lanjutan, improvisasi, evolusi atau kumulatif, melainkan terjadi paradigm shift (pergeseran paradigma atau disebut juga dengan revolusi. Paradigma melalui shift moving (pergerakan pergeseran dipahami sama dengan gestalt switch (perpindahan secara keseluruhan atau tidak sama sekali. Di dalam gestalt switch yang diungkapkan adalah verifikasi terjadi sekaligus atau tidak sama sekali (all at once or not at all. Konsep paradigm shifts membuka kesadaran bersama bahwa para pengkaji sains tidak akan mungkin bekerja dalam suatu suasana objektivitas yang mapan. Paradigma men-design kerangka world view (pandangan dunia atau perspective (cara pandang untuk lebih important, legitimate, and reasonable. Hal ini membuat sebuah detection (target teleologis tidak akan terevolusi atau tereleminir karena kemampuan eksperimentalnya mengakomodir counterinstances (ketahanan berkompetisi teori. Paradigma yang bertahan merupakan winnowing (keunggulan baru dari sebuah discovery, supertitian (temuan besar atau novelty (terbaharukan. Paradigma bertahan akan tumbuh menguasai normal science selama belum eksisnya anomaly (ketimpangan. Paradigma baru memiliki kriteria neater (rapi, more suitable (lebih cocok, simpler (sederhana, or more elegant (lebih elegan. Paradigma akan terusbertransformatif dengan paradigma baru karena sistem bekerja paradigma mengalihkan padigma menuju revolusi ilmiah di mana revolusi ilmiah dengan perubahan fundamental akan meresap dalam metode dan pemahaman.

  8. O resgate de velhos paradigmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Aloysio Pereira da

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva mostrar como algumas formas de gestão de ensino, ainda que superadas e inadequadas em sua prática, surgem em momentos históricos particulares portando novas roupagens e utilizando uma retórica pretensamente inovadora, mas, ao contrário, resgata velhos paradigmas. Neste artigo utilizamos a GQT - Gestão da Qualidade Total como referencial ilustrativo e instrumental desse fenômeno

  9. Did Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky suffer from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Christian R; Novikov, Vladimir P I; Regard, Marianne; Siegel, Adrian M

    2005-07-01

    Many scientific authors--among them famous names such as Henri Gastaut or Sigmund Freud--dealt with the question from what kind of epilepsy Fyodor Mikhailovitch Dostoevsky (1821-1881) might had suffered. Because of the tight interplay between Dostoevsky's literary work and his own disease we throw light on the author's epilepsy against the background of his epileptic fictional characters. Moreover, we attempt to classify Dostoevsky's epilepsy on the basis of his bibliography, language, and literary work.

  10. Mesial temporal sclerosis | Jogi | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web ...

  11. Mesial temporal sclerosis | Jogi | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract South African Journal of Radiology Vol. 9 (2) 2005: pp. 25-27. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v9i2.88 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  12. Vida artificial, el nuevo paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jesús Martínez Páez

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una síntesis cronológica de los hechos más importantes en el desarrollo teórico y de simulación computacional, que han llevado a la formación de un nuevo paradigma que se conoce como vida artificial; se analizan sus características y sus príncipales líneas de investigación. Finalmente, se hace una descripción de su trabajo en la Universidad Nacional.

  13. Vida artificial, el nuevo paradigma

    OpenAIRE

    José Jesús Martínez Páez

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta una síntesis cronológica de los hechos más importantes en el desarrollo teórico y de simulación computacional, que han llevado a la formación de un nuevo paradigma que se conoce como vida artificial; se analizan sus características y sus príncipales líneas de investigación. Finalmente, se hace una descripción de su trabajo en laUniversidad Nacional.

  14. Imaging structural and functional brain networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Hong, Seokjun; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernasconi, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Early imaging studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) focused on the search for mesial temporal sclerosis, as its surgical removal results in clinically meaningful improvement in about 70% of patients...

  15. Paradigma Lerner versus Konstruksi Gender

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    Mien Hidayat

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Asumsi dasar Paradigma Lerner (dalam komunikasi pembangunan menyatakan terbukanya suatu wilayah dari isolasi fisik akan mendorong masyarakat berurbanisasi, yang selanjutnya akan menghasilkan literasi. Kedua variabel ini akan memengaruhi partisipasi media massa. Selanjutnya saling pengaruh dari ketiga variabel itu akan bermuara pada partisipasi pembangunan Konstruksi gender yang berlangsung di masyarakat yang berlatar belakang budaya patriarkhat ternyata mampu memandekkan aplikasi pemikiran Lerner, khususnya pada ibu-ibu rumah tangga. Urbanisasi tidak berjalan karena gender mengonstruksikan ibu-ibu rumah tangga untuk mendiami wilayah domestik. Gender juga menebar faham, pendidikan lebih diprioritaskan untuk anak laki-laki ketimbang anak perempuan dengan alasan laki-laki akan menjadi kepala rumah tangga yang bertanggung jawab terhadap keluarga. Terhambatnya aplikasi kedua konsep ini cenderung memperkecil akses perempuan pada media massa, yang pada akhirnya mengondisikan ibu-ibu rumah tangga (perempuan dihimpit keterbatasan dalam partisipasi pembangunan.

  16. Memory for Faces Dissociates from Memory for Location Following Anterior Temporal Lobectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Nancy D.; Glosser, Guila

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the right and left mesial temporal lobes are specialized for processing different types of information for long-term memory (LTM). Although findings have been consistent in regard to the dominant role of the left mesial temporal lobe (MTL) in verbal memory, the role of the right MTL in non-verbal memory remains…

  17. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  18. LA APERTURA LIBERAL: CHOQUE DE PARADIGMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Calderón B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se discuten los alcances de la estrategia liberal en el caso de la economía costarricense, principalmente desde la perspectiva de su paradoja de realización; es decir, la conformación de condiciones implica imposibilidad de objetivos. Como argumento de fondo se explora el hecho de que la vigencia del paradigma de la competencia imperfecta (con un claro dominio de monopolios y oligopolios, fortalecida con el proceso aperturista, no crea condiciones para el advenimiento del paradigma de la competencia perfecta, condición esencial para el logro de objetivos de la propuesta liberal.

  19. Toetsen als Leerinterventie. Samenvatten in het Testing Effect Paradigma [Tests as learning interventions. Summarization in the testing effect paradigma investigated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, Kim; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Dirkx, K. J. H., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, July). Toetsen als leerinterventie. Samenvatten in het testing effect paradigma onderzocht [Tests as learning interventions. Summarization in the testing effect paradigma investigated]. Presentation for Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam.

  20. Paradigma En Parodie | Snyman | Stellenbosch Papers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Paradigma En Parodie. HHJ Snyman. Abstract. No abstract available.

  1. Paradigma-verandering, relativisme en rasionaliteit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... gemeenskaplike voorraad van nie-relatiewe waarhede sou wees wat as basis kan dien vir kommunikasie nie, dan sou mens kon redeneer dat daar volledige inkommensurabele paradigmas, skemas, ervarings en werklikhede moet wees. Hoe ver sou mens kon gaan om waarheid te relativeer: wat waar is vir Aristoteles is ...

  2. Asymmetric molars' mesial rotation and mesialization in unilateral functional posterior crossbite and implications for interceptive treatment in the mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, Ingrid; Iannazzi, Alessandra; Piancino, Maria Grazia; Costantinides, Fulvia; Dalessandri, Domenico; Paganelli, Corrado

    2017-08-01

    Symmetric transverse expansion is the main outcome of the early treatment in subjects with unilateral functional posterior crossbite. The aim of this study was to analyse mesial rotation and mesialization of upper first molars as sagittal parameters to be corrected in the treatment of these patients during the mixed dentition. Digital dental cast measurements (rotation and mesialization) were performed in a sample of 48 subjects with unilateral posterior crossbite (UPXB; 19 males and 29 females, mean age 10.2 ± 1.2 years) and in a control group of 35 subjects with normal Class I occlusion (17 males and 18 females, mean age 9.9 ± 1.3 years). An independent sample t-test, the Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test, and Pearson correlation were used for statistical comparison. The amount of upper molar rotation was significantly greater in the experimental group when compared with the control group. A clinically significant 'upper molar rotation' (UMR) was present in 66.7 per cent of the subjects with UPXB versus 5.7 per cent of the control group. The UMR group presented also a significant mesialization of upper first molars when compared with the control group. In the experimental group, there was a significant difference between rotation and mesialization in the right and left side and a correlation has been found between these two variables and the amount of Class II molar relationship at the crossbite side. This is an epidemiological case-control study and the discussed effects of an early correction of the asymmetric upper molars' migration are only speculations based on an association relationship. The findings of this study show an asymmetric upper first molars' migration (rotation and mesialization) in unilateral functional posterior crossbite versus a control group. An early evaluation and correction of the molars' migration during the mixed dentition should be considered in order to obtain a correct inter-occlusal sagittal molar relationship, space for an

  3. PARADIGMA TRADICIONAL E PARADIGMA EMERGENTE: ALGUMAS IMPLICAÇÕES NA EDUCAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Carvalho Ribeiro

    Full Text Available É intrínseco ao Homem conhecer os objetos e os fenômenos da realidade que o cerca, por meio de um ponto de vista que, por sinal, se refere a um paradigma que traz consigo uma epistemologia. Nesse con texto, o presente artigo objetiva levantar alguns princípios e pressupostos do Paradigma Tradicional e do Paradigma Emergente, como também visa apresentar algumas implicações desses dois paradigmas na Educação. Esse trabalho foi desenvolvido por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica e faz parte da dissertação de Mestrado, defendida no 1° semestre de 2009, pelo seu primeiro autor no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação da PUC Minas. Ao final, constatou-se que se vive hoje um período de mudanças paradigmáticas, embora todos nós ainda temos muito do paradigma cartesiano-newtoniano, mas o surgimento de novos problemas oriundos da dinâmica da realidade nos impõe o desafio da transformação no nosso ser e agir, no intento de (reconstruir um conhecimento mais humano e diversificado.

  4. PARADIGMA PEMBELAJARAN BIOLOGI DI ERA DIGITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B.A. Jayawardana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan belajar dan mengajar yang dilakukan oleh guru dengan siswa di sekolahan dikenal dengan istilah pembelajaran. Kualitas pembelajaran akan optimal apabila proses pembelajaran berpusat pada siswa (student centered instruction, bukan berpusat pada guru (teacher centered instruction. Proses pembelajaran sebaiknya juga dilakukan dengan cara-cara yang menyenangkan, termasuk pada pembelajaran biologi. Anggapan bahwa pelajaran biologi merupakan sesuatu yang menakutkan, sulit dimengerti karena banyak dikombinasi dengan istilah Latin atau bahasa ilmiah, dan juga membosankan karena banyaknya materi, perlu segera diluruskan. Stigma negatif pada pelajaran biologi tersebut salah satu penyebabnya karena pembelajaran dilakukan dengan metode-metode konvensional dan cenderung monoton. Di era digitital seperti sekarang ini, guru sebaiknya mempunyai paradigma yang baru terhadap pembelajaran biologi. Sudah saatnya guru memanfaatkan kemajuan teknologi dan internet sebagai sarana pembelajaran biologi. Yang menjadi pertanyaan adalah bagaimana merubah paradigma lama menuju paradigma baru dalam pembelajaran biologi di era digital? Bagaimana menerapkan pembelajaran biologi di era digital? Dan bagaimana segi positif maupun negatifnya pembelajaran digital? Pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut merupakan benang merah yang akan dibahas dalam artikel ini.

  5. Cinco paradigmas para abordar lo real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pasek de Pinto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando la crisis de la investigación social, el propósito del estudio fue configurar un fundamento paradigmático para la investigación en ciencias sociales. Partiendo de dos cuerpos teóricos: Mardones, (1991; y Padrón, (1994, 1998, por medio de la deducción y del análisis se obtuvieron cuatro paradigmas de investigación que, integrados, permitieron obtener un quinto paradigma. Así, como resultado del estudio se presentan cinco paradigmas posibles para abordar la realidad: el empírico- inductivo; el racionalista deductivo; el fenomenológico vivencial, el reflexivo crítico y el holístico o de la complejidad. A lo largo del estudio, cada uno de ellos se analiza en cuatro aspectos paradigmáticos: el Ontológico, el Epistemológico, el Axiológico y el Metodológico.

  6. NUEVOS PARADIGMAS DEL PODER CONSTITUYENTE EN LATINOAMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Jose Lucas Santos

    2015-01-01

     Desde aproximadamente mitad de la década de 1980 Latinoamérica ha experimentado un cambio en el flujo en los procesos de activación constitucional y el consiguiente cambio en el contenido de estas nuevas constituciones. Este "nuevo constitucionalismo latinoamericano" se origina de las movilizaciones populares que llevaron, de manera más participativa y democrática, la creación de nuevas constituciones que tratan de reflejar su realidad social, a partir de nuevos paradigmas de elementos polít...

  7. Novos paradigmas literários

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães,Denise Azevedo Duarte

    2005-01-01

    O artigo estuda a emergência de novos paradigmas literários, procurando refletir acerca das textualidades contemporâneas. Focaliza os hipertextos informatizados e a poesia multimídia, com o intuito de desvendar como estão sendo criados novos procedimentos expressivos e em que medida eles podem ser identificados com reflexões teóricas anteriores acerca do texto literário impresso. Remete a questões ligadas à leitura dos diferentes tipos de signos e aos modos como eles se integram para a consti...

  8. Temporal interactions between target and distractor processing: Positive and negative priming effects.

    OpenAIRE

    María Isabel Barriopedro; James F. Joula; Juan Botella

    2002-01-01

    Interacciones Temporales entre el Procesamiento del Blanco y los Distractores: Efectos de Priming Positivo y Negativo. El paradigma de los flancos y el paradigma con presentaciones de preparación/prueba (prime/probe) para el estudio del priming positivo y negativo se basan en la compatibilidad entre información relevante e irrelevante presente en los mismos estímulos o en estímulos que son temporal o espacialmente contiguos. En el paradigma de los flancos se ...

  9. Geldigheid vanuit drie paradigmas beskou: 'n eenheid, of 'n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hierdie artikel bespreek daarom vanuit 'n filosofiese perspektief op die grondslae van die toegepaste taalkunde die begrip 'geldigheid' en definieer dit vanuit drie paradigmas, te wete 'n tradisionele paradigma, die hedendaagse/konvensionele siening en 'n meer aanvaarbare, verruimde, standpunt daaroor. Die kern van ...

  10. Mandibular second molar with 3 mesial canals and a radix paramolaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ragavendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular first molar commonly has two roots, the mesial and the distal root. Surprisingly in some mandibular first molar has an unusual extra third root in between mesial and distal root. This extra root is the most commonly seen in lingual side and is called as radix entomolaris. If this extra root is seen on the buccal side, it is termed as radix paramolaris (RP, which is a very rare phenomenon. Recently, various case report studies has shown the presence of third canal in the mesial and distal roots of mandibular molars. They are named as middle mesial and middle distal canal, respectively. Here, we present a case report of mandibular second molar showing three canals in the mesial root and a RP.

  11. Microsurgical techniques in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Vanegas, Mario A; Lew, Sean M; Morino, Michiharu; Sarmento, Stenio A

    2017-04-01

    Temporal lobe resection is the most prevalent epilepsy surgery procedure. However, there is no consensus on the best surgical approach to treat temporal lobe epilepsy. Complication rates are low and efficacy is very high regarding seizures after such procedures. However, there is still ample controversy regarding the best surgical approach to warrant maximum seizure control with minimal functional deficits. We describe the most frequently used microsurgical techniques for removal of both the lateral and mesial temporal lobe structures in the treatment of medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to mesial temporal sclerosis (corticoamygdalohippocampectomy and selective amygdalohippocampectomy). The choice of surgical technique appears to remain a surgeon's preference for the near future. Meticulous surgical technique and thorough three-dimensional microsurgical knowledge are essentials for obtaining the best results. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. PARADIGMAS EMERGENTES, CONHECIMENTO E MEIO AMBIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Keitel

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo estimular o debate sobre novos modos de se compreender/ tratar o mundo com os recursos científico-epistêmicos. Para tal, o es tudo levanta e analisa novas formas de relacionamento científico com o mundo, com fundamento em paradigmas emergentes em ciências, tais como a teoria dos sistemas de Bertalanfy, a teoria de auto-organização de von Foerster, Ilya Prigogine, Henri Atlan e Edgar Morin, do acaso e necessidade de Monod, de autopoiese de Humberto Maturana e Francisco Varela, com suas emergentes possibilidades epistemológicas e também educacionais. Utiliza-se o método reconstrutivo, ou seja, colocam-se em diálogo teóricos e teorias diferentes que possam fornecer sustentação argumentativa para a tese central defendida.

  13. Los paradigmas financieros en tiempos de crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo de la Dehesa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La crisis financiera mundial de finales del siglo XX ha puesto en evidencia los problemas de aplicación de los paradigmas financieros sobre los que se basa la actividad inversora de los agentes económicos que intervienen en los mercados de capitales. Esta experiencia ha demostrado, una vez más, que la aplicación de las teorías y de los modelos más consolidados en la ciencia de las finanzas no funciona adecuadamente, bien porque los supuestos sobre los que se basan dejan de darse en situaciones críticas, bien porque no se utilizan de forma correcta. No quiero decir que dichas teorías o modelos no sean coherentes, ya que son los que han permitido el enorme desarrollo de los mercados financieros, pero tienen problemas en los momentos críticos.

  14. Novos paradigmas literários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Azevedo Duarte Guimarães

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo estuda a emergência de novos paradigmas literários, procurando refletir acerca das textualidades contemporâneas. Focaliza os hipertextos informatizados e a poesia multimídia, com o intuito de desvendar como estão sendo criados novos procedimentos expressivos e em que medida eles podem ser identificados com reflexões teóricas anteriores acerca do texto literário impresso. Remete a questões ligadas à leitura dos diferentes tipos de signos e aos modos como eles se integram para a constituição dessas novíssimas linguagens híbridas em novos suportes.El artículo estudia la emergencia de nuevos paradigmas literarios, procurando reflejar acerca de las textualidades contemporáneas. Enfoca los hipertextos informatizados y la poesía multimedia, intentando desvendar cómo están siendo creados nuevos procedimientos expresivos y en qué medida ellos pueden ser identificados a reflexiones teóricas anteriores acerca del texto literario impreso. Remite a cuestiones ligadas a la lectura de los diferentes tipos de signos y a los modos cómo ellos se interaccionan para la constitución de los novísimos lenguajes híbridos en nuevos supuestos.This article investigates the emergence of new literary paradigms as it tries to understand new contemporary textualities. It analyses some hypertexts and multimedia poetry trying to trace how new expressive procedures are being created. How can these new languages be identified and what are their relations to previous theories which dealt with the literary printed text? This study approaches questions linked to the reading of different types of signs and the modes they function towards the fabrication of these new hybrid languages.

  15. Marketing! Onde está o Paradigma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deosir Flávio Lobo de Castro Júnior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O debate quantitativo-qualitativo, não é uma discussão recente. O objetivo desse trabalho, portanto, é verificar por meio do conceito de paradigma, novas perspectivas de compreender as pesquisas acadêmicas em marketing, a evolução do pensamento de marketing e as metodologias utilizadas nos estudos da qualidade de serviço. Sem a pretensão de esgotar este assunto e apresentar uma conclusão final, são apresentadas pesquisas que apontam para a necessidade e a importância da pesquisa qualitativa, uma vez que auxilia ao pesquisador uma melhor compreensão da natureza complexa do mundo social em que vivemos. Segundo Santana e Gomes (2007, após análise da discussão de Hegel e Kant, concluem que a razão e a própria epistemologia são construções históricas e evoluem a partir de contradições. O presente artigo está dividido em cinco momentos. Na primeira parte apresenta-se além da introdução a constituição dos objetivos desse ensaio teórico. Na segunda parte apresenta-se uma breve discussão a respeito do conceito de paradigma e o marketing. Na terceira parte apresenta-se uma retrospectiva histórica do marketing e sua evolução de suas escolas a partir dos estudos de Miranda e Arruda (2004. Na quarta parte, são apresentadas as metodologias dos estudos sobre qualidade de serviços e finalmente na quinta parte apresenta-se as considerações finais.

  16. Astrocyte uncoupling as a cause of human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedner, Peter; Dupper, Alexander; Hüttmann, Kerstin; Müller, Julia; Herde, Michel K; Dublin, Pavel; Deshpande, Tushar; Schramm, Johannes; Häussler, Ute; Haas, Carola A; Henneberger, Christian; Theis, Martin; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Glial cells are now recognized as active communication partners in the central nervous system, and this new perspective has rekindled the question of their role in pathology. In the present study we analysed functional properties of astrocytes in hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy without (n = 44) and with sclerosis (n = 75) combining patch clamp recording, K(+) concentration analysis, electroencephalography/video-monitoring, and fate mapping analysis. We found that the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis is completely devoid of bona fide astrocytes and gap junction coupling, whereas coupled astrocytes were abundantly present in non-sclerotic specimens. To decide whether these glial changes represent cause or effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, we developed a mouse model that reproduced key features of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis. In this model, uncoupling impaired K(+) buffering and temporally preceded apoptotic neuronal death and the generation of spontaneous seizures. Uncoupling was induced through intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, prevented in Toll-like receptor4 knockout mice and reproduced in situ through acute cytokine or lipopolysaccharide incubation. Fate mapping confirmed that in the course of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, astrocytes acquire an atypical functional phenotype and lose coupling. These data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction might be a prime cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis and identify novel targets for anti-epileptogenic therapeutic intervention. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. El paradigma de la complejidad en Edgar Morin

    OpenAIRE

    López Ramírez, Oscar

    1998-01-01

    El presente es un trabajo introductorio sobre el Paradigma de la Complejidad, apoyado en especial en los estudios de Edgar Morin, señalando su aporte básico. En él se hace una relación de los descubrimientos que en el presente siglo han permitido el desarrollo de este nuevo paradigma. Con ello se busca mostrar cómo el gran problema de la ciencia de nuestro tiempo, radica en su dependencia del paradigma simplificante que ha impedido integrar todos los aportes de la ciencia y la técnica actu...

  18. Extrahippocampal Desynchronization in Nonlesional Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Pastor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is traditionally associated with both hypersynchronous activity in the form of interictal epileptic discharges and hippocampal sclerosis, recent findings suggest that desynchronization also plays a central role in the dynamics of this pathology. The objective of this work is to show the imbalance existing between mesial activities in patients suffering from mesial TLE, with normal mesial structures. Foramen ovale recordings from six patients with mesial TLE and one with lateral TLE were analyzed through a cluster analysis and synchronization matrices. None of the patients present findings in the MRI presurgical evaluation. Numerical analysis was carried out in three different situations: awake and sleep interictal and also during the preictal stage. High levels of desynchronization ipsilateral to the epileptic side were present in mesial TLE patients. Low levels of desynchronization were present in the lateral TLE patient during the interictal stage and almost zero in the preictal stage. Implications of these findings in relation with seizure spreading are discussed.

  19. Redes sociales: un nuevo paradigma en el horizonte sociologico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henrique Martins, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    La tesis central del presente texto es que la emergencia del nuevo paradigma de los movimientos sociales es verificada por la fuerza creciente de la idea de red social al interior de las ciencias sociales...

  20. A epidemiologia, os valores e o significado de paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Agripino de Melo Filho

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente, o emprego do termo paradigma chegou ao âmbito epidemiológico. Este texto analisou criticamente uma classificação de 'paradigmas epidemiológicos', proposta por Almeida-Filho. Inicialmente constatou-se que os valores não foram considerados como elementos fundamentais para a construção dos paradigmas, distanciando-se, assim, da matriz kuhniana. Uma vez que a sistematização procurou unir tendências antitéticas, ela pareceu estar mais próxima da epistéme foucaultiana. Finalmente, considerou-se mais apropriada a utilização do termo hegemonia, em vez de paradigma, para sistematizar períodos epidemiológicos, pois os valores das vertentes estão comprometidos com a particularidade (principalmente classe social.

  1. Nuevos paradigmas de la comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Orihuela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Internet ha trastocado gran parte de los paradigmas que hasta ahora ayudaban a comprender los procesos de comunicación pública en medios masivos. Igualmente ha provocado un efecto paradójico en la comunicación pública. El texto se propone sistematizar siete paradigmas que caracterizan el nuevo paisaje mediático que emerge de la red.

  2. El paradigma de las membranas en agujeros negros

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, José Daniel; Tejeiro, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    El paradigma de las membranas es un método para trabajar campos de materia cerca de agujeras negras, que permite construir imágenes espaciales variables en el tiempo, sin perder la exactitud de la relatividad general. En este artículo se describe el paradigma de las membranas, y se aplica al campo electromagnético alrededor de un agujero negro de Schwarzchild.

  3. Era Digital (Pergeseran Paradigma Dari Hukum Modern Ke Post Modernisme)

    OpenAIRE

    Wibawa, Iskandar

    2016-01-01

    Konstruksi hukum saat ini dibangun berdasarkan aliran positivisme, merupakaan legal-meta narative yang maujud dalam bentuk hukum tertulis yang penerapannya menggunakan mehhode sylogisme,. Hal ini merupakan paradigma hukum modern. Era digital yang terjadi saat ini mempengaruhi kehidupan diberbagai bidang, termasuk di bidang hukum. Paradigma hukum modern yang positivistik, legal-meta naratuve dan penggunaaan sylogisme mengalami kesulitan menyelesaikan masalah yang terjadi di masyarakat. Paradig...

  4. Management of middle mesial canal in mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a three-dimensional obturation of the root canal space after adequate preparation of the canal space to remove the tissue debris, microorganisms, and their byproducts. Anatomical variations have frequently been encountered in endodontic practice and have to be adequately managed by the clinician. Missed roots and canals are a major reason for failure of therapy. Technological advances have given the clinician ample opportunity to identify and treat these aberrations successfully. The present report describes a left mandibular second permanent molar requiring root canal treatment, found to have three separate canals in the mesial root. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and emphasizes the need for the clinician to be aware of and look out for such variations and use adequate diagnostic methodologies prior to and during therapy to detect such variations. The possibility of additional canals, whenever in doubt, should be explored with the assistance of technologies such as those of magnification and illumination and various diagnostic aids. Operator experience has also shown to be a key factor in negotiation and management of these aberrant canal configurations.

  5. Temporal lobe epilepsy in patients with nonlesional MRI and normal memory: an SEEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Suraj; Sweet, Jennifer; Fastenau, Philip S; Lüders, Hans; Landazuri, Patrick; Miller, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in the absence of MRI abnormalities and memory deficits is often presumed to have an extramesial or even extratemporal source. In this paper the authors report the results of a comprehensive stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) analysis in patients with TLE with normal MRI images and memory scores. Eighteen patients with medically refractory epilepsy who also had unremarkable MR images and normal verbal and visual memory scores on neuropsychological testing were included in the study. All patients had seizure semiology and video electroencephalography (EEG) findings suggestive of TLE. A standardized SEEG investigation was performed for each patient with electrodes implanted into the mesial and lateral temporal lobe, temporal tip, posterior temporal neocortex, orbitomesiobasal frontal lobe, posterior cingulate gyrus, and insula. This information was used to plan subsequent surgical management. Interictal SEEG abnormalities were observed in the mesial temporal structures in 17 patients (94%) and in the temporal tip in 6 (33%). Seizure onset was exclusively from mesial structures in 13 (72%), exclusively from lateral temporal cortex and/or temporal tip structures in 2 (11%), and independently from mesial and neocortical foci in 3 (17%). No seizure activity was observed arising from any extratemporal location. All patients underwent surgical intervention targeting the temporal lobe and tailored to the SEEG findings, and all experienced significant improvement in seizure frequency with a postoperative follow-up observation period of at least 1 year. This study demonstrates 3 important findings: 1) normal memory does not preclude mesial temporal seizure onset; 2) onset of seizures exclusively from mesial temporal structures without early neocortical involvement is common, even in the absence of memory deficits; and 3) extratemporal seizure onset is rare when video EEG and semiology are consistent with focal TLE.

  6. El paradigma chino en el escenario global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Llera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo examina la evolución más reciente del Gigante Asiático en lo que concierne a su proyección internacional y su influencia global, sirviéndose de datos contrastados y fuentes académicas de referencia. Tras recabar las cifras que han otorgado a China su actual posición de liderazgo en los mercados internacionales, repasaremos las directrices del régimen en materia de política exterior, hasta pergeñar lo que se está publicitando como un nuevo paradigma de desarrollo que hoy afecta transversalmente a todos los países del mundo, comenzando por los menos avanzados. Los interrogantes que plantea este modelo están, sin embargo, a la vista de todos, pues no solo conciernen a cuestiones éticas en torno a los derechos y las libertades, sino ahora también a su eficiencia y viabilidad. China se enfrenta a la necesidad de unas reformas que chocan contra la inercia y los intereses creados de los beneficiarios del régimen.

  7. DESDE EL PARADIGMA DE LA COMPLEJIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alvarado Cordero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca brindar un aporte a la disciplina de Orientación al proponer una forma de incorporar el paradigma de la complejidad al quehacer profesional. Se incluye una revisión de la injerencia de diferentes teorías en el desarrollo histórico de esta disciplina y se ejemplifica la aplicación de los principios de auto organización, interdependencia y sustentabilidad a la práctica de la Orientación. Sustentada en estos fundamentos teóricos, se diseñó e implementó una propuesta pedagógica en un centro educativo de Educación Primaria. Se realizó un trabajo de campo con 22 docentes y 380 estudiantes de una escuela pública en donde, durante un mes, se generaron espacios de participación y expresión creativa, con acciones a nivel de aula y de institución. En las acciones realizadas se subrayó constantemente la importancia de iniciar con el cambio individual en pequeños actos, como el ahorro energético, el manejo de desechos, la armonía en las relaciones interpersonales, se desplegó un abanico de posibilidades que emergió de las personas participantes. Los resultados y conclusiones evidencian importantes alcances y aportes que realiza la Orientación a la calidad de vida personal y social desde el contexto educativo, desde donde se convierte en una experiencia pedagógica exitosa, que puede ser homologada en otros contextos.

  8. Conocer y ser en el paradigma constructivista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Camargo Rodriguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toda teoría acerca del aprendizaje se fundamenta en una interpretación del conocimiento, la cual se encuentra, a su vez, ligada a una cierta concepción de «ser». No será posible asimilar verdaderamente cualquiera de tales teorías si se ignoran, o no se consideran con el debido detenimiento, las ideas de conocer y «ser» que le sirven de base. Sc pone de presente que el constructivismo, en contraste con la teoría transmisionista de la enseñanza y el aprendizaje, predominante en la pedagogía tradicional, tiene su fundamento en la interpretación según la cual el conocer es una actividad humana en la que, a medida quo conoce, el hombre construye el «ser». Antes de todo conocimiento, las cosas no tienen un «ser»; están ahí, pero no se sabe lo que son. El «ser», quo constituye el objeto de todo conocer, aquello que el sujeto persigue a través de su conocimiento, no toes dada de antemano, ni le viene de fuera, sino quo es una elaboración quo el mismo realiza a través de su actividad cognoscitiva, un contenido de su propia conciencia. Hay, pues, una cierta paradoja entre las ideas de conocer y «ser» que sirven de fundamento al constructivismo, cuya reflexión se propone en aras de ganar una mejor comprensión, de encontrarle a este paradigma un sentido más allá de la pedagogía y la didáctica.

  9. PERKEMBANGAN PARADIGMA EPISTEMOLOGI DALAM FILSAFAT ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathul Mufid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:    Based on historical reports, Islamic epistemology paradigm has evolved from time to time bringing different schools each other. This paper aims at revealing such differences. Methods employed are philosophical Literary Review where compiled data are analyzed inductively to formulate theoretical constructions. Research findings reveal that peripatetic philosophers highlight their mind as a dominant tool to gain knowledge using demonstrative method (burhānī.Whilst illuminative philosophers, ‘irfāniyyīn, and Sufis believe that knowledge can only be derived from mystical intuition after purification of the heart (qalb trough practices (riyā╨ah. Different schools such as ones held by Mulla Sadra and Abed al-Jabiri are based on those distinctive principles.Abstrak:      Paradigma epistemologi pemikiran Islam menurut laporan sejarah mengalami perkembangan dari zaman ke zaman, yang berbeda prinsip antara aliran yang satu dengan yang lain. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menguak letak perbedaan antara aliran-aliran tersebut. Metode kepustakaan filsafat dilakukan dengan analisa data induktif untuk merumuskan konstruksi teoritik.  Temuan penelitian ini adalah, bahwa para filosof Muslim Paripatetik mengedepankan akal atau rasio sebagai alat yang paling dominan untuk memperoleh pengetahuan yang benar dengan menggunakan metode demonstratif (burhānī. Sementara filosof iluminasi, kaum ‘irfānī, dan kaum sufi berprinsip bahwa pengetahuan hakiki hanya dapat diperoleh melalui intuisi-mistik, setelah melalui proses penyucian hati (qalb dengan berbagai bentuk latihan (riyā╨ah. Sementara epistemologi Mulla Sadra menggunakan tipe “hikmah”, yaitu pemaduan antara visi rasional dengan visi mistik, yang kemudian diselaraskan dengan syari’at. Epistemolog kontemporer, Abed al-Jabiri memilih epistemologi burhānī yang meyakini bahwa sumber pengetahuan adalah rasio, bukan teks atau intuisi.

  10. Verbal and Figural Fluency in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Does Hippocampal Sclerosis Affect Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalonis, Ioannis; Christidi, Foteini; Artemiadis, Artemios; Psarros, Constantinos; Papadopoulos, George; Tsivgoulis, George; Gatzonis, Stergios; Siatouni, Anna; Velonakis, Georgios; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Kararizou, Evangelia; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos

    2017-06-01

    Clinicians commonly use verbal and nonverbal measures to test fluency in patients with epilepsy, either during routine cognitive assessment or as part of pre- and postsurgical evaluation. We hypothesized that patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis would perform worse than patients with lateral TLE in both verbal and design fluency. We assessed semantic, phonemic, and nonverbal fluency in 49 patients with TLE: 31 with lateral TLE and 18 with mesial TLE plus hippocampal sclerosis. We also gave non-fluency cognitive measures: psychomotor speed, attentional set shifting, selective attention, abstract reasoning, verbal and visual episodic memory, and incidental memory. Patients with mesial TLE performed significantly worse on figural fluency than patients with lateral TLE. Even though group differences on verbal fluency measures were not significant, the patients with mesial TLE had a pattern of poorer performance. The patients with mesial TLE scored significantly worse on measures of selective attention, verbal episodic memory, and incidental memory. Our study underlines differences in cognitive function between patients with mesial and lateral TLE, particularly in figural fluency. Although we cannot directly assess the role of the hippocampus in cognitive aspects of creative and divergent thinking related to figural fluency, the cognitive discrepancies between these two TLE groups could be ascribed to the mesial TLE hippocampal pathology shown in our study and addressed in the literature on hippocampal involvement in divergent thinking. Our findings could benefit cognitive rehabilitation programs tailored to the needs of patients with TLE.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis in chronic kernicterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Virginia C.; Costa, Fernando; Silva, Antónia; Rosas, Maria José

    2009-01-01

    Kernicterus is an encephalopathy resulting from the cerebral deposition of unconjugated bilirubin in the neonatal period. We report a case of kernicterus where MRI demonstrated bilateral symmetric high signal intensity and volume loss in the hippocampus in addition to globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus hyperintensity onT2-weighted images. The authors believe that hippocampal sclerosis, plays a role in adding specificity to the imaging diagnosis of kernicterus. PMID:21887194

  12. Avaliação Curricular e Paradigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Jesus Maria

    2014-01-01

    O artigo começa por destrinçar a avaliação curricular da avaliação de aprendizagem dos alunos, recorrendo à circularidade do modelo tecnológico. Após discutir o conceito de paradigma, procede a um levantamento de alguns modelos de avaliação curricular, desde os situados num paradigma quantitativo, que visa a explicação das situações, na sua forma mais pura, absoluta e objetiva, não contaminada pelas percepções e concepções do avaliador, até ao paradigma qualitativo, que pretende a compreensão...

  13. Teoria feminista: o desafio de tornar-se um paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Santos Paiva

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da crise do paradigma tradicional e tendo como epicentro a crítica feminista, este trabalho tenta mostrar o desafio que enfrenta a teoria feminista para tornar-se um novo paradigma e para tanto realiza-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica, consubstanciada na literatura pertinente ao tema. Evidencia-se que o desafio de ser um paradigma em ascensão faz com que esta teoria enfrente problemas teóricos, conceituais e metodológicos que precisam de um esforço conjunto para serem aprofundados e resolvidos. Todavia, o desenvolvimento desta teoria não depende apenas do mundo acadêmico, mas está também atrelado a mudanças na estrutura social, pois, de uma sociedade mais igualitária, mais facilmente emergirá um conhecimento sem dominação de gênero.

  14. PARADIGMA UTILITARIANISTIK DALAM ISTINBÂTH HUKUM ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zayyaduz Zabidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dalam perjalanan sejarahnya, hukum Islam merupakan suatukekuatan yang dinamis dan kreatif. Dengan berlalunya waktu, iakemudian menjelma ke dalam kristalisasi madzhab-madzhabfiqh yang akhirnya mengarah pada penutupan pintu ijtihâd.Tentu saja, penutupan pintu ijtihâd ini secara logis mengarahkankepada kebutuhan taqlid. Keadaan menimbulkan kesadaranpara fuqahâ’ menuju kebutuhan akan pembukaan kembali pintuijtihâd. Dalam pada itu, muncul tiga pendekatan dalam kajiandan istinbâth hukum Islam, yaitu pendekatan tekstualis, liberalis,dan kontekstualis. Pendekatan terakhir ini, yangmengembangkan paradigma utilitarianistik, lahir sebagai akibatkegagalan tektualisme dan kesewenang-wenangan dalampenafsiran al-Qur’ân sebagaimana yang dilakukan oleh kaumliberal. Namun demikian, paradigma utilitarianistik terbagi kedalam dia bagian, yaitu utilitarianistik-literal, yangberpandangan bahwa kemaslahatan selalu ditundukkan dibawah hegemoni teks dan paradigma utilitarianistik-liberalyang memosisikan peran akal secara besar-besar dalammenentukan mashlahah.

  15. As armadilhas dos paradigmas da liderança

    OpenAIRE

    Ouimet,Gérard

    2002-01-01

    Este artigo originou-se da análise dos limites epistemológicos - e, portanto, dos perigos inerentes aos conhecimentos produzidos - no tocante à liderança. Nossas reflexões permitiram estabelecer uma classificação original de diferentes tipos de estudos relativos à liderança. Esses tipos de estudo caracterizam-se por pertencer a um paradigma, que é a concepção de liderança. Em nossa pesquisa, foram identificados quatro paradigmas relacionados à liderança: racionalista, empírico, sensacionista ...

  16. Aplicación del paradigma de calidad de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Seminario de actualización metodológica en investigación sobre discapacidad Said (7º, 2010, Salamanca)

    2010-01-01

    [ES]El libro está compuesto por nueve capítulos en los que se desgranan los primeros resultados de las investigaciones que se están llevando a cabo en el proyecto "Aplicación del paradigma de calidad de vida a la intervención con personas con discapacidad desde una perspectiva integral", financiado por la Junta de Castilla y León al Grupo de Investigación de Excelencia GR197, que dirige Miguel Ángel Verdugo. En él se abordan temas relacionados con el cambio y la aplicación del paradigma de...

  17. Temporal lobe epilepsy semiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert D G

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  18. A mudança de paradigma em sociologia urbana: do paradigma ecológico ao socioespacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pizzolatto Konzen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2178-4582.2011v45n1p79 O artigo discute a mudança do paradigma ecológico ao socioespacial na so ciologia urbana, ocorrida nos países centrais do capitalismo ao longo das décadas de 1970 e 1980. Os dois paradigmas são descritos em suas feições principais, ao que se segue uma análise específica das obras dos três autores que lideraram a mudança de paradigma: Henri Lefebvre, Manuel Castells e David Harvey. A análise referencia-se teoricamente na contribuição de Thomas Kuhn à sociologia do conhecimento.

  19. Mesial frontal epilepsy and ictal body turning along the horizontal body axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Howan; Schindler, Kaspar; Clusmann, Hans; Bien, Christian G; Pöpel, Annkathrin; Schramm, Johannes; Kwan, Patrick; Wong, Lawrence K S; Elger, Christian E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of mesial frontal semiology. Retrospective case series. Tertiary epilepsy referral center. Part 1 of the study involved 152 patients who underwent frontal lobe surgery. Part 2 involved 253 patients who underwent non-frontal lobe surgery. Inclusion criteria for both parts of the study were seizure localization by analysis of resection margins (mesial frontal, lateral frontal, orbitofrontal, nonfrontal) or intracranial exploration and an Engel class I outcome. In part 1, 84 patients had their habitual seizures analyzed by video encephalography using a semiology checklist of 47 items during the early phase (electrographic onset to 10 seconds) and late phase (rest of episode). Localization semiology was analyzed by chi(2) test with Bonferroni correction and cluster analysis when occurrence exceeded 10% in at least 1 region. In part 2, 144 patients had their habitual seizures screened with mesial frontal semiology from the first part of study during the early phase only. In part 1 of the study, the statistically significant localizing semiology for the mesial frontal region in the early phase was ictal body turning along the horizontal axis (57% of patients), crawling (57% of patients), restlessness (64.3% of patients), facial expressions of anxiety (42.9% of patients) and fear (35.7% of patients), grimacing produced by bilateral facial contraction (42.9% of patients), barking (32.1% of patients), head shaking (25% of patients), and pelvic raising (25% of patients) (all Psemiology with physiological movement are not only prevalent semiology items of mesial frontal lobe epilepsy but they distinguish mesial frontal from lateral frontal and orbitofrontal seizures.

  20. Semiology of temporal lobe epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Khalil, Bassel W

    2003-07-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE) represent the majority of the partial symptomatic/cryptogenic epilepsies. Excellent results of epilepsy surgery in well-selected patients have encouraged a search for localizing and lateralizing signs that could assist in the identification of the best surgical candidates. Seizure types in TLE include simple partial, complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures. Temporal lobe seizures most often arise in the amygdalo-hippocampal region. More than 90% of patients with mesial TLE report an aura, most commonly an epigastric sensation that often has a rising character. Other autonomic symptoms, psychic symptoms, and certain sensory phenomena (such as olfactory) also occur. The complex partial seizures of mesial TLE often involve motor arrest, oroalimentary automatisms or non-specific extremity automatisms at onset. Ictal manifestations that have lateralizing value include dystonic posturing (contralateral), early head turning (usually ipsilateral), and adversive head turning in transition to generalization (contralateral). Well-formed ictal language favors right temporal localization. Ictal vomiting, spitting, and drinking tend to be right sided. The duration of TLE complex partial seizures is generally greater than one minute and postictal confusion usually occurs. When postictal aphasia is noted a left-sided lateralization is favored. A lateral temporal onset is less common in TLE, and is most often suggested by an auditory aura. Somatosensory and visual auras are highly unlikely with TLE, and suggest neocortical extratemporal localization. A cephalic aura is non-specific, but is more common in frontal lobe epilepsy.

  1. Õppiv organisatsioon ja juhtimise uus paradigma / Harry Roots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roots, Harry, 1950-2010

    2004-01-01

    Juhtimise uus paradigma tähendab varasemaga võrreldes märgatavalt soodsama õpikeskkonna loomist. Nii nagu igapäevane juhtimispraktika kujundab organisatsioonis domineerivat kultuuritüüpi, samamoodi see ka kas soodustab või tõkestab õppiva organisatsiooni kujunemist, leiab autor. Tabelid. Skeemid

  2. [Evaluation of mesial displacement of mandibular complete dentures with long-centric occlusal pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-yu; Xu, Jun

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate whether the mesial displacement of the mandibular complete dentures with long-centric occlusal pattern could meet the long centric of edentulous patients and to verify the design theory of the long-centric occlusal pattern of complete dentures. Complete dentures with three different occlusal patterns were made for each of 10 edentulous patients. Gothic arch tracing apparatus was used to record the long centric of edentulous patients. Three-dimensional measuring apparatus was used to measure the mesial displacement of mandibular dentures with three occlusal patterns. Comparison of the mesial displacement of three occlusal pattern dentures was made each other and with the long centric of the patients respectively. The mean of long centric was (1.02 +/- 0.36) mm. The means of mesial displacement of mandibular complete dentures were as follows: the long-centric occlusal pattern dentures (1.016 +/- 0.348) mm, the linear occlusal dentures (1.092 +/- 0.448) mm, the anatomic occlusal dentures (0.409 +/- 0.253) mm. The mandibular complete dentures with long-centric occlusal pattern can meet the physiological requirement for the long centric of edentulous patients and achieve a free slide from the centric relation position to the muscular contact position of the mandible.

  3. La Persona como Eje Fundamental del Paradigma Humanista

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    Monserrat Georgina Aizpuru Cruces

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Para el desarrollo de una educación humanista es necesario centrar el paradigma pedagógico en la persona y que ésta sea concebida de una manera integral, como una totalidad. En este paradigma se desenvuelven aprendizajes significativos vivenciales, partiendo de la experiencia misma del educando, utilizando métodos activos de aprendizaje y conceptualizando a la educación como una experiencia creadora. Así mismo, es indispensable que existan programas flexibles, multi y transdisciplinarios. Por otra parte, la autoevaluación es un proceso reflexivo permanente que puede trasladarse a todos los aspectos de su vida y no sólo quedarse en el aula. Por último, los valores más importantes que promueve el modelo son el respeto, la tolerancia, la libertad, todos ellos básicos para la convivencia humana.

  4. Propuestas para el nuevo paradigma educativo de la historia

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    Carlos Barros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Barros defiende la necesidad de un nuevo paradigma educativo de la historia en alianza con el nuevo paradigma historiográfico propuesto por la red internacional Historia a Debate, basado simultáneamente en tres ejes: 1 una educación en competencias, en el manejo de las fuentes históricas desde la enseñanza secundaria, y ajena por tanto al mercantilismo propagado de manera fundamentalista por la OCDE y otras instituciones internacionales; 2 una educación en valores universales desde la historia; 3 una educación crítica y plural de las historias nacionales y mundial. Reflexiones y propuestas que tienen en cuenta los debates en marcha sobre la unificación del espacio europeo de la educación superior.

  5. Three Independent Mesial Canals in a Mandibular Molar: Four-Year Followup of a Case Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

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    Adrianne Freire de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment of mandibular molars is challenging because of variable root canal morphology. The nonsurgical endodontic management of a mandibular first molar presenting an independent middle mesial canal is reported. After coronal access, additional clinical inspection of the mesial canals’ orifices and their interconnecting groove using an endodontic explorer and 4.5× loupes enabled the identification of the middle mesial canal orifice. All root canals were chemomechanically prepared and filled. The tooth was asymptomatic and functional after 4 years of followup. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images revealed normal periapical status and three-dimensional (3D anatomical aspects of the root canal system.

  6. Temporal lobe epilepsy and cavernous malformations: surgical strategies and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Fernando L; Vivas, Andrew C; Manwaring, Jotham; Schoenberg, Mike R; Benbadis, Selim R

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) of the temporal lobe often present with seizures. Surgical resection of these lesions can offer durable seizure control. There is, however, no universally accepted methodology for assessing and surgically treating these patients. We propose an algorithm to maximize positive surgical outcomes (seizure control) while minimizing post-surgical neurological deficit. A retrospective review of 34 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery for radiographically proven temporal lobe CCM was conducted. Patients underwent a relatively standard work-up for seizure localization. In patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), a complete resection of the epileptogenic zone was performed including amygdalo-hippocampectomy in addition to a lesionectomy if not contraindicated by pre-operative work-up. Patients with neocortical epilepsy underwent intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG)-guided lesionectomy. Seizure-free rate for mesial and neocortical (anterior, lateral, and basal) location was 90 vs. 83 %, respectively. Complete resection of the lesion, irrespective of location, was statistically significant for seizure control (p = 0.018). There was no difference in seizure control based on disease duration or location (p > 0.05). Patients with mesial temporal CCM who presented with MTLE were presumed to also have mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), or dual pathology. These patients underwent routine resection of the mesial structures. Interestingly, patients who had MTLE and basal (neocortical) lesions who underwent a mesial resection for suspected MTS were found not to have dual pathology. Patients with temporal lobe CCM should be offered resection for durable seizure control, prevention of secondary epileptogenic foci, and elimination of hemorrhage risk. The preoperative work-up should follow a team approach. Surgical intervention should include complete lesionectomy in all cases. Intra or extra-operative ECoG for neocortical

  7. Thalamic glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy measured with 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N; Leenders, KL; Hajek, M; Maguire, P; Missimer, J; Wieser, HG

    1997-01-01

    Thalamic glucose metabolism has been studied in 24 patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using interictal F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). A total of 17 patients had a unilateral TL seizure onset, 11 of these patients had a mesial temporal lobe

  8. Evaluation of the anatomical alterations of lower molars mesial root?s apical third

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRÖNER Izabel Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical apex of the mesial root of the lower molars presents a morphological complexity related to the number and shape of the root canals as well as of the apical foramen and isthmus presence. The knowledge of the complexity of the endodontic system of the molar root area is essencial to select more carefully the best instrumentation and obturation technique, to obtain a more successful endodontic therapy.

  9. Independent and Confluent Middle Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular First Molars: A Report of Four Cases

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    Mohanavelu Deepalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable variations with respect to number of roots and root canals. The possibility of additional root canals should be considered even in teeth with a low frequency of abnormal root canal anatomy. This paper discusses the endodontic management of the rare anatomical complexity middle mesial canals in mandibular first molar and also serves to remind the clinicians that such anatomical variations should be taken into account during the endodontic treatment of the mandibular molars.

  10. Prevalence of middle mesial canals in mandibular molars after guided troughing under high magnification: an in vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Adham A; Deutsch, Allan S; Solomon, Charles S

    2015-02-01

    A limited number of in vivo studies have discussed the prevalence of middle mesial canals in root canal systems of mandibular molars. The reported results have varied between 1% and 25%, with no detailed description of the depth and direction of troughing needed to identify such small canal orifices. The objective of the present study was to determine (1) the prevalence of a middle mesial canal before and after troughing by using a standardized troughing technique, (2) the pathway of the middle mesial canal in relation to the mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) canals, and (3) its correlation with the patient's age. Ninety-one mandibular molars from 87 patients were included in this study. The patient's age and tooth number were recorded. After access cavity preparation, a standardized troughing technique was performed between MB and ML canals to search for a middle mesial canal by using a dental operating microscope. If a middle mesial canal was located, it was recorded as separate or as joining the MB or the ML canals. Results were statistically analyzed by using Z test and logistic regression. A middle mesial canal was found in 42 of 91 mandibular molars (46.2%). Six middle mesial canals were located after conventional access preparation (6.6%). The other 36 were located after standardized troughing (39.6%). The results were statistically significant (P magnification, troughing, and patient's age appeared to be determining factors in accessing the middle mesial canal. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A inclusão na perspectiva do novo paradigma da ciência

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    Reinoldo Marqueza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo aborda o processo de transição paradigmática da ciência moderna para a ciência pós-moderna. Salienta as características do paradigma atual, a crise desse paradigma e aponta os contornos do paradigma emergente na perspectiva do sociólogo Boaventura Sousa Santos. Refere a Educação Inclusiva como um novo processo de produção e de apropriação do conhecimento e como uma nova forma de estar na relação.Palavras-chave: Paradigma. Conhecimento. Educação Inclusiva.

  12. Secondary bilateral synchrony due to fronto-mesial lesions: an invasive recording study

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    CUKIERT ARTHUR

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontal lobe epilepsies may present difficulties in focus localization in the pre-operative work-up for epilepsy surgery. This is specially true in patients with normal MRIs. We report on a 16 years-old girl that started with seizures by the age of 8 years. They were brief nocturnal episodes with automatisms such as bicycling and boxing. Seizure frequency ranged from 4-10 per night. Scalp EEG showed few right frontal convexity spiking and intense secondary bilateral syncrhony (SBS. High resolution MRI directed to the frontal lobes was normal. Ictal SPECT suggested a right fronto-lateral focus. Ictal video-EEG showed no focal onset. She was submitted to invasive recordings after subdural plates implantation. Electrodes covered all the frontal convexity and mesial surface bilaterally. Ictal recordings disclosed stereotyped seizures starting from the right mesial frontal. Using a high-resolution tool to measure intra and interhemispheric latencies, the timing and direction of seizure spread from the right fronto-mesial region were studied. Motor strip mapping was performed by means of electrical stimulation. She was submitted to a right frontal lobe resection, 1.5 cm ahead of the motor strip and has been seizure free since surgery (8 months. Pathological examination found a 4 mm area of cortical dysplasia. Invasive studies are needed to allow adequate localization in patients with non-localizatory non-invasive work-up and may lead to excellent results in relation to seizures after surgery.

  13. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy after Refractory Status Epilepticus: An Illustrative Case and Review of the Literature

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    J. Gordon Boyd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE is a relatively newly defined disease entity, where otherwise healthy individuals develop unrelenting seizures that do not respond to conventional anticonvulsant therapy and may require months of therapy with anesthetic drugs. We have described a case of NORSE who subsequently developed mesial temporal lobe sclerosis (MTS and recurrent temporal lobe seizures. We discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms by which refractory seizures may contribute to the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE.

  14. I conflitti multiculturali e il diritto: un paradigma teorico

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    Carlotta Caldiroli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tra quelli che la letteratura in argomento chiama “conflitti multiculturali” ve ne sono alcuni il cui studio non può prescindere da una dimensione giuridica: si tratta dei cosiddetti “reati culturalmente motivati” e dei “diritti culturali”. Nel presente articolo non si prenderanno in considerazione le molteplici questioni sollevate dai due concetti nella filosofia politica e nella riflessione giuridica; l’analisi condotta riguarderà, piuttosto, una loro definizione minima. Appurato quali fenomeni si è soliti indicare come conflitti multiculturali con imprescindibili ripercussioni legali, ci si chiederà, infatti, cosa essi siano. Per rispondere, si proporrà un paradigma teorico all’interno del quale possano essere sussunte le diverse occorrenze tanto dei “reati culturalmente motivati” quanto dei “diritti culturali”; il paradigma è valido nell’alveo della tradizione liberale, alla quale mostrano di aderire gli stati interessati dai conflitti. Questi ultimi si configurano come situazioni in cui i soggetti coinvolti ritengono di non poter operare la distinzione, apparentemente non problematica, tra il conformare il proprio comportamento a quanto prescrivono le norme giuridiche e l’aderire alle valutazioni che in esse trovano riscontro e/o il derogare alle valutazioni della propria cultura di origine. Nel paragrafo conclusivo, infine, si accennerà al tema della risoluzione dei conflitti multiculturali; senza entrare nel merito dei diversi espedienti tecnici utilizzati per risolvere i singoli casi, si segnaleranno, sempre muovendo dal paradigma delineato, almeno due argomentazioni in base alle quali uno stato liberale può legittimamente respingere l’argomento culturale in sede giuridica.

  15. Paradigmas de la salud colectiva: breve reflexión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Duarte Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la posibilidad de aplicar el concepto de paradigma ku- hniano a la salud colectiva. Revisa brevemente el concepto, así como su uso en la epidemiología, en la planificación y en las ciencias sociales. Destaca el carácter multipa- radigmático de la salud colectiva, resultado del encuentro de múltiples epistemologías y que involucra campos tan diversos como las ciencias biológicas, la filosofía y las ciencias sociales y las humanidades.

  16. Educación Popular y Paradigmas Emancipadores

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Torres Carrillo

    2012-01-01

    El artículo sintetiza el estudio documental realizado por el autor a solicitud del Consejo de Educación de Adultos de América Latina (CEAAL), acerca de la contribución de la Educación Popular (EP) en la construcción de paradigmas alternativos. Luego de un balance de la reciente producción bibliográfica sobre el tema, el autor propone las fuentes desde las cuales se puede contribuir desde la EP a la reconstrucción del pensamiento crítico emancipador desde América Latina. Además, pl...

  17. Perirhinal cortex and temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eBiagini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The perirhinal cortex – which is interconnected with several limbic structures and is intimately involved in learning and memory - plays major roles in pathological processes such as the kindling phenomenon of epileptogenesis and the spread of limbic seizures. Both features may be relevant to the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that represents the most refractory adult form of epilepsy with up to 30% of patients not achieving adequate seizure control. Compared to other limbic structures such as the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex, the perirhinal area remains understudied and, in particular, detailed information on its dysfunctional characteristics remains scarce; this lack of information may be due to the fact that the perirhinal cortex is not grossly damaged in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in models mimicking this epileptic disorder. However, we have recently identified in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats the presence of selective losses of interneuron subtypes along with increased synaptic excitability. In this review we: (i highlight the fundamental electrophysiological properties of perirhinal cortex neurons; (ii briefly stress the mechanisms underlying epileptiform synchronization in perirhinal cortex networks following epileptogenic pharmacological manipulations; and (iii focus on the changes in neuronal excitability and cytoarchitecture of the perirhinal cortex occurring in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Overall, these data indicate that perirhinal cortex networks are hyperexcitable in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that this condition is associated with a selective cellular damage that is characterized by an age-dependent sensitivity of interneurons to precipitating injuries, such as status epilepticus.

  18. EL NUEVO PARADIGMA EMPRESARIAL: El Esquema de Redes

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    Ignasi Brunet Icart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Hoy las organizaciones están cambiando drásticamente y adoptando nuevas formas de operación. Detrás de este fenómeno hay un compromiso con el rendimiento y con la creación de valores, que ha alterado profundamente la economía y la vida cotidiana. El principio de creación de valor estimula la tendencia de reemplazar la actual organización piramidal por un esquema de redes. El problema de fondo es cómo optimizar los recursos disponibles, y ello puede lograrse mediante un nuevo paradigma gerencial con redes de firmas interrelacionadas que maximizan la coordinación, la obtención de economías de escala y la explotación de sinergias. El objetivo de este artículo es describir este paradigma emergente que impone contar con estructuras flexibles que permitan la readaptación de las organizaciones. Por otra parte, la conclusión a que llegamos es que la generalización de los esquemas de redes explica que las sociedades avanzadas se articulan, cada vez más, en base a una lógica conexionista.

  19. Logística del siglo XXI, rompiendo paradigmas

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    Nolán Sánchez Tovar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos 200 años, el país ha sufrido grandes cambios en todos los ámbitos, lo cual le ha generado un posicionamiento estratégico a todos los sectores productivos, haciéndolos mucho más competitivos y dinámicos. Estos avances se han logrado gracias al cambio de paradigmas, propiciado por quienes han impulsado estos negocios, desde mediados del siglo XX, con la aparición del término Logística1 y el reconocimiento de las necesidades del cliente, procurando una mayor fidelizacion y al mismo tiempo una reducción de sus costos de operación y maximizando las utilidades. Para cumplir con esta nueva misión, es indispensable apropiarse de los cambios tecnológicos que se están produciendo, rompiendo el paradigma de hábitos tradicionales. El gran reto es comenzar por cambiar la mentalidad empresarial de sus equipos.

  20. Civilização e cultura: paradigmas da nacionalidade

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    Regina Maria Monteiro

    Full Text Available O pensamento republicano paulista, analisado neste artigo sob o aspecto da educação escolar necessária à constituição do Estado Nacional no Brasil do final do século XIX, elegeu como base fundamental para a formação do cidadão a disseminação de valores morais cujos vértices centravam-se nas categorias civilização e cultura como forma de assimilação de um ethos liberal que levaria o país ao nível de desenvolvimento da sociedade européia. Essas categorias seriam os paradigmas pelos quais se estabeleceria a identificação do indivíduo comocidadão apto a participar do Estado e portanto a constituir a nação. A veiculação desse ethos liberal, por meio dos paradigmas civilização e cultura, seria, portanto, o papel reservado à formação escolar primária, segundo os expoentes do pensamento republicano paulista entre 1870 e 1889.

  1. Norma agama Nasrani dalam paradigma usul fiqh inklusif

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    Moh Dahlan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the historical roots of the legal norms (religion Islam is built by the Prophet Muhammad and also explore the norms of Christianity which became an integral part of the legal sources of usul fiqh inclusive paradigm. The theoretical framework of this study is to use blending approach the horizon (fushion of horizons in the hermeneutics of Hans George Gadamer and shar’ man qablana theory. The results show that there is continuity of the norms of Christianity in the development discourse of Islamic law/jurisprudence, so that the norms of the Christian religion can be a source of usul fiqh paradigm inclusive. The character of legal norms/Islam which has the accommo- dative properties -in addition to corrective attitude towards ancient religions norms - be a strong indicator continuity. In this continuity, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Muhammad Abduh, Rashid Ridla, Nurcholish Madjid and Shihab acknowledge the continuity of Christianity norms in the development of legal discourse such a ban “alcohol”, the command “fasting” and “ do good to others”. In the context of pluralism in Indonesia, usul fiqh iklusif paradigm is necessary to build an inclusive legal discourse-dynamic.   Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mendalami akar sejarah norma hukum (agama Islam yang dibangun oleh Nabi Muhammad Saw.. dan juga mendalami norma agama Nasrani yang menjadi bagian integral dari sumber hukum paradigma usul fikih inklusif. Adapun kerangka teori kajian ini adalah menggunakan pendekatan pembauran cakrawala (fusion of horizons dalam hermeneutika Hans George Gadamer dan teori shar’ man qablana. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa ada kontinuitas norma-norma agama Nasrani dalam pembangunan wacana hukum Islam/ fiqh, sehingga norma-norma agama Nasrani dapat menjadi sumber dalam paradigma usul fiqh inklusif. Karakter norma hukum/ agama Islam yang memiliki sifat akomodatif –di samping sikap korektif terhadap

  2. Temporal interactions between target and distractor processing: Positive and negative priming effects

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    María Isabel Barriopedro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interacciones Temporales entre el Procesamiento del Blanco y los Distractores: Efectos de Priming Positivo y Negativo. El paradigma de los flancos y el paradigma con presentaciones de preparación/prueba (prime/probe para el estudio del priming positivo y negativo se basan en la compatibilidad entre información relevante e irrelevante presente en los mismos estímulos o en estímulos que son temporal o espacialmente contiguos. En el paradigma de los flancos se presentan distractores a la vez que el blanco que pueden mejorar el rendimiento sin son flancos compatibles y empeorarlo si son incompatibles. En el paradigma de priming los distractores pueden facilitar o interferir con respuestas a blancos compatibles que se presentan posteriormente. En los experimentos que se describen aquí hemos conseguido una transición gradual entre estos dos paradigmas, mediante el uso del procedimiento de Presentación Rápida de Series Visuales (PRSV, manipulando la compatibilidad del distractor y el desfase temporal entre los distractores y el blanco. Con SOAs cortos los distractores compatibles facilitan y los incompatibles interfieren; pero con SOAs en torno a 400 mseg. el rendimiento es peor con distractores compatibles que con incompatibles. Se han obtenido resultados similares tanto con paradigmas en los que los participantes deben responder al estímulo que produce el efecto (es un blanco como con paradigmas en los que no tienen que responder a él (es un distractor. Los presentes resultados implican importantes limitaciones en las explicaciones teóricas tanto del efecto de compatibilidad de los flancos como de la dinámica temporal del priming positivo y negativo.

  3. Localisation of main and ancillary foramina within the mesial and distal roots of the first lower molars

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    Jovanović-Medojević Milica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Understanding the morphology of the root canal system, and especially its apical third, represents the basic precondition for the successful treatment of diseased pulp and the apical endodontium. Aim. The aim of this study was to precisely locate the main and ancillary foramina in the mesial and distal first lower molars. Method. One hundred extracted first lower molars, originating from persons of both sexes and three different age groups, were used in the study. Results. The analysis of the sampled molars’ apical third was carried out using a binocular magnifier and a digital X-ray scanner (Trophy. The results showed that the main mesial and distal root foramina were located mostly on the distal surface. The ancillary mesial and distal root foramina were located at the lingual end, in most cases. Statistical analysis demonstrated the congruence of results achieved using the binocular magnifier and digital x-ray in 100% of cases if the main foramen is located on the very top of the mesial root (χ2 =17.23; p<0.001, and in 92.9% of cases if the main foramen is localised on the very top of the distal root of the first lower molar (χ2 =12.07; p<0.001. Conclusion. The most common localisation of the main foramina for all age categories and in both mesial and distal roots is on the distal surface of the root. The greatest number of ancillary foramina was observed in the youngest age category, while they were localised most often on the lingual side of the mesial and distal root.

  4. Mesial and distal alveolar bone morphology in maxillary canines moved into the grafted alveolar cleft: Computed tomography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Daniela; Massaro, Camila; Yatabe, Marilia; Janson, Guilherme; Lauris, José Roberto P

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to qualitatively assess the mesial and distal alveolar bone of maxillary canines mesially moved to replace absent lateral incisors in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate after secondary alveolar bone graft and to assess the reproducibility of the proposed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) method. The sample comprised CBCT examinations of 30 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate from 1 center. CBCT images were taken at least 6 months after comprehensive orthodontic treatment. The noncleft side was used as the control group. Using axial sections, scores from 0 to 4 (bone absence to complete bone filling, respectively) were given to the mesial and distal alveolar bones of the maxillary canines. Interexaminer and intraexaminer reproducibility was assessed using kappa statistics. Intergroup comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon tests. Interexaminer and intraexaminer agreement was excellent. Intergroup comparison identified smaller scores at the cervical and middle root levels of the cleft side mesial alveolar bone of the maxillary canines. At the cleft side, 85 mesial sites showed favorable scores (3 or 4); 1 had a score of 1, and 4 had scores of 2. At the distal surface, 78 sites were evaluated, and only 1 site received a score of 1. The noncleft side had scores of 4 for all sites. The new CBCT scale showed good reproducibility. CBCT axial sections are reliable for a qualitative appraisal of alveolar bone in a grafted alveolar cleft. Mesial bone defects can be observed in maxillary canines moved into grafted areas after comprehensive orthodontic treatment, especially at the cervical root half. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CONECTIVISMO, ¿UN NUEVO PARADIGMA EN LA EDUCACION ACTUAL?

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    Liana Carolina Ovalles Pabon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este proyecto es producto de una reflexión crítica y estructurada por la inminente presencia en la cotidianidad de mecanismos tecnológicos que directa o indirectamente están presentes en los actos pedagógicos, surge la necesidad de entender la forma como está estructurando el pensamiento de los estudiantes y desde el accionar docente, cómo se puede beneficiar el accionar docente y pedagógico de ésta nueva tendencia que gira entorno a la tecnología que permite la conectividad; la educación no puede ser agena a las tendencias y actualizaciones del mundo, por esta razón se crea el paradigma de la educación actual en base al conectivismo.

  6. El nuevo paradigma arqueológico-bíblico

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    José Maria Vigil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Después de una época clásica de esplendor en la primera mitad del siglo pasado, la arqueología interesada por la investigación sobre el judeocristianismo se ha transformado profundamente, hablándose, con diferentes enfoques, de una Nueva Arqueología. El autor llama nuevo paradigma arqueológico, figuradamente, al conjunto tanto de esos nuevos enfoques como de los llamativos hallazgos arqueológicos encontrados, que desafían fuertemente la historicidad de hechos y de figuras bíblicas importantes, así como de la historia misma de los pueblos que han habitado secularmente la tierra palestina-israelí. La presentación de estos hallazgos hace hincapié especial en lo que llama «el relato detrás del relato», las vivencias histórico-existenciales del pueblo que elaboró los relatos y tradiciones tanto del Primero como del Segundo Testamento, deteniéndose concretamente en explicitar lo que está en juego en la aceptación de este desafío de la nueva arqueología. En la parte final el autor esboza pistas de reflexión, desde la perspectiva de las ciencias de la religión, acerca del profundo y múltiple replanteamiento múltiple al que este nuevo paradigma arqueológico parece invitar.

  7. O paradigma junguiano no contexto da metodologia qualitativa de pesquisa

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    Eloisa M. D. Penna

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute o paradigma junguiano e suas interfaces com a metodologia qualitativa de pesquisa e a ciência pós-moderna. Primeiramente, são delineados os pressupostos básicos da ciência moderna e sua evolução para a concepção atual de ciência pós-moderna. São apresentadas as raízes filosóficas e epistemológicas do pensamento de C. G. Jung e as principais características do método qualitativo, com a finalidade de contextualizar o método junguiano de investigação da psique no panorama da pesquisa qualitativa. A Psicologia Analítica de C. G.Jung é apresentada a partir do conceito atual de paradigma, que compreende três elementos fundamentais &– ontologia, epistemologia e metodologia &–, articulados de forma consistente e coerente. Assim, o método é necessariamente resultante da ontologia e da epistemologia. Dessa forma, a partir das noções de totalidade, consciente e inconsciente coletivo e pessoal, o conhecimento decorre da possibilidade de acesso ao inconsciente pela via do símbolo. O método de investigação psicológica se dá pela apreensão dos símbolos e sua compreensão, que resulta do processamento simbólico realizado pelo pesquisador.

  8. Paradigmas escolares vigentes : influjos en el sistema educativo español

    OpenAIRE

    José Penalva Buitrago

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un estudio de los paradigmas escolares vigentes. Dentro de la extensión bibliográfica relativa a este tema, el autor sintetiza las tendencias dominantes sobre el modelo de escuela en torno a cuatro paradigmas: i) el paradigma de la eficacia, ii) de la organización compleja, iii) de la cultura contra-hegemónica, y iv) de la creación de significados compartidos. Al final, se presta atención al modelo de escuela del sistema educativo español, reseñando las influencias que ...

  9. Novas possibilidades metodológicas: a quebra dos paradigmas qualitativo e quantitativo em psicologia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edna Maria Peters Kahhale; Elisa Maria Barbosa Esper

    2014-01-01

    O presente relato propõe uma metodologia materialista dialética de análise de dados que rompe com os paradigmas qualitativos e quantitativos, numa perspectiva transdisciplinar e complexa, tomando como categorias...

  10. Mas alla del paradigma de la alfabetizacion. La adquisicion de cultura cientifica como reto educativo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diaz, Irene; Garcia, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    ...). Dicha aproximacion ha modificado significativamente la concepcion de la ciencia y la tecnologia, aunque el paradigma educativo en la ensenanza cientifico-tecnologica continua manejando el modelo positivista anterior...

  11. El periodismo de paz como paradigma de comunicacion para el cambio social: caracteristicas, dimensiones y obstaculos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Espinar Ruiz, Eva; Isabel Hernandez Sanchez, Maria

    2012-01-01

    El periodismo de paz constituye un paradigma orientado al cambio social cuyo principal objetivo es dotar a los profesionales de la comunicacion de herramientas analiticas y practicas que les permitan...

  12. Brief asymmetric tonic posturing with diffuse low-voltage fast activity in seizures arising from the mesial parietal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saad A; Carney, Patrick W; Archer, John S

    2014-12-01

    Seizures originating from the parietal lobe can demonstrate variable semiology. Our aim was to describe the electroclinical features of seizures originating from the mesial parietal lobe. We identified four patients through the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at our institution, who had strong evidence of a mesial parietal source for their epilepsy, including a mesial parietal structural lesion. Patients had very frequent brief seizures despite anticonvulsants, each lasting 10-30s, with rapid return of awareness post-event. Clinically attacks were bland, or showed asymmetric tonic posturing, often with partially preserved awareness. Ictal EEG showed diffuse low voltage fast activity. Seizures arising from the precuneus, in the mesial parietal lobe, appear to have a recognizable electroclinical phenotype. Although the clinical and EEG features might have been considered 'non-localizing', there is a striking similarity across patients. The precuneus is a key component of the default mode network (DMN), important for internal reflective thinking. Deactivation of this region has been found to be a prominent feature of generalized spike and wave epileptiform activity. The seizure semiology of these patients presumably reflects activation of this region, and ictal propagation along intrinsically connected components of the DMN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Minorías sexuales: sobre el paradigma de la Tolerancia y el paradigma de la Ciudadanía Plena

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kantor

    2011-01-01

    Proponemos dos formas paradigmáticas de concebir los derechos de las minorías sexuales en un marco jurídico-político y social general. El primer paradigma es una mirada a través del prisma de la "Tolerancia", el segundo desde la perspectiva de la "Ciudadanía Plena". Hemos deducido las características de ambos paradigmas a partir de proyectos de leyes, leyes y casos jurisprudenciales referentes al "Derecho de Asociación" y al "Derecho al Matrimonio entre Personas del Mismo Sexo". Revisamos el ...

  14. Relationship between remnant hippocampus and amygdala and memory outcomes after stereotactic surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíková, H.; Krámská, L.; Vojtěch, Z.; Šroubek, J.; Lukavský, Jiří; Liščák, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 11 (2015), s. 2927-2933 ISSN 1178-2021 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : amygdalohippocampectomy * thermocoagulation * MRI * volumetry * neuro­psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2015

  15. Acute diffusion abnormalities in the hippocampus of children with new-onset seizures: the development of mesial temporal sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C. Besta, Milan (Italy); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Bergqvist, C.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Haselgrove, J.; Hunter, J.V.; Bilaniuk, L.T. [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States)

    2004-04-01

    We studied the role of early diffusion-weighted imaging DWI in the investigation of children with new-onset prolonged seizures which eventually result in unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). We carried out MRI on five children aged 17 months to 7 years including conventional and diffusion-weighted sequences. We calculated apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) for the affected and the normal opposite hippocampus. Follow-up examinations were performed, including DWI and ADC measurements in four. We studied four children within 3 days of the onset of prolonged psychomotor seizures and showed increased signal on T2-weighted images, and DWI, indicating restricted diffusion, throughout the affected hippocampus. The ADC were reduced by a mean of 14.4% in the head and by 15% in the body of the hippocampus. In one child examined 15 days after the onset of seizures, the ADC were the same on both sides. All five patients showed hippocampal atrophy on follow-up 2-18 months later. In the four patients in whom ADC were obtained on follow-up, they were increased by 19% in the head and 17% in the body. DWI may represent a useful adjunct to conventional MRI for identifying acute injury to the hippocampus which results in sclerosis. (orig.)

  16. Characterization of the Gene Expression Profile of Human Hippocampus in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Lachos

    2011-01-01

    At the level of MDT, a significant up-regulation was found for ABCB1 (P-gp, ABCB2, ABCB3, and ABCB4, which was mainly related to endothelial cells. The data on the MDT were validated and extended by quantitative RT-PCR. Surprisingly, inflammatory factors such as interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-18 and cytokines (TNF-α and TGF-β1 were found to be up-regulated in hippocampal parenchyma. The overexpression of P-gp, IL-1β, and IL-6 was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Our results suggest that complex expression changes of ABC-transporters may play a decisive role in pharmacoresistance in MTLE. Further studies on the new and unexpected overexpression of inflammatory cytokines may unlock hitherto undiscovered pathways of the underlying pathophysiology of human MTLE.

  17. PRINCIPIOS DEL PARADIGMA CUANTITATIVO EN LA INVESTIGACIÓN EDUCATIVA

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    Wálter Salazar Rojas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute las bases históricas y filosóficas del paradigma cuantitativo en la investigación educativa. Se analiza el concepto numérico de la realidad en el marco de la filosofía griega tomando como referencia a Pitágoras y Platón. Posteriormente, se discute elconcepto de ciencia e investigación científica. Se define la variable, la taxonomía y los niveles de medición.Siguiendo los lineamientos de Campbell y Stanley se analizan los conceptos del diseño experimental, de validez interna y externa, las amenazas que diversos factores le plantean a las mismas, y cuáles son los elementos de control que el método científico y los diseños de investigación tienen para contrarrestar estas amenazas: aleatorización, pretest y grupo control. Finalmente se presenta uno de los avances más relevantes de la metodología cuantitativa como es el meta-análisis, técnica para resumir y analizar resultados de grupos de investigaciones. Se enumeran sus características y los pasos que hay que realizar para completar un meta-análisis.

  18. Oficio de historiador, ¿nuevo paradigma o positivismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Balance sobre las tendencias y los debates actuales e internacionales, desde una óptica trasatlántica y latina, sobre el método, la historiografía, la teoría y la relación con la sociedad de los historiadores del siglo XXI.   Partiendo del preámbulo y  las posiciones del Manifiesto de Historia a Debate (2001, y recogiendo los  últimos debates de HAD en las redes sociales, analizamos la polarización historiográfica, entre los partidarios de nuevos paradigmas que no hacemos tabla rasa de las vanguardias del siglo XX, y los partidarios de un retorno al positivismo, aguijoneados por el posmodernismo radical. Repliegue historiográfico  que estudiamos a través de frases, prácticas  y lugares comunes, dichos y hechos  dentro y fuera de aulas y despachos. Datos de tipo digital y oral que vienen manifestando, en cuanto al regreso de Ranke, una gran homogeneidad y transversalidad entre las diferentes especialidades, universidades y países.

  19. Psicodiagnóstico tradicional e interventivo: confronto de paradigmas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Barbieri

    Full Text Available A atividade psicodiagnóstica é valorizada na Psicologia por sustentar seu status científico e fundamentar a identidade profissional. Embora o Psicodiagnóstico Tradicional contraponha atividades avaliativas e terapêuticas, o Psicodiagnóstico Interventivo as aproximou, modificação que acarretou consequências epistemológicas e metodológicas. O presente estudo examinou essa alteração e suas consequências para o status científico da Psicologia e para a identidade profissional. Para tanto, realizou-se uma exposição dos paradigmas quantitativo e qualitativo de investigação e uma análise dos fundamentos epistemológicos e metodológicos dessas duas práticas. As conclusões revelam que o Psicodiagnóstico Interventivo encontra-se coerentemente baseado na perspectiva qualitativa, ao contrário do Tradicional, que apresenta embates paradigmáticos internos. Diante disso, o Psicodiagnóstico Interventivo oferece aos psicólogos um modelo de identificação profissional mais sólido que o Tradicional.

  20. Paradigma Hukum Berkeadilan Dalam Hak Kekayaan Intelektual Komunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathoni Fathoni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Paradigm of Legal Justice in the Communal Intellectual property Rights. Law and justice is a synthesis therefore inseparable. Basically, our society doesn’t recognize what is called as conflict. Conflict has been introduced by the Globalization. The regime of Intellectual property Rights was born as the effect of the free trade that adopts the equality. All the parties are the gladiator that needs to be survives in the battle (survival for the fittest. On the contrary, the traditional society doesn’t pay attention on the economic values of the culture. However, they are forced to compete in the Intellectual Property Rights battle, especially the Property Rights. This article will elaborate the law enforcement with the justice approach at the Intellectual property Conflict taken place in the Society.\\Abstrak: Paradigma Hukum Berkeadilan Dalam Hak Kekayaan Intelektual Komunal. Hukum dan keadilan adalah sebuah sintesis, sehingga tidak\\ terpisahkan. Pada dasarnya masyarakat Indonesia tidak mengenal konflik. Perkembangan global dalam penerapan hukum yang telah memperkenalkan kosakata “konflik” ke masyarakat Indonesia. Regim Hak Kekayaan Intelektual (HKI, misalnya, yang lahir dari perdagangan bebas tentu tidak akan jauh dari prinsip-prinsip perdagangan bebas yang menuntut persamaan. Semua pihak dianggap sebagai "gladiator" yang harus mampu bertahan dalam pertarungan (survival for the fittest. Dalam kompetisi macam ini, masyarakat tradisional yang tidak begitu mempedulikan nilai ekonomis dari suatu kebudayaan. Namunbegitu mereka, “dipaksa” bertarung dalam potensi konflik HKI, terutama hak cipta. Tulisan ini mengelaborasi pendekatan penegakan hukum yang berorientasi keadilan dalam konflik HKI yang berpotensi muncul. DOI: 10.15408/jch.v1i2.1469

  1. Nuevo paradigma del tratamiento quirúrgico de la ginecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Benito-Ruiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de pecho con apariencia femenina en el hombre puede causar gran estrés emocional, particularmente en jóvenes y adolescentes. Se han descrito múltiples técnicas mediante las cuales se pueden eliminar tanto el tejido adiposo como el tejido fibroglandular mamario, de las cuales, una de las más recientes, es el uso del rasurador endoscópico para la exéresis del tejido glandular a través de una incisión mínima. Analizamos 60 pacientes con edades entre 19 y 64 años (edad media 32 tratados quirúrgicamente para corrección de ginecomastia bilateral, de los cuales, en 49 se realizó una combinación de liposucción convencional y uso del rasurador artroscópico, en 7 exéresis del tejido fibroglandular por vía hemiareolar inferior y en 4 pacientes mastectomía por vía axilar. De acuerdo con la clasificación de Rohrich y col., 15 de estos pacientes se pueden clasificar como grado I; 23 como grado II; 19 como grado III y 3 como grado IV. El tiempo de seguimiento postoperatorio fue de 6 a 18 meses. Presentamos nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la ginecomastia, haciendo énfasis en la técnica de liposucción más rasurador artroscópico (técnica de Prado, la cual creemos que es excelente para la corrección de la ginecomastia tanto adiposa como fibroglandular, de forma que podemos considerarla como el nuevo paradigma en el tratamiento de la ginecomastia.

  2. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semah, F. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DSV-CEA, 91 Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    The research projects on epilepsy addressed two main issues: the pathophysiology of the inter-ictal hypo-metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy and the role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizure. Our research projects focused primarily on temporal lobe epilepsy: The pathophysiology of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism and its correlation with the epileptogenic network was investigated in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Inter-ictal hypo-metabolism is commonly found in mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that metabolic changes reflect the preferential networks involved in ictal discharges. We analyzed the topography of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism according to electro-clinical patterns in 50 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and consistent features of MTLE. Based on electro-clinical correlations we identified 4 groups:1) mesial group characterized by mesial seizure onset without evidence of early spread beyond the temporal lobe; 2) anterior mesio-lateral group (AML) with early anterior spread, involving the anterior lateral temporal cortex and insulo-fronto-opercular areas; 3) widespread mesio-lateral group (WML) with widespread spread, involving both anterior and posterior lateral temporal and peri-sylvian areas; 4) bi-temporal group (BT) with early contralateral temporal spread. Results of FDG-PET imaging in each group were compared to control subjects using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). MRI data and surgical outcome in each group were compared to metabolic findings. Hypo-metabolism was limited to the hippocampal gyrus, the temporal pole and the insula in the mesial group. Gradual involvement of the lateral temporal cortex, the insula and the peri-sylvian areas was observed in the AML and WML groups. The BT group differed from the others by mild bi-temporal involvement, bilateral insular hypo-metabolism and longer epilepsy duration. MRI

  3. Elemental spatial and temporal association formation in left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F A Benjamin

    Full Text Available The mesial temporal lobe (MTL is typically understood as a memory structure in clinical settings, with the sine qua non of MTL damage in epilepsy being memory impairment. Recent models, however, understand memory as one of a number of higher cognitive functions that recruit the MTL through their reliance on more fundamental processes, such as "self-projection" or "association formation". We examined how damage to the left MTL influences these fundamental processes through the encoding of elemental spatial and temporal associations. We used a novel fMRI task to image the encoding of simple visual stimuli, either rich or impoverished, in spatial or spatial plus temporal information. Participants included 14 typical adults (36.4 years, sd. 10.5 years and 14 patients with left mesial temporal lobe damage as evidenced by a clinical diagnosis of left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE and left MTL impairment on imaging (34.3 years, sd. 6.6 years. In-scanner behavioral performance was equivalent across groups. In the typical group whole-brain analysis revealed highly significant bilateral parahippocampal activation (right > left during spatial associative processing and left hippocampal/parahippocampal deactivation in joint spatial-temporal associative processing. In the left TLE group identical analyses indicated patients used MTL structures contralateral to the seizure focus differently and relied on extra-MTL regions to a greater extent. These results are consistent with the notion that epileptogenic MTL damage is followed by reorganization of networks underlying elemental associative processes. In addition, they provide further evidence that task-related fMRI deactivation can meaningfully index brain function. The implications of these findings for clinical and cognitive neuropsychological models of MTL function in TLE are discussed.

  4. Temporal lobe epilepsy and emotion recognition without amygdala: a case study of Urbach-Wiethe disease and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletti, Stefano; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Santoro, Francesca; Benuzzi, Francesca; Marliani, Anna Federica; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Rubboli, Guido

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epilepsy features and emotion recognition abilities (recognition of basic facial emotions and recognition of emotional prosody) in a patient with Urbach-Wiethe disease with bilateral amygdala calcifications. Our data, supported by ictal video-EEG recording, indicated that our patient suffered from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Emotion recognition abilities were compared to those of healthy controls and those of patients with bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Our patient showed a selective impairment of the recognition of facial expression of fear, whereas recognition of emotional prosody was preserved, in contrast to bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients that presented with deficits in both domains. We also reviewed the literature on epilepsy in Urbach-Wiethe disease (41 patients). Our findings suggest that in Urbach-Wiethe disease, the circumscribed damage of both amygdalae results in a selective dysfunction of fearful face processing, in contrast to bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients who present with a widespread and multimodal impairment in the judgement of emotional stimuli.

  5. Evaluation of isthmus prevalence, location, and types in mesial roots of mandibular molars in the Iranian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Akhlagi, Nahid Mohammadzade; Khodaei, Fatemeh; Shojaee, Golnaz; Shirazi, Sara

    2014-03-01

    Management of canal isthmus is considered as an important factor for successful endodontic treatment. Accordingly, this study was designed to determine the prevalence, location, and types of isthmus in mesial root canals of extracted mandibular molars in a sample of Iranian population. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 60 extracted molars with two mesial canals were included. The samples were initially decoronated and then, roots were sectioned horizontally at 2, 4, and 6 mm levels from the apex via a low-speed handpiece with a thin metallic disk and finally prepared and stained with Indian ink. All sections were examined using a stereomicroscope at a magnification of ×30. Prevalence, location, and types of isthmus were evaluated based on the classifications by Kim and Teixeira and all data were statistically analyzed by the chi-squared test. The statistical significance level was established at 0.05. Eighty-three percent of extracted mandibular molars had an isthmus at the mesial root. This prevalence increased with distance from the apex, that is, 92% at 6 mm from the apex and 70% at 2 mm from the apex. A statistically significant difference was found between the sections at 2 and 6 mm from the apex (P 0.05). Isthmus is very common in the mesial roots of the mandibular permanent molars in the Iranian population, with the highest prevalence in the 6 mm distance from the root apex. Therefore, detection, cleaning, and filling of these apical 6 mm isthmuses are of great benefit in modern endodontics.

  6. Evaluation of isthmus prevalence, location, and types in mesial roots of mandibular molars in the Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Mehrvarzfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of canal isthmus is considered as an important factor for successful endodontic treatment. Accordingly, this study was designed to determine the prevalence, location, and types of isthmus in mesial root canals of extracted mandibular molars in a sample of Iranian population. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 60 extracted molars with two mesial canals were included. The samples were initially decoronated and then, roots were sectioned horizontally at 2, 4, and 6 mm levels from the apex via a low-speed handpiece with a thin metallic disk and finally prepared and stained with Indian ink. All sections were examined using a stereomicroscope at a magnification of ×30. Prevalence, location, and types of isthmus were evaluated based on the classifications by Kim and Teixeira and all data were statistically analyzed by the chi-squared test. The statistical significance level was established at 0.05. Results: Eighty-three percent of extracted mandibular molars had an isthmus at the mesial root. This prevalence increased with distance from the apex, that is, 92% at 6 mm from the apex and 70% at 2 mm from the apex. A statistically significant difference was found between the sections at 2 and 6 mm from the apex (P 0.05. Conclusion: Isthmus is very common in the mesial roots of the mandibular permanent molars in the Iranian population, with the highest prevalence in the 6 mm distance from the root apex. Therefore, detection, cleaning, and filling of these apical 6 mm isthmuses are of great benefit in modern endodontics.

  7. Identification and Endodontic Management of Middle Mesial Canal in Mandibular Second Molar Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatments are routinely done with the help of radiographs. However, radiographs represent only a two-dimensional image of an object. Failure to identify aberrant anatomy can lead to endodontic failure. This case report presents the use of three-dimensional imaging with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT as an adjunct to digital radiography in identification and management of mandibular second molar with three mesial canals.

  8. Cambios de Paradigmas en la Psiquiatría

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    Carlos A. León Saltos

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available

    He concebido la presente ponencia a manera de un ensayo cuyo título más acertado quizás podría ser: “Asociaciones libres de un psiquiatra ecléctico en torno al tema del cambio de paradigmas en la psiquiatría, con incursiones inevitables en el terreno de la reminiscencia.” Ante todo, es necesario formular una aclaración semántica respecto al uso del término paradigma.

    Su empleo tuvo una extraordinaria difusión a raíz del trabajo de Kuhn sobre la estructura de las revo-luciones científicas (1, donde lo definió como “los logros científicos reconocidos universalmente que aportan por un tiempo problemas y soluciones modelo a una comunidad de practicantes.” En su acepción original el vocablo sólo denota un modelo, patrón o pauta y por extensión una noción directriz o una orientación, sin necesidad de que hubiesen alcanzado aceptación universal pero sí muestren un claro predominio en el ámbito de una disciplina durante un tiempo determinado. Es en este sentido como el término se usará en la presente exposición.

    Los cambios de paradigma por describirse a continuación comprenden tres casos y corresponden a tres órdenes temporales diferentes: El primero registra el hecho cumplido de la psiquiatría biológica como orientación predominante en el campo general de la psiquiatría; el segundo se refiere a un nuevo concepto, en proceso de aceptación, que refuta la noción tradicional de la esquizofrenia como un trastorno deteriorante, y el tercero se insinúa como un desarrollo futuro probable acerca del papel del cerebelo en el funcionamiento mental.

    A lo largo de la presentación se hará un intento por señalar las posibles implicaciones de los cambios mencionados para el estado actual o futuro de la psiquiatría, y finalmente se ilustrará con una anécdota personal, la conveniencia de un enfoque multidisciplinario para la exploración y el entendimiento de los fenómenos mentales. Auge de la

  9. UN CAMBIO EN LOS PARADIGMAS DE LA INSUFICIENCIA RENAL AGUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Daniel Ordóñez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre los años 2007 y 2009, varios estudios epidemiológicos sobre la Insuficiencia Renal Aguda (IRA, mostraron que la enfermedad tiene características clínicas y pronóstico distinto y más severo que los considerados previamente. Otras investigaciones, realizadas entre los años 2010 y 2014, confirmaron y extendieron esos hallazgos. Tomados en conjunto y con la perspectiva de los estudios posteriores, el resultado de los iniciales ha cambiado los paradigmas de la In- suficiencia Renal Aguda y el manejo de los pacientes. Los estudios más recientes sugieren que el pronóstico de la enfermedad puede estar mejorando, posiblemente como consecuencia del mejor manejo de la enfermedad. El autor fue coinvestigador y dirigió una de las tres entidades que participaron en los estudios originales.

    A CHANGE IN THE PARADIGMS OF THE ACUTE RENAL FAILURE

    ABSTRACT

    Between the years of 2007 and 2009 several epidemiologic studies on Acute Renal Failure showed that the disease has clinical features and prognosis different from the predominating beliefs at the time. Rather than having a benign prognosis after recovery, Acute Renal Failure has a high mortality and a guarded prognosis, with frequent development of progressive chro- nic Kidney Disease and the need for maintenance hemodialysis after apparent recovery. The recommendation was made that these patients be closely followed by a nehrologist after leaving the Hospital. Several other studies between 2010 and 2014 confirmed and extended these findings. Taken as a whole, and with the added information of later publications, these studies have changed the paradigm of Acute Renal failure and the management of patients with that disease. The most recent studies suggest that the disease prognosis may be improving, in part at least as a consequence of the better and more insightful management of the disease. The author was a co-investigator and directed one

  10. EDUCAÇÃO E SOFRIMENTO: MARCAS DE UM PARADIGMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nize Campos Pellanda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Com essa comunicação pretendemos apresentar um relato de uma pesquisa em andamento sobre sofrimento dos estudantes como consequência de práticas educativas que não contemplam necessidades fundamentais dos seres humanos em termos biológicos, epistêmicos e ontológicos. Essas necessidades estão sendo apontadas por pesquisas transdisciplinares recentes sobre o funcionamento dos seres vivos. Essas práticas didáticas são consideradas na pesquisa como altamente inibidoras do ser/conhecer. Essa inseparabilidade das dimensões da realidade é a marca principal da investigação pautada no paradigma da complexidade fazendo contraponto com as questões da fragmentação da modernidade que representam um foco importante de análise. O quadro teórico de fundo para análise dos dados é construído a partir de ciências que constituem o movimento de auto-organização (MAO focalizando principalmente as teorias biológico/cognitivas da Biologia do Conhecer de H. Maturana e F. Varela e Complexificação pelo ruído de H. Atlan. Os dados referem-se a duas fontes principais de coleta: conversas com crianças de 5ª a 8ª séries do Ensino Fundamental de escolas estaduais de duas cidades diferentes e depoimentos de educadores em forma de história de vida. Nessa apresentação serão discutidos apenas os dados referentes à primeira parte pois a segunda parte ainda não foi analisada. Esclarecemos que trata-se de uma pesquisa em andamento e, por esse motivo, não aparecerão aqui situações conclusivas mas sim uma ênfase no devir da pesquisa. A partir desse quadro teórico, são feitas as análises cujo eixo situa-se na questão da (nãoconstrução de sentido na escola. Usamos sentido como aquilo que emerge da ação humana e, portanto, como produção dos seres humanos no bojo de sua ação sobre a realidade. Nessa perspectiva, ele faz parte integrante do processo de conhecimento que, por sua vez, não se separa do processo de viver. Palavras

  11. La salud mental (en la argentina: dos paradigmas en pugna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croxatto, Guido L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza una relectura crítica de la institución de la “discapacidad” en el Derecho Civil argentino a la luz de los nuevos paradigmas en materia de salud mental que tienden a restablecer a los sujetos (mal llamados “discapacitados o “incapaces” en su dignidad y su autonomía, entendiendo que la discapacidad más que una enfermedad o limitación de la persona, (como a menudo se la ha visto es una barrera que traza la misma sociedad que luego, a través del derecho, discapacita (declara discapacitada a la persona. Se sostendrá que la discapacidad encarna una contradicción del derecho. En este marco, se analiza una propuesta de cambio a partir de un nuevo modelo social (en reemplazo del modelo tutelar del Código Civil argentino, que ha demostrado que la “tutela” es un modelo vertical que tiende a silenciar y aislar a quienes más necesitan ser escuchados que pone en el centro el pleno respeto de la dignidad y de la autonomía de las personas usuarias de servicios de salud mental. Se analiza el rol del curador provisorio en los juicios de insania, planteando el interrogante de si debe actuar como un abogado de la persona (Kraut o como un auxiliar del juez (Llambías, acentuando en esos casos el carácter vertical (tutelar de estos procesos (que asimilan el proceso jurídico a una parte del tratamiento médico y en consecuencia, el aislamiento y el silenciamiento de la persona que más necesita ser escuchada durante el proceso judicial: el presunto “incapaz”. La conclusión es que el Derecho Civil debe abandonar la figura de la discapacidad porque discapacitando no ha “protegido” ni “recuperado” a los “incapaces”, sino que los ha aislado, silenciado, matado y anulando como personas (muchas veces, al solo efecto de resguardar un patrimonio. Para el derecho ya no puede haber discapacitados ni incapaces. Solo personas. Se demostrará que la discapacidad es una institución incompatible con un

  12. O paradigma de Huntington e o realismo político

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappin,José R. Novaes

    1994-01-01

    Examina-se a proposta de Huntington de um novo paradigma da política internacional (centrado na idéia de "civilizações") em substituição ao paradigma do realismo. Demonstra-se que se trata, na realidade, de um subparadigma do realismo e, portanto, a ele subordinado. Aplica-se isso à mudança da concepção estratégica de "contenção", que passa a aplicar-se às civilizações não-ocidentais e não mais ao expansionismo soviético.

  13. O paradigma económico de eficácia organizacional

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, António

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo faz uma breve revisão da literatura acerca do estudo do paradigma de eficácia organizacional cujo espírito gravita em torno do processo interno. No paradigma económico de eficácia podem incluir-se três grandes contributos, designadamente, da teoria da gestão científica do trabalho de Taylor, da teoria clássica desenvolvida por Fayol e da teoria da burocracia de Weber. This article is about the economic paradigm of effectiveness whose main theme regards the internal ...

  14. Contribución sobre los paradigmas de investigación

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Ricoy Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Con el presente artículo se pretende indagar sobre las concepciones paradigmáticas que rodeen la investigación. Para esto, se realiza una revisión de los paradigmas dominantes en ciencias sociales y de la educación. A partir de los postulados revisados se avanza hacia una superación de la atomización paradigmática imperante históricamente. La temática abordada se asienta sobre un estudio teórico, analizando la doctrina que mantienen los diferentes paradigmas de investigación reconocidos actua...

  15. POSICIONES Y ORIENTACIONES EPISTEMOLÓGICAS DEL PARADIGMA DE LA COMPLEJIDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-González,Luis M

    2008-01-01

    La tendencia natural de identificar complejidad con algo complicado y confuso, es una forma también natural de simplificar las redes complejas del fenómeno del conocimiento y de los saberes. En este artículo se presentan las orientaciones y puntos de partida del pensamiento complejo en la perspectiva del paradigma de la complejidad que propone E. Morin. Este paradigma no corresponde solamente a una reacción al racionalismo clásico, ni al positivismo en las ciencias, sino sobre todo a una toma...

  16. INTRODUCCION AL UNIVERSO DE PARADIGMAS EN LA CONTABILIDAD DEL SIGLO XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Polar Falcón, Ernesto Augusto; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    En los últimos tiempos, maestros y expositores de temas contables en el Perú están aplicando continuamente la palabra paradigma en sus clases y exposiciones, que merece conocer su significado y las razones por las cuales se está incorporando al lenguaje contable profesional y universitario. Según el diccionario, paradigma significa modelo, teniendo también como sinónimos las palabras: ejemplo, forma, conformación, estructura, etc. Se puede entender entonces, desde el punto de vista cont...

  17. Violência familiar reinterpretada: paradigmas de intervenção

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, M. Graça

    1998-01-01

    O fenónemo da violência é analisado tendo como pano de referência os quatro paradigmas definidos por Burrell e Morgan. O autor seleciona uam teoria que no seu entender protagoniza casa um desses paradigmas e tece reflexões àcerca da conceptualização da violência ao nível do casal. As quatro teorias selecionadas são a teoria geral de sistemas, construtivismo, modelos narrativos e a perspectiva feminista. Implicações ao nivel da intervenção são apresentadas e discutidas.

  18. (Re) pensando a criminologia : reflexões sobre um novo paradigma desde a epistemologia feminista

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Soraia da Rosa

    2013-01-01

    A mola propulsora desta investigação científica é a constatação de que a maioria dos trabalhos encontrados no Brasil sobre a condição feminina, seja como autora de crimes, seja como vítima, encontra-se referenciada em paradigmas criminológicos conformadores de categorias totalizantes. Paradigmas estes que, muito pouco, ou nada, se aproximam do que já produziu a teoria feminista. Assim, o problema está em saber qual a condição de possibilidade de existência de um referencial criminológico femi...

  19. Spike voltage topography in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Asadollahi, Marjan; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lorenzo, Matthew; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the voltage topography of interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to see whether topography was related to etiology for TLE. Adults with TLE, who had epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant seizures from 2011 until 2014 at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI and those with other MRI findings. The voltage topography maps of the interictal spikes at the peak were created using BESA software. We classified the interictal spikes as polar, basal, lateral, or others. Thirty-four patients were studied, from which the characteristics of 340 spikes were investigated. The most common type of spike orientation was others (186 spikes; 54.7%), followed by lateral (146; 42.9%), polar (5; 1.5%), and basal (3; 0.9%). Characteristics of the voltage topography maps of the spikes between the two groups of patients were somewhat different. Five spikes in patients with MTS had polar orientation, but none of the spikes in patients with other MRI findings had polar orientation (odds ratio=6.98, 95% confidence interval=0.38 to 127.38; p=0.07). Scalp topographic mapping of interictal spikes has the potential to offer different information than visual inspection alone. The present results do not allow an immediate clinical application of our findings; however, detecting a polar spike in a patient with TLE may increase the possibility of mesial temporal sclerosis as the underlying etiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Family Pictures subtest of the WMS-III: relationship to verbal and visual memory following temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Jessica S; Busch, Robyn M; Naugle, Richard I; Najm, Imad M

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the extent to which the Family Pictures (FP) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III) is related to verbal memory measures and right mesial temporal integrity. Epilepsy patients who underwent temporal lobectomy did not differ in the extent to which FP scores changed from before to after surgery, although postoperative FP performance was worse in those who underwent right temporal lobectomy than in those who underwent left temporal lobectomy. FP was most strongly related to the Logical Memory subtest from the WMS-III. Results suggest that FP measures both verbal and visual memory and is minimally sensitive to lateralization of temporal lobectomy.

  1. PARADIGMA ”PERLAWANAN” DALAM KONSTRUKSI PENDIDIKAN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Mardhatillah

    2017-09-01

    dipelihara. Melalui paradigma perlawanan, pendidikan Islam yang dibangun akan mampu membebaskan dan mengeluarkan muslim yang hari ini tampak sedang terpuruk dalam liang keterbelakangan dan keterhinaan sosial, menuju terbentuknya komunitas pemilik peradaban yang menjadi exemplary centers (pusat-pusat pencontohan. Dengan demikian, misi diturunkannya ajaran Islam yang semestinya menjadi khaira ummatin yang rahmatan lil ’alamin dapat diharapkan terwujudkan melalui pendidikan perlawanan tersebut.

  2. A epidemiologia, os valores e o significado de paradigma Epidemiology, values, and the meaning of paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Agripino de Melo Filho

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente, o emprego do termo paradigma chegou ao âmbito epidemiológico. Este texto analisou criticamente uma classificação de 'paradigmas epidemiológicos', proposta por Almeida-Filho. Inicialmente constatou-se que os valores não foram considerados como elementos fundamentais para a construção dos paradigmas, distanciando-se, assim, da matriz kuhniana. Uma vez que a sistematização procurou unir tendências antitéticas, ela pareceu estar mais próxima da epistéme foucaultiana. Finalmente, considerou-se mais apropriada a utilização do termo hegemonia, em vez de paradigma, para sistematizar períodos epidemiológicos, pois os valores das vertentes estão comprometidos com a particularidade (principalmente classe social.Use of the term paradigm has recently reached the epidemiological milieu. This article provides a critical analysis of a classification of "epidemiological paradigms" as proposed by Almeida-Filho. It was initially ascertained that values were not considered fundamental elements for the construction of paradigms, and that they therefore distanced themselves from the Kuhnian matrix. Systematization sought to unite antithetical tendencies and thus seemed closer to the Foucaltian epistéme. Finally, hegemony was considered a more appropriate term than paradigm for systematizing epidemiological periods, since the values of the different watersheds are committed to particularity (principally social class.

  3. Paradigma Baru Manajemen Occupational Health Nursing Dalam Pembelajaran Community of Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy MN, Syaifoel

    2012-01-01

    PARADIGMA BARU MANAJEMEN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH NURSING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN COMMUNITY OF NURSINGNew Paradigm of Occupational Health Nursing In Community NursingSyaifoel Hardy MNPost Grad.Hospital & Healthcare Management Occupational Health Chief Nurse-Qatar Petroleum, member of American Association of Occupational Health Nurse (AAOHN), Registered Nurse of Qatar. ABSTRAKOccupational Health Nurse (OHN) adalah registered nurse yang secara independen mampu mengobservasi serta melakukan assessment te...

  4. Viendo el pasado en el presente. El paradigma de la doble impunidad en México

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Caballero, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Con un análisis comparativo entre México, Colombia y Guatemala del proceso de judicialización de crímenes que implican al Estado, este ensayo propone el concepto «paradigma de doble impunidad» para encuadrar delitos pasados y presentes que permitan subsanar la impunidad México.

  5. A LÓGICA DOMINANTE DO SERVIÇO EM MARKETING – UM NOVO PARADIGMA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Isabel Koetz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As diversas mudanças que vêm ocorrendo na disciplina de marketing têm sido consideradas, por diversos estudiosos da área, como um novo paradigma. Vargo e Lusch (2004 apontam a emergência de uma nova lógica, cuja ênfase está nos aspectos intangíveis, como habilidades, informação e conhecimento e na interatividade e conectividade dos relacionamentos, o qual poderia vir a substituir o modelo tradicional. O objetivo deste ensaio teórico é propor uma reflexão acerca da Service Dominant Logic (SDL, proposta por Vargo e Lusch (2004, a fim de identificar se, de fato, ela pode ser considerada um novo paradigma em marketing. Para tal, é realizado um exame do desenvolvimento teórico da disciplina, bem como da estrutura teórica proposta pelos autores, com base na perspectiva filosófico-científica e no conceito de paradigma de Kuhn (2006. A análise demonstra que o marketing evoluiu, por um lado, orientado pelas alterações impostas pelo ambiente; por outro lado, por meio de discussões teóricas que permitiram o avanço da disciplina. Não houve, ao logo deste processo, nem mesmo com a lógica dominante dos serviços, uma ruptura drástica que possa ser considerada uma troca de paradigmas.

  6. O que é problematizar? Géneses de um paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Fabre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A ideia de problema invade, atualmente, a escola e a formação. Como evitar que esta ideia não se dilua e se caricature? Parece ser necessário voltar à questão de raiz: o que é problematizar? Estuda-se, aqui, a génese do paradigma da problematização a partir de 4 filosofias do problema: John Dewey, Gaston Bachelard, Gilles Deleuze e Michel Meyer. Ainda que estas filosofias se manifestem a partir de intuições diferentes e desenvolvam teses próprias, elas convergem largamente sobre a ideia de problematização o que permite uma definição rigorosa de conceitos (a problematização, o problemático, a problemática. Estas filosofias permitem, igualmente, evidenciar as exigências intelectuais de uma atitude que parece ter de fazer o percurso normal do pensamento comum e até - segundo alguns dos nossos autores - do pensamento filosófico, marcado precisamente pelo esquecimento do problema. Não há problematização se não for instaurado um autocontrole do pensamento, uma dialética entre dados e condições do problema, o que necessita conceber uma lógica da pesquisa, centrada na construção do problema e não apenas sobre a respetiva resolução. É possível delinear as incidências pedagógicas dos quatro esboços estudados quanto à relação entre saber e problema. As suas próprias divergências revelam-se pedagogicamente sobre determinadas: reenviam para os problemas de uma pedagogia dos problemas.Nowadays, the idea of the problem invades the school and training. How to avoid that this idea does not dilute and caricaturizes itself? It seems necessary to go back to the root question: What is problematization? The genesis of the paradigm of problematization is studied here departing from 4 problem philosophies from John Dewey, Gaston Bachelard, Gilles Deleuze and Michel Meyer. While these philosophies come up from different intuitions and develop their own theories, they largely converge on the idea of problematization which

  7. Evidence on Use of Neuroimaging for Surgical Treatment of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amy L; Cascino, Gregory D

    2016-04-01

    Surgery is an effective treatment for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Neuroimaging studies are considered essential in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with medically refractory focal seizures being considered for surgical treatment. To review the evidence for the use of neuroimaging studies in the selection of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy for focal cortical resection and discuss the prognostic importance of selected techniques. Randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and clinical retrospective case studies (≥20 patients with ≥1 year of follow-up) were identified using Medical Subject Headings and indexed text terms in EMBASE (1988-November 29, 2014); MEDLINE (1946-December 2, 2014), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1991-October 31, 2014), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2005-October 31, 2014). Twenty-seven articles describing 3163 patients were included. Neuroimaging techniques analyzed included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Subpopulations and prognostic factors were identified. Of the 27 studies evaluated (3163 patients), 7 showed the outcome was more favorable in patients with MRI-identified hippocampal atrophy indicating mesial temporal sclerosis. Five additional studies indicated that the outcome was less favorable in patients with unremarkable MRI studies. There are conflicting findings regarding the prognostic importance of PET-identified focal hypometabolism; however, 2 investigations indicated that the presence of a PET imaging study demonstrating abnormalities in individuals with unremarkable MRI results showed an operative outcome similar to that in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The studies assessing SPECT use in temporal lobe epilepsy did not reveal a correlation with outcome. There is strong evidence that preoperative MRI-identified hippocampal atrophy consistent with mesial temporal

  8. Frequency of middle mesial canals in mandibular first molars in North Indian population - An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Adeel Khan Sherwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The primary aim of the study was to determine the frequency of middle mesial (MM canals in mandibular first molars in North Indian population. The secondary aim was to analyze whether an association exists between the detection rate of MM canals and age, gender, and number of distal canals. Materials and Methods: All mature mandibular first molars endodontically treated between March 2013 and March 2015 were included in the study. After instrumenting the main canals, the clinician inspected the mesial developmental groove under dental operating microscope (DOM using ultrasonic tips and endodontic explorer to detect accessory mesial canals. The canal, if found, was negotiated, cleaned, shaped, and recorded. Results were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: A total of 258 first molars from 243 patients were treated during the specified period, of which 28.3% had negotiable MM canals. The frequency of MM canals was 36.6% in patients 11-30 years old, 22.6% in patients 31-50 years old, and 18.4% in patients >50 years. Statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship of different age groups with the incidence of MM canals (P < 0.05. A significant relationship was also found between the detection rate of two canals in distal root and the presence of MM canals (P < 0.05 with gender having no influence. Conclusion: The presence of MM canals is quite high in North Indian population. Younger patients had a higher incidence of MM canals. Mandibular first molars with two separate distal canals showed a tendency to have MM canals.

  9. Evolutionary and biological implications of dental mesial drift in rodents: the case of the Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia, Mammalia.

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    Helder Gomes Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Dental characters are importantly used for reconstructing the evolutionary history of mammals, because teeth represent the most abundant material available for the fossil species. However, the characteristics of dental renewal are presently poorly used, probably because dental formulae are frequently not properly established, whereas they could be of high interest for evolutionary and developmental issues. One of the oldest rodent families, the Ctenodactylidae, is intriguing in having longstanding disputed dental formulae. Here, we investigated 70 skulls among all extant ctenodactylid genera (Ctenodactylus, Felovia, Massoutiera and Pectinator by using X-ray conventional and synchrotron microtomography in order to solve and discuss these dental issues. Our study clearly indicates that Massoutiera, Felovia and Ctenodactylus differ from Pectinator not only by a more derived dentition, but also by a more derived eruptive sequence. In addition to molars, their dentition only includes the fourth deciduous premolars, and no longer bears permanent premolars, conversely to Pectinator. Moreover, we found that these premolars are lost during adulthood, because of mesial drift of molars. Mesial drift is a striking mechanism involving migration of teeth allowed by both bone remodeling and dental resorption. This dental innovation is to date poorly known in rodents, since it is only the second report described. Interestingly, we noted that dental drift in rodents is always associated with high-crowned teeth favoring molar size enlargement. It can thus represent another adaptation to withstand high wear, inasmuch as these rodents inhabit desert environments where dust is abundant. A more accurate study of mesial drift in rodents would be very promising from evolutionary, biological and orthodontic points of view.

  10. Evolutionary and Biological Implications of Dental Mesial Drift in Rodents: The Case of the Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia, Mammalia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Solé, Floréal; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Viriot, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Dental characters are importantly used for reconstructing the evolutionary history of mammals, because teeth represent the most abundant material available for the fossil species. However, the characteristics of dental renewal are presently poorly used, probably because dental formulae are frequently not properly established, whereas they could be of high interest for evolutionary and developmental issues. One of the oldest rodent families, the Ctenodactylidae, is intriguing in having longstanding disputed dental formulae. Here, we investigated 70 skulls among all extant ctenodactylid genera (Ctenodactylus, Felovia, Massoutiera and Pectinator) by using X-ray conventional and synchrotron microtomography in order to solve and discuss these dental issues. Our study clearly indicates that Massoutiera, Felovia and Ctenodactylus differ from Pectinator not only by a more derived dentition, but also by a more derived eruptive sequence. In addition to molars, their dentition only includes the fourth deciduous premolars, and no longer bears permanent premolars, conversely to Pectinator. Moreover, we found that these premolars are lost during adulthood, because of mesial drift of molars. Mesial drift is a striking mechanism involving migration of teeth allowed by both bone remodeling and dental resorption. This dental innovation is to date poorly known in rodents, since it is only the second report described. Interestingly, we noted that dental drift in rodents is always associated with high-crowned teeth favoring molar size enlargement. It can thus represent another adaptation to withstand high wear, inasmuch as these rodents inhabit desert environments where dust is abundant. A more accurate study of mesial drift in rodents would be very promising from evolutionary, biological and orthodontic points of view. PMID:23185576

  11. Epilepsia temporal: relato de caso = Temporal epilepsy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Taís Amara da Costa de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem o objetivo de divulgar um recurso terapêutico da epilepsia do lobo temporal por esclerose hipocampal: a cirurgia. Aproximadamente vinte e cinco mil pacientes com esta patologia são refratários aos tratamentos medicamentosos no sul do país e muitos chegam ao neurocirurgião com 30-40 anos de evolução, muitas vezes já mutilados em conseqüência das crises. Convulsões parciais originadas no lobo temporal são comuns, e grande parte originam-se em estruturas mesiais (esclerose mesial temporal – EMT. Como aí se encontram a sede de funções nobres do sistema nervoso – memória, aprendizagem, comportamento, entre outras –, os sintomas podem apresentar-se como alterações em qualquer uma delas. Ressaltamos a necessidade do correto diagnóstico e dos métodos para fazê-lo: através da anamnese, da ressonância magnética, do eletroencefalograma (EEG, do vídeo-EEG e por vezes através de sensores intracranianos (strips. Apesar de existirem métodos confiáveis para realizar o diagnóstico e tratamento cirúrgico com grande índice de sucesso, a desinformação dos profissionais que atendem pacientes com EMT acerca do assunto leva ao prolongamento de tratamentos clínico ineficiente e conseqüente seqüelas físicas, psicológicas e sociais

  12. A Review of the Epidemiology of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

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    Jose F. Téllez-Zenteno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial-onset epilepsies account for about 60% of all adult epilepsy cases, and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is the most common type of partial epilepsy referred for epilepsy surgery and often refractory to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. Little is known about the epidemiology of TLE, because it requires advanced neuroimaging, positive EEG, and appropriate clinical semiology to confirm the diagnosis. Moreover, recently recognized incidentally detected mesial temporal sclerosis in otherwise healthy individuals and benign temporal epilepsy indicate that the true epidemiology of TLE is underestimated. Our current knowledge on the epidemiology of TLE derives from data published from tertiary referral centers and/or inferred from population-based studies dealing with epilepsy. This article reviews the following aspects of the epidemiology of TLE: definitions, studies describing epidemiological rates, methodological observations, the interpretation of available studies, and recommendations for future studies.

  13. Complete remission of epileptic psychosis after temporal lobectomy: case report

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    Marchetti Renato Luiz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a female patient with refractory complex partial seizures since 15 years of age, recurrent postictal psychotic episodes since 35 which evolved to a chronic refractory interictal psychosis and MRI with right mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS. After a comprehensive investigation (video-EEG intensive monitoring, interictal and ictal SPECT, and a neuropsychological evaluation including WADA test she was submitted to a right temporal lobectomy. Since then, she has been seizure-free with remission of psychosis, although with some persistence of personality traits (hiperreligiosity, viscosity which had been present before surgery. This case supports the idea that temporal lobectomy can be a safe and effective therapeutic measure for patients with MTS, refractory epilepsy and recurrent postictal epileptic psychosis or interictal epileptic psychosis with postictal exacerbation.

  14. MRI and brain spect findings in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and normal CT scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carrilho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy clinically documented by several abnormal interictal surface EEGs with typical unitemporal epileptiform activity and a normal CT scan were studied. Interictal99mTC HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI were performed in all subjects. Abnormalities were shown in 61.5% of MRI (n=16 and 65.4% of SPECT (n=17. Hippocampal atrophy associated to a high signal on T2-weighted MRI slices suggesting mesial temporal sclerosis was the main finding (n=12; 75% of abnormal MRI. MRI correlated well to surface EEG in 50% (n=13. There was also a good correlation between MRI and SPECT in 30.7% (n=8. SPECT and EEG were in agreement in 57.7% (n=l5. MRI, SPECT and EEG were congruent in 26.9% (n=7. These results support the usefulness of interictal brain SPECT and MRI in detecting lateralized abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. On the other hand, in two cases, interictal SPECT correlated poorly with surface EEG. This functional method should not be used isolately in the detection of temporal lobe foci. MRI is more useful than CT as a neuroimaging technique in temporal lobe epilepsy. It may detect small structural lesions and mesial temporal lobe sclerosis which are not easily seen with traditional CT scanning.

  15. PROPUESTA METODOLÓGICA PARA DESARROLLAR UN PROGRAMA CON PROGRAMACIÓN ESTRUCTURADA A PARTIR DEL PARADIGMA FUNCIONAL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omar Iván Trejos Buriticá

    2013-01-01

    ... este artículo se plantea una metodología para el desarrollo de programas que se basa en la programación estructurada, pero tomando como base los conceptos centrales del Paradigma Funcional para su desarrollo...

  16. Los conflictos de intereses de los administradores bajo el nuevo paradigma de la transparencia en el gobierno societario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Sabogal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este breve trabajo se plantea la existencia de un nuevo paradigma en el derecho de sociedades moderno bajo el nombre de “transparencia en el gobierno societario”. A estos efectos, el autor analiza el contenido, las ventajas y límites de este paradigma, pues a partir de ello explica el alcance que tiene la transparencia como mecanismo jurídico para enfrentar los conflictos de intereses en la relación administrador-sociedad.

  17. Los conflictos de intereses de los administradores bajo el nuevo paradigma de la transparencia en el gobierno societario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Sabogal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En este breve trabajo se plantea la existencia de un nuevo paradigma en el derecho de sociedades moderno bajo el nombre de “transparencia en el gobierno societario”. A estos efectos, el autor analiza el contenido, las ventajas y límites de este paradigma, pues a partir de ello explica el alcance que tiene la transparencia como mecanismo jurídico para enfrentar los conflictos de intereses en la relación administrador-sociedad.

  18. “Ciencias de la Comunicación”, paradigma del siglo XX?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Vizer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La Modernidad es una categoría histórica. Un paradigma de  construcción de imaginarios sociales, asociados a una historia social de las ciencias y los modos de construír conocimiento, tecnología y poder de intervención sobre la “realidad”. Categorías como naturaleza, sociedad, individuo y subjetividad son construcciones sociales asociadas  a diferentes etapas de las ciencias: físiconaturales, sociales y psicológicas. En este contexto, las “ciencias de la comunicación” se constituyen en el imaginario social del siglo XX, en un paradigma marcado por la técnica, la transdisciplinariedad y la transsubjetividad en los procesos de construcción de sentido.

  19. Las nuevas concepciones del desarrollo según el paradigma del estructuralismo dinámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Alejandro Cervigni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo constituye una revisión crítica del paradigma estructura lista clásico del desarrollo cognitivo. El objetivo del mismo es explicitar algunas nociones dentro de éste, que connotan cierta "rigidez" del desarrollo de las funciones psicológicas, proponiendo como alternativa una visión dinámica de dicho proceso. Conforme a tal objetivo, se expondrán las principales nociones correspondientes al modelo del desarrollo cognitivo de Kurt Fischer, considerando el mismo como un representante paradigmático de la perspectiva dinámica del desarrollo. Se concluirá, destacando las implicaciones teóricas de dicho modelo, proponiendo al mismo como una alternativa que permite afrontar ciertas dificultades explicativas del paradigma clásico.

  20. Teoria, conhecimento e pragmática da comunicação: o paradigma pulsional

    OpenAIRE

    Potiguara Mendes da Silveira Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Parte-se do estado da arte feito por Muniz Sodré (2012a) sobre a abordagem acadêmica do campo comunicacional e a dificuldade para defini-lo em seu aspecto "científico". No intuito de prospectar além dos paradigmas identificados por Sodré (o sociológico, dos efeitos; e o semiótico, dos códigos), propõe-se o paradigma pulsional que orienta a Transformática, teoria psicanalítica da comunicação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Teorias da comunicação; Conhecimento; Psicanálise.   ABSTRACT Acco...

  1. Dahmer, Bundy, Rader, asesinos en serie: paradigma y paradoja de la anormalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Isaza, Tatiana Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Con base en el discurso sobre estos asesinos, el artículo rastrea los elementos de la anormalidad y la forma como se construyó en ellos, para evidenciar que estos son paradigma y paradoja de la anormalidad, y sólo pueden serlo, porque ésta es una construcción discursiva, más que una entidad independiente.

  2. Sociedad y medicina: Paradigmas médicos en las coordenadas de la modernidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pablo Camejo Ramos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:Explicar la relación sociedad-medicina a partir de los paradigmas médicos de la modernidad. Desarrollo: La medicina como producción social está marcada por la vida sociocultural de cualquier sociedad. La Modernidad capitalista europea impuso a todo el mundo su proyecto económico, político e ideológico y su cosmovisión, fruto de ello, la medicina moderna se debate entre dos paradigmas formativos y prácticos: el biomédico, hegemónico y basado en la racionalidad instrumental de la ciencia y por otro lado un paradigma crítico y contrahegemónico: el sociomédico. Conclusiones: La evolución de la medicina y sus paradigmas formativos y axiológicos modernos están marcados por las condiciones económicas, políticas, sociales y culturales de la modernidad. La evolución histórica evidencia la existencia, en franca contradicción, de dos modelos médicos: el modelo biomédico, resultado de los preceptos socio filosóficos de la modernidad y el modelo sociomédico que por oposición ha logrado, al menos, el reconocimiento de buena parte de la comunidad médica internacional, de su lugar y papel en los procesos formativos y en la práctica cotidiana de la medicina como vía para entender y transformar las realidades de nuestros pueblos en el campo de la salud. Lo anterior, tiene que materializarse con un replanteo y redefiniciones de nuevos caminos teóricos, conceptuales y metodológicos.

  3. Implementación del paradigma COSA en el desarrollo de aplicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Arredondo Salcedo, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    En general, la implementación del paradigma COSA es factible en el desarrollo de aplicaciones para el aula inteligente, remarcado que los elementos de COSA son modulizados y potencialmente reutilizables, adicionalmente ofrece una forma distinta de plantear modelos de solución mediante una aplicación de esfuerzo concentrada en el entendimiento de la lógica y formalizada con reglas BNF, lo que produce aplicaicones mejor planeadas y más estables.

  4. El paradigma ecológico en la investigación didáctica

    OpenAIRE

    Caride Gómez, José Antonio; Trillo Alonso, Felipe

    1983-01-01

    Las ciencias sociales en general y las ciencias de la Educación en particular, atraviesan, en la actualidad, una crisis evidente en su proceder científico. Su alcance, que afecta en la teoría y en el método a las concepciones vigentes.en largos años de trabajo normativo y disciplinario, llega incluso a un cuestionamiento crítico de su paradigma.

  5. Cómo estudiarla conciencia: tres paradigmas para la psicología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Aguilar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gran parte de la confusión que existe en la psicología contemporánea podría reducirse si se llevara a cabo una integración de los diferentes paradigmas o puntos de vista. Por otra parte aunque la física clásica ha constituido hasta ahora el modelo a seguir para la ciencia, el concepto de conciencia no es necesario para la solución satisfactoria de los problemas físicos, excepto en el campo de la llamada mecánica cuántica; pero puede ser indispensable para resolver conceptualmente la mayoría de los problemas psicológicos. Lo que estoy proponiendo es una metáfora conceptual que supone que todos los fenómenos psicológicos (es decir, las expresiones de la conciencia deben estudiarse simultáneamente desde tres puntos de vista o paradigmas: el fisiológico, el conductual, y el cognoscitivo. Por ejemplo, en el estudio de la emoción (una forma de conciencia, deberían tomarse tres clases de mediciones: correlatos fisiológicos, cuestionarios verbales y grabaciones de vídeo de las expresiones corporales. Naturalmente que cada clase de datos debe ser tratada metodológicamente de acuerdo al paradigma correspondiente dentro del cual fueron obtenidos. De esta manera la existencia de congruencia entre los tres aspectos mencionados de la conciencia individual podrían ser verificados, además de evitar saltos indiscriminados entre esos paradigmas. Asimismo, el localizar el sistema de interés (v.g. la emoción dentro de su nivel propio en la escala evolutiva (forma o clase de conciencia permitiría la identificación certera de sus subsistemas correspondientes y contexto apropiado. Para tal propósito se propone una metáfora geométrica, en la forma de un tetraedro, el cual permite el "mapeo" de paradigmas y niveles de escala evolutiva de la conciencia en una representación visualmente integrada. En el dibujo del modelo se muestra un tetraedro rodeado por una esfera, la cual representa el contexto pertinente de la conciencia humana: el

  6. Characterization of neurons in the cortical white matter in human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Zsófia; Janszky, József; Sétáló, György; Horváth, Réka; Horváth, Zsolt; Dóczi, Tamás; Seress, László; Ábrahám, Hajnalka

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to characterize neurons in the archi- and neocortical white matter, and to investigate their distribution in mesial temporal sclerosis. Immunohistochemistry and quantification of neurons were performed on surgically resected tissue sections of patients with therapy-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe tissues of patients with tumor but without epilepsy and that from autopsy were used as controls. Neurons were identified with immunohistochemistry using antibodies against NeuN, calcium-binding proteins, transcription factor Tbr1 and neurofilaments. We found significantly higher density of neurons in the archi- and neocortical white matter of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy than in that of controls. Based on their morphology and neurochemical content, both excitatory and inhibitory cells were present among these neurons. A subset of neurons in the white matter was Tbr-1-immunoreactive and these neurons coexpressed NeuN and neurofilament marker SMI311R. No colocalization of Tbr1 was observed with the inhibitory neuronal markers, calcium-binding proteins. We suggest that a large population of white matter neurons comprises remnants of the subplate. Furthermore, we propose that a subset of white matter neurons was arrested during migration, highlighting the role of cortical maldevelopment in epilepsy associated with mesial temporal sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgery for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faraji-rad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT in localizing epileptic foci in children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. This prospective study was conducted on 12 patients including five males and seven females aged between 2 and 16 years old with a clinical diagnosis of TLE. All the patients underwent high-resolution MRI and if no abnormality was identified, SPECT was used for further assessment. In all the patients, visual inspection identified unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis, and the patients underwent craniotomy and lesionectomy.According to the results, eight patients were categorized in class I and two cases were classifies as class II, and all the patients survived. About 25% of the patients showed adequate memory function on the non-operated temporal lobe, and general intelligence quotient increased by 10% in 50% of the patients.According to the results, in patients with clinically suspected TLE, MRI alone is not able to localize the epileptic foci correctly, and SPECT can be helpful to localize these lesions.

  8. Memory in children with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina A. Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, memory deficit is not so well understood as it is in adults. The aim of this study was to identify and describe memory deficits in children with symptomatic TLE, and to verify the influence of epilepsy variables on memory. We evaluated 25 children with TLE diagnosed on clinical, EEG and MRI findings. Twenty-five normal children were compared with the patients. All children underwent a neuropsychological assessment to estimate intellectual level, attention, visual perception, handedness, and memory processes (verbal and visual: short-term memory, learning, and delayed recall. The results allowed us to conclude: besides memory deficits, other neuropsychological disturbances may be found in children with TLE such as attention, even in the absence of overall cognitive deficit; the earlier onset of epilepsy, the worse verbal stimuli storage; mesial lesions correlate with impairment in memory storage stage while neocortical temporal lesions correlate with retrieval deficits.

  9. Memory in children with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimãraes, Catarina A; Rzezak, Patricia; Fuentes, Daniel; Franzon, Renata C; Montenegro, Maria Augusta; Cendes, Fernando; Valente, Kette D; Guerreiro, Marilisa M

    2014-03-01

    In children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), memory deficit is not so well understood as it is in adults. The aim of this study was to identify and describe memory deficits in children with symptomatic TLE, and to verify the influence of epilepsy variables on memory. We evaluated 25 children with TLE diagnosed on clinical, EEG and MRI findings. Twenty-five normal children were compared with the patients. All children underwent a neuropsychological assessment to estimate intellectual level, attention, visual perception, handedness, and memory processes (verbal and visual: short-term memory, learning, and delayed recall). The results allowed us to conclude: besides memory deficits, other neuropsychological disturbances may be found in children with TLE such as attention, even in the absence of overall cognitive deficit; the earlier onset of epilepsy, the worse verbal stimuli storage; mesial lesions correlate with impairment in memory storage stage while neocortical temporal lesions correlate with retrieval deficits.

  10. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  11. Contribución sobre los paradigmas de investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ricoy Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el presente artículo se pretende indagar sobre las concepciones paradigmáticas que rodeen la investigación. Para esto, se realiza una revisión de los paradigmas dominantes en ciencias sociales y de la educación. A partir de los postulados revisados se avanza hacia una superación de la atomización paradigmática imperante históricamente. La temática abordada se asienta sobre un estudio teórico, analizando la doctrina que mantienen los diferentes paradigmas de investigación reconocidos actualmente en las ciencias sociales y de la educación. Desde un empeño riguroso y sistematizador con este trabajo se contribuye a examinar la difícil problemática forjada en torno a la antinomia paradigmática y se invita al lector a la discusión. Así mismo, la aportación recogida supone un punto de referencia para iniciar nuevas disertaciones en torno a la temática objeto de estudio. La posición que se defiende en este artículo se inclina hacia la combinación paradigmática en investigación para poder analizar solidamente y conocer los contextos educativos reales, de modo que se aporten nuevos hallazgos a la comunidad científica. Se estimula al lector a continuar avanzando en la línea propuesta para impulsar en la medida de lo posible el desarrollo de investigaciones desde una perspectiva multiparadigmática. Palabras clave: Educación. Contexto educativo. Paradigma de investigación.

  12. Temporal lobe epilepsy surgery in children versus adults: from etiologies to outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jin Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is the most common type of medically intractable epilepsy in adults and children, and mesial temporal sclerosis is the most common underlying cause of TLE. Unlike in the case of adults, TLE in infants and young children often has etiologies other than mesial temporal sclerosis, such as tumors, cortical dysplasia, trauma, and vascular malformations. Differences in seizure semiology have also been reported. Motor manifestations are prominent in infants and young children, but they become less obvious with increasing age. Further, automatisms tend to become increasingly complex with age. However, in childhood and especially in adolescence, the clinical manifestations are similar to those of the adult population. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy can lead to excellent postoperative seizure outcome in adults, but favorable results have been seen in children as well. Anterior temporal lobectomy may prove to be a more successful surgery than amygdalohippocampectomy in children with intractable TLE. The presence of a focal brain lesion on magnetic resonance imaging is one of the most reliable independent predictors of a good postoperative seizure outcome. Seizure-free status is the most important predictor of improved psychosocial outcome with advanced quality of life and a lower proportion of disability among adults and children. Since the brain is more plastic during infancy and early childhood, recovery is promoted. In contrast, long epilepsy duration is an important risk factor for surgically refractory seizures. Therefore, patients with medically intractable TLE should undergo surgery as early as possible.

  13. Novas possibilidades metodológicas: a quebra dos paradigmas qualitativo e quantitativo em psicologia

    OpenAIRE

    Kahhale,Edna Maria Peters; Esper,Elisa Maria Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    O presente relato propõe uma metodologia materialista dialética de análise de dados que rompe com os paradigmas qualitativos e quantitativos, numa perspectiva transdisciplinar e complexa, tomando como categorias analíticas historicidade, identidade, narcisismo, efemeridade e transitoriedade. Relata-se o caso "O Climatério na Contemporaneidade", que utilizou discursos e escalas padronizadas. Nos resultados, construiu-se uma articulação entre os vários tipos de dados, a partir de uma análise es...

  14. Paradigmas de la criminología contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    Aller Maisonnave, Germán

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo se refiere al proceso de los paradigmas criminológicos, analizándose someramente su etapa inicial y luego con mayor detenimiento las últimas tres décadas. Se efectúan consideraciones acerca de las corrientes críticas, los realismos de derecha y de izquierda, las teorías situacionales y de la elección racional, así como de otras más recientes y relacionadas al control del delito. En conclusión, se plantea que en la Criminología actual se carece de sufic...

  15. La calidad de vida de la familia como resultado de los servicios: el nuevo paradigma

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Ann P.

    2003-01-01

    El artículo describe brevemente la transición del antiguo paradigma entre discapacidad y familia, centrado en “arreglar” discapacidades y el nuevo, que subraya los servicios y la investigación centrada en la familia, que es el modelo prevaleciente en la intervención temprana para niños discapacitados. La concepción de la calidad de vida de la familia se centra en cinco campo principales. En primero de ellos es el campo de la seguridad y la salud que comprende los aspectos de la salud física y...

  16. Custodia compartida, corresponsabilidad parental y justicia terapéutica como nuevo paradigma

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Fariña; Dolores Seijo; Ramón Arce; Ma José Vázquez

    2017-01-01

    El presente artículo se centra en la organización de la responsabilidad parental tras la ruptura de pareja, las consecuencias que ésta tiene sobre los hijos y, en especial, la custodia compartida. Se introduce la justicia terapéutica (TJ) como el paradigma pertinente para llevar a cabo modificaciones de las normas legales, los procedimientos judiciales y la actuación de los profesionales que intervengan en el caso con objeto de facilitar que la gestión de la ruptura de la pareja permita lleva...

  17. Paradigmas Tecnológicos e Teorias Econômicas da Firma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bastos Tigre

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a evolução das teorias da firma à luz das mudanças tecnológicas ocorridas em três paradigmas: (i a Revolução Industrial britânica, que dominou a economia mundial durante todo o século XIX e foi a base de observaçãopara a elaboração da teoria neoclássica; (ii o paradigma Fordista, que efetivamente deu origem à economia industrial; e (iii o paradigma das Tecnologias da Informação, cuja construção teórica está baseada, principalmente nas correntes evolucionistas e neo-institucionalistas. A análise da evolução das teorias da firma e sua relação com paradigmas organizacionais distintos mostra que não existe um corpo teórico único e coerente, pois as teorias estão condicionadas por diferentes filiações metodológico-teóricas, enfocam aspectos distintos (produção ou transação e baseiam-se em contextos institucionais, históricos e setoriais diversos. Conclui que o processo de mudanças tecnológicas e institucionais exige que a teoria evolua continuamente, adotando aportes interdisciplinares e recorrendo mais sistematicamente a pesquisa empírica.The structure of the world industry is constantly affected by technological innovations and by an institutional dynamics which destroy and create firms and markets. Historically, the increasing speed of these changes has demanded a continuous reformulation of the economic theories dealing with the firm. This article examines such theories under the analytical framework of technological change in three paradigms: (i the British industrial revolution which dominated the world economy during the XIX century and was a starting point to the development of the neoclassical microeconomic theory; (ii the fordist paradigm which gave rise to the industrial economics; and (iii the information technology paradigm, in which theories are still under development, based mainly on evolutionist and neo-institutionalist frameworks. The analysis of the evolution of the

  18. La Psicología Social : ¿en busca del paradigma perdido?

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez Gracia, Tomás

    1985-01-01

    Se procede a una confrontación de las tesis relativas al estatus científico de la Psicología Social analizando las implicaciones de la "crisis" por la que pasa la disciplina. Se formula una serie de consideraciones teóricas y metodológicas para reorientar la Psicología Social en una dirección acorde con la "nueva Epistemología" y con el desarrollo de las "ciencias postmodernas". El análisis de la "acción", el paradigma de la "complejidad" y los "procesos autoorganizativos" constituyen los con...

  19. Custodia compartida, corresponsabilidad parental y justicia terapéutica como nuevo paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Fariña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se centra en la organización de la responsabilidad parental tras la ruptura de pareja, las consecuencias que ésta tiene sobre los hijos y, en especial, la custodia compartida. Se introduce la justicia terapéutica (TJ como el paradigma pertinente para llevar a cabo modificaciones de las normas legales, los procedimientos judiciales y la actuación de los profesionales que intervengan en el caso con objeto de facilitar que la gestión de la ruptura de la pareja permita llevar posteriormente una corresponsabilidad parental de forma positiva, centrada en el bienestar de los hijos.

  20. La producción de enfermedad en el paradigma de la salud del siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Zoya, Paula G.

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo pone en relación el imperativo de cuidado del cuerpo y la salud paraalcanzar una salud perfecta y el fenómeno de expansión de la medicalización a travésde la invención de enfermedades. La tesis central sostiene que la imbricación de ambosfenómenos constituye los fundamentos del paradigma sanitario que se arraiga en lassociedades occidentales del siglo XXI. La investigación problematiza la articulaciónde dichos fenómenos a partir de la circulación social de significaciones en torn...

  1. Paradigmas y programas de investigación en Ciencias Sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Félix Gustavo

    1986-01-01

    Las ciencias sociales han sido criticadas desde diversos ángulos: por la dificultad de la confrontación empírica, la carencia de leyes, la dificultad -si no imposibilidad de explicar y de predecir. Se ha planteado la irrefutabilidad de muchas teorías sociales o humanas -en un sentido popperiano-, el carácter no maduro de estas ciencias lo que impide que puedan constituirse paradigmas en sentido estricto, por lo que cabría hablar solamente de escuelas rivales (no se podría detectar la vigencia...

  2. Application of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Wu; Wang, Xiaoyi; Xie, Fangfang; Liao, Weihua [Dept. of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital of Central South Univ., Changsha (China)], e-mail: doctoring@sina.com

    2013-02-15

    Background: Accurately locatithe epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is important in clinical practice. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron-emission tomography (PET) have been widely used in the lateralization of TLE, but both have limitations. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging can accurately and reliably reflect differences in cerebral blood flow and volume. Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic value of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSC) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the lateralization of the epileptogenic focus in TLE. Material and Methods: Conventional MRI and DSC-MRI scanning was performed in 20 interictal cases of TLE and 20 healthy volunteers. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the bilateral mesial temporal lobes of the TLE cases and healthy control groups were calculated. The differences in the perfusion asymmetry indices (AIs), derived from the rCBV and rCBF of the bilateral mesial temporal lobes, were pared between the two groups. Results: In the control group, there were no statistically significant differences between the left and right sides in terms of rCBV (left 1.55 {+-} 0.32, right 1.57 {+-} 0.28) or rCBF (left 99.00 {+-} 24.61, right 100.38 {+-} 23.46) of the bilateral mesial temporal lobes. However, in the case group the ipsilateral rCBV and rCBF values (1.75 {+-} 0.64 and 96.35 {+-} 22.63, respectively) were markedly lower than those of the contralateral side (2.01 {+-} 0.79 and 108.56 {+-} 26.92; P < 0.05). Both the AI of the rCBV (AIrCBV; 13.03 {+-} 10.33) and the AI of the rCBF (AIrCBF; 11.24 {+-} 8.70) of the case group were significantly higher than that of the control group (AIrCBV 5.55 {+-} 3.74, AIrCBF 5.12 {+-} 3.48; P < 0.05). The epileptogenic foci of nine patients were correctly lateralized using the 95th percentile of the AIrCBV and AIrCBF of the control group as the normal upper limits. Conclusion: In

  3. Del paradigma de la enseñanza al paradigma del aprendizaje: un programa de capacitación docente, su influencia en los profesores y en el aprendizaje de los estudiantes de la Universidad del Azuay (Cuenca, Ecuador)

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén Guerrero, María Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: Las últimas décadas de investigación en Educación superior han generado fundamentación científica que soporta el cambio desde el paradigma de la enseñanza al paradigma del aprendizaje. Este cambio exige pasar de una concepción del conocimiento atomística a una holística; de un enfoque competitivo e individualista del aprendizaje a la generación de ambientes de aprendizaje cooperativos, colaborativos y de apoyo; del papel de los profesores como conferencistas a un papel de guí...

  4. Educación para la paz en el contexto escolar desde el paradigma complejo-sistémico

    OpenAIRE

    Chacon Prado, Mónica de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como fin primordial demostrar la pertinencia del paradigma complejo-sistémico en la enseñanza para la paz y la educación en general. Para determinar lo anterior, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica y analítica del paradigma complejo-sistémico y se examinaron las características de la formación en valores y la educación para la paz.  Mediante el estudio se logra también confirmar la congruencia de aplicar el paradigma complejo-sistémico en el contexto educativo y d...

  5. Alcances y límites del paradigma de las “revoluciones hispánicas”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medófilo Medina Pineda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor del artículo “En el Bicentenario: consideraciones en torno al paradigma de François-Xavier Guerra sobre las ‘revoluciones hispánicas’” responde a la réplica escrita por Roberto Breña sobre dicho texto. La respuesta aborda los siguientes temas: primero, la relación del paradigma de las “revoluciones atlánticas” de Robert Palmer y Jacques Godechot con el paradigma de la “revoluciones hispánicas”; segundo, las afinidades del revisionismo sobre la Revolución Francesa y la historia político-cultural de la Independencia hispanoamericana; tercero, el olvido por parte de François-Xavier Guerra de corrientes importantes de la historiografía sobre la Independencia; y, finalmente, los usos adecuados e inadecuados de la historia contrafactual.

  6. Da objetividade à intersubjetividade: contribuições da teoria do Agir Comunicativo para o paradigma Interpretativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernani Luiz Azevedo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo traz algumas discussões sobre a relação objetividade/subjetividade na construção do conhecimento, tendo em vista o Paradigma Interpretativo, muito utilizado nas pesquisas qualitativas em educação e educação científica. Para tanto, discorremos sobre alguns paradigmas epistemológicos presentes na ciência e filosofia, como o paradigma positivista e o fenomenológico. A evolução histórica dos debates sobre a influência da subjetividade na construção do conhecimento nos levou a prestar especial atenção à Teoria do Agir Comunicativo, de Jürgen Habermas, tendo em vista a centralidade da intersubjetividade presente nesta teoria. Concluímos o texto explicitando como desse debate se fez emergir uma teoria da racionalidade humana.

  7. Paradigmas e cognições no campo da administração educacional: das políticas de avaliação à avaliação como política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Correia

    2010-01-01

    constituir como un paradigma alternativo, no normativo y relacionado con la rehabilitación de los desconocimientos producidos por el paradigma de la evaluación, valorando sobre todo las mediaciones epistemológicas, institucionales y cognitivas.

  8. Role of the temporal pole in temporal lobe epilepsy seizure networks: an intracranial electrode investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Taylor J; Woodroffe, Royce W; Nourski, Kirill V; Moritani, Toshio; Capizzano, Aristides A; Kirby, Patricia; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Howard, Matthew; Werz, Mary Ann

    2017-10-13

    OBJECTIVE A convergence of clinical research suggests that the temporal pole (TP) plays an important and potentially underappreciated role in the genesis and propagation of seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Understanding its role is becoming increasingly important because selective resections for medically intractable TLE spare temporopolar cortex (TPC). The purpose of this study was to characterize the role of the TPC in TLE after using dense electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings in patients undergoing invasive monitoring for medically intractable TLE. METHODS Chronic ECoG recordings were obtained in 10 consecutive patients by using an array customized to provide dense coverage of the TP as part of invasive monitoring to localize the epileptogenic zone. All patients would eventually undergo cortico-amygdalohippocampectomy. A retrospective review of the patient clinical records including ECoG recordings, neuroimaging studies, neuropathology reports, and clinical outcomes was performed. RESULTS In 7 patients (70%), the TP was involved at seizure onset; in 7 patients (70%), there were interictal discharges from the TP; and in 1 case, there was early spread to the TP. Seizure onset in the TP did not necessarily correlate with preoperative neuroimaging abnormalities of the TP. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate that TPC commonly plays a crucial role in temporal lobe seizure networks. Seizure onset from the TP would not have been predicted based on available neuroimaging data or interictal discharges. These findings illustrate the importance of thoroughly considering the role of the TP prior to resective surgery for TLE, particularly when selective mesial resection is being considered.

  9. Esplendor y ruina de un paradigma. Lo relacional: París-Madrid, Madrid-León

    OpenAIRE

    Albarrán Diego, Juan

    2011-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el nacimiento de la estética relacional como propuesta teórica y paradigma institucional a partir de los escritos y programas expositivos desarrollados por Nicolas Bourriaud desde finales de los años noventa, revisando al mismo tiempo las críticas recibidas por dicho paradigma en el contexto de una problemática articulación de lo estético, lo artístico y lo político. Acto seguido, estudiaremos hasta qué punto y desde qué presupuestos se produce un...

  10. Sociología y formación del profesorado: aportaciones y balance en el nuevo paradigma universitario

    OpenAIRE

    Venegas, Mar

    2012-01-01

    Con la Declaración de Bolonia de 1999 se inicia la construcción del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, que marca un viraje hacia un nuevo paradigma universitario basado en los llamados Grados, que vienen a sustituir a las anteriores Diplomaturas y Licenciaturas. Este artículo se sitúa en ese nuevo paradigma para hacer balance de las contribuciones de la sociología a la formación inicial del profesorado en los nuevos Grados. Para ello, el punto de partida e...

  11. LA NECESIDAD DE UNIFICAR LA PSICOLOGIA: EL PARADIGMA DE LA SINTESIS EXPERIMENTAL DEL COMPORTAMIENTO

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    Rubén Ardila

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los orígenes de la psicología en las preocupaciones iniciales del hombre acerca de su comportamiento y del de las demás personas. Tales problemas interesaron a pensadores tan disímiles como Aristóteles, Kant, Wundt, Freud, Watson, Piaget y Skinner. El paso de los problemas psicológicos de la metafísica a la ciencia representó una importante revolución conceptual. En psicología se ha enfatizado en los últimos cien años la objetividad científica y la experimentación. Una de las alternativas más importantes desde el punto de vista metodológico ha sido el operacionalismo, cuyos elementos positivos y negativos se analizan. Las ‘escuelas’ psicológicas —análogas a los paradigmas de Kuhn— han representado diferentes marcos conceptuales sobre la naturaleza de la psicología. Hoy no hay escuelas sino sistemas, más reducidos y menos dogmáticos. Se considera que la síntesis experimental del comportamiento, cuyas características se presentan, puede llegar a ser un paradigma unificador para toda la psicología.

  12. O paradigma de Huntington e o realismo político Huntington's paradigm and political realism

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    José R. Novaes Chiappin

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Examina-se a proposta de Huntington de um novo paradigma da política internacional (centrado na idéia de "civilizações" em substituição ao paradigma do realismo. Demonstra-se que se trata, na realidade, de um subparadigma do realismo e, portanto, a ele subordinado. Aplica-se isso à mudança da concepção estratégica de "contenção", que passa a aplicar-se às civilizações não-ocidentais e não mais ao expansionismo soviético.Huntington's proposal of a new paradigm for international politics (focused on the idea of "civilizations", meant to replace the paradigm of realism, is examined. It is shown that the proposed new paradigm should in fact be viewed as as sub-paradigm of the realist one. In particular, it is pointed out that Huntington's proposal, in a realist vein, draws on the idea of "containment", which is now directed (instead of its former target, the soviet expansionism to non-Western civilizations.

  13. La pedagogía ambiental: hacia un nuevo paradigma educativo

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    Guillermo Torres Carral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo, se debate sobre la necesidad de construir un nuevo paradigma educativo en torno a la pedagogía ambiental, considerándola como parte de los cambios requeridos en el mundo para enfrentar la crisis de la civilización. Para lograr lo anterior, el punto de partida es el debate sobre la articulación de las disciplinas en una metadisciplina ; y la integración del conocimiento científico con el “no científico” en el marco de la pérdida de vigencia del viejo modelo positi - vista. De esta forma, se ubica el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje desde la perspectiva de la complejidad socioambiental. Posteriormente, se discute los fundamentos de la pedagogía ambiental a través de la conversión del paradigma científico en nuevo conocimiento popular, lo cual debe fincarse en la educación para la compatibilidad-sustentabilidad, mediante la generación de diálogos multidimensionales, y transitar hacia un nuevo modelo educativo. Se concluye discutiendo el necesario impulso, en las comunidades, del aprendizaje socioambiental como ancla de dicha pedagogía ambiental.

  14. Nuevos Paradigmas en la Investigación en la Historia de la Contabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Núñez Torrado

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En la última década se ha despertado un interés creciente por la historia de la contabilidad en diversos foros académicos. Ese interés ha impulsado un nuevo debate sobre las posibilidades metodológicas a la hora de acometer una investigación en este área. En este trabajo se presentan los dos paradigmas fundamentales de la historiografía contable, el positivista y el crítico, para a continuación proponer un nuevo paradigma integrador de ambas posiciones metodológicas. Ello se hará a partir de la consideración de la contabilidad como construcción social, en cuanto a conjunto de prácticas que influyen y configuran la realidad social, más allá de las asunciones que tradicionalmente se le atribuyen de racionalidad, objetividad y neutralidad. The last decade has seen the revival of a growing interest in accounting history in different academic fields. Such interest has pushed a new debate about methodological ways to undertake research in this area. This paper reviews the main paradigms in accounting historiography, the positivist and the critical, and proposes a new paradigm integrating both methodological positions. This is done by considering accounting as a social construction, as a set of practices that influence and form social reality, moving beyond conventionally conferred assumptions of rationality, objectivity and neutrality.

  15. Paradigma alternativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nada es más polémico que el simple concepto de desarrollo. "Opio del pueblo", dicen unos. El futuro de los pueblos, señalan otros. El debate continua, pero se insiste en que el desarrollo tiene que ser endógeno. En la reunión de activistas populares de África y El Caribe, reunidos en Zimbabwe, se encontraron dos palabras del lenguaje Bantú, Yuakanaque que significa "construyéndonos unos a otros" y Uglolana, "afilándonos unos a otros" para expresar un concepto alternativo de APRENDER que no fuera jeráquico .

  16. Prevalence of the middle mesial canal in non surgical root canal treated mandibular first and second molars in a local military population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Vertucci F, Williams R. Root canal anatomy of the mandibular first molar. J NJ Dent Assoc. 1974; Spring:27-28. 3. Weine F. endodontic therapy...Kane AW, et al. Analysis of reasons for extraction of endodontically treated teeth: a prospective study. J Endod 2011;37:1512–5. 7. Selden H. The...after guided troughing under high magnification : an in vivo investigation. J Endod 2015; 41(2): 164-167. 10. Nosrat A, et al. Middle mesial canals

  17. [Construction and assessment of a three-dimensional finite element model of mandibualr second molar mesialization using customized lingual appliance and mini-implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Wang, C X; Yang, J H; Cai, L Y; Rong, Q G; Zhang, Y L

    2017-12-09

    Objective: To construct a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model and analyze the biomechanical characteristics during mandibular second molar mesialization using customized lingual appliances and mini-implant. Methods: One adult student volunteer from The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University with lower left first molar extraction was selected. After CT scanning, Mimics, Geomagic, ANSYS were employed to develop a 3D finite element model including customized lingual brackets, stainless steel lingual arch wire, buccal buckles, lower dentition, periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone. Four different loading methods (1. the force of 1.470 N loaded at the lingual side only; 2, 3, 4. the forces of 0.490, 0.735 and 0.980 N loaded at both buccal and lingual sides, respectively.) were included. The initial displacements of the lower second molar and stress distribution in the periodontal ligaments were analyzed. Results: More uniform stress distributions in the periodontal membrane of mandibular left second molar were found when the mesial force were loaded at both buccal and lingual sides than the force loaded at lingual side only. More inclination of the second molar was observed when force loaded at both sides than at lingual side only. With the values of the force increased, the mesial inclination potential of the second molar, the initial movement of the second molar and the stress distribution in the periodontal membrane increased. Under the force of 0.735 N at both buccal and lingual sides, mesially inclined initial displacements of the mandibuar second molar were observed and the stress values of von Mises was in the suitable area. Conclusions: Less second molar rotation was found when the force loaded at both buccal and lingual sides than loaded at lingual side only. However, force loaded at both sides would increase the measial inclination potential of the second molar.

  18. Ex vivo evaluation of four final irrigation protocols on the removal of hard-tissue debris from the mesial root canal system of mandibular first molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, G B; Versiani, M A; Silva-Sousa, Y T; Bruniera, J F B; Pécora, J D; Sousa-Neto, M D

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of four final irrigation protocols on the reduction of hard-tissue debris accumulated within the mesial root canal system of mandibular first molars using micro-CT analysis. Forty mesial roots of mandibular molars with a single and continuous isthmus connecting the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals (Vertucci's Type I configuration) were selected and scanned at a resolution of 8.6 μm. Canals were enlarged sequentially using WaveOne Small and Primary instruments activated in reciprocating motion without intracanal irrigation to allow debris to accumulate within the mesial root canal system. Then, specimens were anatomically matched and distributed into four groups (n = 10), according to the final irrigation protocol: apical positive pressure (APP), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), Self-adjusting File (SAF) and XP-endo Finisher (XPF). The final irrigation procedures were performed over 2 min using a total of 5.5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl per canal. Reconstructed data sets were coregistered, and the mean percentage reduction of accumulated hard-tissue debris after the final irrigation procedures was compared statistically between groups using the anovapost hoc Tukey test with a significance level set at 5%. Reduction of accumulated hard-tissue debris was observed in all groups after the final irrigation protocol. Overall, PUI and XPF groups had higher mean percentage reductions of accumulated hard-tissue debris (94.1% and 89.7%, respectively) than APP and SAF groups (45.7% and 41.3%, respectively) (P  0.05) or APP and SAF groups (P > 0.05). The PUI technique and XP-endo Finisher instrument were associated with significantly lower levels of AHTD compared with conventional irrigation and the modified SAF system protocol in mesial root canals of mandibular molars. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Developing a comprehensive presurgical functional MRI protocol for patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deblaere, K.; Vandemaele, P.; Achten, E. [MRI Department -1 K12, Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Backes, W.H.; Hofman, P.; Wilmink, J. [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Maastricht, Postbus 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Boon, P.A.; Vonck, K. [Department of Neurology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Boon, P. [Department of Medical Psychology, University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands); Troost, J. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands); Vermeulen, J. [S.E.I.N Heemstede, Psychological Laboratory, Achterweg 5, 2103 SW Heemstede (Netherlands); Aldenkamp, A. [Epilepsy Center ' Kempenhaeghe' , Postbus 61, 5900 AB Heeze (Netherlands)

    2002-08-01

    Our aim was to put together and test a comprehensive functional MRI (fMRI) protocol which could compete with the intracarotid amytal (IAT) or Wada test for the localisation of language and memory function in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. The protocol was designed to be performed in under 1 h on a standard 1.5 tesla imager. We used five paradigms to test nine healthy right-handed subjects: complex scene-encoding, picture-naming, reading, word-generation and semantic-decision tasks. The combination of these tasks generated two activation maps related to memory in the mesial temporal lobes, and three language-related maps of activation in a major part of the known language network. The functional maps from the encoding and naming tasks showed typical and symmetrical posterior mesial temporal lobe activation related to memory in all subjects. Only four of nine subjects also showed symmetrical anterior hippocampal activation. Language lateralisation was best with the word generation and reading paradigms and proved possible in all subjects. The reading paradigm enables localisation of language function in the left anterior temporal pole and middle temporal gyrus, areas typically resected during epilepsy surgery. The combined results of this comprehensive f MRI protocol are adequate for a comparative study with the IAT in patients with epilepsy being assessed for surgery. (orig.)

  20. Saúde mental: do velho ao novo paradigma - uma reflexão Salud mental: del viejo al nuevo paradigma - una reflexión Mental health: from the old to the new paradigm - a reflection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marlene Gomes Terra; Dorotéa Loes Ribas; Fernanda Sarturi; Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann

    2006-01-01

    ... histórica da psiquiatria e alguns pontos chave da desinstitucionalização com o objetivo de vislumbrar possibilidades de um novo paradigma onde o ser humano possa ser visto como um cidadão em sofrimento e...

  1. Evaluation of danger zone in mesial root of mandibular first molar by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoo Rhee; Choi, Yong Suk; Choi, Gi Woon; Park, Sang Hyuk [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    To examine the danger zone of medial root of mandibular first molar of patient without extraction using CBCT (cone-beam computed tomography) to avoid the risk of root perforation. 20 mandibular first molars without caries and restorations were collected. CT images were obtained by CBCT (PSR9000N {sup T}M, Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan), reformed and analyzed by V-work 5.0 (CyberMed Inc., Korea). Distance between canal orifice and furcation was measured. In cross sectional images at 3, 4 and 5 mm below the canal office, distal wall thickness of central part (C-D), medial wall thickness of mesiobuccal canal (MB-M) and mesial wall thickness of mesiolongual canal (ML-M) were measured. The mean distance between the canal orifice and the furcation of the roots is 2.40 mm. Distal wall is found to be thinner than medial wall. Mean dentinal wall thickness of distal wall is about 1 mm. The wall thickness is thinner as the distance from the canal orifice is farther. But significant differences and not noted between 4 mm and 5 mm in MB-D and C-D. MB-D is thinner than ML-D although the differences is not significant. The present study confirmed the anatomical weakness of distal surface of the coronol part of the medial roots of mandibular first molar by CBCT and provided an anatomical guide line of wall thickness during endodontic treatment.

  2. Pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy modifies histamine turnover and H3 receptor function in the human hippocampus and temporal neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos-Cabrera, Ivette; Cuéllar-Herrera, Manola; Velasco, Ana Luisa; Velasco, Francisco; Alonso-Vanegas, Mario; Carmona, Francia; Guevara, Rosalinda; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio; Rocha, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the tissue content of tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA) and histamine as well as H3 receptor (H3 Rs) binding and activation of the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding αi/o proteins (Gαi/o) coupled to these receptors in the hippocampus and temporal neocortex of patients (n = 10) with pharmacoresistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Patients with MTLE showed elevated tissue content of t-MeHA in the hippocampus. Analyses revealed that a younger age at seizure onset was correlated with a higher tissue content of t-MeHA, lower H3 R binding, and lower efficacy of Gαi/o protein activation in the hippocampus. We conclude that the hippocampus shows a reduction in the H3 R function associated with enhanced histamine. In contrast, the temporal neocortex displayed a high efficacy of H3 Rs Gαi/o protein activation that was associated with low tissue contents of histamine and t-MeHA. These results indicate an overactivation of H3 Rs leading to decreased histamine in the temporal neocortex. However, this situation was lessened in circumstances such as a longer duration of epilepsy or higher seizure frequency. It is concluded that decrease in H3 Rs function and enhanced levels of histamine may contribute to the epileptic activity in the hippocampus and temporal neocortex of patients with pharmacoresistant MTLE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  4. PROPUESTA METODOLÓGICA PARA DESARROLLAR UN PROGRAMA CON PROGRAMACIÓN ESTRUCTURADA A PARTIR DEL PARADIGMA FUNCIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Iván Trejos Buriticá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es producto de un Proyecto de Investigación 1 desarrollado en el área de la programación de computadores y su relación con los procesos de aprendizaje que se involucran alrededor de ella. En este artículo se plantea una metodología para el desarrollo de programas que se basa en la programación estructurada, pero tomando como base los conceptos centrales del Paradigma Funcional para su desarrollo. Se busca con esta propuesta metodológica enfrentar y solucionar los tres grandes problemas de la programación e igualmente, se persigue la simplificación de la programación estructurada a partir de la utilización de funciones. Se acude a una concepción general del programa a realizar y se va desglosando poco a poco, al tiempo que se construyen funciones que cumplan con los micro-objetivos planteados. Se ha encontrado que, para los estudiantes, es una forma muy sencilla y simplificada de concebir tanto el paradigma estructurado como el paradigma funcional y que su relación facilita la comprensión de los conceptos asociados a dichos paradigmas.

  5. Gestión estratégica "Navegando hacia el cuarto paradigma". Revisión del libro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Mario Lurbé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo consiste en una revisión del libro NAVEGANDO HACIA EL CUARTO PARADIGMA, CLIMA Y COMPROMISO ORGANIZACIONAL, 3° Edición, del autor, JOSÉ R. BETANCOURT T. y analizar las estrategias propuestas por el autor para logar organizaciones de “clase mundial” en America Latina.

  6. A lógica dominante do serviço em marketing : um novo paradigma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Isabel Koetz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As diversas mudanças que vêm ocorrendo na disciplina de marketing têm sidoconsideradas, por diversos estudiosos da área, como um novo paradigma. Vargo eLusch (2004 apontam a emergência de uma nova lógica, cuja ênfase está nosaspectos intangíveis, como habilidades, informação e conhecimento e nainteratividade e conectividade dos relacionamentos, o qual poderia vir a substituir omodelo tradicional. O objetivo deste ensaio teórico é propor uma reflexão acerca daService Dominant Logic (SDL, proposta por Vargo e Lusch (2004, a fim deidentificar se, de fato, ela pode ser considerada um novo paradigma em marketing.Para tal, é realizado um exame do desenvolvimento teórico da disciplina, bem comoda estrutura teórica proposta pelos autores, com base na perspectiva filosóficocientíficae no conceito de paradigma de Kuhn (2006. A análise demonstra que omarketing evoluiu, por um lado, orientado pelas alterações impostas pelo ambiente;por outro lado, por meio de discussões teóricas que permitiram o avanço dadisciplina. Não houve, ao logo deste processo, nem mesmo com a lógica dominantedos serviços, uma ruptura drástica que possa ser considerada uma troca deparadigmas.Abstract The various changes that have happened within the marketing discipline havebeen considered by several scholars of the area as a new paradigm. Vargo andLusch (2004 suggest the emergence of a new model, whose emphasis is onintangible aspects such as skills, information and knowledge, as well as in theinteractivity and connectivity of the relationships, which could replace the traditionalparadigm. This article aims to discuss the Service Dominant Logic (SDL inmarketing, proposed by Vargo and Lusch (2004, aiming to identify if, in fact, thismodel can be considered a new paradigm in marketing. In order to do that, weconducted a review of the theoretical developments in marketing, and an exam of theauthors’ theoretical structure, considering Kuhn’s (2006 concept

  7. El paradigma del ZMOT como modelo de negocio aplicado al sector turístico en el año 2013 : estudio sobre el comportamiento del consumidor turístico de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires en los medios online

    OpenAIRE

    Costas Chillemi, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Costas Chillemi, M. (2014). El paradigma del ZMOT como modelo de negocio aplicado al sector Turístico en el año 2013. Estudio sobre el comportamiento del consumidor turístico de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires en los medios online (Tesis de posgrado). Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Bernal, Argentina. El presente estudio es de finalidad aplicada, alcance temporal transversal y grado de conocimiento Exploratorio, fundamentalmente porque se realiza un primer acercamiento al fenómeno del ...

  8. Organizações no paradigma de transformação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Blattmann

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a series of questions about organizational change. Intends to discuss a vision of the transformation paradigm where the rupture of values in aspects of the organizational environment, people, activities and use of new technologies interact provoking a continuous learning.Apresenta uma série de indagações sobre mudanças organizacionais. As reflexões estão no sentido de provocar uma visão do paradigma da transformação, onde ruptura de valores referente aos aspectos do ambiente organizacional, das pessoas, das atividades e do uso de novas tecnologias se interagem provocando um contínuo aprender do ser humano.

  9. O novo paradigma da violência The new paradigm of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wieviorka

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available O autor procura redimensionar o conceito de violência dentro do atual estado de globalização mundial. Crise internacional, narcotráfico, derrocada do bloco socialista no leste europeu, políticas assistenciais de organismos internacionais, conceitos de desenvolvimento e de subdesenvolvimento, terrorismo, sectarismo político e religioso, novas conceituações culturais e sociais são temas trabalhados pelo autor com vistas ao estabelecimento de um novo paradigma da violência.The author tries to requalify the concept of violence under the influences of a context of world globalization. International crisis, drug traffic, collapse of the socialist governments, concepts of development and under-development, terrorism, political and religious sectarisms, new culture and social conceptualizations, these are some of the themes which are discussed by the author with the objective to propose a new pardigm for violence.

  10. A musa sem paradigmas ou A história na era dos saberes desnorteados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plinio Freire Gomes

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante os anos 70, certos autores começaram a duvidar de seus modelos explicativos. Embora possa parecer algo circunscrito ao meio acadêmico, este fenômeno estava diretamente relacionado com muitos acontecimentos concretos do mundo real. A "crise dos paradigmas", que já se tornou tão familiar para nós, era o complexo resultado de uma série de revoluções, movimentos políticos e instabilidades, bem como de inquietações muito pessoas. Dentre todas as humanidades, a História foi aquela que sofreu o se impacto mais profundo. Com o declínio da teoria, nosso interesse está se deslocando dos problemas estruturais para o homem propriamente dito

  11. DE LOS MULTIPLES ENFOQUES DEL MARKETING AL PARADIGMA DEL MARKETING ESENCIAL

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    Jose Antonio Paris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Luego de que el marketing angloamericano fuera cuestionado, criticado y entrara en una rápida obsolescencia como modelo o paradigma vigente de dicha disciplina. El marketing ha sido manipulado de forma indiscriminada por distintos autores quienes les han dado diferentes enfoques. Estos enfoques fueron diseñados, en su gran mayoría, con demasiada celeridad, sin mucho análisis y menos aún con un fuerte marco teórico y desarrollo metodológico. Sin embargo, éstos han tratado de cubrir los espacios dejados por el antes incuestionable paradigma del marketing tradicional. Ese marketing que había intentado de manera dogmática imponer el concepto que el “marketing era uno”. Hoy se aprecia con una diversidad de enfoques y de tantos aplicaciones a sectores, como los que ofrece la propia imaginación humana, la cual sabemos que no tiene límites. Estos apreciables cambios en la disciplina del marketing obedecen a cambios que se están dando en diversas ciencias y disciplinas que aportan sus conocimientos al marketing. Pero, todos ellos son visiones parcializadas y muy acotadas a determinada área del conocimiento. Incluso, aquellos que han denominado al marketing como holístico, se equivocan, porque en realidad esta nueva versión del marketing nada tiene de holística.Si bien reconocemos, que algunos de estos enfoques han ofrecido ciertos aportes positivos, y no negamos de ninguna manera el progreso tecnológico que ha recibido esta disciplina, también afirmamos que ninguno de estos enfoques presenta al marketing como un patrón a seguir que posee una cantidad de factores críticos de éxito que lo pueden soportar como tal. Es decir, ninguno de ellos se promulga como el nuevo ‘paradigma del marketing’.Si bien somos conscientes que estos enfoques tienen su origen en problemas existentes, y a los cuales sus creadores oponen sus hipótesis, las que a su vez intentan explicar a partir de nuevos conocimientos (muchos de ellos verdaderamente

  12. A (DES)BUROCRATIZAÇÃO DOS PARADIGMAS DE LIDERANÇA

    OpenAIRE

    Salles, Wagner; UFF - Universidade Federal Fluminense

    2014-01-01

    Este artigo trata de uma reflexão teórica sobre o possível paradoxo existente entre os paradigmas das teorias de liderança e os processos dinâmicos entre as organizações burocráticas e o ambiente em que estão inseridas. Partindo da perspectiva weberiana sobre os tipos de dominação, caminha-se pela abordagem de autoridade carismática e pelas ideias centrais das teorias de liderança, passando pela formação paradigmática dessas teorias. Chega-se à abordagem do desenvolvimento dos processos de bu...

  13. LA UNIVERSIDAD ANTE LOS NUEVOS PARADIGMAS DE LA INFORMACIÓN Y EL CONOCIMIENTO (PIC

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    Edgar Chirinos

    2009-07-01

    las universidades, su gerencia y sus actores principales (docentes y estudiantes ante el surgimiento de nuevos paradigmas de la información y el conocimiento (PIC causados por la aprehensión de las tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC. Se tomó como base la definición de la universidad del siglo XXI bajo la dimensión tecnológica de una sociedad sustentada en el conocimiento, cuyo pilar fundamental está integrado por las plataformas tecnológicas, las telecomunicaciones y redes del conocimiento. Se concluye que una de las brechas en el propósito de democratización y acceso social al conocimiento.

  14. Entre libros y bytes: las librerías universitarias ante el paradigma digital

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    Reyna Yunuhen Ponce Navarrete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se divide en tres apartados: el primero de ellos da cuenta del panorama actual de las librerías en México, que se caracteriza por la escasez de dichos éstas y por su concentración, tanto económica como geográfica; el segundo, reflexiona sobre las transformaciones del proceso editorial ante el uso de las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación en su desarrollo, con énfasis en su fase de la comercialización; por su parte, el tercero apartado aborda el caso particular de las librerías universitarias, con el fin de proponer estrategias que fortalezcan sus proyectos culturales, a partir del uso a favor de lo que algunos consideran el último gran reto del mundo editorial: su integración al paradigma digital.

  15. El Concepto de Marketing Bajo el Paradigma Relacional. Una Agenda para Latinoamérica

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    Judith Cavazos Arroyo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis sobre la situación del marketing en América Latina y sus implicaciones en relación a la globalidad. Se reflexiona en la necesidad de repensar la conceptualización del marketing considerando los avances y los retos para las empresas de la región, así como las características de mercados dinámicos con demandas de un trato más personalizado. Se destaca la necesidad del uso de las nuevas tecnologías y la adopción de nuevos enfoques, tal es el caso del marketing de relaciones, a través del cual se propone un nuevo paradigma en la disciplina. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v8i1.2124

  16. O paradigma do inclusivismo religioso em karl Rahner = The paradigm of religious inclusivism in Karl Rahner

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    Silva, Elias Gomes da

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essa pesquisa buscou apontar a temática do inclusivismo teológico-religioso no pensamento de Karl Rahner. O respectivo paradigma é de fato importante, sobretudo para o avanço do estudo e da produção acadêmica tanto na área de teologia como também das chamadas ciências da religião. Do ponto de vista prático, não há dúvida de que as suas contribuições na construção de um cristianismo inclusivista, permitem que os teólogos e os cientistas da religião da atualidade estabeleçam seus pressupostos reflexivos pautados a partir de uma postura ecumênica. Nesse sentido, o pensamento de Rahner é considerado pioneiro

  17. LOS PARADIGMAS A-CAUSALES Y LA FUNDAMENTACIÓN DE LA CIENCIA PSICOLÓGICA

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    Plinio Negrete

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La descripción de fenómenos que pertenecen al espacio psicológico en el marco del paradigma causal (cuerpos en movimientoconduce a resultados que no corresponden a la naturaleza intrínseca de estos fenómenos. En este trabajo el espacio psicológico es visto como un nivel más profundo de organización mental, una sección de la región de transición entre las dos sustancias cartesiana De allí, la psicología es vista como la ciencia de esta región de transición, cuyos fenómenos no son necesariamente gobernados por el principio de causalidad usual. Se muestra que este principio es más bien un caso particular de una simetría más general.

  18. La literatura y el cine como espacios de resistencia al paradigma héteronormativo

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    Melo, Adrián

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo presenta al discurso literario y al género cinematográfico como campos de batalla en donde se cuestionan las categorías dominantes y se producen imágenes alternativas respecto al paradigma héteronormativo instalado por el psicoanálisis, el derecho y otras ciencias normativas. Los autores focalizan su atención en la figura del gaucho, arquetipo de la virilidad y el ser nacional y, paradójicamente, también lugar desde el cual se cuestiona e incluso invierte la noción moderna de masculinidad. Para ello, trazan una breve genealogía del ser varonil en la literatura nacional, para luego finalizar con un pormenorizado análisis del gaucho en Martín Fierro, La Vuelta de Martín Fierro, Don Segundo Sombra y Vidalita.

  19. El museo ante un cambio de paradigma. Del tipo al logotipo

    OpenAIRE

    Baldellou Plaza, Angela

    2014-01-01

    En esta Tesis expongo una reflexión sobre cómo la pérdida de valores ante un cambio de paradigma social ha derivado en la disolución de la tipología de Museo generando un “Museo Contemporáneo” , mediante el estudio sistemático de la obra de los autores más significativos del siglo XX, que, frente al Museo Moderno, es un museo global, que no pertenece a ningún lugar concreto, un museo del desarraigo, desligado incluso de su función. Su origen conceptual basado en una idea “social” participativ...

  20. EL CAPITAL SOCIAL: UN PARADIGMA EN EL ACTUAL DEBATE SOBRE EL DESARROLLO. TENDENCIAS Y PROBLEMAS

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    Laura Mota Díaz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo hace referencia al concepto de capital social como un paradigma que se ha ido rescatando y reformulando en la reciente discusión sobre el desarrollo y que está siendo impulsado por diversos organismos internacionales como el Banco Mundial, el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, el Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo y la CEPAL, entre otros, con el objetivo de producir efectos en la reducción de la pobreza y desigualdad, con miras a lograr la equidad y democracia que se constituyen como factores indispensables para los actuales procesos de internacionalización económica. Se reflexiona sobre las principales tendencias de la creación, promoción y uso de capital social como elemento importante para el desarrollo y se mencionan algunos de los problemas que pueden impedir que dicho capital sea funcional en ciertos contextos.

  1. La Reforma, un nuevo paradigma de la teología

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    Martin Hoffmann

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 500 años del origen del protestantismo, se plantea la pregunta: ¿Cuál es el significado de la Reforma para hoy? El autor sostiene que la importancia de la Reforma va más allá de una época histórica o de una controversia teológica de su tiempo. Más bien la Reforma es un proceso permanente, un movimiento y un cierto método del quehacer teológico. Remontándose a la teología de la cruz del apóstol Pablo, Martín Lutero, el iniciador de la Reforma, desarrolló un nuevo paradigma de la teología. Es caracterizado por tres aspectos: La cruz como principio epistemológico, la justicia de Dios como contenido esencial del Evangelio, y una ética discursiva de los mandamientos. Este paradigma de la teología posibilita una renovación y una transformación continua de las iglesias y de la teología enfrente de los desafíos contemporáneos como las crisis de la ecología, de la economía, de la justicia social y el aumento de violencia y guerras. La actualidad de la Reforma se demuestra en su nuevo modo de pensar y de actuar, o sea en su potencial crítico a partir del Crucificado y sus perspectivas constructivas para la humanidad y la convivencia a partir de la justicia de Dios.

  2. Receta para hacer lo imposible. Acerca de las consecuencias ético-políticas de los paradigmas actuales de investigación en ciencias sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Guardiola-Rivera

    2000-01-01

    Este artículo explora las implicaciones ético-políticas de los tres paradigmas de investigación con mayor poder explicativo y capacidad heurística en las ciencias sociales de hoy. Tras referirse a la centralidad del “giro culturalista” que informa tales paradigmas y sus limitaciones ético-políticas, el autor propone su superación en la dirección de un “giro material”. En particular, trata de la importancia que el giro culturalista ha tenido en la crítica de los paradigmas reformistas y diside...

  3. Paradigms for subdural grids' implantation in patients with refractory epilepsy Paradigmas para implante de placas subdurais em pacientes com epilepsia refratária

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    ARTHUR CUKIERT

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: The need for invasive monitoring in patients with refractory epilepsy has been greatly reduced by the introduction of new technologies such as PET, SPECT and MRI in the clinical practice. On the other hand, 10 to 30% of the patients with refractory epilepsy have non-localizatory non-invasive preoperative work-up results. This paper reports on the paradigms for subdural electrodes implantation in patients with different refractory epileptic syndromes. METHODS: Twenty-nine adult refractory epileptic patients were studied. Patients were divided into five different epileptic syndromes that represented the majority of the patients who needed invasive recordings: bitemporal (Group I; n=16 , bi-frontal-mesial (Group II, n=5, hemispheric (Group III; n=2, anterior quadrant (Group IV; n=3 and posterior quadrant (Group V; n=3. All of them were submitted to extensive subdural electrodes' implantation (from 64 to 160 contacts covering all the cortical surface potentially involved in epileptogenesis under general anesthesia. Results: All patients tolerated well the procedure. There was no sign or symptom of intracranial hypertension except for headache in 22 patients. In all except one Group II patient, prolonged electrocorticographic monitoring using the described subdural cortical coverage patterns was able to define a focal area amenable for resection. In all Groups II-V patients cortical stimulation was able to adequately map the rolandic and speach areas as necessary. CONCLUSION: Despite recent technological advances invasive neurophysiological studies are still necessary in some patients with refractory epilepsy. The standardization of the paradigms for subdural implantation coupled to the study of homogeneous patients' populations as defined by MRI will certainly lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology involved in such cases and an improved surgical outcome.INTRODUÇÃO: O advento de novas tecnologias de imagem tais como o PET

  4. Cognição e aprendizagem de L2: o que nos diz a pesquisa nos paradigmas simbólico e conexionista

    OpenAIRE

    Mailce Mota; Márcia Cristina Zimmer

    2005-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta os principais aspectos teóricos de dois paradigmas de investigação da cognição humana _ o simbólico e o conexionista _ e discute como a pesquisa em cada paradigma tem fomentado os estudos sobre aprendizagem de L2. O paradigma simbólico postula a existência de representações mentais através de regras lógicas e símbolos para explicar a aquisição e a utilização do conhecimento. O paradigma conexionista parte da premissa de que o processamento cognitivo está relacionado à ma...

  5. Dream recall frequency and content in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentes, Carla; Costa, João; Peralta, Rita; Pires, Joana; Sousa, Paula; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate morning dream recall frequency and content in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Fifty-two patients with pharmacoresistant TLE submitted to a written dream diary during five consecutive days and continuous video-electroencephalographic (video-EEG) monitoring. A matched control group of 41 healthy subjects completed the same diary at home. The number of recalled dreams (including long dreams) and nonrecalled dream mentation were collected, and the Dream Recall Rate (DRR) was calculated. Hall and Van de Castle dream content analysis was performed. Greater than 70% of patients with TLE (37 of 52) recall their dreams, but DRR rate in these patients is lower than in controls (p ≤ 0.001). Dream recall does not appear to be influenced by the presence of neuropsychological deficits nor seizure frequency. In dreams descriptions, TLE patients (vs. controls) have a higher percentage of familiarity in settings and fewer dreams with at least one success. Onirical activity of patients with TLE is different from that of healthy subjects. Our results support the role of mesial and neocortical temporal structures in dream experience. The selective activation of dysfunctional mesial structures may be responsible for some of the observed variability. However, dream content changes can also mirror social and psychological comorbidities of patients with epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Processamento visual da forma: análise de sistema linear e alguns paradigmas psicofísicos

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    Santos Natanael Antonio dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir alguns aspectos conceituais básicos da análise de Fourier enquanto ferramenta que fundamenta a perspectiva de filtros ou canais múltiplos de freqüências espaciais no estudo do processamento visual da forma. Serão também discutidos alguns dos principais paradigmas psicofísicos utilizados para caracterizar a resposta do sistema visual humano para filtros de freqüências espaciais de banda estreita. A análise de sistema linear e alguns paradigmas psicofísicos têm contribuído para o desenvolvimento teórico da percepção e do processamento visual da forma.

  7. Expressões teóricas dos processos de libertação: novos paradigmas

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    Manuel Alfonso Díaz Muñoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O objeto deste artigo é descrever os eixos comuns às três expressões teóricas dos processos de libertação e apontar os novos paradigmas propostos perante os desafios que a contemporaneidade apresenta com a ajuda dos autores mais representativos de cada área: na teologia, Gustavo Gutiérrez; na filosofia, Enrique Dussel; na pedagogia, Paulo Freire. A análise dos novos paradigmas é feita a partir de James Cone (raça e cultura, Wanda Deifelt (gênero, Leonardo Boff (ecologia, Hans Küng (diálogo e paz e Sturla Stalsett (globalização. O resultado é um artigo que pretende fundamentar os pressupostos de uma reflexão teológica/pedagógica libertadora contemporânea.

  8. EMOCIONES MORALES Y POLÍTICAS EN EL PARADIGMA DEL MAL: EL (NO LUGAR DE LA INFANCIA

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    MARIETA QUINTERO MEJÍA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En el campo de la filosofía, algunos teóricos han mostrado la importancia que tienen las emociones en la promoción de acciones orientadas al bien común. En oposición a estos presupuestos, encontramos el paradigma del mal, del cual se derivan reflexiones teóricas acerca del lugar de las emociones como activadoras de la crueldad. Se destaca el valor otorgado a la infancia en el aprendizaje de las emociones, pero también la afectación de hechos atroces en su sensibilidad (su no lugar Este artículo busca hacer una revisión de diferentes tesis comprensivas acerca de las emociones, su cultivo desde la infancia y su efecto en contextos atroces (paradigma del mal.

  9. Gloria Corpas Pastor, Investigar con corpus en traducción: los retos de un nuevo paradigma

    OpenAIRE

    Mira Rueda, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    La presente obra ha sido el fruto de una minuciosa investigación inspirada en la evolución que está llevando a cabo la Sociedad de la Información y el Espacio Europeo de Investigación en cuestión de investigación en corpus. De hecho, como la propia autora ya nos indica en el prefacio de su obra Investigar con corpus en traducción: los retos de un nuevo paradigma «el propósito del presente trabajo es reflexionar en torno al corpus como nuevo paradigma de investigación en Traductología». Dicho ...

  10. PARADIGMA PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI; SATU ANALISIS TINJAUAN ULANG DARI PERSPEKTIF EKONOMI ISLAM

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    SYAMSURI SYAMSURI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Paradigm of Economic Development; Perspective of Islamic Economics Analysis. The capitalist economic system has failed because the rich exploiting the poor and a socialist economic system justifies the poor seize property of the rich. This problem becomes an important issue for the Muslim economists. Paradigm both the liberal system is exploitative, unfair and treats people not as people. Not pay attention to moral values and akhlaqs, a dichotomy between religion and economics, make man a slave of development and not development for human. This paper is a reflection phenomenon of damage to the environment, social inequality and poverty not been abated. So the liberal economic theories and concepts need to be reviewed by presenting a new economic development concept that comes from revelation that is the Quran and hadith. Finally, from the discussion can be concluded that economic development can not be achieved except with implementing Islamic guidance in everything. And the nature of development must necessarily multi-dimensional, included the gratification of physical and ruh. Economic development must also be able to create a balance between individual interests and the interests of society, kindness balanced and consistent according the rules of Islam. Measure of the success of development if the concept of caliphate, ‘adalah, and tazkiyah can meet all basic needs of every human being and nature conservation around for the long term future generations. Abstrak. Paradigma Pembangunan Ekonomi; Satu Analisis Tinjauan Ulang Dari Perspektif Ekonomi Islam. Kegagalan sistem ekonomi kapitalis yang membenarkan orang kaya mengeksploitasi orang miskin, dan sistem sosialis membenarkan orang miskin merampas harta orang kaya menjadi satu isu penting bagi para ekonom muslim. Paradigma kedua sistem liberal tersebut bersifat eksploitatif dan tidak fair serta memperlakukan manusia bukan sebagai manusia. Mengesampingkan nilai moral dan akhlak

  11. Psicolingüística e educação: um novo paradigma para a pesquisa aplicada

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    Prucha, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Não há dúvida que a psicolingüística é uma fonte importante para a explicação de problemas educacionais. Isso se deve ao fato de que linguagem e comunicação são elementos constituintes de processos educacionais. Como conseqüência, uma área interdisciplinar chamada psicolingüística aplicada a educação se desenvolveu. Áreas de aplicação da psicolingüística no estudo de processos educacionais foram descritas alhures (Prucha, 1988. A metodologia da pesquisa em educação e outras ciências sociais têm passado por mudanças importantes durante as duas últimas décadas. Uma das mudanças mais relevantes é uma orientação nova de pesquisa empírica que é geralmente rotulada como paradigma pós-positivista. O novo paradigma foi elaborado em novas abordagens de pesquisa, geralmente chamadas qualitativas, etnográficas, naturalistas, entre outras. Quanto à pesquisa educacional, o novo paradigma já foi manifestado em alguns estudos empíricos (ver, entre outros, o "International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education". O foco principal deste trabalho é explicar a relevância do paradigma pós-positivista (qualitativo na pesquisa educacional. O argumento do autor é que estudos empíricos na área de psicolingüística aplicada à educação deveriam utilizar a metodologia qualitativa como um importante instrumento de investigação da comunicação humana

  12. Síndrome de personalidade interictal na epilepsia do lobo temporal não-dominante: relato de caso Interictal personality syndrome in temporal lobe epilepsy: case report

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    PAULO C. TREVISOL-BITTENCOURT

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de personalidade interictal na epilepsia do lobo temporal não-dominante consiste de hipossexualidade, hiperreligiosidade, alteração do humor e hipergrafia. Sua descrição, em 1974, foi seguida de extensa busca por estes sinais em uma vasta população de pacientes epilépticos. No entanto, estes estudos científicos fracassaram em encontrar este síndrome na epilepsia do lobo temporal em geral. Sua existência foi, por conseguinte, posta em dúvida. Apresentamos o caso de um senhor de 35 anos cuja peculiaridade hipergráfica é o desenho de plantas de construção civil em grande quantidade, além de hiperreligiosidade, hipossexualidade e circunstancialidade. É o primeiro relato deste tipo de expressão gráfica associada à epilepsia parcial complexa e esclerose mesial temporal. Dentre os mecanismos fisiopatológicos propostos, o mais coerente é o da hiperconexão temporal. Embora as crises possam ser controladas em grande parte dos casos com tratamento clínico ou cirúrgico, a sintomatologia comportamental é refratária ao tratamento psicoterápico.The syndrome of interictal personality in non-dominant temporal lobe epilepsy consists of hyposexuality, hyperreligiosity, humorlessness and hypergraphia. Its notification, in 1974, was followed by an extensive search for these traits in broad epileptic populations. Nevertheless, these statistical studies failed to match this syndrome in general temporal lobe epileptics, and its existence became then target of doubt. We report the case of a 35 year-old man presenting partial complex epilepsy, whose singularity lies in his sophisticated drawing abilities. The large amount of buildings and houses he paints expresses his hypergraphia. He also presents hyposexuality and hyperreligiosity. MRI shows right mesial temporal sclerosis. Temporal hyperconnection, caused by a basal temporal irritative focus, is the most probable pathophysiological mechanism. Epileptic fits can be controlled

  13. Paradigmas diversos no campo da assistência social e seus estabelecimentos assistenciais típicos

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    Silvio José Benelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando entender qual seria a situação das entidades que atendem a crianças e a adolescentes na atualidade, bem como a trama institucional que compõe esses estabelecimentos, procuramos formular um conjunto de possibilidades paradigmáticas que nos permitisse compreender como se configura o campo dialético de pulsações diversas, no qual as entidades estão situadas. Detectamos as figuras que associamos aos paradigmas homólogos da Caridade, da Promoção Humana, da Filantropia, do Clientelismo Assistencialista, da Assistência Social como Política de Estado e, finalmente, outro conjunto de acontecimentos que propomos designar como paradigma do Sujeito Cidadão, que associamos à perspectiva ética da Educação Popular. Tais possibilidades paradigmáticas vão das simplesmente diversas e contrárias, incluindo as similares e concorrentes, até as dialeticamente contraditórias. Seu espectro oscila entre a tutela e a cidadania. A caracterização didática desses paradigmas pode fornecer uma bússola, necessária num campo social altamente complexo, permitindo compreender a variedade dos efeitos éticos que promovem no campo social.

  14. Nem holismo nem individualismo metodológicos: Marcel Mauss e o paradigma da dádiva

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    Caillé Alain

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo se situa no contexto da crítica ao utilitarismo que vem sendo conduzida, desde o início dos anos 80, por um grupo de intelectuais reunidos em torno do MAUSS - Movimento Antiutilitarista nas Ciências Sociais, cujas idéias são divulgadas pela La Revue du MAUSS, publicada pela Editora La Découverte, em Paris. Alain Caillé procura resgatar a importância de Marcel Mauss no interior da escola sociológica francesa, ressaltando a contribuição deste autor clássico na sistematização inicial do paradigma do dom, que subsiste na modernidade, como o demonstram, em várias oportunidades, os colaboradores deste movimento antiutilitarista. Para Caillé, o paradigma do dom constitui o fundamento necessário de criação de uma teoria paradoxal e pluridimensional da ação, capaz de resolver a dicotomia clássica entre holismo e individualismo. No entanto, ressalta o diretor da Revue du MAUSS, na constituição do novo paradigma, as imbricações entre o dom e o simbolismo ainda permanecem imprecisas e algo misteriosas.

  15. Compreensões da Educação Ambiental: possibilidades e desafios do paradigma da complexidade

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    Filipi Vieira Amorim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2178-4582.2013v47n2p272 A contemporaneidade carrega consigo inúmeros desafios impostos ao ser humano. Cada vez mais, questões de ordem social, ambiental, educacional, etc., mostram-se interligadas; e interconectados, os desafios da atualidade emergem. Os seres humanos são convidados a compreender o metabolismo entre sociedade e Natureza, suas partes e seu todo, suas causas e agentes, sua complexidade. Por essas constatações é que propomos a reflexão teórica e epistemológica sobre a Educação Ambiental em suas possibilidades e desafios. Nosso aporte epistêmico é guiado pela Teoria da Complexidade, do pensador francês Edgar Morin (1921-. Esse percurso conceitual transpassa os princípios da ciência clássica e do paradigma dominante. É vislumbrado no paradigma emergente, o paradigma do pensamento complexo, mostrando que existem caminhos que entrelaçam conceito e discurso prático, conhecimentos e saberes, técnica e reflexão, filosofia e ciência.

  16. EL PARADIGMA EMERGENTE Y SU IMPACTO EN LA INVESTIGACIÓN EPISTEMOLÓGICA DE LAS CIENCIAS SOCIALES

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    Andrzej Lukomski Jurczynski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo quiere hacer visible cómo el paradigma emergente puede servir de apoyo de trabajo entre variasfacultades: Filosofía, Sistemas de Información y Documentación: Bibliotecología y Archivística. Este paradigmapermitió desarrollar una investigación interdisciplinar que se encuentra en curso y construir un grupo de se-milleros, cuyo objetivo fundamental es realizar un proceso de investigación formativa. En cuanto a la temáticaque pretendemos desarrollar, partimos del análisis del alcance por los paradigmas epistemológicos más relevantes adoptados por las ciencias, de modo especial las ciencias sociales. Para tal fin seguimos la concepcióndel paradigma emergente propuesta por Beynam (1978 y retomada por Martínez (1997, que se constituye enuna herramienta hermenéutica y un experimento mental, bajo el cual podemos organizar diferentes saberes ydesarrollar nuestra investigación, que pretende dar sustento científico y legitimar los sistemas de información ydocumentación: Bibliotecología y Archivística como disciplinas científicas.

  17. Imaging structural and functional brain networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Boris C.; Hong, SeokJun; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernasconi, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Early imaging studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) focused on the search for mesial temporal sclerosis, as its surgical removal results in clinically meaningful improvement in about 70% of patients. Nevertheless, a considerable subgroup of patients continues to suffer from post-operative seizures. Although the reasons for surgical failure are not fully understood, electrophysiological and imaging data suggest that anomalies extending beyond the temporal lobe may have negative impact on outcome. This hypothesis has revived the concept of human epilepsy as a disorder of distributed brain networks. Recent methodological advances in non-invasive neuroimaging have led to quantify structural and functional networks in vivo. While structural networks can be inferred from diffusion MRI tractography and inter-regional covariance patterns of structural measures such as cortical thickness, functional connectivity is generally computed based on statistical dependencies of neurophysiological time-series, measured through functional MRI or electroencephalographic techniques. This review considers the application of advanced analytical methods in structural and functional connectivity analyses in TLE. We will specifically highlight findings from graph-theoretical analysis that allow assessing the topological organization of brain networks. These studies have provided compelling evidence that TLE is a system disorder with profound alterations in local and distributed networks. In addition, there is emerging evidence for the utility of network properties as clinical diagnostic markers. Nowadays, a network perspective is considered to be essential to the understanding of the development, progression, and management of epilepsy. PMID:24098281

  18. A LA BÚSQUEDA DE UN PARADIGMA JURÍDICO MEDIOAMBIENTAL

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    Mario Ruiz Sanz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. El Derecho ambiental siempre será una realidad inacabada por la necesidad de superación que tiene el ser humano así como de disponer de los medios para conseguir sus objetivos, sean o no legítimos. La protección de medio ambiente quedará insuficiente ante nuevas realidades y problemas de aparición constante. Por este motivo, tiene una importancia básica para construir unas normas jurídicas aplicables tener en cuenta los paradigmas o modos de vida socialmente aceptados. Sin este requisito previo, puede haber una desconexión importante entre Derecho y Sociedad al valorar los mecanismos de protección medioambiental.ABSTRACT. The Environmental Law unfinished always be a reality by the need to overcome the human being as well as have the means to achieve their goals, whether or not legitimate. Environmental protection will be insufficient to new realities and problems of constant occurrence. For this reason, it has a basic importance to construct legal rules applicable to consider the paradigms or socially accepted ways of life. Without this prerequisite, there may be a significant disconnect between Law and Society to assess the mechanisms of environmental protection.

  19. Paradigmas de los efectos de las TIC en la cultura y en el conocimiento 

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    O Velarde

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los usos sociales de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación (TIC están transformando la cultura y el conocimiento. Este artículo analiza cómo se interpretan esas transformaciones y sus consecuencias, en la bibliografía científica y académica. Metodología. La investigación se basa en un análisis de contenido procedente de una muestra representativa de dicha bibliografía. Resultados. Se describe el repertorio de efectos culturales y cognitivos atribuidos a las aplicaciones de las TIC. Los argumentos contenidos en esas descripciones son las unidades que se analizan con metodologías sistémicas. Se muestra que tales descripciones se pueden transferir a tipologías, cuyos componentes y relaciones son representados en modelos. Conclusiones. En esos modelos se explica cómo los colectivos científicos configuran la producción de conocimiento referida a los efectos culturales y cognitivos de las TIC. Y se comprueba que los modelos enlazan con unos paradigmas determinados de las ciencias de la comunicación.

  20. El paradigma de las competencias hacia la educación superior

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    Hernando Rodríguez Zambrano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo trabaja el paradigma de las competencias en el ámbito de la educación superior, haciendo un recorrido exploratorio de la concepción y defi nición del término de competencia y el estado del arte desde diferentes visiones, estas defi nen las diversas clases de competencias y sus tendencias en los campos laboral y educativo. Con ello, se busca una aproximación a las siguientes preguntas: ¿qué es una competencia?, ¿qué es una competencia académica?, ¿qué es una competencia laboral?, ¿cuáles son los atributos de la competencia?, ¿cuáles son las evidencias que demuestran las competencias?, ¿cuáles son los indicadores o criterios de comparación del desempeño?, ¿cuál es la ventaja competitiva con el uso de las competencias?, entre otra

  1. El caso Breivik como paradigma de la nueva violencia política en Europa

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    Jesús Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras el doble atentado en Noruega del 22 de julio de 2011 cometido por Anders Behring Breivik, el terrorismo en Europa se enfrenta a una nueva amenaza. La novedad ideológica de Breivik es escasa, salvo por actualizar peligros que parecían del pasado. Por el contrario, su novedad operativa sí es relevante, ya que demuestra la posibilidad de la actuación de "lobos solitarios" en Europa y ejemplifica de qué manera el occidental medio puede actuar con un potencial muy alto de causar daños. Se concluye con el avance de un nuevo paradigma, el de sujetos que actúan movidos políticamente por un objetivo irrealizable, para favorecer a grupos que son extremadamente abstractos o no existen, lo que les proporciona un blindaje ideológico sin capacidad alta de movilización pero con destacadas cotas de destrucción.

  2. La universidad de servicio como paradigma de la educación superior

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    César Ramos Parra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es la formulación de una propuesta que propenda al desarrollo de una universidad prestadora de servicios, fortaleciendo en ella la Responsabilidad Social para contribuir a la solución de los problemas nacionales. Se analizan los elementos necesarios para el desarrollo de una cultura de Responsabilidad Social, a través de la normativa existente y se propone un nuevo modelo de gestión universitaria fundamentada en esos principios. La metodología empleada se fundamentó en un amplio estudio enmarcado en el paradigma positivista descriptivo, con trabajo de campo cuya población estuvo conformada por 75 docentes entre autoridades rectorales, personal de extensión, personal de investigación y personal de postgrado de LUZ, UNERMB, UNEFAB, UNESUR y UBV en el estado Zulia así como una profunda revisión bibliográfica. Entre las propuestas destacan: nueva estructura organizacional que responda a las tres funciones; lograr una relación más estrecha con los grupos de interés externos e impulsar una cultura fundamentada en la responsabilidad social.

  3. Paradigmas do desenvolvimento cognitivo: uma breve retrospectiva Paradigms of cognitive development: a brief retrospect

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    Suely de Melo Santana

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A cognição humana tem sido foco de diversas investigações no campo da psicologia do desenvolvimento, buscando-se construir um referencial teórico-empírico para orientar estudos e intervenções nesta direção. O debate tem se situado em torno de grandes paradigmas - piagetiano, neopiagetiano, processamento informacional, contextual e biológico-maturacional/neurociência cognitiva, sendo considerados, por vezes, enquanto referencial absoluto de verdade, e percebidos como excludentes entre si. O objetivo deste trabalho consiste em realizar uma breve retrospectiva dessas vertentes teóricas, buscando identificar pontos de interlocução entre elas, na tentativa de apreendê-las enquanto um corpo de conhecimentos que se complementam e integram vários olhares sobre a mente humana.The human cognition has been focused by diverse inquiries in the field of the development psychology, searching to construct a theoretician-empiricist referential to guide studies and interventions in this direction. The debate has been situated around great paradigms - Piagetian, Neopiagetian, informational and contextual processing and cognitive biological-maturational/neuroscience, being considered, sometimes, as an absolute referential of truth, and perceived as excludents among them. The objective of this work consists in carrying through a brief retrospect of these theoretical sources, searching to identify interlocution points between them, in the attempt to apprehend them while a body of knowledge that can complement and integrate some views about human mind.

  4. El humanismo como paradigma de la enfermería como ciencia

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    Núñez Gómez Nicolás Arturo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Humanism's philosophical conception is presented to development a paradigm of nursing science. The nursing from creation has been guided toward professional practice and category; of Care has been fundamental contribution. In this article our intends is to grow some fine general of reflection so that nurses contribute to development of a science called nursing and whose accent is man in their multiple dimensions.

    A partir del humanismo como concepción filosófica se presenta una propuesta para crear un paradigma de la enfermería como ciencia. Desde su creación, la enfermería se ha orientado hacia su práctica profesional y la categoría de cuidado ha sido su aporte fundamental. Este artículo se propone crear unas líneas generales de reflexión, para que las enfermeras aporten al desarrollo de una ciencia llamada enfermería y cuyo acento es el hombre en sus múltiples dimensiones.

  5. Novas possibilidades metodológicas: a quebra dos paradigmas qualitativo e quantitativo em psicologia

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    Edna Maria Peters Kahhale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato propõe uma metodologia materialista dialética de análise de dados que rompe com os paradigmas qualitativos e quantitativos, numa perspectiva transdisciplinar e complexa, tomando como categorias analíticas historicidade, identidade, narcisismo, efemeridade e transitoriedade. Relata-se o caso "O Climatério na Contemporaneidade", que utilizou discursos e escalas padronizadas. Nos resultados, construiu-se uma articulação entre os vários tipos de dados, a partir de uma análise estatística fatorial e de cluster para revelar tanto as semelhanças, quanto as diferenças entre as mulheres pesquisadas, além da formação de grupos qualitativos, de forma não arbitrária ou tendenciosa, baseada nas impressões dos pesquisadores. Demonstra-se criatividade metodológica que contempla a complexidade do objeto, ao construir um caminho metodológico original, baseado no pensamento dialético, que abarca tanto a diversidade quanto a totalidade do fenômeno, demonstrando que qualidade e quantidade, objetividade e subjetividade são duas faces de uma mesma moeda.

  6. Genealogia, ontologia e paradigma da informáticaGenealogy, ontology and informatics paradigm

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    Murilo Cardoso de Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento desse trabalho parte da obra “A Máquina Universal” de Pierre Lévy, excelente crítica da gestação da informática dentro da Razão Moderna, antes que Lévy se tornasse um total entusiasta das possibilidades desta tecnologia. Começamos por uma reflexão sobre a “máquina universal”, fundamento da informática e da informatização, passando em revista, brevemente, sua concepção. Avançamos sobre as ideias mentoras da máquina universal, sua genealogia e ontologia, no pensamento do "primeiro" Wittgenstein. Por último, uma breve análise do paradigma da informática formaliza as principais conclusões desta exposição.This paper seeks to explore the concept of the universal machine. We choose to focus on Lévy’s approach to introduce his little known initial theory about information technology and the digital culture that is arising thereupon.

  7. Un nuevo paradigma latinoamericano en la regulación de la comunicación

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    Romel Jurado Vargas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo propone la idea de que en realidad la región está interpelando el paradigma vigente, no solo porque éste, encarnado en la interpretación hegemónica del capitalismo individualista acerca de la libertad de expresión y universalizado a partir de la Declaración de Derechos Humanos, es insuficiente para procesar los conflictos, necesidades y demandas contemporáneas relacionadas con la comunicación y el desarrollo de los pueblos en el marco de la democracia y el Estado de Derecho, sino también porque no ha variado el estado de cosas en relación a las problemáticas, dependencias y exclusiones generadas en y desde el ámbito de la comunicación social desde hace 40 años, siendo que desde los 80 esta situación se consideraba inaceptable en Naciones Unidas, reclamándose un cambio urgente y radical.

  8. DE BATESON A INGOLD: PASSOS NA CONSTITUIÇÃO DE UM PARADIGMA ECOLÓGICO

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    Otávio Velho

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Em 2000 foi finalmente reeditado o mais importante livro de Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Nesse mesmo ano, foi lançado o livro de Tim Ingold, The Perception of the Environment, que retoma muitas das preocupações de Bateson. Este ensaio considera que esses dois eventos marcam passos importantes na constituição de um "paradigma ecológico", o qual vem responder a alguns dilemas que rondam a antropologia e abrir perspectivas para um diálogo interdisciplinar em novas bases.Gregory Bateson’s most important book, Steps to an Ecology of Mind, was finally re-edited in 2000. In the same year, Tim Ingold’s book, The Perception of the Environment, which takes up many of Bateson’s preocupations, was released. This essay proposes that these two events represent important steps towards an "ecological paradigm", which attempts to answer some of anthropology’s dilemas, and open up perspectives for interdisciplinary dialogue on new terms.

  9. Weber no Século XXI: Desafios e Dilemas de um Paradigma Weberiano

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    Carlos Eduardo Sell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Después de décadas de intensivo trabajo de exegesis de la obra de Weber, una amplia investigación realizada en Alemania sobre este autor condujo a la caracterización de su obra en torno al tema de la racionalización. A partir de este presupuesto, una nueva generación de investigadores viene intentando formular una propuesta de actualización de la teoría weberiana, por medio de su confrontación con los principales problemas de análisis de la sociología contemporánea. ¿Cuáles son las características del "paradigma weberiano" y cómo evaluarlo en términos de agenda teórica contemporánea? Con base en estas cuestiones, se examina, en primer lugar, cómo el programa de investigación weberiano se inserta en la disputa alrededor de la articulación entre agencia (plano micro y estructura (macro en la teoría social. El segundo eje de análisis trata la teoría de la modernidad y evalúa el intento de sus intérpretes de desplegar las investigaciones weberianas del plano de la génesis al plano de la diversificación de la modernidad (modernidades múltiples.

  10. Modificaciones del paradigma de gramáticas artificiales para niños

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    María Fernanda López-Ramón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es describir y analizar las modificaciones al paradigma de Gramáticas artificiales de Reber, que permiten su aplicación en niños a partir de la inclusión de juegos interactivos en soporte informático en dos formatos de presentación: alfabético y figurativo. Se trabajó con una muestra de 50 niños, divididos en dos grupos (tercero y quinto año de enseñanza general básica de una escuela estatal de Mar del Plata, Argentina. Las puntuaciones obtenidas en ambas pruebas de aprendizaje implícito mostraron ser significativas con respecto a lo esperado por azar. Las diferencias de las medias (para muestras relacionadas de los resultados de ambas pruebas no fueron significativas. Las modificaciones sugeridas implican un aporte para evaluar el Aprendizaje Implícito en niños con elementos estimulares y procedimentales basados en la retroalimentación que facilitan la adecuación de los niños a la lógica interna de las pruebas

  11. Paradigmas de interpretação constitucional: desafios ao entendimento das sociedades modernas

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    Daniel Barile da Silveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O constitucionalismo moderno trouxe consigo para a contemporaneidade complexas questões consoante àsdiversas formas de entendimento de um texto constitucional, o que levou a uma “crise de sentido” dos comandos trazidospela Constituição. Em R. Dworkin, a compreensão da Constituição como integridade é peça central na estruturação de umasociedade aberta e plural de indivíduos que se consideram mutuamente iguais. É dessa comunidade que emanam princípios,sempre compreendidos como normas, e não como valores. Ante esse pano de fundo, o presente trabalho visa a demonstrarqual a inadequabilidade de se entender uma comunidade não como sendo constituída por princípios, mas comose fosse uma “ordem concreta de valores” (R. Alexy, demonstrando quais os riscos que tal concepção carrega e como talproposta gera elementos inadequados para esse paradigma do constitucionalismo.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Constituição, Princípios, Robert Alexy, Ronald Dworkin.

  12. Una nota sobre complejidad y paradigma cualitativo (A Note Regarding Complexity and Qualitative Paradigm

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    Roberto Bueno Cuadra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En las ciencias sociales el tema de la complejidad se presenta con frecuencia en el marco de la discusión entre los paradigmas cuantitativo y cualitativo y en ese debate, casi siempre, es asociado con este último, sobre la base de que la complejidad implica, necesariamente, asumir un enfoque holístico, idiográfico, no reduccionista y comprensivo en las ciencias sociales. El presente artículo se propone argumentar en contra de ese supuesto mostrando que no se requiere ningún desplazamiento paradigmático hacia el enfoque cualitativo para asumir una visión compleja en las ciencias sociales. ABSTRACT: n social sciences, the subject of complexity arises frequently in the context of the discussion between the quantitative and qualitative paradigms and in that debate, it is almost always associated with the latter, on the basis, that complexty necessarily implies, taking a holistic, idiographic approach, not reductionist or comprehensive in the social sciences. This article intends to argue against that assumption, showing that any paradigm shift towards the qualitative approach is not required to assume a complex vision in social sciences.

  13. In vivo efficacy of three different endodontic irrigation systems for irrigant delivery to working length of mesial canals of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Hugo Roberto; Camacho-Cuadra, Karla

    2012-04-01

    Many in vitro studies have debated over the ability of different irrigant delivery and/or agitation systems to reach the apical third of curved root canals; however, little is known about irrigant penetration in vivo. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the conventional endodontic irrigation needle, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and a negative pressure system for irrigant delivery to working length (WL) of mesial canals of mandibular molars. Thirty mesial canals of 30 vital mandibular first or second molars were randomly assigned into 3 groups (n = 10): (1) Monoject syringe with 27-gauge needle; (2) PUI with IrriSafe tip; and (3) EndoVac system. All canals were treated following the same preparation protocol to size 35/0.04 by using 5.25% NaOCl as irrigant during preparation procedure. Before obturation, canals were irrigated with 1 mL of a radiopaque solution by using the assigned irrigation system, and a digital radiograph was taken by using a parallel technique. With the aid of image editing software the distance between WL and maximum irrigant penetration was measured. Mean distances for Monoject, PUI, and EndoVac groups were 1.51 mm, 0.21 mm, and 0.42 mm, respectively. Analysis of variance test showed statistically significant differences between groups (P endodontic needle in delivering irrigant to WL of root canals. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of meaningful improvement in quality of life after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Carla; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Diaz, Alexandre Paim; de Oliveira Thais, Maria Emilia Rodrigues; Kondageski, Charles; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Guarnieri, Ricardo; de Lemos Zingano, Bianca; Ben, Juliana; Nunes, Jean Costa; Markowitsch, Hans Joachim; Wolf, Peter; Wiebe, Samuel; Lin, Katia; Walz, Roger

    2017-05-01

    To investigate prospectively the independent predictors of a minimum clinically important change (MCIC) in quality of life (QOL) after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) in Brazilian patients. Multiple binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the clinical, demographic, radiologic, and electrophysiologic variables independently associated with MCIC in the Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 Inventory (QOLIE-31) overall score 1 year after ATL in 77 consecutive patients with unilateral MTLE-HS. The overall QOLIE-31 score and all its subscale scores increased significantly (p Canadian patients showing that presurgical depression and complete seizure control after surgery are independent predictors for meaningful improvement in QOL after ATL, and have implications for the surgical management of MTLE patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Sleep affects cortical source modularity in temporal lobe epilepsy: A high-density EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Felice, Alessandra; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Manganotti, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) constitute a perturbation of ongoing cerebral rhythms, usually more frequent during sleep. The aim of the study was to determine whether sleep influences the spread of IEDs over the scalp and whether their distribution depends on vigilance-related modifications in cortical interactions. Wake and sleep 256-channel electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded in 12 subjects with right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) differentiated by whether they had mesial or neocortical TLE. Spikes were selected during wake and sleep. The averaged waking signal was subtracted from the sleep signal and projected on a bidimensional scalp map; sleep and wake spike distributions were compared by using a t-test. The superimposed signal of sleep and wake traces was obtained; the rising phase of the spike, the peak, and the deflections following the spike were identified, and their cortical generator was calculated using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) for each group. A mean of 21 IEDs in wake and 39 in sleep per subject were selected. As compared to wake, a larger IED scalp projection was detected during sleep in both mesial and neocortical TLE (pEEG deflections followed the spike, the cortical sources of which displayed alternating activations of different cortical areas in wake, substituted by isolated, stationary activations in sleep in mesial TLE and a silencing in neocortical TLE. During sleep, the IED scalp region increases, while cortical interaction decreases. The interaction of cortical modules in sleep and wake in TLE may influence the appearance of IEDs on scalp EEG; in addition, IEDs could be proxies for cerebral oscillation perturbation. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Verbal learning and memory outcome in selective amygdalohippocampectomy versus temporal lobe resection in patients with hippocampal sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette Thrane; Vinter, Kirsten; Stauning, Louise

    2018-01-01

    of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) versus nonselective temporal lobe resection (TLR) on seizure outcome and cognition in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and histopathological verified hippocampal sclerosis (HS). METHODS: We identified 108 adults (>16years) with HS, operated between...... (MRI) signs of dual pathology, selective amygdalohippocampectomy results in sustained seizure freedom and better memory function compared with patients operated with nonselective temporal lobe resection....... 1995 and 2009 in Denmark. Exclusion criteria are the following: Intelligence below normal range, right hemisphere dominance, other native languages than Danish, dual pathology, and missing follow-up data. Thus, 56 patients were analyzed. The patients were allocated to SAH (n=22) or TLR (n=34) based...

  17. Depressed mood and memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy as a function of focus lateralization and localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstaedter, Christoph; Sonntag-Dillender, Markus; Hoppe, Christian; Elger, Christian E

    2004-10-01

    Memory disorders and depressed mood are prominent psychological symptoms of temporal lobe epilepsies (TLEs). We examined the interaction of depressive mood and memory as a function of focus localization. One hundred fifty-two TLE patients with right mesial (n=37, RTLE-AHS), right lateral (n=31, RTLE-LAT), left mesial (n=42, LTLE-AHS), and left lateral (n=42, LTLE-LAT) lesions and epilepsies underwent comprehensive presurgical evaluation and neuropsychological assessment of mood and memory. Univariate and multivariate analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and partial correlation analyses were performed to reveal interactions of depression and memory as a function of focus localization. No differences between the study groups were revealed for depression, indicating a general risk of 30% for depressed mood (BDI>12) in patients with TLE. ANCOVAs revealed significant main effects of focus side (left: verbal learning deficits; right: figural learning deficits) and site (mesial at disadvantage) on learning and memory scores. Correlation analyses revealed interactions between memory and mood only in LTLE-LAT patients. Although the data provide evidence that side and site of the epileptogenic region differentially affect material specific memory performance, there was no evidence of a specific temporal target region for depressive mood. In the majority of the patients, depressed mood and memory impairment appeared as independent rather than as related symptoms of TLE. In LTLE-LAT, however, mood was significantly related to verbal and figural memory performance. Epilepsy-driven pathological left temporofrontal circuits are discussed as a prerequisite for the coupling of mood disorders and memory impairment in this specific patient subgroup which is also known from the psychiatric major depression syndrome.

  18. Minimally invasive surgical approaches for temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward F.; Englot, Dario J.; Vadera, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Surgery can be a highly effective treatment for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The emergence of minimally invasive resective and nonresective treatment options has led to interest in epilepsy surgery among patients and providers. Nevertheless, not all procedures are appropriate for all patients, and it is critical to consider seizure outcomes with each of these approaches, as seizure freedom is the greatest predictor of patient quality of life. Standard anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) remains the gold standard in the treatment of TLE, with seizure freedom resulting in 60–80% of patients. It is currently the only resective epilepsy surgery supported by randomized controlled trials and offers the best protection against lateral temporal seizure onset. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy techniques preserve the lateral cortex and temporal stem to varying degrees and can result in favorable rates of seizure freedom but the risk of recurrent seizures appears slightly greater than with ATL, and it is not clear whether neuropsychological outcomes are improved with selective approaches. Stereotactic radiosurgery presents an opportunity to avoid surgery altogether, with seizure outcomes now under investigation. Stereotactic laser thermo-ablation allows destruction of the mesial temporal structures with low complication rates and minimal recovery time, and outcomes are also under study. Finally, while neuromodulatory devices such as responsive neurostimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and deep brain stimulation have a role in the treatment of certain patients, these remain palliative procedures for those who are not candidates for resection or ablation, as complete seizure freedom rates are low. Further development and investigation of both established and novel strategies for the surgical treatment of TLE will be critical moving forward, given the significant burden of this disease. PMID:26017774

  19. DEPDC5 mutations are not a frequent cause of familial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, Pasquale; Serioli, Elena; Santulli, Lia; Manna, Ida; Labate, Angelo; Dazzo, Emanuela; Pasini, Elena; Gambardella, Antonio; Michelucci, Roberto; Striano, Salvatore; Nobile, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in the DEPDC5 (DEP domain-containing protein 5) gene are a major cause of familial focal epilepsy with variable foci (FFEVF) and are predicted to account for 12-37% of families with inherited focal epilepsies. To assess the clinical impact of DEPDC5 mutations in familial temporal lobe epilepsy, we screened a collection of Italian families with either autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) or familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (FMTLE). The probands of 28 families classified as ADLTE and 17 families as FMTLE were screened for DEPDC5 mutations by whole exome or targeted massive parallel sequencing. Putative mutations were validated by Sanger sequencing. We identified a DEPDC5 nonsense mutation (c.918C>G; p.Tyr306*) in a family with two affected members, clinically classified as FMTLE. The proband had temporal lobe seizures with prominent psychic symptoms (déjà vu, derealization, and forced thoughts); her mother had temporal lobe seizures, mainly featuring visceral epigastric auras and anxiety. In total, we found a single DEPDC5 mutation in one of (2.2%) 45 families with genetic temporal lobe epilepsy, a proportion much lower than that reported in other inherited focal epilepsies. © 2015 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Non-invasive continuous EEG-fNIRS recording of temporal lobe seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Tremblay, Julie; Pouliot, Philippe; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Florea, Olivia; Carmant, Lionel; Lepore, Franco; Sawan, Mohamad; Lesage, Frédéric; Lassonde, Maryse

    2012-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a technique that allows continuous non-invasive monitoring of tissue oxygenation and haemodynamics in the brain. By using combined EEG-fNIRS recordings, we sought to better understand the pathophysiology of temporal lobe seizures. Nine patients (5 males; mean age 35 years; range 11-56 years) with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy underwent combined EEG-fNIRS recordings. Eight complex partial seizures from 3 patients were successfully recorded. All seizures were associated with significant local and remote haemodynamic changes which outlasted the duration of seizures. Over the epileptogenic temporal lobe, increased oxygenation [increase in cerebral blood volume (CBV) and oxyhaemoglobin (HbO), decrease in deoxyhaemoglobin (HbR)] was followed by a deoxygenated state [increase in HbR]. A similar haemodynamic profile was seen over the contralateral temporal lobe (even without evidence of epileptic propagation) though variations generally had lower amplitudes. Heterogeneous haemodynamic changes in remote frontal and/or parietal areas were also noted early on when epileptic activity was limited to the temporal lobe. EEG-fNIRS reveals complex local and remote oxygenation changes during temporal lobe seizures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Familial temporal lobe epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia type IIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabera, Petr; Krijtova, Hana; Tomasek, Martin; Krysl, David; Zamecnik, Josef; Mohapl, Milan; Jiruska, Premysl; Marusic, Petr

    2015-09-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) represents a common cause of refractory epilepsy. It is considered a sporadic disorder, but its occasional familial occurrence suggests the involvement of genetic mechanisms. Siblings with intractable epilepsy were referred for epilepsy surgery evaluation. Both patients were examined using video-EEG monitoring, MRI examination and PET imaging. They underwent left anteromedial temporal lobe resection. Electroclinical features pointed to left temporal lobe epilepsy and MRI examination revealed typical signs of left-sided hippocampal sclerosis and increased white matter signal intensity in the left temporal pole. PET examination confirmed interictal hypometabolism in the left temporal lobe. Histopathological examination of resected tissue demonstrated the presence FCD type IIIa, i.e. hippocampal sclerosis and focal cortical dysplasia in the left temporal pole. We present a unique case of refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in siblings, characterized by an identical clinical profile and histopathology of FCD type IIIa, who were successfully treated by epilepsy surgery. The presence of such a high concordance between the clinical and morphological data, together with the occurrence of epilepsy and febrile seizures in three generations of the family pedigree points towards a possible genetic nature of the observed FCD type IIIa. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Die integrasie van humoristiese tekste in die opleiding van taalonderwysstudente binne 'n konstruktivistiese paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Kruger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Die artikel beskryf ’n gevallestudie waarin humoristiese tekste in die onderrig van Afrikaans aan onderwysstudente geïntegreer is. Die betrokke navorsingsprogram is gebaseer op 'n onderrigprogram wat binne 'n konstruktivistiese paradigma ontwerp en aangebied is. Ná 'n literatuuroorsig van bestaande navorsing wat die aanwending van humor in onderrigsituasies regverdig, word die navorsingsmetode binne 'n kwalitatiewe raamwerk bespreek. Verskillende fases van die onderrigprogram geniet aandag, aangevul deur voorbeelde van onderrigmateriaal en -vrae om die leergebeure te fasiliteer. Laastens volg 'n bespreking van bevindinge wat uit die navorsingsprogram gespruit het, met spesifieke verwysing na die waarde van die skryf van limerieke en parodieë, asook webgebaseerde rolspeldebatte en virtuele kletskamers as deel van rekenaarondersteunde taalonderrig. Ter afronding word die deelnemende studente se refleksie en kommentaar op die onderrigprogram ook in aanmerking geneem. This article describes a case study in which humorous texts have formed part of the method of teaching Afrikaans course for education students. This particular research focuses on a teaching programme conceptualised and executed within a constructivist paradigm. A literature review of research on the use of humour in teaching purposes is followed by a description of the qualitative methodology used. Specific examples of the educational material used in the different phases of the teaching programme and the questions posed to facilitate the learning process are then provided. This is followed by a discussion of the results of the research programme, focusing on the value of writing limericks and parodies, as well as on web-based role-play and chatrooms forming part of computer-assisted language teaching. The article ends with reflection and commentary by the education students who participated in the research programme.

  3. La conjura de Cinadón ¿paradigma de resistencia de los dependientes lacedemonios?

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    César FORNIS VAQUERO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El prâgma de Cinadón ha tenido lecturas muy dispares en la historiografía moderna en función de la idea que los estudiosos se han formado de las clases dependientes lacedemonias y en particular de los hilotas: si unos minimizan el peligro de la conspiración, otros la toman como paradigma de subversión contra el orden establecido. Nuestro análisis nos conduce a concluir que el episodio significó una amenaza cierta para los hómoioi o «iguales», pero que no provenía de la clase hilota, sino de los «aledaños» del cuerpo cívico, de individuos con estatuto jurídico inclasificable y posición social ambigua privados del pleno disfrute de los derechos políticos y económicos en la Esparta imperial de comienzos del siglo IV a.C.ABSTRACT: In modern historiography the prâgma of Cinadon had had very different interpretations according to the idea that the scholars had formed on the Lacedaimonian dependent classes and particularly on the helots. So, if some of them undervalue the threat of the conspiracy, others take it as paradigm of subversion against the stablished order. Our analysis leads to conclude that the episode meant a real menace against the hómoioi or «pairs»; however it did not came from the helot class, but from the boundaries of the civic body, from individuals with unclassifiable juridical status and ambiguous social position deprived of full citizenship in the imperial Sparta of the early fourth century b.C.

  4. MUDANÇAS DE PARADIGMAS NA GESTÃO DO PROFISSIONAL DE SECRETARIADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira da Silva Shimoura

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste mercado instável, com mudanças contínuas, torna-se necessário que os profissionais busquem, cada vez mais, qualificação e se preparem para uma competitividade avassaladora, buscando alternativas para o seu desenvolvimento. O profissional de secretariado evoluiu e se desenvolveu muito ao longo de uma trajetória de lutas e conquistas, incluindo a globalização e a revolução tecnológica. O perfil desse profissional mudou e, hoje, observa-se que ele atua como cogestor, empreendedor e consultor, trabalhando o operacional, mas com foco no resultado. A profissão conquistou muitas vitórias: promulgação das leis de regulamentação, código de ética, a criação da Federação Nacional das Secretárias e Secretários e Sindicatos de Classe no Brasil todo, entre outros. Mas, mesmo com toda essa evolução, ainda existem empresas e/ou gestores que não acreditam na mudança de paradigmas dessa profissão; julgam que o trabalho é o mesmo das décadas passadas. Assim, a presente pesquisa buscou investigar quais são as competências desejáveis a fim de que o profissional de secretariado contribua para a gestão de resultados da empresa.

  5. Teoria, conhecimento e pragmática da comunicação: o paradigma pulsional

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    Potiguara Mendes da Silveira Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parte-se do estado da arte feito por Muniz Sodré (2012a sobre a abordagem acadêmica do campo comunicacional e a dificuldade para defini-lo em seu aspecto "científico". No intuito de prospectar além dos paradigmas identificados por Sodré (o sociológico, dos efeitos; e o semiótico, dos códigos, propõe-se o paradigma pulsional que orienta a Transformática, teoria psicanalítica da comunicação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Teorias da comunicação; Conhecimento; Psicanálise.   ABSTRACT According to the state of the art - made by Muniz Sodré (2012a - of  the academic approach of the communication field, there is a great difficulty in defining this field as "scientific". In order to examine beyond the two paradigms depicted by Sodré (sociological and semiotic this paper exposes the "drive (Freud: Trieb paradigm" which is the basis of Transformatics, the psychoanalytical theory of communication. KEYWORDS: Communication theories; Knowledge; Psychoanalysis.   RESUMEN Se inicia con el estado de la técnica hecha por Muniz Sodré (2012a en el enfoque académico del campo de la comunicación y la dificultad de definirla en su aspecto "científico". Con el fin de perspectiva más allá de los paradigmas identificados por Sodre (la sociológicos, los efectos y los semióticos, códigos, se propone paradigma instintivo que guía Transformática, la teoría psicoanalítica de la comunicación.  PALABRAS CLAVE: Teorías de la Comunicación; conocimiento; Psicoanálisis.   Referências ALONSO, Aristides. Aspectos do verbo Haver e seu uso na Nova Psicanálise. TranZ: Revista dos Estudos Transitivos do Contemporâneo, v. 5, 2010. Acessar: http://www.tranz.org.br/5_edicao/TranZ10-Aristides-VerboHaver-RevMD.pdf CUSA, Nicolau de. [1514] Deus é visto para lá da coincidência dos contraditórios e o seu ver é ser. In: A visão de Deus. Lisboa: Gulbenkian, 1988. p. 168-171 FREUD, S. [1930] Mal-estar na Civilização. ESB, vol. XXI. Rio de Janeiro: Imago, 1976

  6. As relações de trabalho em uma empresa global: um novo paradigma ou neocorporativismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo José França Mazzei Nogueira

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata das relações de trabalho em uma empresa global e foi resultado de pesquisa em uma montadora de caminhões instalada na região do ABC no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A empresa estudada apresenta um padrão dos mais avançados na dimensão organizacional das relações de trabalho ou no local de trabalho considerado o contexto brasileiro. A solução de conflitos do trabalho nesta empresa aponta fortemente para um padrão negocial em relação ao estatutário (Zylberstajn e Pastore, 1985, o que levou alguns autores a indicar um modo de cooperação-conflitiva para lidar com as relações de trabalho (Rodrigues, 1997 e uma via institucionalizada de inserção dos trabalhadores nos processos de inovação tecnológica e gerencial (Bresciani, 2002. O esquema montado dentro da empresa foi resultado da estratégia do sindicato no local de trabalho e da gestão da empresa em particular da gestão de recursos humanos. A análise da experiência permitiu verificar além de um paradigma avançado de relações de trabalho, a afirmação de uma tendência ao corporativismo societário ou neo-corporativismo em relação ao corporativismo estatal típico do sistema trabalhista brasileiro.

  7. Nuevo paradigma normativo sobre la ciudad: Retornando a la ciudad tradicional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejedor, J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spanish urbanism has been characterized historically for giving priority to the urban sprawl and new buildings. The attention to the existing urban space and buildings has been marginal in the legislation and slightly systematic in the practice. After the explosion of the real-estate bubble, but not only for this reason, the economic and financial reality of Spain, has turned into a priority the treatment of cities and buildings with new approaches, promoting integrated and energetically efficient urban regeneration, stimulating a new normative paradigm with the Act 8/2013, of June 26, regarding urban renewal, regeneration and renovation.El urbanismo español ha primado siempre el ensanche y la nueva edificación. La atención al tejido urbano y la edificación existentes ha sido marginal en la legislación y poco sistemática en la práctica. Tras la explosión de la burbuja inmobiliaria, pero no solo por esa razón, la realidad económica y financiera del país ha convertido en prioridad lo que era una necesidad, abordar con nuevos planteamientos el tratamiento de la ciudad y la edificación, promoviendo su regeneración integrada y energéticamente eficiente, impulsando un nuevo paradigma normativo mediante la Ley 8/2013, de 26 de junio, de rehabilitación, regeneración y renovación urbana.

  8. Tempo e reciprocità: leve di un nuovo paradigma socioeconomico

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    Paolo Coluccia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Questo saggio tenta di mettere a fuoco la mia riflessione filosofica e la mia attuale ricerca sociale ed economica. Nella sostanza ripropongo gli argomenti da me già trattati in occasione del Colloque International sur l'Aprés-Développement "Défaire le développement, refaire le monde" (Parigi, UNESCO, marzo 2002. Il tempo, la reciprocità e la condivisione delle risorse, se opportunamente ripensati, possono rappresentare una chance per poter ancora vivere insieme, liberi, uguali e diversi, in un mondo responsabile, plurale e solidale. Inoltre possono inaugurare un nuovo paradigma socioeconomico. "Rammentiamo che, per gran parte dell'era moderna, abbiamo associato al concetto di libertà quello di autonomia, e fatto coincidere l'autonomia con la capacità di offrire il nostro lavoro sul mercato. I frutti del lavoro - la proprietà - sono stati considerati simboli della nostra libertà. Il diritto di escludere gli altri da ciò che ci appartiene è stato considerato il miglior modo di proteggere la nostra autonomia e la nostra libertà personale. La vera libertà, però, è figlia della condivisione, non del possesso: non si può essere davvero liberi, se non si può condividere, provare un sentimento di empatia nei confronti dell'altro, abbracciarsi" (Rifkin, 2000. Una versione più ampia ed approfondita di questo saggio si trova con il titolo "Monete locali per il bene comune: lo spirito del SEL" nel libro collettivo curato da Edward Goldsmith Processo alla globalizzazione, Arianna Editrice, Casalecchio (BO, 2002.

  9. NUEVO PARADIGMA EN LA GESTIÓN ORGANIZACIONAL: GESTIÓN DEL CONOCIMIENTO

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    William Boet Cisneros

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación exhaustiva, que tuvo la finalidad de proponer indicadores que permitieran medir el capital intangible de la organización. La motivación principal a la hora de emprender este trabajo estuvo condicionada por la ausencia de una metodología, con valores científicos apropiados para la selección de los indicadores del capital intangible (conocimientos en el Centro Universitario de Guantánamo. Para que el conocimiento se convierta en fuente de ventajas competitivas no basta con que exista, es necesario que se pueda capturar, crear, distribuir, almacenar, compartir y utilizar por los miembros de la organización, y es precisamente a través de la gestión del conocimiento, que se logran estos propósitos, de ahí la actualidad de este trabajo. El objeto de la investigación es dar respuesta a la hipótesis siguiente: Si se aprovechan las capacidades intelectuales de la organización, de forma que desarrolle su capacidad de aprendizaje, que potencie la innovación constante y la creación de nuevos conocimientos y que desarrolle los sistemas y la tecnología necesaria para ello, el Centro Universitario de Guantánamo estará en condiciones de afrontar los retos futuros, y asumir el nuevo paradigma, convertir el capital intelectual en capital financiero

    .

  10. Dolor y modalidades físicas: un nuevo paradigma en fisioterapia

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    Marco Antonio Morales Osorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las modalidades físicas son todas aquellas herramientas que posee el fisioterapeuta para intervenir con fines curativos; sin embargo, el aumento de las publicaciones científicas ha llevado a la necesidad de conocer la efectividad de estas modalidades en relación con el tratamiento del dolor. El objetivo de esta revisión fue entregar al lector conocimientos actualizados, referenciados y evidenciados sobre el dolor y la aplicación clínica de las modalidades físicas para su tratamiento. Se realizó una búsqueda de la mejor evidencia disponible para intentar responder la pregunta de investigación, la cual se sustenta en el paradigma que trae consigo la aplicación de las modalidades físicas más utilizadas (Crioterapia y Termoterapia, Ultrasonido Terapéutico, Laserterapia y Electroterapia. Hasta ahora el número de ensayos clínicos y revisiones sistemáticas que avalan el uso de las modalidades físicas para el manejo del dolor es muy limitado, sumado a la baja calidad metodológica de los ensayos clínicos disponibles. Muchos de los sustentos del uso de las modalidades físicas vienen acompañados de difusos fundamentos fisiológicos y sustento científico con demostraciones in vitro, mas no in vivo. A esto se le suma una limitada cantidad de información sobre los parámetros que se aplican para el manejo del dolor, por lo cual no es posible establecer conclusiones sobre la recomendación de la aplicación clínica de todas las modalidades físicas analizadas para el manejo del dolor.

  11. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Most database applications manage time-referenced, or temporal, data. Temporal data management is difficult when using conventional database technology, and many contributions have been made for how to better model, store, and query temporal data. Temporal aggregation illustrates well the problem...

  12. Temporal epilepsy lesions may be detected by the voxel-based quantitative analysis of brain FDG-PET images using an original block-matching normalization software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Yagdigul, Yalcin; Van Der Gucht, Axel; Poussier, Sylvain; Guedj, Eric; Maillard, Louis; Malandain, Grégoire; Hossu, Gabriela; Fay, Renaud; Karcher, Gilles; Marie, Pierre-Yves

    2016-05-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) provides useful voxel-by-voxel analyses of brain images from (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after an initial step of spatial normalization through an anatomical template model. In the setting of the preoperative workup of patients with temporal epilepsy, this study aimed at assessing a block-matching (BM) normalization method, where most transformations are computed through small blocks, a principle that minimizes artefacts and overcomes additional image-filtering. Brain FDG-PET images from 31 patients with well-characterised temporal lobe epilepsy and among whom 22 had common mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were retrospectively analysed using both BM and conventional SPM normalization methods and with PET images from age-adjusted controls. Different threshold p values corrected for cluster volume were considered (0.01, 0.005, and 0.001). The use of BM provided equivalent values to those of SPM with regard to the overall volumes of temporal and extra-temporal hypometabolism, as well as similar sensitivity for detecting the involved temporal lobe, reaching 87 and 94 % for SPM and BM, respectively, at a threshold p value of 0.01. However, the ability to more accurately localize brain lesions within the mesial portion of the temporal lobe was a little higher with BM than with SPM with respective sensitivities reaching 78 % for BM and 45 % for SPM (p < 0.05). BM normalization compares well with conventional SPM for the voxel-based quantitative analysis of the FDG-PET images from temporal epilepsy patients. Further studies in different population are needed to determine whether BM is truly an accurate alternative to SPM in this setting.

  13. Recovery from emotion recognition impairment after temporal lobectomy

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    Francesca eBenuzzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE can be associated with emotion recognition impairment that can be particularly severe in patients with early onset seizures (1-3. Whereas there is growing evidence that memory and language can improve in seizure-free patients after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL (4, the effects of surgery on emotional processing are still unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate short-term reorganization of networks engaged in facial emotion recognition in MTLE patients. Behavioral and fMRI data were collected from six patients before and after ATL. During the fMRI scan, patients were asked to make a gender decision on fearful and neutral faces. Behavioral data demonstrated that two patients with early-onset right MTLE were impaired in fear recognition while fMRI results showed they lacked specific activations for fearful faces. Post-ATL behavioral data showed improved emotion recognition ability, while fMRI demonstrated the recruitment of a functional network for fearful face processing. Our results suggest that ATL elicited brain plasticity mechanisms allowing behavioral and fMRI improvement in emotion recognition.

  14. Comprensión de la deprivación afectiva a partir del paradigma fenomenológico - existencial

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Arturo Jaramillo Moreno; Mercedes Claudia García Escallon

    2007-01-01

    El maltrato infantil y específicamente la deprivación afectiva es una práctica validada y trasmitida al interior de distintos núcleos sociales, la familia, la escuela y el estado, lo anterior aumenta la necesidad de tomar medidas que permitan actualizar y ampliar los actuales paradigmas que le explican y comprenden. En el presente artículo se propone la comprensión de la deprivación afectiva como una forma de maltrato infantil que va en deterioro del desarrollo, potencializacio...

  15. A psicologia na educação: dos paradigmas científicos às finalidades educacionais

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    Marcus Vinicius da Cunha

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa algumas teorias psicológicas e suas contribui��ões para a educação. Discute estas teorias sob a concepção de paradigma, originária de Thomas Kuhn, e propõe que o único critério para aceitá-las ou recusá-las no campo educacional é o estabelecimento de finalidades educacionais.This article analyses some psychologycal theories and their contributions to education. It discusses them under Thomas Kuhn’s conception of paradigm and purpose that educational aims are the only criterion to accept or refuse them.

  16. A psicologia na educação: dos paradigmas científicos às finalidades educacionais

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha Marcus Vinicius da

    1998-01-01

    Este artigo analisa algumas teorias psicológicas e suas contribui��ões para a educação. Discute estas teorias sob a concepção de paradigma, originária de Thomas Kuhn, e propõe que o único critério para aceitá-las ou recusá-las no campo educacional é o estabelecimento de finalidades educacionais.This article analyses some psychologycal theories and their contributions to education. It discusses them under Thomas Kuhn’s conception of paradigm and purpose that educational aims are the only crite...

  17. Determinantes del salario en Chile. Un análisis desde el paradigma de la reproducción social

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    Rodrigo, Luis Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We use the sociological paradigm of Social Reproduction, proposed by the work of Pierre Bourdieu, to explain the wage gap in Chile, in opposition to the Neoclassical economic paradigm, currently hegemonic in the analysis of wage differentials. We expose and compare both theoretical paradigms and describe the case study highlighting the peculiarities of the Chilean neoliberal model. We estimate the salary of the Chilean population in order to explain the explanatory capacity of both theoretical approaches. We estimate two statistical models using the National Socioeconomic Characterization survey (CASEN 2009, firstly, the Neoclassical model based on Mincer equations and, secondly, a model that tries to empirically capture the explanatory factors specific to the paradigm of Social Reproduction. The results indicate that, in the case of Chile, the Reproductive model has greater explanatory power than the Neoclassical model, both for the whole group of workers, and for each of the generations of this group.Frente al paradigma económico neoclásico, hegemónico en la explicación del salario, se presenta el paradigma sociológico de la Reproducción Social, a partir de la obra de Pierre Bourdieu, para dar cuenta de la diferencia salarial en Chile. Después de exponer y comparar ambos paradigmas teóricos, se describe el caso de estudio, destacando las peculiaridades del modelo neoliberal chileno. Para comparar la capacidad explicativa de ambos enfoques, se estima el salario de los chilenos mediante la encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional 2009 (CASEN a partir de dos modelos estadísticos, el modelo neoclásico basado en las ecuaciones de Mincer y un modelo que trata de capturar empíricamente los factores explicativos propios del paradigma de la Reproducción Social. Los resultados indican que, en el caso de Chile, el modelo Reproductivo tiene mayor capacidad explicativa que el Neoclásico, tanto para el conjunto de los asalariados

  18. La cultura de paz como parte del paradigma emergente de la posmodernidad y la socio-hermenéutica.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Molina, Lidia; Romay Coca, Juan; Gomez Redondo, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Producción Científica En el intento de buscar un marco donde Cultura de Paz y medios sociales y educativos converjan sin las disonancias propias de la realidad postindustrial, los autores de estas páginas apuestan por una revisión de los discursos hegemónicos que sustentan los viejos paradigmas, en favor de presupuestos propugnados por la Educación para la Paz y su materialización que vayan más allá del proceso investigador, legislativo y/o teórico. Así, y tras un breve recorrido por su hi...

  19. Construção de um novo paradigma da psicologia do trabalho por meio do axiodrama

    OpenAIRE

    Lago, Angela Maria Chagas Villasuso; Florez, Julianna Emma Rodvany

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi divulgar a utilização do psicodrama num âmbito socio­educacional e incentivar a população acadêmica a vivenciaribuscar novas alternativas de atuação profissional. Vivemos um momento de mudanças de paradigma, da simplicidade para a complexidade, segundo Morin, acarretando muitos dilemas éticos e a necessidade de reflexão sobre valores. Como psicólogos organizacionais precisamos refletir sobre essas mudanças e encontrar formas de atuação para assumir novos desafios...

  20. Paradigma Experimental en la Ingeniería de Software: Caso Programación en Pareja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S. Gómez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: La Ingeniería de Software (IS es una disciplina compleja donde a día de hoy el resultado de la aplicación de alguna tecnología para apoyar el desarrollo de software es impredecible. De manera similar a otras disciplinas ingenieriles, la IS requiere de construcción de modelos, experi-mentación y aprendizaje. La experimentación es un recurso va-lioso que permite evaluar de manera objetiva las distintas tecnologías disponibles para desarrollar software. Objetivo: Con la finalidad de promover el paradigma experimental en la IS, en este artículo se aplica el paradigma experimental para estudiar algunos efectos de la programación en pareja. Método: A través de un diseño experimental cuadrado latino con dos factores de bloqueo, se emplearon 21 estudiantes del programa de licen-ciatura en IS de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán (UADY para examinar la duración y esfuerzo que conlleva la progra-mación en pareja. Los estudiantes se agruparon en 7 parejas y 7 individuos donde codificaron durante dos sesiones dos programas pequeños. Resultados: Los resultados del experimento sugieren una diferencia significativa (en un nivel α=0.1 en favor de la programación en pareja con respecto a la duración de codi-ficación de los ejercicios asignados (28% decremento en tiempo. Por el contrario, los resultados sugieren una diferencia signifi-cativa (en un nivel α=0.1 en favor de la programación individual con respecto al esfuerzo (30% decremento en esfuerzo. Conclu-siones: En este artículo se presenta el paradigma experimental aplicado a la IS. A través del paradigma experimental es posible obtener observaciones de manera objetiva para acumular un cuerpo de conocimientos que pueda ser usado de manera confía-ble por profesionales en IS.

  1. Paradigmas em psicologia: compreensões acerca da saúde e dos estudos epidemiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Sarriera Jorge Castellá; Moreira Mariana Calesso; Rocha Kátia Bones; Bonato Taís Nicoletti; Duso Rafaela; Prikladnicki Sabrina

    2003-01-01

    O presente artigo tem como objetivo investigar de que forma a saúde é entendida pelos diferentes paradigmas em psicologia e como são avaliados os estudos epidemiológicos. Para tanto, entrevistou-se sete pesquisadores e profissionais da área da psicologia do Brasil, Espanha e Argentina, que orientam suas práticas pelos seguintes referenciais teóricos e metodológicos: social-crítico, clínico (enfoque psicodinâmico e cognitivo-comportamental), ecológico-contextual e comunitário. A partir dos dad...

  2. Paradigma, ética y gestión (a propósito de la responsabilidad social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltazar Caravedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La responsabilidad social es un nuevo paradigma que orienta el comportamiento de las organizaciones y la percepción de la población con relación a aquellas La responsabilidad social de la empresa se ha convertido en un tema y un proceso indispensables para la transformación  social , todavía se requiere extenderlos a otras organizaciones de la sociedad además de adecuarse a las nuevas exigencias de la sociedad y del mercado.  

  3. A SA8000 e a responsabilidade social das empresas: a emergência de um novo paradigma?

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ana Catarina Marques Figueiredo Caetano

    2004-01-01

    Mestrado em Desenvolvimento e Cooperação Internacional A Responsabilidade Social das Empresas, não é um tema novo. Durante muito tempo foi discutido e interpretado no âmbito do debate sobre as responsabilidades que uma empresa deve assumir para além daquelas que tem perante os seus accionistas, e das impostas por lei. Hoje, observamos a emergência de um novo paradigma assente no reconhecimento que o sector privado não só pode, mas deve, fazer mais para combater a pobreza, preservar o meio ...

  4. Memory assessment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy to predict memory impairment after surgery: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Díaz, P; García-Casares, N

    2017-04-19

    Given that surgical treatment of refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy may cause memory impairment, determining which patients are eligible for surgery is essential. However, there is little agreement on which presurgical memory assessment methods are best able to predict memory outcome after surgery and identify those patients with a greater risk of surgery-induced memory decline. We conducted a systematic literature review to determine which presurgical memory assessment methods best predict memory outcome. The literature search of PubMed gathered articles published between January 2005 and December 2015 addressing pre- and postsurgical memory assessment in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients by means of neuropsychological testing, functional MRI, and other neuroimaging techniques. We obtained 178 articles, 31 of which were included in our review. Most of the studies used neuropsychological tests and fMRI; these methods are considered to have the greatest predictive ability for memory impairment. Other less frequently used techniques included the Wada test and FDG-PET. Current evidence supports performing a presurgical assessment of memory function using both neuropsychological tests and functional MRI to predict memory outcome after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy of ultrasonic activation of NaOCl and orange oil in removing filling material from mesial canals of mandibular molars with and without isthmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Sangoi BARRETO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the volume of remaining filling material after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and orange oil in mesial canals of mandibular molars, with and without isthmus. Material and Methods Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars were divided according to the presence or absence of isthmus. Canals were prepared and filled (Micro-CT #1. Filling was removed using rotary instruments, and specimens were sub-divided into three groups according to the irrigation procedures: Conventional – conventional irrigation with NaOCl, PUI/NaOCl – PUI of NaOCl (three activations, 20 seconds each, and PUI/orange oil – PUI of orange oil (Micro-CT#2. Specimens were enlarged using the X2 and X3 ProTaper Next instruments and submitted to the same irrigation protocols (Micro-CT #3. Results No differences were found between the experimental groups in each stage of assessment (P>0.05. The volume of residual filling material was similar to that in Micro-CT #2 and Micro-CT #3, but lower than that observed in Micro-CT #1 (P<0.05. When groups were pooled according to the presence or absence of an isthmus, volume of residual filling material was higher in specimens presenting isthmus (P<0.05. Conclusions PUI of NaOCl or orange oil did not improve filling removal. Isthmus consists in an anatomical obstacle that impairs the removal of filling material.

  6. Remote preoperative tonic-clonic seizures do not influence outcome after surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Rabiei, Amin H; Gracely, Edward J; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-10-15

    Tonic-clonic seizures are associated with greater chance of seizure relapse after anterior temporal lobectomy. We investigated whether the interval between the last preoperative tonic-clonic seizure and surgery relates to seizure outcome in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). In this retrospective study, patients were prospectively registered in a database from 1986 through 2014. Postsurgical outcome was categorized as seizure freedom or relapse. The relationship between surgical outcome and the interval between the last preoperative tonic-clonic seizure and surgery was investigated. One-hundred seventy-one patients were studied. Seventy nine (46.2%) patients experienced tonic-clonic seizures before surgery. Receiver operating characteristic curve of timing of the last preoperative tonic-clonic seizure was a moderate indicator to anticipate surgery failure (area under the curve: 0.657, significance; 0.016). The best cutoff that maximizes sensitivity and specificity was 27months; with a sensitivity of 0.76 and specificity of 0.60. Cox-Mantel analysis confirmed that the chance of becoming free of seizures after surgery in patients with no or remote history of preoperative tonic-clonic seizures was significantly higher compared with patients with a recent history (i.e., in 27months before surgery) (p=0.0001). The more remote the occurrence of preoperative tonic-clonic seizures, the better the postsurgical seizure outcome, with at least a two year gap being more favorable. A recent history of tonic-clonic seizures in a patient with MTLE may reflect more widespread epileptogenicity extending beyond the borders of mesial temporal structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Um retorno ao básico: compreendendo os paradigmas de pesquisa e sua aplicação na pesquisa em administração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarolinda Zanela Saccol

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda os diferentes paradigmas que devem guiar a escolha de estratégias de pesquisa na área de Administração, discutindo as principais características de dois desses paradigmas: o positivismo (fortemente relacionado a pesquisas de natureza quantitativa, e o interpretativismo (fortemente relacionado a pesquisas de natureza qualitativa. A compreensão desses paradigmas é fundamental para a escolha de uma estratégia adequada de pesquisa; o artigo pretende contribuir para esse entendimento por meio de uma discussão objetiva e didática, visando a auxiliar, principalmente, aqueles que iniciam a atividade de pesquisa acadêmica em Administração.

  8. RECETA PARA HACER LO IMPOSIBLE. ACERCA DE LAS CONSECUENCIAS ÉTICO-POLÍTICAS DE LOS PARADIGMAS ACTUALES DE INVESTIGACIÓN EN CIENCIAS SOCIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Guardiola-Rivera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora las implicaciones ético-políticas de los tres paradigmas de investigación con mayor poder explicativo y capacidad heurística en las ciencias sociales de hoy. Tras referirse a la centralidad del "giro culturalista" que informa tales paradigmas y sus limitaciones ético-políticas, el autor propone su superación en la dirección de un "giro material". En particular, trata de la importancia que el giro culturalista ha tenido en la crítica de los paradigmas reformistas y disidentes de los años sesenta y setenta.

  9. La antropología social española en los 80 como paradigma tardomoderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anta Félez, José-Luis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the end of the seventies and the decade of 80 in the XX Century are marked by a deep change in the structures and systems of the politics, the society and the Spanish economy, where it highlights the creation and consolidation of the Spain of the Autonomies. In this same period the social anthropology is devoted with profusion to sit down the bases of its own work, so much in the academi than institutionally. At the same cheats that it is centred in the systematic study of the differential reality of the Spain's century end, taking the topic of the identity central like. In this article it is meant to this process as tardomodem, to be able to arrive to a conformation of the history of the Spanish anthropology in syntony with the big contemporary paradigms and in consonance with the countries of our environment.

    El final de los años 70 y la década de los 80 del siglo XX están marcados por un cambio profundo en las estructuras y sistemas de la política, la sociedad y la economía españolas, donde destaca la creación y consolidación de la España de las Autonomías. En este mismo periodo la antropología social se dedica con profusión a sentar las bases de su propio trabajo, tanto académica como institucionalmente, a la par que se centra en el estudio sistemático de la realidad diferencial de la España finisecular, tomando como central el tema de la identidad. En este artículo se significa este proceso como tardomoderno, para poder llegar a una conformación de la historia de la antropología española en sintonía con los grandes paradigmas contemporáneos y en consonancia con los países de nuestro entorno.

  10. Os paradigmas da enfermagem obstétrica The nurse-midwifery paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Hitomi Osava

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a trajetória da prática de atenção ao parto na Inglaterra e Estados Unidos da América, privilegiando-se as relações entre a incipiente profissão de enfermeira e a tradicional profissão de parteira, ao longo dos séculos XVIII e XIX. Propõe-se o estudo dessas relações adotando as deusas da mitologia grega como figuras arquetípicas do comportamento feminino. Relaciona a enfermeira à, deusa Atenas , protetora das artes, das cidades, dos valores patriarcais, do status quo - a personificação do arquétipo da filha do pai - e a parteira tradicional à, Ártemis, deusa da caça e da lua, protetora dos ermos, dos fracos e dos jovens - a personificação do arquétipo da grande irmã. Sob esta perspectiva, trata do declínio da prática da parte ira tradicional naqueles países. Finalmente , equaciona a questão do paradigma da enfermagem obstetra como algo a ser constituído em consonância e cumplicidade com o movimento organizado de mulheres e suas reivindicações no campo da saúde.The course of childbirth care practice in England and in the United States of America can be described by focusing on the relationship between the incipient nursing profession and the traditional profession of midwife, throughout the XVIIIth and the XIXth centuries. This paper proposes the study of such a relationship by adopting the Greek mythology goddesses as archetypical figures of female behavior. It relates the nurse to the goddess Athena, protector of the arts, the cities, the patriarcal values, the status quo - the personification of the father's daughter archetype - and the traditional midwife to Artemis, goddess of the hunt and the moon, protector of the wilderness, the weak, and the young - the personification of the great sister archetype. Under such a perspective, it deals with the decline of the traditional midwife practice in those countries. Finally, it poses the question of the obstetrics nursing pattern as something to be

  11. Narrativa: problemas e promessas de um paradigma alternativo Narrative: problems and promises of an alternative paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Brockmeier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento de interesse no estudo da narrativa e seu contexto social sugere a emergência de outro caminho ao paradigma pós-positivista e um melhor refinamento da metodologia interpretativa nas ciências humanas. O problema do entendimento dos padrões dinâmicos do comportamento humano parece estar mais próximo de uma solução através dos estudos da narrativa do que até mesmo de abordagens bem conhecidas, como a utilização do modelo de regras e papéis. Nesse artigo, abordaremos algumas das qualidades que fizeram do estudo da narrativa uma abordagem produtiva. Procuramos definir a noção de narrativa e diferenciá-la de outros padrões de discurso, tendo como base estudos sócio-psicolingüísticos, filosóficos e literários. Procuramos também identificar algumas dificuldades teóricas e possíveis riscos dos quais os estudiosos da narrativa deveriam estar conscientes. Finalmente, esboçamos uma compreensão da narrativa que objetiva levar em conta sua condição particular de um discurso contextualizado e seu caráter aberto e transitório.The increasing interest in the study of narrative and its social contexts suggests the emergence of another strand to the post-positivist paradigm and a further refinement of interpretive methodology in the human sciences. The problem of accounting for the dynamic patterns of human behavior seems to be nearer to a solution through studies of narrative even than through such well-known approaches as the use of the role-rule model or script theory. In this paper we will look at some of the qualities that have made the study of narrative such a productive approach. In doing so, we shall define the notion of narrative and differentiate it from other patterns of discourse, drawing on socio- and psycholinguistics as well as on literary and philosophical studies. A second concern will be to identify some theoretical difficulties and possible dangers of which, we believe, students of narrative should be

  12. Social inference deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy and lobectomy: risk factors and neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Melanie; St-Laurent, Marie; Barnett, Alexander; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2015-05-01

    In temporal lobe epilepsy and lobectomy, deficits in emotion identification have been found consistently, but there is limited evidence for complex social inference skills such as theory of mind. Furthermore, risk factors and the specific neural underpinnings of these deficits in this population are unclear. We investigated these issues using a comprehensive range of social inference tasks (emotion identification and comprehension of sincere, deceitful and sarcastic social exchanges) in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy or lobectomy (n = 87). We observed deficits across patient groups which were partly related to the presence of mesial temporal lobe sclerosis, early age of seizure onset and left lobectomy. A voxel-based morphometry analysis conducted in the pre-operative group confirmed the importance of the temporal lobe by showing a relationship between left hippocampal atrophy and overall social inference abilities, and between left anterior neocortex atrophy and sarcasm comprehension. These findings are in keeping with theoretical proposals that the hippocampus is critical for binding diverse elements in cognitive domains beyond canonical episodic memory operations, and that the anterior temporal cortex is a convergence zone of higher-order perceptual and emotional processes, and of stored representations. As impairments were frequent, we require further investigation of this behavioural domain and its impact on the lives of people with epilepsy. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Teoria das representações sociais: a ruptura de paradigmas das correntes clássicas das teorias psicológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Fernando Rocha

    2014-01-01

    A teoria das representações sociais é o principal objetivo deste artigo de revisão bibliográfica, cujo estudo se inicia com a discussão dos paradigmas científicos predominantes e de como a teoria se encontra em uma posição de rompimento com esses paradigmas. Desenvolvida sob a necessidade de se construir uma Psicologia social que superasse a dicotomia indivíduo e sociedade, a teoria abarca uma série de objetos que dizem respeito à comunicação e à elaboração de comportamentos entre indivíduos ...

  14. Perspectives for the development of intermodel transport in a new railroad paradigm; Entwicklungsperspektiven des Kombinierten Verkehrs in einem neuen Paradigma der Eisenbahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J. [TransCare Umweltvertraegliche Verkehrskonzepte GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Intermodal transport systems may help to solve current transportation problems. The conception is discussed using both the railway paradigm and an new paradigm. [German] Die Situation im Verkehrsbereich hat gegenwaertig einen Punkt erreicht, an dem der Transport von Personen und Guetern nicht nur Probleme loest, sondern selbst zum Problem geworden ist. Dabei wird der Kombinierte Verkehr Schiene/Strasse oft als Hoffnungstraeger der Bahn bezeichnet. Im Rahmen dieses Beitrages wird die Konzeption des Kombinierten Verkehrs sowohl unter dem bisherigen Paradigma der Eisenbahn, als auch unter einem neuen Paradigma skizziert. (orig.)

  15. Ambigüedades en dos décadas de paradigma multiculturalista. Algunos elementos de la historia inmediata de los Afrocolombianos

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Angulo, Luis Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    La historia inmediata de los afrocolombianos ha estado marcada por una serie de avances, confusiones y retrocesos; todo un devenir que al ser analizado de manera detenida deja ver la ambigüedad presente en el paradigma multiculturalista. Paradigma desde donde se ha pretendido organizar la sociedad de tal forma que se haga justicia a las “minorías” históricamente maltratadas por la discriminación cotidiana y estructural existente en la sociedad colombiana. En este sentido, en este artículo se ...

  16. Elementos do paradigma sociocrítico nas práticas do cuidado de enfermagem: revisão integrativa

    OpenAIRE

    Ceolin, Silvana; Piriz, Manuelle Arias; Mendieta, Marjoriê da Costa; González, José Siles; Heck, Rita Maria

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar as evidências disponíveis nas teses brasileiras sobre os elementos do paradigma sociocrítico na construção do conhecimento e das práticas do cuidado de enfermagem. Método: Revisão integrativa de literatura realizada no Banco de Teses da Coordenadoria de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior e na Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações. Resultados: De um montante de 320 teses, somente 19 apresentaram elementos do paradigma sociocrítico em sua c...

  17. Elementos do paradigma sociocrítico nas práticas do cuidado de enfermagem: revisão integrativa

    OpenAIRE

    Ceolin, Silvana; Piriz, Manuelle Arias; Mendieta, Marjoriê da Costa; Siles González, José; Heck, Rita Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Analisar as evidências disponíveis nas teses brasileiras sobre os elementos do paradigma sociocrítico na construção do conhecimento e das práticas do cuidado de enfermagem. Método: Revisão integrativa de literatura realizada no Banco de Teses da Coordenadoria de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior e na Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações. Resultados: De um montante de 320 teses, somente 19 apresentaram elementos do paradigma sociocrítico em sua construção,...

  18. A ética do discurso habermasiana : novo paradigma na sociedade moderna e possível meio de integração social

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Cavalcante Luna de Andrade, Ana

    2007-01-01

    A presente dissertação tem por objetivo fazer um estudo sobre a Ética do Discurso de Habermas como novo paradigma e possível meio de integração social na sociedade moderna e contemporânea. Faz-se, primeiramente, uma análise da teoria crítica da Escola de Frankfurt, contextualizando o autor mencionado nas suas tentativas de ultrapassar a perspectiva pessimista instalada na Escola. Parte-se de que o pensamento dialógico habermasiano vai além do paradigma da consciência, pro...

  19. Teoría instruccional y tecnología para el nuevo paradigma de la educación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Reigeluth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe la teoría instruccional como base y apoyo a la educación pos t - industrial y a los sistemas de formación - a los sistemas personalizados y que están centrados en el alumno, en los que el progreso del estudiante se basa en el aprendizaje más que en una organización basada en el tiempo. El artículo describe los método s universales de enseñanza, los métodos situacionales, también describe las ideas centrales del nuevo paradigma post - industrial de instrucción, la importancia y los problemas con la educación basada en la tarea. Los aborda desde la visión de una teoría de la instrucción para la educación y formación post - industrial, así como los papeles que pueden jugar el profesor, el alumno y la tecnología en el nuevo paradigma.

  20. La necesidad de unificar la psicología: El paradigma de la síntesis experimental del comportamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ardila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los orígenes de la psicología en las preocupaciones iniciales del hombre acerca de su comportamiento y del de las demás personas. Tales problemas interesaron a pensadores tan disímiles como Aristóteles, Kant, Wundt, Freud, Watson, Piaget y Skinner. El paso de los problemas psicológicos de la metafísica a la ciencia representó una importante revolución conceptual. En psicología se ha enfatizado en los últimos cien años la objetividad científica y la experimentación. Una de las alternativas más importantes desde el punto de vista metodológico ha sido el operacionalismo, cuyos elementos positivos y negativos se analizan. Las ‘escuelas’ psicológicas —análogas a los paradigmas de Kuhn— han representado diferentes marcos conceptuales sobre la naturaleza de la psicología. Hoy no hay escuelas sino sistemas, más reducidos y menos dogmáticos. Se considera que la síntesis experimental del comportamiento, cuyas características se presentan, puede llegar a ser un paradigma unificador para toda la psicología

  1. Comprensión de la deprivación afectiva a partir del paradigma fenomenológico - existencial

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    Ricardo Arturo Jaramillo Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El maltrato infantil y específicamente la deprivación afectiva es una práctica validada y trasmitida al interior de distintos núcleos sociales, la familia, la escuela y el estado, lo anterior aumenta la necesidad de tomar medidas que permitan actualizar y ampliar los actuales paradigmas que le explican y comprenden. En el presente artículo se propone la comprensión de la deprivación afectiva como una forma de maltrato infantil que va en deterioro del desarrollo, potencializacion del ser humano y restricción de la dimensión espiritual, facilitando la vulnerabilidad frente a la salud y el bienestar. Este término hace referencia a la carencia de un vínculo sano y suficiente, que garantice un desarrollo integral adecuado. Las causas y consecuencias han sido ampliamente señaladas; aunque se pasa por alto, las restricción de capacidades propiamente humanas, siendo estas producto de una serie de situaciones externas e internas que caracterizan y hacen particular cada historia de maltrato; por ello, la comprensión de este evento se hará desde una perspectiva humanista existencial más específicamente desde el análisis existencial, la logoterapia y la terapia gestalt, hasta llegar a un propuesta de intervención a partir del mentado paradigma.

  2. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    Semantics of temporal models with multi temporal dimensions are examined progressing from non-temporal models unto uni-temporal, and further unto bi- and tri-temporal models. An example of a uni-temporal model is the valid time model, an example of a bi-temporal model is the valid time/transactio...

  3. Sequential {sup 123}I-iododexetimide scans in temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison with neuroimaging scans (MR imaging and {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Armin [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Comprehensive Epilepsy Service, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Eberl, Stefan; Henderson, David; Beveridge, Scott; Constable, Chris [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Fulham, Michael J. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Kassiou, Michael [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Department of Pharmacology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Zaman, Aysha [University of Sydney, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Lo, Sing Kai [University of Sydney, Institute of International Health, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2005-02-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play an important role in the generation of seizures. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with {sup 123}I-iododexetimide (IDEX) depicts tracer uptake by mAChRs. Our aims were to: (a) determine the optimum time for interictal IDEX SPECT imaging; (b) determine the accuracy of IDEX scans in the localisation of seizure foci when compared with video EEG and MR imaging in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE); (c) characterise the distribution of IDEX binding in the temporal lobes and (d) compare IDEX SPECT and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in identifying seizure foci. We performed sequential scans using IDEX SPECT imaging at 0, 3, 6 and 24 h in 12 consecutive patients with refractory TLE undergoing assessment for epilepsy surgery. Visual and region of interest analyses of the mesial, lateral and polar regions of the temporal lobes were used to compare IDEX SPECT, FDG PET and MR imaging in seizure onset localisation. The 6-h IDEX scan (92%; {kappa}=0.83, p=0.003) was superior to the 0-h (36%; {kappa}=0.01, p>0.05), 3-h (55%; {kappa}=0.13, p>0.05) and 24-h IDEX scans in identifying the temporal lobe of seizure origin. The 6-h IDEX scan correctly predicted the temporal lobe of seizure origin in two patients who required intracranial EEG recordings to define the seizure onset. Reduced ligand binding was most marked at the temporal pole and mesial temporal structures. IDEX SPECT was superior to interictal FDG PET (75%; {kappa}=0.66, p=0.023) in seizure onset localisation. MR imaging was non-localising in two patients in whom it was normal and in another patient in whom there was bilateral symmetrical hippocampal atrophy. The 6-h IDEX SPECT scan is a viable alternative to FDG PET imaging in seizure onset localisation in TLE. (orig.)

  4. Práticas emergentes de um novo paradigma de saúde: o papel da universidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Lício Ferreira Santos

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available AS PRÁTICAS sanitárias têm se pautado sempre pelos paradigmas orientadores das ciências da saúde, que por sua vez se referenciam em parte ao contexto sócio-econômico tecnológico global e do país. O objetivo dos autores deste texto é confrontar os diferentes paradigmas que vêm orientando as práticas de saúde pública nos últimos dois séculos e definir com mais detalhes a concepção, baseada em evidências, de que saúde se produz socialmente, contrapondo-se ao paradigma flexeneriano, curativista. Pretende-se ainda apresentar novas práticas decorrentes da nova concepção que tem como eixo central a vigilância à saúde. Novos tipos de ação, como a promoção da saúde, são descritos e analisados, bem como a necessidade de integrar a nova visão às antigas práticas de prevenção e cura. Projetos estruturantes do novo paradigma são apresentados em linhas gerais na descrição de Cidades/municípios saudáveis e do Programa de saúde da família. Finalizando, é analisado o papel que a Universidade e principalmente as faculdades de saúde pública vêm desempenhando diante das inovações do paradigma e das novas práticas dele decorrentes.HEALTH PRATICES have always been determined by the orienting paradigms of the health sciences, which in their turn refer partly to the country's global technological social economic context. The authors of this text aim at comparing the different paradigms which have been governing public health practices in the last two centuries and at defining in further details the evidence-based conception that health is a social product, opposing the Flexnerian curativistic paradigm. A further aim is to present new practices resulting from the new conception whose focal point is preventive attention to health. New types of action, such as health promotion, are described and analyzed, as well as the need to engraft the new vision on the old prevention and cure practices. The new paradigm structuring

  5. Mudanças de paradigmas na filariose bancroftiana Paradigm shift in bancroftian filariasis

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    Gerusa Dreyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo do tempo, a maneira como se entende um determinado assunto passa por modificações através da pesquisa científica. Na maioria das vezes, essas mudanças causam pequenas diferenças na estrutura total do tópico em questão. Outras vezes, entretanto, ocorrem mudanças revolucionárias que não só alteram a compreensão do assunto em si, mas promovem a abertura de diferentes perspectivas que podem desencadear o início de novas etapas de interpretações e de novos caminhos de conhecimento. Exemplo disso foram os estudos de Gregor Johann Mendel que levaram à descoberta de leis da hereditariedade que, por sua vez, revolucionaram a biologia e traçaram as bases da genética. Em algumas situações, as mudanças não só modificam a forma de pensar, mas também têm implicações práticas ao melhorar a qualidade de vida de muitos seres humanos. No seu livro A Estrutura de Revoluções Científicas, Thomas Kuhn se refere às ruturas nessa evolução científica como "mudanças de paradigma", um termo que hoje é usado de uma forma genérica para descrever uma modificação profunda em nossos pontos de referência. O paradigma de que o estágio adulto da Wuchereria bancrofti causava a obstrução do vaso linfático e desencadeava uma reação imunológica inevitável em indivíduos predispostos, provocando a elefantíase, foi substituído pela esperança de que ser infectado não mais significa, necessariamente, ser um potencial portador da forma mais deformante da disfunção linfática. A infecção bacteriana secundária de repetição (semelhante clinicamente à erisipela é hoje reconhecida como o fator mais importante para a instalação e a progressão do linfedema crônico, nos indivíduos que vivem em áreas endêmicas de filariose linfática. Evitar ou minimizar os episódios agudos bacterianos é um processo factível para a maioria dos habitantes das comunidades endêmicas, através do uso regular de água e sabão: a forma

  6. Tratamento cirúrgico da epilepsia do lobo temporal: análise de 43 casos consecutivos Surgical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy: a series of forty-three cases analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S. Meneses

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e três pacientes com epilepsia refratária ao tratamento medicamentoso foram submetidos à cirurgia de epilepsia do lobo temporal no Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba, entre os anos de 1998 a 2003. Trinta e nove (90,6% pacientes apresentavam esclerose mesial temporal, e quatro (9,4%, tumores cerebrais. Dos trinta e sete pacientes que possuíam avaliação pós-operatória completa, 83,7% apresentaram classificação I, segundo Engel (livres de crises incapacitantes. Complicações pós-operatórias ocorreram em 18,6%: uma infecção da ferida operatória, um caso de hidrocefalia, um de fístula liquórica, dois casos de paralisia transitória do IV nervo craniano e um de hemiparesia transitória. Não houve nenhum óbito relacionado à cirurgia de epilepsia no presente estudo.Forty-three patients with epilepsy resistent to drug therapy were submitted to temporal lobe epilepsy surgery at the Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba, from 1998 to 2003. Thirty-nine patients (90.6% had mesial temporal sclerosis, and four had brain tumors. According to Engel's rating, 83.7% from 37 patients with complete postoperative evaluation were classified as Class I (free of disabling seizure. Postoperative complications (18.6% were evaluated, with one case of surgical wound infection, one case of hydrocephalus, one case of cerebrospinal fluid fistula, two cases of transient palsy of the trochlear nerve and one case of transient hemiparesis. No death related to epilepsy surgery was found in our study.

  7. Paradigma do Acesso Aberto (Open Access: alguns apontamentos para os estudiosos do turismo no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marques Gomes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO presente artigo versa sobre o Paradigma do Acesso Aberto (ou Open Access – OA traçando um panorama geral sobre os movimentos e iniciativas, como e em quais contextos os mesmos surgiram, quais são os conceitos envolvidos nos debates em torno da temática, as linhas de atuação, os principais manifestos, argumentações teóricas, pesquisadores, dentre outros aspectos, com o objetivo de contribuir para debates ulteriores sobre as interfaces da Ciência da Informação e do Turismo. Apresenta os sub-itens “Acesso Aberto (Open Access: Conceitos, Movimentos e Iniciativas” e “Vias Verde e Dourada”, culminando com as Considerações Finais sobre o tema.Palavras-Chave: turismo; acesso aberto; Vias Verde e Dourada. AbstractThis article is about the Open Access Paradigm (or just AO, delineating a general panorama about movements and enterprises, how and in which contexts they arised, which are the involved concepts in discussion about the issue, the actuation lines, the main manifests, the theoretical argumentation, the researcheres, among other aspects, holping to contribute to ulterior discussion about Information Science and Tourism interfaces. Features the secondary items “Open Access: Concepts, Movements and Paradigmas, valores e educação Paradigms, values and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Domeneghetti Badia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O texto levanta os perfis epistemológico e socianalítico da questão paradigmática. Mauss evidenciara o moule affectif das noções científicas de força e causa. Posteriormente Baudouin falaria na indução arquetípica das noções e a antropologia do imaginário de Durand concluiria pela indução arquetipal do conceito pela imagem. Chegava-se, assim, ao desvendamento do substrato inconsciente das ideações, de um substrato regido pela catexis vetorializada, traduzindo-se nos valores como cerne das ideações. É o famoso a priori emotivo. Portanto, no texto, questionam-se dois mitos, esteios da ciência clássica: o mito da objetividade científica e o da neutralidade axiológica. Destaca, assim, a falácia da existência de uma ruptura epistemológica entre ciência e ideologia. A partir daí, as ideações tornam-se ideologias, sobretudo nas ciências do homem e nas ciências da educação que, ademais, tornam-se suporte de uma disfarçada luta ideológica, na qual, num "colonialismo cognitivo", as estratégias de conhecimento dissimulam as de preconceito. Entretanto, assumir a realidade desse suporte fantasmanalítico e ideológico propicia uma tarefa educativa salutar: os paradigmas tornam-se fantasias e, nessa relativização crítica, podem ser usados como um campo de objetos transicionais coletivos num ludismo cultural e educativo. No policulturalismo da sociedade contemporânea, o "politeísmo de valores" de Weber transforma-se num "politeísmo epistemológico", regido pelo "relativismo ontológico" de Feyerabend e por uma ética do pragmatismo. Articulando cultura, organização e educação, a antropologia das organizações educativas e a culturanálise de grupos de Paula Carvalho traduzem as heurísticas dessa dialética transicional.The text draws the epistemological and socioanalytic profiles of the paradigmatic question. Mauss evinced the moule affectif of the scientific notions of force and cause. Later, Baudouin would

  8. Dinamika Tata Kelola Kebijakan Industri Penyiaran dan Telekomunikasi Indonesia Menuju Konvergensi: Sebuah Studi Paradigma Interpretatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vience Mutiara Rumata

    2017-03-01

    Konvergensi antara penyiaran dan telekomunikasi di Indonesia tidak terhindarkan seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi (TIK serta ketatnya persaingan dalam industri keduanya. Kedua industri telah mengintegrasi TIK sebagai nilai tambah dari layanan ataupun produk yang ditawarkannya. Meski demikian, tata kelola kedua industri ini masih terpisah yakni melalui UU Penyiaran tahun 2002 dan UU Telekomunikasi tahun 1999. Di saat RUU konvergensi telematika belum menemukan titik terang, regulator berupaya merevisi kedua UU tersebut. Studi ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif dengan kerangka paradigma interpretatif dengan berlandaskan teori neo-institusionalisme, yakni historical institutionalism. Studi ini bertujuan untuk memahami relasi kekuasaan serta pandangan para pemangku kebijakan dalam mengatur industri penyiaran dan telekomunikasi di era konvergensi. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara wawancara mendalam kepada narasumber yang dipilih secara purposif yakni Kemkominfo, KPI, BRTI, dan DPR, selama Januari-Februari 2015. Setiap institusi memiliki path dependence yang berbeda antar satu dengan yang lain, sehingga membentuk pola distribusi kekuasan berbeda dalam prosedur pembuatan kebijakan. Proposal revisi UU baik dari Kemkominfo dan KPI tidak mengatur hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan konvergensi. Akan tetapi, perebutan otoritas antar kedua institusi tersebut justru menjadi fokus dalam proposal tersebut. Kemkominfo, sebagai inisiator UU Telekomunikasi, berencana untuk mengubah revisi UU tersebut menjadi UU konvergensi. Fokus utama revisi tersebut adalah upaya untuk memfasilitasi interkoneksi dan internetworking dalam infrastruktur digital sebagai fondasi ekosistem konvergensi.     Abstract The convergence between broadcasting and telecommunication in Indonesia is envitable as the growing information and communication technology and the growing competition in both industries. These industries have integrated ICT as part of their

  9. Fabricação digital no Brasil e as possibilidades de mudança de paradigma no setor da construção civil

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    Marina Ferreira Borges

    Full Text Available Resumo A proposta deste trabalho é analisar as possibilidades trazidas pelas tecnologias digitais emergentes em projeto arquitetônico e produção no canteiro para uma mudança de paradigma no setor da construção civil. Como metodologia propõe-se utilizar teóricos da economia evolucionista, que colocam a inovação como um agente central para as mudanças de paradigmas, para visualizar as conexões entre firmas existentes no paradigma atual, a manufatura e as conexões que poderiam ser estabelecidas para um novo paradigma de produção por meio da fabricação digital. Para isso também será analisado o papel da universidade e seu potencial de inovação, tanto no sentido de desenvolver tecnologia de produtos, quanto de contextualizar a tecnologia que está sendo importada para um contexto regional, desenvolvendo processos de produção emancipatórios para a construção civil.

  10. La importancia de Ias ideias en el cambio de paradigma: aplicacion a Ias politicas de Servicios Sociales y asistencia social en Espana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adelantado, Jose; Perez-Gimenez, Roser

    2010-01-01

    ...? ?Como ha reaccionado Espana a Ia influencia de Ia Union Europea? ?Se pueden establecer diferencias entre Comunidades Autonomas en Ia aplicacion de los discursos?. La hipotesis a contrastar es que desde Ia transicion democratica hasta la actualidad, se ha producido un cambio de paradigma institucional en Ias politicas autonomicas de SS y AS. Dicho cam...

  11. Revision del proceso de la administracion estrategica, estudio del paradigma de estrategia, estructura y equifinalidad: una investigacion empirica en empresas en noreste de Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación busca comprobar empíricamente el paradigma entre estrategiaestructura y equifinalidad en empresas del noreste de México. Se llevó al cabo un estudio a través de la aplicación de cuestionarios a negocios de esa parte del país. Se consideró como variable independiente la existencia del modelo de Chandler acerca de que la “estructura organizacional sigue a la estrategia”. La variable dependiente, se establece como la obtención de resultados equifinales (igualmente finales, con o sin la existencia del paradigma de estrategia-estructura. Dos contribuciones emergen de este estudio. La primera consiste en haber encontrado que efectivamente existe una relación entre estrategia y estructura en las empresas investigadas. La segunda, y más importante, es que se evidenció, con prueba empírica, el paradigma de equifinalidad. Se necesita mayor investigación para poder determinar las razones para el funcionamiento de este paradigma. La naturaleza holística de la Administración Estratégica puede ser la que explique el éxito final, “sin importar los inicios”.

  12. Extratemporal hypometabolism on FDG PET in temporal lobe epilepsy as a predictor of seizure outcome after temporal lobectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Sun Jung; Kim, Byung-Tae; Kim, Sang Eun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, 135-710, Kangnam-ku, Seoul (Korea); Hong, Seung Bong; Seo, Dae Won [Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Hong, Seung Chyul [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between the presence of extratemporal hypometabolism on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) and seizure outcome after temporal lobectomy in patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In 47 patients with intractable unilateral mesial TLE, regional metabolic changes on FDG PET images obtained during the 2 months preceding anterior temporal lobectomy were compared with postoperative seizure outcome. Postoperative seizure outcome was evaluated with a mean follow-up period of 6.1{+-}0.6 years (range 5.2-7.2 years). Forty-two (89%) of the 47 patients achieved a good postoperative seizure outcome (Engel class I or II). All patients had hypometabolism in the temporal cortex ipsilateral to the epileptogenic region on FDG PET scans. Fourteen (78%) of the 18 patients with hypometabolism only in the ipsilateral temporal cortex were completely seizure free (Engel class Ia) after surgery. In contrast, five (45%) of the 11 patients with extratemporal cortical hypometabolism confined to the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere and only four (22%) of the 18 patients with hypometabolism in the contralateral cerebral cortex were completely seizure free after surgery. The postoperative seizure-free rates were significantly different across the three groups of patients with different cortical metabolic patterns (P<0.005). Furthermore, all of the nine patients with a non-class I outcome (Engel class II-IV) had extratemporal (including contralateral temporal) cortical hypometabolism. Thalamic hypometabolism was noted in 20 (43%) of the 47 patients (ipsilateral in 12, bilateral in 8). Sixteen (59%) of the 27 patients with normal thalamic metabolism were completely seizure free after surgery, while only seven (35%) of the 20 patients with thalamic hypometabolism became completely seizure free (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that among variables including clinical, EEG, magnetic resonance imaging

  13. PARADIGMAS DISCIPLINARES QUE SUSTENTAN LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA GRAMÁTICA EN PROFESORES EN FORMACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irsa Cisternas Fierro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de resituar la enseñanza de la gramática en el currículum escolar como un saber que, junto con otros, contribuye al desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa no ha dado los resultados esperados. Investigaciones y estudios advierten que, a pesar del avance disciplinar y las demandas curriculares, persisten en los profesores de Lenguaje y Comunicación, prácticas de enseñanza que fusionan contenidos y metodologías de matriz normativa, estructural y comunicativa. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo indagar en los tipos de perfiles disciplinares que subyacen en la enseñanza de la gramática en estudiantes de la carrera Pedagogía en Lenguaje y Comunicación. El marco metodológico corresponde a un enfoque descriptivo/interpretativo de carácter mixto con diseño de “estudio de casos múltiples”. La muestra la componen tres admisiones de estudiantes que cursan el último año de Pedagogía en Lenguaje de tres universidades chilenas. La recolección de datos considera la aplicación de un cuestionario de dilemas con situaciones de enseñanza de la gramática, relacionadas con los componentes “finalidad”, “contenido”, “tratamiento del contenido” y “evidencia de los aprendizajes”. Los resultados evidenciaron que las tres admisiones fusionan elementos de los diferentes paradigmas disciplinares en la enseñanza de la gramática. Destaca la presencia del paradigma tradicional-normativo para el componente finalidad de la enseñanza; el formal descriptivo para el tratamiento del contenido; y el paradigma comunicativo en los contenidos de enseñanza. Los resultados obtenidos proyectarían, en gran medida, las transposiciones didácticas de estos estudiantes al momento de enseñar la gramática.

  14. Filosofia intercultural e paradigma emergente: um novo enfoque para as “razões” de uma cultura diferente

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    Ana Marcia Kaliberda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2014v11n2p37 Inicia-se este trabalho com uma problematização de certa crise paradigmática que, de acordo com alguns autores, não se restringe ao módus faciendi científico, atingindo também o próprio conhecimento, considerado este sob uma perspectiva mais ampla, aplicando-se a todo o conjunto de nossos valores e relações entre homem, natureza e sociedade. Cabe salientar a crise do que se nomeia como “paradigma dominante”, através da qual urge a necessidade de um novo fazer científico e uma nova forma de apropriação do conhecimento, em que o senso comum é resgatado e recebe a devida valoração. Esta é a proposta do assim chamado “paradigma emergente” que, segundo entendemos, prepara o caminho para que a heterodoxia de propostas como a da Filosofia Intercultural encontrem solo propício na construção de formas alternativas para se encarar culturas e saberes autóctones. Descrevem-se alguns aspectos epistemológicos que compõem a Filosofia Intercultural, em especial a sua negativa com respeito ao etnocentrismo. Pretende-se argumentar que esta nova forma de filosofar atende aos requisitos de um paradigma emergente, na medida em que não privilegia este ou aquele logos como a “razão absoluta e universal”, mas permite a expressão de outras formas de racionalidade que, não raro, chocam os padrões do que se considera “convencional”, como é o caso das culturas indígenas. O conjunto destes princípios paradigmáticos e interculturais encontra eco na interpretação de algumas formas de racionalidade típicas da Reserva Indígena Rio D’ Areia, situada no município de Inácio Martins, no Paraná, cuja coleta de dados foi realizada através da observação participante.

  15. Assistência à mulher climatérica: novos paradigmas Atención a la mujer climatérica: nuevos paradigmas Assistance to the climacteric woman: new paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento populacional é uma realidade demográfica brasileira. Como conseqüência, espera-se, nos próximos anos, um aumento progressivo na procura dos serviços de saúde por mulheres com queixas relacionadas ao climatério. Paralelamente, a assistência ao climatério tem passado por uma modificação de paradigmas, impondo aos profissionais de saúde uma mudança de atitude. Reconhece-se que o climatério é influenciado tanto por fatores biológicos, como por fatores psicossociais e culturais, cujo conhecimento é fundamental para uma assistência mais qualificada e humanizada. Este artigo propõe refletir sobre as mudanças de paradigmas na assistência ao climatério, destacando a multidisciplinaridade e interdisciplinaridade, no sentido acolher melhor essa parcela da população e proporcionar-lhe um cuidado integral e individualizado, aproximando o saber da sensibilidade, voltado a uma melhor qualidade vida.Envejecimiento poblacional es una realidad demográfica brazilian. Consecuentementese espera un aumento progresivo de la búsqueda en los servicios de salud del país por mujeres con quejas relacionadas al climaterio. La asistencia al climaterio ha pasado por un cambio de paradigmas que han impuesto a los profesionales de la salud. El climaterio es influenciado por factores biológicos, factores psicosociales y culturales, cuyo conocimiento es fundamental para la planificación de una asistencia. Artículo se propone reflexionar sobre los cambios de paradigmas, el abordaje multidisciplinario e interdisciplinario, en el sentido de recibir mejor esta parcela de la población y proporcionarle un cuidado integral e individualizado, aproximando el saber de la sensibilidad, y el tener como objetivo a una mejor calidad de vida.Population aging is a demographic reality for Brazil. Consequently, in the next years it is expected a progressive increase in seeking health care services in the country by women with complaints related to

  16. Single-subject voxel-based relaxometry for clinical assessment of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosior, Robert K; Lauzon, M Louis; Frayne, Richard; Federico, Paolo

    2009-09-01

    T2 relaxometry, quantitative assessment of T2 relaxation time in magnetic resonance (MR) data, typically uses manually drawn regions of interest (ROIs). This approach is limited by its subjectivity and its restricted scope of investigation. A recently developed approach called voxel-based relaxometry (VBR) provides an unbiased statistical analysis of the whole brain. Our objective was to assess the clinical utility of single-subject VBR for patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Forty-five patients with TLE confirmed by history, EEG, and structural MRI and 25 control subjects were scanned at 3T using a modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill MR sequence. ROIs were drawn for each patient and control subject, and measurements were made on unregistered T2 maps. VBR was performed on a single-subject basis at a significance level of alpha=0.05. Patients were grouped according to seizure focus (left mesial, right mesial, other), and whether structural MR imaging was normal or abnormal. Up to 85% of patients in the temporal lobe groups demonstrated T2 abnormalities. VBR detected abnormalities either in equal numbers or in more patients (up to 23% more) than ROI analysis for each group. The number of detected abnormalities per patient was higher using VBR (3.38 versus 2.04, p<0.05). VBR also identified abnormalities that were missed by ROI analysis. The rate of VBR detection of abnormalities was higher for patients than controls (76% versus 36%). VBR can be performed on single subjects with TLE and it detects considerably more abnormalities than ROI analysis. VBR may be a clinically useful tool for the detection of T2 abnormalities at the seizure focus and sites remote from it.

  17. Outcome of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery predicted by statistical parametric PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C Y; Geller, E B; Chen, E Q; MacIntyre, W J; Morris, H H; Raja, S; Saha, G B; Lüders, H O; Cook, S A; Go, R T

    1996-07-01

    PET is useful in the presurgical evaluation of temporal lobe epilepsy. The purpose of this retrospective study is to assess the clinical use of statistical parametric imaging in predicting surgical outcome. Interictal 18FDG-PET scans in 17 patients with surgically-treated temporal lobe epilepsy (Group A-13 seizure-free, group B = 4 not seizure-free at 6 mo) were transformed into statistical parametric imaging, with each pixel representing a z-score value by using the mean and s.d. of count distribution in each individual patient, for both visual and quantitative analysis. Mean z-scores were significantly more negative in anterolateral (AL) and mesial (M) regions on the operated side than the nonoperated side in group A (AL: p cut-off z-score value of -1.5, statistical parametric imaging correctly classified 92% of temporal lobes from group A and 88% of those from Group B. The preliminary results indicate that statistical parametric imaging provides both clinically useful information for lateralization in temporal lobe epilepsy and a reliable predictive indicator of clinical outcome following surgical treatment.

  18. El texto literario en la enseñanza-aprendizaje de ELE a partir del paradigma PCPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Calderón, Francisco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es profundizar en la aplicación del enfoque por tareas que habitualmente comporta el método comunicativo al tratamiento de la literatura en la enseñanza-aprendizaje de ELE. Para ello, se ajustan los principios del paradigma PCPP (presentación, conceptualización, práctica, producción al trabajo con el texto literario, que se explota como parte de significativa de la competencia cultural. Los resultados pueden aplicarse a la creación de materiales para la mejora en el rendimiento del trabajo con la obra literaria, según se muestra en el ejemplo que aportamos a partir de La casa de Asterión, cuento de Jorge Luis Borges.

  19. En busca de un paradigma económico para la redefinición del concepto de desarrollo sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Adán, José

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Not available.Este trabajo pretende dar una visión sintética y descriptiva del síndrome de pérdida que sufre la ciencia económica en su intento de incorporar los interrogantes medioambientales a los mecanismos de predicción socioeconómicos. El repaso de las propuestas del neoliberalismo, del así llamado capitalismo verde, y de la economía ecológica, tiene como objetivo presentar la viabilidad científica de los paradigmas alternativos como modelos de racionalidad económica y como sucedáneos del vigente sistema de producción y consumo.

  1. El nuevo paradigma de las ciencias y la teoría de gestión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Alonso Montoya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una revisión del cambio de paradigma desde la ciencia positiva a un enfoque más complejo de la misma, mediante un recorrido a través de diferentes autores y sus concepciones para llegar a nuevos enfoques más coherentes con los nuevos aportes desde diferentes áreas del conocimiento, como la física, la química y la biología. A partir del desarrollo histórico de la ciencia se muestra cómo ésta ha tenido que ajustar su método hacia uno más coherente con las nuevas problemáticas por modelar.

  2. Estudio cronológico de paradigmas para el diseño de almacenes de datos

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    Ania Cravero Leal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Los almacenes de datos deben homogeneizar e integrar la información de las diversas áreas de una organización con el fin de extraer conocimiento relevante para la toma de decisiones. Su desarrollo no es tarea fácil, por lo cual se han desarrollado varios enfoques que se pueden clasificar de acuerdo con la forma como se obtienen los requisitos de información: impulsados por la oferta, por la demanda, e híbridos. Este estudio ofrece un marco conceptual y un estudio cronológico de los estos enfoques conforme al paradigma utilizado, lo que proporciona un amplio marco para comprender de mejor manera el estado actual en el área de los almacenes de datos, así como su evolución.

  3. Nuevo paradigma, nuevo contexto institucional: el caso de la política farmacéutica

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Chaqués Bonafont

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio es explicar cómo y por qué cambia la política farmacéutica española en la última década. En el se argumenta la relevancia de las instituciones como variables explicativa de la dinámica del cambio en las políticas siguiendo el esquema teórico planteado por el análisis de redes y la teoría del equilibrio interrumpido desarrollada por Baumgartner y Jones. La adopción de un nuevo paradigma en torno al medicamento –el uso racional del medicamento— no puede ser entendido...

  4. Nuevas teorías y enfoques conceptuales sobre el desarrollo regional: ¿hacia un nuevo paradigma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncayo Jiménez, Édgard

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En los estudios sobre el desarrollo económico y político, los temas del espacio, la geografía y la organización del territorio están adquiriendo gran importancia. Hay una suerte de (reterritorialización de los enfoques teóricos del desarrollo. Este trabajo presenta en forma sistemática las nuevas teorías del crecimiento económico, los análisis de la transformación del Estado-nación, los enfoques del neoinstitucionalismo y las perspectivas del ambientalismo, que por caminos disciplinarios separados confluyen en un nuevo paradigma del desarrollo. En esta nueva visión, el territorio deja de ser un simple perímetro-receptáculo de las actividades productivas y los procesos socio-políticos, para convertirse en un elemento explicativo de los procesos del desarrollo.

  5. Emergência de um paradigma antropoformador de pesquisa-ação-formação transdisciplinar

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    Gaston Pineau

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Estes quarenta últimos anos testemunharam, na França, o nascimento das Ciências da Educação (1967 e da formação permanente de adultos (lei de 1971. Esses nascimentos foram trabalhados pelas construções da abordagem sistêmica, de traços de união entre a pesquisa, a ação e a formação, e, mais recentemente, da transdisciplinaridade. A carreira do autor foi conduzida por esses movimentos de nascimento e construção sócio-cognitiva, com o surgimento correspondente de postos profissionais de pesquisador e professor-pesquisador. Numa primeira parte, o autor identifica e situa suas práticas de utilização pessoal da sistêmica e da pesquisa-ação: períodos de emergência distinta (1968-1980, de aproximação paradigmática (1980-1992 e, por fim, de construção paradigmática (1992-2005. Uma segunda parte expõe uma modelização paradigmática. Essa modelização confronta o paradigma pedagógico-positivista que estrutura a pesquisa normal em educação com a emergência de elementos paradigmáticos novos em pesquisas-ações-formações originais. No final, como horizonte de construção, o termo antropoformação? formação do humano? é proposto para nomear esse paradigma pós-moderno que busca criar ligações entre pesquisa, ação e formação, mediante uma epistemologia sistêmica transdisciplinar.

  6. Nuevo paradigma, nuevo contexto institucional: el caso de la política farmacéutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Chaqués Bonafont

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es explicar cómo y por qué cambia la política farmacéutica española en la última década. En el se argumenta la relevancia de las instituciones como variables explicativa de la dinámica del cambio en las políticas siguiendo el esquema teórico planteado por el análisis de redes y la teoría del equilibrio interrumpido desarrollada por Baumgartner y Jones. La adopción de un nuevo paradigma en torno al medicamento –el uso racional del medicamento— no puede ser entendido únicamente como una respuesta a situaciones de crisis, cambios en el sistema político y/o la consolidación de ideas nuevas defendidas por activos emprendedores políticos. El análisis de la institucionalización de las relaciones de poder en torno a la política farmacéutica (o policy network es importante para explicar por qué los cambios en la política farmacéutica se producen de forma gradual como resultado de una negociación entre el Estado con la industria farmacéutica y las farmacias. Asimismo, se argumenta cómo la adopción de un paradigma nuevo en la política farmacéutica, se produce de forma paralela a un cambio en la estructura institucional de la política. En 2008 la política farmacéutica se gestiona a través de una red más abierta y plural, en la que los expertos tienen mayor peso en la toma de decisiones.

  7. Basal functional connectivity within the anterior temporal network is associated with performance on declarative memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Natalina; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Soulier, Elisabeth; Guye, Maxime; Didic, Mira; Felician, Olivier

    2011-09-15

    Spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest, exhibit a temporally coherent activity thought to reflect functionally relevant networks. Antero-mesial temporal structures are the site of early pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease and have been shown to be critical for declarative memory. Our study aimed at exploring the functional impact of basal connectivity of an anterior temporal network (ATN) on declarative memory. A heterogeneous group of subjects with varying performance on tasks assessing memory was therefore selected, including healthy subjects and patients with isolated memory complaint, amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using Independent Component Analysis on resting-state fMRI, we extracted a relevant anterior temporal network (ATN) composed of the perirhinal and entorhinal cortex, the hippocampal head, the amygdala and the lateral temporal cortex extending to the temporal pole. A default mode network and an executive-control network were also selected to serve as control networks. We first compared basal functional connectivity of the ATN between patients and control subjects. Relative to controls, patients exhibited significantly increased functional connectivity in the ATN during rest. Specifically, voxel-based analysis revealed an increase within the inferior and superior temporal gyrus and the uncus. In the patient group, positive correlations between averaged connectivity values of ATN and performance on anterograde and retrograde object-based memory tasks were observed, while no correlation was found with other evaluated cognitive measures. These correlations were specific to the ATN, as no correlation between performance on memory tasks and the other selected networks was found. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that basal connectivity inside the ATN network has a functional role in

  8. Temporal Lobe Resective Surgery for Medically Intractable Epilepsy: A Review of Complications and Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordanis Georgiadis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Object. It is widely accepted that temporal resective surgery represents an efficacious treatment option for patients with epilepsy of temporal origin. The meticulous knowledge of the potential complications, associated with temporal resective procedures, is of paramount importance. In our current study, we attempt to review the pertinent literature for summating the complications of temporal resective procedures for epilepsy. Method. A PubMed search was performed with the following terms: “behavioral,” “cognitive,” “complication,” “deficit,” “disorder,” “epilepsy,” “hemianopia,” “hemianopsia,” “hemorrhage,” “lobectomy,” “medial,” “memory,” “mesial,” “neurobehavioral,” “neurocognitive,” “neuropsychological,” “psychological,” “psychiatric,” “quadranopia,” “quadranopsia,” “resective,” “side effect,” “surgery,” “temporal,” “temporal lobe,” and “visual field.” Results. There were six pediatric, three mixed-population, and eleven adult surgical series examining the incidence rates of procedure-related complications. The reported mortality rates varied between 0% and 3.5%, although the vast majority of the published series reported no mortality. The cumulative morbidity rates ranged between 3.2% and 88%. Conclusions. Temporal resective surgery for epilepsy is a safe treatment modality. The reported morbidity rates demonstrate a wide variation. Accurate detection and frank reporting of any surgical, neurological, cognitive, and/or psychological complications are of paramount importance for maximizing the safety and improving the patients’ overall outcome.

  9. Inductive Temporal Logic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Kolter, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We study the extension of techniques from Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) to temporal logic programming languages. Therefore we present two temporal logic programming languages and analyse the learnability of programs from these languages from finite sets of examples. In first order temporal logic the following topics are analysed: - How can we characterize the denotational semantics of programs? - Which proof techniques are best suited? - How complex is the learning task? In propositional ...

  10. Indeterministic Temporal Logic

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    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.

  11. Atypical language organization in temporal lobe epilepsy revealed by a passive semantic paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in adults and can be successfully cured by surgery. One of the main complications of this surgery however is a decline in language abilities. The magnitude of this decline is related to the degree of language lateralization to the left hemisphere. Most fMRI paradigms used to determine language dominance in epileptic populations have used active language tasks. Sometimes, these paradigms are too complex and may result in patient underperformance. Only a few studies have used purely passive tasks, such as listening to standard speech. Methods In the present study we characterized language lateralization in patients with MTLE using a rapid and passive semantic language task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study 23 patients [12 with Left (LMTLE), 11 with Right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (RMTLE)] and 19 healthy right-handed controls using a 6 minute long semantic task in which subjects passively listened to groups of sentences (SEN) and pseudo sentences (PSEN). A lateralization index (LI) was computed using a priori regions of interest of the temporal lobe. Results The LI for the significant contrasts produced activations for all participants in both temporal lobes. 81.8% of RMTLE patients and 79% of healthy individuals had a bilateral language representation for this particular task. However, 50% of LMTLE patients presented an atypical right hemispheric dominance in the LI. More importantly, the degree of right lateralization in LMTLE patients was correlated with the age of epilepsy onset. Conclusions The simple, rapid, non-collaboration dependent, passive task described in this study, produces a robust activation in the temporal lobe in both patients and controls and is capable of illustrating a pattern of atypical language organization for LMTLE patients. Furthermore, we observed that the atypical right-lateralization patterns in LMTLE patients was

  12. Una propuesta basada en el paradigma dirigido por modelos para la extracción de procesos del software desde sistemas heredados utilizando la perspectiva temporal

    OpenAIRE

    Arévalo Maldonado, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Falta palabras clave Business Process Management (BPM) es un factor estratégico en el sector de las tecnologías de la información (TI), así como en otros sectores productivos. Las TI utilizan sistemas heredados (legacy systems) para gestionar su negocio, donde sus bases de datos (legacy databases) almacenan estados históricos de la ejecución de todo tipo de procesos, razón por la cual pueden considerarse como una fuente para extraer perspectivas o dimensiones de estos procesos: i) el tiemp...

  13. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghiu, E.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity

  14. Temporal Linear System Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigenburg, van L.G.; Koning, de W.L.

    2008-01-01

    Piecewise constant rank systems and the differential Kalman decomposition are introduced in this note. Together these enable the detection of temporal uncontrollability/unreconstructability of linear continuous-time systems. These temporal properties are not detected by any of the four conventional

  15. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    , constituting a temporal smoothing of rapidly changing illumination. In global illumination temporal smoothing can be achieved with distribution ray tracing (Cook et al., 1984). Unfortunately, this, and resembling methods, requires a high temporal resolution as samples has to be drawn from in-between frames. We...... present a novel method which is able to produce high quality temporal smoothing for indirect illumination without using in-between frames. Our method is based on ray differentials (Igehy, 1999) as it has been extended in (Sporring et al., 2009). Light rays are traced as bundles creating footprints, which......The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively...

  16. Long-term epilepsy surgery outcomes in patients with PET-positive, MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Fan; Pei, Jia-Sheng; Zhang, Hui-Jian; Lin, Qiao; Mei, Zhen; Zhong, Zhong-Hui; Tian, Jun; Jia, Yan-Zeng; Chen, Zi-Qian; Zheng, Zhi-Yong

    2014-12-01

    This study compared the long-term efficacy of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for the treatment of medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in patients who presented with ipsilateral temporal PET hypometabolism and nonlesional magnetic resonance imaging (PET+/MRI-) with that in patients who had mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI. We described the electroclinical, MRI, PET, and pathological characteristics and seizure outcome of 28 PET+/MRI--patients without discordant ictal and interictal electroencephalography (EEG) who underwent ATL (2004-2007) for medically refractory partial epilepsy while avoiding intracranial monitoring. The primary outcome was the percentages of Engel Class I outcomes at 2 and 5 years of PET+/MRI--patients compared with those of patients with MTS on MRI; neuropsychological testing was used as the secondary outcome. At 2-year follow-up, 21 (75%) patients in the PET+/MRI--group were in Engel Class I compared with 66 (75.9%) patients with MTS, and at 5-year follow-up, 20 (71.4%) patients in the PET+/MRI--group were in Engel Class I compared with 64 (73.6%) patients in the group with MTS. There were no significant differences between the groups at either time period. We concluded that normal MRI results should not preclude presurgical evaluations in patients with medically refractory TLE, as favorable long-term postoperative seizure outcomes are possible, especially in patients with unilateral anterior interictal epileptiform discharges and ipsilateral temporal PET hypometabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, E.

    2005-03-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity processing, are based on psychophysical experiments and computational model analysis. In chapter 1 we investigated which processes of binocular depth perception in dynamic random-dot stereograms (DRS), i.e., tolerance for interocular delays and temporal integration of correlation, are responsible for the temporal flexibility of the stereoscopic system. Our results demonstrate that (i) disparities from simultaneous monocular inputs dominate those from interocular delayed inputs; (ii) stereopsis is limited by temporal properties of monocular luminance mechanisms; (iii) depth perception in DRS results from cross-correlation-like operation on two simultaneous monocular inputs that represent the retinal images after having been subjected to a process of monocular temporal integration of luminance. In chapter 2 we examined what temporal information is exploited by the mechanisms underlying stereoscopic motion in depth. We investigated systematically the influence of temporal frequency on binocular depth perception in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS. Our results show that disparity-defined depth is judged differently in temporally correlated and uncorrelated DRS above a temporal frequency of about 3 Hz. The results and simulations indicate that: (i) above about 20 Hz, the complete absence of stereomotion is caused by temporal integration of luminance; (ii) the difference in perceived depth in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS for temporal frequencies between 20 and 3 Hz, is caused by temporal integration of disparity. In chapter 3 we investigated temporal properties of stereopsis at different spatial scales in response to sustained and

  18. Surgical outcome in patients with MRI-negative, PET-positive temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraz, Irem Yıldırım; Kurt, Gökhan; Akdemir, Özgür; Hirfanoglu, Tugba; Oner, Yusuf; Sengezer, Tugba; Kapucu, Lütfiye Ozlem Atay; Serdaroglu, Ayse; Bilir, Erhan

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term surgical outcomes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)-positive patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and compare them with those of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). One hundred forty-one patients with TLE who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy were included in the study. The surgical outcomes of 24 patients with unilateral temporal hypometabolism on FDG-PET without an epileptogenic lesion on MRI were compared with that of patients with unilateral temporal hypometabolism on FDG-PET with MTS on MRI (n=117). The outcomes were compared using Engel's classification at 2 years after surgery. Clinical characteristics, unilateral interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), histopathological data and operation side were considered as probable prognostic factors. Class I surgical outcomes were similar in MRI-negative patients and the patients with MTS on MRI (seizure-free rate at postoperative 2 years was 79.2% and 82% in the MRI-negative and MTS groups, respectively). In univariate analysis, history of febrile convulsions, presence of unilateral IEDs and left temporal localization were found to be significantly associated with seizure free outcome. Multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors of a good outcome were history of febrile convulsions and presence of unilateral IEDs. Our results suggest that epilepsy surgery outcomes of MRI-negative, PET positive patients are similar to those of patients with MTS. This finding may aid in the selection of best candidates for epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. La enseñanza básica en Chile desde 1970 hasta 2009. Continuidades, cambiantes paradigmas e influencia extranjera en la escuela básica chilena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    La enseñanza básica en Chile desde 1970 hasta 2009: Continuidades, cambiantes paradigmas e influencia extranjera en la escuela básica chilena. Palabras clave: Filosofía educacional, enseñanza básica pública, paradigmas, pedagogía Resumen: En esta ponencia nos proponemos analizar la enseñanza básica...

  20. Magnetoencephalographic correlates of different types of aura in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukao, Kenjiro; Inoue, Yushi; Yagi, Kazuichi

    2010-09-01

    To estimate magnetoencephalography (MEG) correlates of different types of aura in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). MEG study was performed on 57 patients (26 male and 31 female) with TLE, whose ages ranged from 14-46 years (mean 27 years). Interictal magnetoencephalograms showing discharges were analyzed, and spike-dipole clusters were categorized into left and right inferotemporal-horizontal (IH) and superotemporal-vertical (SV) types. Auras were classified into autonomic, auditory, and psychic seizures. The correlation between the four types of interictal spike-dipole and three types of aura was analyzed using Fisher's exact probability test. IH type correlated with autonomic seizures (p = 0.0004), whereas SV type correlated with both auditory (p = 0.0002) and psychic seizures (p = 0.042). When subdivided into left and right, left IH type correlated with autonomic seizures (p = 0.046), but right IH type did not. Right SV type correlated with both auditory (p = 0.014) and psychic seizures (p = 0.002), but left SV did not correlate with either. Both types did not correlate with "no aura." Using our proposed classification of spike-dipoles, MEG distinguishes auras of mesial temporal origin from those of lateral temporal region. Furthermore, by adopting our classification, laterality of spike-dipoles is clearly demonstrated in auditory and psychic seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Electroclinical findings of minor motor events during sleep in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Loretta; Uccello, Denise; Fatuzzo, Daniela; Mainieri, Greta; Zappia, Mario; Sofia, Vito

    2017-07-01

    It is well known that sleep-related motor seizures can originate from the temporal lobe. However, little is known about the clinical features of minor motor manifestations during sleep in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The main objective of our study was to verify the existence of minor motor events during sleep in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and to define their clinical features and electroencephalography (EEG) correlations. We enrolled in the study patients with diagnosis of symptomatic MTLE and a group of healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent long-term video -EEG monitoring, including at least one night of nocturnal sleep. We analyzed all the movements recorded during nocturnal sleep of patients and controls and their electroencephalographic correlations. We analyzed the nocturnal sleep of 15 patients with symptomatic MTLE (8 males and 7 females; mean age ± standard deviation [SD]31.8 ± 14.9 years) and of 15 healthy controls (6 males and 9 females; mean age ± SD 32.8 ± 11.2 years). The analysis of movements during sleep revealed significant differences between groups, with the patients presenting significantly more movements in sleep than healthy controls (56.7 ± 39.2 vs. 15 ± 6.1; p Epilepsy.

  2. Mesial inclination of impacted third molars and its propensity to stimulate external root resorption in second molars--a cone-beam computed tomographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenning, Anne Caroline Costa; Melo, Saulo Leonardo Sousa; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the presence of external root resorption (ERR) in second molars adjacent to horizontally and mesioangular impacted mandibular third molars by cone-beam computed tomography. In addition, patient characteristics (age and gender) and third molar depth were correlated with the presence of ERR. The sample consisted of 116 scans (58 acquired on the i-CAT Classic and 58 on the Picasso-Trio) of 70 women and 46 men (mean age, 23.7 yr). Two observers recorded the presence of ERR in the second molars, inclination and depth of third molars in relation to bone and soft tissues, third molars classification according to Pell and Gregory, and location and severity of ERR. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney test, and χ(2) test. The κ test was used to analyze intraobserver agreement. The overall prevalence of ERR was 49.43%. There were no statistically significant differences in the detection of ERR by gender, images from the 2 devices, or third molar inclination (P > .05). The κ test showed excellent reproducibility values (κ = 0.7778). There was a smaller proportion of affected patients 14 to 24 years old and ERR in teeth adjacent to Class C third molars. Mesially inclined third molars (mesioangular and horizontal) have a greater potential of being associated with ERR in second molars, which was shown by the high prevalence of the condition in the overall sample. Class A and B third molars in patients older than 24 years were more associated with the presence of ERR in adjacent teeth. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Paradigmas ambientais nos relatos de sustentabilidade de organizações do setor de energia elétrica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Soares da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender os significados atribuídos à sustentabilidade nas organizações e como eles se relacionam com os paradigmas ambientais compartilhados. Abordaram-se o antropocentrismo, em suas vertentes individualista e coletivista, o ecocentrismo, também individualista e coletivista, e a sustentabilidade-centrismo. Foi feita uma análise qualitativa descritiva, fundamentada na análise de conteúdo dos relatórios de sustentabilidade e de alguns discursos disponíveis nos endereços eletrônicos de três organizações do setor de geração e distribuição de energia. Os significados atribuídos à sustentabilidade estão associados, em sua maior parte, ao paradigma antropocêntrico individualista, não tendo sido observado um rompimento com a busca por atender unicamente aos interesses dos proprietários das organizações. Nessa visão, relacionouse sustentabilidade a conceitos como os de crescimento, rentabilidade, liderança ou boas práticas de governança nas organizações. Também na vertente individualista, mas se aproximando do ecocentrismo, associou-se a sustentabilidade ao cumprimento da legislação ambiental e à ecoeficiência. Observaram-se posicionamentos ligados ao antropocentrismo, mas com alguma proximidade com sua vertente coletivista, quando a sustentabilidade é vista como diferentes formas de investimentos e programas sociais e responsabilidade social. De maneira similar, a associação com a responsabilidade socioambiental também buscou uma visão mais coletivista, mas intentando não restringir suas preocupações apenas à humanidade, mas também às outras formas de vida. Ainda que tais significados busquem, de alguma maneira, expressar preocupações coletivistas, ainda não seria equivalente a dizer que a organização é sustentável. Nenhum dos significados atribuídos à sustentabilidade remete a seu sentido original, associado à superação da dicotomia entre humanidade e natureza

  4. EL PARADIGMA CIENTÍFICO DE LAS CIENCIAS AGRARIAS: UNA REFLEXION THE SCIENTIFIC PARADIGM OF AGRARIAN SCIENCES: A REFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Darío Vélez Vargas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los retos que hoy propone la sociedad, la ciencia, la tecnología y los contextos regionales, nacionales e internacionales, en los que se desenvuelve la agricultura y la ruralidad, se plantea que los paradigmas que han sustentado las ciencias y profesiones agropecuarias, sus reglas y procedimientos, son insuficientes para enfrentarlos y resolverlos, integralmente. La evidencia empírica desborda los marcos teóricos y supuestos desde los cuales estos desafíos son analizados y se formulan las soluciones. Se propone que para enfrentar exitosamente los nuevos retos y contextos, se requiere de nuevos paradigmas que definan un conjunto nuclear de fundamentos científicos e ingenieriles y una unidad mínima de estudio y trabajo. Esta unidad mínima debe permitir, desde una percepción sistémica y armónica, la identificación y análisis de los factores que intervienen en los procesos productivos y su contextos, el trabajo de las disciplinas y la formulación de preguntas y necesidades. En las ciencias agrarias, este cambio de paradigma puede estar representado en el enfoque agroecosistémico, el cual permite: a ordenar jerárquicamente la unidad de trabajo e investigación y sus niveles de interacción; b presentar el proceso productivo como una resultante del efecto integrado de factores socioeconómicos, ecológicos, culturales, científicos y tecnológicos; c la identificación integral de los problemas y soluciones; d el quiebre de los limites disciplinarios; e y responder a las demandas de una agricultura sostenible, competitiva, multifuncional y con equidad.Based on the challenges that are offered today by society, science, technology, and the regional, national and international contexts in which agriculture and rurality are unfolding, it is argued that the paradigms that have sustained the agricultural sciences and professions and their rules and protocols are insufficient for confronting and solving them in an integral fashion

  5. A crise dos paradigmas e a emergência da reflexão ética, hoje Paradigms crisis and the emergence of an ethic reflexion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romano

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa os paradigmas mais influentes na história do pensamento moderno, sobretudo nas doutrinas hegelianas e marxistas sobre a sociedade e a ética. Seu alvo é apresentar dúvidas sobre o próprio conceito de "paradigma", tal como ele é aceito e veiculado nas chamadas "ciências" sociais brasileiras.The article analyses the most influential paradigms in the history of the modern thought, mainly the Hegelian and Marxist doctrines on society and ethics. Its aim at raising a few doubts on the paradigm concept itself in the ways it is accepted and widespread in the field of the so- called "social sciences" in Brazil.

  6. La virtualización de la educación superior en América Latina: entre tendencias y paradigmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Chan Núñez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un acercamiento al campo de conocimiento sobre la virtualización de la Educación Superior en América Latina, a partir de la revisión de sus fundamentos y tendencias expuestos en publicaciones emitidas en los últimos diez años por organismos y autores clave para la región. Se expone un modelo analítico que permite reconocer algunas relaciones y oposiciones entre concepciones y prácticas enunciadas en los documentos de referencia. A partir del análisis de los resultados de esos diferentes ejercicios de interés prospectivo, se reflexiona sobre la convergencia entre un paradigma de gestión de la innovación educativa para el fortalecimiento institucional, y un paradigma eco sistémico sobre las TIC que ofrece diferentes escenarios futuribles.

  7. Paradigmas Contemporâneos de Educação: Escola Tradicional e Escola Construtivista Education paterns in the present times: traditional school and constructivist school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maria Maciel Leão

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O texto procura demonstrar as principais características dos paradigmas de educação da atualidade - a Escola Tradicional e a Escola Construtivista - a partir da análise dos aspectos filosóficos, epistemológicos, teóricos e metodológicos de cada tipo de escola. Também faz uma crítica de ambos os paradigmas levando em consideração os aspectos mais marcantes do ensino tradicional e do ensino construtivista.The text intends to show the principal characteristics of the education patterns in the present times - Tradicional School and Constructivist School - from the analisys of philosophical, epistemological, theoretical and methodological aspects of each type of school. It also comments upon both the patterns, taking into account the most remarkable aspects of both the traditional and constructivist education.

  8. Towards Temporal Graph Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Alexander; Mozzino, Jorge; Vaisman, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the extensive literature on graph databases (GDBs), temporal GDBs have not received too much attention so far. Temporal GBDs can capture, for example, the evolution of social networks across time, a relevant topic in data analysis nowadays. In this paper we propose a data model and query language (denoted TEG-QL) for temporal GDBs, based on the notion of attribute graphs. This allows a straightforward translation to Neo4J, a well-known GBD. We present extensive examples of the use...

  9. Análisis del Comportamiento de Robots Móviles con RNA. Un Acercamiento desde el Paradigma Reactivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hossian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de la navegación es posible guiar el curso de un robot móvil a través de un entorno con presencia de obstáculos. Se conocen diferentes esquemas para llevar a cabo esta tarea, pero todos ellos tienen el objetivo común de dirigir el vehículo hacia su destino de la manera más segura y eficiente posible. La capacidad de reacción que pueda poseer el robot cuando se encuentra ante situaciones inesperadas, debe constituir su cualidad más distintiva para desenvolverse eficazmente en el entorno donde este deba operar, lo cual indica el grado de autonomía que este posee. La navegación robótica es aplicable a múltiples disciplinas y entornos industriales; y en este sentido, la aplicación de la Inteligencia Artificial a través de las diferentes tecnologías inteligentes que la componen (redes neuronales, algoritmos genéticos y aprendizaje automático entre otras cobra un gran protagonismo dentro del campo de la Robótica Cognitiva para su desarrollo. El objetivo principal del presente trabajo se focaliza en el análisis y presentación de resultados de investigación en técnicas de navegación robótica, que se han obtenidos en base a experimentos llevados a cabo mediante la aplicación de la tecnología de las redes neuronales artificiales, las cuales concentran las mejores características del paradigma reactivo en lo que se refiere a la navegación autónoma de robots. En el presente artículo se evalúa la efectividad y el desempeño de este paradigma mediante la aplicación de una red neuronal de arquitectura sencilla, obteniendo conclusiones en lo que respecta a la conducta deseada del robot y comparándola con la que manifiesta en su desempeño. Los parámetros que se analizan para esta evaluación están relacionados con la evitación de obstáculos, velocidad de respuesta, optimización de las trayectorias que adopta y el logro de los objetivos.

  10. Paradigma. Hacia el diseño y desarrollo de algoritmos y sistemas de control para clonación artificial en procesos industriales.

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    Jairo Amador

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Haciendo uso de Ia tecnología inteligente basada en la lógica difusa, las redes neuronales y los algoritmos genéticos, se pretende plantear un paradigma para la clonación artificial de dispositivos en procesos industriales, específicamente para sensores, los cuales deberán replicar las mismas o mejores funciones de los dispositivos reales mediante la evolución des comportamiento.

  11. Cognição e aprendizagem de L2: o que nos diz a pesquisa nos paradigmas simbólico e conexionista

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    Mailce Mota

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os principais aspectos teóricos de dois paradigmas de investigação da cognição humana _ o simbólico e o conexionista _ e discute como a pesquisa em cada paradigma tem fomentado os estudos sobre aprendizagem de L2. O paradigma simbólico postula a existência de representações mentais através de regras lógicas e símbolos para explicar a aquisição e a utilização do conhecimento. O paradigma conexionista parte da premissa de que o processamento cognitivo está relacionado à maneira pela qual os neurônios se interconectam no cérebro. A partir dessas duas abordagens, o artigo examina como construtos tais como tipos de conhecimento, tipos de memória, processamento do insumo e atenção são apresentados nas duas teorias e como vêm sendo utilizados na pesquisa em L2.This paper presents the main tenets of two paradigms of investigation of human cognition _ the symbolic and the connectionist _ and discusses how research in each paradigm has fed studies in L2 learning. The symbolic paradigm explains the acquisition and use of knowledge through the existence of mental representations, logical rules, and symbols. The connectionist paradigm claims that human cognitive processing is related to how neurons are interconnected in the brain. The paper also examines how constructs such as types of knowledge, types of memory, input processing, and attention are presented in the two theories and how these constructs relate to current L2 research.

  12. [Clinical and pathological definition of temporal medium epilepsy subtypes with hypocampic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Granados, Gonzalo; Ríos-Pelegrina, Rosa María; Ruiz-Giménez, Jesús; Galdón-Castillo, Alberto; Escobar-Delgado, Teresa; García Del Moral, Raimundo

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of refractory epilepsy, and the most common indication for surgery. Although effective, surgery fails in up to 40% of patients. The objective of our study was to establish a correlation between the different histological subtypes of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis and the prognosis, seizures control, side effects and anticonvulsivant drug withdrawal in patients with refractory epilepsy. Clinical histories and anatomopathological specimens of 228 patients with temporal epilepsy surgically obtained at our hospital between 1993 and 2014 were retrospectively analysed. All patients underwent a standard preoperative evaluation and anterior temporal resection (modified from Spencer). The anatomopathological study included the standard hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical protocol, with special interest in the assessment of neuronal loss with NeuN. Seizure control was assessed according to the scale of results of the ILAE and Engel. The mean follow-up was 8.6 years (2-19). At 10 years after the intervention, 67.9% of patients were seizure-free (ILAE 1) and as many as 77.5% of the patients were seizure-free (Engel 1) at the end of the follow-up. The probability of not having a seizure (ILAE 1) after surgery at 2 (p=.042), 5 (p=.001) and 7 years (p=.22) was higher in classic and severe forms compared to isolated sclerosis CA1 and CA4 forms. Higher neuronal loss measured with the NeuN immunostain in CA1 was associated with better outcome in seizure management (multivariate analysis, p=.08). The presence of a personal history of epilepsy was associated with greater neuronal loss in CA1 (p=.028) and CA3 (p=.034), and the presence of psychic auras was related with greater neuronal loss in CA3 (p=.025). In our case, the probability of medication withdrawal was related to the presence of personal history (p=.003) and, inversely, to neuronal loss in CA1 (p=.036) and CA3

  13. Paradigmas de enfermería (no posibles: La necesidad de una ruptura extraordinaria (No possible pradigms of nursing: The necessity of an extraordinary rupture

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    Xabier Irigibel-Uriz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aproximación foucaultiana a la discusión en torno a la naturaleza de la ciencia normal de enfermería y la posible extraordinariedad del paradigma de la transformación descrito por Kerouack y col. y asumido como anhelo del desarrollo de la enfermería. Ejercicio teórico donde los aportes conceptuales de Thomas Kuhn permiten ubicar la discusión en torno a los límites de los paradigmas (No Posibles, como espacio e instante desde donde podrían emerger los enfrentamientos que dieran origen a investigaciones y paradigmas extraordinarios.A Foucaultian approximation of the discussion in terms of the nature of the normal science of nursing and the possible extraordinariness of the Transformation paradigm described by Kerouack et al. and assumed as a desire for development of nursing. A theoretical exercise where Thomas Kuhn offers his concepts which allow for the discussion in terms of the limits of the (No Possible Paradigms, like space and instance from where tensions could emerge that give rise to extraordinary investigations and paradigms.

  14. Elementos do paradigma sociocrítico nas práticas do cuidado de enfermagem: revisão integrativa

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    Silvana Ceolin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar as evidências disponíveis nas teses brasileiras sobre os elementos do paradigma sociocrítico na construção do conhecimento e das práticas do cuidado de enfermagem. Método: Revisão integrativa de literatura realizada no Banco de Teses da Coordenadoria de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior e na Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações. Resultados: De um montante de 320 teses, somente 19 apresentaram elementos do paradigma sociocrítico em sua construção, dentre os quais se destacaram o emprego de investigações participativas (principalmente pesquisa-ação, que apresentam interação entre pesquisador e participantes; o uso de técnicas de coleta de dados como grupos focais e círculos de cultura; e referenciais teóricos que permitem analisar os fenômenos em sua complexidade. Conclusão: O suporte do paradigma sociocrítico atribui à enfermagem o caráter de uma ciência prática e a serviço da comunidade, comprometida com a transformação social a partir do empoderamento das pessoas.

  15. Relaciones de aprendizaje significativo entre dos paradigmas de programación a partir de dos lenguajes de programación

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    Omar Iván Trejos Buriticá

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Una de las dificultades que, con frecuencia, se presenta en los currículos de Ingeniería de Sistemas es el hecho de que se establecen pocas relaciones entre lo que los estudiantes han aprendido en una asignatura de programación y lo que van a aprender en otra. Este artículo plantea una propuesta para que se puedan establecer, desde la primera sesión, relaciones entre el paradigma de programación funcional (utilizando DrScheme como instancia tecnológica y el paradigma de programación estructurada (utilizando DevC++ en su arista estructurada como lenguaje de programación. Se plantean las experiencias recogidas al respecto de la aplicación de esta estrategia y, sobre los resultados se presentan algunas reflexiones que pueden enriquecer el desarrollo de la línea de programación en los programas de Ingeniería a partir de las relaciones que se pueden establecer tanto entre paradigmas de programación como entre los lenguajes de programación con miras a que el camino de aprendizaje de estos sea mucho más simple.

  16. Receta para hacer lo imposible. Acerca de las consecuencias ético-políticas de los paradigmas actuales de investigación en ciencias sociales

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    Oscar Guardiola-Rivera

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora las implicaciones ético-políticas de los tres paradigmas de investigación con mayor poder explicativo y capacidad heurística en las ciencias sociales de hoy. Tras referirse a la centralidad del “giro culturalista” que informa tales paradigmas y sus limitaciones ético-políticas, el autor propone su superación en la dirección de un “giro material”. En particular, trata de la importancia que el giro culturalista ha tenido en la crítica de los paradigmas reformistas y disidentes de los años sesenta y setenta.This article explores the ethical and political implications that the three research paradigms with the greatest explicative power and heuristic capacity have in social sciences today. After making reference to the centrality of the “cultural turn” that informs such paradigms and their ethical and political limitations, the author proposes that they can be overcome by means of a “material turn.” He particularly focuses on the importance the cultural turn has had for the criticism of the reformist and dissident paradigms in the 60s and the 70s.

  17. Rightward shift in temporal order judgements in the wake of the attentional blink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Valdés-Sosa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cambio hacia la derecha en los juicios de orden temporal durante el parpadeo atencional. El orden temporal de dos eventos, cada uno de ellos presentado en un hemicampo visual diferente, puede ser juzgado correctamente por observadores típicos inclusive cuando la diferencia de tiempo entre las presentaciones sea muy pequeña. El presente trabajo analiza la influencia de un proceso endógeno sobre el juicio de orden temporal (JOT y nos muestra que la percepción del orden temporal está también afectada cuando los recursos atencionales disponibles son reducidos mediante un paradigma de parpadeo atencional (PA. A los participantes se les presentaron los siguientes estímulos: un primer estímulo visual (T1 en el centro de fijación y luego de un intervalo de tiempo variable (280 ó 1030 ms, un par de estímulos lateralizados (T2. Para la tarea dual con el intervalo de tiempo de 280 ms entre T1 y T2, la precisión en el JOT se deterioró, evidenciando un PA. Sin embargo, durante el PA en lugar de la asimetría favorable al lado izquierdo, aparece un significativo sesgo en contra de ese lado.

  18. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy Temporal lobe seizure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  19. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. During a temporal lobe seizure, you ... include: A sudden sense of unprovoked fear A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...

  20. Multisensory temporal numerosity judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippi, T.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    In temporal numerosity judgment, observers systematically underestimate the number of pulses. The strongest underestimations occur when stimuli are presented with a short interstimulus interval (ISI) and are stronger for vision than for audition and touch. We investigated if multisensory

  1. Massive temporal lobe cholesteatoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent

    2015-01-01

    .... There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma...

  2. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent

    2015-01-01

    .... There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma...

  3. Paradigmas administrativos, ética e intervenção do Estado na economia: o caso de Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bilhim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Muita atenção tem sido dada na literatura administrativa e organizacional aos valores que guiam o comportamento organizacional e de gestão pública e privada. Todavia, o separador de águas entre a gestão pública e a privada manteve-se ao longo do tempo, com altos e baixos, como ponto controverso na literatura específica da administração e políticas públicas e do direito administrativo. A influência da Nova Gestão Pública (NGP na reforma administrativa em Portugal é amplamente reconhecida em Portugal. Foram muitos os governos que, nos países da oecd, tomaram iniciativas idênticas. Há porém uma diferença acentuada entre a reforma administrativa dos países anglófonos e a dos países da Europa continental. Ora, tal diferença parece radicar no papel que o direito administrativo tem nestes países europeus e que não tem nos sistemas de Common Law. Este artigo quer contribuir para o debate da existência de dois paradigmas administrativos onde a separação entre gestão privada e pública parece colocar-se de forma diferenciada e a ética assume distinta ponderação.

  4. El innatismo moral, un nuevo paradigma de desarrollo moral, aportaciones desde la cognición y la neurociencia

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    M.ª del Pilar Quiroga Méndez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los nuevos abordajes en desarrollo moral, intuicionismo moral, procesamiento dual, cerebro moral, y universales morales, procedentes de la investigación generada en los últimos años. Durante más de cien años los científicos en general y la psicología en particular, han sido hostiles a la noción de que pueda existir una facultad moral o un sentido de la justicia innato En la actualidad un cuerpo importante de investigación científica procedente de la moderna ciencia cognitiva, está confluyendo en la afirmación del innatismo moral. Hoy existen evidencias suficientes para suponer que las capacidades morales básicas son no aprendidas y universales. Es razonable pensar que una especie tan intensamente social como la nuestra ha creado un modo de favorecer los procesos indispensables para la supervivencia. Por otra parte el procesamiento moral sigue una secuencia que destaca por su automaticidad, lo cuál se refrenda desde la mayor parte de las investigaciones de la psicología cognitiva y desde la neurociencia, creando todo ello un nuevo paradigma de aproximación a la comprensión del desarrollo moral.

  5. ¿Sigue vigente el paradigma del turismo sostenible? Reflexiones a la luz de la literatura reciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Pulido\\u2011Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El de sostenibilidad se ha convertido en un término recurrente en la agenda política de la mayoría de gobiernos y organismos internacionales, así como en documentos de empresas turísticas, organizaciones no gubernamentales y, por supuesto, en la agenda de los investigadores. A pesar de ello, hay una coincidencia generalizada en que, en la realidad, se ha avanzado poco en materia de sostenibilidad, en general y en el ámbito del turismo. Incluso, estos escasos avances hacen pensar si no se tratará de un concepto utópico, referido a un estado armonioso inalcanzable y que, en consecuencia, debe de ser abandonado cuanto antes, evitando con ello un coste de oportunidad innecesario. En este artículo se analiza el estado actual del debate, especialmente respecto al turismo sostenible, y se plantean un conjunto de argumentos que justifican la necesidad de aplicar, en un momento como el actual, el paradigma del desarrollo sostenible a la actividad turística.

  6. Posdisciplina una aventura metodológica en tiempos de nuevos paradigmas. Una mirada sobre el espacio público.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Laurelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo siglo se caracteriza por la innovación de nuevos paradigmas lo cual está significando aventurarse en la búsqueda de nuevos caminos para interpretar al espacio público, no solo como un espacio abierto, verde y de uso común aun para los que están en “situación de calle”, sino como un espacio de reproducción física, económica y social, de esparcimiento, de memoria, de símbolos colectivos y de lucha de la sociedad. Esta aventura implica desarrollar y relacionar conceptos, metodologías y saberes de distinto origen poniendo énfasis en los problemas a resolver y no en los límites disciplinares que podrían cercenarlos. La naturaleza social del espacio público y el desafío de una mirada crítica tanto de las políticas públicas como de las prácticas de diferentes agentes en el proceso de construcción del espacio urbano, son fuentes de nuevos temas, problemas y espacios de reflexión en la “sociedad pos”.

  7. O pensamento de baumaniano e os paradigmas de mediação da informação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Gouveia Junior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretende verificar se a lógica baumanniana que trata do par de conceitos Liberdade e Segurança, no nas relações entre indivíduo e sociedade, pode ser aplicada às relações de mediação e custódia vivenciadas pelos Sistemas de Informação. Trata-se de uma revisão de literatura. Apresenta como resultados a perspectiva de que o emergente Paradigma Pós-custodial pode ser uma resposta ao dilema entre a preservação e o acesso à informação. Nesse sentido, a digitalização de conteúdos informacionais, naturalmente, seguidas de sua preservação em plataformas que se disponham a seguir padrões de armazenamento e recuperação de informação confiáveis pode representar a medida para que se possa obter o sucesso entre os pares de ambivalências paradigmáticas presentes nos serviços de mediação: custódia-acesso e segurança-liberdade de informação.

  8. Paradigma preventivo e lógica identitária nas abordagens sobre o Hip Hop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lages e Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo faz uma revisão das pesquisas acadêmicas sobre o Hip Hop, apontando a preponderância do conceito de identidade nas referidas teorizações. Neste sentido, pretende-se contextualizar a ascensão do conceito de identidade nas visões sobre o Hip Hop, em direção a sua conjugação com o conceito de cidadania. Tal lógica identitária está intimamente ligada à construção da noção de categorias desviantes. Forjada sob o pano de fundo da urbanização, a lógica identitária é a expressão acadêmica de uma racionalidade a que denominamos de paradigma preventivo, cuja função é antecipar-se a uma eventual potência violenta que os jovens moradores de periferia representariam. Portanto, trata-se de entender a fabricação do subúrbio e da juventude como problema social, analisando, assim, as concepções que dão sustentação aos ideais corretivos e moralizantes que as abordagens sobre o Hip Hop expressam através de uma ênfase nos seus benefícios identitários.

  9. Funcionalismo y paradigmas sociológicos. Anotaciones críticas a un libro de Jacques Coenen-Huther

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    LUIS ENRIQUE ALONSO

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available En el libro de Jacques Coenen-Huther Le Fonctionnalisme en sociologie: et après? (El Funcionalismo en sociología: ¿y luego? (1984, que se basa en su tesis doctoral, el autor repasa los puntos principales del funcionalismo, que dominaron la Sociología desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial hasta finales de los años 60. Examina la definición de funcionalismo, su relación con la causalidad, y diversas nociones de la función. Discute los paradigmas de los factores sociales y de la acción social, y presenta una evaluación de varios puntos sobre acuerdo y divergencia del funcionalismo con otras tradiciones sociológicas. Coenen-Huther ofrece una síntesis bien documentada de algunos problemas centrales en Sociología. Algunas críticas se hacen a su tratamiento del marxismo y el socialismo, y a su escasa atención a algunas influencias importantes en teoría sociológica, como son el psicoanálisis, el estructuralismo, y el behaviorismo

  10. También Yavé bajo el nuevo paradigma arqueológico-bíblico

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    José Maria Vigil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El llamado «nuevo paradigma arqueológico bíblico» verá consolidado el aprecio que le tengan la teología y las ciencias de la religión en la medida en que sus descubrimientos se vayan aplicando a los principales temas bíblicos, histórico-religiosos y teológicos. Una de estas aplicaciones es la que acaba de darse en un modo significativo con la publicación del libro de Thomas Römer, L’invention de Dieu, que viene a ser en este momento el mejor resumen de los hallazgos –y cuestionamientos– que la nueva arqueología puede aportarnos hoy acerca del Dios bíblico.En un primer momento, este artículo resume las novedades más destacadas de la nueva visión sobre el Dios bíblico desde la perspectiva de la nueva arqueología, tal como aparecen en el libro de Römer, y en un segundo momento trata de poner de relieve algunas consecuencias y sugerencias, tanto en el plano teórico cuanto en el práctico-pedagógico.

  11. Programación de un robot bajo el paradigma del aprendizaje por demostración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Nope

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la programación de un robot mediante el paradigma del aprendizaje por demostración, utilizando técnicas bio-inspiradas para extraer la información relevante que acompaña la acción del demostrador, y crear un mapa visuo-motor que relaciona las entradas visuales con comandos motrices necesarios para imitar un comportamiento o una tarea. El sistema se evaluó cualitativamente mediante una encuesta y cuantitativamente mediante métricas específi cas para califi car la calidad de la imitación de un grupo de cuatro gestos. De esta manera, se pudieron corroborar las potencialidades del aprendizaje por demostración para la programación de robots, ya que el sistema fue capaz no solo de realizar sus propias interpretaciones de los gestos que se le enseñaron, sino de utilizar las habilidades aprendidas en la realización de gestos novedosos.

  12. Tecnología, Aprendizaje, Intercultura. Paradigmas pedagógicos de la transición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Galliani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha producido una "mutación antropológica" debido a la presencia generalizada de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación (TIC y de los medios de comunicación digitales en los procesos sociales y culturales. El multiculturalismo en una sociedad globalizada exige una Pedagogía de los multialfabetismos y de los multimedialidad basada en tres paradigmas integrados del e-learning: informacióntransmisión, interaccionista-sistémico, socio-constructivista. La red es la metáfora principal no sólo para interdependencia económica, política, social y cultural, sino también para la construcción y transformación del conocimiento a través de la educación así como también es un valor para los individuos, la vida real y las comunidades profesionales.

  13. Judicialización de las internaciones psiquiátricas involuntarias: nuevos paradigmas y responsabilidad judicial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Elizabeth Zalazar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La nueva ley de salud mental en la República Argentina que regula la protección de los derechos de las personas con padecimiento mental, ha sentado como un paradigma fundamental la desjudicialización del sistema, entendido en un doble sentido: como una limitación de las facultades judiciales a la hora de evaluar la posibilidad de dicha medida restrictiva, la que sólo debe ser aplicada como último recurso terapéutico tras una valoración interdisciplinaria y en segundo lugar como control efectivo que la duración de dicha internación sea por el menor tiempo posible; siempre a la luz de la protección de los derechos humanos de dicho paciente. Si bien la normativa nacional se ajusta a los principios de las normas internacionales la misma no ha sido acompañada por políticas de salud mental que garanticen en la práctica su cumplimiento, ocasionando distorsiones en su aplicación, que deben ser corregidas; con la consiguiente responsabilidad del Estado de manera general y del Poder Judicial en forma particular ya que es en definitiva el que tiene que bregar por el cumplimiento de dicha ley.

  14. Paradigma socio-cognitivo en la Red Social Dreamcatchers en Cuba = Socio-cognitive paradigm in the Social Network Dreamcatchers in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali de la Caridad Sosa Pérez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available La Ciencia de la Información en su nacimiento científico está influenciada por dos aspectos fundamentales, uno es el contexto de las tecnologías y el otro es su carácter interdisciplinario. La misma aparece con el propósito de centrar su atención en la información, y la convierte en su objeto de estudio. De ahí que en su desarrollo epistemológico, los paradigmas trazan el camino de estudio y práctica de la información, reflejan el contexto en la que se va desarrollando y cómo este al unísono influye en el desarrollo de esta ciencia. El paradigma socio-cognitivo, en la actualidad, se despliega bajo un contexto diferente, de redes sociales, donde las relaciones entre las personas se manifiestan de forma diferente y por tanto sus comportamientos, necesidades adquieren otra dimensión. Precisamente el tema de la investigación es el paradigma socio-cognitivo contextualizado en la red social Dreamcatchers de Cuba, con el objetivo de reconocer la presencia del paradigma socio-cognitivo en la misma. Como resultado fue el análisis del paradigma socio-cognitivo en la red social Dreamcatchers a partir de los indicadores propuestos donde se reconoció la influencia de la comunidad en las personas, a partir del análisis estadístico de la información y del software Ucinet. = Since its origin, Information Science has been influenced by two fundamental aspects: The context of the technologies and its interdisciplinary character with the purpose of focusing attention in information hence becoming its study object. In the epistemological development, paradigms map the way to study and practice information reflecting the context in which it develops and likewise influencing the development of this science. Nowadays, the socio-cognitive paradigm happens in a somehow different context: Social networks, where relationships among people, their behaviors and needs acquire another dimension. This research subject is the presence of the socio

  15. Preoperative automated fibre quantification predicts postoperative seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simon S; Glenn, G Russell; Weber, Bernd; Kreilkamp, Barbara A K; Jensen, Jens H; Helpern, Joseph A; Wagner, Jan; Barker, Gareth J; Richardson, Mark P; Bonilha, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Approximately one in every two patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy will not be rendered completely seizure-free after temporal lobe surgery. The reasons for this are unknown and are likely to be multifactorial. Quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging techniques have provided limited insight into the causes of persistent postoperative seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The relationship between postoperative outcome and preoperative pathology of white matter tracts, which constitute crucial components of epileptogenic networks, is unknown. We investigated regional tissue characteristics of preoperative temporal lobe white matter tracts known to be important in the generation and propagation of temporal lobe seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy, using diffusion tensor imaging and automated fibre quantification. We studied 43 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis and 44 healthy controls. Patients underwent preoperative imaging, amygdalohippocampectomy and postoperative assessment using the International League Against Epilepsy seizure outcome scale. From preoperative imaging, the fimbria-fornix, parahippocampal white matter bundle and uncinate fasciculus were reconstructed, and scalar diffusion metrics were calculated along the length of each tract. Altogether, 51.2% of patients were rendered completely seizure-free and 48.8% continued to experience postoperative seizure symptoms. Relative to controls, both patient groups exhibited strong and significant diffusion abnormalities along the length of the uncinate bilaterally, the ipsilateral parahippocampal white matter bundle, and the ipsilateral fimbria-fornix in regions located within the medial temporal lobe. However, only patients with persistent postoperative seizures showed evidence of significant pathology of tract sections located in the ipsilateral dorsal fornix and in the contralateral parahippocampal white matter bundle

  16. Los estudios de herencia cultural como una alternativa a la arqueología científica o a la patrimonialización de los dioses: del paradigma de la ruptura al de la continuidad

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    Wilhelm Londoño

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas dos décadas varios arqueólogos han reflexionado sobre la problemática relación de la arqueología con la construcción de comunidades imaginadas nacionales. En estas reflexiones el balance ha señalado que la arqueología ha sido funcional a un proyecto nacionalista que ubicó la alteridad en una dimensión temporal distanciada del presente. En este sentido la se legitimó como una disciplina encargada de dar cuenta del pasado (ruptura. A pesar del peso que tiene esta imagen dentro del imaginario, cada vez más comunidades locales están reclamando, no sólo un papel más activo en esta maquinaria de representación  del pasado, sino controles más efectivos sobre los espacios donde se practica la arqueología. Estas peticiones han sido, en muchos casos, legitimadas por el reconocimiento sobre las maneras como el colonialismo impelió a las comunidades locales a desprenderse de prácticas rituales celebradas sobre espacios y objetos específicos (continuidad. Dentro de este escenario ha emergido un nuevo paradigma que busca no saber lo que  ocurrió en el pasado, sino los medios a través de los cuales se desplegaron dispositivos del olvido (efecto de  colonialismo. En este artículo se desea hablar de este campo que puede ser definido  como “estudios de herencia cultural”.

  17. Gray, White Matter Concentration Changes and Their Correlation with Heterotopic Neurons in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Woo Suk; Joo, Eun Yun; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To identify changes in gray and white matter concentrations (GMC, WMC), and their relation to heterotopic neuron numbers in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The gray matter or white matter concentrations of 16 left and 15 right mTLE patients who achieved an excellent surgical outcome were compared with those of 24 healthy volunteers for the left group and with 23 healthy volunteers for the right group, by optimized voxel-based morphometry using unmodulated and modulated images. A histologic count of heterotopic neurons was obtained in the white matter of the anterior temporal lobe originating from the patients' surgical specimens. In addition, the number of heterotopic neurons were tested to determine if there was a correlation with the GMC or WMC. The GMCs of the left and right mTLE groups were reduced in the ipsilateral hippocampi, bilateral thalami, precentral gyri, and in the cerebellum. The WMCs were reduced in the ipsilateral white matter of the anterior temporal lobe, bilateral parahippocampal gyri, and internal capsules, but increased in the pons and bilateral precentral gyri. The heterotopic neuron counts in the left mTLE group showed a positive correlation (r = 0.819, p < 0.0001) with GMCs and a negative correlation (r = - 0.839, p < 0.0001) with WMCs in the white matter of the anterior temporal lobe. The present study shows the abnormalities of the cortico-thalamo- hippocampal network including a gray matter volume reduction in the anterior frontal lobes and an abnormality of brain tissue concentration in the pontine area. Furthermore, heterotopic neuron numbers were significantly correlated with GMC or WMC in the left white matter of anterior temporal lobe.

  18. Clinical characteristics, surgical and neuropsychological outcomes in drug resistant tumoral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, Sangeeta; Iyer, Vivek; Muzumdar, Dattatraya; Shah, Urvashi; Pradhan, Pranjali; Jain, Neeraj; Godge, Yogesh

    2016-12-01

    Glioneuronal tumors are found in nearly one third patients who undergo surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy with temporal lobe being the most common location. Few studies, however have concentrated on the neurological and neuropsychological outcomes after surgery, hitherto none from India. We studied 34 patients with temporal lobe tumors and drug resistant epilepsy. These patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy or lesionectomy based on the involvement of the hippocampus and mesial temporal structures. The clinical history, EEG, neuropsychology profile and MRI were compared. Seizure outcome was categorized using Engel's classification. At a mean follow up of 62 months, 85.29% of the patients were seizure free (Engel's Class I). All 8 patients with intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) guided resection were seizure free. Presence of a residual lesion was significantly associated with persistence of seizures post surgery (p = 0.002). Group analysis revealed no significant shifts in IQ and memory scores postoperatively. There was a significant improvement in the quality of life scores (total and across all subdomains) in all patients (p temporal lobe tumors and refractory epilepsy offers complete seizure freedom in majority. Complete surgical excision of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in achieving seizure freedom. Intraoperative electrocorticography (EcoG) is a useful adjunct to ensure complete removal of epileptogenic zone, thus achieving optimal seizure freedom. There is a significant improvement in the quality of life scores (p < 0.001) with no negative impact of surgery on memory and intelligence. Even the patients who are not seizure free can achieve worthwhile improvement post surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy: A network disorder of neocortical connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David N; Rayner, Genevieve; Tailby, Chris; Jackson, Graeme D

    2016-11-01

    To define the functional network changes that characterize MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS-TLE). We studied 36 patients with medically refractory unilateral TLE, having either a normal clinical MRI (n = 18) or unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (n = 18). Patients were compared to healthy controls of equivalent age and sex (n = 27). Functional connectivity in 10 minutes of task-free functional MRI was assessed using a voxel-resolution graph theoretic analysis, using the metrics of degree, clustering coefficient, eigenvector, and betweenness centrality. Significant clusters were further explored with a seed-based analysis. MRI-negative TLE showed decreased connectivity at the ipsilateral superior and middle temporal gyri compared to controls (decreased eigenvector centrality). No functional abnormality was detected within mesial temporal structures. In contrast, HS-TLE showed increased connectivity within the affected hippocampus and anterior thalamus (increased clustering coefficient) and decreased connectivity of the ventromesial prefrontal cortex (decreased betweenness centrality). Using the detected clusters as seed regions revealed decreased connectivity from the sclerotic hippocampus to both the contralateral temporal lobe and regions of the default mode network. MRI-negative TLE is associated with impaired interictal connectivity of the temporal neocortex, lateralized to the epileptic side. HS-TLE shows a different pattern, with functional segregation of the sclerotic hippocampus and impairment of its long-range connectivity. This suggests that MRI-negative TLE is not merely a subtle version of hippocampal sclerosis, but is rather a separate condition that involves distinct brain networks. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Epilepsy surgery in a liver-transplanted girl with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis following PRES with status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilena, Robertino; Nebbia, Gabriella; Fiorica, Lorenzo; Farallo, Marcello; Degrassi, Irene; Gozzo, Francesca; Pelliccia, Veronica; Barbieri, Sergio; Cossu, Massimo; Tassi, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) with status epilepticus may occur after liver transplant. This may rarely lead to refractory epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). We report the first case of epilepsy surgery in a liver-transplanted patient with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. A 3-year-old girl underwent liver transplant for congenital biliary atresia. Four days after transplant she manifested PRES with status epilepticus, but she recovered within a couple of weeks. At the age of 5 years she started presenting complex partial seizures, that became refractory to antiepileptic drugs (AED), worsening psychosocial performances. The pre-surgical work-up identified a left HS and temporal pole alterations. A left antero-mesial temporal<