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Sample records for temporal gap detection

  1. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  2. Mind the gap: temporal discrimination and dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadnicka, A; Daum, C; Cordivari, C; Bhatia, K P; Rothwell, J C; Manohar, S; Edwards, M J

    2017-06-01

    One of the most widely studied perceptual measures of sensory dysfunction in dystonia is the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) (the shortest interval at which subjects can perceive that there are two stimuli rather than one). However the elevated thresholds described may be due to a number of potential mechanisms as current paradigms test not only temporal discrimination but also extraneous sensory and decision-making parameters. In this study two paradigms designed to better quantify temporal processing are presented and a decision-making model is used to assess the influence of decision strategy. 22 patients with cervical dystonia and 22 age-matched controls completed two tasks (i) temporal resolution (a randomized, automated version of existing TDT paradigms) and (ii) interval discrimination (rating the length of two consecutive intervals). In the temporal resolution task patients had delayed (P = 0.021) and more variable (P = 0.013) response times but equivalent discrimination thresholds. Modelling these effects suggested this was due to an increased perceptual decision boundary in dystonia with patients requiring greater evidence before committing to decisions (P = 0.020). Patient performance on the interval discrimination task was normal. Our work suggests that previously observed abnormalities in TDT may not be due to a selective sensory deficit of temporal processing as decision-making itself is abnormal in cervical dystonia. © 2017 EAN.

  3. Automatic Road Gap Detection Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, S.; Valadan Zoej, M. J.; Mokhtarzadeh, M.

    2011-09-01

    Automatic feature extraction from aerial and satellite images is a high-level data processing which is still one of the most important research topics of the field. In this area, most of the researches are focused on the early step of road detection, where road tracking methods, morphological analysis, dynamic programming and snakes, multi-scale and multi-resolution methods, stereoscopic and multi-temporal analysis, hyper spectral experiments, are some of the mature methods in this field. Although most researches are focused on detection algorithms, none of them can extract road network perfectly. On the other hand, post processing algorithms accentuated on the refining of road detection results, are not developed as well. In this article, the main is to design an intelligent method to detect and compensate road gaps remained on the early result of road detection algorithms. The proposed algorithm consists of five main steps as follow: 1) Short gap coverage: In this step, a multi-scale morphological is designed that covers short gaps in a hierarchical scheme. 2) Long gap detection: In this step, the long gaps, could not be covered in the previous stage, are detected using a fuzzy inference system. for this reason, a knowledge base consisting of some expert rules are designed which are fired on some gap candidates of the road detection results. 3) Long gap coverage: In this stage, detected long gaps are compensated by two strategies of linear and polynomials for this reason, shorter gaps are filled by line fitting while longer ones are compensated by polynomials.4) Accuracy assessment: In order to evaluate the obtained results, some accuracy assessment criteria are proposed. These criteria are obtained by comparing the obtained results with truly compensated ones produced by a human expert. The complete evaluation of the obtained results whit their technical discussions are the materials of the full paper.

  4. Effect of noise exposure on gap detection in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybalko, Natalia; Syka, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 200, - (2005), s. 63-72 ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/04/1074; GA MZd(CZ) NR8113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : noise exposure * temporal resolution * gap detection Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.674, year: 2005

  5. Audiovisual laughter detection based on temporal features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petridis, Stavros; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, M.; Pantic, Maja; Poel, Mannes; Poel, M.; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on automatic laughter detection has mainly been focused on audio-based detection. In this study we present an audiovisual approach to distinguishing laughter from speech based on temporal features and we show that the integration of audio and visual information leads to improved

  6. Detection of silent intervals between noises activating different perceptual channels: some properties of "central" auditory gap detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Taylor, T L; Hall, S E; Carr, M M; Mossop, J E

    1997-06-01

    This article describes four experiments on gap detection by normal listeners, with the general goal being to examine the consequences of using noises in different perceptual channels to delimit a silent temporal gap to be detected. In experiment 1, subjects were presented with pairs of narrow-band noise sequences. The leading element in each pair had a center frequency of 2 kHz and the trailing element's center frequency was parametrically varied. Gap detection thresholds became increasingly poor, sometimes by up to an order of magnitude, as the spectral disparity was increased between the noise bursts that marked the gap. These data suggested that gap-detection performance is impoverished when the underlying perceptual timing operation requires a comparison of activity in different perceptual channels rather than a discontinuity detection within a given channel. In experiment 2, we assessed the effect of leading-element duration in within-channel and between-channel gap detection tasks. Gap detection thresholds rose when the duration of the leading element was less than about 30 ms, but only in the between-channel case. In experiment 3, the gap-detection stimulus was redesigned so that we could probe the perceptual mechanisms that might be involved in stop consonant discrimination. The leading element was a wideband noise burst, and the trailing element was a 300-ms bandpassed noise centered on 1.0 kHz. The independent variable was the duration of the leading element, and the dependent variable was the smallest detectable gap between the elements. When the leading element was short in duration (5-10 ms), gap thresholds were close to 30 ms, which is close to the voice onset time that parses some voiced from unvoiced stop consonants. In experiment 4, the generality of the leading-element duration effect in between-channel gap detection was examined. Spectrally identical noises defining the leading and trailing edges of the gap were presented to the same or to

  7. Automatic Gap Detection in Friction Stir Welding Processes (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Yu; Kalya, Prabhanjana; Landers, Robert G; Krishnamurthy, K

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper develops a monitoring algorithm to detect gaps in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processes. Experimental studies are conducted to determine how the process parameters and the gap width affect the welding process...

  8. Fear conditioning facilitates rats gap detection measured by prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dan; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2005-04-01

    A low-intensity acoustic event presented shortly before an intense startling sound can inhibit the acoustic startle reflex. This phenomenon is called prepulse inhibition (PPI), and is widely used as a model of sensorimotor gating in both humans and animals. Particularly, it has been used for evaluating the aging effect on the mouse's ability to detect a silent gap in otherwise continuous sounds. The present study extended this model to the emotional modulation of gap detection. The results show that a silent gap embedded in each of the two broadband noise sounds (55 dB SPL), which were delivered by two spatially separated loudspeakers, could inhibit the startle reflex that was induced by a loud sound presented from the third loudspeaker 50 ms after the gap. The inhibitory effect largely depended on the duration of the gap, with the mean duration threshold around 11 ms across 18 rats tested. Pairing the gap with foot shock in a temporally specific manner, but not in a temporally random manner, significantly reduced the duration threshold. Thus this study established a new animal behavioral model both for studying auditory temporal processing and for studying auditory signal-detection plasticity induced by emotional learning.

  9. Temporal Artery Thermometry to Detect Pediatric Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann Hudson; Carrigan, Julie Dagenhart; Solomon, David M; Tart, Rebecca Creech

    2015-10-01

    This research investigated effectiveness of temporal artery thermometry (TAT) to detect high rectal fever in children ≥ 91 days and ≤ 4 years old. Rectal temperature was initially evaluated immediately followed by TAT. As expected, the difference between mean rectal (38.05 ± .99 °C) and mean TA (37.55 ± .8 °C) temperatures in subjects (N = 239) was significant (p thermometry with greater frequency at higher temperatures. This observation provides probable explanation for the disparity between these thermometry methods. A TAT sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 85% were determined for detecting high fever (39 °C)-a finding clinically unacceptable. In contrast, among the small number of injured subjects enrolled, TAT detected high rectal fever with 100% sensitivity and specificity. This finding, if confirmed, suggests TAT screening for well and injured children has potential for clinical practice by diminishing rectal measurements and their associated risks in the acute care and/or ambulatory practice setting. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Electrophysiological response during auditory gap detection: Biomarker for sensory and communication alterations in autism spectrum disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Stavropoulos, Katherine K M; McPartland, James C; Wallace, Mark T; Stone, Wendy L; Key, Alexandra P

    2018-01-01

    Sensory symptoms, including auditory processing deficits, are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Processing of temporal aspects of auditory input is understudied; yet, deficits in this domain could contribute to language-related impairments. In children with ASD and well-matched controls, this study examined electrophysiological response to silent gaps in auditory stimuli. Results revealed attenuated amplitude of the P2 event-related potential (ERP) component in ASD. The P2 amplitude reduction was also associated with sensory, language, and diagnostic features. These results suggest that neural response during auditory gap detection is a promising ASD biomarker that could be useful for stratifying subgroups and evaluating treatment response.

  11. Effects of Hand Proximity and Movement Direction in Spatial and Temporal Gap Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemers, Michael; Fischer, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on the interplay between static manual postures and visual attention revealed enhanced visual selection near the hands (near-hand effect). During active movements there is also superior visual performance when moving toward compared to away from the stimulus (direction effect). The “modulated visual pathways” hypothesis argues that differential involvement of magno- and parvocellular visual processing streams causes the near-hand effect. The key finding supporting this hypothesis is an increase in temporal and a reduction in spatial processing in near-hand space (Gozli et al., 2012). Since this hypothesis has, so far, only been tested with static hand postures, we provide a conceptual replication of Gozli et al.’s (2012) result with moving hands, thus also probing the generality of the direction effect. Participants performed temporal or spatial gap discriminations while their right hand was moving below the display. In contrast to Gozli et al. (2012), temporal gap discrimination was superior at intermediate and not near hand proximity. In spatial gap discrimination, a direction effect without hand proximity effect suggests that pragmatic attentional maps overshadowed temporal/spatial processing biases for far/near-hand space. PMID:28018268

  12. Effects of hand proximity and movement direction in spatial and temporal gap discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wiemers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on the interplay between static manual postures and visual attention revealed enhanced visual selection near the hands (near-hand effect. During active movements there is also superior visual performance when moving towards compared to away from the stimulus (direction effect. The modulated visual pathways hypothesis argues that differential involvement of magno- and parvocellular visual processing streams causes the near-hand effect. The key finding supporting this hypothesis is an increase in temporal and a reduction in spatial processing in near-hand space (Gozli, West, & Pratt, 2012. Since this hypothesis has, so far, only been tested with static hand postures, we provide a conceptual replication of Gozli et al.’s result with moving hands, thus also probing the generality of the direction effect. Participants performed temporal or spatial gap discriminations while their right hand was moving below the display. In contrast to Gozli et al. (2012, temporal gap discrimination was superior at intermediate and not near hand proximity. In spatial gap discrimination, a direction effect without hand proximity effect suggests that pragmatic attentional maps overshadowed temporal/spatial processing biases for far/near-hand space.

  13. The effect of temporal structure on rustling-sound detection in the gleaning bat, Megaderma lyra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, M; Wiegrebe, L

    2003-05-01

    For a gleaning bat hunting prey from the ground, rustling sounds generated by prey movements are essential to invoke a hunting behaviour. The detection of prey-generated rustling sounds may depend heavily on the time structure of the prey-generated and the masking sounds due to their spectral similarity. Here, we systematically investigate the effect of the temporal structure on psychophysical rustling-sound detection in the gleaning bat, Megaderma lyra. A recorded rustling sound serves as the signal; the maskers are either Gaussian noise or broadband noise with various degrees of envelope fluctuations. Exploratory experiments indicate that the selective manipulation of the temporal structure of the rustling sound does not influence its detection in a Gaussian-noise masker. The results of the main experiment show, however, that the temporal structure of the masker has a strong and systematic effect on rustling-sound detection: When the width of irregularly spaced gaps in the masker exceeded about 0.3 ms, rustling-sound detection improved monotonically with increasing gap duration. Computer simulations of this experiment reveal that a combined detection strategy of spectral and temporal analysis underlies rustling-sound detection with fluctuating masking sounds.

  14. Efficient online detection of temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomi Dolev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying a temporal pattern of events is a fundamental task of online (real-time verification. We present efficient schemes for online monitoring of events for identifying desired/undesired patterns of events. The schemes use preprocessing to ensure that the number of comparisons during run-time is minimized. In particular, the first comparison following the time point when an execution sub-sequence cannot be further extended to satisfy the temporal requirements halts the process that monitors the sub-sequence.

  15. On the Feasibility of Gap Detection of Power Transformer Partial Discharge UHF Signals: Gap Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the transformer electromagnetic gap propagation characteristics. The influence of gap size is also analyzed, and the results experimentally verified. The obtained results indicated that the gap propagation characteristics of electromagnetic wave signals radiated by the partial discharge (PD source in different directions are substantially different. The intensity of the electromagnetic wave in the gap reaches a maximum at a gap height of 1 cm; and inside the gap, the intensity of the electromagnetic wave depicted an increasing trend at the tail area of the gap. Finally, from the obtained results, some suggestions on where to install sensors in practical systems for ultra high frequency (UHF PD signal detection in the transformer gap are provided. The obtained results confirmed the feasibility of using this approach. These results can be seen as a benchmark and a challenge for further research in this field.

  16. Resolução temporal: desempenho de escolares no teste GIN - Gaps-in-noise Temporal resolution: performance of school-aged children in the GIN - Gaps-in-noise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Ramos do Amaral

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A habilidade auditiva denominada resolução temporal consiste no tempo mínimo necessário para resolver eventos acústicos, sendo fundamental para a compreensão de fala, e pode ser avaliada por testes de detecção de gaps, dentre eles o teste GIN - Gaps In Noise. OBJETIVO: Verificar o desempenho da resolução temporal em crianças sem queixas auditivas e/ou dificuldades escolares, no teste GIN, considerando-se o gênero masculino e feminino e a faixa etária de 8, 9 e 10 anos. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Coorte contemporânea com corte transversal prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O teste GIN foi aplicado em 75 escolares, reunidos em três grupos por faixa etária. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças significantes em relação às variáveis orelha e faixa etária. O gênero masculino obteve desempenho levemente melhor do que o feminino em relação apenas à porcentagem de acertos. CONCLUSÃO: A média do limiar de detecção de gaps e porcentagem de acertos foram calculados independente das variáveis orelha, gênero e faixa etária, sendo encontrados os valores de 4,7ms e 73,6%. Baseado no critério de intervalo de confiança 95% como corte para normalidade, os valores do limiar de detecção de gap e porcentagem de acertos foram 6,1ms e 60%, respectivamente.Time resolution hearing skill is the minimum time necessary to solve acoustic events, which is fundamental for speech understanding, and which may be assessed by gap-detection tests, such as the Gaps-in-noise test (GIN. AIM: the purpose of this study was to verify the performance of time processing ability in children with no hearing and/or education difficulties by applying the GIN test in both genders and ages from 8 to 10 years. STUDY DESIGN: a prospective cross-sectional contemporary cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The GIN test was applied to 75 school-aged children separated into three groups by age. RESULTS: The findings showed no statistical differences among age groups or ears

  17. Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT) performance of individuals with central auditory processing disorders from 5 to 25 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Karin Ziliotto; Jutras, Benoît; Acrani, Isabela Olszanski; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with central auditory processing disorders, to examine the maturation effect and to investigate the relationship between the performance on a temporal resolution test with the performance on other central auditory tests. Participants were divided in two groups: 131 with Central Auditory Processing Disorder and 94 with normal auditory processing. They had pure-tone air-conduction thresholds no poorer than 15 dB HL bilaterally, normal admittance measures and presence of acoustic reflexes. Also, they were assessed with a central auditory test battery. Participants who failed at least one or more tests were included in the Central Auditory Processing Disorder group and those in the control group obtained normal performance on all tests. Following the auditory processing assessment, the Random Gap Detection Test was administered to the participants. A three-way ANOVA was performed. Correlation analyses were also done between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests data as well as between Random Gap Detection Test data and the other auditory processing test results. There was a significant difference between the age-group performances in children with and without Central Auditory Processing Disorder. Also, 48% of children with Central Auditory Processing Disorder failed the Random Gap Detection Test and the percentage decreased as a function of age. The highest percentage (86%) was found in the 5-6 year-old children. Furthermore, results revealed a strong significant correlation between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests. There was a modest correlation between the Random Gap Detection Test results and the dichotic listening tests. No significant correlation was observed between the Random Gap Detection Test data and the results of the other tests in the battery. Random Gap Detection Test should not be administered to children younger than 7 years old because

  18. MULTI-TEMPORAL SAR CHANGE DETECTION AND MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hachicha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Multitemporal SAR images are a very useful source of information for a large amount of applications, especially for change detection and monitoring. In this paper, a new SAR change detection and monitoring approach is proposed through the analysis of a time series of SAR images covering the same region. The first step of the method is the SAR filtering preprocessing step using an extension of the spatial NL-means filter to the temporal domain. Then, the Rayleigh Kullback Leibler and the Rayleigh Distribution Ratio measures are combined to detect the changes between a reference image and each SAR image of the time series at both local and global scale. These measures are combined using the Dezert-Smarandache theory which takes into account conflicts between sources and thus enhances the dual change detection results. Finally, a pixel based temporal classification is applied starting from the obtained change maps in order to describe the temporal behaviour of the covered regions.

  19. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-08

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval.

  20. A novel Spatio-temporal change detection approach using hyper-temporal satellite data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of hyper-temporal MODIS time-series data for the detection of land cover change in South Africa has been an active research area the last few year. This paper expands on previous studies that show that this type of data can be effectively...

  1. Mars Surface Change Detection from Multi-temporal Orbital Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di, Kaichang; Liu, Yiliang; Hu, Wenmin; Yue, Zongyu; Liu, Zhaoqin

    2014-01-01

    A vast amount of Mars images have been acquired by orbital missions in recent years. With the increase of spatial resolution to metre and decimetre levels, fine-scale geological features can be identified, and surface change detection is possible because of multi-temporal images. This study briefly reviews detectable changes on the Mars surface, including new impact craters, gullies, dark slope streaks, dust devil tracks and ice caps. To facilitate fast and efficient change detection for subsequent scientific investigations, a featured-based change detection method is developed based on automatic image registration, surface feature extraction and difference information statistics. Experimental results which use multi-temporal images demonstrate the promising potential of the proposed method

  2. [The PRRSV-serumneutralization test detects gaps in herd immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Jens; Alex, Michaela; Janowetz, Britta; Müller, Silvia; Schuh, Christina; Niemeyer, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) appears in two genotypes (EU and US), for both genotypes attenuated live-vaccines are available. A cross-sectional study in 38 Bavarian sow herds was performed to assess the level of neutralizing antibodies. Per herd 38 blood samples were collected (10 weaned piglets, 10 gilts and 6 sows of 1./2., 3J4. and 5/6. parity, respectively). Sera were tested by ELISA, serumneutralization test (SNT) against EU- and US-vaccine virus, and pooled sera were tested by real-time RT-PCR. Herds were classified by the last vaccination of sows as "Vacc EU" "Vacc US"and "nv (non-vaccinated) and by detection of PRRSV-US and vaccination of piglets were not included as variables. Sows of group (2) Vacc EU/EU- showed the highest EU-SNT-titers irrespective of parity. Groups (5) Vacc US/EU+ and (1) Vacc EU/EU+ followed in descending order. Significantly lower SNT-titers in (1) Vacc EU/EU+ were especially observed in sows of 1/2. Parity (Kruskal-Wallis, p vaccinated herds detection of PRRSV-EU coincided with strong ELISA-reactivity in all animal groups. In EU-vaccinated herds this was only observed for weaned piglets. Sows showed a strong ELISA-reactivity irrespective of detection of PRRSV-EU. The value of the ELISA is restricted to the certification of PRRSV-free herds. The EU-SNT reflects the level of herd immunity at least against vaccine virus; it indicates gaps in herd immunity.

  3. Induced Temporal Signatures for Point-Source Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Daniel L.; Runkle, Robert C.; Carlson, Deborah K.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Seifert, Allen; Wyatt, Cory R.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of radioactive point-sized sources is inherently divided into two regimes encompassing stationary and moving detectors. The two cases differ in their treatment of background radiation and its influence on detection sensitivity. In the stationary detector case the statistical fluctuation of the background determines the minimum detectable quantity. In the moving detector case the detector may be subjected to widely and irregularly varying background radiation, as a result of geographical and environmental variation. This significant systematic variation, in conjunction with the statistical variation of the background, requires a conservative threshold to be selected to yield the same false-positive rate as the stationary detection case. This results in lost detection sensitivity for real sources. This work focuses on a simple and practical modification of the detector geometry that increase point-source recognition via a distinctive temporal signature. A key part of this effort is the integrated development of both detector geometries that induce a highly distinctive signature for point sources and the development of statistical algorithms able to optimize detection of this signature amidst varying background. The identification of temporal signatures for point sources has been demonstrated and compared with the canonical method showing good results. This work demonstrates that temporal signatures are efficient at increasing point-source discrimination in a moving detector system

  4. Spatial-Temporal Event Detection from Geo-Tagged Tweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqian Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most popular social networking services in the world, Twitter allows users to post messages along with their current geographic locations. Such georeferenced or geo-tagged Twitter datasets can benefit location-based services, targeted advertising and geosocial studies. Our study focused on the detection of small-scale spatial-temporal events and their textual content. First, we used Spatial-Temporal Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (ST-DBSCAN to spatially-temporally cluster the tweets. Then, the word frequencies were summarized for each cluster and the potential topics were modeled by the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA algorithm. Using two years of Twitter data from four college cities in the U.S., we were able to determine the spatial-temporal patterns of two known events, two unknown events and one recurring event, which then were further explored and modeled to identify the semantic content about the events. This paper presents our process and recommendations for both finding event-related tweets as well as understanding the spatial-temporal behaviors and semantic natures of the detected events.

  5. Temporal Modulation Detection Depends on Sharpness of Spatial Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ning; Cadmus, Matthew; Dong, Lixue; Mathews, Juliana

    2018-04-25

    Prior research has shown that in electrical hearing, cochlear implant (CI) users' speech recognition performance is related in part to their ability to detect temporal modulation (i.e., modulation sensitivity). Previous studies have also shown better speech recognition when selectively stimulating sites with good modulation sensitivity rather than all stimulation sites. Site selection based on channel interaction measures, such as those using imaging or psychophysical estimates of spread of neural excitation, has also been shown to improve speech recognition. This led to the question of whether temporal modulation sensitivity and spatial selectivity of neural excitation are two related variables. In the present study, CI users' modulation sensitivity was compared for sites with relatively broad or narrow neural excitation patterns. This was achieved by measuring temporal modulation detection thresholds (MDTs) at stimulation sites that were significantly different in their sharpness of the psychophysical spatial tuning curves (PTCs) and measuring MDTs at the same sites in monopolar (MP) and bipolar (BP) stimulation modes. Nine postlingually deafened subjects implanted with Cochlear Nucleus® device took part in the study. Results showed a significant correlation between the sharpness of PTCs and MDTs, indicating that modulation detection benefits from a more spatially restricted neural activation pattern. There was a significant interaction between stimulation site and mode. That is, using BP stimulation only improved MDTs at stimulation sites with broad PTCs but had no effect or sometimes a detrimental effect on MDTs at stimulation sites with sharp PTCs. This interaction could suggest that a criterion number of nerve fibers is needed to achieve optimal temporal resolution, and, to achieve optimized speech recognition outcomes, individualized selection of site-specific current focusing strategies may be necessary. These results also suggest that the removal of

  6. Spatial-temporal event detection in climate parameter imagery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, Sean Andrew; Gutierrez, Karen A.

    2011-10-01

    Previously developed techniques that comprise statistical parametric mapping, with applications focused on human brain imaging, are examined and tested here for new applications in anomaly detection within remotely-sensed imagery. Two approaches to analysis are developed: online, regression-based anomaly detection and conditional differences. These approaches are applied to two example spatial-temporal data sets: data simulated with a Gaussian field deformation approach and weekly NDVI images derived from global satellite coverage. Results indicate that anomalies can be identified in spatial temporal data with the regression-based approach. Additionally, la Nina and el Nino climatic conditions are used as different stimuli applied to the earth and this comparison shows that el Nino conditions lead to significant decreases in NDVI in both the Amazon Basin and in Southern India.

  7. The gap detection test: can it be used to diagnose tinnitus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van Dijk; K. Boyen; D. Baskent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Animals with induced tinnitus showed difficulties in detecting silent gaps in sounds, suggesting that the tinnitus percept may be filling the gap. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this approach to detect tinnitus in human patients. The authors first

  8. The Gap Detection Test : Can It Be Used to Diagnose Tinnitus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyen, Kris; Başkent, Deniz; van Dijk, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Animals with induced tinnitus showed difficulties in detecting silent gaps in sounds, suggesting that the tinnitus percept may be filling the gap. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this approach to detect tinnitus in human patients. The authors first

  9. Gaps-in-Noise test: gap detection thresholds in 9-year-old normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculino, Carolina Finetti; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Schochat, Eliane

    2011-12-01

    To establish the standard criteria for the Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) test in 9-year-old normal-hearing children; to obtain the mean gap detection thresholds; and to verify the influence of the variables gender and ear on the gap detection thresholds. Forty normal-hearing individuals, 20 male and 20 female, with ages ranging from 9 years to 9 years and 11 months, were evaluated. The procedures performed were: anamnesis, audiological evaluation, acoustic immittance measures (tympanometry and acoustic reflex), Dichotic Digits Test, and GIN test. The results obtained were statistically analyzed. The results revealed similar performance of right and left ears in the population studied. There was also no difference regarding the variable gender. In the subjects evaluated, the mean gap detection thresholds were 4.4 ms for the right ear, and 4.2 ms for the left ear. The values obtained for right and left ear, as well as their standard deviations, can be used as standard criteria for 9-year-old children, regardless of ear or gender.

  10. Methodology to detect gaps in a soccer defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create a methodology which can provide information about gaps in an opposing team’s defence. To illustrate the methodology, a defence was tracked during a game in the danish Superliga using ZXY radio tracking and analysed using the methodology. Results show...

  11. Salicylate-induced hearing loss and gap detection deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwon, Kelly E; Stolzberg, Daniel J; Urban, Maxwell E; Bowler, Rachael A; Salvi, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    To test the "tinnitus gap-filling" hypothesis in an animal psychoacoustic paradigm, rats were tested using a go/no-go operant gap detection task in which silent intervals of various durations were embedded within a continuous noise. Gap detection thresholds were measured before and after treatment with a dose of sodium salicylate (200 mg/kg) that reliably induces tinnitus in rats. Noise-burst detection thresholds were also measured to document the amount of hearing loss and aid in interpreting the gap detection results. As in the previous human psychophysical experiments, salicylate had little or no effect on gap thresholds measured in broadband noise presented at high-stimulus levels (30-60 dB SPL); gap detection thresholds were always 10 ms or less. Salicylate also did not affect gap thresholds presented in narrowband noise at 60 dB SPL. Therefore, rats treated with a dose of salicylate that reliably induces tinnitus have no difficulty detecting silent gaps as long as the noise in which they are embedded is clearly audible.

  12. Salicylate-Induced Hearing Loss and Gap Detection Deficits in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwon, Kelly E.; Stolzberg, Daniel J.; Urban, Maxwell E.; Bowler, Rachael A.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    To test the “tinnitus gap-filling” hypothesis in an animal psychoacoustic paradigm, rats were tested using a go/no-go operant gap detection task in which silent intervals of various durations were embedded within a continuous noise. Gap detection thresholds were measured before and after treatment with a dose of sodium salicylate (200 mg/kg) that reliably induces tinnitus in rats. Noise-burst detection thresholds were also measured to document the amount of hearing loss and aid in interpreting the gap detection results. As in the previous human psychophysical experiments, salicylate had little or no effect on gap thresholds measured in broadband noise presented at high-stimulus levels (30–60 dB SPL); gap detection thresholds were always 10 ms or less. Salicylate also did not affect gap thresholds presented in narrowband noise at 60 dB SPL. Therefore, rats treated with a dose of salicylate that reliably induces tinnitus have no difficulty detecting silent gaps as long as the noise in which they are embedded is clearly audible. PMID:25750635

  13. Temporal subtraction technique for detection of subtle anomalies on temporally sequential bone-subtracted chest radiographs by energy subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yoshida, Megumi; Takashima, Tsutomu; Matsui, Takeshi

    2000-01-01

    We developed a temporal subtraction technique for the detection of subtle anomalies on temporally sequential bone-subtracted chest radiographs (soft tissue images) by energy subtraction. To recognize the temporal changes in a current soft tissue image in comparison with those in a previous soft tissue image, we attempted to enhance the changes by a difference image processing technique. The lung markings were enhanced by the first derivative filter. The image registration for the lung markings on both images by the sequential similarity detection algorithm (SSDA) method was then employed. The soft tissue image provided by the energy subtraction technique was excellent in its detection of subtle abnormalities in the lung, and this method was able to detect subtle abnormalities such as infiltrates and nodules missed in screening. It was suggested that this temporal subtraction technique improves accuracy when radiologists diagnose soft tissue chest images by x-ray energy subtraction. (author)

  14. Detection and Evaluation of Pre-Preg Gaps and Overlaps in Glare Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Davide; Abouhamzeh, Morteza; Leonard, Rob; Sinke, Jos

    2018-03-01

    Gaps and overlaps between pre-preg plies represent common flaws in composite materials that can be introduced easily in an automated fibre placement manufacturing process and are potentially detrimental for the mechanical performances of the final laminates. Whereas gaps and overlaps have been addressed for full composite material, the topic has not been extended to a hybrid composite material such as Glare, a member of the family of Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs). In this paper/research, the manufacturing, the detection, and the optical evaluation of intraply gaps and overlaps in Glare laminates are investigated. As part of an initial assessment study on the effect of gaps and overlaps on Glare, only the most critical lay-up has been considered. The experimental investigation started with the manufacturing of specimens having gaps and overlaps with different widths, followed by a non-destructive ultrasonic-inspection. An optical evaluation of the gaps and overlaps was performed by means of microscope image analysis of the cross sections of the specimens. The results from the non-destructive evaluations show the effectiveness of the ultrasonic detection of gaps and overlaps both in position, shape, width, and severity. The optical inspections confirm the accuracy of the non-destructive evaluation also adding useful insights about the geometrical features due to the presence of gaps and overlaps in the final Glare laminates. All the results justify the need for a further investigation on the effect of gaps and overlaps on the mechanical properties.

  15. Face Spoofing Detection Through Visual Codebooks of Spectral Temporal Cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Allan; Pedrini, Helio; Schwartz, William Robson; Rocha, Anderson

    2015-12-01

    Despite important recent advances, the vulnerability of biometric systems to spoofing attacks is still an open problem. Spoof attacks occur when impostor users present synthetic biometric samples of a valid user to the biometric system seeking to deceive it. Considering the case of face biometrics, a spoofing attack consists in presenting a fake sample (e.g., photograph, digital video, or even a 3D mask) to the acquisition sensor with the facial information of a valid user. In this paper, we introduce a low cost and software-based method for detecting spoofing attempts in face recognition systems. Our hypothesis is that during acquisition, there will be inevitable artifacts left behind in the recaptured biometric samples allowing us to create a discriminative signature of the video generated by the biometric sensor. To characterize these artifacts, we extract time-spectral feature descriptors from the video, which can be understood as a low-level feature descriptor that gathers temporal and spectral information across the biometric sample and use the visual codebook concept to find mid-level feature descriptors computed from the low-level ones. Such descriptors are more robust for detecting several kinds of attacks than the low-level ones. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for detecting different types of attacks in a variety of scenarios and data sets, including photos, videos, and 3D masks.

  16. Detection, information fusion, and temporal processing for intelligence in recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasent, D. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The use of intelligence in vision recognition uses many different techniques or tools. This presentation discusses several of these techniques for recognition. The recognition process is generally separated into several steps or stages when implemented in hardware, e.g. detection, segmentation and enhancement, and recognition. Several new distortion-invariant filters, biologically-inspired Gabor wavelet filter techniques, and morphological operations that have been found very useful for detection and clutter rejection are discussed. These are all shift-invariant operations that allow multiple object regions of interest in a scene to be located in parallel. We also discuss new algorithm fusion concepts by which the results from different detection algorithms are combined to reduce detection false alarms; these fusion methods utilize hierarchical processing and fuzzy logic concepts. We have found this to be most necessary, since no single detection algorithm is best for all cases. For the final recognition stage, we describe a new method of representing all distorted versions of different classes of objects and determining the object class and pose that most closely matches that of a given input. Besides being efficient in terms of storage and on-line computations required, it overcomes many of the problems that other classifiers have in terms of the required training set size, poor generalization with many hidden layer neurons, etc. It is also attractive in its ability to reject input regions as clutter (non-objects) and to learn new object descriptions. We also discuss its use in processing a temporal sequence of input images of the contents of each local region of interest. We note how this leads to robust results in which estimation efforts in individual frames can be overcome. This seems very practical, since in many scenarios a decision need not be made after only one frame of data, since subsequent frames of data enter immediately in sequence.

  17. Unrecorded Accidents Detection on Highways Based on Temporal Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic traffic accident detection, especially not recorded by traffic police, is crucial to accident black spots identification and traffic safety. A new method of detecting traffic accidents is proposed based on temporal data mining, which can identify the unknown and unrecorded accidents by traffic police. Time series model was constructed using ternary numbers to reflect the state of traffic flow based on cell transmission model. In order to deal with the aftereffects of linear drift between time series and to reduce the computational cost, discrete Fourier transform was implemented to turn time series from time domain to frequency domain. The pattern of the time series when an accident happened could be recognized using the historical crash data. Then taking Euclidean distance as the similarity evaluation function, similarity data mining of the transformed time series was carried out. If the result was less than the given threshold, the two time series were similar and an accident happened probably. A numerical example was carried out and the results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Automatic particle detection in microscopy using temporal correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röding, Magnus; Deschout, Hendrik; Martens, Thomas; Notelaers, Kristof; Hofkens, Johan; Ameloot, Marcel; Braeckmans, Kevin; Särkkä, Aila; Rudemo, Mats

    2013-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems in the analysis of single particle tracking data is the detection of individual particle positions from microscopy images. Distinguishing true particles from noise with a minimum of false positives and false negatives is an important step that will have substantial impact on all further analysis of the data. A common approach is to obtain a plausible set of particles from a larger set of candidate particles by filtering using manually selected threshold values for intensity, size, shape, and other parameters describing a particle. This introduces subjectivity into the analysis and hinders reproducibility. In this paper, we introduce a method for automatic selection of these threshold values based on maximizing temporal correlations in particle count time series. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo to find the threshold values corresponding to the maximum correlation, and we study several experimental data sets to assess the performance of the method in practice by comparing manually selected threshold values from several independent experts with automatically selected threshold values. We conclude that the method produces useful results, reducing subjectivity and the need for manual intervention, a great benefit being its easy integratability into many already existing particle detection algorithms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Electrophysiological response during auditory gap detection: Biomarker for sensory and communication alterations in autism spectrum disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Foss-Feig, JH; Stavropoulos, KKM; McPartland, JC; Wallace, MT; Stone, WL; Key, AP

    2018-01-01

    Sensory symptoms, including auditory processing deficits, are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Processing of temporal aspects of auditory input is understudied; yet, deficits in this domain could contribute to language-related impairments. In children with ASD and well-matched controls, this study examined electrophysiological response to silent gaps in auditory stimuli. Results revealed attenuated amplitude of the P2 event-related potential (ERP) component in ASD. The P2 amplitude r...

  20. Vegetation Phenology Metrics Derived from Temporally Smoothed and Gap-filled MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Morisette, Jeff; Wolfe, Robert; Esaias, Wayne; Gao, Feng; Ederer, Greg; Nightingale, Joanne; Nickeson, Jamie E.; Ma, Pete; Pedely, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Smoothed and gap-filled VI provides a good base for estimating vegetation phenology metrics. The TIMESAT software was improved by incorporating the ancillary information from MODIS products. A simple assessment of the association between retrieved greenup dates and ground observations indicates satisfactory result from improved TIMESAT software. One application example shows that mapping Nectar Flow Phenology is tractable on a continental scale using hive weight and satellite vegetation data. The phenology data product is supporting more researches in ecology, climate change fields.

  1. Spatial and temporal dynamics of forest canopy gaps following selective logging in the eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREGORY P. ASNER; MICHAEL KELLER; JOSEN M. SILVA

    2004-01-01

    Selective logging is a dominant form of land use in the Amazon basin and throughout the humid tropics, yet little is known about the spatial variability of forest canopy gap formation and closure following timber harvests. We established chronosequences of large-area (14–158 ha) selective logging sites spanning a 3.5-year period of forest regeneration and two distinct...

  2. Brazilian Amazonia Deforestation Detection Using Spatio-Temporal Scan Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. A. O.; Santos, N. T.; Carneiro, A. P. S.; Balieiro, A. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation's alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia), which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE). The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation's alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became actives again; and finally

  3. BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA DEFORESTATION DETECTION USING SPATIO-TEMPORAL SCAN STATISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. O. Vieira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation’s alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia, which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE. The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation’s alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became

  4. A systematic analysis of sentence update detection for temporal summarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gârbacea, C.; Kanoulas, E.; Jose, J.M.; Hauff, C.; Altıngovde, I.S.; Song, D.; Albakour, D.; Watt, S.; Tait, J.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal summarization algorithms filter large volumes of streaming documents and emit sentences that constitute salient event updates. Systems developed typically combine in an ad-hoc fashion traditional retrieval and document summarization algorithms to filter sentences inside documents. Retrieval

  5. Gap detection threshold in the rat before and after auditory cortex ablation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syka, Josef; Rybalko, Natalia; Mazelová, Jana; Druga, R.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 172, - (2002), s. 151-159 ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA MZd NK6454; GA ČR GA309/01/1063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : gap detection treshold Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.969, year: 2002

  6. Correction of the anion gap for albumin in order to detect occult tissue anions in shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatherill, M; Waggie, Z; Purves, L; Reynolds, L; Argent, A

    2002-12-01

    It is believed that hypoalbuminaemia confounds interpretation of the anion gap (AG) unless corrected for serum albumin in critically ill children with shock. To compare the ability of the AG and the albumin corrected anion gap (CAG) to detect the presence of occult tissue anions. Prospective observational study in children with shock in a 22 bed multidisciplinary paediatric intensive care unit of a university childrenrsquo;s hospital. Blood was sampled at admission and at 24 hours, for acid-base parameters, serum albumin, and electrolytes. Occult tissue anions (lactate + truly "unmeasured" anions) were calculated from the strong ion gap. The anion gap ((Na + K) - (Cl + bicarbonate)) was corrected for serum albumin using the equation of Figge: AG + (0.25 x (44 - albumin)). Occult tissue anions (TA) predicted by the anion gap were calculated by (anion gap - 15 mEq/l). Optimal cut off values of anion gap were compared by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Ninety three sets of data from 55 children (median age 7 months, median weight 4.9 kg) were analysed. Data are expressed as mean (SD), and mean bias (limits of agreement). The incidence of hypoalbuminaemia was 76% (n = 42/55). Mean serum albumin was 25 g/l (SD 8). Mean AG was 15.0 mEq/l (SD 6.1), compared to the CAG of 19.9 mEq/l (SD 6.6). Mean TA was 10.2 mmol/l (SD 6.3). The AG underestimated TA with mean bias 10.2 mmol/l (4.1-16.1), compared to the CAG, mean bias 5.3 mmol/l (0.4-10.2). A clinically significant increase of TA >5 mmol/l was present in 83% (n = 77/93) of samples, of which the AG detected 48% (n = 36/77), and the CAG 87% (n = 67/77). Post hoc ROC analysis revealed optimal cut off values for detection of TA >5 mmol/l to be AG >10 mEq/l, and CAG >15.5 mEq/l. Hypoalbuminaemia is common in critically ill children with shock, and is associated with a low observed anion gap that may fail to detect clinically significant amounts of lactate and other occult tissue anions. We suggest that

  7. Development of T9 type thin gap chamber and measurement of the detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Feng Cunfeng; Zhu Chengguang; Sun Yansheng; Zhang Naijian; He Mao

    2006-01-01

    The development and production of 400 sets of T9 type TGC (Thin Gap Chamber) for ATLAS experiment are undertaken by Shandong University. The process of development of T9 type TGC is introduced first and then the method of measuring the detection efficiency of the TGC is described. The testing result of detection efficiency of 288 sets of T9 type TGC built by Shandong University shows that all the detectors excellently fulfill the quality requirements of ATLAS experiment. (authors)

  8. Automatic temporal segment detection via bilateral long short-term memory recurrent neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Cao, Siming; He, Jun; Yu, Lejun; Li, Liandong

    2017-03-01

    Constrained by the physiology, the temporal factors associated with human behavior, irrespective of facial movement or body gesture, are described by four phases: neutral, onset, apex, and offset. Although they may benefit related recognition tasks, it is not easy to accurately detect such temporal segments. An automatic temporal segment detection framework using bilateral long short-term memory recurrent neural networks (BLSTM-RNN) to learn high-level temporal-spatial features, which synthesizes the local and global temporal-spatial information more efficiently, is presented. The framework is evaluated in detail over the face and body database (FABO). The comparison shows that the proposed framework outperforms state-of-the-art methods for solving the problem of temporal segment detection.

  9. Temporal and spectral resolution of hearing in patients with precipitous hearing loss: Gap release of masking (GRM) and the role of cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David

    2005-01-01

    gaps, masking was measured repeatedly over 3 months post-fitting. GRM was characterized as the release from masking under the gap conditions. The cognitive skills of the participants were assessed with two tests for measuring working memory capacity and lexical vigilance. The results showed that while....... For the temporal-gap condition, they performed as normally hearing at both low and high frequencies. These results suggest that patients with precipitous hearing loss do not maintain normal spectral resolution through the low-frequency region, in which the hearing threshold levels are otherwise normal...

  10. GLAST Deficiency in Mice Exacerbates Gap Detection Deficits in a Model of Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Vikhe Patil, Kim; Han, Chul; Fabella, Brian; Canlon, Barbara; Someya, Shinichi; Cederroth, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Gap detection or gap pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) has been successfully used in rat and guinea pig models of tinnitus, yet this system has been proven to have low efficacy in CBA mice, with low basal GPIAS and subtle tinnitus-like effects. Here, we tested five mouse strains (CBA, BalbC, CD-1, C57BL/6 and 129sv) for pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and gap detection with varying interstimulus intervals (ISI) and found that mice from a CBA genetic background had the poorest capacities of suppressing the startle response in the presence of a pre-pulse or a gap. CD-1 mice displayed variable responses throughout all ISI. Interestingly, C57BL/6, 129sv and BalbC showed efficient suppression with either pre-pulses or gaps with shorter ISI. The glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) is expressed in support cells from the cochlea and buffers the excess of glutamate. We hypothesized that loss of GLAST function could sensitize the ear to tinnitus-inducing agents, such as salicylate. Using shorter ISI to obtain a greater dynamic range to assess tinnitus-like effects, we found that disruption of gap detection by salicylate was exacerbated across various intensities of a 32-kHz narrow band noise gap carrier in GLAST knockout (KO) mice when compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) were performed to evaluate the effects on hearing functions. Salicylate caused greater auditory threshold shifts (near 15 dB) in GLAST KO mice than in WT mice across all tested frequencies, despite similarly reduced DPOAE. Despite these changes, inhibition using broad-band gap carriers and 32 kHz pre-pulses were not affected. Our study suggests that GLAST deficiency could become a useful experimental model to decipher the mechanisms underlying drug-induced tinnitus. Future studies addressing the neurological correlates of tinnitus in this model could provide additional insights into the

  11. GLAST Deficiency in Mice Exacerbates Gap Detection Deficits in a Model of Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Vikhe Patil, Kim; Han, Chul; Fabella, Brian; Canlon, Barbara; Someya, Shinichi; Cederroth, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Gap detection or gap pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) has been successfully used in rat and guinea pig models of tinnitus, yet this system has been proven to have low efficacy in CBA mice, with low basal GPIAS and subtle tinnitus-like effects. Here, we tested five mouse strains (CBA, BalbC, CD-1, C57BL/6 and 129sv) for pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and gap detection with varying interstimulus intervals (ISI) and found that mice from a CBA genetic background had the poorest capacities of suppressing the startle response in the presence of a pre-pulse or a gap. CD-1 mice displayed variable responses throughout all ISI. Interestingly, C57BL/6, 129sv and BalbC showed efficient suppression with either pre-pulses or gaps with shorter ISI. The glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) is expressed in support cells from the cochlea and buffers the excess of glutamate. We hypothesized that loss of GLAST function could sensitize the ear to tinnitus-inducing agents, such as salicylate. Using shorter ISI to obtain a greater dynamic range to assess tinnitus-like effects, we found that disruption of gap detection by salicylate was exacerbated across various intensities of a 32-kHz narrow band noise gap carrier in GLAST knockout (KO) mice when compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) were performed to evaluate the effects on hearing functions. Salicylate caused greater auditory threshold shifts (near 15 dB) in GLAST KO mice than in WT mice across all tested frequencies, despite similarly reduced DPOAE. Despite these changes, inhibition using broad-band gap carriers and 32 kHz pre-pulses were not affected. Our study suggests that GLAST deficiency could become a useful experimental model to decipher the mechanisms underlying drug-induced tinnitus. Future studies addressing the neurological correlates of tinnitus in this model could provide additional insights into the

  12. Band Selection-Based Dimensionality Reduction for Change Detection in Multi-Temporal Hyperspectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicong Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to use band selection-based dimensionality reduction (BS-DR technique in addressing a challenging multi-temporal hyperspectral images change detection (HSI-CD problem. The aim of this work is to analyze and evaluate in detail the CD performance by selecting the most informative band subset from the original high-dimensional data space. In particular, for cases where ground reference data are available or unavailable, either supervised or unsupervised CD approaches are designed. The following sub-problems in HSI-CD are investigated, including: (1 the estimated number of multi-class changes; (2 the binary CD; (3 the multiple CD; (4 the estimated optimal number of selected bands; and (5 computational efficiency. The main contribution of this paper is to provide for the first time a thorough analysis of the impacts of band selection on the HSI-CD problem, thus to fix the gap in the state-of-the-art techniques either by simply utilizing the full dimensionality of the data or exploring a complex hierarchical change analysis. It is applicable to CD problems in multispectral or PolSAR images when the feature space is expanded for discriminant feature extraction. Two real multi-temporal hyperspectral Hyperion datasets are used to validate the proposed approaches. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results demonstrated that by selecting a subset of the most informative and distinct spectral bands, the proposed approaches offered better CD performance than the state-of-the-art techniques using original full bands, without losing the change representative and discriminable capabilities of a detector.

  13. BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA DEFORESTATION DETECTION USING SPATIO-TEMPORAL SCAN STATISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    C. A. O. Vieira; N. T. Santos; A. P. S. Carneiro; A. A. S. Balieiro

    2012-01-01

    The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Huma...

  14. Automated land cover change detection: the quest for meaningful high temporal time series extraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon, BP

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An automated land cover change detection method is proposed that uses coarse resolution hyper-temporal satellite time series data. The study compared two different unsupervised clustering approaches that operate on the short term Fourier transform...

  15. Temporal Subtraction of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Images for Improved Mass Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Christina M

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of using temporal subtraction on DBT phantom images to allow for easier and earlier detection of breast cancer than with either technique alone...

  16. Spectrally efficient polarization multiplexed direct-detection OFDM system without frequency gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Chien; Zeng, Wei-Siang; Lin, Chun-Ting

    2016-01-25

    We experimentally demonstrate a spectrally efficient direct-detection orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (DD-OFDM) system. In addition to polarization-division multiplexing, removing the frequency gap further improves the spectral efficiency of the OFDM system. The frequency gap between a reference carrier and OFDM subcarriers avoids subcarrier-to-subcarrier beating interference (SSBI) in traditional DD-OFDM systems. Without dynamic polarization control, the resulting interference after square-law direct detection in the proposed gap-less system is polarization-dependent and composed of linear inter-carrier interference (ICI) and nonlinear SSBI. Thus, this work proposes an iterative multiple-input multiple-output detection scheme to remove the mixed polarization-dependent interference. Compared to the previous scheme, which only removes ICI, the proposed scheme can further eliminate SSBI to achieve the improvement of ∼ 7 dB in signal-to-noise ratio. Without the need for polarization control, we successfully utilize 7-GHz bandwidth to transmit a 39.5-Gbps polarization multiplexed OFDM signal over 100 km.

  17. Water detection through spatio-temporal invariant descriptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettes, Pascal; Tan, Robby; Veltkamp, R.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/084742984

    In this work, we aim to segment and detect water in videos. Water detection is beneficial for appllications such as video search, outdoor surveillance, and systems such as unmanned ground vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles. The specific problem, however, is less discussed compared to general

  18. Using hydrophones as a surrogate monitoring technique to detect temporal and spatial variability in bedload transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marineau, Mathieu D.; Minear, J. Toby; Wright, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Collecting physical bedload measurements is an expensive and time-consuming endeavor that rarely captures the spatial and temporal variability of sediment transport. Technological advances can improve monitoring of sediment transport by filling in temporal gaps between physical sampling periods. We have developed a low-cost hydrophone recording system designed to record the sediment-generated noise (SGN) resulting from collisions of coarse particles (generally larger than 4 mm) in gravel-bedded rivers. The sound level of the signal recorded by the hydrophone is assumed to be proportional to the magnitude of bedload transport as long as the acoustic frequency of the SGN is known, the grain-size distribution of the bedload is assumed constant, and the frequency band of the ambient noise is known and can be excluded from the analysis. Each system has two hydrophone heads and samples at half-hour intervals. Ten systems were deployed on the San Joaquin River, California, and its tributaries for ten months during water year 2014, and two systems were deployed during a flood event on the Gunnison River, Colorado in 2014. A mobile hydrophone system was also tested at both locations to collect longitudinal profiles of SGN. Physical samples of bedload were not collected in this study. In lieu of physical measurements, several audio recordings from each site were aurally reviewed to confirm the presence or absence of SGN, and hydraulic data were compared to historical measurements of bedload transport or transport capacity estimates to verify if hydraulic conditions during the study would likely produce bedload transport. At one site on the San Joaquin River, the threshold of movement was estimated to have occurred around 30 m 3 /s based on SGN data. During the Gunnison River flood event, continuous data showed clockwise hysteresis, indicating that bedload transport was generally less at any given streamflow discharge during the recession limb of the hydrograph. Spatial

  19. A spatio-temporal autocorrelation change detection approach using hyper-temporal satellite data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been recent developments in the use of hypertemporal satellite time series data for land cover change detection and classification in South Africa and in particular, the monitoring of human settlement expansion is of relevance...

  20. Low sensitivity of anion gap to detect clinically significant lactic acidosis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q; HowlettClyne, S; Fuezery, A; Cembrowski, G S

    2017-12-01

    Lactic acidosis represents the pathologic accumulation of lactate and hydrogen ions. It is important to efficiently diagnose lactic acidosis as delayed treatment will lead to poor patient outcomes. As plasma lactate levels may not be rapidly available, some physicians may use elevated anion gaps to test for the need to measure lactate. All Edmonton metropolitan hospitals have Radiometer blood gas/electrolyte instruments in the ED or close by. As lactate is measured for each set of electrolytes, we were able to determine the effectiveness of a screening anion gap for lactic acidosis. Two years of emergency department lactates and electrolytes from Edmonton's 5 metropolitan hospitals were analyzed. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of detecting an elevated lactate, defined as ≥2.5mmol/L or ≥4mmol/L. Depending on the elevated anion gap cut-off and the definition of elevated lactate, between 40-80% of elevated lactates are missed. In general, the positive predictive value approaches 40% for AGs ≥12mmol/L and 60% for AGs ≥16mmol/L. Anion gap is an inadequate marker of lactic acidosis. We recommend that lactate be done with each set of electrolytes and/or blood gases. In this way lactic acidosis will not be missed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Colour based fire detection method with temporal intensity variation filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trambitckii, K; Musalimov, V; Anding, K; Linß, G

    2015-01-01

    Development of video, computing technologies and computer vision gives a possibility of automatic fire detection on video information. Under that project different algorithms was implemented to find more efficient way of fire detection. In that article colour based fire detection algorithm is described. But it is not enough to use only colour information to detect fire properly. The main reason of this is that in the shooting conditions may be a lot of things having colour similar to fire. A temporary intensity variation of pixels is used to separate them from the fire. These variations are averaged over the series of several frames. This algorithm shows robust work and was realised as a computer program by using of the OpenCV library

  2. Spatio-Temporal Closed-Loop Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galteri, Leonardo; Seidenari, Lorenzo; Bertini, Marco; Bimbo, Alberto Del

    2017-03-01

    Object detection is one of the most important tasks of computer vision. It is usually performed by evaluating a subset of the possible locations of an image, that are more likely to contain the object of interest. Exhaustive approaches have now been superseded by object proposal methods. The interplay of detectors and proposal algorithms has not been fully analyzed and exploited up to now, although this is a very relevant problem for object detection in video sequences. We propose to connect, in a closed-loop, detectors and object proposal generator functions exploiting the ordered and continuous nature of video sequences. Different from tracking we only require a previous frame to improve both proposal and detection: no prediction based on local motion is performed, thus avoiding tracking errors. We obtain three to four points of improvement in mAP and a detection time that is lower than Faster Regions with CNN features (R-CNN), which is the fastest Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based generic object detector known at the moment.

  3. Between-Frequency and Between-Ear Gap Detections and Their Relation to Perception of Stop Consonants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shuji; Oyama, Kazuki; Kikuchi, Yousuke; Mitsudo, Takako; Hirose, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that between-channel gap detection, which includes between-frequency and between-ear gap detection, and perception of stop consonants, which is mediated by the length of voice-onset time (VOT), share common mechanisms, namely relative-timing operation in monitoring separate perceptual channels. The authors measured gap detection thresholds and identification functions of /ba/ and /pa/ along VOT in 49 native young adult Japanese listeners. There were three gap detection tasks. In the between-frequency task, the leading and trailing markers differed in terms of center frequency (Fc). The leading marker was a broadband noise of 10 to 20,000 Hz. The trailing marker was a 0.5-octave band-passed noise of 1000-, 2000-, 4000-, or 8000-Hz Fc. In the between-ear task, the two markers were spectrally identical but presented to separate ears. In the within-frequency task, the two spectrally identical markers were presented to the same ear. The /ba/-/pa/ identification functions were obtained in a task in which the listeners were presented synthesized speech stimuli of varying VOTs from 10 to 46 msec and asked to identify them as /ba/ or /pa/. The between-ear gap thresholds were significantly positively correlated with the between-frequency gap thresholds (except those obtained with the trailing marker of 4000-Hz Fc). The between-ear gap thresholds were not significantly correlated with the within-frequency gap thresholds, which were significantly correlated with all the between-frequency gap thresholds. The VOT boundaries and slopes of /ba/-/pa/ identification functions were not significantly correlated with any of these gap thresholds. There was a close relation between the between-ear and between-frequency gap detection, supporting the view that these two types of gap detection share common mechanisms of between-channel gap detection. However, there was no evidence for a relation between the perception of stop

  4. Comparison of feature extraction methods within a spatio-temporal land cover change detection framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a change detection accuracy comparison is made between a recently proposed EKF method and a sliding window. Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) alternative within a spatio-temporal change detection framework. Both methods produce a mean...

  5. Adjusted functional boxplots for spatio-temporal data visualization and outlier detection

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2011-10-24

    This article proposes a simulation-based method to adjust functional boxplots for correlations when visualizing functional and spatio-temporal data, as well as detecting outliers. We start by investigating the relationship between the spatio-temporal dependence and the 1.5 times the 50% central region empirical outlier detection rule. Then, we propose to simulate observations without outliers on the basis of a robust estimator of the covariance function of the data. We select the constant factor in the functional boxplot to control the probability of correctly detecting no outliers. Finally, we apply the selected factor to the functional boxplot of the original data. As applications, the factor selection procedure and the adjusted functional boxplots are demonstrated on sea surface temperatures, spatio-temporal precipitation and general circulation model (GCM) data. The outlier detection performance is also compared before and after the factor adjustment. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Modality and Perceptual-Motor Experience Influence the Detection of Temporal Deviations in Tap Dance Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Murgia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate temporal information processing is critically important in many motor activities within disciplines such as dance, music, and sport. However, it is still unclear how temporal information related to biological motion is processed by expert and non-expert performers. It is well-known that the auditory modality dominates the visual modality in processing temporal information of simple stimuli, and that experts outperform non-experts in biological motion perception. In the present study, we combined these two areas of research; we investigated how experts and non-experts detected temporal deviations in tap dance sequences, in the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. We found that temporal deviations were better detected in the auditory modality compared to the visual modality, and by experts compared to non-experts. However, post hoc analyses indicated that these effects were mainly due to performances obtained by experts in the auditory modality. The results suggest that the experience advantage is not equally distributed across the modalities, and that tap dance experience enhances the effectiveness of the auditory modality but not the visual modality when processing temporal information. The present results and their potential implications are discussed in both temporal information processing and biological motion perception frameworks.

  7. Modality and Perceptual-Motor Experience Influence the Detection of Temporal Deviations in Tap Dance Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Prpic, Valter; O, Jenny; McCullagh, Penny; Santoro, Ilaria; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2017-01-01

    Accurate temporal information processing is critically important in many motor activities within disciplines such as dance, music, and sport. However, it is still unclear how temporal information related to biological motion is processed by expert and non-expert performers. It is well-known that the auditory modality dominates the visual modality in processing temporal information of simple stimuli, and that experts outperform non-experts in biological motion perception. In the present study, we combined these two areas of research; we investigated how experts and non-experts detected temporal deviations in tap dance sequences, in the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. We found that temporal deviations were better detected in the auditory modality compared to the visual modality, and by experts compared to non-experts. However, post hoc analyses indicated that these effects were mainly due to performances obtained by experts in the auditory modality. The results suggest that the experience advantage is not equally distributed across the modalities, and that tap dance experience enhances the effectiveness of the auditory modality but not the visual modality when processing temporal information. The present results and their potential implications are discussed in both temporal information processing and biological motion perception frameworks.

  8. Detection and localization of change points in temporal networks with the aid of stochastic block models

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Simon; Vandermarliere, Benjamin; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2016-11-01

    A framework based on generalized hierarchical random graphs (GHRGs) for the detection of change points in the structure of temporal networks has recently been developed by Peel and Clauset (2015 Proc. 29th AAAI Conf. on Artificial Intelligence). We build on this methodology and extend it to also include the versatile stochastic block models (SBMs) as a parametric family for reconstructing the empirical networks. We use five different techniques for change point detection on prototypical temporal networks, including empirical and synthetic ones. We find that none of the considered methods can consistently outperform the others when it comes to detecting and locating the expected change points in empirical temporal networks. With respect to the precision and the recall of the results of the change points, we find that the method based on a degree-corrected SBM has better recall properties than other dedicated methods, especially for sparse networks and smaller sliding time window widths.

  9. Genealogical approaches to the temporal origins of the Central American gap: Speciation and divergence in Pacific Chthamalus (Sessilia: Chthamalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith K. Meyers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large section of the tropical Eastern Pacific coastline is nearly devoid of reef or consolidated habitat, and is known as the Central American Gap as it is associated with a biogeographic transition in fish and invertebrate species. We analyze phylogeographic data for intertidal barnacles (Chthamalus to identify relevant temporal patterns that describe the origins of this biogeographic transition (the Mexican-Panamic Transition Zone. These contrasts of populations on either side of the transition zone include two pairs of closely related species (C. panamensis and C. hedgecocki; C. southwardorum and a Southern form of C. southwardorum, as well as gene flow data within one species (C. panamensis that currently is found on both sides of the boundary between provinces. Using sequence data from a prior phylogenetic study, we used traditional (net nucleotide divergence measures as well as coalescent analyses that incorporate the isolation-migration model to identify the likely time of separation between Northern and Southern taxa in two species pairs. A total of 67 individuals were sequenced at two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I, 16S and one nuclear (elongation factor 1-alpha gene regions. Our analyses indicate that the regional isolation of these intertidal barnacles occurred approximately 315-400kya, with subsequent expansion of C. panamensis from the Southern region into the North much more recently. There are insufficient survey data to conclusively document the absence of species from this group within the Central American Gap region near the Gulf of Tehuantepec. However, appropriate habitat is quite sparse in this region and other environmental factors, including upwelling and water temperature, are likely to be associated with isolation of many species in the Mexican and Panamic provinces sensu stricto. Some taxa may maintain gene flow across this region, but very few genetic studies have been completed on such taxa. Until further

  10. Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) prohibits the 'take' of these birds. The act defines take as to 'pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest or disturb.' The 2009 Eagle Permit Rule (74 FR 46836) authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to issue nonpurposeful (i.e., incidental) take permits, and the USFWS 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance provides a voluntary framework for issuing programmatic take permits to wind facilities that incorporate scientifically supportable advanced conservation practices (ACPs). Under these rules, the Service can issue permits that authorize individual instances of take of bald and golden eagles when the take is associated with, but not the purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity, and cannot practicably be avoided. To date, the USFWS has not approved any ACPs, citing the lack of evidence for 'scientifically supportable measures.' The Eagle Detection and Deterrents Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in December 2015 with a goal to comprehensively assess the current state of technologies to detect and deter eagles from wind energy sites and the key gaps concerning reducing eagle fatalities and facilitating permitting under the BGEPA. During the workshop, presentations and discussions focused primarily on existing knowledge (and limitations) about the biology of eagles as well as technologies and emerging or novel ideas, including innovative applications of tools developed for use in other sectors, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and aviation. The main activity of the workshop was the breakout sessions, which focused on the current state of detection and deterrent technologies and novel concepts/applications for detecting and minimizing eagle collisions with wind turbines. Following the breakout sessions, participants were asked about their individual impressions of the

  11. Noise Trauma-Induced Behavioral Gap Detection Deficits Correlate with Reorganization of Excitatory and Inhibitory Local Circuits in the Inferior Colliculus and Are Prevented by Acoustic Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Joshua J; Zhang-Hooks, Ying-Xin; Roos, Hannah; Nguyen, Tuan; Kandler, Karl

    2017-06-28

    Hearing loss leads to a host of cellular and synaptic changes in auditory brain areas that are thought to give rise to auditory perception deficits such as temporal processing impairments, hyperacusis, and tinnitus. However, little is known about possible changes in synaptic circuit connectivity that may underlie these hearing deficits. Here, we show that mild hearing loss as a result of brief noise exposure leads to a pronounced reorganization of local excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the mouse inferior colliculus. The exact nature of these reorganizations correlated with the presence or absence of the animals' impairments in detecting brief sound gaps, a commonly used behavioral sign for tinnitus in animal models. Mice with gap detection deficits (GDDs) showed a shift in the balance of synaptic excitation and inhibition that was present in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, whereas mice without GDDs showed stable excitation-inhibition balances. Acoustic enrichment (AE) with moderate intensity, pulsed white noise immediately after noise trauma prevented both circuit reorganization and GDDs, raising the possibility of using AE immediately after cochlear damage to prevent or alleviate the emergence of central auditory processing deficits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Noise overexposure is a major cause of central auditory processing disorders, including tinnitus, yet the changes in synaptic connectivity underlying these disorders remain poorly understood. Here, we find that brief noise overexposure leads to distinct reorganizations of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs onto glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons and that the nature of these reorganizations correlates with animals' impairments in detecting brief sound gaps, which is often considered a sign of tinnitus. Acoustic enrichment immediately after noise trauma prevents circuit reorganizations and gap detection deficits, highlighting the potential for using sound therapy soon after cochlear damage

  12. A method based on temporal concept analysis for detecting and profiling human trafficking suspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Hamza, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking and forced prostitution are a serious problem for the Amsterdam-Amstelland police (the Netherlands). In this paper, we present a method based on Temporal Concept Analysis for detecting and profiling human trafficking suspects. Using traditional Formal Concept Analysis, we first

  13. Moving target detection based on temporal-spatial information fusion for infrared image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toing, Wu-qin; Xiong, Jin-yu; Zeng, An-jun; Wu, Xiao-ping; Xu, Hao-peng

    2009-07-01

    Moving target detection and localization is one of the most fundamental tasks in visual surveillance. In this paper, through analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional approaches about moving target detection, a novel approach based on temporal-spatial information fusion is proposed for moving target detection. The proposed method combines the spatial feature in single frame and the temporal properties within multiple frames of an image sequence of moving target. First, the method uses the spatial image segmentation for target separation from background and uses the local temporal variance for extracting targets and wiping off the trail artifact. Second, the logical "and" operator is used to fuse the temporal and spatial information. In the end, to the fusion image sequence, the morphological filtering and blob analysis are used to acquire exact moving target. The algorithm not only requires minimal computation and memory but also quickly adapts to the change of background and environment. Comparing with other methods, such as the KDE, the Mixture of K Gaussians, etc., the simulation results show the proposed method has better validity and higher adaptive for moving target detection, especially in infrared image sequences with complex illumination change, noise change, and so on.

  14. Robust Replication Control Is Generated by Temporal Gaps between Licensing and Firing Phases and Depends on Degradation of Firing Factor Sld2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Uwe Reusswig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Temporal separation of DNA replication initiation into licensing and firing phases ensures the precise duplication of the genome during each cell cycle. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK is known to generate this separation by activating firing factors and at the same time inhibiting licensing factors but may not be sufficient to ensure robust separation at transitions between both phases. Here, we show that a temporal gap separates the inactivation of firing factors from the re-activation of licensing factors during mitosis in budding yeast. We find that gap size critically depends on phosphorylation-dependent degradation of the firing factor Sld2 mediated by CDK, DDK, Mck1, and Cdc5 kinases and the ubiquitin-ligases Dma1/2. Stable mutants of Sld2 minimize the gap and cause increased genome instability in an origin-dependent manner when combined with deregulation of other replication regulators or checkpoint mechanisms. Robust separation of licensing and firing phases therefore appears indispensable to safeguard genome stability.

  15. Detecting settlement expansion using hyper-temporal SAR time-series

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available -series to produce a change index input feature was done by adapting the Temporal Autocorre- lation function Change Detection (TACD) method proposed in [4], which was originally intended for multi-band optical data, to the case of SAR HH hyper-temporal input time...=1 R(τ, x, y). (3) Where function R() is the ACF, τ is the time lag and (x, y) is the pixel position. The change metric is thus a sum- mation of the first k lags of R(τ) which was shown in [4] to be less sensitive and more general than using a...

  16. Streambank erosion rates and loads within a single watershed: Bridging the gap between temporal and spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of streambank erosion to watershed-scale sediment export is being increasingly recognized. However few studies have quantified bank erosion and watershed sediment flux at the basin scale across temporal and spatial scales. In this study we evaluated the spatial distribution, extent, a...

  17. Fast Temporal Activity Proposals for Efficient Detection of Human Actions in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2016-12-13

    In many large-scale video analysis scenarios, one is interested in localizing and recognizing human activities that occur in short temporal intervals within long untrimmed videos. Current approaches for activity detection still struggle to handle large-scale video collections and the task remains relatively unexplored. This is in part due to the computational complexity of current action recognition approaches and the lack of a method that proposes fewer intervals in the video, where activity processing can be focused. In this paper, we introduce a proposal method that aims to recover temporal segments containing actions in untrimmed videos. Building on techniques for learning sparse dictionaries, we introduce a learning framework to represent and retrieve activity proposals. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method in not only producing high quality proposals but also in its efficiency. Finally, we show the positive impact our method has on recognition performance when it is used for action detection, while running at 10FPS.

  18. Temporal change detection of land use/land cover using GIS and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temporal change detection of land use/land cover using GIS and remote sensing techniques in South Ghor Regions, Al-Karak, Jordan. M Abu Ghurah, M.K.A. Kamarudin, N.A. Wahab, R Umar, N.A.F. Nik Wan, H Juahir, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, F Lananan, A.F. Ireana Yusra, Sunardi Sunardi, Y Hidayat ...

  19. Dramatyping: a generic algorithm for detecting reasonable temporal correlations between drug administration and lab value alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Newe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, one of the criteria for the standardized assessment of case causality in adverse drug reactions is the temporal relationship between the intake of a drug and the occurrence of a reaction or a laboratory test abnormality. This article presents and describes an algorithm for the detection of a reasonable temporal correlation between the administration of a drug and the alteration of a laboratory value course. The algorithm is designed to process normalized lab values and is therefore universally applicable. It has a sensitivity of 0.932 for the detection of lab value courses that show changes in temporal correlation with the administration of a drug and it has a specificity of 0.967 for the detection of lab value courses that show no changes. Therefore, the algorithm is appropriate to screen the data of electronic health records and to support human experts in revealing adverse drug reactions. A reference implementation in Python programming language is available.

  20. Temporal distribution characteristics of GNSS ionospheric occultation data and its effects in earthquake-ionosphere anomaly detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal distribution characteristics of COSMIC occultation data are analyzed in detail, and the limitations in earthquake-ionosphere anomaly detection caused by the temporal distribution characteristics of COSMIC occultation data are discussed using the example of the Wenchuan earthquake. The results demonstrate that there is no fixed temporal resolution for COSMIC occultation data when compared with other ionospheric observation techniques. Therefore, occultation data cannot currently be independently utilized in research studies but can only be used as a complement to other ionospheric observation techniques for applications with high temporal resolution demands, such as earthquake-ionosphere anomaly detection.

  1. Spatio-temporal filtering techniques for the detection of disaster-related communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Sean M; Ben Gibson, C; Spiro, Emma S; Butts, Carter T

    2016-09-01

    Individuals predominantly exchange information with one another through informal, interpersonal channels. During disasters and other disrupted settings, information spread through informal channels regularly outpaces official information provided by public officials and the press. Social scientists have long examined this kind of informal communication in the rumoring literature, but studying rumoring in disrupted settings has posed numerous methodological challenges. Measuring features of informal communication-timing, content, location-with any degree of precision has historically been extremely challenging in small studies and infeasible at large scales. We address this challenge by using online, informal communication from a popular microblogging website and for which we have precise spatial and temporal metadata. While the online environment provides a new means for observing rumoring, the abundance of data poses challenges for parsing hazard-related rumoring from countless other topics in numerous streams of communication. Rumoring about disaster events is typically temporally and spatially constrained to places where that event is salient. Accordingly, we use spatio and temporal subsampling to increase the resolution of our detection techniques. By filtering out data from known sources of error (per rumor theories), we greatly enhance the signal of disaster-related rumoring activity. We use these spatio-temporal filtering techniques to detect rumoring during a variety of disaster events, from high-casualty events in major population centers to minimally destructive events in remote areas. We consistently find three phases of response: anticipatory excitation where warnings and alerts are issued ahead of an event, primary excitation in and around the impacted area, and secondary excitation which frequently brings a convergence of attention from distant locales onto locations impacted by the event. Our results demonstrate the promise of spatio-temporal

  2. Temporal Synchrony Detection and Associations with Language in Young Children with ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Patten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporally synchronous audio-visual stimuli serve to recruit attention and enhance learning, including language learning in infants. Although few studies have examined this effect on children with autism, it appears that the ability to detect temporal synchrony between auditory and visual stimuli may be impaired, particularly given social-linguistic stimuli delivered via oral movement and spoken language pairings. However, children with autism can detect audio-visual synchrony given nonsocial stimuli (objects dropping and their corresponding sounds. We tested whether preschool children with autism could detect audio-visual synchrony given video recordings of linguistic stimuli paired with movement of related toys in the absence of faces. As a group, children with autism demonstrated the ability to detect audio-visual synchrony. Further, the amount of time they attended to the synchronous condition was positively correlated with receptive language. Findings suggest that object manipulations may enhance multisensory processing in linguistic contexts. Moreover, associations between synchrony detection and language development suggest that better processing of multisensory stimuli may guide and direct attention to communicative events thus enhancing linguistic development.

  3. Deep Spatial-Temporal Joint Feature Representation for Video Object Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojun Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of deep neural networks, many object detection frameworks have shown great success in the fields of smart surveillance, self-driving cars, and facial recognition. However, the data sources are usually videos, and the object detection frameworks are mostly established on still images and only use the spatial information, which means that the feature consistency cannot be ensured because the training procedure loses temporal information. To address these problems, we propose a single, fully-convolutional neural network-based object detection framework that involves temporal information by using Siamese networks. In the training procedure, first, the prediction network combines the multiscale feature map to handle objects of various sizes. Second, we introduce a correlation loss by using the Siamese network, which provides neighboring frame features. This correlation loss represents object co-occurrences across time to aid the consistent feature generation. Since the correlation loss should use the information of the track ID and detection label, our video object detection network has been evaluated on the large-scale ImageNet VID dataset where it achieves a 69.5% mean average precision (mAP.

  4. Detection and Evaluation of Pre-Preg Gaps and Overlaps in Glare Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardi, D.; Abouhamzeh, M.; Leonard, R.A.; Sinke, J.

    2018-01-01

    Gaps and overlaps between pre-preg plies represent common flaws in composite materials that can be introduced easily in an automated fibre placement manufacturing process and are potentially detrimental for the mechanical performances of the final laminates. Whereas gaps and overlaps have been

  5. Detection of Behavior Patterns of Interest Using Big Data which have Spatial and Temporal Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Valley, R. W.; Usher, A.; Cook, A.

    2017-10-01

    New innovative analytical techniques are emerging to extract patterns in Big Data which have temporal and geospatial attributes. These techniques are required to find patterns of interest in challenging circumstances when geospatial datasets have millions or billions of records and imprecision exists around the exact latitude and longitude of the data. Furthermore, the usual temporal vector approach of years, months, days, hours, minutes and seconds often are computationally expensive and in many cases do not allow the user control of precision necessary to find patterns of interest. Geohashing is a single variable ASCII string representation of two-dimensional geometric coordinates. Time hashing is a similar ASCII representation which combines the temporal aspects of date and time of the data into a one dimensional set of data attributes. Both methods utilize Z-order curves which map multidimensional data into single dimensions while preserving locality of the data records. This paper explores the use of a combination of both geohashing and time hashing that is known as "geo-temporal" hashing or "space-time" boxes. This technique provides a foundation for reducing the data into bins that can yield new methods for pattern discovery and detection in Big Data.

  6. Detecting spatial-temporal clusters of HFMD from 2007 to 2011 in Shandong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxia Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD has caused major public health concerns worldwide, and has become one of the leading causes of children death. China is the most serious epidemic area with a total of 3,419,149 reported cases just from 2008 to 2010, and its different geographic areas might have different spatial epidemiology characteristics at different spatial-temporal scale levels. We conducted spatial and spatial-temporal epidemiology analysis to HFMD at county level in Shandong Province, China. METHODS: Based on the China National Disease Surveillance Reporting and Management System, the spatial-temporal database of HFMD from 2007 to 2011 was built. The global autocorrelation statistic (Moran's I was first used to detect the spatial autocorrelation of HFMD cases in each year. Purely Spatial scan statistics combined with Space-time scan statistic were used to detect epidemic clusters. RESULTS: The annual average incidence rate was 93.70 per 100,000 in Shandong Province. Most HFMD cases (93.94% were aged within 0-5 years old with an average male-to-female sex ratio 1.71, and the incidence seasonal peak was between April and July. The dominant pathogen was EV71 (47.35%, and CoxA16 (26.59%. HFMD had positive spatial autocorrelation at medium spatial scale level (county level with higher Moran's I from 0.31 to 0.62 (P<0.001. Seven spatial-temporal clusters were detected from 2007 to 2011 in the landscape of the whole Shandong, with EV71 or CoxA16 as the dominant pathogen for most hotspots areas. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial-temporal clusters of HFMD wandered around the whole Shandong Province during 2007 to 2011, with EV71 or CoxA16 as the dominant pathogen. These findings suggested that a real-time spatial-temporal surveillance system should be established for identifying high incidence region and conducting prevention to HFMD timely.

  7. Automated Landslides Detection for Mountain Cities Using Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Yifei; Ouyang, Chao; Zhang, Feng; Ma, Jie

    2018-03-09

    Landslides that take place in mountain cities tend to cause huge casualties and economic losses, and a precise survey of landslide areas is a critical task for disaster emergency. However, because of the complicated appearance of the nature, it is difficult to find a spatial regularity that only relates to landslides, thus landslides detection based on only spatial information or artificial features usually performs poorly. In this paper, an automated landslides detection approach that is aiming at mountain cities has been proposed based on pre- and post-event remote sensing images, it mainly utilizes the knowledge of landslide-related surface covering changes, and makes full use of the temporal and spatial information. A change detection method using Deep Convolution Neural Network (DCNN) was introduced to extract the areas where drastic alterations have taken place; then, focusing on the changed areas, the Spatial Temporal Context Learning (STCL) was conducted to identify the landslides areas; finally, we use slope degree which is derived from digital elevation model (DEM) to make the result more reliable, and the change of DEM is used for making the detected areas more complete. The approach was applied to detecting the landslides in Shenzhen, Zhouqu County and Beichuan County in China, and a quantitative accuracy assessment has been taken. The assessment indicates that this approach can guarantee less commission error of landslide areal extent which is below 17.6% and achieves a quality percentage above 61.1%, and for landslide areas, the detection percentage is also competitive, the experimental results proves the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed approach for the detection landslides in mountain cities.

  8. Detecting settlement expansion in South Africa using a hyper-temporal SAR change detection approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available holdings, the feasibility of using a SAR time-series based change detection approach is becoming increasingly more attractive. 13 [1] P. Snoeij, E. Attema, M. Davidson, B. Duesmann, N. Floury, G. Lev- rini, B. Rommen, B. Rosich, Sentinel-1 radar mission...

  9. LASER: A Maximum Likelihood Toolkit for Detecting Temporal Shifts in Diversification Rates From Molecular Phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Rabosky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of species origination and extinction can vary over time during evolutionary radiations, and it is possible to reconstruct the history of diversification using molecular phylogenies of extant taxa only. Maximum likelihood methods provide a useful framework for inferring temporal variation in diversification rates. LASER is a package for the R programming environment that implements maximum likelihood methods based on the birth-death process to test whether diversification rates have changed over time. LASER contrasts the likelihood of phylogenetic data under models where diversification rates have changed over time to alternative models where rates have remained constant over time. Major strengths of the package include the ability to detect temporal increases in diversification rates and the inference of diversification parameters under multiple rate-variable models of diversification. The program and associated documentation are freely available from the R package archive at http://cran.r-project.org.

  10. Beyond greenness: Detecting temporal changes in photosynthetic capacity with hyperspectral reflectance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory L Barnes

    Full Text Available Earth's future carbon balance and regional carbon exchange dynamics are inextricably linked to plant photosynthesis. Spectral vegetation indices are widely used as proxies for vegetation greenness and to estimate state variables such as vegetation cover and leaf area index. However, the capacity of green leaves to take up carbon can change throughout the season. We quantify photosynthetic capacity as the maximum rate of RuBP carboxylation (Vcmax and regeneration (Jmax. Vcmax and Jmax vary within-season due to interactions between ontogenetic processes and meteorological variables. Remote sensing-based estimation of Vcmax and Jmax using leaf reflectance spectra is promising, but temporal variation in relationships between these key determinants of photosynthetic capacity, leaf reflectance spectra, and the models that link these variables has not been evaluated. To address this issue, we studied hybrid poplar (Populus spp. during a 7-week mid-summer period to quantify seasonally-dynamic relationships between Vcmax, Jmax, and leaf spectra. We compared in situ estimates of Vcmax and Jmax from gas exchange measurements to estimates of Vcmax and Jmax derived from partial least squares regression (PLSR and fresh-leaf reflectance spectroscopy. PLSR models were robust despite dynamic temporal variation in Vcmax and Jmax throughout the study period. Within-population variation in plant stress modestly reduced PLSR model predictive capacity. Hyperspectral vegetation indices were well-correlated to Vcmax and Jmax, including the widely-used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Our results show that hyperspectral estimation of plant physiological traits using PLSR may be robust to temporal variation. Additionally, hyperspectral vegetation indices may be sufficient to detect temporal changes in photosynthetic capacity in contexts similar to those studied here. Overall, our results highlight the potential for hyperspectral remote sensing to estimate

  11. Beyond greenness: Detecting temporal changes in photosynthetic capacity with hyperspectral reflectance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mallory L; Breshears, David D; Law, Darin J; van Leeuwen, Willem J D; Monson, Russell K; Fojtik, Alec C; Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Moore, David J P

    2017-01-01

    Earth's future carbon balance and regional carbon exchange dynamics are inextricably linked to plant photosynthesis. Spectral vegetation indices are widely used as proxies for vegetation greenness and to estimate state variables such as vegetation cover and leaf area index. However, the capacity of green leaves to take up carbon can change throughout the season. We quantify photosynthetic capacity as the maximum rate of RuBP carboxylation (Vcmax) and regeneration (Jmax). Vcmax and Jmax vary within-season due to interactions between ontogenetic processes and meteorological variables. Remote sensing-based estimation of Vcmax and Jmax using leaf reflectance spectra is promising, but temporal variation in relationships between these key determinants of photosynthetic capacity, leaf reflectance spectra, and the models that link these variables has not been evaluated. To address this issue, we studied hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) during a 7-week mid-summer period to quantify seasonally-dynamic relationships between Vcmax, Jmax, and leaf spectra. We compared in situ estimates of Vcmax and Jmax from gas exchange measurements to estimates of Vcmax and Jmax derived from partial least squares regression (PLSR) and fresh-leaf reflectance spectroscopy. PLSR models were robust despite dynamic temporal variation in Vcmax and Jmax throughout the study period. Within-population variation in plant stress modestly reduced PLSR model predictive capacity. Hyperspectral vegetation indices were well-correlated to Vcmax and Jmax, including the widely-used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Our results show that hyperspectral estimation of plant physiological traits using PLSR may be robust to temporal variation. Additionally, hyperspectral vegetation indices may be sufficient to detect temporal changes in photosynthetic capacity in contexts similar to those studied here. Overall, our results highlight the potential for hyperspectral remote sensing to estimate determinants of

  12. Generalization of temporal order detection skill learning: two experimental studies of children with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F.B. Murphy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of learning generalization of a specific skill of auditory temporal processing (temporal order detection in children with dyslexia. The frequency order discrimination task was applied to children with dyslexia and its effect after training was analyzed in the same trained task and in a different task (duration order discrimination involving the temporal order discrimination too. During study 1, one group of subjects with dyslexia (N = 12; mean age = 10.9 ± 1.4 years was trained and compared to a group of untrained dyslexic children (N = 28; mean age = 10.4 ± 2.1 years. In study 2, the performance of a trained dyslexic group (N = 18; mean age = 10.1 ± 2.1 years was compared at three different times: 2 months before training, at the beginning of training, and at the end of training. Training was carried out for 2 months using a computer program responsible for training frequency ordering skill. In study 1, the trained group showed significant improvement after training only for frequency ordering task compared to the untrained group (P < 0.001. In study 2, the children showed improvement in the last interval in both frequency ordering (P < 0.001 and duration ordering (P = 0.01 tasks. These results showed differences regarding the presence of learning generalization of temporal order detection, since there was generalization of learning in only one of the studies. The presence of methodological differences between the studies, as well as the relationship between trained task and evaluated tasks, are discussed.

  13. The Impact of the Temporal Distribution of Communicating Civilizations on Their Detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, Amedeo

    2018-01-01

    We used a statistical model to investigate the detectability (defined by the requirement that causal contact has been initiated with us) of communicating civilizations within a volume of the Universe surrounding our location. If the civilizations are located in our galaxy, the detectability requirement imposes a strict constraint on their epoch of appearance and their communicating life span. This, in turn, implies that our ability to gather empirical evidence of the fraction of civilizations within range of detection strongly depends on the specific features of their temporal distribution. Our approach illuminates aspects of the problem that can escape the standard treatment based on the Drake equation. Therefore, it might provide the appropriate framework for future studies dealing with the evolutionary aspects of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).

  14. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground bark beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jun; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    red turpentine beetle colonization, pine engraver bark beetle colonization, and mortality of red pine trees while accounting for correlation across space and over time. We extend traditional Markov random-field models to include temporal terms and multiple-response variables aimed at developing...... as well as posterior predictive distributions. In particular, we implement path sampling combined with perfect simulation for autologistic models while formally addressing the posterior propriety under an improper uniform prior. Our data analysis results suggest that red turpentine beetle colonization...... is associated with a higher likelihood of pine engraver bark beetle colonization and that pine engraver bark beetle colonization is associated with higher likelihood of red pine tree mortality, whereas there is no direct association between red turpentine beetle colonization and red pine tree mortality...

  15. Right-to-left-shunt detected by c-TCD using the orbital window in comparison with temporal bone windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kimura, Kazumi; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Sakai, Kenichirou; Aoki, Junya; Iwanaga, Takeshi; Shibazaki, Kensaku

    2012-01-01

    There have been some reports on right-to-left shunt as a cause of cryptogenic stroke. Although contrast transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) can detect RLS, an insufficient temporal window has occasionally restricted its applicability. Thus, we compared the rates of detecting RLS among temporal windows for the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) and the orbital window for the internal carotid artery (ICA) on c-TCD. We used c-TCD to detect RLS in patients with suspected ischemic stroke. We enrolled patients who had both sufficient bilateral temporal windows for MCAs and a right orbital window for ICA and performed c-TCD using all three windows simultaneously. We enrolled 106 consecutive patients and identified microembolic signals (MES) in 30 (28%) of them. Among these 30 patients, 15 had MES from all 3 windows. When these 30 patients were defined as being positive for RLS, the rates of detection were 67%, 73%, and 80% from the right temporal, left temporal, and right orbital windows, respectively (P= .795). The right orbital window as well as the temporal window for c-TCD could detect RLS. Insonation from the orbital window should be useful for patients who lack temporal windows. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. X-ray fluoroscopy spatio-temporal filtering with object detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufrichtig, R.; Wilson, D.L.; University Hospitals of Cleveland, OH

    1995-01-01

    One potential way to reduce patient and staff x-ray fluoroscopy dose is to reduce the quantum exposure to the detector and compensate the additional noise with digital filtering. A new filtering method, spatio-temporal filtering with object detection, is described that reduces noise while minimizing motion and spatial blur. As compared to some conventional motion-detection filtering schemes, this object-detection method incorporates additional a priori knowledge of image content; i.e. much of the motion occurs in isolated long thin objects (catheters, guide wires, etc.). The authors create object-likelihood images and use these to control spatial and recursive temporal filtering such as to reduce blurring the objects of interest. They use automatically computed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to optimize the object-likelihood enhancement method and determine that oriented matched filter kernels with 4 orientations are appropriate. The matched filter kernels are simple projected cylinders. The authors demonstrate the method on several representative x-ray fluoroscopy sequences to which noise is added to simulate very low dose acquisitions. With processing, they find that noise variance is significantly reduced with slightly less noise reduction near moving objects. They estimate an effective exposure reduction greater than 80%

  17. Dim small targets detection based on self-adaptive caliber temporal-spatial filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiangsuo; Xu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jianlin; Huang, Yongmei; Peng, Zhenming

    2017-09-01

    To boost the detect ability of dim small targets, this paper began by using improved anisotropy for background prediction (IABP), followed by target enhancement by improved high-order cumulates (HQS). Finally, on the basis of image pre-processing, to address the problem of missed and wrong detection caused by fixed caliber of traditional pipeline filtering, this paper used targets' multi-frame movement correlation in the time-space domain, combined with the scale-space theory, to propose a temporal-spatial filtering algorithm which allows the caliber to make self-adaptive changes according to the changes of the targets' scale, effectively solving the detection-related issues brought by unchanged caliber and decreased/increased size of the targets. Experiments showed that the improved anisotropic background predication could be loyal to the true background of the original image to the maximum extent, presenting a superior overall performance to other background prediction methods; the improved HQS significantly increased the signal-noise ratio of images; when the signal-noise ratio was lower than 2.6 dB, this detection algorithm could effectively eliminate noise and detect targets. For the algorithm, the lowest signal-to-noise ratio of the detectable target is 0.37.

  18. Development of an apnea detection algorithm based on temporal analysis of thoracic respiratory effort signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aquila, C. R.; Cañadas, G. E.; Correa, L. S.; Laciar, E.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the design of an algorithm for detecting apnea episodes, based on analysis of thorax respiratory effort signal. Inspiration and expiration time, and range amplitude of respiratory cycle were evaluated. For range analysis the standard deviation statistical tool was used over respiratory signal temporal windows. The validity of its performance was carried out in 8 records of Apnea-ECG database that has annotations of apnea episodes. The results are: sensitivity (Se) 73%, specificity (Sp) 83%. These values can be improving eliminating artifact of signal records.

  19. Temporal correlation measurements of pulsed dual CO2 lidar returns. [for atmospheric pollution detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyuk, N.; Killinger, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed dual-laser direct-detection differential-absorption lidar DIAL system, operating near 10.6 microns, is used to measure the temporal correlation and statistical properties of backscattered returns from specular and diffuse topographic targets. Results show that atmospheric-turbulence fluctuations can effectively be frozen for pulse separation times on the order of 1-3 msec or less. The diffuse target returns, however, yielded a much lower correlation than that obtained with the specular targets; this being due to uncorrelated system noise effects and different statistics for the two types of target returns.

  20. Detection of muscle gap by L-BIA in muscle injuries: clinical prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescolarde, L; Yanguas, J; Terricabras, J; Lukaski, H; Alomar, X; Rosell-Ferrer, J; Rodas, G

    2017-06-21

    Sport-related muscle injury classifications are based basically on imaging criteria such as ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without consensus because of a lack of clinical prognostics for return-to-play (RTP), which is conditioned upon the severity of the injury, and this in turn with the muscle gap (muscular fibers retraction). Recently, Futbol Club Barcelona's medical department proposed a new muscle injury classification in which muscle gap plays an important role, with the drawback that it is not always possible to identify by MRI. Localized bioimpedance measurement (L-BIA) has emerged as a non-invasive technique for supporting US and MRI to quantify the disrupted soft tissue structure in injured muscles. To correlate the severity of the injury according to the gap with the RTP, through the percent of change in resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase-angle (PA) by L-BIA measurements in 22 muscle injuries. After grouping the data according to the muscle gap (by MRI exam), there were significant differences in R between grade 1 and grade 2f (myotendinous or myofascial muscle injury with feather-like appearance), as well as between grade 2f and grade 2g (myotendinous or myofascial muscle injury with feather and gap). The Xc and PA values decrease significantly between each grade (i.e. 1 versus 2f, 1 versus 2g and 2f versus 2g). In addition, the severity of the muscle gap adversely affected the RTP with significant differences observed between 1 and 2g as well as between 2f and 2g. These results show that L-BIA could aid MRI and US in identifying the severity of an injured muscle according to muscle gap and therefore to accurately predict the RTP.

  1. DETECTION OF BEHAVIOR PATTERNS OF INTEREST USING BIG DATA WHICH HAVE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ATTRIBUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. La Valley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available New innovative analytical techniques are emerging to extract patterns in Big Data which have temporal and geospatial attributes. These techniques are required to find patterns of interest in challenging circumstances when geospatial datasets have millions or billions of records and imprecision exists around the exact latitude and longitude of the data. Furthermore, the usual temporal vector approach of years, months, days, hours, minutes and seconds often are computationally expensive and in many cases do not allow the user control of precision necessary to find patterns of interest. Geohashing is a single variable ASCII string representation of two-dimensional geometric coordinates. Time hashing is a similar ASCII representation which combines the temporal aspects of date and time of the data into a one dimensional set of data attributes. Both methods utilize Z-order curves which map multidimensional data into single dimensions while preserving locality of the data records. This paper explores the use of a combination of both geohashing and time hashing that is known as “geo-temporal” hashing or “space-time” boxes. This technique provides a foundation for reducing the data into bins that can yield new methods for pattern discovery and detection in Big Data.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Asymptomatic Malaria: Bridging the Gap Between Annual Malaria Resurgences in a Sahelian Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Drissa; Travassos, Mark A; Tolo, Youssouf; Laurens, Matthew B; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Traore, Karim; Sissoko, Mody; Niangaly, Amadou; Diarra, Issa; Daou, Modibo; Guindo, Boureima; Rebaudet, Stanislas; Kouriba, Bourema; Dessay, Nadine; Piarroux, Renaud; Plowe, Christopher V; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Thera, Mahamadou A; Gaudart, Jean

    2017-12-01

    In areas of seasonal malaria transmission, the incidence rate of malaria infection is presumed to be near zero at the end of the dry season. Asymptomatic individuals may constitute a major parasite reservoir during this time. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of clinical malaria and asymptomatic parasitemia over time in a Malian town to highlight these malaria transmission dynamics. For a cohort of 300 rural children followed over 2009-2014, periodicity and phase shift between malaria and rainfall were determined by spectral analysis. Spatial risk clusters of clinical episodes or carriage were identified. A nested-case-control study was conducted to assess the parasite carriage factors. Malaria infection persisted over the entire year with seasonal peaks. High transmission periods began 2-3 months after the rains began. A cluster with a low risk of clinical malaria in the town center persisted in high and low transmission periods. Throughout 2009-2014, cluster locations did not vary from year to year. Asymptomatic and gametocyte carriage were persistent, even during low transmission periods. For high transmission periods, the ratio of asymptomatic to clinical cases was approximately 0.5, but was five times higher during low transmission periods. Clinical episodes at previous high transmission periods were a protective factor for asymptomatic carriage, but carrying parasites without symptoms at a previous high transmission period was a risk factor for asymptomatic carriage. Stable malaria transmission was associated with sustained asymptomatic carriage during dry seasons. Control strategies should target persistent low-level parasitemia clusters to interrupt transmission.

  3. Temporal differences in blood meal detection from the midguts of Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Pinto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We used genus/species specific PCRs to determine the temporal persistence of host DNA in Triatoma infestans experimentally fed on blood from six common vertebrate species: humans, domestic dogs, guinea pigs, chickens, mice, and pigs. Twenty third or fourth instar nymphs per animal group were allowed to feed to engorgement, followed by fasting-maintenance in the insectary. At 7, 14, 21, or 28 days post-feeding, the midgut contents from five triatomines per group were tested with the respective PCR assay. DNA from all vertebrate species was detected in at least four of five study nymphs at seven and 14 days post-feeding. DNA of humans, domestic dogs, guinea pigs, pigs, and chickens were more successfully detected (80-100% through day 21, and less successfully (20-100% at day 28. Findings demonstrate that species-specific PCRs can consistently identify feeding sources of T. infestans within two weeks, a biologically relevant time interval.

  4. Detection capacity, information gaps and the design of surveillance programs for invasive forest pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank Koch; Yakov Ben-Haim; William Smith

    2010-01-01

    Integrated pest risk maps and their underlying assessments provide broad guidance for establishing surveillance programs for invasive species, but they rarely account for knowledge gaps regarding the pest of interest or how these can be reduced. In this study we demonstrate how the somewhat competing notions of robustness to uncertainty and potential knowledge gains...

  5. Teste GIN: detecção de gap em crianças com desvio fonológico Noise test: gap detection in children with phonological deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Feltre Assis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a resolução temporal: detecção de gaps em crianças com desvios fonológicos por meio do teste GIN e relacionar o grau do desvio fonológico com desempenho no teste GIN. MÉTODO: 6 indivíduos, de ambos os gêneros, 5 meninos e 1 menina, com idade entre 10 e 11 anos, com diagnóstico de desvio fonológico, em atendimento na clínica-escola do curso de Fonoaudiologia da FEAD de Belo Horizonte/MG, todos com ausência de perda auditiva e problemas neurológicos e/ou cognitivos. Os participantes foram submetidos ao Teste GIN, em intensidade de 50dB acima do limiar. RESULTADOS: das 06 crianças avaliadas, 5 (83,33% encontram-se alteradas e apenas 1 (16,67% obteve valores dentro do padrão de normalidade. Apesar da pequena amostra, viu-se que 83,33% das crianças com desvio fonológico tiveram limiares do GIN aquém do esperado para faixa etária. Porém não foi possível estabelecer uma relação direta entre grau de classificação do desvio fonológico e o baixo desempenho obtido no teste GIN, no qual apenas 1 criança com desvio médio moderado apresentou pior desempenho no teste GIN. CONCLUSÃO: crianças com desvio fonológico podem apresentar alteração no processamento temporal.PURPOSE: to investigate the temporal resolution, as for: gaps detection in children with phonological deviation through noise test and related with the degree of phonological performance in noise test. METHOD: 6 patients of both genders, five boys and one girl, aged between 10 and 11 year-old with phonological disorder' diagnosis in attendance at the school clinic of the Speech Therapy course (FEAD Belo Horizonte / MG, all with no hearing loss and no neurological and / or cognitive problems. The subjects underwent the GIN test at intensity of 50dB above the threshold. RESULTS: from the 6 evaluated children, 5 (83.33% had abnormal responses at gin test and only one (16.67% had values within the normal range. Despite the small sample, it was

  6. Teste GIN: detecção de gap em crianças com desvio fonológico Noise test: gap detection in children with phonological deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Feltre Assis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a resolução temporal: detecção de gaps em crianças com desvios fonológicos por meio do teste GIN e relacionar o grau do desvio fonológico com desempenho no teste GIN. MÉTODO: 6 indivíduos, de ambos os gêneros, 5 meninos e 1 menina, com idade entre 10 e 11 anos, com diagnóstico de desvio fonológico, em atendimento na clínica-escola do curso de Fonoaudiologia da FEAD de Belo Horizonte/MG, todos com ausência de perda auditiva e problemas neurológicos e/ou cognitivos. Os participantes foram submetidos ao Teste GIN, em intensidade de 50dB acima do limiar. RESULTADOS: das 06 crianças avaliadas, 5 (83,33% encontram-se alteradas e apenas 1 (16,67% obteve valores dentro do padrão de normalidade. Apesar da pequena amostra, viu-se que 83,33% das crianças com desvio fonológico tiveram limiares do GIN aquém do esperado para faixa etária. Porém não foi possível estabelecer uma relação direta entre grau de classificação do desvio fonológico e o baixo desempenho obtido no teste GIN, no qual apenas 1 criança com desvio médio moderado apresentou pior desempenho no teste GIN. CONCLUSÃO: crianças com desvio fonológico podem apresentar alteração no processamento temporal.PURPOSE: to investigate the temporal resolution, as for: gaps detection in children with phonological deviation through noise test and related with the degree of phonological performance in noise test. METHOD: 6 patients of both genders, five boys and one girl, aged between 10 and 11 year-old with phonological disorder' diagnosis in attendance at the school clinic of the Speech Therapy course (FEAD Belo Horizonte / MG, all with no hearing loss and no neurological and / or cognitive problems. The subjects underwent the GIN test at intensity of 50dB above the threshold. RESULTS: from the 6 evaluated children, 5 (83.33% had abnormal responses at gin test and only one (16.67% had values within the normal range. Despite the small sample, it was

  7. Co-Registration of Multi-Temporal dem Based on Sift Algorithm for Change Detection of Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Hu, Q.

    2017-09-01

    To detect the change of geographic objects by using multi-temporal DEM, the data must be co-registered firstly. In this paper, the Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm is used to co-register multi-temporal DEM data and glacier change detection. Firstly, the DEM is converted into image space and extracts feature information, calculate multiple sets of match point coordinates, and achieve swift and accurate DEM data co-registration using SIFT algorithm. Secondly, the difference between co-registered DEM datasets are analysed. Total area change and average rate of change are calculated. Finally, the change of multi-temporal DEM data of glaciers in Langkazi County, Tibet from 2004 to 2014 is detected using the method proposed in this paper. The results indicate that the proposed method is able to detect change of the glaciers and the overall accuracy is higher than 85 %.

  8. Detecting spatio-temporal modes in multivariate data by entropy field decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Lawrence R; Galinsky, Vitaly L

    2016-01-01

    A new data analysis method that addresses a general problem of detecting spatio-temporal variations in multivariate data is presented. The method utilizes two recent and complimentary general approaches to data analysis, information field theory (IFT) and entropy spectrum pathways (ESPs). Both methods reformulate and incorporate Bayesian theory, thus use prior information to uncover underlying structure of the unknown signal. Unification of ESP and IFT creates an approach that is non-Gaussian and nonlinear by construction and is found to produce unique spatio-temporal modes of signal behavior that can be ranked according to their significance, from which space–time trajectories of parameter variations can be constructed and quantified. Two brief examples of real world applications of the theory to the analysis of data bearing completely different, unrelated nature, lacking any underlying similarity, are also presented. The first example provides an analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data that allowed us to create an efficient and accurate computational method for assessing and categorizing brain activity. The second example demonstrates the potential of the method in the application to the analysis of a strong atmospheric storm circulation system during the complicated stage of tornado development and formation using data recorded by a mobile Doppler radar. Reference implementation of the method will be made available as a part of the QUEST toolkit that is currently under development at the Center for Scientific Computation in Imaging. (paper)

  9. Detecting spatio-temporal modes in multivariate data by entropy field decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Lawrence R.; Galinsky, Vitaly L.

    2016-09-01

    A new data analysis method that addresses a general problem of detecting spatio-temporal variations in multivariate data is presented. The method utilizes two recent and complimentary general approaches to data analysis, information field theory (IFT) and entropy spectrum pathways (ESPs). Both methods reformulate and incorporate Bayesian theory, thus use prior information to uncover underlying structure of the unknown signal. Unification of ESP and IFT creates an approach that is non-Gaussian and nonlinear by construction and is found to produce unique spatio-temporal modes of signal behavior that can be ranked according to their significance, from which space-time trajectories of parameter variations can be constructed and quantified. Two brief examples of real world applications of the theory to the analysis of data bearing completely different, unrelated nature, lacking any underlying similarity, are also presented. The first example provides an analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data that allowed us to create an efficient and accurate computational method for assessing and categorizing brain activity. The second example demonstrates the potential of the method in the application to the analysis of a strong atmospheric storm circulation system during the complicated stage of tornado development and formation using data recorded by a mobile Doppler radar. Reference implementation of the method will be made available as a part of the QUEST toolkit that is currently under development at the Center for Scientific Computation in Imaging.

  10. Comparing CAT12 and VBM8 for Detecting Brain Morphological Abnormalities in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Farokhian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the brain morphological alterations that play important roles in neurodegenerative/neurological diseases will contribute to our understanding of the causes of these diseases. Various automated software programs are designed to provide an automatic framework to detect brain morphological changes in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis can also be used for the detection of brain volumetric abnormalities. Here, we compared gray matter (GM and white matter (WM abnormality results obtained by a VBM analysis using the Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12 via the current version of Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM12 with the results obtained by a VBM analysis using the VBM8 toolbox implemented in the older software SPM8, in adult temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE patients with (n = 51 and without (n = 57 hippocampus sclerosis (HS, compared to healthy adult controls (n = 28. The VBM analysis using CAT12 showed that compared to the healthy controls, significant GM and WM reductions were located in ipsilateral mesial temporal lobes in the TLE-HS patients, and slight GM amygdala swelling was present in the right TLE-no patients (n = 27. In contrast, the VBM analysis via the VBM8 toolbox showed significant GM and WM reductions only in the left TLE-HS patients (n = 25 compared to the healthy controls. Our findings thus demonstrate that compared to VBM8, a VBM analysis using CAT12 provides a more accurate volumetric analysis of the brain regions in TLE. Our results further indicate that a VBM analysis using CAT12 is more robust and accurate against volumetric alterations than the VBM8 toolbox.

  11. Multiple Sclerosis: Identification of Temporal Changes in Brain Lesions with Computer-Assisted Detection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilello, M.; Arkuszewski, M.; Nucifora, P.; Nasrallah, I.; Melhem, E.R.; Cirillo, L.; Krejza, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with a progressing and evolving course. Serial imaging with MRI is the mainstay in monitoring and managing MS patients. In this work we demonstrate the performance of a locally developed computer-assisted detection (CAD) software used to track temporal changes in brain MS lesions. CAD tracks changes in T2-bright MS lesions between two time points on a 3D high-resolution isotropic FLAIR MR sequence of the brain acquired at 3 Tesla. The program consists of an image-processing pipeline, and displays scrollable difference maps used as an aid to the neuroradiologist for assessing lesional change. To assess the value of the software we have compared diagnostic accuracy and duration of interpretation of the CAD-assisted and routine clinical interpretations in 98 randomly chosen, paired MR examinations from 88 patients (68 women, 20 men, mean age 43.5, age range 21–75) with a diagnosis of definite MS. The ground truth was determined by a three-expert panel. In case-wise analysis, CAD interpretation showed higher sensitivity than a clinical report (87% vs 77%, respectively). Lesion-wise analysis demonstrated improved sensitivity of CAD over a routine clinical interpretation of 40%–48%. Mean software-assisted interpretation time was 2.7 min. Our study demonstrates the potential of including CAD software in the workflow of neuroradiology practice for the detection of MS lesional change. Automated quantification of temporal change in MS lesion load may also be used in clinical research, e.g., in drug trials. PMID:23859235

  12. Reliability and Minimum Detectable Change of Temporal-Spatial, Kinematic, and Dynamic Stability Measures during Perturbed Gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Rábago

    Full Text Available Temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures collected during perturbation-based assessment paradigms are often used to identify dysfunction associated with gait instability. However, it remains unclear which measures are most reliable for detecting and tracking responses to perturbations. This study systematically determined the between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values of temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures during three types of perturbed gait. Twenty young healthy adults completed two identical testing sessions two weeks apart, comprised of an unperturbed and three perturbed (cognitive, physical, and visual walking conditions in a virtual reality environment. Within each session, perturbation responses were compared to unperturbed walking using paired t-tests. Between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values were also calculated for each measure and condition. All temporal-spatial, kinematic variability and dynamic stability measures demonstrated fair to excellent between-session reliability. Minimal detectable change values, normalized to mean values ranged from 1-50%. Step width mean and variability measures demonstrated the greatest response to perturbations with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. Orbital stability measures demonstrated specificity to perturbation direction and sensitivity with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. We observed substantially greater between-session reliability and lower minimum detectable change values for local stability measures than previously described which may be the result of averaging across trials within a session and using velocity versus acceleration data for reconstruction of state spaces. Across all perturbation types, temporal-spatial, orbital and local measures were the most reliable measures with the

  13. 3T MRI quantification of hippocampal volume and signal in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy improves detection of hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, A C; Kubota, B; Bergo, F P G; Campos, B M; Cendes, F

    2014-01-01

    In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, MR imaging quantification of hippocampal volume and T2 signal can improve the sensitivity for detecting hippocampal sclerosis. However, the current contributions of these analyses for the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis in 3T MRI are not clear. Our aim was to compare visual analysis, volumetry, and signal quantification of the hippocampus for detecting hippocampal sclerosis in 3T MRI. Two hundred three patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy defined by clinical and electroencephalogram criteria had 3T MRI visually analyzed by imaging epilepsy experts. As a second step, we performed automatic quantification of hippocampal volumes with FreeSurfer and T2 relaxometry with an in-house software. MRI of 79 healthy controls was used for comparison. Visual analysis classified 125 patients (62%) as having signs of hippocampal sclerosis and 78 (38%) as having normal MRI findings. Automatic volumetry detected atrophy in 119 (95%) patients with visually detected hippocampal sclerosis and in 10 (13%) with visually normal MR imaging findings. Relaxometry analysis detected hyperintense T2 signal in 103 (82%) patients with visually detected hippocampal sclerosis and in 15 (19%) with visually normal MR imaging findings. Considered together, volumetry plus relaxometry detected signs of hippocampal sclerosis in all except 1 (99%) patient with visually detected hippocampal sclerosis and in 22 (28%) with visually normal MR imaging findings. In 3T MRI visually inspected by experts, quantification of hippocampal volume and signal can increase the detection of hippocampal sclerosis in 28% of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  14. A simultaneous comparison of acupuncture needle and insulated needle sphenoidal electrodes for detection of anterior temporal spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N S

    1992-01-01

    Uninsulated acupuncture needles have been used as sphenoidal electrodes, but the issue of insulation has not been adequately addressed. In this report, acupuncture needles and insulated needle sphenoidal electrodes were simultaneously used to compare the rate of spike detection, spike amplitude and distribution of maximal spikes from eight spike foci in seven patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. When compared to the insulated needle electrode, the acupuncture needle electrode was equally effective in spike detection, but spike amplitudes tended to be smaller and maximal spikes were less frequently encountered. Thus, insulation has an influence on the spikes recorded by the acupuncture needle sphenoidal electrode. However, the overall effect appears to be not sufficiently different from the insulated needle electrode for the purpose of detecting anterior temporal spikes in outpatient EEG recordings for the diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  15. Optical detection of magnetoplasma resonances in indirect-gap AlAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khisameeva, A. R.; Gubarev, S. I.; Murav'ev, V. M.; Kukushkin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetoplasma excitations in AlAs/AlGaAs quantum wells, characterized by strong anisotropy in the effective mass of two-dimensional electrons, are investigated using the optical detection of resonance microwave absorption. This technique is used for the first time for an indirect-gap semiconductor. It is found that the magnetic dispersion of the cyclotron magnetoplasma mode deviates significantly from the theoretically expected behavior. This may be related to the considerably more pronounced manifestation of retardation effects in two-dimensional systems with an anisotropic energy spectrum.

  16. Temporal anomaly detection: an artificial immune approach based on T cell activation, clonal size regulation and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Mário J; Correia, Manuel E

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial immune system (AIS) based on Grossman's tunable activation threshold (TAT) for temporal anomaly detection. We describe the generic AIS framework and the TAT model adopted for simulating T Cells behaviour, emphasizing two novel important features: the temporal dynamic adjustment of T Cells clonal size and its associated homeostasis mechanism. We also present some promising results obtained with artificially generated data sets, aiming to test the appropriateness of using TAT in dynamic changing environments, to distinguish new unseen patterns as part of what should be detected as normal or as anomalous. We conclude by discussing results obtained thus far with artificially generated data sets.

  17. Anomaly detection using temporal data mining in a smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakkula, V; Cook, D J

    2008-01-01

    To many people, home is a sanctuary. With the maturing of smart home technologies, many people with cognitive and physical disabilities can lead independent lives in their own homes for extended periods of time. In this paper, we investigate the design of machine learning algorithms that support this goal. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can be designed to automatically learn models of resident behavior in a smart home, and that the results can be used to perform automated health monitoring and to detect anomalies. Specifically, our algorithms draw upon the temporal nature of sensor data collected in a smart home to build a model of expected activities and to detect unexpected, and possibly health-critical, events in the home. We validate our algorithms using synthetic data and real activity data collected from volunteers in an automated smart environment. The results from our experiments support our hypothesis that a model can be learned from observed smart home data and used to report anomalies, as they occur, in a smart home.

  18. Building Change Detection from Bi-Temporal Dense-Matching Point Clouds and Aerial Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shiyan; Hu, Xiangyun; Cai, Zhongliang; Gong, Jinqi; Zhang, Mi

    2018-03-24

    In this work, a novel building change detection method from bi-temporal dense-matching point clouds and aerial images is proposed to address two major problems, namely, the robust acquisition of the changed objects above ground and the automatic classification of changed objects into buildings or non-buildings. For the acquisition of changed objects above ground, the change detection problem is converted into a binary classification, in which the changed area above ground is regarded as the foreground and the other area as the background. For the gridded points of each period, the graph cuts algorithm is adopted to classify the points into foreground and background, followed by the region-growing algorithm to form candidate changed building objects. A novel structural feature that was extracted from aerial images is constructed to classify the candidate changed building objects into buildings and non-buildings. The changed building objects are further classified as "newly built", "taller", "demolished", and "lower" by combining the classification and the digital surface models of two periods. Finally, three typical areas from a large dataset are used to validate the proposed method. Numerous experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Detecting Changes in Forest Structure over Time with Bi-Temporal Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Melkas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes to stems caused by natural forces and timber harvesting constitute an essential input for many forestry-related applications and ecological studies, especially forestry inventories based on the use of permanent sample plots. Conventional field measurement is widely acknowledged as being time-consuming and labor-intensive. More automated and efficient alternatives or supportive methods are needed. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS has been demonstrated to be a promising method in forestry field inventories. Nevertheless, the applicability of TLS in recording changes in the structure of forest plots has not been studied in detail. This paper presents a fully automated method for detecting changes in forest structure over time using bi-temporal TLS data. The developed method was tested on five densely populated forest plots including 137 trees and 50 harvested trees in point clouds. The present study demonstrated that 90 percent of tree stem changes could be automatically located from single-scan TLS data. These changes accounted for 92 percent of the changed basal area. The results indicate that the processing of TLS data collected at different times to detect tree stem changes can be fully automated.

  20. Multisite tumor sampling enhances the detection of intratumor heterogeneity at all different temporal stages of tumor evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erramuzpe, Asier; Cortés, Jesús M; López, José I

    2018-02-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is an inherent process of tumor development that has received much attention in previous years, as it has become a major obstacle for the success of targeted therapies. ITH is also temporally unpredictable across tumor evolution, which makes its precise characterization even more problematic since detection success depends on the precise temporal snapshot at which ITH is analyzed. New and more efficient strategies for tumor sampling are needed to overcome these difficulties which currently rely entirely on the pathologist's interpretation. Recently, we showed that a new strategy, the multisite tumor sampling, works better than the routine sampling protocol for the ITH detection when the tumor time evolution was not taken into consideration. Here, we extend this work and compare the ITH detections of multisite tumor sampling and routine sampling protocols across tumor time evolution, and in particular, we provide in silico analyses of both strategies at early and late temporal stages for four different models of tumor evolution (linear, branched, neutral, and punctuated). Our results indicate that multisite tumor sampling outperforms routine protocols in detecting ITH at all different temporal stages of tumor evolution. We conclude that multisite tumor sampling is more advantageous than routine protocols in detecting intratumor heterogeneity.

  1. Detection of embedded radiation sources using temporal variation of gamma spectral data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the isotopes present in a measurement. For low energy resolution detectors, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the isotopes present in the measurement. When many isotopes are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many trial solutions by highly skilled spectroscopists. This report investigates the potential of a new analysis method which uses spatial/temporal information from multiple low energy resolution measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other isotopes present. This method is referred to as targeted principal component analysis (TPCA). For radiation portal monitor applications, multiple measurements of gamma spectra are taken at equally spaced time increments as a vehicle passes through the portal and the TPCA method is directly applicable to this type of measurement. In this report we describe the method and investigate its application to the problem of detection of a radioactive localized source that is embedded in a distributed source in the presence of an ambient background. Examples using simulated spectral measurements indicate that this method works very well and has the potential for automated analysis for RPM applications. This method is also expected to work well for isotopic detection in the presence of spectrally and spatially varying backgrounds as a result of vehicle-induced background suppression. Further work is needed to include effects of shielding, to understand detection limits, setting of thresholds, and to estimate false positive probability.

  2. Improving features used for hyper-temporal land cover change detection by reducing the uncertainty in the feature extraction method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon, BP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available the effect which the length of a temporal sliding window has on the success of detecting land cover change. It is shown using a short Fourier transform as a feature extraction method provides meaningful robust input to a machine learning method. In theory...

  3. A temporal constraint for automatic deviance detection and object formation: A mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Annekathrin; Grimm, Sabine; Müller, Dagmar; Schröger, Erich

    2010-05-17

    The automatic detection of deviations within a constant sine wave tone is confined to the initial part of approximately 350 ms. When a deviation occurs beyond this critical limit, the mismatch negativity (MMN) - a deviance-related component of the event-related potential - is largely attenuated or even absent. However, for time-variant acoustic stimuli such as speech sounds or tonal patterns, MMN is also obtained for deviations beyond the initial 350 ms. We consider two hypotheses that can explain the MMN to time-variant sounds. One is that the terminal part of those sounds is represented as the spectral information varies over time (spectral-variation hypothesis). The other is that transients, occurring in time-variant signals, help to segment the long sounds into smaller units, each being not larger than the critical 350 ms (segmentation hypothesis). We measured MMN to duration shortenings (deviants) embedded in a sequence of 1000 ms long standard tones of increasing frequency (sweeps). The sweeps did or did not contain a noise burst. Results reveal a lack of MMN to the duration deviant in the sweep without a noise burst, which rules out the spectral-variation hypothesis. The presence of MMN to the duration deviant in the sweep with a noise burst supports the segmentation hypothesis. Thus, the results suggest a temporal constraint inherent to the processing of unstructured/unsegmented long tones. We argue that transients within a sound act as segmentation cues providing an automatic sound representation for which deviations can be detected. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal lobe epilepsy: quantitative MR volumetry in detection of hippocampal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Nikdokht; Girard, Holly M; Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Smith, Michael E; Magda, Sebastian W; Lim, Wei Y; Lee, Roland R; McDonald, Carrie R

    2012-08-01

    To determine the ability of fully automated volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to depict hippocampal atrophy (HA) and to help correctly lateralize the seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study was conducted with institutional review board approval and in compliance with HIPAA regulations. Volumetric MR imaging data were analyzed for 34 patients with TLE and 116 control subjects. Structural volumes were calculated by using U.S. Food and Drug Administration-cleared software for automated quantitative MR imaging analysis (NeuroQuant). Results of quantitative MR imaging were compared with visual detection of atrophy, and, when available, with histologic specimens. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal sensitivity and specificity of quantitative MR imaging for detecting HA and asymmetry. A linear classifier with cross validation was used to estimate the ability of quantitative MR imaging to help lateralize the seizure focus. Quantitative MR imaging-derived hippocampal asymmetries discriminated patients with TLE from control subjects with high sensitivity (86.7%-89.5%) and specificity (92.2%-94.1%). When a linear classifier was used to discriminate left versus right TLE, hippocampal asymmetry achieved 94% classification accuracy. Volumetric asymmetries of other subcortical structures did not improve classification. Compared with invasive video electroencephalographic recordings, lateralization accuracy was 88% with quantitative MR imaging and 85% with visual inspection of volumetric MR imaging studies but only 76% with visual inspection of clinical MR imaging studies. Quantitative MR imaging can depict the presence and laterality of HA in TLE with accuracy rates that may exceed those achieved with visual inspection of clinical MR imaging studies. Thus, quantitative MR imaging may enhance standard visual analysis, providing a useful and viable means for translating volumetric analysis into

  5. Transfer learning from RF to B-mode temporal enhanced ultrasound features for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Shekoofeh; Mousavi, Parvin; Yan, Pingkun; Tahmasebi, Amir; Kwak, Jin Tae; Xu, Sheng; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2017-07-01

    We present a method for prostate cancer (PCa) detection using temporal enhanced ultrasound (TeUS) data obtained either from radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound signals or B-mode images. For the first time, we demonstrate that by applying domain adaptation and transfer learning methods, a tissue classification model trained on TeUS RF data (source domain) can be deployed for classification using TeUS B-mode data alone (target domain), where both data are obtained on the same ultrasound scanner. This is a critical step for clinical translation of tissue classification techniques that primarily rely on accessing RF data, since this imaging modality is not readily available on all commercial scanners in clinics. Proof of concept is provided for in vivo characterization of PCa using TeUS B-mode data, where different nonlinear processing filters in the pipeline of the RF to B-mode conversion result in a distribution shift between the two domains. Our in vivo study includes data obtained in MRI-guided targeted procedure for prostate biopsy. We achieve comparable area under the curve using TeUS RF and B-mode data for medium to large cancer tumor sizes in biopsy cores (>4 mm). Our result suggests that the proposed adaptation technique is successful in reducing the divergence between TeUS RF and B-mode data.

  6. Hidden diversity in diatoms of Kenyan Lake Naivasha: a genetic approach detects temporal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof-Leichsenring, Kathleen R; Epp, Laura S; Trauth, Martin H; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2012-04-01

    This study provides insights into the morphological and genetic diversity in diatoms occurring in core sediments from tropical lakes in Kenya. We developed a genetic survey technique specific for diatoms utilizing a short region (76-67 bp) of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) gene as genetic barcode. Our analyses (i) validated the use of rbcL as a barcoding marker for diatoms, applied to sediment samples, (ii) showed a significant correlation between the results obtained by morphological and molecular data and (iii) indicated temporal variation in diatom assemblages on the inter- and intra-specific level. Diatom assemblages from a short core from Lake Naivasha show a drastic shift over the last 200 years, as littoral species (e.g. Navicula) are replaced by more planktonic ones (e.g. Aulacoseira). Within that same period, we detected periodic changes in the respective frequencies of distinct haplotype groups of Navicula, which coincide with wet and dry periods of Lake Naivasha between 1820 and 1938 AD. Our genetic analyses on historical lake sediments revealed inter- and intra-specific variation in diatoms, which is partially hidden behind single morphotypes. The occurrence of particular genetic lineages is probably correlated with environmental factors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Tactile Gap Detection Deteriorates during Bimanual Symmetrical Movements under Mirror Visual Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H Bultitude

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that incongruence between signals for motor intention and sensory input can cause pain and other sensory abnormalities. This claim is supported by reports that moving in an environment of induced sensorimotor conflict leads to elevated pain and sensory symptoms in those with certain painful conditions. Similar procedures can lead to reports of anomalous sensations in healthy volunteers too. In the present study, we used mirror visual feedback to investigate the effects of sensorimotor incongruence on responses to stimuli that arise from sources external to the body, in particular, touch. Incongruence between the sensory and motor signals for the right arm was manipulated by having the participants make symmetrical or asymmetrical movements while watching a reflection of their left arm in a parasagittal mirror, or the left hand surface of a similarly positioned opaque board. In contrast to our prediction, sensitivity to the presence of gaps in tactile stimulation of the right forearm was not reduced when participants made asymmetrical movements during mirror visual feedback, as compared to when they made symmetrical or asymmetrical movements with no visual feedback. Instead, sensitivity was reduced when participants made symmetrical movements during mirror visual feedback relative to the other three conditions. We suggest that small discrepancies between sensory and motor information, as they occur during mirror visual feedback with symmetrical movements, can impair tactile processing. In contrast, asymmetrical movements with mirror visual feedback may not impact tactile processing because the larger discrepancies between sensory and motor information may prevent the integration of these sources of information. These results contrast with previous reports of anomalous sensations during exposure to both low and high sensorimotor conflict, but are nevertheless in agreement with a forward model interpretation of perceptual

  8. Modality and Perceptual-Motor Experience Influence the Detection of Temporal Deviations in Tap Dance Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Murgia, Mauro; Prpic, Valter; O, Jenny; McCullagh, Penny; Santoro, Ilaria; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2017-01-01

    open access article Accurate temporal information processing is critically important in many motor activities within disciplines such as dance, music, and sport. However, it is still unclear how temporal information related to biological motion is processed by expert and non-expert performers. It is well-known that the auditory modality dominates the visual modality in processing temporal information of simple stimuli, and that experts outperform non-experts in biological motion perception...

  9. Rapid detection of new and expanding human settlements in the Limpopo province of South Africa using a spatio-temporal change detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, W.; Salmon, B. P.; Wessels, K. J.; Olivier, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    Recent development has identified the benefits of using hyper-temporal satellite time series data for land cover change detection and classification in South Africa. In particular, the monitoring of human settlement expansion in the Limpopo province is of relevance as it is the one of the most pervasive forms of land-cover change in this province which covers an area of roughly 125 000 km2. In this paper, a spatio-temporal autocorrelation change detection (STACD) method is developed to improve the performance of a pixel based temporal Autocorrelation change detection (TACD) method previously proposed. The objective is to apply the algorithm to large areas to detect the conversion of natural vegetation to settlement which is then validated by an operator using additional data (such as high resolution imagery). Importantly, as the objective of the method is to indicate areas of potential change to operators for further analysis, a low false alarm rate is required while achieving an acceptable probability of detection. Results indicate that detection accuracies of 70% of new settlement instances are achievable at a false alarm rate of less than 1% with the STACD method, an improvement of up to 17% compared to the original TACD formulation.

  10. Temporal Data-Driven Sleep Scheduling and Spatial Data-Driven Anomaly Detection for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial–temporal correlation is an important feature of sensor data in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Most of the existing works based on the spatial–temporal correlation can be divided into two parts: redundancy reduction and anomaly detection. These two parts are pursued separately in existing works. In this work, the combination of temporal data-driven sleep scheduling (TDSS and spatial data-driven anomaly detection is proposed, where TDSS can reduce data redundancy. The TDSS model is inspired by transmission control protocol (TCP congestion control. Based on long and linear cluster structure in the tunnel monitoring system, cooperative TDSS and spatial data-driven anomaly detection are then proposed. To realize synchronous acquisition in the same ring for analyzing the situation of every ring, TDSS is implemented in a cooperative way in the cluster. To keep the precision of sensor data, spatial data-driven anomaly detection based on the spatial correlation and Kriging method is realized to generate an anomaly indicator. The experiment results show that cooperative TDSS can realize non-uniform sensing effectively to reduce the energy consumption. In addition, spatial data-driven anomaly detection is quite significant for maintaining and improving the precision of sensor data.

  11. Prevalence and prognosis of coronary stent gap detected by multi-detector CT: a follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Yang, Li; Ju, Haiyue; Zhang, Fan; Wu, Jian; He, Bin; Chen, Yundai

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the features of stent gap (SG) and the long-term impact of SG on in-stent restenosis (ISR) in patent stents. A total of 347 consecutive patients with 781 stents who underwent MDCT were assessed for SG and ISR. Clinical and stent features were compared between the SG and non-SG groups. In the follow-up study, among 82 patients with 175 patent stents [26 assessed by conventional coronary angiography (CCA) including 6 contacted in a telephone survey, 46 assessed by computed tomography angiography (CTA) and 10 by both], the incidence of ISR was compared between stents with and without SG. Three patients and 13 stents were excluded. SG was observed in 12.5% of patients and 8.6% of stents. ISR detected by CTA was noted in 21.2% of SG, and SG accounted for 23.7% of ISR. Stent number, length, location, overlapping pattern, tortuosity and in-out angle were predisposing factors for SG. During a mean follow-up period of 15 months after detection of SG, the incidence of ISR was significantly higher in the SG group than in the non-SG group (43.8/14.9% by CCA, 33.3/10.1% by CTA and CCA). Patent stents with SG detected by CTA had a higher incidence of late restenosis, indicating that long-term follow-up or further intervention is necessary. (orig.)

  12. Incorporating Spatio-temporal Phenological Variation in Detecting Exotic Saltcedar Using Landsat Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, C.; Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The invasion of exotic species compromises ecosystem functions and causes substantial economic losses at the global scale. Over the past century, non-native saltcedar has expanded into most riparian zones in southwestern United States and posed significant threats to the native biotic communities. Repeated monitoring of saltcedar distribution is essential for conservation agencies to locate highly susceptible areas and develop corresponding control strategies. Throughout the phenological cycle, the leaf senescence stage has been found to be the most crucial in spectrally detecting saltcedar. However, due to climate variability and anthropogenic forcing, the timing of saltcedar leaf senescence may vary over space and time. This spatial and inter-annual variation need to be accommodated to pinpoint the appropriate remotely sensed imagery for saltcedar mapping. The objective of this study was to develop a Landsat-based Multiyear Spectral Angle Clustering (MSAC) model to monitor the inter-annual leaf senescence of exotic saltcedar. At the Landsat scale, the time series analysis of vegetation phenology is usually limited by the temporal resolution of images. The MSAC model can overcome this limit and take advantage of the Landsat images from multiple years to compensate the lack of images in a single year. Results indicated the MSAC model provided a Landsat-based solution to capture the inter-annual leaf senescence of saltcedar. Compared to traditional NDVI-based phenological approaches, the proposed model achieved a more accurate classification results of saltcedar across years. The MSAC model provides unique opportunities to guide the selection of appropriate remotely sensed image for repetitive saltcedar mapping.

  13. Temporal Evolution of Regional Drought Detected from GRACE TWSA and CCI SM in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are one of the most devastating natural disasters, which impose increasing risks to humanity and the environment in the 21st century. The recent and continuous drought in China has led to detrimental effects on the local environment and societies in Yunnan Province, thus there is an urgent need to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the drought. The characteristics of the spatial distribution of drought processes and the impact of droughts on soil moisture and water storage remains unclear. In this study, the direction, magnitude, start time, and duration of droughts were investigated, based on Total Water Storage Anomalies (TWSA of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE, Climate Change Initiative Soil Moisture (CCI SM, and observed precipitation data. The spatial patterns of TWSA trends at each time duration segment suggest that the evolution of drought processes is very complex, and can be clustered into three zones. The spatial distribution of TWSA revealed that the drought status lasted more than one year longer in the north and east parts compared to other parts of Yunnan Province. Water losses occurred in the south part, while water gains were found in the central, north, and east parts of Yunnan Province, from 2002 to 2014, indicating a higher possibility of droughts in the south part in the future. Both de-seasonalized TWSA and CCI SM effectively captured the serious drought from 2009 to 2010 in Yunnan, and their spatial patterns were found to be consistent. The drought detected from CCI SMA had a one-month lag and TWSA had a two-month lag, in comparison to the meteorological drought from precipitation data, which indicates that the drought data derived from CCI SMA and TWSA are better able to represent the impact of droughts, particularly on agriculture. The contribution of surface SM changes in TWSA was determined to be about 41.94%, suggesting that variations in soil moisture only explain less than half of

  14. P2-18: Temporal and Featural Separation of Memory Items Play Little Role for VSTM-Based Change Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Gyu Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies of visual short-term memory (VSTM found that presenting memory items either sequentially or simultaneously does not affect recognition accuracy of the remembered items. Other studies also suggest that capacity of VSTM benefits from formation of bound object-based representations leading to no cost of remembering multi-feature items. According to these ideas, we aimed to examine the role of temporal and featural separation of memory items in VSTM change detection, (1 if sample items are separated across different temporal moments and (2 if across different feature dimensions. In a series of change detection experiments, we asked participants to report a change between a sample and a test display with a brief delay in between. In experiment 1, the sample items were split into two sets with a different onset time. In experiment 2, the sample items were split across two different feature dimensions (e.g., half color and half orientation. The change detection accuracy in Experiment 1 showed no substantial drop when the memory items were separated into two onset groups compared to simultaneous onset. The accuracy did not drop either when the features of sample items were split across two different feature groups compared to when were not split. The results indicate that temporal and featural separation of VWM items does not play a significant role for VSTM-based change detection.

  15. Detection of temporal behaviour patterns of free-ranging cattle by means of diversity spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Miguel, J. M.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to detect temporal patterns of cattle behaviour. The method, diversity spectra, provides, on the one hand, the number of parts into which a temporary transect should be divided in order to understand the maximum segregation of cattle activities and, on the other, the clarity with which each segregation is defined. In the case under study (a 'dehesa' pasture-land in central Spain the maximum segregation of fundamental activities in cattle behaviour is reached by considering the year as divided into two periods: spring-summer and autumn-winter. Cattle behaviour shows an annual "coarse grain" pattern, which is associated with management activities and with the meteorological seasonality of the Mediterranean climate. However, within each of the two annual periods, maximum segregation is reached considering separately the days of observation. This "fine grain" pattern indicates within each season, a certain capacity for response to a fluctuating environment and determines very different behaviour on close days. During autumn-winter period cattle show seasonal and daily activity segregations which are clearer than during spring-summer. In the former period, the lack of grass, more severe climatic conditions and management would seem to be determining factors of this temporal behaviour pattern.

    [es] El objetivo del trabajo es identificar patrones temporales de comportamiento del ganado. El procedimiento utilizado, espectros de diversidad, permite apreciar, por un lado, el número de partes en que debe dividirse un transecto temporal para detectar la máxima segregación de las actividades del ganado y, por otro, el grado de definición con que se manifiesta dicha segregación. En el caso estudiado (una dehesa del centro de España la máxima segregación de las actividades fundamentales de comportamiento del ganado se produce al considerar el año dividido en dos periodos: primavera-verano y otoño-invierno. El

  16. The effects of incidentally learned temporal and spatial predictability on response times and visual fixations during target detection and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Melissa R; Hong, S Lee; van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Ericson, Justin M

    2014-01-01

    Responses are quicker to predictable stimuli than if the time and place of appearance is uncertain. Studies that manipulate target predictability often involve overt cues to speed up response times. However, less is known about whether individuals will exhibit faster response times when target predictability is embedded within the inter-trial relationships. The current research examined the combined effects of spatial and temporal target predictability on reaction time (RT) and allocation of overt attention in a sustained attention task. Participants responded as quickly as possible to stimuli while their RT and eye movements were measured. Target temporal and spatial predictability were manipulated by altering the number of: 1) different time intervals between a response and the next target; and 2) possible spatial locations of the target. The effects of target predictability on target detection (Experiment 1) and target discrimination (Experiment 2) were tested. For both experiments, shorter RTs as target predictability increased across both space and time were found. In addition, the influences of spatial and temporal target predictability on RT and the overt allocation of attention were task dependent; suggesting that effective orienting of attention relies on both spatial and temporal predictability. These results indicate that stimulus predictability can be increased without overt cues and detected purely through inter-trial relationships over the course of repeated stimulus presentations.

  17. The effects of incidentally learned temporal and spatial predictability on response times and visual fixations during target detection and discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R Beck

    Full Text Available Responses are quicker to predictable stimuli than if the time and place of appearance is uncertain. Studies that manipulate target predictability often involve overt cues to speed up response times. However, less is known about whether individuals will exhibit faster response times when target predictability is embedded within the inter-trial relationships. The current research examined the combined effects of spatial and temporal target predictability on reaction time (RT and allocation of overt attention in a sustained attention task. Participants responded as quickly as possible to stimuli while their RT and eye movements were measured. Target temporal and spatial predictability were manipulated by altering the number of: 1 different time intervals between a response and the next target; and 2 possible spatial locations of the target. The effects of target predictability on target detection (Experiment 1 and target discrimination (Experiment 2 were tested. For both experiments, shorter RTs as target predictability increased across both space and time were found. In addition, the influences of spatial and temporal target predictability on RT and the overt allocation of attention were task dependent; suggesting that effective orienting of attention relies on both spatial and temporal predictability. These results indicate that stimulus predictability can be increased without overt cues and detected purely through inter-trial relationships over the course of repeated stimulus presentations.

  18. Temporal retinal nerve fibre layer thinning in cluster headache patients detected by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewering, Carina; Haşal, Nazmiye; Alten, Florian; Clemens, Christoph R; Eter, Nicole; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Kadas, Ella M; Zimmermann, Hanna; Brandt, Alexander U; Osada, Nani; Paul, Friedemann; Marziniak, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The exact pathophysiology of cluster headache (CH) is still not fully clarified. Various studies confirmed changes in ocular blood flow during CH attacks. Furthermore, vasoconstricting medication influences blood supply to the eye. We investigated the retina of CH patients for structural retinal alterations with optical coherence tomography (OCT), and how these changes correlate to headache characteristics, oxygen use and impaired visual function. Spectral domain OCT of 107 CH patients - 67 episodic, 35 chronic, five former chronic sufferers - were compared to OCT from 65 healthy individuals. Visual function tests with Sloan charts and a substantial ophthalmologic examination were engaged. Reduction of temporal and temporal-inferior retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness was found in both eyes for CH patients with a predominant thinning on the headache side in the temporal-inferior area. Chronic CH patients revealed thinning of the macula compared to episodic suffers and healthy individuals. Bilateral thinning of temporal RNFL was also found in users of 100% oxygen compared to non-users and healthy controls. Visual function did not differ between patients and controls. Our OCT findings show a systemic effect causing temporal retinal thinning in both eyes of CH patients possibly due to attack-inherent or medication-induced frequent bilateral vessel diameter changes. The temporal retina with its thinly myelinated parvo-cellular axons and its more susceptible vessels for the vasoconstricting influence of oxygen inhalation seems to be predisposed for tissue damage-causing processes related to CH. © International Headache Society 2015.

  19. Shoreline Erosion and Slope Failure Detection over Southwest Lakeshore Michigan using Temporal Radar and Digital Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sataer, G.; Sultan, M.; Yellich, J. A.; Becker, R.; Emil, M. K.; Palaseanu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century, significant losses of residential, commercial and governmental property were reported along the shores of the Great Lakes region due to one or more of the following factors: high lake levels, wave actions, groundwater discharge. A collaborative effort (Western Michigan University, University of Toledo, Michigan Geological Survey [MGS], United States Geological Survey [USGS], National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA]) is underway to examine the temporal topographic variations along the shoreline and the adjacent bluff extending from the City of South Haven in the south to the City of Saugatuck in the north within the Allegan County. Our objectives include two main tasks: (1) identification of the timing of, and the areas, witnessing slope failure and shoreline erosion, and (2) investigating the factors causing the observed failures and erosion. This is being accomplished over the study area by: (1) detecting and measuring slope subsidence rates (velocities along line of site) and failures using radar interferometric persistent scatter (PS) techniques applied to ESA's European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellites, ERS-1 and -2 (spatial resolution: 25 m) that were acquired in 1995 to 2007, (2) extracting temporal high resolution (20 cm) digital elevation models (DEM) for the study area from temporal imagery acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and applying change detection techniques to the extracted DEMs, (3) detecting change in elevation and slope profiles extracted from two LIDAR Coastal National Elevation Database (CoNED) DEMs (spatial resolution: 0.5m), acquired on 2008 and 2012, and (4) spatial and temporal correlation of the detected changes in elevation with relevant data sets (e.g., lake levels, precipitation, groundwater levels) in search of causal effects.

  20. Noise-Induced Tinnitus Using Individualized Gap Detection Analysis and Its Relationship with Hyperacusis, Anxiety, and Spatial Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Edward; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus has a complex etiology that involves auditory and non-auditory factors and may be accompanied by hyperacusis, anxiety and cognitive changes. Thus far, investigations of the interrelationship between tinnitus and auditory and non-auditory impairment have yielded conflicting results. To further address this issue, we noise exposed rats and assessed them for tinnitus using a gap detection behavioral paradigm combined with statistically-driven analysis to diagnose tinnitus in individual rats. We also tested rats for hearing detection, responsivity, and loss using prepulse inhibition and auditory brainstem response, and for spatial cognition and anxiety using Morris water maze and elevated plus maze. We found that our tinnitus diagnosis method reliably separated noise-exposed rats into tinnitus(+) and tinnitus(−) groups and detected no evidence of tinnitus in tinnitus(−) and control rats. In addition, the tinnitus(+) group demonstrated enhanced startle amplitude, indicating hyperacusis-like behavior. Despite these results, neither tinnitus, hyperacusis nor hearing loss yielded any significant effects on spatial learning and memory or anxiety, though a majority of rats with the highest anxiety levels had tinnitus. These findings showed that we were able to develop a clinically relevant tinnitus(+) group and that our diagnosis method is sound. At the same time, like clinical studies, we found that tinnitus does not always result in cognitive-emotional dysfunction, although tinnitus may predispose subjects to certain impairment like anxiety. Other behavioral assessments may be needed to further define the relationship between tinnitus and anxiety, cognitive deficits, and other impairments. PMID:24069375

  1. Long and Short Term GPS Velocity Change in South Peru and North Chile Seismic Gap: towards the Small SSE Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, J.; Socquet, A.; Walpersdorf, A.; Rousset, B.; Marsan, D.

    2016-12-01

    For more than 20 years, the GPS data have been used to try to understand the different phases of the seismic cycle. Coseismic and postseismic displacements were modeled, and SSEs were discovered in the early 2000'. Those events have shed light of the subduction mechanical properties in long/short term (e.g. coupling factor, dip/strike segmentation, asperity location ). From GPS residual time series is possible see that the GPS signal can not be fully explained by these relatively simple phases of the seismic cycle. Instead, we observe that a residual signal can be evidenced and seems to be related with unmodeled transient deformation, likely small slow slip events. The aim of this work is to understand and characterize the masked transient events in the GPS time series. The database used in this study is made of 66 continuous GPS stations over 15 years in the South Peru - North Chile Seismic Gap. Those data were processed with GAMIT software, and the first order interseismic, coseismic and postseismic signal have been removed to obtain the residual time series. Velocity changes were calculated using a mean sliding window over 1 year, 6 and 3 months. This has allowed detecting clear velocity anomalies. Such is the case of Pisagua Earthquake (Mw 8.2, Chile, 2014) where the data seems to reveal a long precursory phase of around 8 months. In order to complement these findings, and understand whether these transients occur on a steady state manner or as a series of creep bursts, we analyze the time series using a cross correlation technique to detect small transient events. Several positive correlations were detected on shorter-term windows (15,30 and 60 days). This might mean that small SSEs occur in the area. In order to distinguish real events from artifacts produced by the model, several synthetics time series were calculated to see what is the minimum correlation value capable to make real SSE detection. From those results, the magnitude and possible location have

  2. Coherent tilt signals observed in the Shumagin seismic gap Detection of time-dependent subduction at depth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavan, J.; Bilham, R.; Hurst, K.

    1984-01-01

    Repeated surveys of short level lines in the Shumagin Islands, Alaska, reveal coherent tilt signals associated with subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the North American plate in the Shumagin seismic gap. Ten years of steady tilt down toward the trench is interrupted during 1978-1980 by a rapid episode of reverse tilt. The 'normal' tilt represents surface deformation as subduction occurs, with the plate boundary locked to at least 60 km depth. Using all available tilt, sea level, and seismic data, the tilt reversal is interpreted as due to an episodic reverse slip of about 80 cm magnitude on the plate boundary between about 70 km and 20 km depth, downdip from the main seismogenic zone, which remains locked. This event causes an increase of stress on the locked main thrust zone. It is speculated that such events may be a regular process at subduction zones, that great plate boundary earthquakes may be more common during their occurrence, and that their onset may be detectable early enough to give warning of an increase in probability for the occurrence of a great earthquake.

  3. On assessing the robustness of an input signal optimization algorithm for damage detection: the Info-Gap Decision Theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stull C.J.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Info-Gap Decision Theory (IGDT is here adopted to assess the robust- ness of a technique aimed at identifying the optimal excitation signal within a structural health monitoring (SHM procedure. Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, the ultimate goal of the mentioned technique is to improve the detectability of the damage increasing the difference between measurable outputs of the undamaged and damaged system. In particular, a 2 DOF mass-spring-damper system characterized by the presence of a nonlinear stiffness is considered. Uncertainty is introduced within the system under the form of deviations of its parameters (mass, stiffness, damping ratio… from their nominal values. Variations in the performance of the mentioned technique are then evaluated both in terms of changes in the estimated difference between the responses of the damaged and undamaged system and in terms of deviations of the identified optimal input signal from its nominal estimation. Finally, plots of the performances of the analyzed algorithm for different levels of uncertainty are obtained, showing which parameters are more sensitive to the presence of uncertainty and thus enabling a clear evaluation of its robustness.

  4. Detecting long-duration cloud contamination in hyper-temporal NDVI imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.; de Bie, C.A.J.M.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud contamination impacts on the quality of hyper-temporal NDVI imagery and its subsequent interpretation. Short-duration cloud impacts are easily removed by using quality flags and an upper envelope filter, but long-duration cloud contamination of NDVI imagery remains. In this paper, an approach

  5. Change detection of small objects and linear features in multi-temporal polarimetric images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang; Schou, Jesper; Skriver, Henning

    2000-01-01

    A SAR image sequence acquired over several months was used to study temporal variations of radar signatures of object classes which are relevant for updating topographic maps. For the selected object classes (buildings, roads, and hedgerows), the average pixel-to-pixel intensity variations...

  6. Geomorphological change detection using object-based feature extraction from multi-temporal LIDAR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; Anders, N.S.; Bouten, W.; Feitosa, R.Q.; da Costa, G.A.O.P.; de Almeida, C.M.; Fonseca, L.M.G.; Kux, H.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-temporal LiDAR DTMs are used for the development and testing of a method for geomorphological change analysis in western Austria. Our test area is located on a mountain slope in the Gargellen Valley in western Austria. Six geomorphological features were mapped by using stratified Object-Based

  7. Detecting spatial and temporal house price diffusion in the Netherlands : A Bayesian network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teye, A.L.; Ahelegbey, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Following the 2007–08 Global Financial Crisis, there has been a growing research interest on the spatial interrelationships between house prices in many countries. This paper examines the spatio-temporal relationship between house prices in the twelve provinces of the Netherlands using a recently

  8. Temporal processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    reflection delays and enhances the test reflection for large delays. Employing a 200-ms-long broadband noise burst as input signal, the critical delay separating these two binaural phenomena was found to be 7–10 ms. It was suggested that the critical delay refers to a temporal window that is employed......, resulting in a critical delay of about 2–3 ms for 20-ms-long stimuli. Hence, for very short stimuli the temporal window or critical delay exhibits values similar to the auditory temporal resolution as, for instance, observed in gap-detection tasks. It is suggested that the larger critical delay observed...

  9. Spectral and temporal properties of long GRBs detected by INTEGRAL from 3 keV to 8 MeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Carrillo, A.; Topinka, M.; Hanlon, L.

    2010-01-01

    study of the spectral and temporal evolution of a subset of 7 INTEGRAL g – ray bursts across a wide energy range from 3 keV to 8MeV has been carried out. This GRB sample is characterised by long multi-peaked bursts that are bright in the JEM-X energy range and encompass X-ray rich bursts, X-ray flashes...... and classical GRBs. We report the detection of X-ray prompt and afterglow emission from GRB 041219A and GRB081003A with JEM-X for the first time. At least two temporal breaks have been identified in the X-ray afterglow light curve of GRB 081003A. These results demonstrate INTEGRAL’s broadband capabilities...

  10. Detection of phonological transitions of spring maize in Northeast China during the last 20 years using daily NOAA/AVHRR NDVI temporal series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Xue, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) provides a rough measure of vegetation amount and growing condition of crops when vegetation activity is low to moderate. Based on the Leaf Collar Method, two key phenological phases, i.e., third leaf collar (TLC) and the maturity, are selected for NDVI modeling. The records on crop phenology were available from 1992 to 2013 at 103 stations in the Northeast China. However, there are large amount of missing data. Therefore, a statistic model is desirable to fill the gaps then, analyze the characteristics of the TLC and the maturity stage with the full data set. The Savitzky-Golay filter was used for noise reduction and temporal NDVI smoothing. The slope analysis was used for detection of TLC and maturity date of spring maize in the spring and in the fall, respectively. When NDVI slope values reach the turning point in certain period, the corresponding date is selected as TLC or maturity. Through comparison between observation and estimation, we find that 5-day slope method is robust to detect the changes of maize phenology. This study shows that the average estimation is 2 days earlier than observation. We then use this method to generate the TLC and mature dates for all the stations. The analyses of this full data set shows that the average TLC of spring maize in Northeast China emerges on Jun.2. The average maturity of spring maize appears on Sep. 18. The shortest growing season of 104 days appears in Jilin Province, while the longest growing season appears in Heilongjiang province of 116 days. When the latitude decreases, the annual average temperature and precipitation amount increases. Accordingly, TLC becomes earlier from Heilongjiang, Jilin to Liaoning Province. There is a significantly negative correlation between TLC that is around June and temperature of April and May. One-month time lags of climate factor, therefore, should be added to detection of phonological transitions of spring maize.

  11. Knowledge-guided golf course detection using a convolutional neural network fine-tuned on temporally augmented data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingbo; Wang, Chengyi; Yue, Anzhi; Chen, Jiansheng; He, Dongxu; Zhang, Xiuyan

    2017-10-01

    The tremendous success of deep learning models such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in computer vision provides a method for similar problems in the field of remote sensing. Although research on repurposing pretrained CNN to remote sensing tasks is emerging, the scarcity of labeled samples and the complexity of remote sensing imagery still pose challenges. We developed a knowledge-guided golf course detection approach using a CNN fine-tuned on temporally augmented data. The proposed approach is a combination of knowledge-driven region proposal, data-driven detection based on CNN, and knowledge-driven postprocessing. To confront data complexity, knowledge-derived cooccurrence, composition, and area-based rules are applied sequentially to propose candidate golf regions. To confront sample scarcity, we employed data augmentation in the temporal domain, which extracts samples from multitemporal images. The augmented samples were then used to fine-tune a pretrained CNN for golf detection. Finally, commission error was further suppressed by postprocessing. Experiments conducted on GF-1 imagery prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Effects of Various Extents of High-Frequency Hearing Loss on Speech Recognition and Gap Detection at Low Frequencies in Patients with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored whether the time-compressed speech perception varied with the degree of hearing loss in high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (HF SNHL individuals. 65 HF SNHL individuals with different cutoff frequencies were recruited and further divided into mildly, moderately, and/or severely affected subgroups in terms of the averaged thresholds of all frequencies exhibiting hearing loss. Time-compressed speech recognition scores under both quiet and noisy conditions and gap detection thresholds within low frequencies that had normal thresholds were obtained from all patients and compared with data from 11 age-matched individuals with normal hearing threshold at all frequencies. Correlations of the time-compressed speech recognition scores with the extents of HF SNHL and with the 1 kHz gap detection thresholds were studied across all participants. We found that the time-compressed speech recognition scores were significantly affected by and correlated with the extents of HF SNHL. The time-compressed speech recognition scores also correlated with the 1 kHz gap detection thresholds except when the compression ratio of speech was 0.8 under quiet condition. Above all, the extents of HF SNHL were significantly correlated with the 1 kHz gap thresholds.

  13. The use of the temporal scan statistic to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clusters in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faires, Meredith C; Pearl, David L; Ciccotelli, William A; Berke, Olaf; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Weese, J Scott

    2014-07-08

    In healthcare facilities, conventional surveillance techniques using rule-based guidelines may result in under- or over-reporting of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks, as these guidelines are generally unvalidated. The objectives of this study were to investigate the utility of the temporal scan statistic for detecting MRSA clusters, validate clusters using molecular techniques and hospital records, and determine significant differences in the rate of MRSA cases using regression models. Patients admitted to a community hospital between August 2006 and February 2011, and identified with MRSA>48 hours following hospital admission, were included in this study. Between March 2010 and February 2011, MRSA specimens were obtained for spa typing. MRSA clusters were investigated using a retrospective temporal scan statistic. Tests were conducted on a monthly scale and significant clusters were compared to MRSA outbreaks identified by hospital personnel. Associations between the rate of MRSA cases and the variables year, month, and season were investigated using a negative binomial regression model. During the study period, 735 MRSA cases were identified and 167 MRSA isolates were spa typed. Nine different spa types were identified with spa type 2/t002 (88.6%) the most prevalent. The temporal scan statistic identified significant MRSA clusters at the hospital (n=2), service (n=16), and ward (n=10) levels (P ≤ 0.05). Seven clusters were concordant with nine MRSA outbreaks identified by hospital staff. For the remaining clusters, seven events may have been equivalent to true outbreaks and six clusters demonstrated possible transmission events. The regression analysis indicated years 2009-2011, compared to 2006, and months March and April, compared to January, were associated with an increase in the rate of MRSA cases (P ≤ 0.05). The application of the temporal scan statistic identified several MRSA clusters that were not detected by hospital

  14. Temporal pole abnormalities detected by 3 T MRI in temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis: No influence on seizure outcome after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciato, Sara; Picardi, Angelo; D'Aniello, Alfredo; De Risi, Marco; Grillea, Giovanni; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Mascia, Addolorata; Grammaldo, Liliana G; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolo'; Morace, Roberta; Esposito, Vincenzo; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo

    2017-05-01

    To assess the clinical significance of temporal pole abnormalities (temporopolar blurring, TB, and temporopolar atrophy, TA) detected by using 3 Tesla MRI in the preoperative workup in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) who underwent surgery. We studied 78 consecutive patients with TLE-HS who underwent surgery and were followed up for at least 2 years. Based on findings of pre-surgical 3 Tesla MRI, patients were subdivided in subgroups according to the presence of TB or TA. Subgroups were compared on demographic, clinical, neuropsychological data and seizure outcome. TB was found in 39 (50%) patients, while TA was found in 32 (41%) patients, always ipsilateral to HS, with a considerable degree of overlap (69%) between TB and TA (p=0.01). Patients with temporopolar abnormalities did not significantly differ from those without TB or TA with regard to sex, age, age of epilepsy onset, duration of epilepsy, history of febrile convulsions or birth complications, side of surgery, seizure frequency at surgery, presence of GTCSs, and, in particular, seizure outcome. On the other hand, TB patients show a less frequent family history of epilepsy (p<.05) while age at epilepsy onset showed a trend to be lower in the TB group (p=.09). Patients with temporopolar atrophy did not significantly differ from those without TA on any variable, except for age at epilepsy onset, which was significantly lower for the TA group (p<.05). History of birth complications and longer duration of epilepsy also showed a trend to be associated with TA (p=.08). Multivariate analysis corroborated the association between temporopolar abnormalities and absence of family history of epilepsy and history of birth complications. High-field 3 T MRI in the preoperative workup for epilepsy surgery confirms that temporopolar abnormalities are frequent findings in TLE-HS patients and may be helpful to lateralize the epileptogenic zone. Their presence did not influence

  15. Spatio-temporal anomaly detection for environmental impact assessment: a case of an abandoned coal mine site in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Hilal; Koz, Alper; Düzgün, H. Şebnem

    2017-09-01

    The main purpose of this research is to determine the anomalies regarding with the coal mining operations in an abandoned coal mine site in central Anatolia by multi-temporal image analysis of Landsat 4-5 surface reflectance data. A well-known anomaly detection algorithm, Reed-Xioli (RX), which calculates square of Mahalanobis metrics to calculate the likelihood ratios by normalizing the difference between the test pixel and the background to allocate anomaly pixels, is implemented across the time series. The experimental results reveal especially the profound land use - land cover change in time series, pointing out critically abandoned regions that need immediate rehabilitation action. The rate of anomaly scores together with their relation to mine development over the focused time spectrum discloses a linearity trend as of the operations are ceased at the end of 1990s, which is indicative of the capacity of the applied method. The performance of the algorithm is also quantified with Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves and precisionrecall graphs to quantify its capability on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral image series. The resulting plots show the increasing capability of the hyperspectral anomaly detection technique in multi-temporal data set, with a steady and slight increase in performance between 2000 and 2012 after the end of the mining activities, which substantiates the success of global RX algorithm to identify the mining-induced land use and land cover anomalies.

  16. Semi-supervised change detection approach combining sparse fusion and constrained k means for multi-temporal remote sensing images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha M. Lal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Change detection is the measure of the thematic change information that can guide to more tangible insights into an underlying process involving land cover, land usage and environmental changes. This paper deals with a semi-supervised change detection approach combining sparse fusion and constrained k means clustering on multi-temporal remote sensing images taken at different timings T1 and T2. Initially a remote sensing fusion method with sparse representation over learned dictionaries is applied to the difference images. The dictionaries are learned from the difference images adaptively. The fused image is calculated by combining the sparse coefficients and the dictionary. Finally the fused image is subjected to constrained k means (CKM clustering combining few known labelled patterns and unlabelled patterns which have been collected from experts. The enhanced (CKM approach (ECKM is compared with k means, adaptive k means (AKM and fuzzy c means (FCM. Experimental results were carried out on multi-temporal remote sensing images. Results obtained using PCC and F1 measure confirms the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is also noticed that the ECKM provides better results with less misclassification of errors as compared to k means, adaptive k means and fuzzy c means.

  17. PRESENTATION ON--LAND-COVER CHANGE DETECTION USING MULTI-TEMPORAL MODIS NDVI DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the locations and distributions of land-cover changes is important for establishing linkages between policy decisions, regulatory actions and subsequent landuse activities. Past efforts incorporating two-date change detection using moderate resolution data (e.g., Lands...

  18. Face detection dissociates from face recognition : evidence from ERPs and the naso-temporal asymmetry (Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gelder, B.; Pourtois, G.R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Neuropsychological data indicate that face processing could be distributed among two functionally and anatomically distinct mechanisms, one specialised for detection and the other aimed at recognition (de Gelder & Rouw, 2000; 2001). These two mechanisms may be implemented in different interacting

  19. Spatial-temporal Detection of Sea-breeze Penetration Over Megacities from Himawari-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdiansyah, M. R.; Inagaki, A.; Kanda, M.

    2017-12-01

    For a coastal urban region, sea breeze is very important for air ventilation and cooling. However, most of sea-breeze monitoring is lacking and inadequate temporally and spatially. Japanese new geostationary meteorological satellite (Himawari-8) has been launched which can provide high resolution satellite imagery. This enables better monitoring of mesoscale weather phenomena such as sea breeze. In this study, we first attempt the feasibility of acquiring temporal-spatial information of sea breeze in a coastal urban region using Himawari-8. For study area, Tokyo (Japan) and Jakarta (Indonesia) area were selected as representative coastal urban regions; both cities located in very distant latitudes. Sea breeze events (Tokyo:16 cases and Jakarta:17 cases) in JAS season of 2015 and 2016 were analyzed. Convergence zones of two sea-breeze systems and delayed sea-breeze penetration were found for both Tokyo and Jakarta. Estimation of inland penetration speed and convergence area for sea breeze event, accompanied by the formation of non-precipitating cumulus type cloudline, is the primary objective. From the visible band image of Himawari-8, cumulus cloudline for each sea breeze event was extracted. The inland penetration speed was then estimated automatically from temporal evolution of these cloudlines. For the case of Tokyo, it was found that the sea breeze from Tokyo Bay had slower penetration speed than another sea breeze (Sagami Bay) coming from a less urbanized area. The average penetration speed of sea-breeze front was estimated to be 3.6 m/s and 1.3 m/s for sea breeze from Sagami Bay and Tokyo Bay, respectively. The penetration differences (from Sagami Bay and Tokyo Bay) could be attributed to the difference in urbanization levels between the coastal areas of Sagami and Tokyo Bay. For the case of Jakarta, the convergence of two sea-breeze systems were found persistent slightly east from the center of Jakarta. Interestingly, the sea-breeze delay was more pronounced

  20. Evaluating lane-by-lane gap-out based signal control for isolated intersection under stop-line, single and multiple advance detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Keerthi Kancharla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In isolated intersection’s actuated signal control, inductive loop detector layout plays a crucial role in providingthe vehicle information to the signal controller. Based on vehicle actuations at the detector, the green time is extended till a pre-defined threshold gap-out occurs. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA proposed various guidelines for detec-tor layouts on low-speed and high-speed approaches. This paper proposes single and multiple advance detection schemes for low-speed traffic movements, that utilizes vehicle actuations from advance detectors located upstream of the stop-line, which are able to detect spill-back queues. The proposed detection schemes operate with actuated signal control based on lane-by-lane gap-out criteria. The performance of the proposed schemes is compared with FHWA’s stop-line and single advance detection schemes in the VISSIM simulation tool. Results have shown that the proposed single advance detection schemes showed improved performance in reducing travel time delay and average number of stops per vehicle under low volumes while the multiple advance detection scheme performed well under high volumes.

  1. Climate driven variability and detectability of temporal trends in low flow indicators for Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julia; Murphy, Conor; Harrigan, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    Observational data from hydrological monitoring programs plays an important role in informing decision makers of changes in key hydrological variables. To analyse how changes in climate influence stream flow, undisturbed river basins with near-natural conditions limited from human influences are needed. This study analyses low flow indicators derived from observations from the Irish Reference Network. Within the trend analysis approach the influence of individual years or sub-periods on the detected trend are analysed using sequential trend tests on all possible periods (of at least 10 years in length) by varying the start and end dates of records for various indicators. Results from this study highlight that the current standard approach using fixed periods to determine long term trends is not appropriate as statistical significance and direction of trends from short term records do not persist continuously over entire record and can be heavily influenced by extremes within the record. The importance of longer records in contextualising short term trends derived from fixed-periods influenced by natural annual, inter-annual and multi-decadal variability is highlighted. Due to the low signal (trend) to noise (variability) ratio, the apparent trends derived from the low flow indicators cannot be used as confident guides to inform future water resources planning and decision making on climate change. Infact, some derived trends contradict expected climate change impacts and even small changes in study design can change the outcomes to a high degree. Therefore it is important not only to evaluate the magnitude of trends derived from monitoring data but also when a trend of a certain magnitude in a given indicator will be detectable to inform decision making or what changes might be required to detect trends for a certain significance level. In this study, the influence of observed variance in the monitoring records on the expected detection times for trends with a

  2. Detecting land cover change using a sliding window temporal autocorrelation approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available in 2000 and 2008 respectively. Fig. 1. QuickBird image acquired in 2002 (left image) and 2007 (right image) respectively. The polygon on the left in both images is the outline of a 500 m MODIS pixel in an area that changed from natural vegetation...% overall accuracy will require a window length of 80 Ove ral l A cc ur ac y Detection Delay [days] Fig. 4. Overall accuracy as a function of the detection delay using a range of window sizes and threshold values, the color of the dots indicate...

  3. Using temporal orientation, category fluency, and word recall for detecting cognitive impairment: the 10-point cognitive screener (10-CS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinario, Daniel; Lichtenthaler, Daniel Gomes; Magaldi, Regina Miksian; Soares, Aline Thomaz; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Amaral, Jose Renato das Gracas; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2016-01-01

    A screening strategy composed of three-item temporal orientation and three-word recall has been increasingly used for detecting cognitive impairment. However, the intervening task administered between presentation and recall has varied. We evaluated six brief tasks that could be useful as intervening distractors and possibly provide incremental accuracy: serial subtraction, clock drawing, category fluency, letter fluency, timed visual detection, and digits backwards. Older adults (n = 230) consecutively referred for suspected cognitive impairment underwent a comprehensive assessment for gold-standard diagnosis, of whom 56 (24%) presented cognitive impairment not dementia and 68 (30%) presented dementia. Among those with dementia, 87% presented very mild or mild stages (Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5 or 1). The incremental value of each candidate intervening task in a model already containing orientation and word recall was assessed. Category fluency (animal naming) presented the highest incremental value among the six candidate intervening tasks. Reclassification analyses revealed a net gain of 12% among cognitively impaired and 17% among normal participants. A four-point scaled score of the animal naming task was added to three-item temporal orientation and three-word recall to compose the 10-point Cognitive Screener. The education-adjusted 10-point Cognitive Screener outperformed the longer Mini-Mental State Examination for detecting both cognitive impairment (area under the curve 0.85 vs 0.77; p = 0.027) and dementia (area under the curve 0.90 vs 0.83; p = 0.015). Based on empirical data, we have developed a brief and easy-to-use screening strategy with higher accuracy and some practical advantages compared with commonly used tools. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Land-Cover Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal MODIS NDVI Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the locations and distributions of land-cover change is important for establishing linkages between policy decisions, regulatory actions and subsequent land-use activities. Past studies incorporating two-date change detection using Landsat data have tended to be perfor...

  5. Temporal Forest Change Detection and Forest Health Assessment using Remote Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya'acob, Norsuzila; Azize, Aziean Binti Mohd; Mahmon, Nur Anis; Yusof, Azita Laily; Azmi, Nor Farhana; Mustafa, Norfazira

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the detection of Angsi and Berembun Reserve Forest change for years 1996 and 2013. Forest is an important part of our ecosystem. The main function is to absorb carbon oxide and produce oxygen in their cycle of photosynthesis to maintain a balance and healthy atmosphere. However, forest changes as time changes. Some changes are necessary as to give way for economic growth. Nevertheless, it is important to monitor forest change so that deforestation and development can be planned and the balance of ecosystem is still preserved. It is important because there are number of unfavorable effects of deforestation that include environmental and economic such as erosion of soil, loss of biodiversity and climate change. The forest change detection can be studied with reference of several satellite images using remote sensing application. Forest change detection is best done with remote sensing due to large and remote study area. The objective of this project is to detect forest change over time and to compare forest health indicated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using remote sensing and image processing. The forest under study shows depletion of forest area by 12% and 100% increment of deforestation activities. The NDVI value which is associated with the forest health also shows 13% of reduction

  6. DETECTION OF STATIC ECCENTRICITY FAULT IN SATURATED INDUCTION MOTORS BY AIR-GAP MAGNETIC FLUX SIGNATURE ANALYSIS USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Halem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unfortunately, motor current signature analysis (MCSA cannot detect the small degrees of the purely static eccentricity (SE defects, while the air-gap magnetic flux signature analysis (FSA is applied successfully. The simulation results are obtained by using time stepping finite elements (TSFE method. In order to show the impact of magnetic saturation upon the diagnosis of SE fault, the analysis is carried out for saturated induction motors. The index signatures of static eccentricity fault around fundamental and PSHs are detected successfully for saturated motor.

  7. Spatial-temporal evolution of self-organized loop-patterns on a water surface and a diffuse discharge in the gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Geng, Jinling; Jia, Pengying; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yaru

    2017-11-01

    Excited by an alternating current voltage, a patterned discharge and a diffuse discharge are generated in a needle to liquid configuration. Using an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), temporal evolution of the discharge between the two electrodes is investigated for the diffuse mode and the patterned mode, respectively. For the diffuse mode, the positive discharge is in a glow regime, and the negative discharge is in a Townsend discharge regime. For the patterned mode, the discharge always belongs to the Townsend discharge regime. Moreover, in the patterned mode, various patterns including the single loop, single loop with the surrounding corona, triple loops, and concentric loops with a central spot are observed on the water surface with the increasing positive peak-value of the applied voltage (Upp). Temporally resolved images of the loop-patterns are captured on the water surface. From the electrical measurements and the ICCD imaging, it is found that the loop pattern emerges after the discharge bridges the two electrodes. Then, it begins to evolve and finally degenerates with the decrease in the discharge current. The pattern does not disappear until the discharge quenches. Formation of the loop-patterns is attributed to the role of negative ions.

  8. Multi-Frame Convolutional Neural Networks for Object Detection in Temporal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    selective search novel was that it passed image segments to a classifier “after” splitting an image into discrete sections. (The sliding-window technique, as...search algorithm first segments an image using a graph-based approach described by Felzenszwalb and Huttenlocher [18], and passes the segments to a...Instead of relying on a general object-detection or segmentation algorithm to find object-like things, Faster R- CNN learned what “objects” in the

  9. Multi-temporal mesoscale hyperspectral data of mixed agricultural and grassland regions for anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Cooper; Repasky, Kevin S.; Lawrence, Rick; Powell, Scott

    2017-09-01

    Flight-based hyperspectral imaging systems have the potential to provide valuable information for ecosystem and environmental studies, as well as aid in land management and land health monitoring. This paper examines a series of images taken over the course of three years that were radiometrically referenced allowing for quantitative comparisons of changes in vegetation health and land usage. The study area is part of a geologic carbon sequestration project located in north-central Montana, approximately 580 ha in extent, at a site requiring permission from multiple land owners to access, making ground based validation difficult. Classification based on histogram splitting of the biophysically based parameters utilizing the entire three years of data is done to determine the major classes present in the data set in order to show the constancy between data sets taken over multiple years. Additionally, a method of anomaly detection for both single and multiple data sets, using Median Absolute Deviations (MADs), is presented along with a method of determining the appropriate size of area for a particular ecological system. Detection of local anomalies within a single data set is examined to determine, on a local scale, areas that are different from the surrounding area and depending on the specific MAD cutoff between 50-70% of the anomalies were located. Additionally, the detection and identification of persistent (anomalies that occur in the same location over multiple data sets) and non-persistent anomalies was qualitatively investigated.

  10. Detection of whole-brain abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy using tensor-based morphometry with DARTEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Lv, Bin; Li, Meng; Jin, Zhengyu

    2009-10-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an automated technique for detecting the anatomical differences between populations by examining the gradients of the deformation fields used to nonlinearly warp MR images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the whole-brain volume changes between the patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and the controls using TBM with DARTEL, which could achieve more accurate inter-subject registration of brain images. T1-weighted images were acquired from 21 left-TLE patients, 21 right-TLE patients and 21 healthy controls, which were matched in age and gender. The determinants of the gradient of deformation fields at voxel level were obtained to quantify the expansion or contraction for individual images relative to the template, and then logarithmical transformation was applied on it. A whole brain analysis was performed using general lineal model (GLM), and the multiple comparison was corrected by false discovery rate (FDR) with p<0.05. For left-TLE patients, significant volume reductions were found in hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, precentral gyrus, right temporal lobe and cerebellum. These results potentially support the utility of TBM with DARTEL to study the structural changes between groups.

  11. A Novel Approach to Detect Network Attacks Using G-HMM-Based Temporal Relations between Internet Protocol Packets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Kyusuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces novel attack detection approaches on mobile and wireless device security and network which consider temporal relations between internet packets. In this paper we first present a field selection technique using a Genetic Algorithm and generate a Packet-based Mining Association Rule from an original Mining Association Rule for Support Vector Machine in mobile and wireless network environment. Through the preprocessing with PMAR, SVM inputs can account for time variation between packets in mobile and wireless network. Third, we present Gaussian observation Hidden Markov Model to exploit the hidden relationships between packets based on probabilistic estimation. In our G-HMM approach, we also apply G-HMM feature reduction for better initialization. We demonstrate the usefulness of our SVM and G-HMM approaches with GA on MIT Lincoln Lab datasets and a live dataset that we captured on a real mobile and wireless network. Moreover, experimental results are verified by -fold cross-validation test.

  12. An Unsupervised Method of Change Detection in Multi-Temporal PolSAR Data Using a Test Statistic and an Improved K&I Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinqi Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multi-temporal imagery from spaceborne sensors has provided a fast and practical means for surveying and assessing changes in terrain surfaces. Owing to the all-weather imaging capability, polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR has become a key tool for change detection. Change detection methods include both unsupervised and supervised methods. Supervised change detection, which needs some human intervention, is generally ineffective and impractical. Due to this limitation, unsupervised methods are widely used in change detection. The traditional unsupervised methods only use a part of the polarization information, and the required thresholding algorithms are independent of the multi-temporal data, which results in the change detection map being ineffective and inaccurate. To solve these problems, a novel method of change detection using a test statistic based on the likelihood ratio test and the improved Kittler and Illingworth (K&I minimum-error thresholding algorithm is introduced in this paper. The test statistic is used to generate the comparison image (CI of the multi-temporal PolSAR images, and improved K&I using a generalized Gaussian model simulates the distribution of the CI. As a result of these advantages, we can obtain the change detection map using an optimum threshold. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by the use of multi-temporal PolSAR images acquired by RADARSAT-2 over Wuhan, China. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and highly accurate.

  13. Detection of Temporal Changes Using Remote Sensing Data in the Lacustrine Area of Montebello, Chiapas, Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Santillan-Espinoza, L. E.; Lopez-Caloca, A.

    2013-05-01

    A satellite images study was carried out in the lagoon system of Montebello National Park in order to detect temporal changes in water bodies. The area located in the "rio Grande Comitan "basin, presents a geologically complex environment. The study area covers over 6,000 hectares in the extreme southeast region called of the Central Plateau in Chiapas. Its topography is mountainous where there are many karstic valleys. The main attractions of the park are the set of about 50 -60 lakes of different sizes and colors. Part of the lagoon system is fed directly by water from the "Grande de Comitan" river. The Tepancoapan and San Lorenzo lagoons are outstanding because of their size. The other set of lagoons receives only inputs from groundwater flows. Although precipitation is abundant, the surface runoff is not significant, given the high permeability characteristics of the subsoil. The area has been affected mainly by activities of the city of Comitan de Dominguez and surrounding villages, outside the Park. The discharge of wastewater from these towns to the river enters the lagoon system in the region known as "desfiladero" .In the lagoons area exists also settlements and other human activities. We used satellite images (SPOT-5) and algorithms to enhance the spatial resolution. In order to highlight the bodies of water and identify qualitative changes of the water we used Normalized Difference Water Indices (NDWIs) and then compared them. The application of these methodologies has allowed identification of patterns of temporal variation in water bodies in Montebello Park lagoons. The study will be implemented later using other change detection methods.

  14. Spatial-temporal detection of risk factors for bacillary dysentery in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengdong; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jinfeng; Xiao, Gexin

    2017-09-25

    Bacillary dysentery is the third leading notifiable disease and remains a major public health concern in China. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban region is the biggest urban agglomeration in northern China, and it is one of the areas in the country that is most heavily infected with bacillary dysentery. The objective of the study was to analyze the spatial-temporal pattern and to determine any contributory risk factors on the bacillary dysentery. Bacillary dysentery case data from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 in Beijing-Tianjin- Hebei were employed. GeoDetector method was used to determine the impact of potential risk factors, and to identify regions and seasons at high risk of the disease. There were 36,472 cases of bacillary dysentery in 2012 in the study region. The incidence of bacillary dysentery varies widely amongst different age groups; the higher incidence of bacillary dysentery mainly occurs in the population under the age of five. Bacillary dysentery presents apparent seasonal variance, with the highest incidence occurring from June to September. In terms of the potential meteorological risk factors, mean temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, mean wind speed and sunshine hours explain the time variant of bacillary dysentery at 83%, 31%, 25%, 17% and 13%, respectively. The interactive effect between temperature and humidity has an explanatory power of 87%, indicating that a hot and humid environment is more likely to lead to the occurrence of bacillary dysentery. Socio-economic factors affect the spatial distribution of bacillary dysentery. The top four factors are age group, per capita GDP, population density and rural population proportion, and their determinant powers are 61%, 27%, 25% and 21%, respectively. The interactive effect between age group and the other factors accounts for more than 60% of bacillary dysentery transmission. Bacillary dysentery poses a higher risk in the population of children. It is affected by meteorological and

  15. Spatial-temporal detection of risk factors for bacillary dysentery in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillary dysentery is the third leading notifiable disease and remains a major public health concern in China. The Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei urban region is the biggest urban agglomeration in northern China, and it is one of the areas in the country that is most heavily infected with bacillary dysentery. The objective of the study was to analyze the spatial-temporal pattern and to determine any contributory risk factors on the bacillary dysentery. Methods Bacillary dysentery case data from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 in Beijing–Tianjin– Hebei were employed. GeoDetector method was used to determine the impact of potential risk factors, and to identify regions and seasons at high risk of the disease. Results There were 36,472 cases of bacillary dysentery in 2012 in the study region. The incidence of bacillary dysentery varies widely amongst different age groups; the higher incidence of bacillary dysentery mainly occurs in the population under the age of five. Bacillary dysentery presents apparent seasonal variance, with the highest incidence occurring from June to September. In terms of the potential meteorological risk factors, mean temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, mean wind speed and sunshine hours explain the time variant of bacillary dysentery at 83%, 31%, 25%, 17% and 13%, respectively. The interactive effect between temperature and humidity has an explanatory power of 87%, indicating that a hot and humid environment is more likely to lead to the occurrence of bacillary dysentery. Socio-economic factors affect the spatial distribution of bacillary dysentery. The top four factors are age group, per capita GDP, population density and rural population proportion, and their determinant powers are 61%, 27%, 25% and 21%, respectively. The interactive effect between age group and the other factors accounts for more than 60% of bacillary dysentery transmission. Conclusions Bacillary dysentery poses a

  16. Pioneer Vegetation Detection by Hyperspectral Images on Temporal Landslides: A case study of Tzengwen catchment upstream, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Youg-Sin; Yu, Teng-To; Egozi, Roey; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    In the southern part of Taiwan, shallow landslides are common natural disasters i.e. in the Alishan region. One unique example is the typhoon Morakot in 2009 during which heavy rainfall triggered many scattered but massive landslides at the upstream area of Tzengwen catchment in Alishan. Landslide scars could be easily identified due to the bare soil that remained after most of the vegetation had been removed. After the event, observations made at the same area documented the establishment of few pioneer plants that started covering the bare land and survived several typhoons in the following years. This study examines the links between the pioneering vegetation and shallow landslides dynamic. High temporal resolution of satellite images, i.e. after heavy rainfall events from 2009 to 2015, were used to detect landslides. We then classified the landslides into three categorise 1) old stable landslide - no significant change in its area has been detected and quantified; 2) old dynamic landslide - landslide was growing, a major change in its area has been detected; 3) new landslide - a landslide that formed after an event. In total 159 landslides were mapped in the study area, most of them formed after typhoon Morakot ( 50%) of which 23% landslides which had been triggered by typhoon Morakot remained dynamic and continued to grow or triggered again. The succession of pioneered vegetation, such as Arundo formosana - one of the native pioneer plants is examined with 1-m hyperspectral images taken in 2016 for the same area. To enhance the landslide volume of the slope-failure assessments, a variety of data processing have been conducted. After finalizing the atmospheric correction, the NDVI technique to remove the non-vegetation area, and the Minimum Noise Component (MNF), we expect to that certain types of vegetation would be considered as markers for landslides detection. This would allow sophisticated indirect method in order to study post event landslides dynamics or

  17. Detecting Forest Disturbance in the Pacific Northwest From MODIS Time Series Using Temporal Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulla-Menashe, D. J.; Yang, Z.; Braaten, J.; Krankina, O. N.; Kennedy, R. E.; Friedl, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Changes to the land surface of the Earth are occurring at unprecedented rates with significant implications for surface energy balance and regional to global scale cycles of carbon and water. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua and Terra satellite platforms provide over 11 years of consistent, synoptic observations of the biosphere. New methods have recently emerged to analyze time series of remote sensing images, thereby providing ecologically important information about disturbance and succession over large regions. In particular, the Landtrendr algorithm was developed to characterize long-term trends, including punctual and gradual disturbance events and subsequent vegetation regrowth, in dense time series of Landsat imagery. While this approach has shown to be useful and robust in a wide range of ecosystems, its application is limited to areas with sufficient Landsat archive depth and relatively cloud-free periods. Additionally, the approach requires significant effort in atmospheric correction and normalization steps, increasing the cost for large-area application. Here we present an adaptation of the Landtrendr algorithm to an 11-year time series of MODIS Normalized BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) data to detect forest disturbance in the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) area of Washington, Oregon, and California. The NWFP area represents a dynamic zone of forest management with an active disturbance regime that includes insect defoliation, wildfires, and logging. This work aims to explore how the size and severity of disturbance events influence detection and characterization of such events using MODIS data. We sampled disturbance events across gradients of size and severity that occurred during the MODIS era (2000-present) using a high-quality database of forest disturbance information derived from Landsat. One-third of these disturbance records were used to calibrate the model using MODIS NBAR time series, and

  18. Temporal and spatial trend detection of maximum air temperature in Iran during 1960-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousari, Mohammad Reza; Ahani, Hossein; Hendi-zadeh, Razieh

    2013-12-01

    Trends of maximum air temperature (T max) were investigated in three time scales including annual, seasonal, and monthly time series in 32 synoptic stations in the whole of Iran during 1960-2005. First, nonparametric Mann-Kendall test after removal of the lag-1 serial correlation component from the T max time series was used for trend detection and spatial distribution of various trends was mapped. Second, Sen's slope estimator was used to determine the median slope of positive or negative T max trends. Third, 10-year moving average low-pass filter was applied to facilitate the trend analysis and the smoothed time series derived from the mentioned filter were clustered in three clusters for each time series and then were plotted to show their spatial distribution patterns in Iran. Results showed that there are considerable significant positive trends of T max in warm months including April, June, July, August and September and warm seasons. These trends can be found in an annual time scale which indicated almost 50% positive trends. However, cold months and seasons did not exhibit a remarkable significant trend. Although it was rather difficult to detect particular spatial distribution of significant trends, some parts in west, north-east and south-east and central regions of the country showed more positive trends. In an annual time scale, Kermanshah located in west regions indicates most change at (+) 0.41 °C per decade. On the one hand, many clusters of normalized and filtered T max time series revealed the increasing trend after 1970 which has dramatically risen after around 1990. It is in accordance with many other findings for temperature time series from different countries and therefore, it can be generated from simultaneous changes in a bigger scale than regional one. On the other hand, the concentration of increasing trends of T max in warm seasons and their accordance to plants growing season in Iran can raise the importance of the role of frequent

  19. Social anxiety and detection of facial untrustworthiness: Spatio-temporal oculomotor profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-García, Aida; Calvo, Manuel G; Eysenck, Michael W

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive models posit that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to and interpretation of ambiguous social cues as threatening. We investigated attentional bias (selective early fixation on the eye region) to account for the tendency to distrust ambiguous smiling faces with non-happy eyes (interpretative bias). Eye movements and fixations were recorded while observers viewed video-clips displaying dynamic facial expressions. Low (LSA) and high (HSA) socially anxious undergraduates with clinical levels of anxiety judged expressers' trustworthiness. Social anxiety was unrelated to trustworthiness ratings for faces with congruent happy eyes and a smile, and for neutral expressions. However, social anxiety was associated with reduced trustworthiness rating for faces with an ambiguous smile, when the eyes slightly changed to neutrality, surprise, fear, or anger. Importantly, HSA observers looked earlier and longer at the eye region, whereas LSA observers preferentially looked at the smiling mouth region. This attentional bias in social anxiety generalizes to all the facial expressions, while the interpretative bias is specific for ambiguous faces. Such biases are adaptive, as they facilitate an early detection of expressive incongruences and the recognition of untrustworthy expressers (e.g., with fake smiles), with no false alarms when judging truly happy or neutral faces. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Low-Cost Imaging Method for the Temporal and Spatial Colorimetric Detection of Free Amines on Maize Root Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truc H. Doan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant root exudates are important mediators in the interactions that occur between plants and microorganisms in the soil, yet much remains to be learned about spatial and temporal variation in their production. This work outlines a method utilizing a novel colorimetric paper to detect spatial and temporal changes in the production of nitrogen-containing compounds on the root surface. While existing methods have made it possible to conduct detailed analysis of root exudate composition, relatively less is known about where in the root system exudates are produced and how this localization changes as the root grows. Furthermore, there is much to learn about how exudate localization and composition varies in response to stress. Root exudates are chemically diverse secretions composed of organic acids, amino acids, proteins, sugars, and other metabolites. The sensor utilized for the method, ninhydrin, is a colorless substance in solution that reacts with free amino groups to form a purple dye. A detection paper was developed by formulating ninhydrin into a print solution that was uniformly deposited onto paper with a commercial ink jet printer. This “ninhydrin paper” was used to analyze the chemical makeup of root surfaces from maize seedlings grown vertically on germination paper. Through contact between the ninhydrin paper and seedling root surfaces, combined with images of both the seedlings and dried ninhydrin papers captured using a standard flatbed scanner, nitrogen-containing substances on the root surface can be localized and concentration of signal estimated for over 2 weeks of development. The method was found to be non-inhibiting to plant growth over the analysis period although damage to root hairs was observed. The method is sensitive in the detection of free amines at concentrations as little as 140 μM. Furthermore, ninhydrin paper is stable, showing consistent color changes up to 2 weeks after printing. This relatively simple, low

  1. A signal detection method for temporal variation of adverse effect with vaccine adverse event reporting system data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Du, Jingcheng; Huang, Jing; Ellenberg, Susan S; Hennessy, Sean; Tao, Cui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-05

    statistical power to detect the variation in reporting rates across years. The identified vaccine-event combinations with significant different reporting rates over years suggested potential safety issues due to changes in vaccines which require further investigation. We developed a statistical model to detect safety signals arising from heterogeneity of reporting rates of a given vaccine-event combinations across reporting years. This method detects variation in reporting rates over years with high power. The temporal trend of reporting rate across years may reveal the impact of vaccine update on occurrence of adverse events and provide evidence for further investigations.

  2. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Thi Thanh Toan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dengue fever (DF in Vietnam remains a serious emerging arboviral disease, which generates significant concerns among international health authorities. Incidence rates of DF have increased significantly during the last few years in many provinces and cities, especially Hanoi. The purpose of this study was to detect DF hot spots and identify the disease dynamics dispersion of DF over the period between 2004 and 2009 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods: Daily data on DF cases and population data for each postcode area of Hanoi between January 1998 and December 2009 were obtained from the Hanoi Center for Preventive Health and the General Statistic Office of Vietnam. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of reported DF. Spatial scan statistics and logistic regression were used to identify space–time clusters and dispersion of DF. Results: The study revealed a clear trend of geographic expansion of DF transmission in Hanoi through the study periods (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02–1.34. The spatial scan statistics showed that 6/14 (42.9% districts in Hanoi had significant cluster patterns, which lasted 29 days and were limited to a radius of 1,000 m. The study also demonstrated that most DF cases occurred between June and November, during which the rainfall and temperatures are highest. Conclusions: There is evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of DF in Hanoi, and that the geographical distribution of DF has expanded over recent years. This finding provides a foundation for further investigation into the social and environmental factors responsible for changing disease patterns, and provides data to inform program planning for DF control.

  3. Vegetation cover change detection and assessment in arid environment using multi-temporal remote sensing images and ecosystem management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman Aly, Anwar; Mosa Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul; Shahwan Sallam, Abdulazeam; Al-Wabel, Mohammad Ibrahim; Shayaa Al-Shayaa, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation cover (VC) change detection is essential for a better understanding of the interactions and interrelationships between humans and their ecosystem. Remote sensing (RS) technology is one of the most beneficial tools to study spatial and temporal changes of VC. A case study has been conducted in the agro-ecosystem (AE) of Al-Kharj, in the center of Saudi Arabia. Characteristics and dynamics of total VC changes during a period of 26 years (1987-2013) were investigated. A multi-temporal set of images was processed using Landsat images from Landsat4 TM 1987, Landsat7 ETM+2000, and Landsat8 to investigate the drivers responsible for the total VC pattern and changes, which are linked to both natural and social processes. The analyses of the three satellite images concluded that the surface area of the total VC increased by 107.4 % between 1987 and 2000 and decreased by 27.5 % between years 2000 and 2013. The field study, review of secondary data, and community problem diagnosis using the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) method suggested that the drivers for this change are the deterioration and salinization of both soil and water resources. Ground truth data indicated that the deteriorated soils in the eastern part of the Al-Kharj AE are frequently subjected to sand dune encroachment, while the southwestern part is frequently subjected to soil and groundwater salinization. The groundwater in the western part of the ecosystem is highly saline, with a salinity ≥ 6 dS m-1. The ecosystem management approach applied in this study can be used to alike AE worldwide.

  4. The power of two-dimensional dwell-time analysis for model discrimination, temporal resolution, multichannel analysis and level detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Tobias; Schroeder, Indra; Hansen, Ulf-Peter

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) dwell-time analysis of time series of single-channel patch-clamp current was improved by employing a Hinkley detector for jump detection, introducing a genetic fit algorithm, replacing maximum likelihood by a least square criterion, averaging over a field of 9 or 25 bins in the 2D plane and normalizing per measuring time, not per events. Using simulated time series for the generation of the "theoretical" 2D histograms from assumed Markov models enabled the incorporation of the measured filter response and noise. The effects of these improvements were tested with respect to the temporal resolution, accuracy of the determination of the rate constants of the Markov model, sensitivity to noise and requirement of open time and length of the time series. The 2D fit was better than the classical hidden Markov model (HMM) fit in all tested fields. The temporal resolution of the two most efficient algorithms, the 2D fit and the subsequent HMM/beta fit, enabled the determination of rate constants 10 times faster than the corner frequency of the low-pass filter. The 2D fit was much less sensitive to noise. The requirement of computing time is a problem of the 2D fit (100 times that of the HMM fit) but can now be handled by personal computers. The studies revealed a fringe benefit of 2D analysis: it can reveal the "true" single-channel current when the filter has reduced the apparent current level by averaging over undetected fast gating.

  5. Evidence of Neuronal Injury Outside the Medial Temporal Lobe in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy:N-Acetylaspartate Concentration Reductions Detected with Multisection Proton MR Spectroscopic Imaging—Initial Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermathen, Peter; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Schuff, Norbert; Matson, Gerald B.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging reveals metabolic changes, especially decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA) concentrations outside the medial temporal lobe in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), consistent with neuropathologic findings of extratemporal neuronal impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eleven patients with mesial TLE and 13 control subjects were examined with multisection MR spectroscopic imaging. Three MR spectroscopic imaging sections were acquired. Thirteen brain regions in each hemisphere and the midbrain were analyzed in each patient, and the NAA to creatine-phosphocreatine (Cr) plus choline-containing compounds (Ch) (NAA/[Cr + Ch]) ratios were determined. In addition, hemispheric and whole-brain values were calculated and statistically analyzed. RESULTS The NAA/(Cr + Ch) ratio in the ipsilateral hippocampus was significantly reduced, compared with that in the contralateral hippocampus (P < .002) and compared with that in control subjects (P < .03), confirming findings in previous studies. In patients, whole-brain NAA/(Cr + Ch) ratio outside the hippocampus was significantly lower than that in control subjects (P < .002). For the ipsilateral hemisphere in patients, NAA/(Cr + Ch) ratio was significantly lower than that in control subjects (P < .0002). Comparisons between individual brain regions revealed trends toward lower NAA/(Cr + Ch) ratios in many areas of the ipsilateral and, to a lesser extent, the contralateral hemisphere outside the hippocampus and temporal lobe, suggesting diffuse impairment. CONCLUSION Results suggest that repeated seizure activity damages neurons outside of the seizure focus. PMID:12511690

  6. Treefall Gap Mapping Using Sentinel-2 Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Barton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper knowledge about resources in forest management is fundamental. One of the most important parameters of forests is their size or spatial extension. By determining the area of treefall gaps inside the compartments, a more accurate yield can be calculated and the scheduling of forestry operations could be planned better. Several field- and remote sensing-based approaches are in use for mapping but they provide only static measurements at high cost. The Earth Observation satellite mission Sentinel-2 was put in orbit as part of the Copernicus programme. With the 10-m resolution bands, it is possible to observe small-scale forestry operations like treefall gaps. The spatial extension of these gaps is often less than 200 m2, thus their detection can only be done on sub-pixel level. Due to the higher temporal resolution of Sentinel-2, multiple observations are available in a year; therefore, a time series evaluation is possible. The modelling of illumination can increase the accuracy of classification in mountainous areas. The method was tested on three deciduous forest sites in the Börzsöny Mountains in Hungary. The area evaluation produced less than 10% overestimation with the best possible solutions on the sites. The presented work shows a low-cost method for mapping treefall gaps which delivers annual information about the gap area in a deciduous forest.

  7. Pattern detection in the presence of maskers that differ in spatial phase and temporal offset: threshold measurements and a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J M; Chen, C C

    1999-11-01

    Four experiments are described in which brief Gabor patterns are detected in the presence of full-field gratings or Gabor patterns that are superimposed in space, but vary in spatial phase and temporal offset (SOA). E1: Threshold versus masker contrast (TvC) functions were determined for relative phases of 0, 90, 180 and 270 degrees at SOA = 0. For 0 degree relative phase, TvC functions decrease (facilitation) and then increase (masking) as contrast increases. For 90 degrees, there is little or no facilitation and thresholds increase with masker contrast. For 180 degrees, the form of the TvC function varies with observer and conditions. E2: Like E1, except that maskers are Gabor patterns. TvC functions are similar in form to those for full-field maskers, but there is less masking. E3: Forward masking. TvC functions were determined for relative phases of 0, 90, and 180 degrees at SOA = -33 ms. The forms of the TvC functions for 0 and 180 degrees are reversed relative to those at SOA = 0. E4: TvP (threshold versus phase) functions were determined for SOA's of -100, -67, -33, 0 and 33 ms at a constant masker contrast of 0.063. Masking occurs at all relative phases. For simultaneous and backward masking, the threshold is minimum for a relative phase of 0 and maximum at 180 degrees. For forward masking, the form of the function is inverted. A model of pattern masking and facilitation (Foley, J. M. (1994a) Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 11, 1710-1719) is extended to account for masker phase and SOA effects. The model assumes four mechanisms tuned to phases 90 degrees apart, and divisively inhibited by stimuli of all phases. Performance depends on the detection strategy of the observer.

  8. Disease detection in sugar beet fields: a multi-temporal and multi-sensoral approach on different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Hillnhütter, Christian; Mewes, Thorsten; Scholz, Christine; Steiner, Ulrike; Dehne, Heinz-Willhelm; Oerke, Erich-Christian

    2009-09-01

    Depending on environmental factors fungal diseases of crops are often distributed heterogeneously in fields. Precision agriculture in plant protection implies a targeted fungicide application adjusted these field heterogeneities. Therefore an understanding of the spatial and temporal occurrence of pathogens is elementary. As shown in previous studies, remote sensing techniques can be used to detect and observe spectral anomalies in the field. In 2008, a sugar beet field site was observed at different growth stages of the crop using different remote sensing techniques. The experimental field site consisted of two treatments. One plot was sprayed with a fungicide to avoid fungal infections. In order to obtain sugar beet plants infected with foliar diseases the other plot was not sprayed. Remote sensing data were acquired from the high-resolution airborne hyperspectral imaging ROSIS in July 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 39 and from the HyMap sensor systems in August 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 45, respectively. Additionally hyperspectral signatures of diseased and non-diseased sugar beet plants were measured with a non-imaging hand held spectroradiometer at growth stage 49 in September. Ground truth data, in particular disease severity were collected at 50 sampling points in the field. Changes of reflection rates were related to disease severity increasing with time. Erysiphe betae causing powdery mildew was the most frequent leaf pathogen. A classification of healthy and diseased sugar beets in the field was possible by using hyperspectral vegetation indices calculated from canopy reflectance.

  9. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    , assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  10. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  11. Gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Daniel A; Paul, David L

    2009-07-01

    Gap junctions are aggregates of intercellular channels that permit direct cell-cell transfer of ions and small molecules. Initially described as low-resistance ion pathways joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions are found joining virtually all cells in solid tissues. Their long evolutionary history has permitted adaptation of gap-junctional intercellular communication to a variety of functions, with multiple regulatory mechanisms. Gap-junctional channels are composed of hexamers of medium-sized families of integral proteins: connexins in chordates and innexins in precordates. The functions of gap junctions have been explored by studying mutations in flies, worms, and humans, and targeted gene disruption in mice. These studies have revealed a wide diversity of function in tissue and organ biology.

  12. Temporal epilepsy lesions may be detected by the voxel-based quantitative analysis of brain FDG-PET images using an original block-matching normalization software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Yagdigul, Yalcin; Van Der Gucht, Axel; Poussier, Sylvain; Guedj, Eric; Maillard, Louis; Malandain, Grégoire; Hossu, Gabriela; Fay, Renaud; Karcher, Gilles; Marie, Pierre-Yves

    2016-05-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) provides useful voxel-by-voxel analyses of brain images from (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after an initial step of spatial normalization through an anatomical template model. In the setting of the preoperative workup of patients with temporal epilepsy, this study aimed at assessing a block-matching (BM) normalization method, where most transformations are computed through small blocks, a principle that minimizes artefacts and overcomes additional image-filtering. Brain FDG-PET images from 31 patients with well-characterised temporal lobe epilepsy and among whom 22 had common mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were retrospectively analysed using both BM and conventional SPM normalization methods and with PET images from age-adjusted controls. Different threshold p values corrected for cluster volume were considered (0.01, 0.005, and 0.001). The use of BM provided equivalent values to those of SPM with regard to the overall volumes of temporal and extra-temporal hypometabolism, as well as similar sensitivity for detecting the involved temporal lobe, reaching 87 and 94 % for SPM and BM, respectively, at a threshold p value of 0.01. However, the ability to more accurately localize brain lesions within the mesial portion of the temporal lobe was a little higher with BM than with SPM with respective sensitivities reaching 78 % for BM and 45 % for SPM (p < 0.05). BM normalization compares well with conventional SPM for the voxel-based quantitative analysis of the FDG-PET images from temporal epilepsy patients. Further studies in different population are needed to determine whether BM is truly an accurate alternative to SPM in this setting.

  13. Detecting the tipping points in a three-state model of complex diseases by temporal differential networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of complex diseases, such as diabetes and cancer, is generally a nonlinear process with three stages, i.e., normal state, pre-disease state, and disease state, where the pre-disease state is a critical state or tipping point immediately preceding the disease state. Traditional biomarkers aim to identify a disease state by exploiting the information of differential expressions for the observed molecules, but may fail to detect a pre-disease state because there are generally little significant differences between the normal and pre-disease states. Thus, it is challenging to signal the pre-disease state, which actually implies the disease prediction. Methods In this work, by exploiting the information of differential associations among the observed molecules between the normal and pre-disease states, we propose a temporal differential network based computational method to accurately signal the pre-disease state or predict the occurrence of severe disease. The theoretical foundation of this work is the quantification of the critical state using dynamical network biomarkers. Results Considering that there is one stationary Markov process before reaching the tipping point, a novel index, inconsistency score (I-score, is proposed to quantitatively measure the change of the stationary processes from the normal state so as to detect the onset of pre-disease state. In other words, a drastic increase of I-score implies the high inconsistency with the preceding stable state and thus signals the upcoming critical transition. This approach is applied to the simulated and real datasets of three diseases, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method for predicting the deterioration into disease states. Both functional analysis and pathway enrichment also validate the computational results from the perspectives of both molecules and networks. Conclusions At the molecular network level, this method provides a

  14. Using high resolution satellite multi-temporal interferometry for landslide hazard detection in tropical environments: the case of Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowski, Janusz; Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide Oscar; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria Teresa; Piard, Boby Emmanuel; Mondesir, Philemon

    2015-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) multi-temporal interferometry (MTI) is one of the most promising satellite-based remote sensing techniques for fostering new opportunities in landslide hazard detection and assessment. MTI is attractive because it can provide very precise quantitative information on slow slope displacements of the ground surface over huge areas with limited vegetation cover. Although MTI is a mature technique, we are only beginning to realize the benefits of the high-resolution imagery that is currently acquired by the new generation radar satellites (e.g., COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X). In this work we demonstrate the potential of high resolution X-band MTI for wide-area detection of slope instability hazards even in tropical environments that are typically very harsh (eg. coherence loss) for differential interferometry applications. This is done by presenting an example from the island of Haiti, a tropical region characterized by dense and rapidly growing vegetation, as well as by significant climatic variability (two rainy seasons) with intense precipitation events. Despite the unfavorable setting, MTI processing of nearly 100 COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) mages (2011-2013) resulted in the identification of numerous radar targets even in some rural (inhabited) areas thanks to the high resolution (3 m) of CSK radar imagery, the adoption of a patch wise processing SPINUA approach and the presence of many man-made structures dispersed in heavily vegetated terrain. In particular, the density of the targets resulted suitable for the detection of some deep-seated and shallower landslides, as well as localized, very slow slope deformations. The interpretation and widespread exploitation of high resolution MTI data was facilitated by Google EarthTM tools with the associated high resolution optical imagery. Furthermore, our reconnaissance in situ checks confirmed that MTI results provided useful information on landslides and marginally stable slopes that can represent a

  15. Detecting the Community Structure and Activity Patterns of Temporal Networks: A Non-Negative Tensor Factorization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Laetitia; Panisson, André; Cattuto, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of temporal network data is calling for more research on extracting and characterizing mesoscopic structures in temporal networks and on relating such structure to specific functions or properties of the system. An outstanding challenge is the extension of the results achieved for static networks to time-varying networks, where the topological structure of the system and the temporal activity patterns of its components are intertwined. Here we investigate the use of a latent factor decomposition technique, non-negative tensor factorization, to extract the community-activity structure of temporal networks. The method is intrinsically temporal and allows to simultaneously identify communities and to track their activity over time. We represent the time-varying adjacency matrix of a temporal network as a three-way tensor and approximate this tensor as a sum of terms that can be interpreted as communities of nodes with an associated activity time series. We summarize known computational techniques for tensor decomposition and discuss some quality metrics that can be used to tune the complexity of the factorized representation. We subsequently apply tensor factorization to a temporal network for which a ground truth is available for both the community structure and the temporal activity patterns. The data we use describe the social interactions of students in a school, the associations between students and school classes, and the spatio-temporal trajectories of students over time. We show that non-negative tensor factorization is capable of recovering the class structure with high accuracy. In particular, the extracted tensor components can be validated either as known school classes, or in terms of correlated activity patterns, i.e., of spatial and temporal coincidences that are determined by the known school activity schedule. PMID:24497935

  16. Sensitivity of honeybee hygroreceptors to slow humidity changes and temporal humidity variation detected in high resolution by mobile measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Harald; Kallina, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The moist cell and the dry cell on the antenna of the male honeybee were exposed to humidities slowly rising and falling at rates between -1.5%/s and +1.5%/s and at varying amplitudes in the 10 to 90% humidity range. The two cells respond to these slow humidity oscillations with oscillations in impulse frequency which depend not only on instantaneous humidity but also on the rate with which humidity changes. The impulse frequency of each cell was plotted as a function of these two parameters and regression planes were fitted to the data points of single oscillation periods. The regression slopes, which estimate sensitivity, rose with the amplitude of humidity oscillations. During large-amplitude oscillations, moist and dry cell sensitivity for instantaneous humidity and its rate of change was high. During small-amplitude oscillations, their sensitivity for both parameters was low, less exactly reflecting humidity fluctuations. Nothing is known about the spatial and temporal humidity variations a honeybee may encounter when flying through natural environments. Microclimatic parameters (absolute humidity, temperature, wind speed) were measured from an automobile traveling through different landscapes of Lower Austria. Landscape type affected extremes and mean values of humidity. Differences between peaks and troughs of humidity fluctuations were generally smaller in open grassy fields or deciduous forests than in edge habitats or forest openings. Overall, fluctuation amplitudes were small. In this part of the stimulus range, hygroreceptor sensitivity is not optimal for encoding instantaneous humidity and the rate of humidity change. It seems that honeybee's hygroreceptors are specialized for detecting large-amplitude fluctuations that are relevant for a specific behavior, namely, maintaining a sufficiently stable state of water balance. The results suggest that optimal sensitivity of both hygroreceptors is shaped not only by humidity oscillation amplitudes but also

  17. Detection of Slope Instabilities Along the National Road 7, Mendoza Province, Argentina, Using Multi-Temporal InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Clément; Derron, Marc-Henri; Baumann, Valérie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Rune Lauknes, Tom

    2013-04-01

    About 2'230 vehicles per day pass through the National Road 7 that link Buenos Aires to Santiago de Chile, crossing Andes Cordillera. This extremely important corridor, being the most important land pass between Argentina and Chile, is exposed to numerous natural hazards, such as snow avalanches, rockfalls and debris flows and remains closed by natural hazards several days per year. This goal of this study is to perform a regional mapping of geohazard susceptibilities along the Road 7 corridor, as started by Baumann et al. (2005), using modern remote sensing and numerical approaches with field checking. The area of interest is located in the Mendoza Province, between the villages Potrerillos and Las Cuevas near the Chilean border. The diversity of soil and rock conditions, the active geomorphological processes associated to post-glacial decompression, seasonal freeze and thaw and severe storms along the road corridor, increase the risk to natural hazard. With the support of the European Space Agency (ESA Category-1 Project 7154), we have in this study processed a large number of ERS and Envisat ASAR scenes, covering the period from 1995 to 2000. We applied both the small-baseline (SB) and the persistent scatterer (PSI) multi-temporal interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques. The study area contains sparse vegetation, and the SB InSAR method is therefore well suited to map the area containing mainly distributed scatterers. Furthermore, PSI algorithms are also used for comparison for selected landslides in the inventory. Both approaches show a relatively good coherence within mountain areas, which is a good point for the landslide detections along the road. Indeed, the authors identified several large slope instabilities even active scree deposits. This inventory is finally compared with field observations and with existing susceptibility maps regarding snow avalanches, debris-flows and rockfalls. The final objective of this project is to develop a risk strategy that

  18. Temporal resolution for calling song signals by female crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E; Hennig, R M

    2012-03-01

    A behavioural gap detection paradigm was used to determine the temporal resolution for song patterns by female crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus. For stimuli with a modulation depth of 100% the critical gap duration was 6-8 ms. A reduction of the modulation depth of gaps to 50% led either to an increase or a decrease of the critical gap duration. In the latter case, the critical gap duration dropped to 3-4 ms indicating a higher sensitivity of auditory processing. The response curve for variation of pulse period was not limited by temporal resolution. However, the reduced response to stimuli with a high duty cycle, and thus short pause durations, was in accordance with the limits of temporal resolution. The critical duration of masking pulses inserted into pauses was 4-6 ms. An analysis of the songs of males revealed that gaps (5.8 ms) and masking pulses (6.9 ms) were at detectable time scales for the auditory pathway of female crickets. However, most of the observed temporal variation of song patterns was tolerated by females. Critical cues such as pulse period and pulse duty cycle provided little basis for inter-individual selection by females.

  19. Detection of deception about multiple, concealed, mock crime items, based on a spatial-temporal analysis of ERP amplitude and scalp distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Ming; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2008-09-01

    Three groups, two-probe (2PG), three-probe (3PG), and control (CG), performed a mock crime. 2PG and 3PG stole two and three items, respectively, after a baseline "truth block"; the CG stole nothing. Subjects all completed a second "lie block" after the mock crime. There were four stimuli in truth and lie blocks: truth probe (TP), truth irrelevant (TI), lie probe (LP), and lie irrelevant (LI). Stolen items were probes; other items were irrelevants. Spatial-temporal PCA was applied. For the 2PG, subjects' frontal-central component amplitudes in the 520-644-ms temporal component were significantly more positive for LP than for LI stimulus. Individually, 12 of 14 subjects (far better detection than results [72% hits] with non-PCA analyses methods) in the 2PG were detected, with a false positive rate of 4 of 14 in the CG. No difference between LP and LI was found in 3PG data. In summary, spatial-temporal PCA improves detection of concealed information.

  20. Multi-temporal Vegetation Canopy Parameters Retrieval Using PROSAIL Model Inversion Against Landsat Observations with Application to Drought Effects Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, B.; Verhoef, W.; Tol, C. V. D.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring ecosystem responses to water stress in various phases of a drought is a vital need. Out of all elements of a terrestrial ecosystem, vegetation is of particular relevance due to its crucial role in controlling earth-atmosphere interactions and, therefore, is a valuable indicator of ecosystem responses. Thus, greater efforts are needed to understand the responses of vegetation biophysical and biochemical parameters to soil moisture deficit over time in a drought episode. In this study, the PROSAIL radiative transfer model was inverted against a time series of multi-temporal Landsat observations by means of a look-up table approach to retrieve vegetation parameters in a drought episode in California Mediterranean grasslands in 2004. The retrieved parameters are Leaf Area Index (LAI), Chlorophyll content (Cab), Leaf Water Content (Cw), Leaf Dry Matter Content (Cdm), Average Leaf Angle (ALA) and leaf structure parameter (N). Before model inversion, the atmospheric correction of all satellite images were performed by FLAASH algorithms based on local information recorded in the nearest AERONET station to the study site. A separate LUT were made for each of the satellite images taking the corresponding solar zenith angle and available a priori knowledge about the objects on the ground. Afterwards, we inverted PROSAIL model and retrieved vegetation parameters and mapped their spatial variations over time. The performance of the model inversion was assessed by calculating R2 (0.86) and RMSE (0.27) between (satellite) retrieved and (destructive) measured LAI. The trend of all retrieved parameters were investigated over time in various phases of water stress during the drought episode. We found that all parameters retrieved by model inversion have shown good correlations with soil moisture deficit in the drought episode. These parameters co-varied with soil moisture content (LAI: R2 = 0.78 and RMSE = 0.17, Cab: R2 = 0.77 and RMSE = 9.7, Cw: R2 = 0.97 and RMSE = 0

  1. Common spatio-temporal pattern for single-trial detection of event-related potential in rapid serial visual presentation triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ke; Shen, Kaiquan; Shao, Shiyun; Ng, Wu Chun; Kwok, Kenneth; Li, Xiaoping

    2011-09-01

    Searching for target images in large volume imagery is a challenging problem and the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) triage is potentially a promising solution to the problem. RSVP triage is essentially a cortically-coupled computer vision technique that relies on single-trial detection of event-related potentials (ERP). In RSVP triage, images are shown to a subject in a rapid serial sequence. When a target image is seen by the subject, unique ERP characterized by P300 are elicited. Thus, in RSVP triage, accurate detection of such distinct ERP allows for fast searching of target images in large volume imagery. The accuracy of the distinct ERP detection in RSVP triage depends on the feature extraction method, for which the common spatial pattern analysis (CSP) was used with limited success. This paper presents a novel feature extraction method, termed common spatio-temporal pattern (CSTP), which is critical for robust single-trial detection of ERP. Unlike the conventional CSP, whereby only spatial patterns of ERP are considered, the present proposed method exploits spatial and temporal patterns of ERP separately, providing complementary spatial and temporal features for high accurate single-trial ERP detection. Numerical study using data collected from 20 subjects in RSVP triage experiments demonstrates that the proposed method offers significant performance improvement over the conventional CSP method (corrected p-value < 0.05, Pearson r = 0.64) and other competing methods in the literature. This paper further shows that the main idea of CSTP can be easily applied to other methods.

  2. Spike Train Similarity Space (SSIMS) Method Detects Effects of Obstacle Proximity and Experience on Temporal Patterning of Bat Biosonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomando, Alyssa W.; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos E.; Simmons, James A.

    2018-01-01

    Bats emit biosonar pulses in complex temporal patterns that change to accommodate dynamic surroundings. Efforts to quantify these patterns have included analyses of inter-pulse intervals, sonar sound groups, and changes in individual signal parameters such as duration or frequency. Here, the similarity in temporal structure between trains of biosonar pulses is assessed. The spike train similarity space (SSIMS) algorithm, originally designed for neural activity pattern analysis, was applied to determine which features of the environment influence temporal patterning of pulses emitted by flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. In these laboratory experiments, bats flew down a flight corridor through an obstacle array. The corridor varied in width (100, 70, or 40 cm) and shape (straight or curved). Using a relational point-process framework, SSIMS was able to discriminate between echolocation call sequences recorded from flights in each of the corridor widths. SSIMS was also able to tell the difference between pulse trains recorded during flights where corridor shape through the obstacle array matched the previous trials (fixed, or expected) as opposed to those recorded from flights with randomized corridor shape (variable, or unexpected), but only for the flight path shape in which the bats had previous training. The results show that experience influences the temporal patterns with which bats emit their echolocation calls. It is demonstrated that obstacle proximity to the bat affects call patterns more dramatically than flight path shape. PMID:29472848

  3. An autocorrelation analysis approach to detecting land cover change using hyper-temporal time-series data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available time-series satellite data is proposed. The method is a per pixel change alarm that uses the temporal autocorrelation to infer a change metric which yields a change or no-change decision after thresholding. Simulated change data was generated and used...

  4. Detection of Successful and Unsuccessful Pregnancies in Mice within Hours of Pairing through Frequency Analysis of High Temporal Resolution Core Body Temperature Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarr, Benjamin L; Zucker, Irving; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

    2016-01-01

    Many controllable factors negatively impact fetal development, underscoring the importance of early pregnancy detection and identification of events that reliably predict potential complications. Clinically, core body temperature (CBT) is used to aid family planning and pregnancy detection. However, such temperature data typically are gathered in single, daily measurements. In animal studies, interventions or cell/tissue harvesting at defined stages of fetal development are arduous, requiring timed mating by trained observers. The value of continuous temperature measurements remains largely unexplored, but the advent of small, inexpensive, and increasingly ubiquitous, accurate sensor devices makes continuous measures feasible. Here, using a mouse model, we show that continuous, 1-min resolution CBT measurements reliably allow for the earliest and most accurate detection of pregnancy (100%, within 14 h of initial pairing), without requiring interaction with the animal for data collection. This method also reveals a subset of females that exhibit a pregnancy-like response following pairing that persists for a variable number of days. Application of wavelet analysis that permits frequency analysis while preserving temporal resolution, uncovers significant differences in ultradian frequencies of CBT; these rhythms are significantly increased in the 12 h after the day of pairing for pregnancies carried to term compared to apparent pregnancies that failed. High temporal resolution CBT and wavelet analysis permit strikingly early detection and separation of successful pregnancies and pregnancy-like events.

  5. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-8, č. článku 38076. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal quantum steering * EPR steering Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  6. Simultaneous application of multiple platforms (Glider, Scanfish, profiling mooring, CTD) to improve detection and quantification of temporal ocean dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D.; Prien, R. D.; Lips, U.; Naumann, M.; Liblik, T.; Schulz-Bull, D. E.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean dynamics are difficult to observe given the broad spectrum of temporal and spatial scales. Robotic technology can be used to address this issue, and help to investigate the variability of physical and biogeochemical processes. This work focuses on ocean robots and in particular on glider technology which seems to be one of the most promising oceanographic tools for future marine research. In this context, we present the results of an observational program conducted in the Baltic Sea combining a profiling mooring (GODESS - Gotland Deep Environmental Sampling Station) and glider technology (Slocum). The temporal variability is captured by the mooring, while the spatial variability is obtained from the glider sampling the surrounding area. Furthermore, classical CTD-measurements and an underwater vehicle (Scanfish) are used simultaneously by two different research vessels to validate and complement the observing network. The main aim of the study is to identify possible synergies between the different platforms and to get a better understanding of maximizing the information content of the data collected by this network. The value and the quality of the data of each individual platform is analyzed and their contribution to the performance of the network itself evaluated.

  7. Comparison of benzodiazepine receptor SPECT and 18F-FDG PET using a coincidence detection camera in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissmeyer, M.; Geiger, L.; Luescher, D.; Krause, T.; Loevblad, K.; Donati, F.; Wielepp, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the results of benzodiazepine receptor (BDR) SPECT using 123 I-Iomazenil with those of 18 F-FDG (FDG) PET obtained on a double-headed gamma camera with a coincidence detection system in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We evaluated 6 patients (4 female, 2 male; age range 26-54 years, average 43.5 years) with therapy-refractory TLE due to mesiotemporal sclerosis or other focal brain anomalies. To delineate the epileptogenic zone, clinical evaluation, ictal and interictal surface EEG using the international 10-20 system, brain MRI, interictal CBF SPECT using 99m Tc-ECD, BDR SPECT and FDG coincidence PET were performed. The CBF SPECT, BDR SPECT and coincidence PET scans were viewed independently by 2 observers considering the regional cerebral blood flow, BDR density and FDG uptake asymmetry in the temporal lobe visually as none (0), low (1), moderate (2) and high (3). Ictal and interictal EEG recordings located the epileptogenic focus in all patients in the temporal region. Both the BDR SPECT and the FDG coincidence PET located the epileptogenic focus correctly in circumscribed areas of the temporal lobe in all patients, whereas brain MRI revealed focal anomalies only in 5 of 6 cases . The lateralization to the right (n=4) and left hemisphere (n=2) by interictal CBF SPECT, BDR SPECT and FDG coincidence PET corresponded to the EEG findings in all patients. The visual consideration of the asymmetry revealed a slightly but not statistically significant higher value for the FDG coincidence PET (observer 1: mean 2.333, SD 0.516; observer 2: mean 2.000, SD 0.632) than for the BDR SPECT (observer 1: mean 1.667, SD 1.033; observer 2: mean 1.833, SD 0.753). Visual consideration of the interictal CBF SPECT revealed mean values of 2.000 for both observers. The inter-observer variability was higher in the BDR SPECT than in the FDG coincidence PET and the interictal CBF SPECT, but the difference was not

  8. A New Method of Gold Foil Damage Detection in Stone Carving Relics Based on Multi-Temporal 3D LiDAR Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaole Hou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The timely detection of gold foil damage in gold-overlaid stone carvings and the associated maintenance of these relics pose several challenges to both the research and heritage protection communities internationally. This paper presents a new method for detecting gold foil damage by making use of multi-temporal 3D LiDAR point clouds. By analyzing the errors involved in the detection process, a formula is developed for calculation of the damage detection threshold. An improved division method for the linear octree that only allocates memory to the non-blank nodes, is proposed, which improves storage and retrieval efficiency for the point clouds. Meanwhile, the damage-occurrence regions are determined according to Hausdorff distances. Using a triangular mesh, damaged regions can be identified and measured in order to determine the relic’s total damaged area. Results demonstrate that this method can effectively detect gold foil damage in stone carvings. The identified surface area of damaged regions can provide the information needed for subsequent restoration and protection of relics of this type.

  9. MONITORING TREE POPULATION DYNAMICS IN ARID ZONE THROUGH MULTIPLE TEMPORAL SCALES: INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL ANALYSIS, CHANGE DETECTION AND FIELD LONG TERM MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Isaacson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High mortality rates and lack of recruitment in the acacia populations throughout the Negev Desert and the Arava rift valley of Israel have been reported in previous studies. However, it is difficult to determine whether these reports can be evidence to a significant decline trend of the trees populations. This is because of the slow dynamic processes of acaia tree populations and the lack of long term continuous monitoring data. We suggest a new data analysis technique that expands the time scope of the field long term monitoring of trees in arid environments. This will enables us to improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal changes of these populations. We implemented two different approaches in order to expand the time scope of the acacia population field survey: (1 individual based tree change detection using Corona satellite images and (2 spatial analysis of trees population, converting spatial data into temporal data. The next step was to integrate the results of the two analysis techniques (change detection and spatial analysis with field monitoring. This technique can be implemented to other tree populations in arid environments to help assess the vegetation conditions and dynamics of those ecosystems.

  10. Detecting the spatial and temporal variability of chlorophylla concentration and total suspended solids in Apalachicola Bay, Florida using MODIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongfang; Hladik, C.M.; Huang, W.; Milla, K.; Edmiston, L.; Harwell, M.A.; Schalles, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Apalachicola Bay, Florida, accounts for 90% of Florida's and 10% of the nation's eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) harvesting. Chlorophyll-a concentration and total suspended solids (TSS) are two important water quality variables, among other environmental factors such as salinity, for eastern oyster production in Apalachicola Bay. In this research, we developed regression models of the relationships between the reflectance of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra 250 m data and the two water quality variables based on the Bay-wide field data collected during 14-17 October 2002, a relatively dry period, and 3-5 April 2006, a relatively wet period, respectively. Then we selected the best regression models (highest coefficient of determination, R2) to derive Bay-wide maps of chlorophylla concentration and TSS for the two periods. The MODIS-derived maps revealed large spatial and temporal variations in chlorophylla concentration and TSS across the entire Apalachicola Bay. ?? 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  11. Multivariate alteration detection (MAD) in multispectral, bi-temporal image data: A new approach to change detction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut

    1988 covering a forested region in northern Sweden show the usefulness of these new concepts. Because of their ability to detect change in many channels simultaneously, the MAD transformation and the MAF post-processing are expected to be even more useful when applied to image data with more bands....... for the definition of the MAD transformation is proven. As opposed to traditional univariate change detection schemes our scheme transforms two sets of multivariate observations (e.g. two multispectral satellite images covering the same geographical area acquired at different points in time) into a difference...... only, our method can be applied to any spatial and/or spectral subset of the full data set to direct the analysis in any desired manner. In order to obtain a spatially more coherent representation of the detected change as obtained from the MAD analysis, post-processing by means of a minimum...

  12. A novel flood detection mapping using multi-temporal RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X images through an optimized Taguchi based classification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2016-07-01

    Floods are considered as one of the most common natural disasters in Malaysia. Preparation of an actuate flood inventory map is the basic step in flood risk management. Flood detection is yet significantly complex process due to the presence of cloud coverage in the tropical areas especially in Malaysia. Moreover, the most available techniques are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, in the present study an efficient approach is presented to identify the flooded areas by means of multi-temporal RADARSAT-2 and single Terra-SAR-X images. The proposed framework was tested at two tropical areas in Malaysia: Kelantan (2014 flood); and Kuala Terengganu (2009 flood) to map the flooded areas. Multi-temporal RADARSAT-2 and single TerrSAR-X and Landsat images were classified based on a rule-based object-oriented technique. Then, different levels of image segmentation was performed to distinguish the boundaries of various dimensions and scales of objects. Finally, a novel Taguchi based method was employed to optimize the segmentation parameters. After the completion of segmentation, the rules were defined and the images were classified to produce an accurate flood inventory map for both 2014 Kelantan flood event as well as 2009 flood event in Kuala Terengganu. Finally, the results of classification were measured through the confusion matrix. In this research, the combination of techniques and the optimization approach were applied as a pioneering approach for flood detection. The flood inventory map which was obtained by using the proposed approach is showing the efficiency of the methodology which can be applied by other researchers and decision makers to construct the flood inventory maps. Keywords: Radarsat 2; Multispectral imagery; flood detection; Taguchi; rule-based classification

  13. Postural instability detection: aging and the complexity of spatial-temporal distributional patterns for virtually contacting the stability boundary in human stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Kilby

    Full Text Available Falls among the older population can severely restrict their functional mobility and even cause death. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms and conditions that cause falls, for which it is important to develop a predictive model of falls. One critical quantity for postural instability detection and prediction is the instantaneous stability of quiet upright stance based on motion data. However, well-established measures in the field of motor control that quantify overall postural stability using center-of-pressure (COP or center-of-mass (COM fluctuations are inadequate predictors of instantaneous stability. For this reason, 2D COP/COM virtual-time-to-contact (VTC is investigated to detect the postural stability deficits of healthy older people compared to young adults. VTC predicts the temporal safety margin to the functional stability boundary ( =  limits of the region of feasible COP or COM displacement and, therefore, provides an index of the risk of losing postural stability. The spatial directions with increased instability were also determined using quantities of VTC that have not previously been considered. Further, Lempel-Ziv-Complexity (LZC, a measure suitable for on-line monitoring of stability/instability, was applied to explore the temporal structure or complexity of VTC and the predictability of future postural instability based on previous behavior. These features were examined as a function of age, vision and different load weighting on the legs. The primary findings showed that for old adults the stability boundary was contracted and VTC reduced. Furthermore, the complexity decreased with aging and the direction with highest postural instability also changed in aging compared to the young adults. The findings reveal the sensitivity of the time dependent properties of 2D VTC to the detection of postural instability in aging, availability of visual information and postural stance and potential applicability as a

  14. Audition-specific temporal processing deficits associated with language function in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Schauder, Kimberly B; Key, Alexandra P; Wallace, Mark T; Stone, Wendy L

    2017-11-01

    Sensory processing alterations are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neurobiologically-based theories of ASD propose that abnormalities in the processing of temporal aspects of sensory input could underlie core symptoms of ASD. For example, rapid auditory temporal processing is critical for speech perception, and language difficulties are central to the social communication deficits defining the disorder. This study assessed visual and auditory temporal processing abilities and tested their relation to core ASD symptoms. 53 children (26 ASD, 27 TD) completed visual and auditory psychophysical gap detection tasks to measure gap detection thresholds (i.e., the minimum interval between sequential stimuli needed for individuals to perceive an interruption between the stimuli) in each domain. Children were also administered standardized language assessments such that the relation between individual differences in auditory gap detection thresholds and degree of language and communication difficulties among children with ASD could be assessed. Children with ASD had substantially higher auditory gap detection thresholds compared to children with TD, and auditory gap detection thresholds were correlated significantly with several measures of language processing in this population. No group differences were observed in the visual temporal processing. Results indicate a domain-specific impairment in rapid auditory temporal processing in ASD that is associated with greater difficulties in language processing. Findings provide qualified support for temporal processing theories of ASD and highlight the need for future research testing the nature, extent, and universality of auditory temporal processing deficits in this population. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1845-1856. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Sensory symptoms are common in ASD. Temporal processing alterations are often implicated, but understudied. The ability to

  15. Spatio-temporal approach to detecting land cover change using an extended kalman filter on modis time series data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for detecting land cover change using NDVI timeseries data derived fromMODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data is proposed. The algorithm acts as a per pixel change alarm and takes as input the NDVI time...

  16. Detecting gravitational decoherence with clocks: Limits on temporal resolution from a classical-channel model of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Kiran E.; Altamirano, Natacha

    2017-05-01

    The notion of time is given a different footing in quantum mechanics and general relativity, treated as a parameter in the former and being an observer-dependent property in the latter. From an operational point of view time is simply the correlation between a system and a clock, where an idealized clock can be modeled as a two-level system. We investigate the dynamics of clocks interacting gravitationally by treating the gravitational interaction as a classical information channel. This model, known as the classical-channel gravity (CCG), postulates that gravity is mediated by a fundamentally classical force carrier and is therefore unable to entangle particles gravitationally. In particular, we focus on the decoherence rates and temporal resolution of arrays of N clocks, showing how the minimum dephasing rate scales with N , and the spatial configuration. Furthermore, we consider the gravitational redshift between a clock and a massive particle and show that a classical-channel model of gravity predicts a finite-dephasing rate from the nonlocal interaction. In our model we obtain a fundamental limitation in time accuracy that is intrinsic to each clock.

  17. Detecting trends in forest disturbance and recovery using yearly Landsat time series: 1. LandTrendr — Temporal segmentation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Kennedy; Zhiqiang Yang; Warren B. Cohen

    2010-01-01

    We introduce and test LandTrendr (Landsat-based detection of Trends in Disturbance and Recovery), a new approach to extract spectral trajectories of land surface change from yearly Landsat time-series stacks (LTS). The method brings together two themes in time-series analysis of LTS: capture of short-duration events and smoothing of long-term trends. Our strategy is...

  18. Cartography of methicillin-resistant S. aureus transcripts: detection, orientation and temporal expression during growth phase and stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaume, Marie; Hernandez, David; Farinelli, Laurent; Deluen, Cécile; Linder, Patrick; Gaspin, Christine; Romby, Pascale; Schrenzel, Jacques; Francois, Patrice

    2010-05-20

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile bacterial opportunist responsible for a wide spectrum of infections. The severity of these infections is highly variable and depends on multiple parameters including the genome content of the bacterium as well as the condition of the infected host. Clinically and epidemiologically, S. aureus shows a particular capacity to survive and adapt to drastic environmental changes including the presence of numerous antimicrobial agents. Mechanisms triggering this adaptation remain largely unknown despite important research efforts. Most studies evaluating gene content have so far neglected to analyze the so-called intergenic regions as well as potential antisense RNA molecules. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, we performed an inventory of the whole transcriptome of S. aureus strain N315. In addition to the annotated transcription units, we identified more than 195 small transcribed regions, in the chromosome and the plasmid of S. aureus strain N315. The coding strand of each transcript was identified and structural analysis enabled classification of all discovered transcripts. RNA purified at four time-points during the growth phase of the bacterium allowed us to define the temporal expression of such transcripts. A selection of 26 transcripts of interest dispersed along the intergenic regions was assessed for expression changes in the presence of various stress conditions including pH, temperature, oxidative shocks and growth in a stringent medium. Most of these transcripts showed expression patterns specific for the defined stress conditions that we tested. These RNA molecules potentially represent important effectors of S. aureus adaptation and more generally could support some of the epidemiological characteristics of the bacterium.

  19. The Gap Within the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Michelmore

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaps in educational achievement between high- and low-income children are growing. Administrative data sets maintained by states and districts lack information about income but do indicate whether a student is eligible for subsidized school meals. We leverage the longitudinal structure of these data sets to develop a new measure of economic disadvantage. Half of eighth graders in Michigan are eligible for a subsidized meal, but just 14% have been eligible for subsidized meals in every grade since kindergarten. These children score 0.94 standard deviations below those who are never eligible for meal subsidies and 0.23 below those who are occasionally eligible. There is a negative, linear relationship between grades spent in economic disadvantage and eighth-grade test scores. This is not an exposure effect; the relationship is almost identical in third-grade, before children have been exposed to varying years of economic disadvantage. Survey data show that the number of years that a child will spend eligible for subsidized lunch is negatively correlated with her or his current household income. Years eligible for subsidized meals can therefore be used as a reasonable proxy for income. Our proposed measure can be used to estimate heterogeneous effects in program evaluations, to improve value-added calculations, and to better target resources.

  20. Detecting shifts in gene regulatory networks during time-course experiments at single-time-point temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yoichi; Seno, Shigeto; Matsuda, Hideo

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensively understanding the dynamics of biological systems is one of the greatest challenges in biology. Vastly improved biological technologies have provided vast amounts of information that must be understood by bioinformatics and systems biology researchers. Gene regulations have been frequently modeled by ordinary differential equations or graphical models based on time-course gene expression profiles. The state-of-the-art computational approaches for analyzing gene regulations assume that their models are same throughout time-course experiments. However, these approaches cannot easily analyze transient changes at a time point, such as diauxic shift. We propose a score that analyzes the gene regulations at each time point. The score is based on the information gains of information criterion values. The method detects the shifts in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) during time-course experiments with single-time-point resolution. The effectiveness of the method is evaluated on the diauxic shift from glucose to lactose in Escherichia coli. Gene regulation shifts were detected at two time points: the first corresponding to the time at which the growth of E. coli ceased and the second corresponding to the end of the experiment, when the nutrient sources (glucose and lactose) had become exhausted. According to these results, the proposed score and method can appropriately detect the time of gene regulation shifts. The method based on the proposed score provides a new tool for analyzing dynamic biological systems. Because the score value indicates the strength of gene regulation at each time point in a gene expression profile, it can potentially infer hidden GRNs from time-course experiments.

  1. Detecting small-scale spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks: a comparison between automatic chamber-derived C budgets and repeated soil inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Garcia Alba, Juana; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Schmidt, Marten; Huth, Vytas; Rogasik, Helmut; Rieckh, Helene; Verch, Gernot; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soils plays a key role in the global C cycle. It is therefore crucial to adequately monitor dynamics in soil organic carbon (ΔSOC) stocks when aiming to reveal underlying processes and potential drivers. However, small-scale spatial (10-30 m) and temporal changes in SOC stocks, particularly pronounced in arable lands, are hard to assess. The main reasons for this are limitations of the well-established methods. On the one hand, repeated soil inventories, often used in long-term field trials, reveal spatial patterns and trends in ΔSOC but require a longer observation period and a sufficient number of repetitions. On the other hand, eddy covariance measurements of C fluxes towards a complete C budget of the soil-plant-atmosphere system may help to obtain temporal ΔSOC patterns but lack small-scale spatial resolution. To overcome these limitations, this study presents a reliable method to detect both short-term temporal dynamics as well as small-scale spatial differences of ΔSOC using measurements of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) as a proxy. To estimate the NECB, a combination of automatic chamber (AC) measurements of CO2 exchange and empirically modeled aboveground biomass development (NPPshoot) were used. To verify our method, results were compared with ΔSOC observed by soil resampling. Soil resampling and AC measurements were performed from 2010 to 2014 at a colluvial depression located in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of northeastern Germany. The measurement site is characterized by a variable groundwater level (GWL) and pronounced small-scale spatial heterogeneity regarding SOC and nitrogen (Nt) stocks. Tendencies and magnitude of ΔSOC values derived by AC measurements and repeated soil inventories corresponded well. The period of maximum plant growth was identified as being most important for the development of spatial differences in annual ΔSOC. Hence, we were able to confirm that AC-based C budgets are able

  2. Detecting small-scale spatial differences and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks: a comparison between automatic chamber-derived C budgets and repeated soil inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Garcia Alba, Juana; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Schmidt, Marten; Huth, Vytas; Rogasik, Helmut; Rieckh, Helene; Verch, Gernot; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soils plays a key role in the global C cycle. It is therefore crucial to adequately monitor dynamics in soil organic carbon (ΔSOC) stocks when aiming to reveal underlying processes and potential drivers. However, small-scale spatial and temporal changes in SOC stocks, particularly pronounced on arable lands, are hard to assess. The main reasons for this are limitations of the well-established methods. On the one hand, repeated soil inventories, often used in long-term field trials, reveal spatial patterns and trends in ΔSOC but require a longer observation period and a sufficient number of repetitions. On the other hand, eddy covariance measurements of C fluxes towards a complete C budget of the soil-plant-atmosphere system may help to obtain temporal ΔSOC patterns but lack small-scale spatial resolution. To overcome these limitations, this study presents a reliable method to detect both short-term temporal as well as small-scale spatial dynamics of ΔSOC. Therefore, a combination of automatic chamber (AC) measurements of CO2 exchange and empirically modeled aboveground biomass development (NPPshoot) was used. To verify our method, results were compared with ΔSOC observed by soil resampling. AC measurements were performed from 2010 to 2014 under a silage maize/winter fodder rye/sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid/alfalfa crop rotation at a colluvial depression located in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE Germany. Widespread in large areas of the formerly glaciated Northern Hemisphere, this depression type is characterized by a variable groundwater level (GWL) and pronounced small-scale spatial heterogeneity in soil properties, such as SOC and nitrogen (Nt). After monitoring the initial stage during 2010, soil erosion was experimentally simulated by incorporating topsoil material from an eroded midslope soil into the plough layer of the colluvial depression. SOC stocks were quantified before and after soil manipulation and at the end

  3. Detection of viruses and the spatial and temporal spread patterns of viral diseases of cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae spp.) in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyamena, A. E

    2013-07-01

    Cucurbits are susceptible to over 35 plant viruses; each of these viruses is capable of causing total crop failure in a poorly managed virus pathosystem. The objectives of this study were to detect the viruses that infect six cucurbit species in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and to describe the spatial and temporal spread patterns of virus epidemics in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) by the use of mathematical and geostatistical models. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), egushi (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) were grown on an experimental field in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and were monitored for the expression of virus and virus-like symptoms. The observed symptoms were further confirmed by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS ELISA) and mechanical inoculation of indicator plants. The temporal spread patterns of virus disease in zucchini squash were analyzed by exponential logistic, monomolecular and gompertz mechanistic models. The spatial patterns of virus disease spread in zucchini squash field were analyzed by semivariograms and inverse distance weighing (IDW) methods. Cucumber, zucchini squash, melon and butternut squash were infected by both Cucumber mosaic virus (CMW) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). Egushi was infected by CMW but not PRSV-W. None of the six cucurbit species were infected by Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) or Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). The temporal pattern of disease incidence in the zucchini squash field followed the gompertz function with an average apparent infection rate of 0.026 per day. The temporal pattern of disease severity was best described by the exponential model with coefficient of determination of 94.38 % and rate of progress disease severity of 0.114 per day. As at 49 days after planting (DAP), disease incidence and

  4. Auditory temporal resolution threshold in elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Daniela Soares de; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Branco-Barreiro, Fátima Cristina Alves

    2010-01-01

    the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT) evaluates temporal resolution threshold. There are doubts as to whether performance in this task remains unchanged with the aging process. At the same time, there is a concern about how much the difficulties of communication experienced by elderly individuals are related to the deterioration of temporal resolution. to determine auditory temporal resolution threshold in elderly individuals with normal peripheral hearing or symmetric mild sensorineural hearing loss, and to correlate findings with gender, age, audiometric findings and scores obtained in the Self - Assessment of Communication (SAC) questionnaire. 63 elderly individuals, aged between 60 and 80 years (53 women and 10 men), were submitted to the RGDT and the SAC. statistical analysis of the relationship between gender and the RGDT indicated that the performance of elderly females was statistically poorer when compared to elderly males. Age and audiometric configuration did not correlate to performance in the RDGT and in the SAC. The results indicate that in the SAC both genders presented no significant complaints about communication difficulties regardless of the outcome obtained in the RGDT or audiometric configuration. the average temporal resolution threshold for women was 104.81ms. Considering gender, females did not present correlations between age and audiometric configuration, not only when considering the RGDT results but also when analyzing the SAC results.

  5. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Neural Tube Defects and Detection of Geographical Factors in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yilan; Zhang, Yan; He, Lei; Wang, Jinfeng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Ningxu; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital birth defects that occur in the central nervous system, and they have the highest incidence among all birth defects. Shanxi Province in China has the world's highest rate of NTDs. Since the 1990s, China's government has worked on many birth defect prevention programs to reduce the occurrence of NTDs, such as pregnancy planning, health education, genetic counseling, antenatal ultrasonography and serological screening. However, the rate of NTDs in Shanxi Province is still higher than the world's average morbidity rate after intervention. In addition, Shanxi Province has abundant coal reserves, and is the largest coal production province in China. The objectives of this study are to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the NTD rate in rural areas of Shanxi Province, China, and identify geographical environmental factors that were associated with NTDs in the risk area. In this study, Heshun County and Yuanping County in Shanxi Province, which have high incidence of NTDs, were selected as the study areas. Two paired sample T test was used to analyze the changes in the risk of NTDs from the time dimension. Ripley's k function and spatial filtering were combined with geographic information system (GIS) software to study the changes in the risk of NTDs from the spatial dimension. In addition, geographical detectors were used to identify the risk geographical environmental factors of NTDs in the study areas, especially the areas close to the coal sites and main roads. In both Heshun County and Yuanping County, the incidence of NTDs was significantly (P<0.05) reduced after intervention. The results from spatial analysis showed that significant spatial heterogeneity existed in both counties. NTD clusters were still identified in areas close to coal sites and main roads after interventions. This study also revealed that the elevation, fault and soil types always had a larger influence on the incidence of NTDs in our study

  6. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Neural Tube Defects and Detection of Geographical Factors in Shanxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilan Liao

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are congenital birth defects that occur in the central nervous system, and they have the highest incidence among all birth defects. Shanxi Province in China has the world's highest rate of NTDs. Since the 1990s, China's government has worked on many birth defect prevention programs to reduce the occurrence of NTDs, such as pregnancy planning, health education, genetic counseling, antenatal ultrasonography and serological screening. However, the rate of NTDs in Shanxi Province is still higher than the world's average morbidity rate after intervention. In addition, Shanxi Province has abundant coal reserves, and is the largest coal production province in China. The objectives of this study are to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the NTD rate in rural areas of Shanxi Province, China, and identify geographical environmental factors that were associated with NTDs in the risk area.In this study, Heshun County and Yuanping County in Shanxi Province, which have high incidence of NTDs, were selected as the study areas. Two paired sample T test was used to analyze the changes in the risk of NTDs from the time dimension. Ripley's k function and spatial filtering were combined with geographic information system (GIS software to study the changes in the risk of NTDs from the spatial dimension. In addition, geographical detectors were used to identify the risk geographical environmental factors of NTDs in the study areas, especially the areas close to the coal sites and main roads.In both Heshun County and Yuanping County, the incidence of NTDs was significantly (P<0.05 reduced after intervention. The results from spatial analysis showed that significant spatial heterogeneity existed in both counties. NTD clusters were still identified in areas close to coal sites and main roads after interventions. This study also revealed that the elevation, fault and soil types always had a larger influence on the incidence of NTDs

  7. Radiometric Normalization of Temporal Images Combining Automatic Detection of Pseudo-Invariant Features from the Distance and Similarity Spectral Measures, Density Scatterplot Analysis, and Robust Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira de Carvalho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric precision is difficult to maintain in orbital images due to several factors (atmospheric conditions, Earth-sun distance, detector calibration, illumination, and viewing angles. These unwanted effects must be removed for radiometric consistency among temporal images, leaving only land-leaving radiances, for optimum change detection. A variety of relative radiometric correction techniques were developed for the correction or rectification of images, of the same area, through use of reference targets whose reflectance do not change significantly with time, i.e., pseudo-invariant features (PIFs. This paper proposes a new technique for radiometric normalization, which uses three sequential methods for an accurate PIFs selection: spectral measures of temporal data (spectral distance and similarity, density scatter plot analysis (ridge method, and robust regression. The spectral measures used are the spectral angle (Spectral Angle Mapper, SAM, spectral correlation (Spectral Correlation Mapper, SCM, and Euclidean distance. The spectral measures between the spectra at times t1 and t2 and are calculated for each pixel. After classification using threshold values, it is possible to define points with the same spectral behavior, including PIFs. The distance and similarity measures are complementary and can be calculated together. The ridge method uses a density plot generated from images acquired on different dates for the selection of PIFs. In a density plot, the invariant pixels, together, form a high-density ridge, while variant pixels (clouds and land cover changes are spread, having low density, facilitating its exclusion. Finally, the selected PIFs are subjected to a robust regression (M-estimate between pairs of temporal bands for the detection and elimination of outliers, and to obtain the optimal linear equation for a given set of target points. The robust regression is insensitive to outliers, i.e., observation that appears to deviate

  8. Detecting spatial-temporal cluster of hand foot and mouth disease in Beijing, China, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haikun; Huo, Da; Wang, Xiaoli; Jia, Lei; Li, Xitai; Li, Jie; Gao, Zhiyong; Liu, Baiwei; Tian, Yi; Wu, Xiaona; Wang, Quanyi

    2016-05-17

    The incidence of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is extremely high, and has constituted a huge disease burden throughout Beijing in recent years. This study aimed to determine the spatiotemporal distribution and epidemic characteristics of HFMD. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data and estimate the epidemic peaks in 2009-2014. Space-time scanning detected spatiotemporal clusters and identified high-risk locations. Global and local Moran's I statistics were used to measure the spatial autocorrelation. Geocoding was performed in ArcGIS, based on the present address codes of the patients and the centroids of the towns. Maps were created in ArcGIS to show the geographic spread of HFMD. In total, 220,451probable cases of HFMD were reported in Beijing between January 2009 and December 2014: 12,749 (5.78 %) were laboratory confirmed, and 35 (0.02 %) were fatal. The median age of reported cases was 3.12 years (interquartile range 1.96-4.39). Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), enterovirus 71 (EV-A71), and other enteroviruses accounted for 39.31, 35.36, and 25.33 % of the 12,749 confirmed cases, respectively. Many more severe cases were caused by EV-A71 (χ (2) = 186.41, df = 1, P < 0.001) and other enteroviruses (χ (2) = 156.44, df = 1, P < 0.001) than by CV-A16. A large single distinct peak occurred between May and July each year. Spatiotemporal clusters of HFMD were identified in Beijing during 2009-2014. The most likely clusters were detected and tended to move from the southwest (Fengtai and Daxing) southeastwards to Daxing and Tongzhou in 2009-2014. The incidence of HFMD was not randomly distributed, but showed global and local spatial autocorrelations. There were obvious spatiotemporal clusters of HFMD in Beijing in 2009-2014. High-incidence areas mainly occurred at the junctions of urban and rural zones. More attention should be paid to the epidemiological and spatiotemporal characteristics of HFMD to establish new

  9. The sensitivity of mussel-watch programmes to detect temporal trends in the bio-availability of metals. A case study of the Saronicos Gulf of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrandi, Marco; Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique; Avdis, Olivia L V

    2005-08-01

    Statistical power analysis has been used to determine the sensitivity of the mussel-watch programme in Hellenic seas, with particular focus placed on the data obtained for metal content in mussels from the Saronicos Gulf during the period 1985-1997. Sample collection was carried out quarterly. Soft tissues of 60-100 similarly sized mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were pooled into six composite samples and analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The study concludes that the resolution of monitoring programmes employed thus far is sufficiently high to detect temporal trends related to changes in contaminant levels caused either by drastic environmental control (such as those imposed on point-source pollutants) or by sudden increases in contaminant load. However, the detection of more subtle trends, which may be expected in the near future as a result of global pollution-control policies, is likely to require the adoption of much more sensitive programmes. In addition, the review of up-to-date knowledge on metal biology in mussels suggests that factors related to growth and reproduction should be taken into account to remarkably increase the resolution of mussel-watch programmes. Indicative maximum values for components of error to be complied with during routine monitoring are suggested.

  10. Detection of the Hebei Spirit oil spill on SAR imagery and its temporal evolution in a coastal region of the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Park, Kyung-Ae; Li, Xiaofeng; Lee, Moonjin; Hong, Sungwook; Lyu, Sang Jin; Nam, Sooyong

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the evolution of a disastrous oil spill from a vessel collision, known as the Hebei Spirit accident, off the coast of Korea in the Yellow Sea on 6 December 2007, oil slicks were identified from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images using a neural network (NN) and an adaptive threshold method. The results from the two objective methods showed good agreement, enough for the estimation of the extent of oil patches and their trajectories, with the exception of negligible errors at the boundaries. Quantitative analyses showed that the detected oil slicks moved southward, corresponding to the prevailing wind and tidal currents, and gradually dissipated during the spill, except for an extraordinary rapid decrease in onshore regions at the initial stage. The initial dissipation of the spilt oil was induced by tidal mixing in the tidal front zone. The spatial and temporal variations of the oil slicks confirmed the influence of atmospheric and oceanic environmental factors. The overall horizontal migration of the oil spills detected from consecutive SAR images was mainly driven by Ekman drift during the winter monsoon rather than the tidal residual current.

  11. Reductions in cortical alpha activity, enhancements in neural responses and impaired gap detection caused by sodium salicylate in awake guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel I; Coomber, Ben; Wallace, Mark N; Palmer, Alan R

    2017-02-01

    Tinnitus chronically affects between 10-15% of the population but, despite its prevalence, the underlying mechanisms are still not properly understood. One experimental model involves administration of high doses of sodium salicylate, as this is known to reliably induce tinnitus in both humans and animals. Guinea pigs were implanted with chronic electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode arrays, with silver-ball electrodes placed on the dura over left and right auditory cortex. Two more electrodes were positioned over the cerebellum to monitor auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). We recorded resting-state and auditory evoked neural activity from awake animals before and 2 h following salicylate administration (350 mg/kg; i.p.). Large increases in click-evoked responses (> 100%) were evident across the whole auditory cortex, despite significant reductions in wave I ABR amplitudes (in response to 20 kHz tones), which are indicative of auditory nerve activity. In the same animals, significant decreases in 6-10 Hz spontaneous oscillations (alpha waves) were evident over dorsocaudal auditory cortex. We were also able to demonstrate for the first time that cortical evoked potentials can be inhibited by a preceding gap in background noise [gap-induced pre-pulse inhibition (PPI)], in a similar fashion to the gap-induced inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex that is used as a behavioural test for tinnitus. Furthermore, 2 h following salicylate administration, we observed significant deficits in PPI of cortical responses that were closely aligned with significant deficits in behavioural responses to the same stimuli. Together, these data are suggestive of neural correlates of tinnitus and oversensitivity to sound (hyperacusis). © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A tunnel and a traffic jam: How transition disks maintain a detectable warm dust component despite the presence of a large planet-carved gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, P.; Klarmann, L.; Birnstiel, T.; Benisty, M.; Dominik, C.; Dullemond, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Transition disks are circumstellar disks that show evidence of a dust cavity, which may be related to dynamical clearing by embedded planet(s). Most of these objects show signs of significant accretion, indicating that the inner disks are not truly empty, but that gas is still streaming through to the star. A subset of transition disks, sometimes called pre-transition disks, also shows a strong near-infrared excess, interpreted as an optically thick dusty belt located close to the dust sublimation radius within the first astronomical unit. Aims: We study the conditions for the survival and maintenance of such an inner disk in the case where a massive planet opens a gap in the disk. In this scenario, the planet filters out large dust grains that are trapped at the outer edge of the gap, while the inner regions of the disk may or may not be replenished with small grains. Methods: We combined hydrodynamical simulations of planet-disk interactions with dust evolution models that include coagulation and fragmentation of dust grains over a large range of radii and derived observational properties using radiative transfer calculations. We studied the role of the snow line in the survival of the inner disk of transition disks. Results: Inside the snow line, the lack of ice mantles in dust particles decreases the sticking efficiency between grains. As a consequence, particles fragment at lower collision velocities than in regions beyond the snow line. This effect allows small particles to be maintained for up to a few Myr within the first astronomical unit. These particles are closely coupled to the gas and do not drift significantly with respect to the gas. For lower mass planets (1 MJup), the pre-transition appearance can be maintained even longer because dust still trickles through the gap created by the planet, moves invisibly and quickly in the form of relatively large grains through the gap, and becomes visible again as it fragments and gets slowed down

  13. Mesoscale, Radiometrically Referenced, Multi-Temporal Hyperspectral Data for Co2 Leak Detection by Locating Spatial Variation of Biophysically Relevant Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Cooper Patrick

    Low-cost flight-based hyperspectral imaging systems have the potential to provide valuable information for ecosystem and environmental studies as well as aide in land management and land health monitoring. This thesis describes (1) a bootstrap method of producing mesoscale, radiometrically-referenced hyperspectral data using the Landsat surface reflectance (LaSRC) data product as a reference target, (2) biophysically relevant basis functions to model the reflectance spectra, (3) an unsupervised classification technique based on natural histogram splitting of these biophysically relevant parameters, and (4) local and multi-temporal anomaly detection. The bootstrap method extends standard processing techniques to remove uneven illumination conditions between flight passes, allowing the creation of radiometrically self-consistent data. Through selective spectral and spatial resampling, LaSRC data is used as a radiometric reference target. Advantages of the bootstrap method include the need for minimal site access, no ancillary instrumentation, and automated data processing. Data from a flight on 06/02/2016 is compared with concurrently collected ground based reflectance spectra as a means of validation achieving an average error of 2.74%. Fitting reflectance spectra using basis functions, based on biophysically relevant spectral features, allows both noise and data reductions while shifting information from spectral bands to biophysical features. Histogram splitting is used to determine a clustering based on natural splittings of these fit parameters. The Indian Pines reference data enabled comparisons of the efficacy of this technique to established techniques. The splitting technique is shown to be an improvement over the ISODATA clustering technique with an overall accuracy of 34.3/19.0% before merging and 40.9/39.2% after merging. This improvement is also seen as an improvement of kappa before/after merging of 24.8/30.5 for the histogram splitting technique

  14. Using Multi-Temporal Imaging Spectroscopy Data to Detect Drought and Bark Beetle Related Conifer Mortality across the Central Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tane, Z.; Ramirez, C.; Roberts, D. A.; Koltunov, A.; Sweeney, S.

    2016-12-01

    There is considerable scientific and public interest in the ongoing drought and bark beetle driven conifer mortality in the Central and Southern Sierra Nevada, the scale of which has not been seen previously in California's recorded history. Just before and during this mortality event (2013-2016), Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were acquired seasonally over part of the affected area as part of the HyspIRI Preparatory Mission. In this study, we used 11 AVIRIS flight lines from 8 seasonal flights (from spring 2013 to summer 2015) to detect conifer mortality. In addition to the standard pre-processing completed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab, AVIRIS images were co-registered and georeferenced between time steps and images were resampled to the spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio expected from the proposed HyspIRI satellite. We used summer 2015 high-spatial resolution WorldView-2 and WorldView-3 images from across the study area to collect training data from five scenes, and independent validation data from five additional scenes. A cover class map developed with a machine-learning algorithm, separated pixels into green conifer, red-attack conifer, and non-conifer dominant cover, yielding a high accuracy (above 85% accuracy on the independent validation data) in the tree mortality final map. Discussion will include the effects of temporal information and input dimensionality on classification accuracy, comparison with multi-spectral classification accuracy, the ecological and forest management implications of this work, incorporating 2016 AVIRS images to detect 2016 mortality, and future work in understanding the spatial patterns underlying the mortality.

  15. Temporal relationships between colds, upper respiratory viruses detected by polymerase chain reaction, and otitis media in young children followed through a typical cold season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Birgit; Alper, Cuneyt M; Mandel, Ellen M; Doyle, William J; Hendley, J Owen

    2007-06-01

    Otitis media is a frequent complication of a viral upper respiratory tract infection, and the reported co-incidence of those diseases increases with assay sensitivity and sampling density. We determined the incidence of otitis-media complications in young children when referenced to cold-like illnesses and to concurrent virus recovery from the nasopharynx. A total of 60 children from 24 families were followed from October 2003 through April 30, 2004, by daily parental recording of illness signs, weekly pneumatic otoscopic examinations, and periodic polymerase chain reaction assay of collected nasal fluids for common viruses. One hundred ninety-nine cold-like illnesses were observed, but a sample for virus assay was not collected concurrent with 71 episodes. Of the remainder, 73% of cold-like illnesses were temporally related to recovery of 1 or a combination of the assayed viruses, with rhinovirus predominating. For non-cold-like illness periods, 54 (18%) of 297 assays were positive for virus, and the virus frequency distribution was similar to that for cold-like illnesses. There were 93 diagnosed otitis-media episodes; 65 (70%) of these occurred during a cold-like illness. For the 79 otitis-media episodes with available nasal samples, 61 (77%) were associated with a positive virus result. In this population, the otitis-media complication rate for a cold-like illness was 33%. A cold-like illness was not a prerequisite for polymerase chain reaction detection of viruses in the nose and nasopharynx of young children. Viral detection by polymerase chain reaction in the absence of a cold-like illness is associated with complications in some subjects. Otitis media is a complication of viral infection both with and without concurrent cold-like illnesses, thus downwardly biasing coincidence estimates that use cold-based illnesses as the denominator.

  16. Dissociated roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in audiovisual processing: top-down and bottom-up mismatch detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Uno

    Full Text Available Visual inputs can distort auditory perception, and accurate auditory processing requires the ability to detect and ignore visual input that is simultaneous and incongruent with auditory information. However, the neural basis of this auditory selection from audiovisual information is unknown, whereas integration process of audiovisual inputs is intensively researched. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and superior temporal sulcus (STS are involved in top-down and bottom-up processing, respectively, of target auditory information from audiovisual inputs. We recorded high gamma activity (HGA, which is associated with neuronal firing in local brain regions, using electrocorticography while patients with epilepsy judged the syllable spoken by a voice while looking at a voice-congruent or -incongruent lip movement from the speaker. The STS exhibited stronger HGA if the patient was presented with information of large audiovisual incongruence than of small incongruence, especially if the auditory information was correctly identified. On the other hand, the IFG exhibited stronger HGA in trials with small audiovisual incongruence when patients correctly perceived the auditory information than when patients incorrectly perceived the auditory information due to the mismatched visual information. These results indicate that the IFG and STS have dissociated roles in selective auditory processing, and suggest that the neural basis of selective auditory processing changes dynamically in accordance with the degree of incongruity between auditory and visual information.

  17. Dissociated roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in audiovisual processing: top-down and bottom-up mismatch detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Takeshi; Kawai, Kensuke; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Wakebe, Toshihiro; Ibaraki, Takuya; Kunii, Naoto; Matsuo, Takeshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-01-01

    Visual inputs can distort auditory perception, and accurate auditory processing requires the ability to detect and ignore visual input that is simultaneous and incongruent with auditory information. However, the neural basis of this auditory selection from audiovisual information is unknown, whereas integration process of audiovisual inputs is intensively researched. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) are involved in top-down and bottom-up processing, respectively, of target auditory information from audiovisual inputs. We recorded high gamma activity (HGA), which is associated with neuronal firing in local brain regions, using electrocorticography while patients with epilepsy judged the syllable spoken by a voice while looking at a voice-congruent or -incongruent lip movement from the speaker. The STS exhibited stronger HGA if the patient was presented with information of large audiovisual incongruence than of small incongruence, especially if the auditory information was correctly identified. On the other hand, the IFG exhibited stronger HGA in trials with small audiovisual incongruence when patients correctly perceived the auditory information than when patients incorrectly perceived the auditory information due to the mismatched visual information. These results indicate that the IFG and STS have dissociated roles in selective auditory processing, and suggest that the neural basis of selective auditory processing changes dynamically in accordance with the degree of incongruity between auditory and visual information.

  18. Detecting spatio-temporal changes in agricultural land use in Heilongjiang province, China using MODIS time-series data and a random forest regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Friedl, M. A.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and timely information regarding the spatial distribution of crop types and their changes is essential for acreage surveys, yield estimation, water management, and agricultural production decision-making. In recent years, increasing population, dietary shifts and climate change have driven drastic changes in China's agricultural land use. However, no maps are currently available that document the spatial and temporal patterns of these agricultural land use changes. Because of its short revisit period, rich spectral bands and global coverage, MODIS time series data has been shown to have great potential for detecting the seasonal dynamics of different crop types. However, its inherently coarse spatial resolution limits the accuracy with which crops can be identified from MODIS in regions with small fields or complex agricultural landscapes. To evaluate this more carefully and specifically understand the strengths and weaknesses of MODIS data for crop-type mapping, we used MODIS time-series imagery to map the sub-pixel fractional crop area for four major crop types (rice, corn, soybean and wheat) at 500-m spatial resolution for Heilongjiang province, one of the most important grain-production regions in China where recent agricultural land use change has been rapid and pronounced. To do this, a random forest regression (RF-g) model was constructed to estimate the percentage of each sub-pixel crop type in 2006, 2011 and 2016. Crop type maps generated through expert visual interpretation of high spatial resolution images (i.e., Landsat and SPOT data) were used to calibrate the regression model. Five different time series of vegetation indices (155 features) derived from different spectral channels of MODIS land surface reflectance (MOD09A1) data were used as candidate features for the RF-g model. An out-of-bag strategy and backward elimination approach was applied to select the optimal spectra-temporal feature subset for each crop type. The resulting crop maps

  19. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...

  20. The Gap in Noise test in 11 and 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ana Paula; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2010-01-01

    gap detection in 11 and 12-year-old children. to investigate temporal resolution through the Gap in Noise test in children of 11 and 12 years in order to establish criteria of normal development. participants were 92 children, with ages of 11 and 12 years, enrolled in elementary school, with no evidences of otologic, and/or neurologic, and/or cognitive disorders, as well as with no history of learning difficulties or school failure. Besides that, participants' hearing thresholds were within normal limits and their verbal recognition in the dichotic test of digits was equal or superior to 95% of hits. All were submitted to the Gap in Noise test. The statistical analysis was performed by non-parametric tests with significance level of 0.05 (5%). the average of the gap thresholds was 5.05 ms, and the average percentage of correct answers was 71.70%. There was no significant statistical difference between the responses by age (eleven and twelve years), by ear (right and left), by gender (male and female). However, when comparing the tests, it was observed that the 1st test showed a higher percentage of identifications of gap, statistically significant than the 2nd test. in 78.27% of the population of this study, the gap thresholds were up to 5 ms, response recommended as normality reference for the age group searched.

  1. Spatio Temporal Detection and Virtual Mapping of Landslide Using High-Resolution Airborne Laser Altimetry (lidar) in Densely Vegetated Areas of Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, T.; Azahari Razak, K.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Latif, A.

    2017-10-01

    Landslides are an inescapable natural disaster, resulting in massive social, environmental and economic impacts all over the world. The tropical, mountainous landscape in generally all over Malaysia especially in eastern peninsula (Borneo) is highly susceptible to landslides because of heavy rainfall and tectonic disturbances. The purpose of the Landslide hazard mapping is to identify the hazardous regions for the execution of mitigation plans which can reduce the loss of life and property from future landslide incidences. Currently, the Malaysian research bodies e.g. academic institutions and government agencies are trying to develop a landslide hazard and risk database for susceptible areas to backing the prevention, mitigation, and evacuation plan. However, there is a lack of devotion towards landslide inventory mapping as an elementary input of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk mapping. The developing techniques based on remote sensing technologies (satellite, terrestrial and airborne) are promising techniques to accelerate the production of landslide maps, shrinking the time and resources essential for their compilation and orderly updates. The aim of the study is to provide a better perception regarding the use of virtual mapping of landslides with the help of LiDAR technology. The focus of the study is spatio temporal detection and virtual mapping of landslide inventory via visualization and interpretation of very high-resolution data (VHR) in forested terrain of Mesilau river, Kundasang. However, to cope with the challenges of virtual inventory mapping on in forested terrain high resolution LiDAR derivatives are used. This study specifies that the airborne LiDAR technology can be an effective tool for mapping landslide inventories in a complex climatic and geological conditions, and a quick way of mapping regional hazards in the tropics.

  2. Detection of frequently-burn locations using multi-temporal Terra/Aqua MODIS fire product (MOD14) in Oudomxay province, Laos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phonekeo, V; Samarakoon, L; Saphangthong, T

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is natural and man-made disaster that relates to global warming and climate change. Wildfire is prominent disaster that destroys natural resources, and causes enormous danger to human life and property. The study on the spatial and temporal distribution of wildfire is significant to understand wildfire occurrence and behavior. In the past, people usually study on the pattern of wildfire and open-space burning according to the daily number of active fire detected by MODIS sensor onboard of Terra and Aqua satellites for a particular area at the time of satellite over pass. However, there is no study that focused on the active fire that frequently occurred at the same location for a given period of time. Therefore, in this paper, the authors has focused on the study of frequently-burn locations in Oudomxay province of Laos, which has the 3rd highest active fire number in burning season of year 2007-2009 using spatial and statistical analysis of the active fire distribution and occurrence by time and space. The results of the study show that the highest number of burning frequency is 6 and 7 times within the study period and these numbers are located at 3 districts. One is Xai district which has the highest frequently-burn location for 7 times during the study period at the coordinate of N20.72° and E101.88°. The second districts are Beng and Nga districts which has the 2nd highest frequently-burn location for 6 times during the study period at the coordinate of N 20.28°, E101.68°, and N20.17°, E102.02°, respectively. The obtained information on frequently-burn locations in the province would be useful to identify the repeat burning activity by the local people occurred in the same location and allows the forestry and agricultural officers understand the wildfire distribution pattern

  3. Charting service quality gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Cândido, Carlos; Morris, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    Some of the most influential models in the service management literature (Parasuraman et al., 1985; Grönroos, 1990) focus on the concept of service quality gap (SQG). Parasuraman et al. (1985) define a pioneering model with five SQGs, the concepts of which are amplified in Brogowicz et al.’s (1990) model. The latter has five types of encompassing gaps: information and feedback-related gaps; design-related gaps; implementation-related gaps; communication-related gaps; and customers’ perception...

  4. Improved detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei from non-blood clinical specimens using enrichment culture and PCR: narrowing diagnostic gap in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Shaw, Tushar; D'Souza, Annet; Eshwara, Vandana Kalwaje; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic utility of enrichment culture and PCR for improved case detection rates of non-bacteraemic form of melioidosis in limited resource settings. Clinical specimens (n = 525) obtained from patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital of South India with clinical symptoms suggestive of community-acquired pneumonia, lower respiratory tract infections, superficial or internal abscesses, chronic skin ulcers and bone or joint infections were tested for the presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei using conventional culture (CC), enrichment culture (EC) and PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of CC and PCR were initially deduced using EC as the gold standard method. Further, diagnostic accuracies of all the three methods were analysed using Bayesian latent class modelling (BLCM). Detection rates of B. pseudomallei using CC, EC and PCR were 3.8%, 5.3% and 6%, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of CC and PCR were 71.4, 98.4% and 100 and 99.4%, respectively in comparison with EC as the gold standard test. With Bayesian latent class modelling, EC and PCR demonstrated sensitivities of 98.7 and 99.3%, respectively, while CC showed a sensitivity of 70.3% for detection of B. pseudomallei. An increase of 1.6% (95% CI: 1.08-4.32%) in the case detection rate of melioidosis was observed in the study population when EC and/or PCR were used in adjunct to the conventional culture technique. Our study findings underscore the diagnostic superiority of enrichment culture and/or PCR over conventional microbiological culture for improved case detection of melioidosis from non-blood clinical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A Trial for Detecting the Temporal Variation in Seismic Velocity Accompanied by a Slow Slip Event using Seismic Interferometry of Ambient Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Miyuu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Ohta, Kazuaki; Hino, Ryota; Shinohara, Masanao

    2017-04-01

    Seismic interferometry is one of the most effective techniques to detect temporal variations in seismic velocity before or after a large earthquake. Some previous studies have been reported on seismic velocity reduction due to the occurrence of large earthquakes (e.g., Wegler et al., 2009; Yamada et al., 2010) as well as preceding them (e.g., Lockner et al., 1977; Yoshimitsu et al., 2009). However, there have only been a few studies thus far which attempt to detect seismic velocity changes associated with slow slip events (SSEs). In this study, we focus on applying seismic interferometry to ambient noise data from ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) deployed near a subduction zone. Between the end of January 2011 and the largest foreshock occurring on March 9th that precedes the March 11, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, SSEs and low-frequency tremors were detected offshore Miyagi Prefecture (Ito et al., 2013, 2015; Katakami et al., 2016). We applied our seismic interferometry analysis using ambient noise to recordings from 17 OBS stations that were installed in the vicinity of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake source region, and only considered the recordings from before that major earthquake. All the OBSs are short-period seismometers with three components which have an eigenfrequency of 4.5 Hz. These OBSs were deployed offshore Miyagi Prefecture between November 2010 and April 2011. Before proceeding with the seismic interferometry analysis, we needed to estimate the two horizontal components of the original deployment orientation for 13 OBSs in (we could not estimate them for 4 OBSs). To obtain the OBS orientation, we used particle orbits of some direct P waves from selected tectonic earthquakes, in order to extract one vertical and two horizontal components. Then, the seismic interferometry analysis consisted of the following steps. First, we applied a band-pass filter of 0.25-2.0 Hz and one-bit technique to the ambient noise signal. Second, we calculated auto

  6. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a crucial aspect in the current phases of malaria control and elimination, which will require the wider use of 8-aminoquinolines for both reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and achieving the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, can induce severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals, potentially creating significant morbidity and undermining confidence in 8-aminoquinoline prescription. On the other hand, erring on the side of safety and excluding large numbers of people with unconfirmed G6PD deficiency from treatment with 8-aminoquinolines will diminish the impact of these drugs. Estimating the remaining G6PD enzyme activity is the most direct, accessible, and reliable assessment of the phenotype and remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of patients who could be harmed by the administration of primaquine. Genotyping seems an unambiguous technique, but its use is limited by cost and the large range of recognized G6PD genotypes. A number of enzyme activity assays diagnose G6PD deficiency, but they require a cold chain, specialized equipment, and laboratory skills. These assays are impractical for care delivery where most patients with malaria live. Improvements to the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency are required for the broader and safer use of 8-aminoquinolines to kill hypnozoites, while lower doses of primaquine may be safely used to kill gametocytes without testing. The discussions and conclusions of a workshop conducted in Incheon, Korea in May 2012 to review key knowledge gaps in G6PD deficiency are reported here. PMID:23537118

  7. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Auburn, Sarah; Espino, Fe; Shanks, Dennis; Cheng, Qin; McCarthy, James; Baird, Kevin; Moyes, Catherine; Howes, Rosalind; Ménard, Didier; Bancone, Germana; Winasti-Satyahraha, Ari; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Green, Justin; Domingo, Gonzalo; Yeung, Shunmay; Price, Ric

    2013-03-27

    The diagnosis and management of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a crucial aspect in the current phases of malaria control and elimination, which will require the wider use of 8-aminoquinolines for both reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and achieving the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, can induce severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals, potentially creating significant morbidity and undermining confidence in 8-aminoquinoline prescription. On the other hand, erring on the side of safety and excluding large numbers of people with unconfirmed G6PD deficiency from treatment with 8-aminoquinolines will diminish the impact of these drugs. Estimating the remaining G6PD enzyme activity is the most direct, accessible, and reliable assessment of the phenotype and remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of patients who could be harmed by the administration of primaquine. Genotyping seems an unambiguous technique, but its use is limited by cost and the large range of recognized G6PD genotypes. A number of enzyme activity assays diagnose G6PD deficiency, but they require a cold chain, specialized equipment, and laboratory skills. These assays are impractical for care delivery where most patients with malaria live. Improvements to the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency are required for the broader and safer use of 8-aminoquinolines to kill hypnozoites, while lower doses of primaquine may be safely used to kill gametocytes without testing. The discussions and conclusions of a workshop conducted in Incheon, Korea in May 2012 to review key knowledge gaps in G6PD deficiency are reported here.

  8. [Performance of normal young adults in two temporal resolution tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, Elena; Garcia, Adriana Pontin; Tedesco, Maria Lucy Fraga; Baran, Jane A

    2008-01-01

    temporal auditory processing is defined as the perception of sound or of sound alteration within a restricted time interval and is considered a fundamental ability for the auditory perception of verbal and non verbal sounds, for the perception of music, rhythm, periodicity and in the discrimination of pitch, duration and of phonemes. to compare the performance of normal Brazilian adults in two temporal resolution tests: the Gaps-in-Noise Test (GIN) and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT), and to analyze potential differences of performance in these two tests. twenty-five college students with normal hearing (11 males and 14 females) and no history of educational, neurological and/or language problems, underwent the GIN and RGDT at 40dB SL. statistically significant gender effects for both tests were found, with female participants showing poorer performance on both temporal processing tests. In addition, a comparative analysis of the results obtained in the GIN and RGDT revealed significant differences in the threshold measures derived for these two tests. In general, significantly better gap detection thresholds were observed for both male and female participants on the GIN test when compared to the results obtained for the RGDT. male participants presented better performances on both RGDT and GIN, when compared to the females. There were no differences in performance between right and left ears on the GIN test. Participants of the present investigation, males and females, performed better on the GIN when compared to the RGDT. The GIN presented advantages over the RGDT, not only in terms of clinical validity and sensibility, but also in terms of application and scoring.

  9. Behind the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  10. Temporal Resolution and Active Auditory Discrimination Skill in Vocal Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Prawin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF. All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0. Result Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t-test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency. Conclusion The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.

  11. Temporal Resolution and Active Auditory Discrimination Skill in Vocal Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prawin; Sanju, Himanshu Kumar; Nikhil, J

    2016-10-01

    Introduction  Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective  The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method  The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF). All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0). Result  Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t -test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency. Conclusion  The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower) active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.

  12. Understanding the temporal dimension of the red-edge spectral region for forest decline detection using high-resolution hyperspectral and Sentinel-2a imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarco-Tejada, P. J.; Hornero, A.; Hernández-Clemente, R.; Beck, P. S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The operational monitoring of forest decline requires the development of remote sensing methods that are sensitive to the spatiotemporal variations of pigment degradation and canopy defoliation. In this context, the red-edge spectral region (RESR) was proposed in the past due to its combined sensitivity to chlorophyll content and leaf area variation. In this study, the temporal dimension of the RESR was evaluated as a function of forest decline using a radiative transfer method with the PROSPECT and 3D FLIGHT models. These models were used to generate synthetic pine stands simulating decline and recovery processes over time and explore the temporal rate of change of the red-edge chlorophyll index (CI) as compared to the trajectories obtained for the structure-related Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The temporal trend method proposed here consisted of using synthetic spectra to calculate the theoretical boundaries of the subspace for healthy and declining pine trees in the temporal domain, defined by CItime=n/CItime=n+1 vs. NDVItime=n/NDVItime=n+1. Within these boundaries, trees undergoing decline and recovery processes showed different trajectories through this subspace. The method was then validated using three high-resolution airborne hyperspectral images acquired at 40 cm resolution and 260 spectral bands of 6.5 nm full-width half-maximum (FWHM) over a forest with widespread tree decline, along with field-based monitoring of chlorosis and defoliation (i.e., 'decline' status) in 663 trees between the years 2015 and 2016. The temporal rate of change of chlorophyll vs. structural indices, based on reflectance spectra extracted from the hyperspectral images, was different for trees undergoing decline, and aligned towards the decline baseline established using the radiative transfer models. By contrast, healthy trees over time aligned towards the theoretically obtained healthy baseline. The applicability of this temporal trend method to the red

  13. Temporal acuity and speech recognition score in noise in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Maleki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is one of the central nervous system diseases can be associated with a variety of symptoms such as hearing disorders. The main consequence of hearing loss is poor speech perception, and temporal acuity has important role in speech perception. We evaluated the speech perception in silent and in the presence of noise and temporal acuity in patients with multiple sclerosis.Methods: Eighteen adults with multiple sclerosis with the mean age of 37.28 years and 18 age- and sex- matched controls with the mean age of 38.00 years participated in this study. Temporal acuity and speech perception were evaluated by random gap detection test (GDT and word recognition score (WRS in three different signal to noise ratios.Results: Statistical analysis of test results revealed significant differences between the two groups (p<0.05. Analysis of gap detection test (in 4 sensation levels and word recognition score in both groups showed significant differences (p<0.001.Conclusion: According to this survey, the ability of patients with multiple sclerosis to process temporal features of stimulus was impaired. It seems that, this impairment is important factor to decrease word recognition score and speech perception.

  14. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  15. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  16. Effectiveness of Geoelectrical Resistivity Surveys for the Detection of a Debris Flow Causative Water Conducting Zone at KM 9, Gap-Fraser’s Hill Road (FT 148, Fraser’s Hill, Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Anuri Ghazali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the findings of resistivity surveys which were conducted at the initiation area of debris flow at KM 9, Fraser’s Hill Gap road (FT148. The study involves three slope parallel survey lines and two lines perpendicular to the slope face. The parallel lines are FH01, FH02, and FH03, while the lines FH04 and FH05 are perpendicular. A granite body was detected at the central part of the east line and is nearest to the ground surface along FH02. The existence of low resistivity zones within the granite body is interpreted as highly fractured, water conducting zones. These zones are continuous as they have been detected in both the east-west as well as the north-south lines. The residual soil layer is relatively thin at zones where weathered granite dominates the slope face of the failure mass. The weak layer is relatively thick with an estimated thickness of 80 m and water flow occurs at the base of it. The high water flow recorded from the horizontal drains further supports the possible existence of these highly fractured, water conducting zones located within the granite. The shallow fractured granite is virtually “floating” above the water saturated zone and therefore is considered unstable.

  17. Temporal contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  19. Tree Death Not Resulting in Gap Creation: An Investigation of Canopy Dynamics of Northern Temperate Deciduous Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Senécal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several decades of research have shown that canopy gaps drive tree renewal processes in the temperate deciduous forest biome. In the literature, canopy gaps are usually defined as canopy openings that are created by partial or total tree death of one or more canopy trees. In this study, we investigate linkages between tree damage mechanisms and the formation or not of new canopy gaps in northern temperate deciduous forests. We studied height loss processes in unmanaged and managed forests recovering from partial cutting with multi-temporal airborne Lidar data. The Lidar dataset was used to detect areas where canopy height reduction occurred, which were then field-studied to identify the tree damage mechanisms implicated. We also sampled the density of leaf material along transects to characterize canopy structure. We used the dataset of the canopy height reduction areas in a multi-model inference analysis to determine whether canopy structures or tree damage mechanisms most influenced the creation of new canopy gaps within canopy height reduction areas. According to our model, new canopy gaps are created mainly when canopy damage enlarges existing gaps or when height is reduced over areas without an already established dense sub-canopy tree layer.

  20. Evaluation of outbreak detection performance using multi-stream syndromic surveillance for influenza-like illness in rural Hubei Province, China: a temporal simulation model based on healthcare-seeking behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance promotes the early detection of diseases outbreaks. Although syndromic surveillance has increased in developing countries, performance on outbreak detection, particularly in cases of multi-stream surveillance, has scarcely been evaluated in rural areas. OBJECTIVE: This study introduces a temporal simulation model based on healthcare-seeking behaviors to evaluate the performance of multi-stream syndromic surveillance for influenza-like illness. METHODS: Data were obtained in six towns of rural Hubei Province, China, from April 2012 to June 2013. A Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model generated 27 scenarios of simulated influenza A (H1N1 outbreaks, which were converted into corresponding simulated syndromic datasets through the healthcare-behaviors model. We then superimposed converted syndromic datasets onto the baselines obtained to create the testing datasets. Outbreak performance of single-stream surveillance of clinic visit, frequency of over the counter drug purchases, school absenteeism, and multi-stream surveillance of their combinations were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves and activity monitoring operation curves. RESULTS: In the six towns examined, clinic visit surveillance and school absenteeism surveillance exhibited superior performances of outbreak detection than over the counter drug purchase frequency surveillance; the performance of multi-stream surveillance was preferable to signal-stream surveillance, particularly at low specificity (Sp <90%. CONCLUSIONS: The temporal simulation model based on healthcare-seeking behaviors offers an accessible method for evaluating the performance of multi-stream surveillance.

  1. Gap between jets at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royon, Christophe [CEA/IRFU/Service de physique des particules, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2013-04-15

    We describe a NLL BFKL calculation implemented in the HERWIG MC of the gap between jets cross section, that represent a test of BFKL dynamics. We compare the predictions with recent measurements at the Tevatron and present predictions for the LHC. We also discuss the interesting process of looking for gap between jets in diffractive events when protons are detected in the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) detectors.

  2. Effects of transient auditory deprivation during critical periods on the development of auditory temporal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Jik; Kim, Jungyoon; Park, Il-Yong; Jung, Jae Yun; Suh, Myung-Whan; Oh, Seung-Ha

    2018-01-01

    The central auditory pathway matures through sensory experiences and it is known that sensory experiences during periods called critical periods exert an important influence on brain development. The present study aimed to investigate whether temporary auditory deprivation during critical periods (CPs) could have a detrimental effect on the development of auditory temporal processing. Twelve neonatal rats were randomly assigned to control and study groups; Study group experienced temporary (18-20 days) auditory deprivation during CPs (Early deprivation study group). Outcome measures included changes in auditory brainstem response (ABR), gap prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (GPIAS), and gap detection threshold (GDT). To further delineate the specific role of CPs in the outcome measures above, the same paradigm was applied in adult rats (Late deprivation group) and the findings were compared with those of the neonatal rats. Soon after the restoration of hearing, early deprivation study animals showed a significantly lower GPIAS at intermediate gap durations and a larger GDT than early deprivation controls, but these differences became insignificant after subsequent auditory inputs. Additionally, the ABR results showed significantly delayed latencies of waves IV, V, and interpeak latencies of wave I-III and wave I-V in study group. Late deprivation group didn't exhibit any deterioration in temporal processing following sensory deprivation. Taken together, the present results suggest that transient auditory deprivation during CPs might cause reversible disruptions in the development of temporal processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    and attractive renderings of bright light sources. Based on the anatomy of the human eye, we propose a model that enables real-time simulation of dynamic glare on a GPU. This allows an improved depiction of HDR images on LDR media for interactive applications like games, feature films, or even by adding movement......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic...

  4. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  5. Screening LGI1 in a cohort of 26 lateral temporal lobe epilepsy patients with auditory aura from Turkey detects a novel de novo mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesim, Yesim F; Uzun, Gunes Altiokka; Yucesan, Emrah; Tuncer, Feyza N; Ozdemir, Ozkan; Bebek, Nerses; Ozbek, Ugur; Iseri, Sibel A Ugur; Baykan, Betul

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE) is an autosomal dominant epileptic syndrome characterized by focal seizures with auditory or aphasic symptoms. The same phenotype is also observed in a sporadic form of lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE), namely idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF). Heterozygous mutations in LGI1 account for up to 50% of ADLTE families and only rarely observed in IPEAF cases. In this study, we analysed a cohort of 26 individuals with LTLE diagnosed according to the following criteria: focal epilepsy with auditory aura and absence of cerebral lesions on brain MRI. All patients underwent clinical, neuroradiological and electroencephalography examinations and afterwards they were screened for mutations in LGI1 gene. The single LGI1 mutation identified in this study is a novel missense variant (NM_005097.2: c.1013T>C; p.Phe338Ser) observed de novo in a sporadic patient. This is the first study involving clinical analysis of a LTLE cohort from Turkey and genetic contribution of LGI1 to ADLTE phenotype. Identification of rare LGI1 gene mutations in sporadic cases supports diagnosis as ADTLE and draws attention to potential familial clustering of ADTLE in suggestive generations, which is especially important for genetic counselling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Prestes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Stuttering is a speech fluency disorder, and may be associated with neuroaudiological factors linked to central auditory processing, including changes in auditory processing skills and temporal resolution. Objective: To characterize the temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers and to compare them with non-stutterers. Methods: The study included 41 right-handed subjects, aged 18-46 years, divided into two groups: stutterers (n = 20 and non-stutters (n = 21, compared according to age, education, and sex. All subjects were submitted to the duration pattern tests, random gap detection test, and long-latency auditory evoked potential. Results: Individuals who stutter showed poorer performance on Duration Pattern and Random Gap Detection tests when compared with fluent individuals. In the long-latency auditory evoked potential, there was a difference in the latency of N2 and P3 components; stutterers had higher latency values. Conclusion: Stutterers have poor performance in temporal processing and higher latency values for N2 and P3 components.

  7. FIRST ULTRAVIOLET REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF PLUTO AND CHARON BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: DETECTION OF ABSORPTION FEATURES AND EVIDENCE FOR TEMPORAL CHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, S. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Shinn, A. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Cunningham, N. J.; Hain, M. J., E-mail: astern@swri.edu [Nebraska Wesleyan University, 5000 Saint Paul Avenue, Lincoln, NE 68504 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We have observed the mid-UV spectra of both Pluto and its large satellite, Charon, at two rotational epochs using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) in 2010. These are the first HST/COS measurements of Pluto and Charon. Here we describe the observations and our reduction of them, and present the albedo spectra, average mid-UV albedos, and albedo slopes we derive from these data. These data reveal evidence for a strong absorption feature in the mid-UV spectrum of Pluto; evidence for temporal change in Pluto's spectrum since the 1990s is reported, and indirect evidence for a near-UV spectral absorption on Charon is also reported.

  8. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Bridging the terahertz gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Giles; Linfield, Edmund

    2004-01-01

    Over the last century or so, physicists and engineers have progressively explored and conquered the electromagnetic spectrum. Starting with visible light, we have encroached outwards, developing techniques for generating and detecting radiation at both higher and lower frequencies. And as each successive region of the spectrum has been colonized, we have developed technology to exploit the radiation found there. X-rays, for example, are routinely used to image hidden objects. Near-infrared radiation is used in fibre-optic communications and in compact-disc players, while microwaves are used to transmit signals from your mobile phone. But there is one part of the electromagnetic spectrum that has steadfastly resisted our advances. This is the terahertz region, which ranges from frequencies of about 300 GHz to 10 THz (10 x 10 sup 1 sup 2 Hz). This corresponds to wavelengths of between about 1 and 0.03 mm, and lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. However, the difficulties involved in making suitably compact terahertz sources and detectors has meant that this region of the spectrum has only begun to be explored thoroughly over the last decade. A particularly intriguing feature of terahertz radiation is that the semiconductor devices that generate radiation at frequencies above and below this range operate in completely different ways. At lower frequencies, microwaves and millimetre- waves can be generated by 'electronic' devices such as those found in mobile phones. At higher frequencies, near-infrared and visible light are generated by 'optical' devices such as semiconductor laser diodes, in which electrons emit light when they jump across the semiconductor band gap. Unfortunately, neither electronic nor optical devices can conveniently be made to work in the terahertz region because the terahertz frequency range sits between the electronic and optical regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Developing a terahertz source is therefore a

  10. Temporal analysis of text data using latent variable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Larsen, Jan; Goutte, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    Detecting and tracking of temporal data is an important task in multiple applications. In this paper we study temporal text mining methods for Music Information Retrieval. We compare two ways of detecting the temporal latent semantics of a corpus extracted from Wikipedia, using a stepwise...

  11. Determination Of Simulated Pellet To Pellet Gap Using Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnowo, A.

    1996-01-01

    The defect on the irradiated fuel element could be detected using neutron radiography. The defect could occurred in pellet to pellet gap, cladding, or even cladding to pellet gap. An investigations has been performed to detect pellet to pellet gap defect that might occur in an irradiated fuel element. An Al foil of 0,1; 0,2; 0,3; und 0,4 mm was inserted between pellets to simulate various pellet to pellet gap. The neutron radiography used had power of 700 kW. The result showed that this simulation represented well enough problems that irradiated fuel element may experience

  12. Unravelling aspects of spatial and temporal distribution of Verticillium dahliae in olive, maple and ash trees and improvement of detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keykhasaber, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Vascular wilts caused by xylem-colonizing pathogens are among the most devastating plant diseases that affect a wide range of plant species worldwide. Information on the distribution of V. dahliae in infected trees helps to design an appropriate and efficient sampling method for reliable detection

  13. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops...... unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems and trouble that could be avoided if we had better language tools at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media......, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations. How can we avoid these accidental gaps in language and specially the gaps in semantic and metaphoric tools. Do we have to keep silent and stop discusing certain isues, or do we have other ways to get acces to sufficient language tools...

  14. Where are the Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Marshall

    Reading a Handbook like this gives a vivid picture of the enormous vigour and power of materials modelling. One is tempted to believe that we can answer all the questions materials technology might pose. Even if that were partly true, we should be identifying just what we do not know how to do. Some gaps will be depend on new hardware and software, especially when modelling quantum systems. Some gaps will be recognised only after some social or technological change has brought them into focus. Among the developments likely to stimulate innovation could be novel nanoelectronics, or the fields where physics meets biology. Still further gaps exist because we have been slaves to fashion, and have been drawn away from unpopular (roughly translating as "too difficult") fields; examples might include excited state spectroscopy, or electrical breakdown.

  15. SST: Single-Stream Temporal Action Proposals

    KAUST Repository

    Buch, Shyamal

    2017-11-09

    Our paper presents a new approach for temporal detection of human actions in long, untrimmed video sequences. We introduce Single-Stream Temporal Action Proposals (SST), a new effective and efficient deep architecture for the generation of temporal action proposals. Our network can run continuously in a single stream over very long input video sequences, without the need to divide input into short overlapping clips or temporal windows for batch processing. We demonstrate empirically that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art on the task of temporal action proposal generation, while achieving some of the fastest processing speeds in the literature. Finally, we demonstrate that using SST proposals in conjunction with existing action classifiers results in improved state-of-the-art temporal action detection performance.

  16. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  17. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German-majorit...... was produced – and sometimes not produced - within the projects. The importance of memory work in the context of refugee resettlement is often overlooked, but is particularly relevant when cultural encounters are organised in museums and exhibition galleries....

  18. Missing the gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    by the premise that difference and gaps are places where creative learning is intensified (Glaveanu & Gillespie, 2015). The public discourse around education is often concerned with minding or avoiding the gap by making education more relevant for or similar to the labour market, but what if facilitating...... creative learning at the borders need not minimize differences, but handle and learn from them? If not, schools and educational institutions risk becoming bad copies of the labour marked instead of enabling students to enter the market with something new, something radically dissimilar from what...

  19. Quantum Temporal Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Mankei; Psaltis, Demetri

    2006-01-01

    The concept of quantum temporal imaging is proposed to manipulate the temporal correlation of entangled photons. In particular, we show that time correlation and anticorrelation can be converted to each other using quantum temporal imaging.

  20. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...

  1. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  2. 'Mind the Gap!'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar

    This paper challenges the widely held view that sharply falling real transport costs closed the transatlantic gap in grain prices in the second half of the 19th century. Several new results emerge from an analysis of a new data set of weekly wheat prices and freight costs from New York to UK mark...

  3. Detection of change in vegetation in the surrounding Desert areas of Northwest China and Mongolia with multi-temporal satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung-Soo; Park, Youn-Young; Yeom, Jong-Min

    2015-05-01

    Vegetation monitoring is an important step in developing a better understanding of land use and its changes, due to the sensitivity of surface vegetation to changes in the global climate and environment. In this study, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the area surrounding the Gobi Desert in North Asia was multi-temporally interpreted by analyzing time-series Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) Vegetation (VGT) data, over a roughly nine-year period from January 1999 to November 2007. The study area was classified into eight classes, and compared to classified Moderate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) global land-cover data to select desertification-sensitive areas. The study focused on three classes (barren land, open shrubland, grassland) due to their high sensitivity to climate change. The results showed significant extension of the barren land class from 1992 to 1999, with 47.8% of the open shrubland transformed into barren land. Among five terms (1999-2003, 2003-2005, 2005-2007, 1999-2005, 1999-2007) which are carefully selected from variations of the annual NDVI mean for each class over nine years, significant changes were observed for barren land from 1999-2003, and for open shrubland and grassland from 2005-2007. An analysis of the positive change (the change from sparse vegetation to dense vegetation) and negative change (or desertification) was conducted over the study period; the number of pixels corresponding to a positive change for barren land was similar to the number of negative change pixels. Human activity and afforestation over the study area were also captured in multitemporal satellite imagery. For open shrubland and grassland, the negative change area was bigger than the positive change area. Precipitation data over the nine-year period exhibited a pattern similar to that for the vegetation data, as expected.

  4. Cropping Pattern Detection and Change Analysis in Central Luzon, Philippines Using Multi-Temporal MODIS Imagery and Artificial Neural Network Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Torre, D. M.; Perez, G. J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Cropping practices in the Philippines has been intensifying with greater demand for food and agricultural supplies in view of an increasing population and advanced technologies for farming. This has not been monitored regularly using traditional methods but alternative methods using remote sensing has been promising yet underutilized. This study employed multi-temporal data from MODIS and neural network classifier to map annual land use in agricultural areas from 2001-2014 in Central Luzon, the primary rice growing area of the Philippines. Land use statistics derived from these maps were compared with historical El Nino events to examine how land area is affected by drought events. Fourteen maps of agricultural land use was produced, with the primary classes being single-cropping, double-cropping and perennial crops with secondary classes of forests, urban, bare, water and other classes. Primary classes were produced from the neural network classifier while secondary classes were derived from NDVI threshold masks. The overall accuracy for the 2014 map was 62.05% and a kappa statistic of 0.45. 155.56% increase in single-cropping systems from 2001 to 2014 was observed while double cropping systems decreased by 14.83%. Perennials increased by 76.21% while built-up areas decreased by 12.22% within the 14-year interval. There are several sources of error including mixed-pixels, scale-conversion problems and limited ground reference data. An analysis including El Niño events in 2004 and 2010 demonstrated that marginally irrigated areas that usually planted twice in a year resorted to single cropping, indicating that scarcity of water limited the intensification allowable in the area. Findings from this study can be used to predict future use of agricultural land in the country and also examine how farmlands have responded to climatic factors and stressors.

  5. Computed tomography of temporal bone fractures and temporal region anatomy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownder, S; Scrivani, P V; Bezuidenhout, A; Divers, T J; Ducharme, N G

    2010-01-01

    In people, specific classifications of temporal bone fractures are associated with clinical signs and prognosis. In horses, similar classifications have not been evaluated and might be useful establishing prognosis or understanding pathogenesis of certain types of trauma. We hypothesized associations between temporal bone fracture location and orientation in horses detected during computed tomography (CT) and frequency of facial nerve (CN7) deficit, vestibulocochlear nerve (CN8) deficit, or temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO). Complex temporal region anatomy may confound fracture identification, and consequently a description of normal anatomy was included. All horses undergoing temporal region CT at our hospital between July 1998 and May 2008. Data were collected retrospectively, examiners were blinded, and relationships were investigated among temporal bone fractures, ipsilateral THO, ipsilateral CN7, or ipsilateral CN8 deficits by Chi-square or Fischer's exact tests. Seventy-nine horses had CT examinations of the temporal region (158 temporal bones). Sixteen temporal bone fractures were detected in 14 horses. Cranial nerve deficits were seen with fractures in all parts of the temporal bone (petrosal, squamous, and temporal) and, temporal bone fractures were associated with CN7 and CN8 deficits and THO. No investigated fracture classification scheme, however, was associated with specific cranial nerve deficits. Without knowledge of the regional anatomy, normal structures may be mistaken for a temporal bone fracture or vice versa. Although no fracture classification scheme was associated with the assessed clinical signs, simple descriptive terminology (location and orientation) is recommended for reporting and facilitating future comparisons.

  6. THE PAL 5 STAR STREAM GAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hetherington, Nathan; Grillmair, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Pal 5 is a low-mass, low-velocity-dispersion, globular cluster with spectacular tidal tails. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 data to extend the density measurements of the trailing star stream to 23 deg distance from the cluster, at which point the stream runs off the edge of the available sky coverage. The size and the number of gaps in the stream are measured using a filter which approximates the structure of the gaps found in stream simulations. We find 5 gaps that are at least 99% confidence detections with about a dozen gaps at 90% confidence. The statistical significance of a gap is estimated using bootstrap resampling of the control regions on either side of the stream. The density minimum closest to the cluster is likely the result of the epicyclic orbits of the tidal outflow and has been discounted. To create the number of 99% confidence gaps per unit length at the mean age of the stream requires a halo population of nearly a thousand dark matter sub-halos with peak circular velocities above 1 km s –1 within 30 kpc of the galactic center. These numbers are a factor of about three below cold stream simulation at this sub-halo mass or velocity but, given the uncertainties in both measurement and more realistic warm stream modeling, are in substantial agreement with the LCDM prediction.

  7. Influence of gold coating and interplate voltage on the performance of chevron micro-channel plates for temporally and spatially resolved single particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoendervanger, A. L.; Clément, D.; Aspect, A.; Westbrook, C. I.; Dowek, D.; Picard, Y. J.; Boiron, D.

    2013-02-01

    We present a study of two different sets of Micro-Channel Plates used for time and space resolved single particle detection. We investigate the effects of the gold coating and that of introducing an interplate voltage between the spatially separated plates. We find that the gold coating increases the count rate of the detector and the pulse amplitude as previously reported for non-spatially resolved setups. The interplate voltage also increases count rates. In addition, we find that a non-zero interplate voltage improves the spatial accuracy in determining the arrival position of incoming single particles (by ˜20%) while the gold coating has a negative effect (by ˜30%).

  8. Spatio-temporal detection of the Thiomonas population and the Thiomonas arsenite oxidase involved in natural arsenite attenuation processes in the Carnoulès Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eHovasse

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The acid mine drainage (AMD impacted creek of the Carnoulès mine (Southern France is characterized by acid waters with a high heavy metal content. The microbial community inhabiting this AMD was extensively studied using isolation, metagenomic and metaproteomic methods, and the results showed that a natural arsenic (and iron attenuation process involving the arsenite oxidase activity of several Thiomonas strains occurs at this site. A sensitive quantitative Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM-based proteomic approach was developed for detecting and quantifying the two subunits of the arsenite oxidase and RpoA of two different Thiomonas groups. Using this approach combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis based on pyrosequencing and FISH, it was established here for the first time that these Thiomonas strains are ubiquitously present in minor proportions in this AMD and that they express the key enzymes involved in natural remediation processes at various locations and time points. In addition to these findings, this study also confirms that targeted proteomics applied at the community level can be used to detect weakly abundant proteins in situ.

  9. Cognitive Temporal Document Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal information retrieval exploits temporal features of document collections and queries. Temporal document priors are used to adjust the score of a document based on its publication time. We consider a class of temporal document priors that is inspired by retention functions considered in

  10. Detection and temporal variation of 60Co in the digestive glands of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, in the East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Takami; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Fujimoto, Ken; Nishiuchi, Kou; Kimoto, Katsunori; Yamada, Haruya; Kasai, Hiromi; Minakawa, Masayuki; Yoshida, Katsuhiko

    2010-01-01

    60 Co were detected in common octopus specimens collected in the East China Sea in 1996-2005. The source of 60 Co has remained unclear yet. Stable isotope analyses showed that there was no difference in stable Co concentrations between octopus samples with 60 Co and without 60 Co. This result showed that the stable Co in the digestive gland of octopus potentially did not include a trace amount of 60 Co and the source of 60 Co existed independently. Furthermore, investigations of octopus in other area and other species indicated that the origin of the source of 60 Co occurred locally in the restricted area in the East China Sea and not in the coastal area of Japan. Concentrations of 60 Co have annually decreased with shorter half-life than the physical half-life. This decrease tendency suggests that the sources of 60 Co were identical and were temporary dumped into the East China Sea as a solid waste.

  11. Using GeoEye-1 Imagery for Multi-Temporal Object-Based Detection of Canegrub Damage in Sugarcane Fields in Queensland, Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Johansen, Kasper

    2017-12-18

    The greyback canegrub (Dermolepida albohirtum) is the main pest of sugarcane crops in all cane-growing regions between Mossman (16.5°S) and Sarina (21.5°S) in Queensland, Australia. In previous years, high infestations have cost the industry up to $40 million. However, identifying damage in the field is difficult due to the often impenetrable nature of the sugarcane crop. Satellite imagery offers a feasible means of achieving this by examining the visual characteristics of stool tipping, changed leaf color, and exposure of soil in damaged areas. The objective of this study was to use geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) and high-spatial resolution GeoEye-1 satellite imagery for three years to map canegrub damage and develop two mapping approaches suitable for risk mapping. The GEOBIA mapping approach for canegrub damage detection was evaluated over three selected study sites in Queensland, covering a total of 254 km2 and included five main steps developed in the eCognition Developer software. These included: (1) initial segmentation of sugarcane block boundaries; (2) classification and subsequent omission of fallow/harvested fields, tracks, and other non-sugarcane features within the block boundaries; (3) identification of likely canegrub-damaged areas with low NDVI values and high levels of image texture within each block; (4) the further refining of canegrub damaged areas to low, medium, and high likelihood; and (5) risk classification. The validation based on field observations of canegrub damage at the time of the satellite image capture yielded producer’s accuracies between 75% and 98.7%, depending on the study site. Error of commission occurred in some cases due to sprawling, drainage issues, wind, weed, and pig damage. The two developed risk mapping approaches were based on the results of the canegrub damage detection. This research will improve decision making by growers affected by canegrub damage.

  12. Spark gap produced plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    A Spark Gap (Applied voltage : 2-8KV, Capacitor : 4 Micro F. Dia of the tube : 1 inch, Electrode distance : .3 ∼.5 inch) was made to generate a small size dynamic plasma. To measure the plasma density and temperature as a function of time and position, we installed and have been installing four detection systems - Mach-Zehnder type Interferometer for the plasma refractivity, Expansion speed detector using two He-Ne laser beams, Image Processing using Lens and A Optical-Fiber Array for Pointwise Radiation Sensing, Faraday Rotation of a Optical Fiber to measure the azimuthal component of B-field generated by the plasma drift. These systems was used for the wire explosion diagnostics, and can be used for the Laser driven plasma also

  13. Large gaps between primes

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, James

    2014-01-01

    We show that there exists pairs of consecutive primes less than $x$ whose difference is larger than $t(1+o(1))(\\log{x})(\\log\\log{x})(\\log\\log\\log\\log{x})(\\log\\log\\log{x})^{-2}$ for any fixed $t$. Our proof works by incorporating recent progress in sieve methods related to small gaps between primes into the Erdos-Rankin construction. This answers a well-known question of Erdos.

  14. Minding the Gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Millicent Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Neutron & X-ray scattering provides nano- to meso-scale details of complex fluid structure; 1D electronic density maps dervied from SAXS yield molecular level insights; Neutron reflectivity provides substructure details of substrate supported complex fluids; Complex fluids composition can be optimized to support a wide variety of both soluble and membrane proteins; The water gap dimensions can be finely tuned through polymer component.

  15. Mind the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Terry; Savage, Erica; Adams, Katie; Wittie, Michael; Boone, Edna; Hayden, Andrew; Barnes, Janey; Hettinger, Zach; Gettinger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Decisions made during electronic health record (EHR) implementations profoundly affect usability and safety. This study aims to identify gaps between the current literature and key stakeholders’ perceptions of usability and safety practices and the challenges encountered during the implementation of EHRs. Materials and Methods Two approaches were used: a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify usability and safety challenges and best practices during implementation. A total of 55 articles were reviewed through searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. We used a qualitative approach to identify key stakeholders’ perceptions; semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse set of health IT stakeholders to understand their current practices and challenges related to usability during implementation. We used a grounded theory approach: data were coded, sorted, and emerging themes were identified. Conclusions from both sources of data were compared to identify areas of misalignment. Results We identified six emerging themes from the literature and stakeholder interviews: cost and resources, risk assessment, governance and consensus building, customization, clinical work-flow and usability testing, and training. Across these themes, there were misalignments between the literature and stakeholder perspectives, indicating major gaps. Discussion Major gaps identified from each of six emerging themes are discussed as critical areas for future research, opportunities for new stakeholder initiatives, and opportunities to better disseminate resources to improve the implementation of EHRs. Conclusion Our analysis identified practices and challenges across six different emerging themes, illustrated important gaps, and results suggest critical areas for future research and dissemination to improve EHR implementation. PMID:27847961

  16. MV controlled spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimovich, V.M.; Evlampiev, S.B.; Korshunov, G.S.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Sviridov, Yu.F.; Khmyrov, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    A megavolt gas-filled trigatron gap with a sectional gas-discharge chamber having a more than three-fold range of operating voltages is described. The discharge chamber consists of ten sections, each 70 mm thick, made of organic glass. The sections are separated one from another by aluminium gradient rings to which ohmic voltage divider is connected. Insulational sections and gradient rings are braced between themselves by means of metal flanges through gaskets made of oil-resistant rubber with the help of fiberglass-laminate pins. The gap has two electrodes 110 mm in diameter. The trigatron ignition assembly uses a dielectric bushing projecting over the main electrode plane. Use has been made of a gas mixture containing 10% of SF 6 and 90% of air making possible to ensure stable gap operation without readjusting in the voltage range from 0.4 to 1.35 MV. The operation time lag in this range is equal to 10 μs at a spread of [ru

  17. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  18. SUBORDINATE GAPS IN MANDARIN CHINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chi Wei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of subordinate gaps in Mandarin Chinese casts doubt on analyses built on canonical coordinate gapping. We observe that the minimality of contrastive focus and the type of subordinate clause determine the acceptability of a missing gap in subordinate structure. Along this vein, we propose that a semantic-based deletion account can be used to interpret gapping in Mandarin. Such account relies on two violable constraints, AvoidF and Focus condition on gapping (Schwarzchild 1999, Merchant 2001 to compute the acceptability of a gap.

  19. Detection of Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Urban Sprawl in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia: An Analysis of Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tauhidur Rahman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While several studies examined land use and land cover changes in the central and western parts of Saudi Arabia, this study is the first to use remote sensing data to examine the decadal land cover changes in Saudi Arabia’s eastern coastal city of Al-Khobar between 1990 and 2013. Specifically, it utilized ISODATA classification method to classify Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI data collected from 1990, 2001, and 2013 and then detected changes in the land cover within the study area. It then measured urban sprawl by calculating the relative Shannon’s entropy index values for the three years. With overall classification accuracies greater than 85%, the results show that urban built-up areas increased by 117% between 1990 and 2001 and 43.51% from 2001 to 2013. Vegetation increased by 110% from 1990 to 2001 and by 52% between 2001 and 2013. The entropy index values of 0.700 (1990, 0.779 (2001, and 0.840 (2013 indicates a high rate of urban sprawl and the city dispersing near the outskirts and towards the neighboring cities of Dhahran and Dammam. Future studies should examine the current challenges faced by the city’s residents due to urban expansion and attempt to find ways to resolve them in the near future.

  20. Detection and temporal variation of (60)Co in the digestive glands of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takami; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Fujimoto, Ken; Nishiuchi, Kou; Kimoto, Katsunori; Yamada, Haruya; Kasai, Hiromi; Minakawa, Masayuki; Yoshida, Katsuhiko

    2010-08-01

    (60)Co were detected in common octopus specimens collected in the East China Sea in 1996-2005. The source of (60)Co has remained unclear yet. Stable isotope analyses showed that there was no difference in stable Co concentrations between octopus samples with (60)Co and without (60)Co. This result showed that the stable Co in the digestive gland of octopus potentially did not include a trace amount of (60)Co and the source of (60)Co existed independently. Furthermore, investigations of octopus in other area and other species indicated that the origin of the source of (60)Co occurred locally in the restricted area in the East China Sea and not in the coastal area of Japan. Concentrations of (60)Co have annually decreased with shorter half-life than the physical half-life. This decrease tendency suggests that the sources of (60)Co were identical and were temporary dumped into the East China Sea as a solid waste. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The application of FORMOSAT-2 high-temporal- and high-spatial resolution imagery for monitoring open straw burning and carbon emission detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice is produced in more than 95 countries worldwide and is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Rice is also a major food crop of Taiwan. There are numerous rice crops planted on the western plains of Taiwan, and, after the harvest season, the left-over straw is often burned on-site. The air pollutants from the burning emissions include CO2, CO, CH4 and other suspended particles, most of these being the greenhouse gases which cause global climate change. In this study FORMOSAT-2 satellite images and ground-truth data from 2008 and 2009 are used to conduct supervised classification and calculate the extent of the straw burning areas. It was found that 10% of the paddies in the study area were burned after harvest during this 2-yr period. On this pro rata basis, we calculated the overall carbon emissions from the burning of the straw. The findings showed that these few farmers produced up to 34 000 tons of carbon emissions in 2008, and 40 000 tons in 2009. The study results indicate that remotely sensed images can be used to efficiently evaluate the important characteristics for carbon emission detection. It also provides quantitative results that are relevant to tracking sources of transport pollution, postharvest burning, and Asian dust in Taiwan.

  2. The application of FORMOSAT-2 high-temporal- and high-spatial resolution imagery for monitoring open straw burning and carbon emission detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-C.; Tseng, P.-Y.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2013-03-01

    Rice is produced in more than 95 countries worldwide and is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Rice is also a major food crop of Taiwan. There are numerous rice crops planted on the western plains of Taiwan, and, after the harvest season, the left-over straw is often burned on-site. The air pollutants from the burning emissions include CO2, CO, CH4 and other suspended particles, most of these being the greenhouse gases which cause global climate change. In this study FORMOSAT-2 satellite images and ground-truth data from 2008 and 2009 are used to conduct supervised classification and calculate the extent of the straw burning areas. It was found that 10% of the paddies in the study area were burned after harvest during this 2-yr period. On this pro rata basis, we calculated the overall carbon emissions from the burning of the straw. The findings showed that these few farmers produced up to 34 000 tons of carbon emissions in 2008, and 40 000 tons in 2009. The study results indicate that remotely sensed images can be used to efficiently evaluate the important characteristics for carbon emission detection. It also provides quantitative results that are relevant to tracking sources of transport pollution, postharvest burning, and Asian dust in Taiwan.

  3. Temporal and speech processing skills in normal hearing individuals exposed to occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Ajith Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea and result in permanent noise-induced cochlear hearing loss. Consequences of cochlear hearing loss on speech perception and psychophysical abilities have been well documented. Primary goal of this research was to explore temporal processing and speech perception Skills in individuals who are exposed to occupational noise of more than 80 dBA and not yet incurred clinically significant threshold shifts. Contribution of temporal processing skills to speech perception in adverse listening situation was also evaluated. A total of 118 participants took part in this research. Participants comprised three groups of train drivers in the age range of 30-40 (n= 13, 41 50 ( = 13, 41-50 (n = 9, and 51-60 (n = 6 years and their non-noise-exposed counterparts (n = 30 in each age group. Participants of all the groups including the train drivers had hearing sensitivity within 25 dB HL in the octave frequencies between 250 and 8 kHz. Temporal processing was evaluated using gap detection, modulation detection, and duration pattern tests. Speech recognition was tested in presence multi-talker babble at -5dB SNR. Differences between experimental and control groups were analyzed using ANOVA and independent sample t-tests. Results showed a trend of reduced temporal processing skills in individuals with noise exposure. These deficits were observed despite normal peripheral hearing sensitivity. Speech recognition scores in the presence of noise were also significantly poor in noise-exposed group. Furthermore, poor temporal processing skills partially accounted for the speech recognition difficulties exhibited by the noise-exposed individuals. These results suggest that noise can cause significant distortions in the processing of suprathreshold temporal cues which may add to difficulties in hearing in adverse listening conditions.

  4. Non-metallic gage for gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Hideo.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a non-metallic gage for detecting a gap which can not be seen from the out side such as a gap between a water pipe and fuel rods without damaging an objective material as to whether the gap is formed within a standard value or not. The gage is made of a synthetic resin, for example, polyacetal having such a hardness as not damaging the objective material and endurable to repeating flexure upon use. The gage comprises a short gage portion having a predetermined standard thickness and an flexible extended connection portion reduced in the thickness. Provision of the extended connection portion enables wide range flexure thereof such as ±60deg relative to insertion direction during insertion operation upon testing to solve a drawback in the prior art such as worry of breakage of the gage, thereby enabling to conduct inspection rapidly at high reliability. (N.H.)

  5. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Pablo H C G; Miranda, Fábio; Veras, Adonney; de Melo, Diego Magalhães; Soares, Siomar; Pinheiro, Kenny; Guimarães, Luis; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2016-01-01

    The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer.

  6. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo H C G de Sá

    Full Text Available The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer.

  7. Lateral temporal encephaloceles: case-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Kazuhito; Kato, Mihoko; Chu, Jonsu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Lateral temporal encephalocele is an extremely rare clinical condition, with only 18 cases presented in the literature to date. No review articles have examined lateral temporal encephalocele in depth. We therefore reviewed past cases of lateral encephalocele to clarify the clinical characteristics of this extremely rare deformity. We also present a case of lateral encephalocele with arachnoid cyst which has never been reported in past reports. We identified 8 reports describing 18 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele. We therefore reviewed 19 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele, including our own experience, and discussed the clinical characteristics of this pathology. All the cases with lateral temporal encephalocele were detected at birth except for an occult case. The majority occurred at the pterion, and occurrence at the asterion appears much rarer. Due to the preference for the pterion, the ipsilateral orbital wall was also distorted in some cases. Lateral temporal encephalocele seems to have fewer associated malformations: only 3 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele had associated malformations, including our case which was associated with intracranial arachnoid cyst. The only case of lateral temporal encephalocele to have shown hydrocephalus was our own case. Patients with this deformity have relatively good prognoses: only 3 of the 19 cases showed delayed psychomotor development during follow-up. Provision of adequate treatment is likely to achieve a good prognosis in patients with lateral temporal encephalocele, so we should keep in mind this deformity when encountering pediatric patients with mass lesions on the temporal cranium.

  8. Closing the stop gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakon, Michal; Mitov, Alexander; Papucci, Michele; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Ruderman, Joshua T.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; New York Univ., NY; Weiler, Andreas; CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva

    2014-07-01

    Light stops are a hallmark of the most natural realizations of weak-scale supersymmetry. While stops have been extensively searched for, there remain open gaps around and below the top mass, due to similarities of stop and top signals with current statistics. We propose a new fast-track avenue to improve light stop searches for R-parity conserving supersymmetry, by comparing top cross section measurements to the theoretical prediction. Stop masses below ∝180 GeV can now be ruled out for a light neutralino. The possibility of a stop signal contaminating the top mass measurement is also briefly addressed.

  9. Photonic band gap materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassagne, D.

    Photonic band gap materials Photonic band gap materials are periodic dielectric structures that control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. We describe the plane wave method, which allows to calculate the band structures of photonic crystals. By symmetry analysis and a perturbative approach, we predict the appearance of the low energy photonic band gaps of hexagonal structures. We propose new two-dimensional structures called graphite and boron nitride. Using a transfer matrix method, we calculate the transmission of the graphite structure and we show the crucial role of the coupling with external modes. We study the appearance of allowed modes in the photonic band gap by the introduction of localized defects in the periodicity. Finally, we discuss the properties of opals formed by self-organized silica microspheres, which are very promising for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals. Les matériaux à bandes interdites photoniques sont des structures diélectriques périodiques qui contrôlent la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques. Nous décrivons la méthode des ondes planes qui permet de calculer les structures de bandes des cristaux photoniques. Par une analyse de la symétrie et une approche perturbative, nous précisons les conditions d'existence des bandes interdites de basse énergie. Nous proposons de nouvelles structures bidimensionnelles appelées graphite et nitrure de bore. Grâce à une méthode de matrices de transfert, nous calculons la transmission de la structure graphite et nous mettons en évidence le rôle fondamental du couplage avec les modes extérieurs. Nous étudions l'apparition de modes permis dans la bande interdite grâce à l'introduction de défauts dans la périodicité. Enfin, nous discutons les propriétés des opales constituées de micro-billes de silice auto-organisées, qui sont très prometteuses pour la fabrication de cristaux photoniques tridimensionnels.

  10. gap: Genetic Analysis Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hua Zhao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary attempt at collecting tools and utilities for genetic data as an R package called gap is described. Genomewide association is then described as a specific example, linking the work of Risch and Merikangas (1996, Long and Langley (1997 for family-based and population-based studies, and the counterpart for case-cohort design established by Cai and Zeng (2004. Analysis of staged design as outlined by Skol et al. (2006 and associate methods are discussed. The package is flexible, customizable, and should prove useful to researchers especially in its application to genomewide association studies.

  11. Gaps in nonsymmetric numerical semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel, Leonid G.; Aicardi, Francesca

    2006-12-01

    There exist two different types of gaps in the nonsymmetric numerical semigroups S(d 1 , . . . , d m ) finitely generated by a minimal set of positive integers {d 1 , . . . , d m }. We give the generating functions for the corresponding sets of gaps. Detailed description of both gap types is given for the 1st nontrivial case m = 3. (author)

  12. GAP-REACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Raggio, Greer A.; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Duan, Naihua; Marcus, Sue; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Humensky, Jennifer; Becker, Anne E.; Alarcón, Renato D.; Oquendo, María A.; Hansen, Helena; Like, Robert C.; Weiss, Mitchell; Desai, Prakash N.; Jacobsen, Frederick M.; Foulks, Edward F.; Primm, Annelle; Lu, Francis; Kopelowicz, Alex; Hinton, Ladson; Hinton, Devon E.

    2015-01-01

    Growing awareness of health and health care disparities highlights the importance of including information about race, ethnicity, and culture (REC) in health research. Reporting of REC factors in research publications, however, is notoriously imprecise and unsystematic. This article describes the development of a checklist to assess the comprehensiveness and the applicability of REC factor reporting in psychiatric research publications. The 16-itemGAP-REACH© checklist was developed through a rigorous process of expert consensus, empirical content analysis in a sample of publications (N = 1205), and interrater reliability (IRR) assessment (N = 30). The items assess each section in the conventional structure of a health research article. Data from the assessment may be considered on an item-by-item basis or as a total score ranging from 0% to 100%. The final checklist has excellent IRR (κ = 0.91). The GAP-REACH may be used by multiple research stakeholders to assess the scope of REC reporting in a research article. PMID:24080673

  13. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  14. Closing the value gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    It's a predicament. For the most part, investor-owned electric utilities trade at a deep discount to the actual (that is, replacement-cost) value to their assets. That's because most utilities fail to earn real returns large enough to justify raising and investing capital. The result is a value gap, where overall market value is significantly lower than the replacement costs of the assets. This gap is wider for utilities than for virtually any other industry in our economy. In addition to providing education and awareness, senior management must determine which businesses and activities create value and which diminish it. Then, management must allocate capital and human resources appropriately, holding down investments in value-diminishing areas until they can improve their profitability, and aggressively investing in value-enhancing businesses while preserving their profitability. But value management must not stop with resource-allocation decisions. To create a lasting transition to a value management philosophy, the utility's compensation system must also change: executives will have motivation to create value when compensation stems from this goal, not from such misleading accounting measures as earnings-per-share growth or ROE. That requires clear value-creation goals, and the organization must continuously evaluate top management's performance in light of the progress made toward those goals

  15. Temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Although pluridirectional tomography had been the standard method to evaluate the temporal bone, computed tomography has replaced it for nearly all applications. Magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate nonosseous temporal bone structures as well

  16. The precise temporal calibration of dinosaur origins

    OpenAIRE

    Marsicano, Claudia A.; Irmis, Randall B.; Mancuso, Adriana C.; Mundil, Roland; Chemale, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Many hypotheses have been put forth to explain the origin and early radiation of dinosaurs, but poor age constraints for constituent fossil assemblages make these scenarios difficult to test. Using precise radioisotopic ages, we demonstrate that the temporal gap between assemblages containing only dinosaur precursors and those with the first dinosaurs was 5–10 million years shorter than previously thought. Thus, these data suggest that the origin of dinosaurs was a relatively rapid evolutiona...

  17. The Adaptation Finance Gap Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report series focuses on Finance, Technology and Knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It compliments the Emissions Gap Report series, and explores the implications of failing to close the emissions gap. The report builds on a 2014 assessment by the United Nations...... Environment Programme (UNEP), which laid out the concept of ‘adaptation gaps’ and outlined three such gaps: technology, finance and knowledge. The 2016 Adaptation Gap Report assesses the difference between the financial costs of adapting to climate change in developing countries and the amount of money...... and highlights challenges associated with measuring progress towards fulfilling the adaptation finance gap, while informing national and international efforts to advance adaptation. It analyses the ‘adaptation finance gap’ against the background of the provisions laid out in the Paris Agreement, and benefits...

  18. Minding the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Carlberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plan for the Round table session was to focus on organizational and social/cultural differences between librarians and faculty with the aim to increase our awareness of the differences when we try to find ways to cooperate within the academy or school. This may help us to sort things out, experience acceptance and take adequate actions, saving energy and perhaps be less frustrated.  The questions that the workshop addressed were: What is in the gap between librarians and faculty when dealing with information literacy? How can we fill the gap? Participants discussed this in detail with the aim of together finding ways to understand it better and make it possible to find ways to fill this gap. By defining it and thereby making it easier to work out a strategy for future action to improve the teaching of information literacy, including listing possible, impossible or nearly impossible ways. The springboard to the discussion was extracted from some projects that the workshop leader has been engaged in since 2009. The first example is a research circle where Uppsala University Library used action research to observe and understand the process when we had the opportunity to implement information literacy classes with progression in an undergraduate program. What worked well? What did not? Why? This work was described together with other examples from Uppsala University to an international panel working with quality issues. What did they think of our work? May this change the ways we are working? How? Another example is an ongoing joint project where librarians and faculty members are trying to define ways to increase the cooperation between the library and faculty and make this cooperation sustainable. Recent experience from this was brought to the discussion.   There are an overwhelming number of papers written in this field. A few papers have inspired these ideas. One article in particular: Christiansen, L., Stombler, M. & Thaxton, L. (2004. A

  19. Mesial temporal sclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    2005-07-29

    Jul 29, 2005 ... tail of the hippocampus were involved, with associated poor grey- white matter differentiation. In addi- tion, there was atrophy of the hip- pocampus and fornix, with dilatation of the temporal horn (Figs 1 - 4). Discussion. Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the commonest cause of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  20. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bridging the Evaluation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wouters

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Wouters’ essay is concerned with bridging the gap between what we value in our academic work and how we are assessed in formal evaluation exercises. He reflects on the recent evaluation of his own center, and reminds us that it is productive to see evaluations not as the (obviously impossible attempt to produce a true representation of past work, but rather as the exploration and performance of “who one wants to be.” Reflecting on why STS should do more than just play along to survive in the indicator game, he suggests that our field should contribute to changing its very rules. In this endeavor, the attitude and sensibilities developed in our field may be more important than any specific theoretical concepts or methodologies.

  2. Finding the gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, A. M.

    Much of the pioneering work on radiation damage was based on very simple potentials. Potentials are now much more sophisticated and accurate. Self-consistent molecular dynamics is routine for adiabatic energy surfaces, at least for modest numbers of atoms and modest timescales. This means that non-equilibrium nuclear processes can be followed dynamically. It might also give the illusion that any damage process can be modelled with success. Sadly, this is not yet so. This paper discusses where the gaps lie, and specifically three groups of challenges. The first challenge concerns electronic excited states. The second challenge concerns timescales, from femtoseconds to tens of years. The third challenge concerns length scales, and the link between microscopic (atomistic) and mesoscopic (microstructural) scales. The context of these challenges is materials modification by excitation: the removal of material, the modification of bulk or surface material, the altering of rates of processes or changing of branching ratios, and damage, good or bad.

  3. Pseudoaneurysm of the anterior superficial temporal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K; Borah, G L

    1996-12-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the superficial temporal artery must be considered in the differential diagnosis of masses of the lateral forehead and temporal fossa. While the first reported case of a temporal artery aneurysm was reported by Thomas Bartholin in 1740, there is scant mention of this lesion in the plastic and maxillofacial surgical literature. Pseudoaneurysms can arise in the forehead and scalp as a result of blunt traumatic impingement of the superficial temporal artery against the calvarium. The anterior branch of the artery is most vulnerable, because in the lateral forehead it courses over the frontal osseous ridge in the galea aponeurotica formed by the fusion line of the deep and superficial temporalis muscle fascia. This dense fascial investment has a tethering effect in the gap between the temporalis and frontalis muscles and prevents the artery from displacing laterally in response to traumatic forces. A history of recent blunt trauma or surgery to the forehead, combined with a pulsatile bruit, should direct the physician to the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm of the superficial temporal artery. Treatment is surgical resection of the involved segment without the need for reconstruction. This report includes a review of the literature and presents the first documented case of a bicycle helmet as the cause of a superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm.

  4. The effects of postnatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Jik; Kim, Jungyoon; Keoboutdy, Vanhnansy; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Oh, Seung-Ha; Jung, Jae Yun; Park, Il Yong; Paik, Ki Chung

    2017-06-01

    The central auditory pathway is known to continue its development during the postnatal critical periods and is shaped by experience and sensory inputs. Phthalate, a known neurotoxic material, has been reported to be associated with attention deficits in children, impacting many infant neurobehaviors. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of neonatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into two groups: The phthalate group (n = 6), and the control group (n = 6). Phthalate was given once per day from postnatal day 8 (P8) to P28. Upon completion, at P28, the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and Gap Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle response (GPIAS) at each gap duration (2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 80 ms) were measured, and gap detection threshold (GDT) was calculated. These outcomes were compared between the two groups. Hearing thresholds by ABR showed no significant differences at all frequencies between the two groups. Regarding GPIAS, no significant difference was observed, except at a gap duration of 20 ms (p = 0.037). The mean GDT of the phthalate group (44.0 ms) was higher than that of the control group (20.0 ms), but without statistical significance (p = 0.065). Moreover, the phthalate group tended to demonstrate more of a scattered distribution in the GDT group than the in the control group. Neonatal phthalate exposure may disrupt the development of auditory temporal processing in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis with combination of gap arthroplasty surgery and physiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Ramadhanty

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ ankylosis is a union of the articular surface of the temporal bone to the disc-condyle complex that restricts mandibular movements due to either a fibrous or bony union between the head of the condyle and the glenoid fossa. Common etiological factors are trauma, infection, and pathology in the joint or systemic diseases. The diagnosis of TMJ ankylosis is established through physical and clinical evaluation, and imaging examination. Currently, the surgical techniques used to treat TMJ ankylosis are gap arthroplasty, interpositional arthroplasty, joint reconstruction, and distraction osteogenesis. Purpose. To provide overview about management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis with gap arthroplasty combined with physiotherapy post surgery. Case. A 12-year-old female patient came to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with complaint of opening mouth restriction, which occured since one year prior to admission. After complete physical and radiographic examination, patient then was diagnosed with TMJ ankylosis due to neglected odontogenic infection. The treatment was performed with gap arthroplasty under general anesthesia. Patient then underwent physiotherapy after the surgery, including application of heat on the affected region and exercises to open and close mouth. Discussion. Ankylosis of TMJ is an uncommon case that results in chronic and severe limited mouth opening. The critical factor of successful treatment of TMJ ankylosis is early detection, correct surgery approach, implementation of an intensive physiotherapy program, and a good post-operative conduct. Therefore on this patient, gap arthroplasty was the chosen surgery approach followed by intensive physiotherapy. Conclusion.Management goal in TMJ ankylosis is  to increase the patient’s mandibular function, correct associated facial deformity, decrease pain, and prevent reankylosis. Careful surgical technique and subsequent atten

  6. Temporal prediction errors modulate task-switching performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eLimongi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that temporal prediction errors (PEs, the differences between the expected and the actual stimulus’ onset times modulate the effective connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the right anterior insular cortex (rAI, causing the activity of the rAI to decrease. The activity of the rAI is associated with efficient performance under uncertainty (e.g., changing a prepared behavior when a change demand is not expected, which leads to hypothesize that temporal PEs might disrupt behavior-change performance under uncertainty. This hypothesis has not been tested at a behavioral level. In this work, we evaluated this hypothesis within the context of task switching and concurrent temporal predictions. Our participants performed temporal predictions while observing one moving ball striking a stationary ball which bounced off with a variable temporal gap. Simultaneously, they performed a simple color comparison task. In some trials, a change signal made the participants change their behaviors. Performance accuracy decreased as a function of both the temporal PE and the delay. Explaining these results without appealing to ad-hoc concepts such as executive control is a challenge for cognitive neuroscience. We provide a predictive coding explanation. We hypothesize that exteroceptive and proprioceptive minimization of PEs would converge in a fronto-basal ganglia network which would include the rAI. Both temporal gaps (or uncertainty and temporal PEs would drive and modulate this network respectively. Whereas the temporal gaps would drive the activity of the rAI, the temporal PEs would modulate the endogenous excitatory connections of the fronto-striatal network. We conclude that in the context of perceptual uncertainty, the system is not able to minimize perceptual PE, causing the ongoing behavior to finalize and, in consequence, disrupting task switching.

  7. Fabrication of gap-optimized CMUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Oliver; Buhrdorf, Andreas; Hohlfeld, Dennis; Tebje, Lars; Binder, Josef

    2002-09-01

    A recently introduced set up of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUT) combines a conductive membrane above a structured sacrificial layer. All previous approaches either require an additional metallic electrode or do not possess a structured sacrificial layer and, consequently, may make exact adjustment of the membrane dimensions difficult. The present set ups are especially suited for the fabrication of cMUT with gap heights ranging between 50 nm and 2 microm between the electrodes. Large gaps are a prerequisite to enabling sufficient deflections of the membrane and, therewith, to generating high pressure gradients. On the other hand, small gap sizes are desirable for detecting weak ultrasonic sources. This paper focuses on the fabrication process of cMUT to realize electrode separation above 500 nm and, in addition, on the manufacturing of cMUT with gaps below 500 nm. The successful realization has been proven by some basic experimental investigations. Finally, the fundamental equations of a frequently chosen simulation model are documented, as a number of ambiguities exist in the common literature.

  8. Measuring the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshu She MD, MPH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available China is a large country where rapid development is accompanied by growing inequalities. How economic inequalities translate to health inequalities is unknown. Baseline health assessment is lacking among rural Chinese children. We aimed at assessing baseline student health of rural Chinese children and comparing them with those of urban children of similar ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2003 Global School-Based Student Health Survey among 100 students Grade 4 to 6 from rural Guizhou, China. Results were summarized and compared with public data from urban Beijing using multivariate logistic regression models. Rural children are more likely to not wash their hands before a meal (odds ratio [OR] = 5.71, P .05. Rural parents are more likely to not know their children’s whereabouts (OR = 1.81, P < .05. Rural children are more than 4 times likely to have serious injuries (OR = 4.64, P < .01 and to be bullied (OR = 4.01, P < .01. In conclusion, school-age rural Chinese children exhibit more health risk behaviors and fewer protective factors at baseline compared to their urban counterparts. Any intervention aimed at improving child health should take this distributive gap into consideration.

  9. Radiating gap filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In May, corrosion on the outside wall of the over 50 year old Canadian Chalk River reactor vessel caused a heavy water leak and the reactor was shut down triggering worldwide a nuclear medicine shortage. The reactor is also a major supplier of the isotope molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), a precursor of the medically widely used technetium-99 m . To fill the gap in demand, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has now arranged with US company Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc., a world leader in medical imaging, to supply Mo-99. Subject to pending Australian regulatory processes, the deal is expected to assist in alleviating the world's current nuclear medicine shortage. As ANSTO is currently also the only global commercial supplier that produces Mo-99 from low enriched uranium (LEU) targets, Lantheus will be the first company bringing LEU derived Tc-99 m to the US market. To date, over 95% of Mo-99 is derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, there are concerns regarding proliferation risks associated with HEU targets and for commercial uses production from LEU targets would be desirable. ANSTO says that global Mo-99 supply chain is fragile and limited and it is working closely with nuclear safety and healthy regulators, both domestically and overseas, to expedite all necessary approvals to allow long-term production and export of medical isotopes.

  10. Análise espaço-temporal da clorose variegada dos citros no Noroeste do Paraná, com uso de PCR para detecção de Xylella fastidiosa = Spatio-temporal analysis of the citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC in the Northwest of Paraná, using PCR for detection of Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mário de Carvalho Nunes

    2006-07-01

    (presence of CVC symptoms or molecular analysis by PCR and 8 plants around of each one reference-plant were evaluated, totaling 36 plants for variety. The detection of the bacteria was conduced by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique. Simultaneously, evaluations through visual symptoms of CVC were conducted. The results of the temporal analysis were obtained using the Monomolecular, Logistic and Gompertz models. The Logistic model was the one that best fit to describe the behavior of the disease in the time, for all the studied varieties. Data showed that the space behavior of the disease differed when the same area was evaluated by visual and molecular methods, resulting in a difference in the space pattern of the evaluated areas. Therefore, the two used methods, symptoms and PCR, were capable of verifyingthese changes in the presented space pattern, but the molecular analysis (PCR was better at detecting the happened changes.

  11. Advances in temporal logic

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  12. Age-related deficits in auditory temporal processing: unique contributions of neural dyssynchrony and slowed neuronal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kelly C; Dubno, Judy R

    2017-05-01

    This study was guided by the hypothesis that the aging central nervous system progressively loses its ability to process rapid acoustic changes that are important for speech recognition. Specifically, we hypothesized that age-related deficits in neural synchrony and neuronal oscillatory activity occur independently in older adults and disrupt auditory temporal processing. Neural synchrony is largely dependent on phase locking within the central auditory pathway, beginning at the auditory nerve. In contrast, the resonance characteristics of oscillatory activity are dependent on the integrity and structure of long range cortical connections. We tested our hypotheses by assessing age-related differences in electrophysiologic correlates of neural synchrony and peak oscillatory frequency in younger and older adults with normal hearing and determining their associations with a behavioral measure of gap detection. Phase-locking values were smaller (poorer neural synchrony) and peak alpha frequency was lower for older than younger adults and decreased as gap detection thresholds increased; variations in phase-locking values and peak alpha frequency uniquely predicted gap detection thresholds. These effects were driven, in large part, by associations in older adults. These results reveal dissociable neural mechanisms associated with distinct underlying pathology that may differentially be present in older adults and contribute to auditory processing declines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PhoneGap for enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Shotts, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who wish to use PhoneGap to develop useful, rich, secure mobile applications for their enterprise environment. The book assumes you have working knowledge of PhoneGap, HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript, and a reasonable understanding of networking and n-tier architectures.

  14. LiGAPS-Beef 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    LiGAPS-Beef is a mechanistic model to assess potential and feed-limited beef production in different beef production systems across the world. The model is one of the first using concepts of production ecology to simulate livestock production. LiGAPS-Beef consists of a thermoregulation sub-model, a

  15. LiGAPS-Beef 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    LiGAPS-Beef is a mechanistic model to assess potential and feed-limited beef production in different beef production systems across the world. The model is one of the first using concepts of production ecology to simulate livestock production. LiGAPS-Beef consists of a thermoregulation sub-model, a

  16. False air-bone gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmin, F

    1983-01-01

    A single case is reported of a severely hearing-impaired child with a finding of a large air-bone gap on pure-tone audiometry on multiple tests. Exploratory surgery found normal middle ear function. Subsequent audiometry indicated the presence of a false air-bone gap resulting from vibrotactile responses. Test procedures for identifying vibrotactile responses are discussed.

  17. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave band gap structures exhibit certain stop band characteristics based on the periodicity, impedance contrast and effective refractive index contrast. These structures though formed in one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity, are huge in size. In this paper, microstrip-based microwave band gap structures are ...

  18. The Emissions Gap Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    This fifth Emissions Gap report has a different focus from previous years. While it updates the 2020 emissions gap analysis, it gives particular attention to the implications of the global carbon dioxide emissions budget for staying within the 2 °C limit beyond 2020. It does so because countries ...

  19. Closing the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Kobiella, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    , which, though independent of each other, are determined by questions of the ongoing design process. The first step consists of an abstract or subjective research phase; in the second step the findings are transferred into dynamic spatial structures. Later, the detected qualities are used to develop...... a given building program. Finally, the different traces are connected, when site-specific parameters are blended with the design traces. This paper examines and evaluates textual and visual design approaches, the precise use of different kinds of media for the projects’ visualization, and the way...

  20. The fluctuating gap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T c in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the quasi

  1. The fluctuating gap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-15

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T{sub c} in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the

  2. Gap processing for adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2013-10-17

    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  3. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  4. Dynamic Temporal Decoupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mountakis, K.S.; Klos, T.; Witteveen, C.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal decoupling is a method to distribute a temporal constraint problem over a number of actors, such that each actor can solve its own part of the problem. It then ensures that the partial solutions provided can be always merged to obtain a complete solution. This paper discusses static and

  5. Temporal Processing in Audition: Insights from Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Vani G; Teki, Sundeep; Schnupp, Jan W H

    2017-11-03

    Music is a curious example of a temporally patterned acoustic stimulus, and a compelling pan-cultural phenomenon. This review strives to bring some insights from decades of music psychology and sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) literature into the mainstream auditory domain, arguing that musical rhythm perception is shaped in important ways by temporal processing mechanisms in the brain. The feature that unites these disparate disciplines is an appreciation of the central importance of timing, sequencing, and anticipation. Perception of musical rhythms relies on an ability to form temporal predictions, a general feature of temporal processing that is equally relevant to auditory scene analysis, pattern detection, and speech perception. By bringing together findings from the music and auditory literature, we hope to inspire researchers to look beyond the conventions of their respective fields and consider the cross-disciplinary implications of studying auditory temporal sequence processing. We begin by highlighting music as an interesting sound stimulus that may provide clues to how temporal patterning in sound drives perception. Next, we review the SMS literature and discuss possible neural substrates for the perception of, and synchronization to, musical beat. We then move away from music to explore the perceptual effects of rhythmic timing in pattern detection, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Finally, we review the neurophysiology of general timing processes that may underlie aspects of the perception of rhythmic patterns. We conclude with a brief summary and outlook for future research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal Integration in Nasal Lateralization of Homologous Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Paul M.; Toczydlowski, Sean E.; Wysocki, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    Through temporal integration, sensory systems accumulate stimulus energy, e.g., photons, acoustic energy, or molecules, over time to detect weaker signals than they otherwise could. Past studies found imperfect temporal integration in detection of nasal irritation: To maintain a fixed level of detection, one must increase stimulus-duration by more than 2-fold to compensate for cutting concentration in half. Despite this generality, integration varied widely among compounds, from nearly perfec...

  7. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously be con...

  8. Closing the Cybersecurity Skills Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vogel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current consensus is that there is a worldwide gap in skills needed for a competent cybersecurity workforce. This skills gap has implications for the national security sector, both public and private. Although the view is that this will take a concerted effort to rectify, it presents an opportunity for IT professionals, university students, and aspirants to take-up jobs in national security national intelligence as well military and law enforcement intelligence. This paper examines context of the issue, the nature of the cybersecurity skills gap, and some key responses by governments to address the problem. The paper also examines the emerging employment trends, some of the employment challenges, and what these might mean for practice. The paper argues that the imperative is to close the cyber skills gap by taking advantage of the window of opportunity, allowing individuals interested in moving into the cybersecurity field to do so via education and training.

  9. Mesial Temporal Sclerosis: Accuracy of NeuroQuant versus Neuroradiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, M; Carone, M; Ying, S H; Yousem, D M

    2015-08-01

    We sought to compare the accuracy of a volumetric fully automated computer assessment of hippocampal volume asymmetry versus neuroradiologists' interpretations of the temporal lobes for mesial temporal sclerosis. Detecting mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is important for the evaluation of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy as it often guides surgical intervention. One feature of MTS is hippocampal volume loss. Electronic medical record and researcher reports of scans of patients with proved mesial temporal sclerosis were compared with volumetric assessment with an FDA-approved software package, NeuroQuant, for detection of mesial temporal sclerosis in 63 patients. The degree of volumetric asymmetry was analyzed to determine the neuroradiologists' threshold for detecting right-left asymmetry in temporal lobe volumes. Thirty-six patients had left-lateralized MTS, 25 had right-lateralized MTS, and 2 had bilateral MTS. The estimated accuracy of the neuroradiologist was 72.6% with a κ statistic of 0.512 (95% CI, 0.315-0.710) [moderate agreement, P NeuroQuant was 79.4% with a κ statistic of 0.588 (95% CI, 0.388-0.787) [moderate agreement, P NeuroQuant compares favorably with trained neuroradiologists in predicting the side of mesial temporal sclerosis. Neuroradiologists can often detect even small temporal lobe volumetric changes visually. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Interaction design is distinguished from most other design disciplines through its temporal form. Temporal form is the computational structure that enables and demands a temporal expression in the resulting design. Temporal form is what enables poetry. In music, temporal form is the composition o...

  11. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    , these query languages are implemented by translating temporal queries into standard relational queries. However, the compiled queries are often quite cumbersome and expensive to execute even using state-of-the-art relational products. This paper presents an optimization technique that produces more efficient...... translated SQL queries by taking into account the properties of the encoding used for temporal attributes. For concreteness, this translation technique is presented in the context of SQL/TP; however, these techniques are also applicable to other temporal query languages....

  12. Smile detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rus, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Facial expressions are one of the most powerful and indirect means of transferring feelings, cognitive status, ulterior motive and opinion among people. Considering their significance it is reasonable to expect that the development of tools recognizing facial expressions would have a big effect on everyday life. In the past years, the developers have made big progress on the development of classifiers that are needed for this kind of expression detection; however there is still a great gap be...

  13. Improving the privacy of optical steganography with temporal phase masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Fok, M P; Xu, L; Chang, J; Prucnal, P R

    2010-03-15

    Temporal phase modulation of spread stealth signals is proposed and demonstrated to improve optical steganography transmission privacy. After phase modulation, the temporally spread stealth signal has a more complex spectral-phase-temporal relationship, such that the original temporal profile cannot be restored when only dispersion compensation is applied to the temporally spread stealth signals. Therefore, it increases the difficulty for the eavesdropper to detect and intercept the stealth channel that is hidden under a public transmission, even with a correct dispersion compensation device. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and display insignificant degradation in transmission performance, compared to the conventional stealth transmission without temporal phase modulation. The proposed system can also work without a clock transmission for signal synchronization. Our analysis and simulation results show that it is difficult for the adversary to detect the existence of the stealth transmission, or find the correct phase mask to recover the stealth signals.

  14. Verb gapping: an action-gap compatibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Berry

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses the processing of verb-gapping sentences, e.g., John closes a juice bottle and Jim [ ] a lemonade bottle. The goal was to explore if there would be an interaction between language comprehension and motor action not only for overt action verbs but also for gapped verbs. Participants read gapping sentences that either described clockwise or counter-clockwise manual rotations (e.g., closes vs. opens a juice bottle). Adopting a paradigm developed by Zwaan and Taylor (2006), sentence presentation was frame-by-frame. Participants proceeded from frame to frame by turning a knob either clockwise or counter clockwise. Analyses of the frame reading-times yielded a significant effect of compatibility between the linguistically conveyed action and the knob turning for the overt-verb (e.g., closes/opens a juice bottle) as well as for the gapped-verb frame (e.g., a lemonade bottle) - with longer reading times in the match condition than in the mismatch condition - but not for any of the other frames (e.g., and Jim). The results are promising in providing novel evidence for the real-time reactivation of gapped verbs and in suggesting that action simulation is not bound to the processing of overt verbs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Aging and Temporal Influences on Speech Perception in Reverberation and Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Karen S.

    The present study examined the interactions of age, temporal resolution, hearing loss, and consonant perception under realistic listening conditions. Four subject groups were employed, with N = 8 per group: young adults with normal hearing or sloping sensorineural hearing loss; and elderly individuals with minimal peripheral hearing loss or presbycusis. Copies of the CUNY Nonsense Syllable Test (NST) were re-recorded under four levels of reverberation in quiet and in +10 signal-to-noise ratio of cafeteria noise. The test stimuli were presented binaurally to the subjects via TDH-49 headphones. In addition, a diotic wideband gap detection task, using a 72 dBSPL presentation level, was used as a measure of temporal resolution. Results of the present investigation demonstrated that all other subject groups performed significantly poorer than the young, normal hearing adults. Scores decreased as the amount of distortion increased, although there was very little difference between performance in the two highest reverberation conditions. For reverberation alone, the young, hearing-impaired listeners obtained the lowest scores; for reverberation + noise, the older, hearing-impaired subjects performed poorest. Large within-group variability was noted in the size of the gap thresholds, and only the two groups of young subjects differed significantly on this task of temporal resolution. Correlation analyses demonstrated a strong inverse relation between age and performance in reverberation + noise, even when degree of hearing loss was partialed out. Pure -tone average, as well as NST scores in quiet and in noise alone were related strongly to performance in reverberation. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that nonsense syllable perception in reverberation could be predicted from a combination of age, pure-tone thresholds, scores in quiet and noise, and gap threshold. Gap threshold was the strongest predictor variable for reverberation alone, while the NST score

  16. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy Temporal lobe seizure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  17. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  18. High doses of salicylate causes prepulse facilitation of onset-gap induced acoustic startle response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Doolittle, Lauren; Flowers, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Qiuju

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reflex (PPI), a well-established method for evaluating sensorimotor gating function, has been used to detect tinnitus in animal models. Reduced gap induced PPI (gap-PPI) was considered as a sign of tinnitus. The silent gap used in the test contains both onset and offset signals. Tinnitus may affect these cues differently. In this experiment, we studied the effects of a high dose of salicylate (250 mg/kg, i.p.), an inducer of reversible tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss, on gap-PPI induced by three different gaps: an onset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and 25 ms offset time, an offset-gap with 25 ms onset and 0.1 ms offset time, and an onset-offset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and offset time. We found that the onset-gaps induced smaller inhibitions than the offset-gaps before salicylate treatment. The offset-gap induced PPI was significantly reduced 1-3h after salicylate treatment. However, the onset-gap caused a facilitation of startle response. These results suggest that salicylate induced reduction of gap-PPI was not only caused by the decrease of offset-gap induced PPI, but also by the facilitation induced by the onset-gap. Since the onset-gap induced PPI is caused by neural offset response, our results suggest that salicylate may cause a facilitation of neural response to an offset acoustical signal. Treatment of vigabatrin (60 mg/kg/day, 14 days), which elevates the GABA level in the brain, blocked the offset-gap induced PPI and onset-gap induced facilitation caused by salicylate. These results suggest that enhancing GABAergic activities can alleviate salicylate induced tinnitus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Spatio-temporal modeling for residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfoud, M.; Bhulai, Sandjai; van der Mei, R.D.; Bhulai, Sandjai; Kardaras, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Spatio-temporal modeling is widely recognized as a promising means for predicting crime patterns. Despite their enormous potential, the available methods are still in their infancy. A lot of research focuses on crime hotspot detection and geographic crime clusters, while a systematic approach to

  20. Temporal bone meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrionis, F D; Robertson, J H; Gardner, G; Heilman, C B

    1999-01-01

    Meningiomas involving the temporal bone may originate from arachnoid cell nests present within the temporal bone (intratemporal), but more frequently originate from arachnoid cell nests of the posterior or middle cranial fossa with secondary invasion of the TB (extratemporal). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of 13 patients with meningiomas involving the temporal bone who underwent surgery. Tumors of the posterior fossa with only temporal bone hyperostosis, but without invasion, were excluded. Patients presented primarily with otologic symptoms and signs. The tumors originated in the temporal bone (5/13), jugular foramen (4/13), petroclival region (2/13), the asterion (1/13) or the internal auditory meatus (1/13). All of the intratemporal meningiomas had the radiological appearance of en-plaque menigiomas. The tumor extended into the middle ear (11/13), eustachian tube (5/13), and/or the labyrinth (3/13). A gross total resection was achieved in 11 patients and a subtotal resection in 2 patients. The lower cranial nerves were infiltrated by tumor in 4 patients, and were sacrificed. At a mean follow-up of approximately 6 years, 12 patients are currently alive and doing well and 1 died from tumor progression. Six patients showed tumor recurrence and were reoperated on (5/6) or followed conservatively (1/6). Surgical treatment of temporal bone meningiomas is associated with high recurrence rate due to indiscreet tumor margins. Combined surgical approaches (temporal craniotomy and mastoidectomy) by neurosurgical and otological teams are recommended for meningiomas originating in the temporal bone.

  1. Is There a Gap in the Gap? Regional Differences in the Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Boris; König, Marion; Möller, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate regional differences in the gender pay gap both theoretically and empirically. Within a spatial oligopsony model, we show that more densely populated labour markets are more competitive and constrain employers' ability to discriminate against women. Utilising a large administrative data set for western Germany and a flexible semi-parametric propensity score matching approach, we find that the unexplained gender pay gap for young workers is substantially lower in ...

  2. Early anion gap metabolic acidosis in acetaminophen overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Joe G; Wallace, David J; Kinasewitz, Gary; Toubia, Nagib; Kakoulas, Christine

    2010-09-01

    The study aimed to determine the incidence and clinical significance of early high (>15 mEq/L) anion gap metabolic acidosis in acetaminophen (APAP) overdose. A retrospective review of a cohort of 74 patients presenting within 24 hours of APAP overdose was conducted. Early high anion gap metabolic acidosis was present in 41% of patients on admission and persisted for 1.5 ± 0.1 days. The anion gap was associated with an elevated lactate level (4.5 ± 1 mmol/L) (r(2) = 0.66, P anion gap had a higher incidence of confusion (48% vs 3%; P anion gap metabolic acidosis was found in the absence of shock or liver failure. All patients were treated with N-acetylcysteine and, despite the early high anion gap metabolic acidosis, none developed hepatic failure or hypoglycemia. Early high anion gap metabolic acidosis in patients with APAP overdose is self-limited and does not predict clinical or laboratory outcomes. Persistent or late metabolic acidosis in the absence of liver failure is not likely due to APAP and should prompt a search for other causes of metabolic acidosis. Finally, APAP overdose should be considered in patients presenting to the emergency department with altered mental status, as this is a treatable condition when detected early. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Quick Reference on Anion Gap and Strong Ion Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente Artero, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic acid-base disorders are common in emergency and critically ill patients. Clinicians may have difficulty recognizing their presence when multiple acid-base derangements are present in a single patient simultaneously. The anion gap and the strong ion gap concepts are useful calculations to identify the components of complex metabolic acid-base associated to the presence of unmeasured anions. This article presents their definition, normal values, indications, limitations, and guidelines for interpretation of changes in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  5. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  6. The Wide Band-Gap Semiconductors: A Brief Survey | Ottaviani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wide band-gap semiconductors are promising materials in the fields of power electronics, high-energy radiation detection and optoelectronics. They have attracted much attention thanks to their physical properties, allowing them to get better performances than silicon for some specific uses (high temperature, high ...

  7. Static and dynamic aspects of an air gap capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJntema, D.J.; IJntema, Dominicus J.; Tilmans, Harrie A.C.; Tilmans, H.A.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of an air-gap capacitor used as a micromechanical resonator. Both static and dynamic aspects are discussed. A single-element approach for the electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection of the vibrational motion of the resonators is described. The non-linear

  8. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  9. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps in de...

  10. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  11. Globalization and the Gender Gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostendorp, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as a widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for some country studies. This study contributes to the literature in three respects. First, it is a large

  12. Project LOCAL - Bridging The Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    Project LOCAL, a not-for-profit regional consortium, offers a broad spectrum of in-service training courses tailored to meet the needs of educators in various disciplines and levels of experience. The purpose of these offerings is to bridge the communication gap between innovative centers in computer-oriented education and staff members in Boston…

  13. The Politics of Achievement Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valant, J.; Newark, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, researchers have documented large differences in average test scores between minority and White students and between poor and wealthy students. These gaps are a focal point of reformers’ and policymakers’ efforts to address educational inequities. However, the U.S. public’s views...

  14. Talent Management: Bridging the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    culling continues at each grade. By this process, the model proposes to raise the talent distribution and level. Professional sports use this method... TALENT MANAGEMENT: BRIDGING THE GAP A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in...

  15. Temporal Experience and Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Peebles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The well-known phenomenological argument draws metaphysical conclusions about time, specifically about change through time and the resulting passage or flow of time, from our temporal experience. The argument begins with the phenomenological premise that there is a class of properties which underlies our experience of time and change through time, and its conclusion is that these properties are not merely experienced but exemplified. I argue that the phenomenological argument is best served by the adoption of a representational theory of perception. I then present a representational theory of temporal experience.

  16. AUDIT EXPECTATION GAP IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherai Dana Simona

    2011-12-01

    between level of knowledge of the students regarding the statements in audit and the expectation gap. Also there is a significant difference in perceptions of the role of the public auditor in respect of fraud detection. The research will be extended to other users of accounting information (accountants, executives, managers, bankers to see their understanding of the role of external public auditors, this we consider Originality/value – This paper adds evidence to the important debate about expectation gap from a region that has had little coverage. In Romania are just a few information regarding the importance of education in reducing the audit expectation gap in public area. We try to draw attention in two sectors that are left one side, education and public domain. A correlation between these two, in the context of audit expectation gap will give some answers absolutely necessary.

  17. Temporal Resolution of the Normal Ear in Listeners with Unilateral Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Dey, Ratul; Davessar, Jai Lal

    2015-12-01

    Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) leads to an imbalanced input to the brain and results in cortical reorganization. In listeners with unilateral impairments, while the perceptual deficits associated with the impaired ear are well documented, less is known regarding the auditory processing in the unimpaired, clinically normal ear. It is commonly accepted that perceptual consequences are unlikely to occur in the normal ear for listeners with UHL. This study investigated whether the temporal resolution in the normal-hearing (NH) ear of listeners with long-standing UHL is similar to those in listeners with NH. Temporal resolution was assayed via measuring gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in within- and between-channel paradigms. GDTs were assessed in the normal ear of adults with long-standing, severe-to-profound UHL (N = 13) and age-matched, NH listeners (N = 22) at two presentation levels (30 and 55 dB sensation level). Analysis indicated that within-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were not significantly different than those for the NH subject group, but the between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were poorer (by greater than a factor of 2) than those for the listeners with NH. The hearing thresholds in the normal or impaired ears were not associated with the elevated between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL. Contrary to the common assumption that auditory processing capabilities are preserved for the normal ear in listeners with UHL, the current study demonstrated that a long-standing unilateral hearing impairment may adversely affect auditory perception--temporal resolution--in the clinically normal ear. From a translational perspective, these findings imply that the temporal processing deficits in the unimpaired ear of listeners with unilateral hearing impairments may contribute to their overall auditory perceptual difficulties.

  18. Criticality effects of longitudinal gaps in poison for storage/transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    A series of criticality calculations was performed with the AMPX/KENO system to determine the sensitivity of the NAC S/T cask 31 assembly basket, which is optimized for a design-basis fuel enrichment of 3.7 wt % 235 U, to axial gaps in the boron neutron poison. The results of these calculations show that axial gaps in the boron cause no statistically detectable change in k/sub eff/ until a minimum gap size is reached. The minimum gap size to change k/sub eff/ is dependent on the basket segment length, because a longer segment length results in fewer gaps for a given active fuel length. Longer segment lengths are less sensitive to gaps in the neutron poison. A typical segment length of 12 to 18 in. is projected for a casting of aluminum/boron alloy, indicating that axial gaps in the neutron poison of 1 in. would be acceptable. This gap thickness is much greater than the intersegment gap produced by modern casting techniques. The investigation described here demonstrated that an axial gap in neutron poison is acceptable for basket castings of large storage/transport casks. A precedent for such gaps is the NLI-6502 cask, so a cask basket with intersegment gaps should be licensable

  19. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  20. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2017-12-12

    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  1. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively...

  2. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  3. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...

  4. Dynamic epistemic temporal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renne, B.; Sack, Joshua; Yap, Audrey; He, X.; Horty, J.; Pacuit, E.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new type of arrow in the update frames (or "action models") of Dynamic Epistemic Logic in a way that enables us to reason about epistemic temporal dynamics in multi-agent systems that need not be synchronous. Since van Benthem and Pacuit (later joined by Hoshi and Gerbrandy) showed

  5. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  6. Information and Temporality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flender, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Being able to give reasons for what the world is and how it works is one of the defining characteristics of modernity. Mathematical reason and empirical observation brought science and engineering to unprecedented success. However, modernity has reached a post-state where an instrumental view of technology needs revision with reasonable arguments and evidence, i.e. without falling back to superstition and mysticism. Instrumentally, technology bears the potential to ease and to harm. Easing and harming can't be controlled like the initial development of technology is a controlled exercise for a specific, mostly easing purpose. Therefore, a revised understanding of information technology is proposed based upon mathematical concepts and intuitions as developed in quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics offers unequaled opportunities because it raises foundational questions in a precise form. Beyond instrumentalism it enables to raise the question of essences as that what remains through time what it is. The essence of information technology is acausality. The time of acausality is temporality. Temporality is not a concept or a category. It is not epistemological. As an existential and thus more comprehensive and fundamental than a concept or a category temporality is ontological; it does not simply have ontic properties. Rather it exhibits general essences. Datability, significance, spannedness and openness are general essences of equiprimordial time (temporality).

  7. Profile of auditory temporal processing in older listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Salant, S; Fitzgibbons, P J

    1999-04-01

    This investigation examined age-related performance differences on a range of speech and nonspeech measures involving temporal manipulation of acoustic signals and variation of stimulus complexity. The goal was to identify a subset of temporally mediated measures that effectively distinguishes the performance patterns of younger and older listeners, with and without hearing loss. The nonspeech measures included duration discrimination for simple tones and gaps, duration discrimination for tones and gaps embedded within complex sequences, and discrimination of temporal order. The speech measures were undistorted speech, time-compressed speech, reverberant speech, and combined time-compressed + reverberant speech. All speech measures were presented both in quiet and in noise. Strong age effects were observed for the nonspeech measures, particularly in the more complex stimulus conditions. Additionally, age effects were observed for all time-compressed speech conditions and some reverberant speech conditions, in both quiet and noise. Effects of hearing loss were observed also for the speech measures only. Discriminant function analysis derived a formula, based on a subset of these measures, for classifying individuals according to temporal performance consistent with age and hearing loss categories. The most important measures to accomplish this goal involved conditions featuring temporal manipulations of complex speech and nonspeech signals.

  8. A New Fully Gap-Free Time Series of Land Surface Temperature from MODIS LST Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, Markus; Andreo, V.; Neteler, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Temperature time series with high spatial and temporal resolutions are important for several applications. The new MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) collection 6 provides numerous improvements compared to collection 5. However, being remotely sensed data in the thermal range, LST shows gaps in

  9. An Intelligent Harmonic Synthesis Technique for Air-Gap Eccentricity Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De Z.; Wang, Wilson; Ismail, Fathy

    2017-11-01

    Induction motors (IMs) are commonly used in various industrial applications. To improve energy consumption efficiency, a reliable IM health condition monitoring system is very useful to detect IM fault at its earliest stage to prevent operation degradation, and malfunction of IMs. An intelligent harmonic synthesis technique is proposed in this work to conduct incipient air-gap eccentricity fault detection in IMs. The fault harmonic series are synthesized to enhance fault features. Fault related local spectra are processed to derive fault indicators for IM air-gap eccentricity diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed harmonic synthesis technique is examined experimentally by IMs with static air-gap eccentricity and dynamic air-gap eccentricity states under different load conditions. Test results show that the developed harmonic synthesis technique can extract fault features effectively for initial IM air-gap eccentricity fault detection.

  10. Birefringence in a chiral medium, via temporal cloaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Humayun; Haneef, Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports theoretical investigation of birefringence in a chiral medium for the creation of temporal cloaking. The chiral medium splits the input probe beam into left/right circular polarized beams. These left/right circular polarized beams are then controlled and modified within the chiral medium. The left circular polarized beam delays by 24 ns whereas the right circular polarized beam advances by  -23 ns at a control field of rabbi frequency 6γ . This opens a 47 ns time gap for temporal cloaking to hide information without noise corruption and energy loss. The results have potential applications in communication devices for secure propagation of light pulse.

  11. Neutron sensitivity of thin gap chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Nanjo, H; Hasuko, K; Ishino, M; Kobayashi, T; Takemoto, T; Tsuno, S; Ye, B

    2005-01-01

    Thin gap chambers (TGC) will be used for triggering forward muons in the ATLAS detector for the LHC at CERN. A large amount of neutron background is foreseen in the ATLAS experiment. This paper describes the measurements of the neutron sensitivities (detection efficiencies) of the TGCs. The sensitivities of both small and real size TGCs to 2.5 and 14MeV mono-energetic neutrons were measured. For a small size TGC, sensitivities of 0.032% and 0.10% were measured to 2.5 and 14MeV neutrons, respectively, whereas for a real size TGC, sensitivities of 0.048% and 0.13% were measured. These measured values were in reasonably good agreement with the simulations based on the Geant4.

  12. Microchannel plate assembly parameters with micron gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenkova, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Performance of chevron microchannel plate assembly with 5 and 15 μm gaps between them has been investigated. The assembly is placed into a vacuum chamber under pressure -6 Torr and irradiated by neutral He and Ar atom beams with 1.5 and 3 keV energies as well as by ultraviolet photons with 147 nm wave length. Dependence of the gain and amplitude resolution on power voltage in plates are measured. The results obtained have shown that microchannel plates permit to obtain the gain up to 3x10 7 and amplitude resolution up to 30% when detecting both atomic particles and ultraviolet photons. The assembly can be effectively used in those cases when it is necessary to use microchannel plates with curved channels

  13. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis......This book argues that theories of European foreign policy are performative: they create the objects they analyse. In this text, Larsen outlines the performativity approach to the role of theories based on the work of Derrida and goes on to examine the performative role of Christopher Hill's concept...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...

  14. Homolumo Gap and Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Andric, I; Jurman, D; Nielsen, H B

    2007-01-01

    We discuss a dynamical matrix model by which probability distribution is associated with Gaussian ensembles from random matrix theory. We interpret the matrix M as a Hamiltonian representing interaction of a bosonic system with a single fermion. We show that a system of second-quantized fermions influences the ground state of the whole system by producing a gap between the highest occupied eigenvalue and the lowest unoccupied eigenvalue.

  15. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  16. Prometheus and the Keeler gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Nicholson, Phillip D.; Hedman, Matthew M.; French, Richard G.; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Burns, Joseph A.

    2014-11-01

    Linblad resonances with Saturn’s satellites are located at many radii in the rings. While some cause density or bending waves, others hold gap edges from spreading, like the 2:1 resonance with Mimas located at the B-ring edge, the 7:6 resonance with Janus at the A-ring edge, and the 32:31 resonance with Prometheus at the inner edge of the Keeler gap. The latter is the case of study here.Theoretically, the inner edge of the Keeler gap should have 32 regular sinusoidal lobes, where either the maximum or the minimum radius is expected to be aligned with Prometheus and rotating with its mean motion. We show that such is not the case. Fit of occultation data shows the presence of the 32:31 resonance, however, the fit residuals is as high as the amplitude of the resonance amplitude (about 2 km). Analysis of the ISS data, shows irregularities overlapping the lobes (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS), that follow Keplerian motion. These irregularities may be due to clumps of particles with different eccentricities than the rest of the edge particles. This phenomenon may be caused by the resonance, as it has not been observed at other circular edges were no resonance is present at their location. The ISS data also shows that the lobe’s minimum/maximum is not perfectly aligned with the longitude of Prometheus, which may be due to libration about the centre of the resonance.

  17. Gap Junctions and Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesse, Daniel; Goldenberg, Regina Coeli; Fortes, Fabio S.; Jasmin; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Campos; de Narareth Meirelles, Maria; Huang, Huan; Soares, Milena B.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Garzoni, Luciana Ribeiro; Spray, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Gap junction channels provide intercellular communication between cells. In the heart, these channels coordinate impulse propagation along the conduction system and through the contractile musculature, thereby providing synchronous and optimal cardiac output. As in other arrhythmogenic cardiac diseases, chagasic cardiomyopathy is associated with decreased expression of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) and its gene. Our studies of cardiac myocytes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi have revealed that synchronous contraction is greatly impaired and gap junction immunoreactivity is lost in infected cells. Such changes are not seen for molecules forming tight junctions, another component of the intercalated disc in cardiac myocytes. Transcriptomic studies of hearts from mouse models of Chagas disease and from acutely infected cardiac myocytes in vitro indicate profound remodelling of gene expression patterns involving heart rhythm determinant genes, suggesting underlying mechanisms of the functional pathology. One curious feature of the altered expression of Cx43 and its gene expression is that it is limited in both extent and location, suggesting that the more global deterioration in cardiac function may result in part from spread of damage signals from more seriously compromised cells to healthier ones. PMID:21884887

  18. Hyper-active gap filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaki, Akira; Lau, Ellen F; Davidson White, Imogen; Dakan, Myles L; Apple, Aaron; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English) wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap dependencies, where internal arguments are fronted and hence precede the verb. This configuration makes it possible to investigate whether the parser actively makes representational commitments on the gap position before verb transitivity information becomes available. A key prediction of the view that rich pre-verbal structure building is a general architectural property is that speakers of verb-medial languages should predictively construct dependencies in advance of verb transitivity information, and therefore that disruption should be observed when the verb has intransitive subcategorization frames that are incompatible with the predicted structure. In three reading experiments (self-paced and eye-tracking) that manipulated verb transitivity, we found evidence for reading disruption when the verb was intransitive, although no such reading difficulty was observed when the critical verb was embedded inside a syntactic island structure, which blocks filler-gap dependency completion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in English, as in verb-final languages, information from preverbal noun phrases is sufficient to trigger active dependency completion without having access to verb transitivity information.

  19. The post-birthday world: consequences of temporal landmarks for temporal self-appraisal and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetz, Johanna; Wilson, Anne E

    2013-02-01

    Much as physical landmarks help structure our representation of space, temporal landmarks such as birthdays and significant calendar dates structure our perception of time, such that people may organize or categorize their lives into "chunks" separated by these markers. Categories on the temporal landscape may vary depending on what landmarks are salient at a given time. We suggest these landmarks have implications for identity and motivation. The present research examined consequences of salient temporal landmarks for perceptions of the self across time and motivation to pursue successful future selves. Studies 1 and 2 show that temporally extended selves are perceived as less connected to, and more dissimilar from, the current self when an intervening landmark event has been made salient. Study 3 addresses the proposed mechanism, demonstrating that intervening landmarks lead people to categorize pre- and postlandmark selves into separate categories more often than when the same time period contains no salient landmarks. Finally, we examined whether landmark-induced mental contrasting of present state and future desired state could increase goal-pursuit motivation (in an effort to bridge the gap between inferior present and better future states). Studies 4-6 demonstrate that landmark-induced discrepancies between current health and hoped-for future health increased participants' motivation to exercise and increased the likelihood that they acted in line with their future-oriented goals. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Innovation gaps in Scandinavian rural tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette; Kwiatkowski, Grzegorz; Østervig Larsen, Martin

    2018-01-01

    , the study offers a model that identifies the following five innovation gaps in Scandinavian rural tourism: (1) the portfolio gap, (2) the policy departmentalization gap, (3) the knowledge gap, (4) the change motivation gap, and (5) the resource interpretation gap. At the empirical level, the study shows...... that rural tourism has its basis in a dichotomy between authenticity and modernization. New and prospective customer groups, particularly from Germany, demand more diversified and higher quality rural tourism products than current groups, for example, in relation to outdoor opportunities, leisure festivals...

  1. Temporal lobe epilepsy semiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert D G

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  2. Qualitative and temporal aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral assumptions, rational or otherwise, are not solid enough to be eligible as first principles of theoretical economics. Hence all endeavors to lay the formal foundation on a new site and at a deeper level actually need no further vindication. The present paper suggests three non-behavioral axioms as groundwork and applies them to the analysis of qualitative and temporal aggregation in the pure consumption economy. It turns out that the structural axiom set is self-similar with regard...

  3. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  4. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon’s diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  5. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  6. Hypertension detection and control in Port Harcourt: knowledge gap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on continuing medical education on hypertension in Port Harcourt, Nigeria was conducted in June 2013. Post test was also administered. Participants were drawn from both private and public medical practice. The questionnaire contained demographic data and knowledge of diagnosis and treatment of hypertension.

  7. Filling the gap: using non-invasive geophysical methods to monitor the processes leading to enhanced carbon turnover induced by periodic water table fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellage, A.; Pronk, G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Furman, A.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface transition environments such as the capillary fringe are characterized by steep gradients in redox conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in electron acceptor and donor availability - driven by hydrological changes - may enhance carbon turnover, in some cases resulting in pulses of CO2-respiration. Filling the mechanistic knowledge gap between the hydrological driver and its biogeochemical effects hinges on our ability to monitor microbial activity and key geochemical markers at a high spatial and temporal resolution. However, direct access to subsurface biogeochemical processes is logistically difficult, invasive and usually expensive. In-line, non-invasive geophysical techniques - Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) and Electrodic Potential (EP), specifically - offer a comparatively inexpensive alternative and can provide data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The challenge lies in linking electrical responses to specific changes in biogeochemical processes. We conducted SIP and EP measurements on a soil column experiment where an artificial soil mixture was subjected to monthly drainage and imbibition cycles. SIP responses showed a clear dependence on redox zonation and microbial abundance. Temporally variable responses exhibited no direct moisture dependence suggesting that the measured responses recorded changes in microbial activity and coincided with the depth interval over which enhanced carbon turnover was observed. EP measurements detected the onset of sulfate mineralization and mapped its depth zonation. SIP and EP signals thus detected enhanced microbial activity within the water table fluctuation zone as well as the timing of the development of specific reactive processes. These findings can be used to relate measured electrical signals to specific reaction pathways and help inform reactive transport models, increasing their predictive capabilities.

  8. Multidimensional biases, gaps and uncertainties in global plant occurrence information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carsten; Weigelt, Patrick; Kreft, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Plants are a hyperdiverse clade that plays a key role in maintaining ecological and evolutionary processes as well as human livelihoods. Biases, gaps and uncertainties in plant occurrence information remain a central problem in ecology and conservation, but these limitations remain largely unassessed globally. In this synthesis, we propose a conceptual framework for analysing gaps in information coverage, information uncertainties and biases in these metrics along taxonomic, geographical and temporal dimensions, and apply it to all c. 370 000 species of land plants. To this end, we integrated 120 million point-occurrence records with independent databases on plant taxonomy, distributions and conservation status. We find that different data limitations are prevalent in each dimension. Different metrics of information coverage and uncertainty are largely uncorrelated, and reducing taxonomic, spatial or temporal uncertainty by filtering out records would usually come at great costs to coverage. In light of these multidimensional data limitations, we discuss prospects for global plant ecological and biogeographical research, monitoring and conservation and outline critical next steps towards more effective information usage and mobilisation. Our study provides an empirical baseline for evaluating and improving global floristic knowledge, along with a conceptual framework that can be applied to study other hyperdiverse clades. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Hyper-active gap filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eOmaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap dependencies, where internal arguments are fronted and hence precede the verb. This configuration makes it possible to investigate whether the parser actively makes representational commitments on the gap position before verb transitivity information becomes available. A key prediction of the view that rich pre-verbal structure-building is a general architectural property is that speakers of verb-medial languages should predictively construct dependencies in advance of verb transitivity information, and therefore that disruption should be observed when the verb has intransitive subcategorization frames that are incompatible with the predicted structure. In three reading experiments (self-paced and eye-tracking that manipulated verb transitivity, we found evidence for reading disruption when the verb was intransitive, although no such reading difficulty was observed when the critical verb was embedded inside a syntactic island structure, which blocks filler-gap dependency completion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in English, as in verb-final languages, information from preverbal NPs is sufficient to trigger active dependency completion without having access to verb transitivity information.

  10. Explaining the gender wage gap in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Khitarishvili, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  11. Gap Year: Time off, with a Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    A gap year allows people to step off the usual educational or career path and reassess their future. According to people who have taken a gap year, the time away can be well worth it. This article can help a person decide whether to take a gap year and how to make the most of his time off. It describes what a gap year is, including its pros and…

  12. Gender Wage Gap in Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Ni

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the gender wage gap and returns to education in urban China using data collected from Fangshan, Beijing. The traditional Oaxaca decomposition shows that the unexplained part seems to dominate the gender wage gap in urban China. The Appleton decomposition, which takes into account sectoral location, shows that the gender gap is mostly within sector and most of the intra-sector wage gap is unexplained. The gender pay differential due to sectoral location is small; in fact, t...

  13. Forest canopy gap distributions in the southern Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P Asner

    Full Text Available Canopy gaps express the time-integrated effects of tree failure and mortality as well as regrowth and succession in tropical forests. Quantifying the size and spatial distribution of canopy gaps is requisite to modeling forest functional processes ranging from carbon fluxes to species interactions and biological diversity. Using high-resolution airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, we mapped and analyzed 5,877,937 static canopy gaps throughout 125,581 ha of lowland Amazonian forest in Peru. Our LiDAR sampling covered a wide range of forest physiognomies across contrasting geologic and topographic conditions, and on depositional floodplain and erosional terra firme substrates. We used the scaling exponent of the Zeta distribution (λ as a metric to quantify and compare the negative relationship between canopy gap frequency and size across sites. Despite variable canopy height and forest type, values of λ were highly conservative (λ mean  = 1.83, s  = 0.09, and little variation was observed regionally among geologic substrates and forest types, or at the landscape level comparing depositional-floodplain and erosional terra firme landscapes. λ-values less than 2.0 indicate that these forests are subjected to large gaps that reset carbon stocks when they occur. Consistency of λ-values strongly suggests similarity in the mechanisms of canopy failure across a diverse array of lowland forests in southwestern Amazonia.

  14. Treatment of acute non-anion gap metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Jeffrey A; Kurtz, Ira

    2015-02-01

    Acute non-anion gap metabolic acidosis, also termed hyperchloremic acidosis, is frequently detected in seriously ill patients. The most common mechanisms leading to this acid-base disorder include loss of large quantities of base secondary to diarrhea and administration of large quantities of chloride-containing solutions in the treatment of hypovolemia and various shock states. The resultant acidic milieu can cause cellular dysfunction and contribute to poor clinical outcomes. The associated change in the chloride concentration in the distal tubule lumen might also play a role in reducing the glomerular filtration rate. Administration of base is often recommended for the treatment of acute non-anion gap acidosis. Importantly, the blood pH and/or serum bicarbonate concentration to guide the initiation of treatment has not been established for this type of metabolic acidosis; and most clinicians use guidelines derived from studies of high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Therapeutic complications resulting from base administration such as volume overload, exacerbation of hypertension and reduction in ionized calcium are likely to be as common as with high anion gap metabolic acidosis. On the other hand, exacerbation of intracellular acidosis due to the excessive generation of carbon dioxide might be less frequent than in high anion gap metabolic acidosis because of better tissue perfusion and the ability to eliminate carbon dioxide. Further basic and clinical research is needed to facilitate development of evidence-based guidelines for therapy of this important and increasingly common acid-base disorder.

  15. A PHOTONIC BAND GAP FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    An optical fibre having a periodicidal cladding structure provididing a photonic band gap structure with superior qualities. The periodical structure being one wherein high index areas are defined and wherein these are separated using a number of methods. One such method is the introduction...... of additional low index elements, another method is providing elongated elements deformed in relation to a circular cross section. Also described is a cladding structure comprising elongated elements of a material having an index of refraction higher than that of the material adjacent thereto. Using...

  16. Closing Scale Gaps in Ecological Research using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: a meta-data synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, R. H.; Guan, K.; Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Dandois, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The use of remote sensing for ecological purposes leaves a growing consensus that a spatial and temporal ';gap' exists between field studies and conventional remote sensing techniques. Field studies bring a sharper resolution than remote sensing techniques, but without overwhelming manpower cannot hope to cover the same amount of area. In addition, while remote sensing techniques cover large amounts of land, remote sensing contains a tradeoff between resolution and regularity, as frequent updates are possible only at coarse spatial resolution. The rapid improvement in UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) technology offers the potential to fill this ';gap' in data collection, and thereby provide new ecological insights. UAVs offer the ability to collect data at both higher spatial and temporal resolutions than satellites or manned aircraft (and at a much cheaper cost), while covering much larger areas more frequently than the field ecologist. We identify this gap by examining the spatial and temporal resolutions and coverages of a representative sample of recent remote sensing and field-based ecological studies. We randomly sampled the titles of 200 studies published during the last 3 years from 20 high-impact ecology journals, and extracted resolution and extent information from their Methods sections. Of these studies, slightly over 100 provide adequate information for our analysis. We analyze the gap in two-dimensional space. Along the X-axis, we define the temporal components as a vector where the temporal frequency of the study defines the minimum X value for each observation (study), and the temporal duration defines the maximum value. On the Y-axis, the study spatial resolution defines the minimum value while the total spatial extent defines the maximum value. In the manner, each study is represented as an irregular two-dimensional polygon. We divide the plot area into discrete grid cells and sum the number of polygons intersecting each cell, representing field

  17. Superconducting gap anomaly in heavy fermion systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a pseudo-gap due to superconductivity and the signature of a hybridization gap at the. Fermi level. For the choice of the model parameters, the DOS shows that the HFS is a metal and undergoes a transition to the gap-less superconducting state. Keywords. Heavy fermion superconductor; Narrow band system; Valence ...

  18. Closing the gap between research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Marcia Patton-Mallory

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the reasons for gaps in communication between researchers and natural resource managers and identify methods to close these gaps. Gaps originate from differing patterns of language use, disparities in organizational culture and values, generation of knowledge that is too narrowly-focused to solve complex problems, failure by managers to relay...

  19. Modelling spatial-temporal and coordinative parameters in swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, L; Chollet, D

    2009-07-01

    This study modelled the changes in spatial-temporal and coordinative parameters through race paces in the four swimming strokes. The arm and leg phases in simultaneous strokes (butterfly and breaststroke) and the inter-arm phases in alternating strokes (crawl and backstroke) were identified by video analysis to calculate the time gaps between propulsive phases. The relationships among velocity, stroke rate, stroke length and coordination were modelled by polynomial regression. Twelve elite male swimmers swam at four race paces. Quadratic regression modelled the changes in spatial-temporal and coordinative parameters with velocity increases for all four strokes. First, the quadratic regression between coordination and velocity showed changes common to all four strokes. Notably, the time gaps between the key points defining the beginning and end of the stroke phases decreased with increases in velocity, which led to decreases in glide times and increases in the continuity between propulsive phases. Conjointly, the quadratic regression among stroke rate, stroke length and velocity was similar to the changes in coordination, suggesting that these parameters may influence coordination. The main practical application for coaches and scientists is that ineffective time gaps can be distinguished from those that simply reflect an individual swimmer's profile by monitoring the glide times within a stroke cycle. In the case of ineffective time gaps, targeted training could improve the swimmer's management of glide time.

  20. Tunable transport gap in phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Zhang, Wei; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoffmann, Axel; Dubey, Madan; Roelofs, Andreas

    2014-10-08

    In this article, we experimentally demonstrate that the transport gap of phosphorene can be tuned monotonically from ∼0.3 to ∼1.0 eV when the flake thickness is scaled down from bulk to a single layer. As a consequence, the ON current, the OFF current, and the current ON/OFF ratios of phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) were found to be significantly impacted by the layer thickness. The transport gap was determined from the transfer characteristics of phosphorene FETs using a robust technique that has not been reported before. The detailed mathematical model is also provided. By scaling the thickness of the gate oxide, we were also able to demonstrate enhanced ambipolar conduction in monolayer and few layer phosphorene FETs. The asymmetry of the electron and the hole current was found to be dependent on the layer thickness that can be explained by dynamic changes of the metal Fermi level with the energy band of phosphorene depending on the layer number. We also extracted the Schottky barrier heights for both the electron and the hole injection as a function of the layer thickness. Finally, we discuss the dependence of field effect hole mobility of phosphorene on temperature and carrier concentration.

  1. Xylobolus subpileatus, a specialized basidiomycete functionally linked to old canopy gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudiere, A.; Bellanger, J. M.; Moreau, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    canopy gaps in oak forests. In one of the last remaining Quercus ilex L. old-growth forests (on the island of Corsica, western Mediterranean basin), we systematically recorded and conducted molecular analyses of X. subpileatus basidiomes in 80 dated natural canopy gaps representing a 45-year long...... sequence of residence time of tree logs on the forest floor. Xylobolus subpileatus fruited exclusively on Q. ilex logs. The probability of fruiting of X. subpileatus significantly increases during the process of wood decomposition to reach its maximum in the oldest gaps, approximately 40 years after......Documenting succession in forest canopy gaps provides insights into the ecological processes governing the temporal dynamics of species within communities. We analyzed the fruiting patterns of a rare but widely distributed saproxylic macromycete, Xylobolus subpileatus, during the ageing of natural...

  2. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  3. Radiographical evaluation of the gap at the implant-abutment interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavassiliou, Harris; Kourtis, Stefanos; Katerelou, Julia; Chronopoulos, Vasillios

    2010-08-01

    The detection of marginal gaps at the implant-abutment interface is a common clinical task in prosthodontic treatment. For the detection of the gap intraorally, especially under thick soft tissues the most common method is dental radiography. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate the accuracy of conservative dental radiography to detect marginal gaps at the implant-abutment interface. For these reasons radiographs were taken on internal and external hex implants with different experimental gaps and inclinations. The abutment (with a space created by plastic sheets 0.5 and 0.2 mm in thickness) was screwed on the implant, and the implant was placed into a box filled with silicone impression material. The X-ray film was placed parallel to the implant at the back of the box, the borders of the box were marked to the base and the box. A ruler of 10 cm was fixed at a long X-ray tube to ensure parallelism to the implant, X-ray film. Sets of radiographs were made at 0 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees, 20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees (to the abutment) and -5 degrees, -10 degrees, -15 degrees, -20 degrees, -25 degrees, -30 degrees (to the implant) degrees. The X-ray images were observed with visual examination, under magnification, and in higher magnification in a slide projector. The phenomenal and the true gap at the implant-abutment interface were calculated in order to determine the distortion. There were significant differences between the internal and external hex implants because of the different morphology of the implants. The detecting ability to diagnose a gap at the implant-abutment interface varied significantly with the angulation degree of the X-ray tube. At inclinations to the implant (- inclination) the gap diminished earlier than those inclinations to the prosthetic abutment (+ inclinations). In all examinations the gap was not detectable at angulations higher than 20 degrees. In visual examination at 25 degrees and 30

  4. Processamento temporal, localização e fechamento auditivo em portadores de perda auditiva unilateral Temporal processing, localization and auditory closure in individuals with unilateral hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Nishihata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os comportamentos de resolução e ordenação temporal, localização sonora e fechamento auditivo e investigar queixas de dificuldades escolares, de comunicação e linguagem em indivíduos portadores de perda auditiva unilateral. MÉTODOS: Participaram 26 indivíduos com idades entre 8 e 15 anos, divididos em dois grupos: Grupo com perda auditiva unilateral; e Grupo sem perda auditiva. Cada um deles foi constituído por 13 indivíduos que foram pareados conforme gênero, idade e escolaridade. Todos foram submetidos à anamnese, avaliação auditiva periférica e aos testes comportamentais de localização, memória sequencial, teste Random Gap Detection e ao teste de fala com ruído branco da avaliação do processamento auditivo. Foram utilizados testes estatísticos não paramétricos para comparar as repostas entre os grupos, considerando presença ou não da perda auditiva e o lado da orelha com perda. RESULTADOS: O início da perda ocorreu na fase pré-escolar, com etiologias desconhecidas ou identificadas como meningite, traumas ou caxumba. A maior parte dos indivíduos relatou atraso no desenvolvimento de fala, linguagem e escolar, principalmente aqueles com perda à direita. O grupo com perda auditiva apresentou piores respostas nas habilidades de ordenação e resolução temporal, localização sonora e fechamento auditivo. Indivíduos com perda à esquerda mostraram resultados piores do que aqueles com perda à direita em todas as habilidades, exceto na localização sonora. CONCLUSÃO: Na presença da perda auditiva unilateral ocorrem dificuldades de localização, fechamento, resolução e ordenação temporal. Indivíduos com perda auditiva unilateral à direita apresentam mais queixas do que aqueles com perda à esquerda. Indivíduos com perda à esquerda mostram mais dificuldade de fechamento, resolução e ordenação temporal.PURPOSE: To assess the behaviors of temporal resolution and temporal ordering

  5. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  6. Decreased anion gap in polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qujeq, Durdi; Mohiti, Javad

    2002-02-01

    The anion gap has proved a valuable tool in the diagnosis of various forms of acid-base disorders, although the importance of slight rises in the anion gap remains unclear. The concept of the anion gap is often misunderstood and misapplied. The relationship between gammaglobulins and the serum anion gap has not received much attention except for reports of a narrowing of the gap associated with certain monoclonal immunoglobulin G gammopathies. We present patients with polyclonal gammopathy, the magnitude of which correlated strongly and negatively with the anion gap. The anion gap can be readily calculated from routine laboratory data, and anion gap was calculated as ([Na] +[K])- ([Cl] + [HCO3]). Serum anion gaps were determined in 206 patients with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and 63 healthy subjects. Serum sodium and potassium ions concentration were determined by flame photometry. Serum bicarbonate level was measured as total carbon dioxide content. Serum chloride level was determined by chlorimetric titration with silver ions. All patients with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia had a statistically significant reduction in their mean serum anion gaps (6.4 +/- 1.2 mmol/L) when compared with normal control volunteers (15.3 +/- 2.4 mmol/L), p anion gap and gammaglobulins concentration.

  7. Electronic properties of doped gapped graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    One of the carbon atoms in each Bravais lattice unit cell of pristine graphene plane is substituted by a foreign atom leading to a band gap in the density of states of the system. Then, the gapped graphene is randomly doped by another impurity. The density of states, electronic heat capacity and electrical conductivity of the gapped and doped gapped graphene are investigated within random tight-binding Hamiltonian model and Green's function formalism. The results show that by presence of impurities in the gapped graphene the band gap moves towards lower (higher) values of energy when dopants act as acceptors (donors). The heat capacity decreases (increases) before (after) the Schottky anomaly as well. It is also found that the electrical conductivity of the doped gapped graphene reduces on all ranges of temperature.

  8. The Spatial and Temporal Structure of Extreme Rainfall Trends in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Younghun Jung; Ju-Young Shin; Hyunjun Ahn; Jun-Haeng Heo

    2017-01-01

    The spatial and temporal structures of extreme rainfall trends in South Korea are investigated in the current study. The trends in the annual maximum rainfall series are detected and their spatial distribution is analyzed. The scaling exponent is employed as an index representing the temporal structure. The temporal structure of the annual maximum series is calculated and spatially analyzed. Subsequently, the block bootstrap based Mann-Kendall test is employed detect the trend in the scaling ...

  9. Computational Methods for Large Spatio-temporal Datasets and Functional Data Ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Huang

    2017-07-16

    This thesis focuses on two topics, computational methods for large spatial datasets and functional data ranking. Both are tackling the challenges of big and high-dimensional data. The first topic is motivated by the prohibitive computational burden in fitting Gaussian process models to large and irregularly spaced spatial datasets. Various approximation methods have been introduced to reduce the computational cost, but many rely on unrealistic assumptions about the process and retaining statistical efficiency remains an issue. We propose a new scheme to approximate the maximum likelihood estimator and the kriging predictor when the exact computation is infeasible. The proposed method provides different types of hierarchical low-rank approximations that are both computationally and statistically efficient. We explore the improvement of the approximation theoretically and investigate the performance by simulations. For real applications, we analyze a soil moisture dataset with 2 million measurements with the hierarchical low-rank approximation and apply the proposed fast kriging to fill gaps for satellite images. The second topic is motivated by rank-based outlier detection methods for functional data. Compared to magnitude outliers, it is more challenging to detect shape outliers as they are often masked among samples. We develop a new notion of functional data depth by taking the integration of a univariate depth function. Having a form of the integrated depth, it shares many desirable features. Furthermore, the novel formation leads to a useful decomposition for detecting both shape and magnitude outliers. Our simulation studies show the proposed outlier detection procedure outperforms competitors in various outlier models. We also illustrate our methodology using real datasets of curves, images, and video frames. Finally, we introduce the functional data ranking technique to spatio-temporal statistics for visualizing and assessing covariance properties, such as

  10. Denmark and the gap year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Noemi; Juul, Tilde Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes three different educational offers to young people: “The Folk High School”, “The ‘After-school’” and 10th class. All can be considered optional Gap Years. The following diagram shows how the Danish education system is structured. The Folk High School is a training course...... of varying duration (approximately between 12 weeks and 1 year) where one lives at the school. It is primarily located after 12 school year. The ‘After-school’ is a special school structure, were the students also live at the school during their 8th, 9th, or 10th years of primary school. 10th Class...... is a voluntary school year extension of primary school. All three types of schools will be described in more detail in this paper....

  11. Photonic band gap structure simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiping; Shapiro, Michael A.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Temkin, Richard J.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.

    2006-10-03

    A system and method for designing photonic band gap structures. The system and method provide a user with the capability to produce a model of a two-dimensional array of conductors corresponding to a unit cell. The model involves a linear equation. Boundary conditions representative of conditions at the boundary of the unit cell are applied to a solution of the Helmholtz equation defined for the unit cell. The linear equation can be approximated by a Hermitian matrix. An eigenvalue of the Helmholtz equation is calculated. One computation approach involves calculating finite differences. The model can include a symmetry element, such as a center of inversion, a rotation axis, and a mirror plane. A graphical user interface is provided for the user's convenience. A display is provided to display to a user the calculated eigenvalue, corresponding to a photonic energy level in the Brilloin zone of the unit cell.

  12. Detecting the Spatio-temporal Distribution of Soil Salinity and Its Relationship to Crop Growth in a Large-scale Arid Irrigation District Based on Sampling Experiment and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, D.; Huang, G., Sr.; Xu, X.; Huang, Q., Sr.; Xiong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Soil salinity analysis on a regional scale is of great significance for protecting agriculture production and maintaining eco-environmental health in arid and semi-arid irrigated areas. In this study, the Hetao Irrigation District (Hetao) in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, with suffering long-term soil salinization problems, was selected as the case study area. Field sampling experiments and investigations related to soil salt contents, crop growth and yields were carried out across the whole area, during April to August in 2015. Soil salinity characteristics in space and time were systematically analyzed for Hetao as well as the corresponding impacts on crops. Remotely sensed map of soil salinity distribution for surface soil was also derived based on the Landsat OLI data with a 30 m resolution. The results elaborated the temporal and spatial dynamics of soil salinity and the relationships with irrigation, groundwater depth and crop water consumption in Hetao. In addition, the strong spatial variability of salinization was clearly presented by the remotely sensed map of soil salinity. Further, the relationship between soil salinity and crop growth was analyzed, and then the impact degrees of soil salinization on cropping pattern, leaf area index, plant height and crop yield were preliminarily revealed. Overall, this study can provide very useful information for salinization control and guide the future agricultural production and soil-water management for the arid irrigation districts analogous to Hetao.

  13. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  14. CT features of fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrada-Ben Farhat, L.; Bourkhis, S.; Ben Yaacoub, I.; Dali, N.; Askri, A.; Hendaoui, L.

    2006-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is characterized by a progressive replacement of normal bone elements by fibrous tissue. The temporal bone is rarely involved. In this location, complications such as facial deformity, conductive hearing loss and facial peripheral neural involvement can occur. Positive diagnosis can be established with computerized tomography which also enables assessment of extension and detection of complications. We report a case of a 27-year-old man with extensive fibrous dysplasia of the right temporal bone presenting with conductive hearing loss secondary to progressive stenosis of the external auditory canal. Computerized tomography of the temporal region was performed. (authors)

  15. The precise temporal calibration of dinosaur origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Claudia A; Irmis, Randall B; Mancuso, Adriana C; Mundil, Roland; Chemale, Farid

    2016-01-19

    Dinosaurs have been major components of ecosystems for over 200 million years. Although different macroevolutionary scenarios exist to explain the Triassic origin and subsequent rise to dominance of dinosaurs and their closest relatives (dinosauromorphs), all lack critical support from a precise biostratigraphically independent temporal framework. The absence of robust geochronologic age control for comparing alternative scenarios makes it impossible to determine if observed faunal differences vary across time, space, or a combination of both. To better constrain the origin of dinosaurs, we produced radioisotopic ages for the Argentinian Chañares Formation, which preserves a quintessential assemblage of dinosaurian precursors (early dinosauromorphs) just before the first dinosaurs. Our new high-precision chemical abrasion thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-TIMS) U-Pb zircon ages reveal that the assemblage is early Carnian (early Late Triassic), 5- to 10-Ma younger than previously thought. Combined with other geochronologic data from the same basin, we constrain the rate of dinosaur origins, demonstrating their relatively rapid origin in a less than 5-Ma interval, thus halving the temporal gap between assemblages containing only dinosaur precursors and those with early dinosaurs. After their origin, dinosaurs only gradually dominated mid- to high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems millions of years later, closer to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

  16. The precise temporal calibration of dinosaur origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Claudia A.; Irmis, Randall B.; Mancuso, Adriana C.; Mundil, Roland; Chemale, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs have been major components of ecosystems for over 200 million years. Although different macroevolutionary scenarios exist to explain the Triassic origin and subsequent rise to dominance of dinosaurs and their closest relatives (dinosauromorphs), all lack critical support from a precise biostratigraphically independent temporal framework. The absence of robust geochronologic age control for comparing alternative scenarios makes it impossible to determine if observed faunal differences vary across time, space, or a combination of both. To better constrain the origin of dinosaurs, we produced radioisotopic ages for the Argentinian Chañares Formation, which preserves a quintessential assemblage of dinosaurian precursors (early dinosauromorphs) just before the first dinosaurs. Our new high-precision chemical abrasion thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-TIMS) U-Pb zircon ages reveal that the assemblage is early Carnian (early Late Triassic), 5- to 10-Ma younger than previously thought. Combined with other geochronologic data from the same basin, we constrain the rate of dinosaur origins, demonstrating their relatively rapid origin in a less than 5-Ma interval, thus halving the temporal gap between assemblages containing only dinosaur precursors and those with early dinosaurs. After their origin, dinosaurs only gradually dominated mid- to high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems millions of years later, closer to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

  17. Perception of visual apparent motion is modulated by a gap within concurrent auditory glides, even when it is illusory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingcui; Guo, Lu; Bao, Ming; Chen, Lihan

    2015-01-01

    Auditory and visual events often happen concurrently, and how they group together can have a strong effect on what is perceived. We investigated whether/how intra- or cross-modal temporal grouping influenced the perceptual decision of otherwise ambiguous visual apparent motion. To achieve this, we juxtaposed auditory gap transfer illusion with visual Ternus display. The Ternus display involves a multi-element stimulus that can induce either of two different percepts of apparent motion: ‘element motion’ (EM) or ‘group motion’ (GM). In “EM,” the endmost disk is seen as moving back and forth while the middle disk at the central position remains stationary; while in “GM,” both disks appear to move laterally as a whole. The gap transfer illusion refers to the illusory subjective transfer of a short gap (around 100 ms) from the long glide to the short continuous glide when the two glides intercede at the temporal middle point. In our experiments, observers were required to make a perceptual discrimination of Ternus motion in the presence of concurrent auditory glides (with or without a gap inside). Results showed that a gap within a short glide imposed a remarkable effect on separating visual events, and led to a dominant perception of GM as well. The auditory configuration with gap transfer illusion triggered the same auditory capture effect. Further investigations showed that visual interval which coincided with the gap interval (50–230 ms) in the long glide was perceived to be shorter than that within both the short glide and the ‘gap-transfer’ auditory configurations in the same physical intervals (gaps). The results indicated that auditory temporal perceptual grouping takes priority over the cross-modal interaction in determining the final readout of the visual perception, and the mechanism of selective attention on auditory events also plays a role. PMID:26042055

  18. Model Based Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Marla J.; Spinrad, Paul R.; Fall, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Systems that assess the real world must cope with evidence that is uncertain, ambiguous, and spread over time. Typically, the most important function of an assessment system is to identify when activities are occurring that are unusual or unanticipated. Model based temporal reasoning addresses both of these requirements. The differences among temporal reasoning schemes lies in the methods used to avoid computational intractability. If we had n pieces of data and we wanted to examine how they were related, the worst case would be where we had to examine every subset of these points to see if that subset satisfied the relations. This would be 2n, which is intractable. Models compress this; if several data points are all compatible with a model, then that model represents all those data points. Data points are then considered related if they lie within the same model or if they lie in models that are related. Models thus address the intractability problem. They also address the problem of determining unusual activities if the data do not agree with models that are indicated by earlier data then something out of the norm is taking place. The models can summarize what we know up to that time, so when they are not predicting correctly, either something unusual is happening or we need to revise our models. The model based reasoner developed at Advanced Decision Systems is thus both intuitive and powerful. It is currently being used on one operational system and several prototype systems. It has enough power to be used in domains spanning the spectrum from manufacturing engineering and project management to low-intensity conflict and strategic assessment.

  19. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  20. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  1. MR imaging of temporal lobe meningoencephalocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tampieri, D.; Leblanc, R.; Melangon, D.; del-Carpio-O'Donovan, R.; Ethier, R.

    1991-01-01

    Basal meningoencephaloceles represent a rare entity, and they may be associated with a variety of midline cerebral abnormalities. The classification of basal meningoencephaloceles is related to their anatomic location. This paper reports experience in 3 patients, 2 who have temporal lobe epilepsy and a bone defect in the region of the foramen rotondum. In these 2 patients the encephalocele and its covering were protruding into the pterygopalatine fossa without any orbital involvement. The third patient presented with cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea caused by a transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele. MR imaging is the examination of choice for detecting these lesions since it allows for the visualization of the encephalocele and its meningeal covering as well as the bone defect and associated lesions in the temporal lobes

  2. Temporal Segmentation of MPEG Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Calic

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Many algorithms for temporal video partitioning rely on the analysis of uncompressed video features. Since the information relevant to the partitioning process can be extracted directly from the MPEG compressed stream, higher efficiency can be achieved utilizing information from the MPEG compressed domain. This paper introduces a real-time algorithm for scene change detection that analyses the statistics of the macroblock features extracted directly from the MPEG stream. A method for extraction of the continuous frame difference that transforms the 3D video stream into a 1D curve is presented. This transform is then further employed to extract temporal units within the analysed video sequence. Results of computer simulations are reported.

  3. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  4. Asynchrony Detection in Amblyopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Chun Huang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality of visual cortex. Although amblyopes experience perceptual deficits in spatial vision tasks, they have less temporal sensitivity loss. We investigated whether their temporal synchrony sensitivity is impaired. In experiment 1, four Gaussian blobs, located at the top, bottom, left, and right of a presentation screen, were flickering in 3 Hz and one of them was flickering in out-of-phase fashion in time. Participants needed to tell which blob was different from the other three and contrast threshold of the blobs was measured to determine the synchrony detection threshold. We found the thresholds were not correlated with the contrast thresholds for detecting the flickering blobs, suggesting synchrony detection and temporal detection threshold are processed by different mechanisms. In experiment 2, synchrony thresholds were measured as participants' ability to tell if one of the four high contrast Gaussian blobs was flickering asynchronously in time. Three temporal frequencies (1, 2, and 3 Hz and two element separations (1.25 and 5 deg were compared. We found that the amblyopic group exhibited a deficit only for the 1.25 deg element separation in amblyopic eye but was normal for the other configurations compared to controlled participants. It suggests amblyopes have deficits in temporal processing but only for foveal vision. We also found the sensitivity for the non-strabismic anismetropia group is reduced for all three temporal frequencies whereas for the strabismic anisometropia group it was reduced at 3Hz only, suggesting the impairment in temporal synchrony might be different for different types of amblyopia.

  5. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    with equality predicates rather than the inequality predicates prevalent in valid-time queries. Second, the presence of temporally varying data dramatically increases the size of a database. These factors indicate that specialized techniques are needed to efficiently evaluate temporal joins. We address......, if any, comparison of the various operators. We then address evaluation algorithms, comparing the applicability of various algorithms to the temporal join operators and describing a performance study involving algorithms for one important operator, the temporal equijoin. Our focus, with respect...... to implementation, is on non-index-based join algorithms. Such algorithms do not rely on auxiliary access paths but may exploit sort orderings to achieve efficiency....

  6. The Adaptation Gap Report. Towards Global Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    of the temperature goal. The 2017 Adaptation Gap Report, which is the third global Adaptation Gap Report by UN Environment – prepared in collaboration with the Global Centre of Excellence on Climate Adaptation – focuses on one of the key questions arising in the wake of the global goal: What are the ways forward...... Change (UNFCCC) to prepare for the implementation of the Paris Agreement. In contrast to previous Adaptation Gap Reports, the 2017 report focuses on issues relating to frameworks, comprising concepts, methodologies and data, rather than on assessing a particular dimension of the adaptation gap. Future...... Adaptation Gap Reports will return to assessments of specific adaptation gaps. An international team of experts, assessing the latest literature and practical experience within the topic area, has prepared the report. The process has been overseen by a steering committee, and all chapters have undergone...

  7. The Temporality of Power and the Power of Temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends existing understandings of power, resistance and subjectivity in professional service organizations by developing an analysis of how these relate to temporality. Drawing in particular on Hoy’s reading of the Foucauldian account of temporality, we conceive of disciplinary power...... light on the interplay of power, resistance and subjectivity....

  8. The early career gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Napari

    2006-01-01

    In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labor market entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paper focuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates and considers several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory, job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation of experience and in the type of education explain about 16...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6603 - Air gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air gap. 56.6603 Section 56.6603 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity § 56.6603 Air gap. At least a 15-foot air gap...

  10. PBX 9502 air-gap tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Novak, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Timothy J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Campbell, Christopher Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-29

    A small number of simple air-gap tests were performed on 1-inch diameter PBX 9502 cylinders to determine an approximate threshold for detonation failure. The primary diagnostics were streak imaging and dent measurements in a steel witness plate. Relight was found to occur, with negligible excess transit time, for air gaps up to 1 mm. Relight did not occur with a 3-mm air gap.

  11. The gender wage gap in four countries

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Anne; Kawaguchi, Akira; Meng, Xin; Mumford, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In a series of studies written during the 1980s Bob Gregory and his co-authors compared the gender wage gap in Australia with that found in other countries. They found it was not the difference in human capital endowments that explained different gender wage gaps but rather the rewards for these endowments. They concluded that country-specific factors, especially the institutional environment, were important in explaining the gender wage gap. This study updates Gregory's work by comparing the...

  12. Gaps in cardiovascular medication taking: the tip of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, P; Ramesh, J; Bryant-Kosling, C; Guerrero, D

    1993-12-01

    To search for major gaps in medication-taking behavior predisposing patients to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Convenience sample; cohort prospectively followed for electronic monitors, and physician permission to participate. Medication compliance rates and patterns by patient self-report, physician estimates, pill count, and electronic monitoring of pill vial opening. Despite moderately complex regimens (5.4 +/- 0.5 pills daily; range 1-11), most subjects took most medications according to the prescription: median intervals between pill vial openings were 1.00, 0.50, and 0.43 days for once, twice, and three times daily dosing, respectively. Medication-taking gaps of > or = 2 times the prescribed interdosing interval occurred for 48% of the patients. Patients' dosing patterns often produced "uncovered" intervals (mean duration 3.7 days, range 0-25) with doubtful pharmacologic effectiveness. These lapses were underestimated by patients and poorly perceived by their treating physicians, despite familiarity with their care. Baseline sociodemographic, psychosocial, medical system, or clinical characteristics did not predict the patterns or degrees of medication noncompliance. Major treatment gaps occur frequently, even in carefully selected ambulatory populations, and generally escape detection. The compliance patterns and gaps may contribute to reported excesses of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  13. Effects of hand proximity and movement direction in spatial and temporal gap discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiemers, M.; Fischer, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on the interplay between static manual postures and visual attention revealed enhanced visual selection near the hands (near-hand effect). During active movements there is also superior visual performance when moving towards compared to away from the stimulus (direction effect).

  14. Role of Temporal Transspective in Personality Formation of Adolescents Without Parental Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Soldatov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Temporal transspective is understood as ability to connect in whole image of the past, present and future. The article shows the results of a comparative study of temporal transspective of adolescents, whose personality formation takes place in different living conditions. Participants were 50 adolescents without parental support (experimental group and 60 adolescents brought up in a family (control group. The research showed that temporal transspective of adolescents without parental support has not only peculiarities as gap between important events in the past, present and future, but as well such characteristics of their personalities as lack of confidence, ambivalency, anxiety, pessimism, moreover, motivation limited by nearest future.

  15. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Waidyasekara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.

  16. Spatial Grouping Determines Temporal Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Frouke; Scharnowski, Frank; Herzog, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    To make sense out of a continuously changing visual world, people need to integrate features across space and time. Despite more than a century of research, the mechanisms of features integration are still a matter of debate. To examine how temporal and spatial integration interact, the authors measured the amount of temporal fusion (a measure of…

  17. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Jensen, K; Podelski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  18. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  19. Astrocyte uncoupling as a cause of human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedner, Peter; Dupper, Alexander; Hüttmann, Kerstin; Müller, Julia; Herde, Michel K; Dublin, Pavel; Deshpande, Tushar; Schramm, Johannes; Häussler, Ute; Haas, Carola A; Henneberger, Christian; Theis, Martin; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Glial cells are now recognized as active communication partners in the central nervous system, and this new perspective has rekindled the question of their role in pathology. In the present study we analysed functional properties of astrocytes in hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy without (n = 44) and with sclerosis (n = 75) combining patch clamp recording, K(+) concentration analysis, electroencephalography/video-monitoring, and fate mapping analysis. We found that the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis is completely devoid of bona fide astrocytes and gap junction coupling, whereas coupled astrocytes were abundantly present in non-sclerotic specimens. To decide whether these glial changes represent cause or effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, we developed a mouse model that reproduced key features of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis. In this model, uncoupling impaired K(+) buffering and temporally preceded apoptotic neuronal death and the generation of spontaneous seizures. Uncoupling was induced through intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, prevented in Toll-like receptor4 knockout mice and reproduced in situ through acute cytokine or lipopolysaccharide incubation. Fate mapping confirmed that in the course of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, astrocytes acquire an atypical functional phenotype and lose coupling. These data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction might be a prime cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis and identify novel targets for anti-epileptogenic therapeutic intervention. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Analysis of photonic band-gap structures in stratified medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Ming-Sze; Yinchao, Chen; Lu, Yilong

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - To demonstrate the flexibility and advantages of a non-uniform pseudo-spectral time domain (nu-PSTD) method through studies of the wave propagation characteristics on photonic band-gap (PBG) structures in stratified medium Design/methodology/approach - A nu-PSTD method is proposed...... in solving the Maxwell's equations numerically. It expands the temporal derivatives using the finite differences, while it adopts the Fourier transform (FT) properties to expand the spatial derivatives in Maxwell's equations. In addition, the method makes use of the chain-rule property in calculus together...... with the transformed space technique in order to make the algorithm flexible in terms of non-uniform spatial sampling. Findings - Through the studies of the wave propagation characteristics on PBG structures in stratified medium, it has been found that the proposed method retains excellent accuracy in the occasions...

  1. Detecting temporal change in land-surface altitude using robotic land-surveying techniques and geographic information system applications at an earthen dam site in Southern Westchester County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Michael L.; Chu, Anthony

    2017-08-14

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study with New York City Department of Environmental Protection to characterize the local groundwater-flow system and identify potential sources of seeps on the southern embankment at the Hillview Reservoir in southern Westchester County, New York. Monthly site inspections at the reservoir indicated an approximately 90-square-foot depression in the land surface directly upslope from a seep that has episodically flowed since 2007. In July 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey surveyed the topography of land surface in this depression area by collecting high-accuracy (resolution less than 1 inch) measurements. A point of origin was established for the topographic survey by using differentially corrected positional data collected by a global navigation satellite system. Eleven points were surveyed along the edge of the depression area and at arbitrary locations within the depression area by using robotic land-surveying techniques. The points were surveyed again in March 2012 to evaluate temporal changes in land-surface altitude. Survey measurements of the depression area indicated that the land-surface altitude at 8 of the 11 points decreased beyond the accepted measurement uncertainty during the 44 months from July 2008 to March 2012. Two additional control points were established at stable locations along Hillview Avenue, which runs parallel to the embankment. These points were measured during the July 2008 survey and measured again during the March 2012 survey to evaluate the relative accuracy of the altitude measurements. The relative horizontal and vertical (altitude) accuracies of the 11 topographic measurements collected in March 2012 were ±0.098 and ±0.060 feet (ft), respectively. Changes in topography at 8 of the 11 points ranged from 0.09 to 0.63 ft and topography remained constant, or within the measurement uncertainty, for 3 of the 11 points.Two cross sections were constructed through the depression area

  2. Development of an Abort Gap Monitor for High-Energy Proton Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-01-01

    The fill pattern in proton synchrotrons usually features an empty gap, longer than the abort kicker raise time, for machine protection. This gap is referred to as the 'abort gap', and any particles, which may accumulate in it due to injection errors and diffusion between RF buckets, would be lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, during the kicker firing. In large proton rings, due to the high energies involved, it is vital to monitor the build up of charges in the abort gap with a high sensitivity. We present a study of an abort gap monitor based on a photomultiplier with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source using a Hamamatsu 5916U MCP-PMT and compare them to the specifications for the Large Hadron Collider

  3. Development of an abort gap monitor for high-energy proton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beche, Jean-Francois; Byrd, John; De Santis, Stefano; Denes, Peter; Placidi, Massimo; Turner, William; Zolotorev, Max

    2004-01-01

    The fill pattern in proton synchrotrons usually features an empty gap, longer than the abort kicker raise time, for machine protection. This gap is referred to as the ''abort gap'' and any particles, which may accumulate in it due to injection errors and diffusion between RF buckets, would be lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, during the kicker firing. In large proton rings, due to the high energies involved, it is vital to monitor the build up of charges in the abort gap with a high sensitivity. We present a study of an abort gap monitor based on a photomultiplier with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source using a Hamamatsu 5916U MCP-PMT and compare them to the specifications for the Large Hadron Collider

  4. 60Co γ-irradiation enhances expression of GAP-43 mRNA in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Bingyin; Cai Wenqin; Zhang Chenggang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the expression of GAP-43 mRNA and nerve regeneration in rat brain after 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: Wistar rats were subjected to whole-body irradiation with 8 Gy 60 Co γ-rays. The expression of GAP-43 was detected by in situ hybridization histochemistry using Dig-cRNA probe. Results: It was found that the expression of GAP-43 mRNA increased in the cerebral cortex, caudate, putamen, globus pallidum, thalamus and hypothalamus one week after 8 Gy 60 Co γ-irradiation. The peak of GAP-43 mRNA expression was observed in the fourth week and then began to decrease but still remained at a higher than normal level. However, it decreased to a low level after 7 weeks. Conclusion: Enhanced expression of GAP-43 mRNA after 60 Co γ-irradiation in rat brain is associated with nerve regeneration and reconstruction of synapse

  5. Gap solitons in Rabi lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaopin; Malomed, Boris A

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a two-component one-dimensional system, which is based on two nonlinear Schrödinger or Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) with spatially periodic modulation of linear coupling ("Rabi lattice") and self-repulsive nonlinearity. The system may be realized in a binary Bose-Einstein condensate, whose components are resonantly coupled by a standing optical wave, as well as in terms of the bimodal light propagation in periodically twisted waveguides. The system supports various types of gap solitons (GSs), which are constructed, and their stability is investigated, in the first two finite bandgaps of the underlying spectrum. These include on- and off-site-centered solitons (the GSs of the off-site type are additionally categorized as spatially even and odd ones), which may be symmetric or antisymmetric, with respect to the coupled components. The GSs are chiefly stable in the first finite bandgap and unstable in the second one. In addition to that, there are narrow regions near the right edge of the first bandgap, and in the second one, which feature intricate alternation of stability and instability. Unstable solitons evolve into robust breathers or spatially confined turbulent modes. On-site-centered GSs are also considered in a version of the system that is made asymmetric by the Zeeman effect, or by birefringence of the optical waveguide. A region of alternate stability is found in the latter case too. In the limit of strong asymmetry, GSs are obtained in a semianalytical approximation, which reduces two coupled GPEs to a single one with an effective lattice potential.

  6. Gap solitons in Rabi lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaopin; Malomed, Boris A.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a two-component one-dimensional system, which is based on two nonlinear Schrödinger or Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) with spatially periodic modulation of linear coupling ("Rabi lattice") and self-repulsive nonlinearity. The system may be realized in a binary Bose-Einstein condensate, whose components are resonantly coupled by a standing optical wave, as well as in terms of the bimodal light propagation in periodically twisted waveguides. The system supports various types of gap solitons (GSs), which are constructed, and their stability is investigated, in the first two finite bandgaps of the underlying spectrum. These include on- and off-site-centered solitons (the GSs of the off-site type are additionally categorized as spatially even and odd ones), which may be symmetric or antisymmetric, with respect to the coupled components. The GSs are chiefly stable in the first finite bandgap and unstable in the second one. In addition to that, there are narrow regions near the right edge of the first bandgap, and in the second one, which feature intricate alternation of stability and instability. Unstable solitons evolve into robust breathers or spatially confined turbulent modes. On-site-centered GSs are also considered in a version of the system that is made asymmetric by the Zeeman effect, or by birefringence of the optical waveguide. A region of alternate stability is found in the latter case too. In the limit of strong asymmetry, GSs are obtained in a semianalytical approximation, which reduces two coupled GPEs to a single one with an effective lattice potential.

  7. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-06

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Breakdown in short rod-plane air gaps under positive lightning impulse stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hygen Meyer, Hans Kristian; Mauseth, Frank; Pedersen, Per Atle; Martine, Husøy

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of withstand voltages in air-insulated systems are made on the basis of empirical models that are not sufficiently accurate for complex geometries. Bet-ter understanding of the spatio temporal development of electrical discharges is necessary to improve the present models. Discharges in lightning impulse stressed 20–100 mmrod-plane gaps are examined using a high-speed camera, photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) and a high-bandwidth current measurement syste...

  9. A comparison of gap-filling approaches for Landsat-7 satellite data

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Gaohong

    2017-08-10

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative performance of four different gap-filling approaches across a range of land-surface conditions, including both homogeneous and heterogeneous areas as well as in scenes with abrupt changes in landscape elements. The techniques considered in this study include: (1) Kriging and co-Kriging; (2) geostatistical neighbourhood similar pixel interpolator (GNSPI); (3) a weighted linear regression (WLR) algorithm; and (4) the direct sampling (DS) method. To examine the impact of image availability and the influence of temporal distance on the selection of input training data (i.e. time separating the training data from the gap-filled target image), input images acquired within the same season (temporally close) as well as in different seasons (temporally far) to the target image were examined, as was the case of using information only within the target image itself. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean spectral angle (MSA), and coefficient of determination (R-2) were used as the evaluation metrics to assess the prediction results. In addition, the overall accuracy (OA) and kappa coefficient (kappa) were used to assess a land-cover classification based on the gap-filled images. Results show that all of the gap-filling approaches provide satisfactory results for the homogeneous case, with R-2 > 0.93 for bands 1 and 2 in all cases and R-2 > 0.80 for bands 3 and 4 in most cases. For the heterogeneous example, GNSPI performs the best, with R-2 > 0.85 for all tested cases. WLR and GNSPI exhibit equivalent accuracy when a temporally close input image is used (i.e. WLR and GNSPI both have an R-2 equal to 0.89 for band 1). For the case of abrupt changes in scene elements or in the absence of ancillary data, the DS approach outperforms the other tested methods.

  10. Influence of memory, attention, IQ and age on auditory temporal processing tests: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Roque, Daniela Tsubota; Ventura, Dora Selma Fix; Schochat, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the existence of correlations between the performance of children in auditory temporal tests (Frequency Pattern and Gaps in Noise--GIN) and IQ, attention, memory and age measurements. Fifteen typically developing individuals between the ages of 7 to 12 years and normal hearing participated in the study. Auditory temporal processing tests (GIN and Frequency Pattern), as well as a Memory test (Digit Span), Attention tests (auditory and visual modality) and intelligence tests (RAVEN test of Progressive Matrices) were applied. Significant and positive correlation between the Frequency Pattern test and age variable were found, which was considered good (pAuditory temporal skills seem to be influenced by different factors: while the performance in temporal ordering skill seems to be influenced by maturational processes, the performance in temporal resolution was not influenced by any of the aspects investigated.

  11. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...

  12. Superconducting gap anomaly in heavy fermion systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Within this approximation the equation for the superconducting gap is derived, which depends on the effective position of the energy level of the -electrons relative to the Fermi level. The latter in turn depends on the occupation probability f of the -electrons. The gap equation is solved self-consistently with the equation ...

  13. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirk D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  14. Public Perceptions of the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Women have made gains toward closing the gender pay gap during the past two decades. Much of the progress occurred during the 1980s, with smaller gains in the 1990s (Institute for Women's Policy Research 2004). Women's achievements in higher education are partly responsible for narrowing the pay gap in the 1980s and 1990s. As more women earned…

  15. Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality…

  16. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps: A Data Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In the authors' 2011 "JEE" article, "Estimating Gender Wage Gaps," they described an interesting class project that allowed students to estimate the current gender earnings gap for recent college graduates using data from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE). Unfortunately, since 2012, NACE no longer…

  17. Delaying the Academy: A Gap Year Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This investigation serves as one of the first empirical analyses to examine the international volunteering gap year from an educational perspective, concluding an in-depth case study of a prominent gap year organisation in the UK. Contrary to widespread industry promotion of international development, the findings suggest that the experience can…

  18. 30 CFR 57.6603 - Air gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air gap. 57.6603 Section 57.6603 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6603 Air gap. At...

  19. Optical response and excitons in gapped graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Pedersen, K.

    2009-01-01

    Graphene can be rendered semiconducting via energy gaps introduced in a variety of ways, e.g., coupling to substrates, electrical biasing, or nanostructuring. To describe and compare different realizations of gapped graphene we propose a simple two-band model in which a "mass" term is responsible...

  20. Spectral Gaps in Graphene Antidot Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbaroux, Jean-Marie; Cornean, Decebal Horia; Stockmeyer, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    We consider the gap creation problem in an antidot graphene lattice, i.e. a sheet of graphene with periodically distributed obstacles. We prove several spectral results concerning the size of the gap and its dependence on different natural parameters related to the antidot lattice....

  1. Low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    Low band gap polymer materials and their application in organic photovoltaics (OPV) are reviewed. We detail the synthetic approaches to low band gap polymer materials starting from the early methodologies employing quinoid homopolymer structures to the current state of the art that relies...... in photovoltaic applications and give a tabular overview of rarely applied materials....

  2. Addressing the market research skills gap

    OpenAIRE

    Nunan, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This Viewpoint focuses on the debate in market research around the gap between academia and practitioners. It argues that the debate misses the key role that universities play in the provision of market research skills and that it is this skills gap that needs to be addressed in order to ensure the future of research as a profession.

  3. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...

  4. PhoneGap 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natili, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, example-driven Beginner's Guide format, there are plenty of step-by-step instructions to help you get started with PhoneGap.If you are a web developer or mobile application developer interested in an examples-based approach to learning mobile application development basics with PhoneGap, then this book is for you.

  5. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the

  6. Temporal steering and security of quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases against individual attacks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 6 (2016), 1-7, č. článku 062345. ISSN 2469-9926 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum key distribution * Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering * temporal quantum correlations Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  7. Inhibition of hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication by tumor promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms by which tumor promoters enhance neoplasia are poorly understood. One effect common to most tumor promoters is their ability to inhibit the cell-to-cell exchange of small molecules and ions through gap junctions, i.e., gap junctional intercellular communication (IC). IC maybe necessary for normal growth control and the loss of IC may predispose cells to enhanced growth. In the present studies, the effects of liver tumor promoters and other agents on IC between rodent hepatocytes in primary culture has been studied. IC was detected between hepatocytes: (1) autoradiographically following the passage and incorporation of (5-{sup 3}H)uridine nucleotides from pre-labeled donor hepatocytes to non-labeled, adjacent recipient hepatocytes and (2) by fluorescence microscopy after microinjection of fluorescent Lucifer Yellow CH dye into hepatocytes and visualizing dye spread into adjacent hepatocytes.

  8. Inhibition of hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication by tumor promoters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms by which tumor promoters enhance neoplasia are poorly understood. One effect common to most tumor promoters is their ability to inhibit the cell-to-cell exchange of small molecules and ions through gap junctions, i.e., gap junctional intercellular communication (IC). IC maybe necessary for normal growth control and the loss of IC may predispose cells to enhanced growth. In the present studies, the effects of liver tumor promoters and other agents on IC between rodent hepatocytes in primary culture has been studied. IC was detected between hepatocytes: (1) autoradiographically following the passage and incorporation of [5- 3 H]uridine nucleotides from pre-labeled donor hepatocytes to non-labeled, adjacent recipient hepatocytes and (2) by fluorescence microscopy after microinjection of fluorescent Lucifer Yellow CH dye into hepatocytes and visualizing dye spread into adjacent hepatocytes

  9. The Gap and the origin of the fundamental forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichichi, Antonino

    2016-12-01

    The energy level where the best values of the three fundamental gauge couplings (α1,α2,α3) converge is at least two orders of magnitude below the Planck energy level. The existence of this Gap could imply that the gravitational force ‘comes into being’ before QED, QFD and QCD. The most interesting consequence of the Gap would then be the existence of matter whose charge is only the gravitational charge. If this is so, events should be detected where only gravitational waves are produced. Primordial black holes (PBHs) would be produced much more frequently than the standard black holes (SBHs) since SBHs would be ‘derivative’ effects produced later, after matter made with protons, electrons, neutrons, and stars can exist. Collisions between PBHs generating only gravitational waves should be more frequent than SBHs collisions.

  10. [Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication protects astrocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xu-Hui; Gu, Yu-Chen; Jiao, Hao; Yu, Li; Dong, Shu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of inhibiting gap junctional intercellular communication on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in astrocytes. Primary cultured cerebral cortical astrocytes of neonate rats were divided into normal control group, hypoxia reoxygenation injury group and 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid and oleamide (gap junctional intercellular channel inhibitors) group. The gap junction intercellular communication was determined by Parachute assay. The viability of astrocyes was detected by MTT assay. The apoptosis of astrocytes were detected with annexin V/PI and Hoechst 33258 staining. Compared with the normal control group, the gap junctional function of astrocytes was increased significantly in ischemia/reperfusion group (Pastrocytes decreased significantly (Pastrocytes in18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid and oleamide group decreased significantly (Pastrocytes increased significantly (Pastrocytes.

  11. Seasonality and temporal clustering of Kawasaki syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jane C; Cayan, Daniel R; Tong, Garrick; Bainto, Emelia V; Turner, Christena L; Shike, Hiroko; Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Yanagawa, Hiroshi

    2005-03-01

    The distribution of a syndrome in space and time may suggest clues to its etiology. The cause of Kawasaki syndrome, a systemic vasculitis of infants and children, is unknown, but an infectious etiology is suspected. Seasonality and clustering of Kawasaki syndrome cases were studied in Japanese children with Kawasaki syndrome reported in nationwide surveys in Japan. Excluding the years that contained the 3 major nationwide epidemics, 84,829 cases during a 14-year period (1987-2000) were analyzed. To assess seasonality, we calculated mean monthly incidence during the study period for eastern and western Japan and for each of the 47 prefectures. To assess clustering, we compared the number of cases per day (daily incidence) with a simulated distribution (Monte Carlo analysis). Marked spatial and temporal patterns were noted in both the seasonality and deviations from the average number of Kawasaki syndrome cases in Japan. Seasonality was bimodal with peaks in January and June/July and a nadir in October. This pattern was consistent throughout Japan and during the entire 14-year period. Some years produced very high or low numbers of cases, but the overall variability was consistent throughout the entire country. Temporal clustering of Kawasaki syndrome cases was detected with nationwide outbreaks. Kawasaki syndrome has a pronounced seasonality in Japan that is consistent throughout the length of the Japanese archipelago. Temporal clustering of cases combined with marked seasonality suggests an environmental trigger for this clinical syndrome.

  12. Clinical usefulness of the serum anion gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sik; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Kang, Sung Kyew

    2006-03-01

    The anion gap in the serum is useful in the interpretation of acid-base disorders and in the diagnosis of other conditions. In the early 1980s, ion-selective electrodes for specific ionic species were introduced for the measurement of serum electrolytes. This new method has caused a shift of the anion gap from 12±4 mEq/L down 6±3 mEq/L. It is worthy for clinicians to understand the range of normal anion gap and the measuring methods for serum sodium and chloride in the laboratories that support their practice. While an increase in the anion gap is almost always caused by retained unmeasured anions, a decrease in the anion gap can be generated by multiple mechanisms.

  13. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2006-01-01

    structural abnormalities outside of the mesial formations were detected in 65% of the cases. Neither the severity of HS nor temporal atrophy appeared related to the topography of hypo-metabolism. However, temporal hypo-metabolism was more extended when temporo-polar signal changes were detected. Among operated patients (n=43), a seizure-free outcome was obtained in 82%. A positive surgical outcome appeared more favorable in the mesial group, however the difference between the 4 groups was not significant. Our results suggest that hypo-metabolism in MTLE may be related to ictal discharge generation and spread pathways, even though structural changes and epilepsy duration may also play a role. The role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizures is suggested by studies in animal models and epileptic patients. It is suggested that circuits of the basal ganglia may control epileptic seizures and that striatal dopaminergic transmission plays a key role in seizure interruption. We first studied patients with ring chromosome 20 (r(20) ) epilepsy which is a very homogenous type of epilepsy and that is clinically characterized by long-lasting seizures suggesting a dysfunction in the seizure control system. The hypothesis that these long-lasting seizures are associated with a reduction of striatal dopamine was addressed in our study. We used [ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA PET in 14 patients with r(20) epilepsy. We found that [ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA uptake was significantly decreased bilaterally in the putamen and in the caudate nucleus of patients. This reduction was equal for both nuclei and was not correlated with the percentage of cells with r(20) (Biraben, 2004). This study suggested that dysfunction of this neurotransmission may impair the mechanisms which interrupt seizures. This study was followed by a pilot study in patients with MTLE and in patients with the absence of medically refractory seizures to investigate if this abnormality could be related with the ring chromosome 20

  14. The implicit learning of metrical and nonmetrical temporal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Benjamin G; Stevens, Catherine J; Keller, Peter E; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Implicit learning (IL) occurs unintentionally. IL of temporal patterns has received minimal attention, and results are mixed regarding whether IL of temporal patterns occurs in the absence of a concurrent ordinal pattern. Two experiments examined the IL of temporal patterns and the conditions under which IL is exhibited. Experiment 1 examined whether uncertainty of the upcoming stimulus identity obscures learning. Based on probabilistic uncertainty, it was hypothesized that stimulus-detection tasks are more sensitive to temporal learning than multiple-alternative forced-choice tasks because of response uncertainty in the latter. Results demonstrated IL of metrical patterns in the stimulus-detection but not the multiple-alternative task. Experiment 2 investigated whether properties of rhythm (i.e., meter) benefit IL using the stimulus-detection task. The metric binding hypothesis states that metrical frameworks guide attention to periodic points in time. Based on the metric binding hypothesis, it was hypothesized that metrical patterns are learned faster than nonmetrical patterns. Results demonstrated learning of metrical and nonmetrical patterns but metrical patterns were not learned more readily than nonmetrical patterns. However, abstraction of a metrical framework was still evident in the metrical condition. The present study shows IL of auditory temporal patterns in the absence of an ordinal pattern.

  15. Double-Gap Soft Diffraction Results from CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.

    2002-01-01

    We present a study of (anti)pp collisions with a leading antiproton and a rapidity gap in addition to that associated with the antiproton. The second gap is either within the region available to the proton dissociation products, (anti)p + p → ((anti)p + gap) + X + gap + Y, or adjacent to the outgoing proton (anti)p + p → ((anti)p + gap) + X + (gap + p ). Results are reported for two-gap to one-gap event ratios and compared with one-gap to no-gap ratios and with theoretical expectations. (author)

  16. Performance of low resistivity single and dual-gap RPCs for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Messi, R; Pacciani, L; Santovetti, E; Santovetti, Emanuele

    1999-01-01

    99-049 RPCs are strong candidates for the outer regions of the LHCb muon detector. We have tested single-gap and dual-gap detectors built with low-resistivity phenolic plates (ro = 9 x 10^9 microcm) and operated in avalanche mode. Measurements have been performed over a wide range of beam intensities and on the GIF at CERN. The results are presented and discussed, with special emphasis on the detection efficiency.

  17. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    ending up with lexical data models. In particular we look upon the representations by sets of normalised tables, by sets of 1NF tables and by sets of N1NF/nested tables. At each translation step we focus on how the temporal semantic is consistently maintained. In this way we recognise the requirements...... for representation of temporal properties in different models and the correspondence between the models. The results rely on the assumptions that the temporal dimensions are interdependent and ordered. Thus for example the valid periods of existences of a property in a mini world are dependent on the transaction...... periods in which the corresponding recordings are valid. This is not the normal way of looking at temporal dimensions and we give arguments supporting our assumption....

  18. Rain Sensor with Stacked Light Waveguide Having Tilted Air Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sensor to detect rain drop on and above waveguide utilizing light deflection and scattering was realized, keeping wide sensing coverage and sensitivity to detect mist accumulation. Proposed sensor structure under stacked light wave guide consisted of light blocking fixture surrounding photodetector and adjacent light source. Tilted air gap between stacked light waveguide and light blocking fixture played major role to increase sensitivity and to enhance linearity. This sensor structure eliminated complex collimating optics, while keeping wide sensing coverage using simple geometry. Detection algorithm based on time-to-intensity transformation process was used to convert raining intensity into countable raining process. Experimental result inside simulated rain chamber showed distinct different response between light rain and normal rain. Application as automobile rain sensor is expected.

  19. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Joins are arguably the most important relational operators. Poor implementations are tantamount to computing the Cartesian product of the input relations. In a temporal database, the problem is more acute for two reasons. First, conventional techniques are designed for the evaluation of joins wit...... to implementation, is on non-index-based join algorithms. Such algorithms do not rely on auxiliary access paths but may exploit sort orderings to achieve efficiency......., if any, comparison of the various operators. We then address evaluation algorithms, comparing the applicability of various algorithms to the temporal join operators and describing a performance study involving algorithms for one important operator, the temporal equijoin. Our focus, with respect...

  20. Marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA): Quantifying processes in the sea at the spatio-temporal scales on which they occur

    KAUST Repository

    Godøl, Olav Rune

    2014-07-22

    Sustainable management of fisheries resources requires quantitative knowledge and understanding of species distribution, abundance, and productivity-determining processes. Conventional sampling by physical capture is inconsistent with the spatial and temporal scales on which many of these processes occur. In contrast, acoustic observations can be obtained on spatial scales from centimetres to ocean basins, and temporal scales from seconds to seasons. The concept of marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA) is founded on the basic capability of acoustics to detect, classify, and quantify organisms and biological and physical heterogeneities in the water column. Acoustics observations integrate operational technologies, platforms, and models and can generate information by taxon at the relevant scales. The gaps between single-species assessment and ecosystem-based management, as well as between fisheries oceanography and ecology, are thereby bridged. The MEA concept combines state-of-the-art acoustic technology with advanced operational capabilities and tailored modelling integrated into a flexible tool for ecosystem research and monitoring. Case studies are presented to illustrate application of the MEA concept in quantification of biophysical coupling, patchiness of organisms, predator-prey interactions, and fish stock recruitment processes. Widespread implementation of MEA will have a large impact on marine monitoring and assessment practices and it is to be hoped that they also promote and facilitate interaction among disciplines within the marine sciences.