Multiscale temporal integrators for fluctuating hydrodynamics
Delong, Steven; Sun, Yifei; Griffith, Boyce E.; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Donev, Aleksandar
2014-12-01
Following on our previous work [S. Delong, B. E. Griffith, E. Vanden-Eijnden, and A. Donev, Phys. Rev. E 87, 033302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.033302], we develop temporal integrators for solving Langevin stochastic differential equations that arise in fluctuating hydrodynamics. Our simple predictor-corrector schemes add fluctuations to standard second-order deterministic solvers in a way that maintains second-order weak accuracy for linearized fluctuating hydrodynamics. We construct a general class of schemes and recommend two specific schemes: an explicit midpoint method and an implicit trapezoidal method. We also construct predictor-corrector methods for integrating the overdamped limit of systems of equations with a fast and slow variable in the limit of infinite separation of the fast and slow time scales. We propose using random finite differences to approximate some of the stochastic drift terms that arise because of the kinetic multiplicative noise in the limiting dynamics. We illustrate our integrators on two applications involving the development of giant nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations in diffusively mixing fluids. We first study the development of giant fluctuations in recent experiments performed in microgravity using an overdamped integrator. We then include the effects of gravity and find that we also need to include the effects of fluid inertia, which affects the dynamics of the concentration fluctuations greatly at small wave numbers.
Theory of temporal fluctuations in isolated quantum systems
Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Zanardi, Paolo
2015-05-01
When an isolated quantum system is driven out of equilibrium, expectation values of general observables start oscillating in time. This paper reviews the general theory of such temporal fluctuations. We first survey some results on the strength of such temporal fluctuations. For example temporal fluctuations are exponentially small in the system's volume for generic systems whereas they fall-off algebraically in integrable systems. We then concentrate on the so-called quench scenario where the system is driven out-of-equilibrium under the application of a sudden perturbation. For sufficiently small perturbations, temporal fluctuations of physical observables can be characterized in full generality and can be used as an effective tool to probe quantum criticality of the underlying model. In the off-critical region the distribution becomes Gaussian. Close to criticality the distribution becomes a universal function uniquely characterized by a single critical exponent, that we compute explicitly. This contrasts standard equilibrium quantum fluctuations for which the critical distribution depends on a numerable set of critical coefficients and is known only for limited examples. The possibility of using temporal fluctuations to determine pseudo-critical boundaries in optical lattice experiments is further reviewed.
The scaling properties of dynamical fluctuations in temporal networks
Chi, Liping
2015-01-01
The factorial moments analyses are performed to study the scaling properties of the dynamical fluctuations of contacts and nodes in temporal networks based on empirical data sets. The intermittent behaviors are observed in the fluctuations for all orders of the moments. It indicates that the interaction has self-similarity structure in time interval and the fluctuations are not purely random but dynamical and correlated. The scaling exponents for contacts in Prostitution data and nodes in Conference data are very close to that for 2D Ising model undergoing a second-order phase transition.
Temporal structure of aggregate power fluctuations in large-eddy simulations of extended wind-farms
Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Meneveau, Charles
2014-01-01
Fluctuations represent a major challenge for the incorporation of electric power from large wind-farms into power grids. Wind-farm power output fluctuates strongly in time, over various time scales. Understanding these fluctuations, especially their spatio-temporal characteristics, is particularly
Qualitative assessment of temporal fluctuations on buffalo behaviour
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Serrapica
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The qualitative assessment of animal behaviour (QBA is an integrative, whole-animal methodology based on the qualitative interpretation of the dynamic style in which animals interact with their environment. In other words, it describes not what the animals do, but how they do what they do. We aimed to verify whether the QBA was able to detect the behavioural fluctuations occurring in animals in response to an environmental challenge. An 8-member panel was used. The panel was briefly trained on the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS procedure and subsequently asked to observe the behaviour of 4 buffalo heifers in 4 videos lasting 2 min each and score the behavioural expression of the animals following the TDS procedure. TDS consists in presenting to the panellist the list of behavioural descriptors on a computer screen along with each video. Each video was obtained by assembling two clips concerning the same animal in two different conditions: home indoor pen (1 min and novel outdoor paddock (1 min. Two videos started with the animal in the outdoor environment and two others in the opposite order. Six behavioural descriptors were chosen from a previous work conducted on the same animals: calm, active, curious, nervous, shy and apathetic. Each assessor was asked to select the dominant descriptor, which was considered as dominant when it gained most of the attention of the observer. Each time the observer felt the behaviour changed, he/she scored the new dominant descriptor until the behaviour ended. Each video was observed 4 times by each observer (4 replications in a randomised order at 24-h intervals. For each point of time, the proportion of runs (subject × replication for which a given descriptor was assessed as dominant (dominance rate >30% was computed. Results showed a satisfactory agreement among observers and replications. The observers clearly discriminated the first from the second half of each video. Calm and apathetic were
Serag, Maged F.
2014-10-06
Single-molecule localization and tracking has been used to translate spatiotemporal information of individual molecules to map their diffusion behaviours. However, accurate analysis of diffusion behaviours and including other parameters, such as the conformation and size of molecules, remain as limitations to the method. Here, we report a method that addresses the limitations of existing single-molecular localization methods. The method is based on temporal tracking of the cumulative area occupied by molecules. These temporal fluctuations are tied to molecular size, rates of diffusion and conformational changes. By analysing fluorescent nanospheres and double-stranded DNA molecules of different lengths and topological forms, we demonstrate that our cumulative-area method surpasses the conventional single-molecule localization method in terms of the accuracy of determined diffusion coefficients. Furthermore, the cumulative-area method provides conformational relaxation times of structurally flexible chains along with diffusion coefficients, which together are relevant to work in a wide spectrum of scientific fields.
Multifractal Temporally Weighted Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Arctic Sea Ice Satellite Data
Wettlaufer, J. S.; Agarwal, S.; Moon, W.
2011-12-01
The recent changes in Arctic sea ice coverage have led to a substantial range of studies of large-scale observations to attempt to use the approximately 30 year record to make predictions of the future state of the ice cover. Most such studies use extrapolation via linear regression. Here, we harness a new variant of the widely used method of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to study the long-range correlation and fractal scaling properties of time series data of basin wide Arctic sea ice area and satellite albedo retrievals. The new variant of this method is called multifractal temporally weighted detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-TWDFA) which uses moving windows rather than discontinuous polynomial fitting to provide a smooth set of plots of the fluctuation function versus time scale to find crossover timescales. We find the generalized Hurst exponents and multiple crossover timescales from synoptic to decadal and several between. The method reproduces these in both data sets and hence provides a strong basis for ice dynamical the thermodynamical responses to climate forcing that go beyond treatments that assume a certain process (such as an AR1 process) can be fitted to such observations.
Analysis of temporal fluctuations in Bach’s sinfonias
Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele
2012-06-01
The correlation structures in 15 Bach's sinfonias were analyzed. Each sinfonia is characterized by the superposition of three voices. Each voice is a sequence of pitches. Each voice was transformed in a time series, in which the sampling time was given by the smallest pitch duration in that voice. The scaling properties of the three voices of each sinfonia was quantified by means of the estimate of the scaling exponent, performed using the power spectral density (PSD) and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The results show that the voice time series are persistent. The DFA was applied not only to any single voice time series, but also to couples (2-DFA) of voices and to the triple (3-DFA) of voices. It was found that the first voice of each sinfonia modulates the scaling behavior of the whole sinfonia.
Temporal structure of aggregate power fluctuations in large-eddy simulations of extended wind-farms
Stevens, Richard J A M
2014-01-01
Fluctuations represent a major challenge for the incorporation of electric power from large wind-farms into power grids. Wind farm power output fluctuates strongly in time, over various time scales. Understanding these fluctuations, especially their spatio-temporal characteristics, is particularly important for the design of backup power systems that must be readily available in conjunction with wind-farms. In this work we analyze the power fluctuations associated with the wind-input variability at scales between minutes to several hours, using large eddy simulations (LES) of extended wind-parks, interacting with the atmospheric boundary layer. LES studies enable careful control of parameters and availability of wind-velocities simultaneously across the entire wind-farm. The present study focuses on neutral atmospheric conditions and flat terrain, using actuator-disk representations of the individual wind-turbines. We consider power from various aggregates of wind-turbines such as the total average power sign...
Tanaka, Natsuki; Papoian, Garegin A
2010-05-21
Recent developments of fluorescence labeling and highly advanced microscopy techniques have enabled observations of activities of biosignaling molecules in living cells. The high spatial and temporal resolutions of these video microscopy experiments allow detection of fluorescence fluctuations at the timescales approaching those of enzymatic reactions. Such fluorescence fluctuation patterns may contain information about the complex reaction-diffusion system driving the dynamics of the labeled molecule. Here, we have developed a method of identifying the reaction-diffusion system of fluorescently labeled signaling molecules in the cell, by combining spatio-temporal correlation function analysis of fluctuating fluorescent patterns, stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations, and an iterative system identification technique using a simulated annealing algorithm. In this report, we discuss the validity and usability of spatio-temporal correlation functions in characterizing the reaction-diffusion dynamics of biomolecules, and demonstrate application of our reaction-diffusion system identification method to a simple conceptual model for small GTPase activation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Investigating non-uniform scaling behaviour in temporal fluctuations of seismicity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Telesca
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Scaling behaviour in nonstationary time series can be successfully detected using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. Observational time series often do not show a stable and uniform scaling behaviour, given by the presence of a unique clear scaling region. The deviations from uniform power-law scaling, which suggest the presence of changing dynamics in the system under study, can be identified and quantified using an appropriate instability index. In this framework, the scaling behaviour of the 1981–2007 seismicity in Umbria-Marche (central Italy, which is one of the most seismically active areas in Italy, was investigated. Significant deviations from uniform power-law scaling in the seismic temporal fluctuations were revealed mostly linked with the occurrence of rather large earthquakes or seismic clusters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoyi Guo
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Vegetation is an important part of terrestrial ecosystems. Although vegetation dynamics have explicit spatial and temporal dimensions, the study of the temporal process is in its infancy. Evaluation of temporal scaling behavior could provide a unique perspective for exploring the temporal nature of vegetation dynamics. In this study, the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was used to reflect vegetation dynamics, and the temporal scaling behavior of the NDVI in China was determined via detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. Our main objectives were to reveal the temporal scaling behavior of NDVI time series and to understand variation among vegetation types. First, DFA revealed similar exponents, which ranged from 0.6 to 0.9, for all selected pixels, implying that a long-range correlation was generally present in the NDVI time series at the individual pixel scale. We then extended the analysis to all of China and found that 99.30% of the pixel exponents ranged from 0.5 to 1. These results suggest that the NDVI time series displays strong long-range correlation throughout most of China; however, the exponents exhibited regional variability. To explain these differences, we further analyzed the exponents for 12 vegetation types based on a vegetation map of China. All of the vegetation types exhibited well-defined long-range correlation, with exponents ranging from 0.7189 to 0.8436. For all vegetation types, the maximum and average value and standard deviation of the exponents decreased with increasing annual maximum NDVI values, suggesting that low vegetation density is much more sensitive to external factors. These findings may be useful for understanding vegetation dynamics as a complex, temporally varying phenomenon.
Linning, Shannon J; Andresen, Martin A; Brantingham, Paul J
2017-12-01
This study investigates whether crime patterns fluctuate periodically throughout the year using data containing different property crime types in two Canadian cities with differing climates. Using police report data, a series of ordinary least squares (OLS; Vancouver, British Columbia) and negative binomial (Ottawa, Ontario) regressions were employed to examine the corresponding temporal patterns of property crime in Vancouver (2003-2013) and Ottawa (2006-2008). Moreover, both aggregate and disaggregate models were run to examine whether different weather and temporal variables had a distinctive impact on particular offences. Overall, results suggest that cities that experience greater variations in weather throughout the year have more distinct increases of property offences in the summer months and that different climate variables affect certain crime types, thus advocating for disaggregate analysis in the future.
Svec, Adam
Gaussian noise (GN) simultaneous maskers yield higher masked thresholds for pure tones than low-fluctuation noise (LFN) simultaneous maskers for listeners with normal hearing. This increased residual masking is thought to be due to inherent fluctuations in the temporal envelope of Gaussian noise, but these masking effects using forward maskers have been previously unexamined. Because differences in forward masking due to age and hearing loss are known, the first study measured forward-masked detection thresholds for younger and older adults with normal hearing (NH) and older adults with hearing loss (HI) for a 4000 Hz pure-tone probe at a single masker-probe delay in narrowband noises with maximal (GN) or minimal (LFN) inherent envelope fluctuations. As predicted, results suggested that no effect of age was observed. Surprisingly, forward-masked threshold differences between GN and LFN, an estimate of the magnitude of the effect of inherent masker envelope fluctuations, were not significantly different for older HI listeners compared to younger or older NH listeners. Due to the surprising similarities between listeners with normal and impaired hearing, the second study was designed to assess effects of hearing loss on the slopes and magnitudes of recovery from forward maskers that varied in inherent envelope fluctuations for masker-probe delays of 25, 50, and 75 ms. In addition to measuring these effects centered at 4000 Hz, forward-masked thresholds were also measured at 2000 Hz, a region of better hearing for the HI listeners. As hypothesized, regardless of masker fluctuations, slopes of recovery from forward masking were shallower for HI than NH listeners in all conditions. At 4000 Hz, additional residual masking was greater in HI than NH listeners at the longest masker-probe delays; whereas, no differences in additional residual masking between HI and NH listeners were observed for 2000 Hz. These results suggest that the masking effects from inherent envelope
Ahmadi, Ahmadreza; Tani, Jun
2017-08-01
The current paper examines how a recurrent neural network (RNN) model using a dynamic predictive coding scheme can cope with fluctuations in temporal patterns through generalization in learning. The conjecture driving this present inquiry is that a RNN model with multiple timescales (MTRNN) learns by extracting patterns of change from observed temporal patterns, developing an internal dynamic structure such that variance in initial internal states account for modulations in corresponding observed patterns. We trained a MTRNN with low-dimensional temporal patterns, and assessed performance on an imitation task employing these patterns. Analysis reveals that imitating fluctuated patterns consists in inferring optimal internal states by error regression. The model was then tested through humanoid robotic experiments requiring imitative interaction with human subjects. Results show that spontaneous and lively interaction can be achieved as the model successfully copes with fluctuations naturally occurring in human movement patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Temporal and spatial fluctuations of phytoplankton in a tropical coastal lagoon, southeast Brazil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Melo
Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of the phytoplankton community in the tropical coastal Imboassica lagoon, an environment naturally isolated from the ocean by a narrow sandbar, was analysed every two weeks for 19 months by sampling three sites. During this study, the lagoon received direct input of marine water three times, resulting in remarkable salinity, nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomass variations in both temporal and spatial aspects. The phytoplankton biomass presented relatively low values ranging, on average, from 0.54 mg.L-1 in the station closest to the sea (station 1 to 1.34 mg.L-1 in the station close to a macrophyte bank (station 3. Diatoms and cryptomonads dominated in stations 1 and 2 (located relatively close to station 1, yet receiving the runoff of domestic sewage, and euglenoids, cryptomonads and dinoflagellates at station 3. Stations 1 and 2 usually presented the same dominant species but station 2 presented a higher phytoplankton biomass. On the other hand, station 3 showed more similar results concerning phytoplankton biomass with station 2, however the dominant species were usually different. The high fluctuations of salinity and the reduced nutrient availability are pointed out as the main factors structuring the dynamics of the phytoplankton community at the Imboassica lagoon.
Fluctuations in relative humidity provided to extremely low-birthweight infants (R1).
Kaczmarek, Jennifer; Tarawneh, Amjad; Martins, Bianca; Sant' Anna, Guilherme Mendes
2012-04-01
In extremely low-birthweight infants, the addition of relative humidity (RH) improves thermal stability, fluid and electrolyte balance. However, during routine care this microenvironment is frequently disturbed. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, magnitude and direction of fluctuations in RH provided to extremely low-birthweight infants. All infants in our study had ambient temperature and RH continuously recorded for 48 h using a datalogger device (RH32S-C2). A clinically acceptable range for RH was defined as the set point ± 10%. A secondary analysis was performed to compare outcomes between infants that spent > 50% of the time out-of-range (OOR) or inside the range (IR). A P-value < 0.05 was significant. A total of 20 infants were included. Important fluctuations were detected by the device with infants spending 40% and 14% of the time above and below the range, respectively. However, the RH set point did not differ from the mean levels measured over 48 h by the RH32S-C2 or the incubator. Infants in the OOR group spent significantly more time at values higher than the planned range when compared to IR infants. Although significant fluctuations in RH above the desired range were detected in more than half of the infants, the average values were similar to the set points. Nevertheless, knowledge of these dynamic changes may help to optimize individualized care. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.
[Infections on catheters in hemodialysis: Temporal fluctuations of the infectious risk].
Izoard, S; Ayzac, L; Meynier, J; Seghezzi, J-C; Jolibois, B; Tolani, M L
2017-11-01
International guidelines recommend to limit the long-term use of central-veinous catheters in patients undergoing hemodialysis, because they expose the patient to a higher infectious risk than the fistulas. However, for some patients with comorbidity, switching to a permanent vascular access is not possible. In such case, the catheter is used for a longer period. It seems therefore important to study the influence of a prolonged duration of catheterization on infectious complications. The temporal fluctuation profile of the infectious risk is poorly studied in the literature and the results published may be contradictory. This multicentric prospective study included 1053 incident tunneled catheters. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify significant risk factors of infection. An infection-free survival analysis was performed afterwards to estimate the variation of the instantaneous infectious risk during catheterization. The major risks factors of infections on tunneled catheters were: previous Staphylococcus aureus infection (aOR=1.95 [1.16-3.27]; P=0.012), diabetes (aOR=1.67 [1.16-2.41]; P=0.006), and long duration of catheterization (0-3months vs.≥24months: aOR=2.42 [1.34-4.36]; P=0.003). The survival analysis showed a higher risk of infections of tunneled catheters during the first months after placement. Risk declines over time. The fluctuation profile of the infectious risk show that preventive precautions should target the first months of catheterization. Copyright © 2017 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sleeman, Reinoud; Vossen, Caron
2017-04-01
The volcanoes on Saba (Mt. Scenery) and St. Eustatius (The Quill) in the Caribbean Netherlands are stratovolcanoes with moderate to high volcanic hazard. Neither volcano has had a recent eruption (1640 AD Saba, 400 AD St. Eustatius) but their structure and composition resemble other dormant and active volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles. Both The Quill and Mt. Scenery show clear evidence of past pyroclastic flow activity. The time interval between eruptions of Lesser Antilles volcanoes is estimated between tens and several thousands of years. Since 2006 the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) is building up a seismic broadband network on both volcanoes, comprising one seismometer per island in 2006 and four since 2015, to monitor in real time the (a) seismic activity and (b) temporal seismic velocity fluctuations in the interiors of the volcanoes by the application of passive interferometry on the continuous seismic recordings. We present recent results of measurements of these temporal changes within the volcanoes on Saba and St. Eustatius based on cross-station correlations and cross-component correlations (using MSNoise), using up to 10 years of data. We also conducted synthetic experiments to investigate the sensitivity of the technique to verify our results. The objective is to apply this technique to real-time data recorded at the volcanoes and to build a system to provide the earliest possible warning of significant seismic velocity changes to decision makers. Saba counts about 1900 inhabitants, St. Eustatius about 3800.
Wang, Dake; Moyer, Adam; Henderson, Matt
2012-11-01
A method for obtaining the intensity fluctuation spectra of dynamic laser speckle patterns is introduced, which is based on the temporal modulation of the illumination and the subsequent integration of the intensity signals. This approach does not rely on the fast sampling rate to meet the Nyquist criterion, making it applicable for full-field imaging applications. The intensity fluctuation spectra created by the in-plane motion of a random phase object was investigated by using both a single-channel detector and a multichannel sensor. The power spectra obtained by using the full-field temporal modulation method were found to agree with the homodyne Doppler spectra obtained by using the method of autocorrelation and Fourier transform.
Cooperativity Leads to Temporally-Correlated Fluctuations in the Bacteriophage Lambda Genetic Switch
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacob Quinn Shenker
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Cooperative interactions are widespread in biochemical networks, providing the nonlinear response that underlies behavior such as ultrasensitivity and robust switching. We introduce a temporal correlation function—the conditional activity—to study the behavior of these phenomena. Applying it to the bistable genetic switch in bacteriophage lambda, we ﬁnd that cooperative binding between binding sites on the prophage DNA lead to non-Markovian behavior, as quantiﬁed by the conditional activity. Previously, the conditional activity has been used to predict allosteric pathways in proteins; here, we show that it identiﬁes the rare unbinding events which underlie induction from lysogeny to lysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Forte
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The impact of space weather events on satellite-based technologies (e.g. satellite navigation and precise positioning is typically quantified on the basis of the total electron content (TEC and temporal fluctuations associated with it. GNSS (global navigation satellite systems TEC measurements are integrated over a long distance and thus may include contributions from different regions of the ionised atmosphere which may prevent the resolution of the mechanisms ultimately responsible for given observations. The purpose of the experiment presented here was to compare TEC estimates from EISCAT and GPS measurements. The EISCAT measurements were obtained along the same line of sight of a given GPS satellite observed from Tromsø. The present analyses focussed on the comparison of temporal fluctuations in the TEC between aligned GPS and EISCAT measurements. A reasonably good agreement was found between temporal fluctuations in TEC observed by EISCAT and those observed by a co-located GPS ionospheric monitor along the same line of sight, indicating a contribution from structures at E and F altitudes mainly to the total TEC in the presence of ionisation enhancements possibly caused by particle precipitation in the nighttime sector. The experiment suggests the great potential in the measurements to be performed by the future EISCAT_3D system, limited only in the localised geographic region to be covered.
C.B. Graham; H.R. Barnard; K.L. Kavanagh; J.P. McNamara
2012-01-01
Diel fluctuations can comprise a significant portion of summer discharge in small to medium catchments. The source of these signals and the manner in which they are propagated to stream gauging sites is poorly understood. In this work, we analysed stream discharge from 15 subcatchments in Dry Creek, Idaho, Reynolds Creek, Idaho, and HJ Andrews, Oregon. We identified...
Temporal fluctuations in excimer-like interactions between pi-conjugated chromophores
Stangl, Thomas; Schmitz, Daniela; Remmerssen, Klaas; Henzel, Sebastian; Hoeger, Sigurd; Vogelsang, Jan; Lupton, John M
2015-01-01
Inter- or intramolecular coupling processes between chromophores such as excimer formation or H- and J-aggregation are crucial to describing the photophysics of closely packed films of conjugated polymers. Such coupling is highly distance dependent, and should be sensitive to both fluctuations in the spacing between chromophores as well as the actual position on the chromophore where the exciton localizes. Single-molecule spectroscopy reveals these intrinsic fluctuations in well-defined bi-chromophoric model systems of cofacial oligomers. Signatures of interchromophoric interactions in the excited state - spectral red-shifting and broadening, and a slowing of photoluminescence decay - correlate with each other but scatter strongly between single molecules, implying an extraordinary distribution in coupling strengths. Furthermore, these excimer-like spectral fingerprints vary with time, revealing intrinsic dynamics in the coupling strength within one single dimer molecule, which constitutes the starting point ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosângela Maria Rodrigues Barbosa
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The use of attractants and larvicides in oviposition traps is of practical interest for the surveillance and control of urban mosquitoes. In addition to increasing the safety of the traps, this combination is essential for an attract-and-kill control strategy based on trapping mosquito eggs. The combination of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti and grass infusion (GI vs. GI alone were tested for their ability to attract in paired BR-OVT traps in the backyards of 10 houses in Recife, Brazil, for a period of 45 days. Results show that females prefer to oviposit in traps containing Bti (363 compared with 251 egg rafts over 45 days. Results from a one-year trial on the efficacy of BR-OVT traps loaded with GI and Bti as a sampling tool to monitor temporal fluctuations in the population densities of Culex quinquefasciatus in an urban environment are also reported. From December 2006-January 2007, one trap per home was installed and maintained for 348 consecutive days in 134-151 houses located in three urban blocks. Throughout the one-year field trial a total of 43,151 Culex egg rafts were collected in the traps. The data show that BR-OVT loaded with GI and Bti is sensitive enough to demonstrate continuous reproductive activity of Cux. quinquefasciatus in the study area throughout the year and to monitor temporal fluctuations in population density.
Dimitriadis, S I; Laskaris, N A; Simos, P G; Micheloyannis, S; Fletcher, J M; Rezaie, R; Papanicolaou, A C
2013-12-01
In this study we investigate systematic patterns of rapidly changing sensor-level interdependencies in resting MEG data obtained from 23 children experiencing reading difficulties (RD) and 27 non-impaired readers (NI). Three-minute MEG time series were band-passed and subjected to blind source separation (BSS) prior to estimating sensor interdependencies using the weighted phase synchronization measure (wPLI). Dynamic sensor-level network properties were then derived for two network metrics (global and local efficiency). The temporal decay of long-range temporal correlations in network metrics (LRTC) was quantified using the scaling exponent (SE) in detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) plots. Having established the reliability of SE estimates as robust descriptors of network dynamics, we found that RD students displayed significantly reduced (a) overall sensor-level network organization across all frequency bands (global efficiency), and (b) temporal correlations between sensors covering the left temporoparietal region and the remaining sensors in the β3 band (local efficiency). Importantly, both groups displayed scale-free global network connectivity dynamics. The direct application of DFA to MEG signals failed to reveal significant group differences. Results are discussed in relation to prior evidence for disrupted temporoparietal functional circuits for reading in developmental reading disability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thorson, James T; Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Copeland, Timothy
2014-01-01
Spatial, phenotypic and genetic diversity at relatively small scales can buffer species against large-scale processes such as climate change that tend to synchronize populations and increase temporal variability in overall abundance or production. This portfolio effect generally results in improved biological and economic outcomes for managed species. Previous evidence for the portfolio effect in salmonids has arisen from examinations of time series of adult abundance, but we lack evidence of spatial buffering of temporal variability in demographic rates such as survival of juveniles during their first year of life. We therefore use density-dependent population models with multiple random effects to represent synchronous (similar among populations) and asynchronous (different among populations) temporal variability as well as spatial variability in survival. These are fitted to 25 years of survey data for breeding adults and surviving juveniles from 15 demographically distinct populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) within a single metapopulation in the Snake River in Idaho, USA. Model selection identifies the most support for the model that included both synchronous and asynchronous temporal variability, in addition to spatial variability. Asynchronous variability (log-SD = 0·55) is approximately equal in magnitude to synchronous temporal variability (log-SD = 0·67), but much lower than spatial variability (log-SD = 1·11). We also show that the pairwise correlation coefficient, a common measure of population synchrony, is approximated by the estimated ratio of shared and total variance, where both approaches yield a synchrony estimate of 0·59. We therefore find evidence for spatial buffering of temporal variability in early juvenile survival, although between-population variability that persists over time is also large. We conclude that spatial variation decreases interannual changes in overall juvenile production, which suggests that
Temporal dynamics in an immunological synapse: Role of thermal fluctuations in signaling
Bush, Daniel R.; Chattopadhyay, Amit K.
2015-07-01
The article analyzes the contribution of stochastic thermal fluctuations in the attachment times of the immature T-cell receptor TCR: peptide-major-histocompatibility-complex pMHC immunological synapse bond. The key question addressed here is the following: how does a synapse bond remain stabilized in the presence of high-frequency thermal noise that potentially equates to a strong detaching force? Focusing on the average time persistence of an immature synapse, we show that the high-frequency nodes accompanying large fluctuations are counterbalanced by low-frequency nodes that evolve over longer time periods, eventually leading to signaling of the immunological synapse bond primarily decided by nodes of the latter type. Our analysis shows that such a counterintuitive behavior could be easily explained from the fact that the survival probability distribution is governed by two distinct phases, corresponding to two separate time exponents, for the two different time regimes. The relatively shorter timescales correspond to the cohesion:adhesion induced immature bond formation whereas the larger time reciprocates the association:dissociation regime leading to TCR:pMHC signaling. From an estimate of the bond survival probability, we show that, at shorter timescales, this probability PΔ(τ ) scales with time τ as a universal function of a rescaled noise amplitude D/Δ2, such that PΔ(τ ) ˜τ-(Δ/√{D }+1/2 ) ,Δ being the distance from the mean intermembrane (T cell:Antigen Presenting Cell) separation distance. The crossover from this shorter to a longer time regime leads to a universality in the dynamics, at which point the survival probability shows a different power-law scaling compared to the one at shorter timescales. In biological terms, such a crossover indicates that the TCR:pMHC bond has a survival probability with a slower decay rate than the longer LFA-1:ICAM-1 bond justifying its stability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burcu Aykaç Fas
Full Text Available Escherichia coli cyclic AMP Receptor Protein (CRP undergoes conformational changes with cAMP binding and allosterically promotes CRP to bind specifically to the DNA. In that, the structural and dynamic properties of apo CRP prior to cAMP binding are of interest for the comprehension of the activation mechanism. Here, the dynamics of apo CRP monomer/dimer and holo CRP dimer were studied by Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations and Gaussian Network Model (GNM. The interplay of the inter-domain hinge with the cAMP and DNA binding domains are pre-disposed in the apo state as a conformational switch in the CRP's allosteric communication mechanism. The hinge at L134-D138 displaying intra- and inter-subunit coupled fluctuations with the cAMP and DNA binding domains leads to the emergence of stronger coupled fluctuations between the two domains and describes an on state. The flexible regions at K52-E58, P154/D155 and I175 maintain the dynamic coupling of the two domains. With a shift in the inter-domain hinge position towards the N terminus, nevertheless, the latter correlations between the domains loosen and become disordered; L134-D138 dynamically interacts only with the cAMP and DNA binding domains of its own subunit, and an off state is assumed. We present a mechanistic view on how the structural dynamic units are hierarchically built for the allosteric functional mechanism; from apo CRP monomer to apo-to-holo CRP dimers.
Aykaç Fas, Burcu; Tutar, Yusuf; Haliloğlu, Türkan
2013-01-01
Escherichia coli cyclic AMP Receptor Protein (CRP) undergoes conformational changes with cAMP binding and allosterically promotes CRP to bind specifically to the DNA. In that, the structural and dynamic properties of apo CRP prior to cAMP binding are of interest for the comprehension of the activation mechanism. Here, the dynamics of apo CRP monomer/dimer and holo CRP dimer were studied by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and Gaussian Network Model (GNM). The interplay of the inter-domain hinge with the cAMP and DNA binding domains are pre-disposed in the apo state as a conformational switch in the CRP's allosteric communication mechanism. The hinge at L134-D138 displaying intra- and inter-subunit coupled fluctuations with the cAMP and DNA binding domains leads to the emergence of stronger coupled fluctuations between the two domains and describes an on state. The flexible regions at K52-E58, P154/D155 and I175 maintain the dynamic coupling of the two domains. With a shift in the inter-domain hinge position towards the N terminus, nevertheless, the latter correlations between the domains loosen and become disordered; L134-D138 dynamically interacts only with the cAMP and DNA binding domains of its own subunit, and an off state is assumed. We present a mechanistic view on how the structural dynamic units are hierarchically built for the allosteric functional mechanism; from apo CRP monomer to apo-to-holo CRP dimers. PMID:23874183
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Piscitelli
2001-06-01
Full Text Available We analyse geoelectrical and geochemical time series jointly measured by means of a multiparametric automatic station close to an anomalous fluid emission in Val d'Agri (Basilicata, Southern Italy. In the investigated are some destructive seismic events occurred in past and recent years. We analysed the temporal fluctuations of the signals by spectral tools. We detected scaling behaviours in the power spectra of the time series recorded, that are typical fingerprints of fractional Brownian motions. The estimated values of the spectral indices reveal the presence of antipersistent behaviour in the time dynamics of all geoelectrical and geochemical data recorded. This work intends to improve our knowledge of the inner time dynamics of geophysical non-seismometric parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NF. Negreiros
Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the composition, diversity and short-term temporal fluctuations of zooplankton communities in fish ponds. The study was carried out in two fish ponds, with 180 m² of water surface (6 × 30 m each, located in the Aquiculture Centre of the Pindamonhangaba Fisheries Institute - São Paulo. The study was developed over eight weeks, from February 16 to April 6, 1998. The physical and chemical conditions of the water in the fish ponds were adequate for zooplankton development. The zooplanktonic community was characterised by high richness of species and a greater diversity was observed in the first fish pond, with a superior density of Rotifera. Temporal changes in zooplankton composition occurred in both ponds with Cladocera appearing in abundance later, in the fourth week, whereas copepods and rotifers were well represented since the beginning. Many species found are typical of fish ponds and are considered to constitute an excellent food source, showing high nutritional value for fish larvae, a good example being individuals from the Rotifera group and the micro-crustacean species Moina minuta and Thermocyclops decipiens.
Habib, Abrar; Sorensen, James P. R.; Bloomfield, John P.; Muchan, Katie; Newell, Andrew J.; Butler, Adrian P.
2017-06-01
In order to determine objectively the fractal behaviour of a time series, and to facilitate potential future attempts to assess model performance by incorporating fractal behaviour, a multi-order robust detrended fluctuation analysis (r-DFAn) procedure is developed herein. The r-DFAn procedure allows for robust and automated quantification of mono-fractal behaviour. The fractal behaviour is quantified with three parts: a global scaling exponent, crossovers, and local scaling exponents. The robustness of the r-DFAn procedure is established by the systematic use of robust regression, piecewise linear regression, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Multiple Comparison Procedure to determine statistically significant scaling exponents and optimum crossover locations. The MATLAB code implementing the r-DFAn procedure has also been open sourced to enable reproducible results. r-DFAn will be illustrated on a synthetic signal after which is used to analyse high-resolution hydrologic data; although the r-DFAn procedure is not limited to hydrological or geophysical time series. The hydrological data are 4 year-long datasets (January 2012 to January 2016) of 1-min groundwater level, river stage, groundwater and river temperature, and 15-min precipitation and air temperature, at Wallingford, UK. The datasets are analysed in both time and fractal domains. The study area is a shallow riparian aquifer in hydraulic connection to River Thames, which traverses the site. The unusually high resolution datasets, along with the responsive nature of the aquifer, enable detailed examination of the various data and their interconnections in both time- and fractal-domains.
Symanski, E; Savitz, D; Singer, P
2004-01-01
Aims: To assess spatial fluctuations, temporal variability, and errors due to sampling and analysis in levels of disinfection by-products in routine monitoring tap water samples and in water samples collected in households within the same distribution system for an exposure assessment study.
K.R. Hubbert; V. Oriol
2005-01-01
Soil water repellency is partularly common in unburned chaparral, and its degree and duration can be influenced by seasonal weather conditions. Water repellency tends to increase in dry soils, whil eit decreases or vanishes following precipitation or extended periods of soil moisture. The 15426 ha Williams Fire provided an opportunity to investigate post-fire...
Devillard, S; Santin-Janin, H; Say, L; Pontier, D
2011-12-01
Linking temporal variations of genetic diversity, including allelic richness and heterozygosity, and spatio-temporal fluctuations in population abundance has emerged as an important tool for understanding demographic and evolutionary processes in natural populations. This so-called genetic monitoring was conducted across 12 consecutive years (1996-2007) at three sites for the feral cat, introduced onto the Kerguelen archipelago fifty years ago. Temporal changes in allelic richness and heterozygosity at 18 microsatellite DNA loci were compared with temporal changes in the adult population abundance index, obtained by typical demographic monitoring. No association was found at the island spatial scale, but we observed an association between genetic diversity and adult population indices from year to year within each study site. More particularly, the magnitude of successive increases or decreases in the adult population abundance index appeared to be the major factor linking the trajectories of genetic diversity and adult population abundance indices. Natal dispersal and/or local recruitment, both facilitated by high juvenile survival when the adult population size is small, is proposed as the major demographic processes contributing to such an observed pattern. Finally, we suggested avoiding the use of the harmonic mean as an estimator of long-term population size to study the relationships between demographic fluctuations and heterozygosity in populations characterized by strong multiannual density fluctuations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Tan
2017-02-01
Full Text Available As one of the most important geographical units affected by global climate change, lakes are sensitive to climatic changes and are considered “indicators” of climate and the environment. In this study, changes in the spatial-temporal characteristics of the water levels of 204 global major lakes are systematically analyzed using satellite altimetry data (Hydroweb product from 2002 to 2010. Additionally, the responses of the major global lake levels to climatic fluctuations are analyzed using Global Land Surface Assimilation System (GLDAS data (temperature and precipitation. The results show that the change rates of most global lakes exceed 0, which means that the lake levels of these lakes are rising. The change rates of the lake levels are between −0.3~0.3 m/a, which indicates that the rate of change in the water-level of most lakes is not obvious. A few lakes have a particularly sharp change rate, between −5.84~−2 m/a or 0.7~1.87 m/a. Lakes with increasing levels are mainly located in the mountain and plateau regions, and the change rates in the coastal highlands are more evident. The global temperatures rise by a change rate of 0.0058 °C/a, while the global precipitation decreases by a change rate of −0.6697 mm/a. However, there are significant regional differences in both temperature and precipitation. In addition, the impact of precipitation on the water level of lakes is significant and straightforward, while the impact of temperature is more complex. A study of lake levels on a global scale would be quite useful for a better understanding of the impact which climate change has on surface water resources.
Zelenev, V.V.
2004-01-01
Fluctuations of bacterial populations can be observed when frequent and sufficiently long series of samples are obtained for direct microscopic or plate counts of bacteria. Fluctuations in bacterial numbers are especially noticeable after some disturbance of soil such as substrate addition. However,
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, L.F.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons
2008-01-01
molecules that are central to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted antigen presentation and thus integral components in the adaptive immune system. As such, they could be influenced by selection, driven by pathogens and parasites in a manner similar to MHC genes. Analysis of allele...... frequencies at presumably neutral microsatellite loci revealed a temporally unstable population structure within regions, while the population structure was stable over time among regions. Analyses of the two TAP markers indicated an effect of selection at both a regional and micro-geographical spatial scale....... Moreover, signals of divergent selection among temporal samples within localities suggest that selection also might fluctuate at a temporal scale. These results suggest that immune genes other than the classical MHC class I and II might be subject to selection and warrant further studies of functional...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Forbes, Valery E.
2009-01-01
fluctuations throughout recordable historical time. The most detailed accounts are found for the species that were harvested or had economical value. While several recent studies from northern latitudes have shown the relative roles of climate, the exogenous and endogenous environment of species and man...... as factors driving species population dynamics, the relative contributions and potential interactions among these factors remains unsolved. In Greenland, these fluctuations in the harvests of individual species are believed to be related to changes in climate, as well as variations in hunting pressure....... The results of this study will model future predictions of wildlife populations under changing climate variables and human hunting pressure....
Kirchner, M.; Schubert, P.; Schmidtbleicher, D.; Haas, C. T.
2012-10-01
The analysis of postural control has a long history. Traditionally, the amount of body sway is solely used as an index of postural stability. Although this leads to some extent to an effective evaluation of balance performance, the control mechanisms involved have not yet been fully understood. The concept of nonlinear dynamics suggests that variability in the motor output is not randomness but structure, providing the stimulus to reveal the functionality of postural sway. The present work evaluates sway dynamics by means of COP excursions in a quiet standing task versus a dual-task condition in three different test times (30, 60, 300 s). Besides the application of traditional methods-which estimate the overall size of sway-the temporal pattern of body sway was quantified via wavelet transform, multiscale entropy and fractal analysis. We found higher sensitivity of the structural parameters to modulations of postural control strategies and partly an improved evaluation of sway dynamics in longer recordings. It could be shown that postural control modifications take place on different timescales corresponding to the interplay of the sensory systems. A continued application of nonlinear analysis can help to better understand postural control mechanisms.
Bernstein, Joshua G. W.; Brungart, Douglas S.
2011-01-01
Normal-hearing listeners receive less benefit from momentary dips in the level of a fluctuating masker for speech processed to degrade spectral detail or temporal fine structure (TFS) than for unprocessed speech. This has been interpreted as evidence that the magnitude of the fluctuating-masker benefit (FMB) reflects the ability to resolve spectral detail and TFS. However, the FMB for degraded speech is typically measured at a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to yield performance similar to normal speech for the baseline (stationary-noise) condition. Because the FMB decreases with increasing SNR, this SNR difference might account for the reduction in FMB for degraded speech. In this study, the FMB for unprocessed and processed (TFS-removed or spectrally smeared) speech was measured in a paradigm that adjusts word-set size, rather than SNR, to equate stationary-noise performance across processing conditions. Compared at the same SNR and percent-correct level (but with different set sizes), processed and unprocessed stimuli yielded a similar FMB for four different fluctuating maskers (speech-modulated noise, one opposite-gender interfering talker, two same-gender interfering talkers, and 16-Hz interrupted noise). These results suggest that, for these maskers, spectral or TFS distortions do not directly impair the ability to benefit from momentary dips in masker level. PMID:21786913
Catorci, Andrea; Piermarteri, Karina; Penksza, Károly; Házi, Judit; Tardella, Federico Maria
2017-09-20
Timing of flowering is a critical component of community assembly, but how plant traits respond to heterogeneity of resources has been identified mostly through observations of spatial variations. Thus, we performed a trait-based phenological study in sub-Mediterranean grasslands to assess the importance of temporal variation of resources in the species assemblage processes. We found that early flowering species have traits allowing for slow resource acquisition and storage but rapid growth rate. Instead, mid- and late-flowering species exhibited sets of strategies devoted to minimizing water loss by evapotranspiration or aimed at maximizing the species' competitive ability, thanks to slow growth rate and more efficient resource acquisition, conservation and use. Our findings were consistent with the fluctuation niche theory. We observed that the amplitude of the environmental fluctuations influences the type and number of strategies positively filtered by the system. In fact, in the most productive grasslands, we observed the highest number of indicator trait states reflecting strategies devoted to the storage of resources and competition for light. Results seem also indicate that temporal variation of resources plays a role in trait differentiation and richness within a plant community, filtering traits composition of grasslands in the same direction, as formerly proved for spatial heterogeneity of resources.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monita Baruah
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study the behavior of a batch arrival queuing system equipped with a single server providing general arbitrary service to customers with different service rates in two fluctuating modes of service. In addition, the server is subject to random breakdown. As soon as the server faces breakdown, the customer whose service is interrupted comes back to the head of the queue. As soon as repair process of the server is complete, the server immediately starts providing service in mode 1. Also customers waiting for service may renege (leave the queue when there is breakdown or when server takes vacation. The system provides service with complete or reduced efficiency due to the fluctuating rates of service. We derive the steady state queue size distribution. Some special cases are discussed and numerical illustration is provided to see the effect and validity of the results.
Providing space for time - The impact of temporality on life course research
Mills, M
The article alerts those in the field of quantitative life course research to the ontological impact of different forms of temporality. The first section reviews the influence of cosmic cycles, human development, historical, cultural, social and institutional forms of temporality on life course
Guidi-Guilvard, Laurence D.; Dallot, Serge
2014-10-01
Time-series surveys to resolve metazoan meiofauna abundance fluctuations in the deep sea are scarce. Between January 1993 and October 1995, surface sediment was collected with a multicorer at an average sampling frequency of 1.3 months at the DYFAMED-BENTHOS station (43°24.62‧ N-7°51.68‧ E; 2347 m depth) in the NW Mediterranean. Total metazoan meiofauna abundance in the 170 samples collected over the three-year period ranged from 133 to 770 ind. 10 cm-2 (mean 380 ind. 10 cm-2). The community comprised on the average ~89% nematodes, 4.7% copepods, 4.3% nauplii, 1.1% annelids and 0.5% least common taxa pooled (Others). Variability in organism abundances was analysed at three spatial- (cm, 10-cm, 100-m) and two temporal (dates, years) scales, using coefficients of dispersion, nested ANOVAs and autocorrelation statistics. All the meiobenthic groups except the annelids exhibited aggregation at the centimetre scale. The 5 sources of variation together explained ~95% of the variability in the nematode abundances. They explained 65% of the variability in the abundances of nauplii and annelids and Others. Variability at the decimetre scale (i.e. 10-cm scale) was significant only for the copepods and the nauplii. Variability at the scale of the coring site (i.e. hectometre=100-m scale) was low. The temporal factor (dates and years together) contributed 58% to the variability in the nematode abundances. Time contributed 33%, 25% and 8% to the variability in the numbers of nauplii, Others, and annelids, respectively. Nematode abundances varied equally among dates and years, but seasonal variation dominated in the case of nauplii, while interannual variation dominated in the case of Others. Abundances of annelids (i.e. macrofauna juveniles) varied significantly among years, and temporal variation was not significant in the copepods. Active dispersal (emergence) would explain the decimetre-scale variability for the copepods and the nauplii, as well as the absence of
Kc, Rajendra; Shukla, Shakti D; Walters, Eugene H; O'Toole, Ronan F
2017-04-01
Host surface receptors provide bacteria with a foothold from which to attach, colonize and, in some cases, invade tissue and elicit human disease. In this review, we discuss several key host receptors and cognate adhesins that function in bacterial pathogenesis. In particular, we examine the elevated expression of host surface receptors such as CEACAM-1, CEACAM-6, ICAM-1 and PAFR in response to specific stimuli. We explore how upregulated receptors, in turn, expose the host to a range of bacterial infections in the respiratory tract. It is apparent that exploitation of receptor induction for bacterial adherence is not unique to one body system, but is also observed in the central nervous, gastrointestinal and urogenital systems. Prokaryotic pathogens which utilize this mechanism for their infectivity include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis and Escherichia coli. A number of approaches have been used, in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models, to inhibit bacterial attachment to temporally expressed host receptors. Some of these novel strategies may advance future targeted interventions for the prevention and treatment of bacterial disease.
Varouchakis, Emmanouil
2017-04-01
Reliable temporal modelling of groundwater level is significant for efficient water resources management in hydrological basins and for the prevention of possible desertification effects. In this work we propose a stochastic data driven approach of temporal monitoring and prediction that can incorporate auxiliary information. More specifically, we model the temporal (mean annual and biannual) variation of groundwater level by means of a discrete time autoregressive exogenous variable model (ARX model). The ARX model parameters and its predictions are estimated by means of the Kalman filter adaptation algorithm (KFAA). KFAA is suitable for sparsely monitored basins that do not allow for an independent estimation of the ARX model parameters. Three new modified versions of the original form of the ARX model are proposed and investigated: the first considers a larger time scale, the second a larger time delay in terms of the groundwater level input and the third considers the groundwater level difference between the last two hydrological years, which is incorporated in the model as a third input variable. We apply KFAA to time series of groundwater level values from Mires basin in the island of Crete. In addition to precipitation measurements, we use pumping data as exogenous variables. We calibrate the ARX model based on the groundwater level for the years 1981 to 2006 and use it to successfully predict the mean annual and biannual groundwater level for recent years (2007-2010).
Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Yang, Yuyi; Shu, Xiao; Zhang, Jiaquan; Zhang, Quanfa
2015-01-01
The ~350 km2 water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) of China, situated at the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, experiences a great hydrological change with prolonged winter inundation. Soil samples were collected in 12 sites pre- (September 2008) and post submergence (June 2009) in the WLFZ and analyzed for soil nutrients. Self-organizing map (SOM) and statistical analysis including multi-way ANOVA, paired-T test, and stepwise least squares multiple regression were employed to determine the spatio-temporal variations of soil nutrients in relation to submergence, and their correlations with soil physical characteristics. Results showed significant spatial variability in nutrients along ~600 km long shoreline of the TGR before and after submergence. There were higher contents of organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), and nitrate (NO3-) in the lower reach and total phosphorus (TP) in the upper reach that were primarily due to the spatial variations in soil particle size composition and anthropogenic activities. Submergence enhanced soil available potassium (K), while significantly decreased soil N, possibly due to the alterations of soil particle size composition and increase in soil pH. In addition, SOM analysis determined important roles of soil pH value, bulk density, soil particle size (i.e., silt and sand) and nutrients (TP, TK, and AK) on the spatial and temporal variations in soil quality. Our results suggest that urban sewage and agricultural runoffs are primary pollutants that affect soil nutrients in the WLFZ of TGR.
Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Yang, Yuyi; Shu, Xiao; Zhang, Jiaquan; Zhang, Quanfa
2015-01-01
The ~350 km2 water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) of China, situated at the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, experiences a great hydrological change with prolonged winter inundation. Soil samples were collected in 12 sites pre- (September 2008) and post submergence (June 2009) in the WLFZ and analyzed for soil nutrients. Self-organizing map (SOM) and statistical analysis including multi-way ANOVA, paired-T test, and stepwise least squares multiple regression were employed to determine the spatio-temporal variations of soil nutrients in relation to submergence, and their correlations with soil physical characteristics. Results showed significant spatial variability in nutrients along ~600 km long shoreline of the TGR before and after submergence. There were higher contents of organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), and nitrate (NO3-) in the lower reach and total phosphorus (TP) in the upper reach that were primarily due to the spatial variations in soil particle size composition and anthropogenic activities. Submergence enhanced soil available potassium (K), while significantly decreased soil N, possibly due to the alterations of soil particle size composition and increase in soil pH. In addition, SOM analysis determined important roles of soil pH value, bulk density, soil particle size (i.e., silt and sand) and nutrients (TP, TK, and AK) on the spatial and temporal variations in soil quality. Our results suggest that urban sewage and agricultural runoffs are primary pollutants that affect soil nutrients in the WLFZ of TGR. PMID:25789612
Hasenkamp, Wendy; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Duncan, Erica; Barsalou, Lawrence W
2012-01-02
Studies have suggested that the default mode network is active during mind wandering, which is often experienced intermittently during sustained attention tasks. Conversely, an anticorrelated task-positive network is thought to subserve various forms of attentional processing. Understanding how these two systems work together is central for understanding many forms of optimal and sub-optimal task performance. Here we present a basic model of naturalistic cognitive fluctuations between mind wandering and attentional states derived from the practice of focused attention meditation. This model proposes four intervals in a cognitive cycle: mind wandering, awareness of mind wandering, shifting of attention, and sustained attention. People who train in this style of meditation cultivate their abilities to monitor cognitive processes related to attention and distraction, making them well suited to report on these mental events. Fourteen meditation practitioners performed breath-focused meditation while undergoing fMRI scanning. When participants realized their mind had wandered, they pressed a button and returned their focus to the breath. The four intervals above were then constructed around these button presses. We hypothesized that periods of mind wandering would be associated with default mode activity, whereas cognitive processes engaged during awareness of mind wandering, shifting of attention and sustained attention would engage attentional subnetworks. Analyses revealed activity in brain regions associated with the default mode during mind wandering, and in salience network regions during awareness of mind wandering. Elements of the executive network were active during shifting and sustained attention. Furthermore, activations during these cognitive phases were modulated by lifetime meditation experience. These findings support and extend theories about cognitive correlates of distributed brain networks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marianna Niemi
Full Text Available Ancient DNA analysis offers a way to detect changes in populations over time. To date, most studies of ancient cattle have focused on their domestication in prehistory, while only a limited number of studies have analysed later periods. Conversely, the genetic structure of modern cattle populations is well known given the undertaking of several molecular and population genetic studies.Bones and teeth from ancient cattle populations from the North-East Baltic Sea region dated to the Prehistoric (Late Bronze and Iron Age, 5 samples, Medieval (14, and Post-Medieval (26 periods were investigated by sequencing 667 base pairs (bp from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and 155 bp of intron 19 in the Y-chromosomal UTY gene. Comparison of maternal (mtDNA haplotypes genetic diversity in ancient cattle (45 samples with modern cattle populations in Europe and Asia (2094 samples revealed 30 ancient mtDNA haplotypes, 24 of which were shared with modern breeds, while 6 were unique to the ancient samples. Of seven Y-chromosomal sequences determined from ancient samples, six were Y2 and one Y1 haplotype. Combined data including Swedish samples from the same periods (64 samples was compared with the occurrence of Y-chromosomal haplotypes in modern cattle (1614 samples.The diversity of haplogroups was highest in the Prehistoric samples, where many haplotypes were unique. The Medieval and Post-Medieval samples also show a high diversity with new haplotypes. Some of these haplotypes have become frequent in modern breeds in the Nordic Countries and North-Western Russia while other haplotypes have remained in only a few local breeds or seem to have been lost. A temporal shift in Y-chromosomal haplotypes from Y2 to Y1 was detected that corresponds with the appearance of new mtDNA haplotypes in the Medieval and Post-Medieval period. This suggests a replacement of the Prehistoric mtDNA and Y chromosomal haplotypes by new types of cattle.
Warren B. Cohen; Hans-Erik Andersen; Sean P. Healey; Gretchen G. Moisen; Todd A. Schroeder; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; Zhiqiang Yang; Robert E. Kennedy; Stephen V. Stehman; Curtis Woodcock; Jim Vogelmann; Zhe Zhu; Chengquan. Huang
2015-01-01
We are developing a system that provides temporally consistent biomass estimates for national greenhouse gas inventory reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our model-assisted estimation framework relies on remote sensing to scale from plot measurements to lidar strip samples, to Landsat time series-based maps. As a demonstration, new...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei WEI
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Objective To study the distinction of abnormal brain activity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS or other pathogical basis, and to discuss their underlying pathophysiological mechanism in mTLE. Methods Thirty mTLE patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS and 30 mTLE patients with occupying lesion in unilateral temporal lobe (mTLE-OL were investigated by comparing with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. MRI data were collected using a Siemens 3.0T scanner, and all of the participants were studied using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF analysis of resting state fMRI. A cost-function modification was used for image preprocessing, then the difference of extratemporal mALFF changes between the two groups of mTLE patients were analyzed with two-sample t test, and the correlation between mALFF and epilepsy duration of mTLE were also investigated. Results In the resting state, mTLE-HS patients and mTLE-OL patients all showed significant changes in mALFF in extratemporal structures, but the distribution patterns of changes in brain were different. Compared with mTLE-HS, the mTLE-OL patients showed increased mALFF in bilateral inferior parietal lobes, precuneus, angular gyrus, middle and posterior cingulate gyrus and contralateral middle temporal gyrus, while mALFF reducing was observed in contralateral postcentral gyrus, bilateral middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum (P < 0.05, AlphaSim corrected, that is to say, the default mode network (DMN in mTLE-HS were inhibited more seriously than in mTLE-OL patients. Correlation analysis showed that no significant correlation was found between mALFF and epilepsy duration in mTLE-HS patients; mALFF in bilateral middle and posterior cingulate gyrus was positively correlated with epilepsy duration in mTLE-OL patients (r = 0.687, P = 0.000, while mALFF in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus was negatively correlated with epilepsy duration (r
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus Gschwind
2016-01-01
In RRMS patients, microstate analysis captured altered fluctuations of EEG topographies in the sub-second range. This measure of high temporal resolution provided potentially powerful markers of disease activity and neuropsychiatric co-morbidities in RRMS.
Briggs, B. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Tom, L. M.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Huang, Q.; Wang, S.; Hou, W.; Wu, G.; Peacock, J. P.; Huang, L.; Zhi, X.; Li, W.; Dodsworth, J. A.; Hedlund, B. P.; Zhang, C.
2012-12-01
Terrestrial geothermal springs contain a rich microbial diversity that has gained attention because of their potential analogue to early Earth habitats and biotechnological applications. Despite this attention, the distribution of thermophiles and the mechanisms that underlie those distributions have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms in hot springs in Tengchong, China, and to compare microbial composition across temperature, pH, and temporal gradients. The PhyloChip microarray detected 79 bacterial and 20 archaeal phyla. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to link the detected taxa to their distributions across temperature and pH conditions. The distributions of phyla (e.g. Aquificae, Crenarchaeota) identified by this analysis were consistent with previous culture-dependent and independent methods and provides new knowledge on the distributions of phyla that do not contain cultured representatives (e.g. candidate phyla OP11, GoM161, etc.). For example, low pH (85o C). Furthermore, temporal changes in the community composition were detected, with the rainy season containing higher diversity but lower relative abundance of archaea. These results expand our understanding of the distributions of hot spring microorganisms seasonally, and across environmental gradients such as temperature and pH.
Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Kiyani, K. H.
2010-12-01
The power spectral density of magnetic field components in the fast solar wind on magnetohydrodynamic scales typically shows two power law regions, identified with an inertial range of turbulence, and at lower frequencies, a ~1/f range of coronal origin. The power spectral density of field magnitude shows a single power law region across these scales. We present the first scale-by-scale quantitative comparison of the averaged statistical properties of magnetic field magnitude and component fluctuations over timescales of ~2 minutes to 5.6 hours observed in-situ in the fast quiet solar wind at solar minimum at 1AU with the ACE spacecraft. Fluctuations in the field components show an 'inertial range' of scaling up to ~30 minutes and beyond this, uncorrelated Gaussian statistics. In contrast, the magnetic field magnitude fluctuations show a single scaling behaviour up to 5 hours and are non-Gaussian over this entire range of scales. Thus unlike for the components, a single stochastic process could account for the fluctuations in field magnitude over both the inertial range and 1/f range of timescales the fast solar wind.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emily Bennitt
Full Text Available Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Lekule, Faustin
2014-01-01
Background Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging agricultural problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This has been documented primarily through cross-sectional studies, however detailed knowledge of the transmission dynamics of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa is lacking. This study aims to describe sea...... a two-compartment (pig and human) model excluding the effect of the environment. Whether the disease has an endemic equilibrium, or undergoes fluctuations dependent on extrinsic and/or socio-economic factors remains to be elucidated....
Rakhimberdiev, E.N.; Karagicheva, J.; Winkler, .D.W.; Jaatinen, K.; Phillips, J.B.; Piersma, T.
2014-01-01
In many species, na€ive first-time migrants undertakemigration without adults, supposedly on the basis of a‘simple’ vector programme that combines an innatedirectional preference with a temporal programme thatspecifies distance. In strongly dimorphic species in whichthe sexes show distinct
Kremer, Y; Léger, J-F; Lapole, R; Honnorat, N; Candela, Y; Dieudonné, S; Bourdieu, L
2008-07-07
Acousto-optic deflectors (AOD) are promising ultrafast scanners for non-linear microscopy. Their use has been limited until now by their small scanning range and by the spatial and temporal dispersions of the laser beam going through the deflectors. We show that the use of AOD of large aperture (13mm) compared to standard deflectors allows accessing much larger field of view while minimizing spatio-temporal distortions. An acousto-optic modulator (AOM) placed at distance of the AOD is used to compensate spatial and temporal dispersions. Fine tuning of the AOM-AOD setup using a frequency-resolved optical gating (GRENOUILLE) allows elimination of pulse front tilt whereas spatial chirp is minimized thanks to the large aperture AOD.
Continuous information flow fluctuations
Rosinberg, Martin Luc; Horowitz, Jordan M.
2016-10-01
Information plays a pivotal role in the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes with feedback. However, much remains to be learned about the nature of information fluctuations in small-scale devices and their relation with fluctuations in other thermodynamics quantities, like heat and work. Here we derive a series of fluctuation theorems for information flow and partial entropy production in a Brownian particle model of feedback cooling and extend them to arbitrary driven diffusion processes. We then analyze the long-time behavior of the feedback-cooling model in detail. Our results provide insights into the structure and origin of large deviations of information and thermodynamic quantities in autonomous Maxwell's demons.
Staggered Schemes for Fluctuating Hydrodynamics
Balboa, F; Delgado-Buscalioni, R; Donev, A; Fai, T; Griffith, B; Peskin, C S
2011-01-01
We develop numerical schemes for solving the isothermal compressible and incompressible equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics on a grid with staggered momenta. We develop a second-order accurate spatial discretization of the diffusive, advective and stochastic fluxes that satisfies a discrete fluctuation-dissipation balance, and construct temporal discretizations that are at least second-order accurate in time deterministically and in a weak sense. Specifically, the methods reproduce the correct equilibrium covariances of the fluctuating fields to third (compressible) and second (incompressible) order in the time step, as we verify numerically. We apply our techniques to model recent experimental measurements of giant fluctuations in diffusively mixing fluids in a micro-gravity environment [A. Vailati et. al., Nature Communications 2:290, 2011]. Numerical results for the static spectrum of non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations are in excellent agreement between the compressible and incompressible simula...
Density fluctuations in traffic flow
Yukawa, S
1996-01-01
Density fluctuations in traffic current are studied by computer simulations using the deterministic coupled map lattice model on a closed single-lane circuit. By calculating a power spectral density of temporal density fluctuations at a local section, we find a power-law behavior, \\sim 1/f^{1.8}, on the frequency f, in non-congested flow phase. The distribution of the headway distance h also shows the power law like \\sim 1/h^{3.0} at the same time. The power law fluctuations are destroyed by the occurence of the traffic jam.
Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Burley, Thomas E.; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Nowell, Lisa H.
2017-01-01
Glyphosate and atrazine are the most intensively used herbicides in the United States. Although there is abundant spatial and temporal information on atrazine occurrence at regional scales, there are far fewer data for glyphosate, and studies that compare the two herbicides are rare. We investigated temporal patterns in glyphosate and atrazine concentrations measured weekly during the 2013 growing season in 100 small streams in the Midwestern United States. Glyphosate was detected in 44% of samples (method reporting level 0.2 μg/L); atrazine was detected above a threshold of 0.2 μg/L in 54% of samples. Glyphosate was detected more frequently in 12 urban streams than in 88 agricultural streams, and at concentrations similar to those in streams with high agricultural land use (> 40% row crop) in the watershed. In contrast, atrazine was detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in agricultural streams than in urban streams. The maximum concentration of glyphosate measured at most urban sites exceeded the maximum atrazine concentration, whereas at agricultural sites the reverse was true. Measurement at a 2-day interval at 8 sites in northern Missouri revealed that transport of both herbicide compounds appeared to be controlled by spring flush, that peak concentration duration was brief, but that peaks in atrazine concentrations were of longer duration than those of glyphosate. The 2-day sampling also indicated that weekly sampling is unlikely to capture peak concentrations of glyphosate and atrazine.
Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Martins, César C
2015-12-01
Guaratuba Bay, a subtropical estuary located in the SW Atlantic, is under variable anthropogenic pressure throughout the year. Samples of surficial suspended particulate matter (SPM) were collected at 22 sites during three different periods to evaluate the temporal and spatial variability of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). These compounds were determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The spatial distributions of both compound classes were similar and varied among the sampling campaigns. Generally, the highest concentrations were observed during the austral summer, highlighting the importance of the increased human influence during this season. The compound distributions were also affected by the natural geochemical processes of organic matter accumulation. AHs were associated with petroleum, derived from boat and vehicle traffic, and biogenic sources, related to mangrove forests and autochthonous production. The LAB composition evidenced preferential degradation processes during the austral summer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guo, Enliang; Zhang, Jiquan; Si, Ha; Dong, Zhenhua; Cao, Tiehua; Lan, Wu
2017-10-01
Environmental changes have brought about significant changes and challenges to water resources and management in the world; these include increasing climate variability, land use change, intensive agriculture, and rapid urbanization and industrial development, especially much more frequency extreme precipitation events. All of which greatly affect water resource and the development of social economy. In this study, we take extreme precipitation events in the Midwest of Jilin Province as an example; daily precipitation data during 1960-2014 are used. The threshold of extreme precipitation events is defined by multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) method. Extreme precipitation (EP), extreme precipitation ratio (EPR), and intensity of extreme precipitation (EPI) are selected as the extreme precipitation indicators, and then the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test is employed to determine the optimal probability distribution function of extreme precipitation indicators. On this basis, copulas connect nonparametric estimation method and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) method is adopted to determine the bivariate copula function. Finally, we analyze the characteristics of single variable extremum and bivariate joint probability distribution of the extreme precipitation events. The results show that the threshold of extreme precipitation events in semi-arid areas is far less than that in subhumid areas. The extreme precipitation frequency shows a significant decline while the extreme precipitation intensity shows a trend of growth; there are significant differences in spatiotemporal of extreme precipitation events. The spatial variation trend of the joint return period gets shorter from the west to the east. The spatial distribution of co-occurrence return period takes on contrary changes and it is longer than the joint return period.
Vélez, Alejandro; Bee, Mark A
2013-05-01
This study tested three hypotheses about the ability of female frogs to exploit temporal fluctuations in the level of background noise to overcome the problem of recognizing male advertisement calls in noisy breeding choruses. Phonotaxis tests with green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and Cope's gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) were used to measure thresholds for recognizing calls in the presence of noise maskers with (a) no level fluctuations, (b) random fluctuations, or level fluctuations characteristic of (c) conspecific choruses and (d) heterospecific choruses. The dip-listening hypothesis predicted lower signal recognition thresholds in the presence of fluctuating maskers compared with nonfluctuating maskers. Support for the dip-listening hypothesis was weak; only Cope's gray treefrogs experienced dip listening and only in the presence of randomly fluctuating maskers. The natural soundscapes advantage hypothesis predicted lower recognition thresholds when level fluctuations resembled those of natural soundscapes compared with artificial fluctuations. This hypothesis was rejected. In noise backgrounds with natural fluctuations, the species-specific advantage hypothesis predicted lower recognition thresholds when fluctuations resembled species-specific patterns of conspecific soundscapes. No evidence was found to support this hypothesis. These results corroborate previous findings showing that Cope's gray treefrogs, but not green treefrogs, experience dip listening under some noise conditions. Together, the results suggest level fluctuations in the soundscape of natural breeding choruses may present few dip-listening opportunities. The findings of this study provide little support for the hypothesis that receivers are adapted to exploit level fluctuations of natural soundscapes in recognizing communication signals.
Massot, Méril; Couffignal, Camille; Clermont, Olivier; D'Humières, Camille; Chatel, Jérémie; Plault, Nicolas; Andremont, Antoine; Mentré, France
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT To get insights into the temporal pattern of commensal Escherichia coli populations, we sampled the feces of four healthy cows from the same herd in the Hwange District of Zimbabwe daily over 25 days. The cows had not received antibiotic treatment during the previous 3 months. We performed viable E. coli counts and characterized the 326 isolates originating from the 98 stool samples at a clonal level, screened them for stx and eae genes, and tested them for their antibiotic susceptibilities. We observed that E. coli counts and dominant clones were different among cows, and very few clones were shared. No clone was shared by three or four cows. Clone richness and evenness were not different between cows. Within each host, the variability in the E. coli count was evidenced between days, and no clone was found to be dominant during the entire sampling period, suggesting the existence of clonal interference. Dominant clones tended to persist longer than subdominant ones and were mainly from phylogenetic groups A and B1. Five E. coli clones were found to contain both the stx1 and stx2 genes, representing 6.3% of the studied isolates. All cows harbored at least one Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strain. Resistance to tetracycline, penicillins, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides was rare and observed in three clones that were shed at low levels in two cows. This study highlights the fact that the commensal E. coli population, including the STEC population, is host specific, is highly dynamic over a short time frame, and rarely carries antibiotic resistance determinants in the absence of antibiotic treatment. IMPORTANCE The literature about the dynamics of commensal Escherichia coli populations is very scarce. Over 25 days, we followed the total E. coli counts daily and characterized the sampled clones in the feces of four cows from the same herd living in the Hwange District of Zimbabwe. This study deals with the day-to-day dynamics of both quantitative and
Massot, Méril; Couffignal, Camille; Clermont, Olivier; D'Humières, Camille; Chatel, Jérémie; Plault, Nicolas; Andremont, Antoine; Caron, Alexandre; Mentré, France; Denamur, Erick
2017-07-01
To get insights into the temporal pattern of commensal Escherichia coli populations, we sampled the feces of four healthy cows from the same herd in the Hwange District of Zimbabwe daily over 25 days. The cows had not received antibiotic treatment during the previous 3 months. We performed viable E. coli counts and characterized the 326 isolates originating from the 98 stool samples at a clonal level, screened them for stx and eae genes, and tested them for their antibiotic susceptibilities. We observed that E. coli counts and dominant clones were different among cows, and very few clones were shared. No clone was shared by three or four cows. Clone richness and evenness were not different between cows. Within each host, the variability in the E. coli count was evidenced between days, and no clone was found to be dominant during the entire sampling period, suggesting the existence of clonal interference. Dominant clones tended to persist longer than subdominant ones and were mainly from phylogenetic groups A and B1. Five E. coli clones were found to contain both the stx 1 and stx 2 genes, representing 6.3% of the studied isolates. All cows harbored at least one Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strain. Resistance to tetracycline, penicillins, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides was rare and observed in three clones that were shed at low levels in two cows. This study highlights the fact that the commensal E. coli population, including the STEC population, is host specific, is highly dynamic over a short time frame, and rarely carries antibiotic resistance determinants in the absence of antibiotic treatment. IMPORTANCE The literature about the dynamics of commensal Escherichia coli populations is very scarce. Over 25 days, we followed the total E. coli counts daily and characterized the sampled clones in the feces of four cows from the same herd living in the Hwange District of Zimbabwe. This study deals with the day-to-day dynamics of both quantitative and
Veigel, Cornelia; Hartmann, Günther H.; Fritz, Peter; Debus, Jürgen; Weber, Klaus-Josef
2017-02-01
Afterloading brachytherapy is conducted by the stepwise movement of a radioactive source through surgically implanted applicator tubes where at predefined dwell positions calculated dwell times optimize spatial dose delivery with respect to a planned dose level. The temporal exposure pattern exhibits drastic fluctuations in dose rate at a given coordinate and within a single treatment session because of the discontinuous and repeated source movement into the target volume. This could potentially affect biological response. Therefore, mammalian cells were exposed as monolayers to a high dose rate 192Ir source by utilizing a dedicated irradiation device where the distance between a planar array of radioactive source positions and the plane of the cell monolayer could be varied from 2.5 mm to 40 mm, thus varying dose rate pattern for any chosen total dose. The Gammamed IIi afterloading system equipped with a nominal 370 GBq (10 Ci) 192-Ir source was used to irradiate V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts from both confluent and from exponential growth phase with dose up to 12 Gy (at room temperature, total exposure not exceeding 1 h). For comparison, V79 cells were also exposed to 6 MV x-rays from a clinical linear accelerator (dose rate of 2.5 Gy min-1). As biological endpoint, cell survival was determined by standard colony forming assay. Dose measurements were conducted with a diamond detector (sensitive area 7.3 mm2), calibrated by means of 60Co radiation. Additionally, dose delivery was simulated by Monte Carlo calculations using the EGSnrc code system. The calculated secondary electron fluence spectra at the cell location did not indicate a significant change of radiation quality (i.e. higher linear energy transfer) at the lower distances. Clonogenic cell survival curves obtained after brachytherapy exhibited an altered biological response compared to x-rays which was characterized by a significant reduction of the survival curve shoulder when dose rate
Chromodynamic Fluctuations in Quark-Gluon Plasma
Mrowczynski, Stanislaw
2008-01-01
Fluctuations of chromodynamic fields in the collisionless quark-gluon plasma are found as a solution of the initial value linearized problem. The plasma initial state is on average colorless, stationary and homogeneous. When the state is stable, the initial fluctuations decay exponentially and in the long-time limit a stationary spectrum of fluctuations is established. For the equilibrium plasma it reproduces the spectrum which is provided by the fluctuation-dissipation relation. Fluctuations...
Fluctuating shells under pressure
Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.
2012-01-01
Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558
Pressure Fluctuations in Nonideal Plasma
Lankin, A.; Norman, G.; Saitov, I.
Fluctuations of pressure of singly ionized nonideal plasma are studied using the fluctuation approach which provides the self-consistent joint description of free and weakly bound electron states. The classical molecular dynamics method is used. The electron-ion interaction is described by the
Synergizing superresolution optical fluctuation imaging with single molecule localization microscopy
Schidorsky, Shachar; Razvag, Yair; Golan, Yonatan; Weiss, Shimon; Sherman, Eilon
2016-01-01
Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) techniques enable imaging biological samples well beyond the diffraction limit of light, but they vary significantly in their spatial and temporal resolutions. High-order statistical analysis of temporal fluctuations as in superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) also enable imaging beyond diffraction limit, but usually at a lower resolution as compared to SMLM. Since the same data format is acquired for both methods, their algorithms can be applied to the same data set, and thus may be combined synergistically to improve overall imaging performance. Here, we find that SOFI converges much faster than SMLM, provides additive information to SMLM, and can efficiently reject background. We then show how SOFI-assisted SMLM imaging can improve SMLM image reconstruction by rejecting common sources of background, especially under low signal-to-background conditions. The performance of our approach was evaluated using a realistic simulation of fluorescence imagi...
Relationship among phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic fluctuations ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Prakash
These results provide quantitative formulation on canalization and genetic assimilation, in terms of fluctuations of gene expression levels. [Kaneko K 2009 Relationship among phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic fluctuations, robustness, and evolvability; Waddington's legacy revisited under the spirit of Einstein; J. Biosci.
The effect of interaural-time-difference fluctuations on apparent source width
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Käsbach, Johannes; May, Tobias; Oskarsdottir, Gudrun
2014-01-01
For the perception of spaciousness, the temporal fluctuations of the interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) provide important binaural cues. One major characteristic of spatial perception is apparent source width (ASW), which describes the perceived width of a ...
Nonmotor Fluctuations in Parkinson's Disease.
Franke, Christiana; Storch, Alexander
2017-01-01
The advanced stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor complications such as motor fluctuations and dyskinesias induced by long-term levodopa treatment. Recent clinical research provides growing evidence that various nonmotor symptoms such as neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and sensory symptoms (particularly pain) also show fluctuations in patients with motor fluctuations (called nonmotor fluctuations or NMF). However, NMF have not yet been adequately considered in routine care of advanced PD patients and only few therapeutic studies are available. Since the pathophysiology of NMF remains largely unknown, innovative therapeutic concepts are largely missing. The close connection of NMF and motor fluctuations, however, strongly suggests that the strategies used to treat motor complications-namely continuous dopaminergic stimulation-also apply for the therapy of NMF. Future controlled clinical trials specifically addressing NMF are urgently warranted. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Microcanonical quantum fluctuation theorems.
Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter; Morillo, Manuel
2008-05-01
Previously derived expressions for the characteristic function of work performed on a quantum system by a classical external force are generalized to arbitrary initial states of the considered system and to Hamiltonians with degenerate spectra. In the particular case of microcanonical initial states, explicit expressions for the characteristic function and the corresponding probability density of work are formulated. Their classical limit as well as their relations to the corresponding canonical expressions are discussed. A fluctuation theorem is derived that expresses the ratio of probabilities of work for a process and its time reversal to the ratio of densities of states of the microcanonical equilibrium systems with corresponding initial and final Hamiltonians. From this Crooks-type fluctuation theorem a relation between entropies of different systems can be derived which does not involve the time-reversed process. This entropy-from-work theorem provides an experimentally accessible way to measure entropies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaosong Zhao
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Lakes and wetlands provide valuable water resources. Wetland evapotranspiration (ET is a key hydrologic component; however, the effects of lake fluctuation on wetland ET remain unclear. The Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China and experiences a dramatic fluctuation in water level and inundated area. This study used remote sensing data to estimate the wetland ET for Poyang Lake and to illustrate the distribution of wetland ET and its response to lake fluctuations. Our results showed that wetland ET was related to lake fluctuation both spatially and temporally. Within the same year, the difference between annual water evaporation (Ewater and wetland ET (ETwetland was primarily attributed to lake fluctuation through its effects on inundated area and exposure days. A 1% increase in inundated area would result in a 7.87 ± 1.13 mm a−1 reduction in annual Ewater-to-ETwetland differences, and a 10-day elongation of exposure could lead to an 11.1 ± 1.6 mm a−1 increase in annual Ewater-to-ETwetland differences, on average. Inter-annually, the Ewater-to-ETwetland differences were attributed to the combined effects of atmospheric and environmental variables and lake fluctuation. The lake fluctuation contributed 73% to the inter-annual ET difference, followed by relative humidity (19%, net radiation (5%, and wind speed (4%. Overall, lake fluctuation effectively regulates wetland ET, and its effect should receive careful consideration in hydrological and water resources studies under the current changing climate.
Correlated interaction fluctuations in photosynthetic complexes
Vlaming, Sebastiaan M
2011-01-01
The functioning and efficiency of natural photosynthetic complexes is strongly influenced by their embedding in a noisy protein environment, which can even serve to enhance the transport efficiency. Interactions with the environment induce fluctuations of the transition energies of and interactions between the chlorophyll molecules, and due to the fact that different fluctuations will partially be caused by the same environmental factors, correlations between the various fluctuations will occur. We argue that fluctuations of the interactions should in general not be neglected, as these have a considerable impact on population transfer rates, decoherence rates and the efficiency of photosynthetic complexes. Furthermore, while correlations between transition energy fluctuations have been studied, we provide the first quantitative study of the effect of correlations between interaction fluctuations and transition energy fluctuations, and of correlations between the various interaction fluctuations. It is shown t...
Calazans C, Sávio H; Walters, Linda J; Fernandes, Flavio C; Ferreira, Carlos E L; Hoffman, Eric A
2017-01-01
In 2004, Mytella charruana (d'Orbigny, 1842) (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae) became established along the coast of the southeastern United States (SE-US). Using mitochondrial DNA sequencing (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I), we compared genetic variation throughout its native range in South America to its invasive range in the SE-US. Samples from the SE-US were collected in 2006 and 2010 enabling a temporal comparison to evaluate possible genetic changes of the invasive population. We addressed two questions. First, what are the potential source populations (or geographic regions) for the SE-US invasion? Second, how has genetic diversity changed between the two sampling periods within the SE-US? We identified a total of 72 haplotypes, 64 of which were isolated to geographic sites and only 8 were shared among sites. The highly structured native range provides insight into the origin of invasive populations where our results suggest that the introduced SE-US population originated from multiple source populations with the Panama region as the primary source. Additionally, our results indicate that genetic composition of the non-native populations was unchanged between the two sampling periods. Mytella charruana exhibit a significant pattern of genetic structure among natural populations, owing to biogeographic barriers that limit natural dispersal, and an ability to persist in novel habitats, owing to a suite of life-history characters that favor survival under variable conditions. Overall, this study explains why M. charruana may become an increasing threat to locations founded by anthropogenic transportation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boon Leong Lan
Full Text Available Although heavy-tailed fluctuations are ubiquitous in complex systems, a good understanding of the mechanisms that generate them is still lacking. Optical complex systems are ideal candidates for investigating heavy-tailed fluctuations, as they allow recording large datasets under controllable experimental conditions. A dynamical regime that has attracted a lot of attention over the years is the so-called low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs of semiconductor lasers with optical feedback. In this regime, the laser output intensity is characterized by abrupt and apparently random dropouts. The statistical analysis of the inter-dropout-intervals (IDIs has provided many useful insights into the underlying dynamics. However, the presence of large temporal fluctuations in the IDI sequence has not yet been investigated. Here, by applying fluctuation analysis we show that the experimental distribution of IDI fluctuations is heavy-tailed, and specifically, is well-modeled by a non-Gaussian stable distribution. We find a good qualitative agreement with simulations of the Lang-Kobayashi model. Moreover, we uncover a transition from a less-heavy-tailed state at low pump current to a more-heavy-tailed state at higher pump current. Our results indicate that fluctuation analysis can be a useful tool for investigating the output signals of complex optical systems; it can be used for detecting underlying regime shifts, for model validation and parameter estimation.
Facchi, Paolo; Garnero, Giancarlo; Ligabò, Marilena
2017-01-01
We present here a set of lecture notes on exact fluctuation relations. We prove the Jarzynski equality and the Crooks fluctuation theorem, two paradigmatic examples of classical fluctuation relations. Finally we consider their quantum versions, and analyze analogies and differences with the classical case.
Seasonality and predictability shape temporal species diversity.
Tonkin, Jonathan D; Bogan, Michael T; Bonada, Núria; Rios-Touma, Blanca; Lytle, David A
2017-05-01
Temporal environmental fluctuations, such as seasonality, exert strong controls on biodiversity. While the effects of seasonality are well known, the predictability of fluctuations across years may influence seasonality in ways that are less well understood. The ability of a habitat to support unique, non-nested assemblages of species at different times of the year should depend on both seasonality (occurrence of events at specific periods of the year) and predictability (the reliability of event recurrence) of characteristic ecological conditions. Drawing on tools from wavelet analysis and information theory, we developed a framework for quantifying both seasonality and predictability of habitats, and applied this using global long-term rainfall data. Our analysis predicted that temporal beta diversity should be maximized in highly predictable and highly seasonal climates, and that low degrees of seasonality, predictability, or both would lower diversity in characteristic ways. Using stream invertebrate communities as a case study, we demonstrated that temporal species diversity, as exhibited by community turnover, was determined by a balance between temporal environmental variability (seasonality) and the reliability of this variability (predictability). Communities in highly seasonal mediterranean environments exhibited strong oscillations in community structure, with turnover from one unique community type to another across seasons, whereas communities in aseasonal New Zealand environments fluctuated randomly. Understanding the influence of seasonal and other temporal scales of environmental oscillations on diversity is not complete without a clear understanding of their predictability, and our framework provides tools for examining these trends at a variety of temporal scales, seasonal and beyond. Given the uncertainty of future climates, seasonality and predictability are critical considerations for both basic science and management of ecosystems (e.g., dam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diana Pérez
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae es una plaga importante en el cultivo de camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh (Myrtaceae en la Amazonía Peruana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la fluctuación y la distribución espacio-temporal de T. cognata y de su controlador biológico Ocyptamus persimilis (Curran, 1930 (Diptera, Syrphidae, entre enero a noviembre del 2004 en los caseríos San Juan y Padre Bernardo, Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. El número de ninfas y adultos de T. cognata fue mayor en la época lluviosa que en la seca, pero no en el número de huevos, ni en el número de colonias. Los huevos, ninfas y adultos prefirieron el tercio superior de la planta en comparación con el tercio medio e inferior en ambos caseríos. La excepción fue la presencia de huevos en el caserío San Juan que no mostró preferencias por ninguno de los tercios. No se observaron diferencias en el porcentaje de infestación por T. cognata entre ambos caseríos y entre la época seca y lluviosa. En O. persimilis, no se encontró diferencias en el número de huevos, larvas y pupas entre la época seca y lluviosa. Se observó que los huevos, larvas y pupas prefirieron el tercio superior de la planta en comparación con el tercio medio e inferior en ambos caseríos. Ambas especies, T. cognata y O. persimilis presentaron un patrón de distribución espacial - temporal agregado. Se encontró una relación directa entre el número de colonias de T. cognata y O. persimilis. Sin embargo, el número de huevos, ninfas y adultos de T. cognata no se encontraron correlacionados con el número de huevos, larvas y pupas de O. persimilis.Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae, is a main pest on camu-camu culture Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh (Myrtaceae in the Peruvian Amazon. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the fluctuation and spatial and temporal distribution of T
Under what kind of parametric fluctuations is spatiotemporal ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
a continuous state variable denoted by xn(i), which corresponds to the physical variable of interest. The evolution ... in space but remain frozen in time, i.e. the parameters are spatially fluctuating but temporally invariant. ... bifurcation diagrams with respect to p were obtained under fluctuations in the coupling strength of the ...
Fluctuation theorems for stochastic dynamics
Harris, R. J.; Schütz, G. M.
2007-07-01
Fluctuation theorems make use of time reversal to make predictions about entropy production in many-body systems far from thermal equilibrium. Here we review the wide variety of distinct, but interconnected, relations that have been derived and investigated theoretically and experimentally. Significantly, we demonstrate, in the context of Markovian stochastic dynamics, how these different fluctuation theorems arise from a simple fundamental time-reversal symmetry of a certain class of observables. Appealing to the notion of Gibbs entropy allows for a microscopic definition of entropy production in terms of these observables. We work with the master equation approach, which leads to a mathematically straightforward proof and provides direct insight into the probabilistic meaning of the quantities involved. Finally, we point to some experiments that elucidate the practical significance of fluctuation relations.
Modeling fluctuations in scattered waves
Jakeman, E
2006-01-01
Fluctuations in scattered waves limit the performance of imaging and remote sensing systems that operate on all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. To better understand these fluctuations, Modeling Fluctuations in Scattered Waves provides a practical guide to the phenomenology, mathematics, and simulation of non-Gaussian noise models and discusses how they can be used to characterize the statistics of scattered waves.Through their discussion of mathematical models, the authors demonstrate the development of new sensing techniques as well as offer intelligent choices that can be made for system analysis. Using experimental results and numerical simulation, the book illustrates the properties and applications of these models. The first two chapters introduce statistical tools and the properties of Gaussian noise, including results on phase statistics. The following chapters describe Gaussian processes and the random walk model, address multiple scattering effects and propagation through an extended med...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefiev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Bathe, S.; Batiounia, B.; Bernier, T.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhatia, V.S.; Blume, C.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Carlen, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Das, A.C.; Decowski, M.P.; Donni, P.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Enosawa, K.; Fokin, S.; Frolov, V.; Ganti, M.S.; Garpman, S.; Gavrishcuk, O.; Geurts, F.J.M.; Glasow, R.; Guskov, B.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Hrivnacova, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Kalechofsky, H.; Kamermans, R.; Karadjev, K.; Karpio, K.; Kolb, B.W.; Kosarev, I.; Koutcheryaev, I.; Kugler, A.; Kulinich, P.; Kurata, M.; Lebedev, A.; Loehner, H.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Manko, V.; Martin, M.; Miake, Y.; Mishra, G.C.; Mohanty, B.; Morrison, D.; Mukhopadhayay, D.S.; Naef, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Nianine, A.; Nikitine, V.; Nikolaev, S.; Nishimura, S.; Nomokov, P.; Petracek, V.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M.L.; Rak, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rao, N.K.; Retiere, F.; Reygers, K.; Roland, G.; Rosselet, L.; Roufanov, I.; Rubio, J.M.; Sambyal, S.S.; Santo, R.; Sato, S.; Schlagheck, H.; Schmidt, H.-R.; Schutz, Y.; Shabratova, G.; Sibiriak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Sinha, B.C.; Slavine, N.; Soederstroem, K.; Sood, G.; Soerensen, S.P.; Stankus, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Sumbera, M.; Svensson, T.; Trivedi, M.D.; Tsvetkov, A.; Tykarski, L.; Urbahn, J.; Eijinhoven, N. van; Niewenhuizen, G.J. van; Vinogradov, A.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopianov, A.; Voeroes, S.; Wyslouch, B.; Young, G.R
2003-03-10
Event-by-event fluctuations in the multiplicities of charged particles and photons at SPS energies are discussed. Fluctuations are studied by controlling the centrality of the reaction and rapidity acceptance of the detectors. Results are also presented on the event-by-event study of correlations between the multiplicity of charged particles and photons to search for DCC-like signals.
Mohanty, Bedangadas; Ahammed, Z.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Bathe, S.; Batiounia, B.; Bernier, T.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhatia, V.S.; Blume, C.; Bucher, D.; Busching, H.; Carlen, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Das, A.C.; Decowski, M.P.; Donni, P.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Enosawa, K.; Fokin, S.; Frolov, V.; Ganti, M.S.; Garpman, S.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Geurts, F.J.M.; Glasow, R.; Guskov, B.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Hrivnacova, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Kalechofsky, H.; Kamermans, R.; Karadjev, K.; Karpio, K.; Kolb, B.W.; Kosarev, I.; Koutcheryaev, I.; Kugler, A.; Kulinich, P.; Kurata, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lohne, H.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Manko, V.; Martin, M.; Miake, Y.; Mishra, G.C.; Morrison, D.; Mukhopadhyay, D.S.; Naef, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Nianine, A.; Nikitine, V.; Nikolaev, S.; Nishimura, S.; Nomokov, P.; Nystrand, J.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Phatak, S.C.; Pavliouk, S.; Peitzmann, T.; Petracek, V.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M.L.; Rak, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rao, N.K.; Retiere, F.; Reygers, K.; Roland, G.; Rosselet, L.; Roufanov, I.; Rubio, J.M.; Sambyal, S.S.; Santo, R.; Sato, S.; Schlagheck, H.; Schmidt, H.R.; Schutz, Y.; Shabratova, G.; Sibiriak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Sinha, B.C.; Slavine, N.; Soderstrom, K.; Sood, G.; Sorensen, S.P.; Stankus, P.; Stefanek, G.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Sumbera, M.; Svensson, T.; Trivedi, M.D.; Tsvetkov, A.; Tykarski, L.; Urbahn, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.J.; Vinogradov, A.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voros, S.; Wyslouch, B.; Young, G.R.; Mohanty, Bedangadas
2003-01-01
Event-by-event fluctuations in the multiplicities of charged particles and photons at SPS energies are discussed. Fluctuations are studied by controlling the centrality of the reaction and rapidity acceptance of the detectors. Results are also presented on the event-by-event study of correlations between the multiplicity of charged particles and photons to search for DCC-like signals.
Fluctuating hydrodynamics for ionic liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazaridis, Konstantinos [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States); Wickham, Logan [Department of Computer Science, Washington State University, Richland, 99354 (United States); Voulgarakis, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.voulgarakis@wsu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States)
2017-04-25
We present a mean-field fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method for studying the structural and transport properties of ionic liquids in bulk and near electrified surfaces. The free energy of the system consists of two competing terms: (1) a Landau–Lifshitz functional that models the spontaneous separation of the ionic groups, and (2) the standard mean-field electrostatic interaction between the ions in the liquid. The numerical approach used to solve the resulting FHD-Poisson equations is very efficient and models thermal fluctuations with remarkable accuracy. Such density fluctuations are sufficiently strong to excite the experimentally observed spontaneous formation of liquid nano-domains. Statistical analysis of our simulations provides quantitative information about the properties of ionic liquids, such as the mixing quality, stability, and the size of the nano-domains. Our model, thus, can be adequately parameterized by directly comparing our prediction with experimental measurements and all-atom simulations. Conclusively, this work can serve as a practical mathematical tool for testing various theories and designing more efficient mixtures of ionic liquids. - Highlights: • A new fluctuating hydrodynamics method for ionic liquids. • Description of ionic liquid morphology in bulk and near electrified surfaces. • Direct comparison with experimental measurements.
Fuel Temperature Fluctuations During Storage
Levitin, R. E.; Zemenkov, Yu D.
2016-10-01
When oil and petroleum products are stored, their temperature significantly impacts how their properties change. The paper covers the problem of determining temperature fluctuations of hydrocarbons during storage. It provides results of the authors’ investigations of the stored product temperature variations relative to the ambient temperature. Closeness and correlation coefficients between these values are given. Temperature variations equations for oil and petroleum products stored in tanks are deduced.
Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations
Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco
2007-01-01
Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emerge...
Multi-scaling Properties of EUV Intensity Fluctuations and Models for Impulsive Heating
Cadavid, A. C.; Rivera, Y.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J.; Jennings, P.; Rappazzo, A. F.
2016-12-01
There is wide agreement on the importance of impulsive processes ("nanoflares") to explain coronal heating. Diagnostics of observational data are necessary to uncover signatures of the underlying mechanisms, and, by comparing to those of simulated data, to determine whether a model explains the observations. We have investigated the multi-scaling properties that characterize the intermittency of AIA/SDO radiance fluctuations. Lags between pairs of wavebands were used to distinguish coronal from transition region (TR) signals. Noise degrades the signals, so the 171Å emission, with the highest signal-to-noise ratio, provides the best information. In an active region core, for both loops and for diffuse emission, the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the increments of both TR and coronal signals are "quasi-Gaussian" for large temporal scales and "leptokurtic" (peaked with heavy tails) for small time increments, as expected for turbulent systems. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) shows that the variance of the fluctuations obeys a power law as a function of temporal scales in the range 15-45 min. The value of the scaling exponent indicates that, on average, the time series are nonstationary and anti-persistent with small fluctuations following large fluctuations and vice versa. Other moments of the fluctuations obey corresponding power laws and the multi-scaling exponents quantify the degree of the intermittency in the context of multifractality. The variation in the scaling exponents results from long term correlation in the time series. The multiscaling of the EUV data agrees qualitatively with simulated intensity from a simple model of impulsive bursts plus noise, and also with the ohmic dissipation in a Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) model for coronal loop heating. However, the observational data were found to disagree with the modeled PDFs of increments. There is indication that the multifractal properties in the observations
Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.
Hanley, Quentin S; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May
2014-01-01
Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.
Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quentin S Hanley
Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.
Shagimuratov, Irk; Krankowski, Andrzej; Cherniak, Iurii; Ephishov, Ivan; Zakharenkova, Irina; Yakimova, Galina
2013-04-01
It is known that GPS radio signals passing through the ionosphere suffer varying degrees of rapid variations of their amplitude and phase - signal scintillations. The scintillations are caused by the presence of wide range of scale size irregularities in the ionosphere. It is very important to estimate scintillation and phase fluctuation effects on GNSS navigation system (GPS/GLONASS) performance and consequently on the precession of the obtained position. Effects of the ionospheric irregularities on the GPS signals can be evaluated by measurements of the differential phase time rate of dual frequency GPS signals. GPS observations carried out at the Arctic IGS (International GNSS Service) stations were used to study the development of TEC fluctuations in the high latitude ionosphere. Standard GPS measurements with 30s sampling rate allow the detection of middle- and large-scale ionospheric irregularities. For detection of ionospheric fluctuations the rate of TEC (ROT, in the unit of TECU/min) at 1 min interval was used. The temporal occurrence of TEC fluctuations is clearly observed in time variations in the dual frequency carrier phase along satellite passes. As a measure of the fluctuation activity level the Rate of TEC Index (ROTI) based on standard deviation of ROT was also used. ROTI was estimated in 10-minute interval. These techniques and IGS data were used to study the occurrence of TEC fluctuations at the northern latitude ionosphere for selected geomagnetic storms occurred at the end of 23rd and beginning of new 24th solar cycles. Results demonstrate that fluctuation activity of GPS signals in the high latitude ionosphere is depended on geomagnetic conditions. Intensity of fluctuations essentially increases during geomagnetic storms. The strongest TEC fluctuations occurred as short time rate of TEC enhancements of a factor of 2-5 relative to the quiet time. During geomagnetic disturbed conditions strong phase fluctuations can register at latitudes low
Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Kiyani, K.; Watkins, N.
2007-12-01
The solar wind provides a natural laboratory for observations of MHD turbulence over extended temporal scales. We quantify the 'macroscopic' scaling seen in extended intervals of solar wind by testing for scaling in the Probability Density Functions (PDF) of fluctuations in the timeseries both directly and via structure function analysis. In practice there are statistical limitations presented by a finite length time series which we will first discuss. The anisotropic nature of solar wind fluctuations can be accessed by decomposing the vector velocity linearly into two coexistent components perpendicular and parallel to the local average magnetic field. These show distinct scaling. That of the perpendicular fluctuations is consistent with recent predictions for anisotropic MHD. That of the parallel fluctuations is close to the scaling which we find in the number and magnetic energy density, and Poynting flux. One interpretation of the co- existence of these scalings in the solar wind is that they reflect both local and nonlocal phenomenologies, with implications for our understanding of the evolving solar wind. Intriguingly, a more detailed analysis of magnetic energy density reveals a solar cycle dependence, and at solar maximum, self affine rather than multifractal scaling, suggesting the scaling is of solar origin. To see how these fluctuations impact on magnetospheric activity, we consider the same analysis performed on fluctuations of the AU and AL geomagnetic indices that provide a measure of magnetospheric activity, and of the epsilon parameter which is a measure of the solar wind driver.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew J. Oxenham
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Under normal conditions, human speech is remarkably robust to degradation by noise and other distortions. However, people with hearing loss, including those with cochlear implants, often experience great difficulty in understanding speech in noisy environments. Recent work with normal-hearing listeners has shown that the amplitude fluctuations inherent in noise contribute strongly to the masking of speech. In contrast, this study shows that speech perception via a cochlear implant is unaffected by the inherent temporal fluctuations of noise. This qualitative difference between acoustic and electric auditory perception does not seem to be due to differences in underlying temporal acuity but can instead be explained by the poorer spectral resolution of cochlear implants, relative to the normally functioning ear, which leads to an effective smoothing of the inherent temporal-envelope fluctuations of noise. The outcome suggests an unexpected trade-off between the detrimental effects of poorer spectral resolution and the beneficial effects of a smoother noise temporal envelope. This trade-off provides an explanation for the long-standing puzzle of why strong correlations between speech understanding and spectral resolution have remained elusive. The results also provide a potential explanation for why cochlear-implant users and hearing-impaired listeners exhibit reduced or absent masking release when large and relatively slow temporal fluctuations are introduced in noise maskers. The multitone maskers used here may provide an effective new diagnostic tool for assessing functional hearing loss and reduced spectral resolution.
Oxenham, Andrew J; Kreft, Heather A
2014-10-13
Under normal conditions, human speech is remarkably robust to degradation by noise and other distortions. However, people with hearing loss, including those with cochlear implants, often experience great difficulty in understanding speech in noisy environments. Recent work with normal-hearing listeners has shown that the amplitude fluctuations inherent in noise contribute strongly to the masking of speech. In contrast, this study shows that speech perception via a cochlear implant is unaffected by the inherent temporal fluctuations of noise. This qualitative difference between acoustic and electric auditory perception does not seem to be due to differences in underlying temporal acuity but can instead be explained by the poorer spectral resolution of cochlear implants, relative to the normally functioning ear, which leads to an effective smoothing of the inherent temporal-envelope fluctuations of noise. The outcome suggests an unexpected trade-off between the detrimental effects of poorer spectral resolution and the beneficial effects of a smoother noise temporal envelope. This trade-off provides an explanation for the long-standing puzzle of why strong correlations between speech understanding and spectral resolution have remained elusive. The results also provide a potential explanation for why cochlear-implant users and hearing-impaired listeners exhibit reduced or absent masking release when large and relatively slow temporal fluctuations are introduced in noise maskers. The multitone maskers used here may provide an effective new diagnostic tool for assessing functional hearing loss and reduced spectral resolution. © The Author(s) 2014.
Adaptive time-varying detrended fluctuation analysis.
Berthouze, Luc; Farmer, Simon F
2012-07-30
Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a technique commonly used to assess and quantify the presence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in neurophysiological time series. Convergence of the method is asymptotic only and therefore its application assumes a constant scaling exponent. However, most neurophysiological data are likely to involve either spontaneous or experimentally induced scaling exponent changes. We present a novel extension of the DFA method that permits the characterisation of time-varying scaling exponents. The effectiveness of the methodology in recovering known changes in scaling exponents is demonstrated through its application to synthetic data. The dependence of the method on its free parameters is systematically explored. Finally, application of the methodology to neurophysiological data demonstrates that it provides experimenters with a way to identify previously un-recognised changes in the scaling exponent in the data. We suggest that this methodology will make it possible to go beyond a simple demonstration of the presence of scaling to an appreciation of how it may vary in response to either intrinsic changes or experimental perturbations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fluctuations in solidification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karma, A. (Physics Department, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States))
1993-11-01
We present an analytical treatment of (i) the incorporation of thermal noise in the basic continuum models of solidification, (ii) fluctuations about nonequilibrium steady states, and (iii) the amplification of noise near the onset of morphological instability. In (i), we find that the proper Langevin formalism, consistent with both bulk and interfacial equilibrium fluctuations, consists of the usual bulk forces and an extra stochastic force on the interface associated with its local kinetics. At sufficiently large solidification rate, this force affects interfacial fluctuations on scales where they are macroscopically amplified and, thus, becomes relevant. An estimate of this rate is given. In (ii), we extend the Langevin formalism outside of equilibrium to characterize the fluctuations of a stationary and a directionally solidified planar interface in a temperature gradient. Finally, in (iii), we derive an analytic expression for the linear growth of the mean-square amplitude of fluctuations slightly above the onset of morphological instability. The amplitude of the noise is found to be determined by the small parameter [ital k][sub [ital B]T[ital E]d0][sup [ital c]l][sub [ital T
Thickness fluctuations in turbulent soap films.
Greffier, O; Amarouchene, Y; Kellay, H
2002-05-13
Rapidly flowing soap films provide a simple and attractive system to study two-dimensional hydrodynamics and turbulence. By measuring the rapid fluctuations of the thickness of the film in the turbulent regime, we find that the statistics of these fluctuations closely resemble those of a passive scalar field in a turbulent flow. The scalar spectra are well described by Kolmogorov-like scaling while the high-order moments show clear deviations from regular scaling just like dye or temperature fluctuations in 3D turbulent flows.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.M. Loktev
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We analyze the spectral properties of a phenomenological model for a weakly doped two-dimensional antiferromagnet, in which the carriers move within one of the two sublattices where they were introduced. Such a constraint results in the free carrier spectra with the maxima at k=(± π/2 , ± π/2 observed in some cuprates. We consider the spectral properties of the model by taking into account fluctuations of the spins in the antiferromagnetic background. We show that such fluctuations lead to a non-pole-like structure of the single-hole Green's function and these fluctuations can be responsible for some anomalous "strange metal" properties of underdoped cuprates in the nonsuperconducting regime.
Constructing stochastic models for dipole fluctuations from paleomagnetic observations
Buffett, B; Puranam, A
2017-01-01
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Records of relative paleointensity are subject to several sources of error. Temporal averaging due to gradual acquisition of magnetization removes high-frequency fluctuations, whereas random errors introduce fluctuations at high frequency. Both sources of error limit our ability to construct stochastic models from paleomagnetic observations. We partially circumvent these difficulties by recognizing that the largest affects occur at high frequency. To illustrate we constru...
Constructing Stochastic Models for Dipole Fluctuations from Paleomagnetic Observations
Buffett, Bruce; Puranam, Abhijit
2017-01-01
Records of relative paleointensity are subject to several sources of error. Temporal averaging due to gradual acquisition of magnetization removes high-frequency fluctuations, whereas random errors introduce fluctuations at high frequency. Both sources of error limit our ability to construct stochastic models from paleomagnetic observations. We partially circumvent these difficulties by recognizing that the largest affects occur at high frequency. To illustrate we construct a stochastic model...
Schroeder, Indra
2015-01-01
Abstract A main ingredient for the understanding of structure/function correlates of ion channels is the quantitative description of single-channel gating and conductance. However, a wealth of information provided from fast current fluctuations beyond the temporal resolution of the recording system is often ignored, even though it is close to the time window accessible to molecular dynamics simulations. This kind of current fluctuations provide a special technical challenge, because individual opening/closing or blocking/unblocking events cannot be resolved, and the resulting averaging over undetected events decreases the single-channel current. Here, I briefly summarize the history of fast-current fluctuation analysis and focus on the so-called “beta distributions.” This tool exploits characteristics of current fluctuation-induced excess noise on the current amplitude histograms to reconstruct the true single-channel current and kinetic parameters. A guideline for the analysis and recent applications demonstrate that a construction of theoretical beta distributions by Markov Model simulations offers maximum flexibility as compared to analytical solutions. PMID:26368656
Studies of Fluctuation Processes in Nuclear Collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayik, Sakir [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics
2016-04-14
The standard one-body transport approaches have been extensively applied to investigate heavy-ion collision dynamics at low and intermediate energies. At low energies the approach is the mean-field description of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. At intermediate energies the approach is extended by including a collision term, and its application has been carried out mostly in the semi-classical framework of the Boltzmann-Uhling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model. The standard transport models provide a good understanding of the average properties of the collision dynamics in terms of the effective interactions in both low and intermediate energies. However, the standard models are inadequate for describing the fluctuation dynamics of collective motion at low energies and disassembling of the nuclear system into fragments at intermediate energies resulting from the growth of density fluctuations in the spinodal region. Our tasks have been to improve the standard transport approaches by incorporating fluctuation mechanisms into the description. There are mainly two different mechanisms for fluctuations: (i) Collisional fluctuations generated by binary nucleon collisions, which provide the dominant mechanism at intermediate energies, and (ii) One-body mechanism or mean-field fluctuations, which is the dominant mechanism at low energies. In the first part of our project, the PI extended the standard transport model at intermediate energies by incorporating collisional mechanism according to the “Generalized Langevin Description” of Mori formalism. The PI and his collaborators carried out a number of applications for describing dynamical mechanism of nuclear multi fragmentations, and nuclear collective response in the semi-classical framework of the approach, which is known as the Boltzmann-Langevin model. In the second part of the project, we considered dynamical description at low energies. Because of the effective Pauli blocking, the collisional dissipation and
Gschwind, Markus; Hardmeier, Martin; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Tomescu, Miralena I; Penner, Iris-Katharina; Naegelin, Yvonne; Fuhr, Peter; Michel, Christoph M; Seeck, Margitta
2016-01-01
Spontaneous fluctuations of neuronal activity in large-scale distributed networks are a hallmark of the resting brain. In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) several fMRI studies have suggested altered resting-state connectivity patterns. Topographical EEG analysis reveals much faster temporal fluctuations in the tens of milliseconds time range (termed "microstates"), which showed altered properties in a number of neuropsychiatric conditions. We investigated whether these microstates were altered in patients with RRMS, and if the microstates' temporal properties reflected a link to the patients' clinical features. We acquired 256-channel EEG in 53 patients (mean age 37.6 years, 45 females, mean disease duration 9.99 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale ≤ 4, mean 2.2) and 49 healthy controls (mean age 36.4 years, 33 females). We analyzed segments of a total of 5 min of EEG during resting wakefulness and determined for both groups the four predominant microstates using established clustering methods. We found significant differences in the temporal dynamics of two of the four microstates between healthy controls and patients with RRMS in terms of increased appearance and prolonged duration. Using stepwise multiple linear regression models with 8-fold cross-validation, we found evidence that these electrophysiological measures predicted a patient's total disease duration, annual relapse rate, disability score, as well as depression score, and cognitive fatigue measure. In RRMS patients, microstate analysis captured altered fluctuations of EEG topographies in the sub-second range. This measure of high temporal resolution provided potentially powerful markers of disease activity and neuropsychiatric co-morbidities in RRMS.
Fluctuation functions in aqueous NaCl and urea.
Siu, David; Koga, Yoshikata
2005-09-08
We earlier devised a set of fluctuation functions that provide relative qualitative differences of the amplitude (intensity) and the wavelength (extensity) of fluctuations in entropy and volume and the entropy-volume cross fluctuations. We discuss the mixing schemes in aqueous NaCl and urea using these fluctuation functions. Our earlier studies by using the second and third derivatives of Gibbs energy indicated that their effects on H2O are qualitatively different. An NaCl hydrates 7.5 molecules of H2O but leaves the bulk H2O away from the hydration shell unperturbed. Urea, on the other hand, connects onto the hydrogen bond network of H2O but retards the degree of fluctuation inherent in H2O. The behavior of the fluctuation functions calculated here are consistent with the above mixing schemes. Furthermore, urea was found to reduce the wavelength of fluctuation more strongly than NaCl.
Modeling multiphase flow using fluctuating hydrodynamics.
Chaudhri, Anuj; Bell, John B; Garcia, Alejandro L; Donev, Aleksandar
2014-09-01
Fluctuating hydrodynamics provides a model for fluids at mesoscopic scales where thermal fluctuations can have a significant impact on the behavior of the system. Here we investigate a model for fluctuating hydrodynamics of a single-component, multiphase flow in the neighborhood of the critical point. The system is modeled using a compressible flow formulation with a van der Waals equation of state, incorporating a Korteweg stress term to treat interfacial tension. We present a numerical algorithm for modeling this system based on an extension of algorithms developed for fluctuating hydrodynamics for ideal fluids. The scheme is validated by comparison of measured structure factors and capillary wave spectra with equilibrium theory. We also present several nonequilibrium examples to illustrate the capability of the algorithm to model multiphase fluid phenomena in a neighborhood of the critical point. These examples include a study of the impact of fluctuations on the spinodal decomposition following a rapid quench, as well as the piston effect in a cavity with supercooled walls. The conclusion in both cases is that thermal fluctuations affect the size and growth of the domains in off-critical quenches.
Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand–Levitan–Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes
Fluctuations in Urban Traffic Networks
Chen, Yu-Dong; Li, Li; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Jian-Ming; Jin, Xue-Xiang
Urban traffic network is a typical complex system, in which movements of tremendous microscopic traffic participants (pedestrians, bicyclists and vehicles) form complicated spatial and temporal dynamics. We collected flow volumes data on the time-dependent activity of a typical urban traffic network, finding that the coupling between the average flux and the fluctuation on individual links obeys a certain scaling law, with a wide variety of scaling exponents between 1/2 and 1. These scaling phenomena can explain the interaction between the nodes' internal dynamics (i.e. queuing at intersections, car-following in driving) and changes in the external (network-wide) traffic demand (i.e. the every day increase of traffic amount during peak hours and shocking caused by traffic accidents), allowing us to further understand the mechanisms governing the transportation system's collective behavior. Multiscaling and hotspot features are observed in the traffic flow data as well. But the reason why the separated internal dynamics are comparable to the external dynamics in magnitude is still unclear and needs further investigations.
Fluctuations of Lake Orta water levels: preliminary analyses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helmi Saidi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available While the effects of past industrial pollution on the chemistry and biology of Lake Orta have been well documented, annual and seasonal fluctuations of lake levels have not yet been studied. Considering their potential impacts on both the ecosystem and on human safety, fluctuations in lake levels are an important aspect of limnological research. In the enormous catchment of Lake Maggiore, there are many rivers and lakes, and the amount of annual precipitation is both high and concentrated in spring and autumn. This has produced major flood events, most recently in November 2014. Flood events are also frequent on Lake Orta, occurring roughly triennially since 1917. The 1926, 1951, 1976 and 2014 floods were severe, with lake levels raised from 2.30 m to 3.46 m above the hydrometric zero. The most important event occurred in 1976, with a maximum level equal to 292.31 m asl and a return period of 147 years. In 2014 the lake level reached 291.89 m asl and its return period was 54 years. In this study, we defined trends and temporal fluctuations in Lake Orta water levels from 1917 to 2014, focusing on extremes. We report both annual maximum and seasonal variations of the lake water levels over this period. Both Mann-Kendall trend tests and simple linear regression were utilized to detect monotonic trends in annual and seasonal extremes, and logistic regression was used to detect trends in the number of flood events. Lake level decreased during winter and summer seasons, and a small but statistically non-significant positive trend was found in the number of flood events over the period. We provide estimations of return period for lake levels, a metric which could be used in planning lake flood protection measures.
Critical fluctuations in cortical models near instability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew J. Aburn
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Computational studies often proceed from the premise that cortical dynamics operate in a linearly stable domain, where fluctuations dissipate quickly and show only short memory. Studies of human EEG, however, have shown significant autocorrelation at time lags on the scale of minutes, indicating the need to consider regimes where nonlinearities influence the dynamics. Statistical properties such as increased autocorrelation length, increased variance, power-law scaling and bistable switching have been suggested as generic indicators of the approach to bifurcation in nonlinear dynamical systems. We study temporal fluctuations in a widely-employed computational model (the Jansen-Rit model of cortical activity, examining the statistical signatures that accompany bifurcations. Approaching supercritical Hopf bifurcations through tuning of the background excitatory input, we find a dramatic increase in the autocorrelation length that depends sensitively on the direction in phase space of the input fluctuations and hence on which neuronal subpopulation is stochastically perturbed. Similar dependence on the input direction is found in the distribution of fluctuation size and duration, which show power law scaling that extends over four orders of magnitude at the Hopf bifurcation. We conjecture that the alignment in phase space between the input noise vector and the center manifold of the Hopf bifurcation is directly linked to these changes. These results are consistent with the possibility of statistical indicators of linear instability being detectable in real EEG time series. However, even in a simple cortical model, we find that these indicators may not necessarily be visible even when bifurcations are present because their expression can depend sensitively on the neuronal pathway of incoming fluctuations.
Wahl, M.
2017-06-26
Ocean acidification (OA) is generally assumed to negatively impact calcification rates of marine organisms. At a local scale however, biological activity of macrophytes may generate pH fluctuations with rates of change that are orders of magnitude larger than the long-term trend predicted for the open ocean. These fluctuations may in turn impact benthic calcifiers in the vicinity. Combining laboratory, mesocosm and field studies, such interactions between OA, the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, the sea grass Zostera marina and the blue mussel Mytilus edulis were investigated at spatial scales from decimetres to 100s of meters in the western Baltic. Macrophytes increased the overall mean pH of the habitat by up to 0.3 units relative to macrophyte-free, but otherwise similar, habitats and imposed diurnal pH fluctuations with amplitudes ranging from 0.3 to more than 1 pH unit. These amplitudes and their impact on mussel calcification tended to increase with increasing macrophyte biomass to bulk water ratio. At the laboratory and mesocosm scales, biogenic pH fluctuations allowed mussels to maintain calcification even under acidified conditions by shifting most of their calcification activity into the daytime when biogenic fluctuations caused by macrophyte activity offered temporal refuge from OA stress. In natural habitats with a low biomass to water body ratio, the impact of biogenic pH fluctuations on mean calcification rates of M. edulis was less pronounced. Thus, in dense algae or seagrass habitats, macrophytes may mitigate OA impact on mussel calcification by raising mean pH and providing temporal refuge from acidification stress.
Gambling with Superconducting Fluctuations
Foltyn, Marek; Zgirski, Maciej
2015-08-01
Josephson junctions and superconducting nanowires, when biased close to superconducting critical current, can switch to a nonzero voltage state by thermal or quantum fluctuations. The process is understood as an escape of a Brownian particle from a metastable state. Since this effect is fully stochastic, we propose to use it for generating random numbers. We present protocol for obtaining random numbers and test the experimentally harvested data for their fidelity. Our work is prerequisite for using the Josephson junction as a tool for stochastic (probabilistic) determination of physical parameters such as magnetic flux, temperature, and current.
Fluctuation relations for anisotropic systems
Villavicencio-Sanchez, R.; Harris, R. J.; Touchette, H.
2014-02-01
Currents of particles or energy in driven non-equilibrium steady states are known to satisfy certain symmetries, referred to as fluctuation relations, determining the ratio of the probabilities of positive fluctuations to negative ones. A generalization of these fluctuation relations has been proposed recently for extended non-equilibrium systems of dimension greater than one, assuming, crucially, that they are isotropic (Hurtado P. I., Pérez-Espigares C., del Pozo J. J. and Garrido P. L., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108 (2011) 7704). Here we relax this assumption and derive a fluctuation relation for d-dimensional systems having anisotropic bulk driving rates. We test the validity of this anisotropic fluctuation relation by calculating the particle current fluctuations in the 2d anisotropic zero-range process, using both exact and fluctuating hydrodynamic approaches.
Fractional Brownian motion of director fluctuations in nematic ordering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Z.; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Otnes, K.
1993-01-01
Temporal director fluctuations in nematic ordering were studied by computer simulation on the Lebwohl-Lasher model as well as by neutron-scattering experiments on the nematogen d-PAA. The time-series data have been analyzed by the rescaled-range method and in terms of the power spectrum in order ...
Entropic fluctuations in DNA sequences
Thanos, Dimitrios; Li, Wentian; Provata, Astero
2018-03-01
The Local Shannon Entropy (LSE) in blocks is used as a complexity measure to study the information fluctuations along DNA sequences. The LSE of a DNA block maps the local base arrangement information to a single numerical value. It is shown that despite this reduction of information, LSE allows to extract meaningful information related to the detection of repetitive sequences in whole chromosomes and is useful in finding evolutionary differences between organisms. More specifically, large regions of tandem repeats, such as centromeres, can be detected based on their low LSE fluctuations along the chromosome. Furthermore, an empirical investigation of the appropriate block sizes is provided and the relationship of LSE properties with the structure of the underlying repetitive units is revealed by using both computational and mathematical methods. Sequence similarity between the genomic DNA of closely related species also leads to similar LSE values at the orthologous regions. As an application, the LSE covariance function is used to measure the evolutionary distance between several primate genomes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erica N Spotswood
Full Text Available Community response to external drivers such climate and disturbance can lead to fluctuations in community composition, or to directional change. Temporal dynamics can be influenced by a combination of drivers operating at multiple spatial scales, including external landscape scale drivers, local abiotic conditions, and local species pools. We hypothesized that spatial variation in these factors can create heterogeneity in temporal dynamics within landscapes. We used understory plant species composition from an 11 year dataset from a California oak woodland to compare plots where disturbance was experimentally manipulated with the removal of livestock grazing and a prescribed burn. We quantified three properties of temporal variation: compositional change (reflecting the appearance and disappearance of species, temporal fluctuation, and directional change. Directional change was related most strongly to disturbance type, and was highest at plots where grazing was removed during the study. Temporal fluctuations, compositional change, and directional change were all related to intrinsic abiotic factors, suggesting that some locations are more responsive to external drivers than others. Temporal fluctuations and compositional change were linked to local functional composition, indicating that environmental filters can create subsets of the local species pool that do not respond in the same way to external drivers. Temporal dynamics are often assumed to be relatively static at the landscape scale, provided disturbance and climate are continuous. This study shows that local and landscape scale factors jointly influence temporal dynamics creating hotspots that are particularly responsive to climate and disturbance. Thus, adequate predictions of response to disturbance or to changing climate will only be achieved by considering how factors at multiple spatial scales influence community resilience and recovery.
Objective differentiation of neonatal EEG background grades using detrended fluctuation analysis
V. Matić (Vladimir); P.J. Cherian (Joseph); N. Koolen (Ninah); A.H. Ansari; G. Naulaers; P. Govaert (Paul); S. van Huffel (Sabine); M. de Vos (Maarten); S. Vanhatalo (Sampsa)
2015-01-01
textabstractA quantitative and objective assessment of background electroencephalograph (EEG) in sick neonates remains an everyday clinical challenge. We studied whether long range temporal correlations quantified by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) could be used in the neonatal EEG to
Transfer of temporal fluctuations in photorefractive two-beam coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Jensen, S.; Saffman, M.
1997-01-01
of perturbations is frequency dependent at low frequencies, and becomes constant at frequencies large compared to the inverse material time constant. Vde discuss the possibility of pump noise suppression when amplifying weak signals. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....
Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Gutynska
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath. We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.
Relationship among phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic fluctuations ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2009-09-04
Sep 4, 2009 ... ... and evolution speed is obtained. The correlation between developmental robustness to noise and evolutionary robustness to mutation is analysed by simulations of the gene network model. These results provide quantitative formulation on canalization and genetic assimilation, in terms of fluctuations of ...
Low Mach Number Fluctuating Hydrodynamics for Electrolytes
Péraud, Jean-Philippe; Chaudhri, Anuj; Bell, John B; Donev, Aleksandar; Garcia, Alejandro L
2016-01-01
We formulate and study computationally the low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamic equations for electrolyte solutions. We are interested in studying transport in mixtures of charged species at the mesoscale, down to scales below the Debye length, where thermal fluctuations have a significant impact on the dynamics. Continuing our previous work on fluctuating hydrodynamics of multicomponent mixtures of incompressible isothermal miscible liquids (A. Donev, et al., Physics of Fluids, 27, 3, 2015), we now include the effect of charged species using a quasielectrostatic approximation. Localized charges create an electric field, which in turn provides additional forcing in the mass and momentum equations. Our low Mach number formulation eliminates sound waves from the fully compressible formulation and leads to a more computationally efficient quasi-incompressible formulation. We demonstrate our ability to model saltwater (NaCl) solutions in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium settings. We show that our algorithm...
Biomolecules: Fluctuations and relaxations
Parak, F.; Ostermann, A.; Gassmann, A.; Scherk, C.; Chong, S.-H.; Kidera, A.; Go, N.
1999-10-01
The normal-mode refinement of X-ray crystallographic data opened a new possibility to analyze the mean-square displacements in a protein molecule. A comparison of the X-ray structure of myoglobin at several temperatures with Mössbauer data is performed. In the low-temperature regime below 180 K the iron mean-square displacements obtained by Mössbauer spectroscopy are in good agreement with a normal-mode analysis. The X-ray mean-square displacements at the position of the iron, after the motion originated from the external degrees of freedom are subtracted, have practically the same temperature dependence as those from Mössbauer spectroscopy. The difference between the X-ray mean-square displacements and those predicted by normal-mode analysis measures the distribution of molecules into conformational substates. Above 180 K the Mössbauer effect indicates fluctuations between conformational substates. The relaxation from a Fe(III) conformation to a Fe(II) conformation is shown for superoxide dismutase of Propionibacterium shermanii.
Fluctuating attention in Parkinson's disease
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Starrfelt, Randi; Aarsland, Dag; Janvin, Carmen
2001-01-01
Lewy body dementia (DLB), which share many clinical and pathological features with Parkinson’s disease (PD), is charac- terised by marked fluctuations in cognition and consciousness. Fluctuating cognition has not been formally studied in PD, although some studies indicate that PD patients show...
Fluctuating Selection in the Moran.
Dean, Antony M; Lehman, Clarence; Yi, Xiao
2017-03-01
Contrary to classical population genetics theory, experiments demonstrate that fluctuating selection can protect a haploid polymorphism in the absence of frequency dependent effects on fitness. Using forward simulations with the Moran model, we confirm our analytical results showing that a fluctuating selection regime, with a mean selection coefficient of zero, promotes polymorphism. We find that increases in heterozygosity over neutral expectations are especially pronounced when fluctuations are rapid, mutation is weak, the population size is large, and the variance in selection is big. Lowering the frequency of fluctuations makes selection more directional, and so heterozygosity declines. We also show that fluctuating selection raises dn /ds ratios for polymorphism, not only by sweeping selected alleles into the population, but also by purging the neutral variants of selected alleles as they undergo repeated bottlenecks. Our analysis shows that randomly fluctuating selection increases the rate of evolution by increasing the probability of fixation. The impact is especially noticeable when the selection is strong and mutation is weak. Simulations show the increase in the rate of evolution declines as the rate of new mutations entering the population increases, an effect attributable to clonal interference. Intriguingly, fluctuating selection increases the dn /ds ratios for divergence more than for polymorphism, a pattern commonly seen in comparative genomics. Our model, which extends the classical neutral model of molecular evolution by incorporating random fluctuations in selection, accommodates a wide variety of observations, both neutral and selected, with economy. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.
Quantum Correction of Fluctuation Theorem
Monnai, T.; Tasaki, S.
2003-01-01
Quantum analogues of the transient fluctuation theorem(TFT) and steady-state fluctuation theorem(SSFT) are investigated for a harmonic oscillator linearly coupled with a harmonic reservoir. The probability distribution for the work done externally is derived and quantum correction for TFT and SSFT are calculated.
Fluctuation conductivity in cuprate superconductors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
superconducting layers in each unit cell is also not adequate. We suggest the fluctuation conductivity to be reduced due to the reduction in the density of states (DOS) of the quasiparticles which results due to the formation of Cooper pairs at the onset of the fluctuations. The data agrees with the theory proposed by Dorin et al ...
Fluctuations in catalytic surface reactions
Imbihl, R
2003-01-01
The internal reaction-induced fluctuations which occur in catalytic CO oxidation on a Pt field emitter tip have been studied using field electron microscopy (FEM) as a spatially resolving method. The structurally heterogeneous Pt tip consists of facets of different orientations with nanoscale dimensions. The FEM resolution of roughly 2 nm corresponds to a few hundred reacting adsorbed particles whose variations in the density are imaged as brightness fluctuations. In the bistable range of the reaction one finds fluctuation-induced transitions between the two stable branches of the reaction kinetics. The fluctuations exhibit a behaviour similar to that of an equilibrium phase transition, i.e. the amplitude diverges upon approaching the bifurcation point terminating the bistable range of the reaction. Simulations with a hybrid Monte Carlo/mean-field model reproduce the experimental observations. Fluctuations on different facets are typically uncorrelated but within a single facet a high degree of spatial cohere...
Detrended fluctuation analysis made flexible to detect range of cross-correlated fluctuations
Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświecimka, Paweł; DroŻdŻ, Stanisław
2015-11-01
The detrended cross-correlation coefficient ρDCCA has recently been proposed to quantify the strength of cross-correlations on different temporal scales in bivariate, nonstationary time series. It is based on the detrended cross-correlation and detrended fluctuation analyses (DCCA and DFA, respectively) and can be viewed as an analog of the Pearson coefficient in the case of the fluctuation analysis. The coefficient ρDCCA works well in many practical situations but by construction its applicability is limited to detection of whether two signals are generally cross-correlated, without the possibility to obtain information on the amplitude of fluctuations that are responsible for those cross-correlations. In order to introduce some related flexibility, here we propose an extension of ρDCCA that exploits the multifractal versions of DFA and DCCA: multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, respectively. The resulting new coefficient ρq not only is able to quantify the strength of correlations but also allows one to identify the range of detrended fluctuation amplitudes that are correlated in two signals under study. We show how the coefficient ρq works in practical situations by applying it to stochastic time series representing processes with long memory: autoregressive and multiplicative ones. Such processes are often used to model signals recorded from complex systems and complex physical phenomena like turbulence, so we are convinced that this new measure can successfully be applied in time-series analysis. In particular, we present an example of such application to highly complex empirical data from financial markets. The present formulation can straightforwardly be extended to multivariate data in terms of the q -dependent counterpart of the correlation matrices and then to the network representation.
Quantum fluctuations from thermal fluctuations in Jacobson formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Ashour, Amani; Alcheikh, Mohammad [Damascus University, Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Alasfar, Lina [Universite Clermont Auvergne, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubiere (France); Alsaleh, Salwa; Mahroussah, Ahmed [King Saud University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
2017-09-15
In the Jacobson formalism general relativity is obtained from thermodynamics. This is done by using the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation. However, as a black hole gets smaller, its temperature will increase. This will cause the thermal fluctuations to also increase, and these will in turn correct the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation. Furthermore, with the reduction in the size of the black hole, quantum effects will also start to dominate. Just as the general relativity can be obtained from thermodynamics in the Jacobson formalism, we propose that the quantum fluctuations to the geometry can be obtained from thermal fluctuations. (orig.)
Detrended fluctuation analysis: A scale-free view on neuronal oscillations
Hardstone, R.E.; Poil, S.S.; Schiavone, G.; Nikulin, V.V.; Mansvelder, H.D.; Linkenkaer Hansen, K.
2012-01-01
Recent years of research have shown that the complex temporal structure of ongoing oscillations is scale-free and characterized by long-range temporal correlations. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has proven particularly useful, revealing that genetic variation, normal development, or disease
Low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics for electrolytes
Péraud, Jean-Philippe; Nonaka, Andy; Chaudhri, Anuj; Bell, John B.; Donev, Aleksandar; Garcia, Alejandro L.
2016-11-01
We formulate and study computationally the low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamic equations for electrolyte solutions. We are interested in studying transport in mixtures of charged species at the mesoscale, down to scales below the Debye length, where thermal fluctuations have a significant impact on the dynamics. Continuing our previous work on fluctuating hydrodynamics of multicomponent mixtures of incompressible isothermal miscible liquids [A. Donev et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 037103 (2015), 10.1063/1.4913571], we now include the effect of charged species using a quasielectrostatic approximation. Localized charges create an electric field, which in turn provides additional forcing in the mass and momentum equations. Our low Mach number formulation eliminates sound waves from the fully compressible formulation and leads to a more computationally efficient quasi-incompressible formulation. We demonstrate our ability to model saltwater (NaCl) solutions in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium settings. We show that our algorithm is second order in the deterministic setting and for length scales much greater than the Debye length gives results consistent with an electroneutral approximation. In the stochastic setting, our model captures the predicted dynamics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium fluctuations. We also identify and model an instability that appears when diffusive mixing occurs in the presence of an applied electric field.
Temporal complexity in emission from Anderson localized lasers
Kumar, Randhir; Balasubrahmaniyam, M.; Alee, K. Shadak; Mujumdar, Sushil
2017-12-01
Anderson localization lasers exploit resonant cavities formed due to structural disorder. The inherent randomness in the structure of these cavities realizes a probability distribution in all cavity parameters such as quality factors, mode volumes, mode structures, and so on, implying resultant statistical fluctuations in the temporal behavior. Here we provide direct experimental measurements of temporal width distributions of Anderson localization lasing pulses in intrinsically and extrinsically disordered coupled-microresonator arrays. We first illustrate signature exponential decays in the spatial intensity distributions of the lasing modes that quantify their localized character, and then measure the temporal width distributions of the pulsed emission over several configurations. We observe a dependence of temporal widths on the disorder strength, wherein the widths show a single-peaked, left-skewed distribution in extrinsic disorder and a dual-peaked distribution in intrinsic disorder. We propose a model based on coupled rate equations for an emitter and an Anderson cavity with a random mode structure, which gives excellent quantitative and qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. The experimental and theoretical analyses bring to the fore the temporal complexity in Anderson-localization-based lasing systems.
Skewness of elliptic flow fluctuations
Giacalone, Giuliano; Yan, Li; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves
2017-01-01
Using event-by-event hydrodynamic calculations, we find that the fluctuations of the elliptic flow (v2) in the reaction plane have a negative skew. We compare the skewness of v2 fluctuations to that of initial eccentricity fluctuations. We show that skewness is the main effect lifting the degeneracy between higher-order cumulants, with negative skew corresponding to the hierarchy v2{4 } >v2{6 } observed in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We describe how the skewness can be measured experimentally and show that hydrodynamics naturally reproduces its magnitude and centrality dependence.
Fluctuation theorem: A critical review
Malek Mansour, M.; Baras, F.
2017-10-01
Fluctuation theorem for entropy production is revisited in the framework of stochastic processes. The applicability of the fluctuation theorem to physico-chemical systems and the resulting stochastic thermodynamics were analyzed. Some unexpected limitations are highlighted in the context of jump Markov processes. We have shown that these limitations handicap the ability of the resulting stochastic thermodynamics to correctly describe the state of non-equilibrium systems in terms of the thermodynamic properties of individual processes therein. Finally, we considered the case of diffusion processes and proved that the fluctuation theorem for entropy production becomes irrelevant at the stationary state in the case of one variable systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan
2013-01-01
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis R. Peraza
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Cognitive fluctuations are a core symptom in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB and may relate to pathological alterations in distributed brain networks. To test this we analysed resting state fMRI changes in a cohort of fluctuating DLB patients (n = 16 compared with age matched controls (n = 17 with the aim of finding functional connectivity (FC differences between these two groups and whether these associate with cognitive fluctuations in DLB. Resting state networks (RSNs were estimated using independent component analysis and FC between the RSN maps and the entirety of the brain was assessed using dual regression. The default mode network (DMN appeared unaffected in DLB compared to controls but significant cluster differences between DLB and controls were found for the left fronto-parietal, temporal, and sensory–motor networks. Desynchronization of a number of cortical and subcortical areas related to the left fronto-parietal network was associated with the severity and frequency of cognitive fluctuations. Our findings provide empirical evidence for the potential role of attention–executive networks in the aetiology of this core symptom in DLB.
Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation
Guazzelli, Élisabeth
2011-01-21
This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations of the velocities of spheres to increase with the size of the container, whereas experiments found no such variation. Two ideas have increased our understanding. First, the correlation length of the velocity fluctuations was found experimentally to be 20 interparticle separations. Second, in dilute suspensions, a vertical variation in the concentration due to the spreading of the front with the clear fluid can inhibit the velocity fluctuations. In a very dilute regime, a homogeneous suspension of fibers suffers a spontaneous instability in which fast descending fiber-rich columns are separated by rising fiber-sparse columns. In a semidilute regime, the settling is hindered, more so than for spheres. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Molecular evolution under fitness fluctuations.
Mustonen, Ville; Lässig, Michael
2008-03-14
Molecular evolution is a stochastic process governed by fitness, mutations, and reproductive fluctuations in a population. Here, we study evolution where fitness itself is stochastic, with random switches in the direction of selection at individual genomic loci. As the correlation time of these fluctuations becomes larger than the diffusion time of mutations within the population, fitness changes from an annealed to a quenched random variable. We show that the rate of evolution has its maximum in the crossover regime, where both time scales are comparable. Adaptive evolution emerges in the quenched fitness regime (evidence for such fitness fluctuations has recently been found in genomic data). The joint statistical theory of reproductive and fitness fluctuations establishes a conceptual connection between evolutionary genetics and statistical physics of disordered systems.
Gaussian fluctuations in chaotic eigenstates
Srednicki, M A; Srednicki, Mark; Stiernelof, Frank
1996-01-01
We study the fluctuations that are predicted in the autocorrelation function of an energy eigenstate of a chaotic, two-dimensional billiard by the conjecture (due to Berry) that the eigenfunction is a gaussian random variable. We find an explicit formula for the root-mean-square amplitude of the expected fluctuations in the autocorrelation function. These fluctuations turn out to be O(\\hbar^{1/2}) in the small \\hbar (high energy) limit. For comparison, any corrections due to scars from isolated periodic orbits would also be O(\\hbar^{1/2}). The fluctuations take on a particularly simple form if the autocorrelation function is averaged over the direction of the separation vector. We compare our various predictions with recent numerical computations of Li and Robnik for the Robnik billiard, and find good agreement. We indicate how our results generalize to higher dimensions.
Quantum entanglement and temperature fluctuations.
Ourabah, Kamel; Tribeche, Mouloud
2017-04-01
In this paper, we consider entanglement in a system out of equilibrium, adopting the viewpoint given by the formalism of superstatistics. Such an approach yields a good effective description for a system in a slowly fluctuating environment within a weak interaction between the system and the environment. For this purpose, we introduce an alternative version of the formalism within a quantum mechanical picture and use it to study entanglement in the Heisenberg XY model, subject to temperature fluctuations. We consider both isotropic and anisotropic cases and explore the effect of different temperature fluctuations (χ^{2}, log-normal, and F distributions). Our results suggest that particular fluctuations may enhance entanglement and prevent it from vanishing at higher temperatures than those predicted for the same system at thermal equilibrium.
RAPID FLUCTUATIONS IN THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawrence, J. K.; Cadavid, A. C.; Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States); Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M., E-mail: john.lawrence@csun.edu [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)
2011-12-10
The Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument reveals solar atmospheric fluctuations at high frequencies. Spectra of variations of the G-band intensity (I{sub G} ) and Ca II K-line intensity (I{sub K} ) show correlated fluctuations above white noise to frequencies beyond 300 mHz and 50 mHz, respectively. The noise-corrected G-band spectrum for f = 28-326 mHz shows a power law with exponent -1.21 {+-} 0.02, consistent with the presence of turbulent motions. G-band spectral power in the 25-100 mHz ('UHF') range is concentrated at the locations of magnetic bright points in the intergranular lanes and is highly intermittent in time. The intermittence of the UHF G-band fluctuations, shown by a positive kurtosis {kappa}, also suggests turbulence. Combining values of I{sub G} , I{sub K} , UHF power, and {kappa} reveals two distinct states of the solar atmosphere. State 1, including almost all the data, is characterized by low I{sub G} , I{sub K} , and UHF power and {kappa} Almost-Equal-To 6. State 2, including only a very small fraction of the data, is characterized by high I{sub G} , I{sub K} , and UHF power and {kappa} Almost-Equal-To 3. Superposed epoch analysis shows that the UHF power peaks simultaneously with spatio-temporal I{sub G} maxima in either state. For State 1, I{sub K} shows 3.5 minute chromospheric oscillations with maxima occurring 21 s after I{sub G} maxima implying a 150-210 km effective height difference. However, for State 2 the I{sub K} and I{sub G} maxima are simultaneous; in this highly magnetized environment sites of G-band and K-line emission may be spatially close together.
Rapid Fluctuations in the Lower Solar Atmosphere
Lawrence, J. K.; Cadavid, A. C.; Christian, D. J.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.
2011-12-01
The Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument reveals solar atmospheric fluctuations at high frequencies. Spectra of variations of the G-band intensity (IG ) and Ca II K-line intensity (IK ) show correlated fluctuations above white noise to frequencies beyond 300 mHz and 50 mHz, respectively. The noise-corrected G-band spectrum for f = 28-326 mHz shows a power law with exponent -1.21 ± 0.02, consistent with the presence of turbulent motions. G-band spectral power in the 25-100 mHz ("UHF") range is concentrated at the locations of magnetic bright points in the intergranular lanes and is highly intermittent in time. The intermittence of the UHF G-band fluctuations, shown by a positive kurtosis κ, also suggests turbulence. Combining values of IG , IK , UHF power, and κ reveals two distinct states of the solar atmosphere. State 1, including almost all the data, is characterized by low IG , IK , and UHF power and κ ≈ 6. State 2, including only a very small fraction of the data, is characterized by high IG , IK , and UHF power and κ ≈ 3. Superposed epoch analysis shows that the UHF power peaks simultaneously with spatio-temporal IG maxima in either state. For State 1, IK shows 3.5 minute chromospheric oscillations with maxima occurring 21 s after IG maxima implying a 150-210 km effective height difference. However, for State 2 the IK and IG maxima are simultaneous; in this highly magnetized environment sites of G-band and K-line emission may be spatially close together.
Detrended fluctuation analysis made flexible to detect range of cross-correlated fluctuations
Kwapien, Jaroslaw; Drozdz, Stanislaw
2015-01-01
The detrended cross-correlation coefficient $\\rho_{\\rm DCCA}$ has recently been proposed to quantify the strength of cross-correlations on different temporal scales in bivariate, non-stationary time series. It is based on the detrended cross-correlation and detrended fluctuation analyses (DCCA and DFA, respectively) and can be viewed as an analogue of the Pearson coefficient in the case of the fluctuation analysis. The coefficient $\\rho_{\\rm DCCA}$ works well in many practical situations but by construction its applicability is limited to detection of whether two signals are generally cross-correlated, without possibility to obtain information on the amplitude of fluctuations that are responsible for those cross-correlations. In order to introduce some related flexibility, here we propose an extension of $\\rho_{\\rm DCCA}$ that exploits the multifractal versions of DFA and DCCA: MFDFA and MFCCA, respectively. The resulting new coefficient $\\rho_q$ not only is able to quantify the strength of correlations, but ...
Estimation of Several Turbulent Fluctuation Quantities Using an Approximate Pulsatile Flow Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-12-01
Turbulent fluctuation behavior is approximately modeled using a pulsatile flow model analogy.. This model follows as an extension to the turbulent laminar sublayer model developed by Sternberg (1962) to be valid for a fully turbulent flow domain. Here unsteady turbulent behavior is modeled via a sinusoidal pulsatile approach. While the individual modes of the turbulent flow fluctuation behavior are rather crudely modeled, approximate temporal integration yields plausible estimates for Root Mean Square (RMS) velocity fluctuations. RMS pressure fluctuations and spectra are of particular interest and are estimated via the pressure Poisson expression. Both RMS and Power Spectral Density (PSD), i.e. spectra are developed. Comparison with available measurements suggests reasonable agreement. An additional fluctuating quantity, i.e. RMS wall shear fluctuation is also estimated, yielding reasonable agreement with measurement.
Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging
Geissbuehler, Stefan; Sharipov, Azat; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia; Dubikovskaya, Elena; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel
2013-01-01
By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, th...
Modeling seasonal dynamics of the small fish cohorts in fluctuating freshwater marsh landscapes
Jopp, Fred; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Trexler, Joel C.
2010-01-01
Small-bodied fishes constitute an important assemblage in many wetlands. In wetlands that dry periodically except for small permanent waterbodies, these fishes are quick to respond to change and can undergo large fluctuations in numbers and biomasses. An important aspect of landscapes that are mixtures of marsh and permanent waterbodies is that high rates of biomass production occur in the marshes during flooding phases, while the permanent waterbodies serve as refuges for many biotic components during the dry phases. The temporal and spatial dynamics of the small fishes are ecologically important, as these fishes provide a crucial food base for higher trophic levels, such as wading birds. We develop a simple model that is analytically tractable, describing the main processes of the spatio-temporal dynamics of a population of small-bodied fish in a seasonal wetland environment, consisting of marsh and permanent waterbodies. The population expands into newly flooded areas during the wet season and contracts during declining water levels in the dry season. If the marsh dries completely during these times (a drydown), the fish need refuge in permanent waterbodies. At least three new and general conclusions arise from the model: (1) there is an optimal rate at which fish should expand into a newly flooding area to maximize population production; (2) there is also a fluctuation amplitude of water level that maximizes fish production, and (3) there is an upper limit on the number of fish that can reach a permanent waterbody during a drydown, no matter how large the marsh surface area is that drains into the waterbody. Because water levels can be manipulated in many wetlands, it is useful to have an understanding of the role of these fluctuations.
Time fluctuation analysis of forest fire sequences
Vega Orozco, Carmen D.; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Tonini, Marj; Golay, Jean; Pereira, Mário J. G.
2013-04-01
Forest fires are complex events involving both space and time fluctuations. Understanding of their dynamics and pattern distribution is of great importance in order to improve the resource allocation and support fire management actions at local and global levels. This study aims at characterizing the temporal fluctuations of forest fire sequences observed in Portugal, which is the country that holds the largest wildfire land dataset in Europe. This research applies several exploratory data analysis measures to 302,000 forest fires occurred from 1980 to 2007. The applied clustering measures are: Morisita clustering index, fractal and multifractal dimensions (box-counting), Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, and variography. These algorithms enable a global time structural analysis describing the degree of clustering of a point pattern and defining whether the observed events occur randomly, in clusters or in a regular pattern. The considered methods are of general importance and can be used for other spatio-temporal events (i.e. crime, epidemiology, biodiversity, geomarketing, etc.). An important contribution of this research deals with the analysis and estimation of local measures of clustering that helps understanding their temporal structure. Each measure is described and executed for the raw data (forest fires geo-database) and results are compared to reference patterns generated under the null hypothesis of randomness (Poisson processes) embedded in the same time period of the raw data. This comparison enables estimating the degree of the deviation of the real data from a Poisson process. Generalizations to functional measures of these clustering methods, taking into account the phenomena, were also applied and adapted to detect time dependences in a measured variable (i.e. burned area). The time clustering of the raw data is compared several times with the Poisson processes at different thresholds of the measured function. Then, the clustering measure value
Temporal properties of stereopsis
Gheorghiu, E.
2005-03-01
transient presentation of DRS. For both sustained and transient presentations of the stimuli, the results show that: (i) stereopsis has similar temporal properties at coarse and fine spatial scales; (ii) interaction between spatial scales depends on their relative sizes. The results indicate a strong inhibitory influence of rivalry at a coarse scale on stereopsis at a fine scale, and just a weak inhibitory influence of rivalry at a fine scale on stereopsis at a coarse scale. This study provides experimental evidence for a hierarchical organisation of spatial scales in stereoscopic vision based on neural interaction instead of vergence eye movements. In chapter 4 we examined how binocular visual system interprets the depth of monocular random-dots superimposed on stereoscopic surfaces, when disparity and monocular depth result from elements of different size. We also examine the perceptual effects of dot density. We found that depth of monocular surfaces was affected by the disparity-defined surfaces and it changed gradually with dot density. Strength of the effect depended on dot density and relative angular size of the dots. In chapter 5 we examined how visual perception changes over time in the presence or absence of perceived stereoscopic depth in rivalrous images. We found that the presence of disparity-defined depth did not influence significantly the perceptual dominance durations of binocular rivalry. This indicates that stereopsis and binocular rivalry at the level of textured surfaces follow from separate processes.
Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.
2012-01-01
Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057
Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation.
Goh, S J; Tao, Y; van der Slot, P J M; Bastiaens, H J M; Herek, J; Biedron, S G; Danailov, M B; Milton, S V; Boller, K-J
2015-09-21
For exploring the application potential of coherent soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) provided by high-harmonic generation, it is important to characterize the central output parameters. Of specific importance are pulse-to-pulse (shot-to-shot) fluctuations of the high-harmonic output energy, fluctuations of the direction of the emission (pointing instabilities), and fluctuations of the beam divergence and shape that reduce the spatial coherence. We present the first single-shot measurements of waveguided high-harmonic generation in a waveguided (capillary-based) geometry. Using a capillary waveguide filled with Argon gas as the nonlinear medium, we provide the first characterization of shot-to-shot fluctuations of the pulse energy, of the divergence and of the beam pointing. We record the strength of these fluctuations vs. two basic input parameters, which are the drive laser pulse energy and the gas pressure in the capillary waveguide. In correlation measurements between single-shot drive laser beam profiles and single-shot high-harmonic beam profiles we prove the absence of drive laser beam-pointing-induced fluctuations in the high-harmonic output. We attribute the main source of high-harmonic fluctuations to ionization-induced nonlinear mode mixing during propagation of the drive laser pulse inside the capillary waveguide.
Signal fluctuations in crystal-APD systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kocak, F., E-mail: fkocak@uludag.edu.tr [Uludag University, Department of Physics, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Tapan, I.; Pilicer, E. [Uludag University, Department of Physics, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)
2011-08-21
PbWO{sub 4} and CsI(Tl) crystals are widely used in high energy physics experiments. The photons generated from incident particles in the crystal material are detected by the Avalanche photodiodes (APD) placed at the end of the crystals. In this work, the light generated by 0.1-5 GeV electrons in the crystals has been obtained using with the GEANT4 simulation code. The Single Particle Monte Carlo technique has been used to calculate APD output signals and their fluctuations at a constant avalanche gain value of 50 for both the CsI(Tl) and PbWO{sub 4} crystals emission spectrum. The simulation results are agreed well with the experimental results. CsI(Tl) crystal-APD system has provided a good material-device combination. The high signal values and the low signal fluctuations make this combination an excellent choice for scintillating light detection.
Prevention of Employees Fluctuation in IT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Libor Mesicek
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present results of implementation fluctuation preventing counter-measures among other positions in IT department. In 2017 there is still one of the lowest unemployment rates in the history of the Czech Republic (especially in IT and companies are trying to preserve and prevent their key employees from moving to another employer. One of the tools, which could help reduce this risk, is providing additional education, certification and qualification with laying great emphasis on most valuable and essential personnel. The paper present updated results after 6 months since the company started with selection of high risks employees. It has been found that group of employees with high risk of leaving the company has shrunk and overall fluctuation index has also plunged.
Controlling tax evasion fluctuations
Zaklan, Georg; Lima, F. W. S.; Westerhoff, Frank
2008-10-01
We incorporate the behaviour of tax evasion into the standard two-dimensional Ising model and augment it by providing policy-makers with the opportunity to curb tax evasion via an appropriate enforcement mechanism. We find that tax evasion may vary greatly over time if no measures of control are taken. Furthermore, we show that even minimal audit rates of a tax authority may help to alleviate this problem substantially. Similar results are observed for other network structures.
An Efficient Null Model for Conformational Fluctuations in Proteins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harder, Tim Philipp; Borg, Mikael; Bottaro, Sandro
2012-01-01
Protein dynamics play a crucial role in function, catalytic activity, and pathogenesis. Consequently, there is great interest in computational methods that probe the conformational fluctuations of a protein. However, molecular dynamics simulations are computationally costly and therefore are often...... limited to comparatively short timescales. TYPHON is a probabilistic method to explore the conformational space of proteins under the guidance of a sophisticated probabilistic model of local structure and a given set of restraints that represent nonlocal interactions, such as hydrogen bonds or disulfide...... on conformational fluctuations that is in correspondence with experimental measurements. TYPHON provides a flexible, yet computationally efficient, method to explore possible conformational fluctuations in proteins....
Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena
Maroney, O. J. E.
2009-12-01
The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.
Fluctuation theorems for quantum processes.
Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A; Marvian, Milad; Zanardi, Paolo
2013-09-01
We present fluctuation theorems and moment generating function equalities for generalized thermodynamic observables and quantum dynamics described by completely positive trace preserving maps, with and without feedback control. Our results include the quantum Jarzynski equality and Crooks fluctuation theorem, and clarify the special role played by the thermodynamic work and thermal equilibrium states in previous studies. We show that for a specific class of generalized measurements, which include projective measurements, unitality replaces microreversibility as the condition for the physicality of the reverse process in our fluctuation theorems. We present an experimental application of our theory to the problem of extracting the system-bath coupling magnitude, which we do for a system of pairs of coupled superconducting flux qubits undergoing quantum annealing.
Fluctuation theorems for quantum processes
Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.; Marvian, Milad; Zanardi, Paolo
2013-09-01
We present fluctuation theorems and moment generating function equalities for generalized thermodynamic observables and quantum dynamics described by completely positive trace preserving maps, with and without feedback control. Our results include the quantum Jarzynski equality and Crooks fluctuation theorem, and clarify the special role played by the thermodynamic work and thermal equilibrium states in previous studies. We show that for a specific class of generalized measurements, which include projective measurements, unitality replaces microreversibility as the condition for the physicality of the reverse process in our fluctuation theorems. We present an experimental application of our theory to the problem of extracting the system-bath coupling magnitude, which we do for a system of pairs of coupled superconducting flux qubits undergoing quantum annealing.
Generalized noise terms for the quantized fluctuational electrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Partanen, Mikko; Hayrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka
2017-01-01
position-dependent quantum models for the photon number in resonant structures have only been formulated very recently and only for dielectric media. Here we present a general position-dependent quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that extends the consistent field quantization...... to describe the photon number also in the presence of magnetic field-matter interactions. It is shown that the magnetic fluctuations provide an additional degree of freedom in media where the magnetic coupling to the field is prominent. Therefore, the field quantization requires an additional independent...... noise operator that is commuting with the conventional bosonic noise operator describing the polarization current fluctuations in dielectric media. In addition to allowing the detailed description of field fluctuations, our methods provide practical tools for modeling optical energy transfer...
Motivational Monitoring as a Tool of Managing Fluctuation of Personnel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darchenko Nataliya D.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of a possibility to manage fluctuation of personnel at a modern enterprise through application of the motivational monitoring and in identification of some methodical aspects of formation of the system of monitoring the fluctuation of personnel. The article considers the essence, tasks and main directions of motivational monitoring at an enterprise and offers its classification. It proves urgency of the problem of fluctuation of personnel at enterprises of the country and a possibility of its management through application of the motivational monitoring. It offers methodical principles of monitoring of fluctuation of personnel of an enterprise. It provides results of application of the motivational monitoring in managerial practice of a real enterprise for analysis and study of fluctuation of personnel, which show that monitoring of fluctuation of personnel, development and introduction on its basis of the programme of management of fluctuation of personnel, improvement of the motivational mechanism of management of an enterprise would allow increase of business efficiency, introduce the proactive practice with respect to the personnel, and become a more attractive employer in the labour market. The direction of further studies is development and improvement of organisational and technical aspects of the motivational monitoring and development of recommendations on application of its results with the aim of development of the motivational mechanism that exists at an enterprise.
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Current fluctuations in stochastic systems with long-range memory
Harris, R. J.; Touchette, H.
2009-08-01
We propose a method to calculate the large deviations of current fluctuations in a class of stochastic particle systems with history-dependent rates. Long-range temporal correlations are seen to alter the speed of the large deviation function in analogy with long-range spatial correlations in equilibrium systems. We give some illuminating examples and discuss the applicability of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem.
Smolin, Lee
2015-11-01
Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.
Linear modeling of glacier fluctuations
Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X
2012-01-01
In this contribution a linear first-order differential equation is used to model glacier length fluctuations. This equation has two parameters describing the physical characteristics of a glacier: the climate sensitivity, expressing how the equilibrium glacier length depends on the climatic state,
Reaction rates when barriers fluctuate
Reimann, Peter
1999-01-01
Reaction rates when barriers fluctuate : a path integral approach / P. Hänggi and P. Reimann. - In: International Conference on Path Integrals from peV to TeV : Proceedings of the ... / eds.: R. Casalbuoni ... - Singapore u.a. : World Scientific, 1999. - S. 407-409
Fine-Scale Fluctuations in the Corona Observed with Hi-C
Winebarger, Amy; Schuler, Timothy
2013-01-01
The High Resolution Coronal Imager(HiC) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July11 and captured roughly 345 s of high spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 Angstrom channel. We have analyzed the fluctuations in intensity of Active Region11520.We selected events based on a lifetime greater than 11s (twoHiC frames)and intensities greater than a threshold determined from the average background intensity in a pixel and the photon and electronic noise. We find fluctuations occurring down to the smallest timescale(11s).Typical intensity fluctuations are 20% background intensity, while some events peaka t100%the background intensity.Generally the fluctuations are clustered in solar structures, particularly the moss.We interpret the fluctuations in the moss as indicative of heating events. We use the observed events to model the active region core.
Discovering metric temporal constraint networks on temporal databases.
Álvarez, Miguel R; Félix, Paulo; Cariñena, Purificación
2013-07-01
In this paper, we propose the ASTPminer algorithm for mining collections of time-stamped sequences to discover frequent temporal patterns, as represented in the simple temporal problem (STP) formalism: a representation of temporal knowledge as a set of event types and a set of metric temporal constraints among them. To focus the mining process, some initial knowledge can be provided by the user, also expressed as an STP, that acts as a seed pattern for the searching procedure. In this manner, the mining algorithm will search for those frequent temporal patterns consistent with the initial knowledge. Health organisations demand, for multiple areas of activity, new computational tools that will obtain new knowledge from huge collections of data. Temporal data mining has arisen as an active research field that provides new algorithms for discovering new temporal knowledge. An important point in defining different proposals is the expressiveness of the resulting temporal knowledge, which is commonly found in the bibliography in a qualitative form. ASTPminer develops an Apriori-like strategy in an iterative algorithm where, as a result of each iteration i, a set of frequent temporal patterns of size i is found that incorporates three distinctive mechanisms: (1) use of a clustering procedure over distributions of temporal distances between events to recognise similar occurrences as temporal patterns; (2) consistency checking of every combination of temporal patterns, which ensures the soundness of the resultant patterns; and (3) use of seed patterns to allow the user to drive the mining process. To validate our proposal, several experiments were conducted over a database of time-stamped sequences obtained from polysomnography tests in patients with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. ASTPminer was able to extract well-known temporal patterns corresponding to different manifestations of the syndrome. Furthermore, the use of seed patterns resulted in a reduction in the size of
Model for calcium-mediated reduction of structural fluctuations in epidermis
Kobayashi, Yasuaki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Nagayama, Masaharu
2015-08-01
We propose a reaction-advection-diffusion model of epidermis consisting of two variables, the degree of differentiation and the calcium ion concentration, where calcium ions enhance differentiation. By analytically and numerically investigating this system, we show that a calcium localization layer formed beneath the stratum corneum helps reduce spatiotemporal fluctuations of the structure of the stratum corneum. In particular, spatially or temporally small-scale fluctuations in the lower structure are suppressed and do not affect the upper structure, due to acceleration of differentiation by calcium ions. Analytical expressions for the reduction rate of fluctuation amplitudes are shown.
Effects of phase transition induced density fluctuations on pulsar dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Partha Bagchi
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We show that density fluctuations during phase transitions in pulsar cores may have non-trivial effects on pulsar timings, and may also possibly account for glitches and anti-glitches. These density fluctuations invariably lead to non-zero off-diagonal components of the moment of inertia, leading to transient wobbling of star. Thus, accurate measurements of pulsar timing and intensity modulations (from wobbling may be used to identify the specific pattern of density fluctuations, hence the particular phase transition, occurring inside the pulsar core. Changes in quadrupole moment from rapidly evolving density fluctuations during the transition, with very short time scales, may provide a new source for gravitational waves.
Effect of flow fluctuations and nonflow on elliptic flow methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ollitrault, Jean-Yves; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Voloshin, Sergei A.
2009-04-16
We discuss how the different estimates of elliptic flow are influenced by flow fluctuations and nonflow effects. It is explained why the event-plane method yields estimates between the two-particle correlation methods and the multiparticle correlation methods. It is argued that nonflow effects and fluctuations cannot be disentangled without other assumptions. However, we provide equations where, with reasonable assumptions about fluctuations and nonflow, all measured values of elliptic flow converge to a unique mean v_2,PP elliptic flow in the participant plane and, with a Gaussian assumption on eccentricity fluctuations, can be converted to the mean v_2,RP in the reaction plane. Thus, the 20percent spread in observed elliptic flow measurements from different analysis methods is no longer mysterious.
Relaxation Fluctuations about an Equilibrium in Quantum Chaos
Lakshminarayan, A
1997-01-01
Classically chaotic systems relax to coarse grained states of equilibrium. Here we numerically study the quantization of such bounded relaxing systems, in particular the quasi-periodic fluctuations associated with the correlation between two density operators. We find that when the operators, or their Wigner-Weyl transforms, have obvious classical limits that can be interpreted as piecewise continuous functions on phase space, the fluctuations can distinguish classically chaotic and regular motions, thus providing a novel diagnostic devise of quantum chaos. We uncover several features of the relaxation fluctuations that are shared by disparate systems thus establishing restricted universality. If we consider the nonlinearity driving the chaos as pseudo-time, we find that the onset of classical chaos is indicated quantally as the relaxation of the relaxation fluctuations to a Gaussian distribution.
On the fluctuation spectra of seismo-electromagnetic phenomena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Hayakawa
2011-02-01
Full Text Available In order to increase the credibility on the presence of electromagnetic phenomena associated with an earthquake, we have suggested the importance of the modulation (or fluctuation seen in the time-series data of any seismogenic effects. This paper reviews the fluctuation spectra of seismogenic phenomena in order to indicate the modulation mechanisms in the lithosphere, atmosphere and ionosphere/magnetosphere. Especially, the effect of Earth's tides in the lithosphere and the modulation in the atmosphere (acoustic and atmospheric gravity waves are discussed and this kind of fluctuation spectra would further provide essential information on the generation mechanisms of different seismogenic effects. Furthermore, the important role of the slope of fluctuation spectra is suggested in order to investigate the self-organized criticality before the lithospheric rupture and its associated effects in different regions such as the ionosphere.
Parametric Amplification of Vacuum Fluctuations in a Spinor Condensate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klempt, C.; Topic, O.; Gebreyesus, G.
2010-01-01
Parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations is crucial in modern quantum optics, enabling the creation of squeezing and entanglement. We demonstrate the parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations for matter waves using a spinor F=2 87Rb condensate. Interatomic interactions lead...... to correlated pair creation in the mF=±1 states from an initial mF=0 condensate, which acts as a vacuum for mF≠0. Although this pair creation from a pure mF=0 condensate is ideally triggered by vacuum fluctuations, unavoidable spurious initial mF=±1 atoms induce a classical seed which may become the dominant...... triggering mechanism. We show that pair creation is insensitive to a classical seed for sufficiently large magnetic fields, demonstrating the dominant role of vacuum fluctuations. The presented system thus provides a direct path towards the generation of nonclassical states of matter....
Femtosecond measurements of electric fields: from classical amplitudes to quantum fluctuations
Riek, Claudius; Seletskiy, Denis V.; Leitenstorfer, Alfred
2017-03-01
Ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling is presented as an extremely sensitive technique to detect electric field amplitudes in free space. The temporal resolution provided by few-femtosecond laser pulses results in a bandwidth exceeding 100 THz, potentially covering the entire infrared spectral range. A pedagogic introduction to the operational principle of the method is given along the lines of a classical coherent input field and a zincblende-type electro-optic sensor. We then show that even the bare vacuum fluctuations of the electric field in the quantum ground state may be detected. This time-domain approach to quantum physics operates directly on sub-cycle scales where no local energy conservation holds. Therefore, signals may be obtained from purely virtual photons without amplification to finite intensity.
Reconstruction of a Broadband Spectrum of Alfvenic Fluctuations
Vinas, Adolfo F.; Fuentes, Pablo S. M.; Araneda, Jaime A.; Maneva, Yana G.
2014-01-01
Alfvenic fluctuations in the solar wind exhibit a high degree of velocities and magnetic field correlations consistent with Alfven waves propagating away and toward the Sun. Two remarkable properties of these fluctuations are the tendencies to have either positive or negative magnetic helicity (-1 less than or equal to sigma(sub m) less than or equal to +1) associated with either left- or right- topological handedness of the fluctuations and to have a constant magnetic field magnitude. This paper provides, for the first time, a theoretical framework for reconstructing both the magnetic and velocity field fluctuations with a divergence-free magnetic field, with any specified power spectral index and normalized magnetic- and cross-helicity spectrum field fluctuations for any plasma species. The spectrum is constructed in the Fourier domain by imposing two conditions-a divergence-free magnetic field and the preservation of the sense of magnetic helicity in both spaces-as well as using Parseval's theorem for the conservation of energy between configuration and Fourier spaces. Applications to the one-dimensional spatial Alfvenic propagation are presented. The theoretical construction is in agreement with typical time series and power spectra properties observed in the solar wind. The theoretical ideas presented in this spectral reconstruction provide a foundation for more realistic simulations of plasma waves, solar wind turbulence, and the propagation of energetic particles in such fluctuating fields.
Universal fluctuations the phenomenology of hadronic matter
Botet, Robert
2002-01-01
The main purpose of this book is to present, in a comprehensive and progressive way, the appearance of universal limit probability laws in physics, and their connection with the recently developed scaling theory of fluctuations. Arising from the probability theory and renormalization group methods, this novel approach has been proved recently to provide efficient investigative tools for the collective features that occur in any finite system. The mathematical background is self-contained and is formulated in terms which are easy to apply to the physical context. After illustrating the problem
Deco, Gustavo; Ponce-Alvarez, Adrián; Mantini, Dante; Romani, Gian Luca; Hagmann, Patric; Corbetta, Maurizio
2013-07-03
Brain fluctuations at rest are not random but are structured in spatial patterns of correlated activity across different brain areas. The question of how resting-state functional connectivity (FC) emerges from the brain's anatomical connections has motivated several experimental and computational studies to understand structure-function relationships. However, the mechanistic origin of resting state is obscured by large-scale models' complexity, and a close structure-function relation is still an open problem. Thus, a realistic but simple enough description of relevant brain dynamics is needed. Here, we derived a dynamic mean field model that consistently summarizes the realistic dynamics of a detailed spiking and conductance-based synaptic large-scale network, in which connectivity is constrained by diffusion imaging data from human subjects. The dynamic mean field approximates the ensemble dynamics, whose temporal evolution is dominated by the longest time scale of the system. With this reduction, we demonstrated that FC emerges as structured linear fluctuations around a stable low firing activity state close to destabilization. Moreover, the model can be further and crucially simplified into a set of motion equations for statistical moments, providing a direct analytical link between anatomical structure, neural network dynamics, and FC. Our study suggests that FC arises from noise propagation and dynamical slowing down of fluctuations in an anatomically constrained dynamical system. Altogether, the reduction from spiking models to statistical moments presented here provides a new framework to explicitly understand the building up of FC through neuronal dynamics underpinned by anatomical connections and to drive hypotheses in task-evoked studies and for clinical applications.
Detrended fluctuation analysis: A scale-free view on neuronal oscillations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard eHardstone
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Recent years of research have shown that the complex temporal structure of ongoing oscillations is scale-free and characterized by long-range temporal correlations. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA has proven particularly useful, revealing that genetic variation, normal development, or disease can lead to differences in the scale-free amplitude modulation of oscillations. Furthermore, amplitude dynamics is remarkably independent of the time-averaged oscillation power, indicating that the DFA provides unique insights into the functional organization of neuronal systems. To facilitate understanding and encourage wider use of scaling analysis of neuronal oscillations, we provide a pedagogical explanation of the DFA algorithm and its underlying theory. Practical advice on applying DFA to oscillations is supported by MATLAB scripts from the Neurophysiological Biomarker Toolbox (NBT and links to the NBT tutorial website (http://www.nbtwiki.net/. Finally, we provide a brief overview of insights derived from the application of DFA to ongoing oscillations in health and disease, and discuss the putative relevance of criticality for understanding the mechanism underlying scale-free modulation of oscillations.
Detrended fluctuation analysis: a scale-free view on neuronal oscillations.
Hardstone, Richard; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Schiavone, Giuseppina; Jansen, Rick; Nikulin, Vadim V; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus
2012-01-01
Recent years of research have shown that the complex temporal structure of ongoing oscillations is scale-free and characterized by long-range temporal correlations. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has proven particularly useful, revealing that genetic variation, normal development, or disease can lead to differences in the scale-free amplitude modulation of oscillations. Furthermore, amplitude dynamics is remarkably independent of the time-averaged oscillation power, indicating that the DFA provides unique insights into the functional organization of neuronal systems. To facilitate understanding and encourage wider use of scaling analysis of neuronal oscillations, we provide a pedagogical explanation of the DFA algorithm and its underlying theory. Practical advice on applying DFA to oscillations is supported by MATLAB scripts from the Neurophysiological Biomarker Toolbox (NBT) and links to the NBT tutorial website http://www.nbtwiki.net/. Finally, we provide a brief overview of insights derived from the application of DFA to ongoing oscillations in health and disease, and discuss the putative relevance of criticality for understanding the mechanism underlying scale-free modulation of oscillations.
Parity fluctuations in stellar dynamos
Moss, D. L.; Sokoloff, D. D.
2017-10-01
Observations of the solar butterfly diagram from sunspot records suggest persistent fluctuations in parity, away from the overall, approximately dipolar pattern. A simple mean-field dynamo model is used with a solar-like rotation law and perturbed α effect. The parity of the magnetic field relative to the rotational equator can demonstrate can be described as resonance behavior, while the magnetic energy behaves in a more or less expected way. Possible applications of this effect are discussed in the context of various deviations of the solar magnetic field from dipolar symmetry, as reported from analyses of archival sunspot data. The model produces fluctuations in field parity, and hence in the butterfly diagram, that are consistent with observed fluctuaions in solar behavior.
Bouwer, F.L.; Honing, H.
2015-01-01
The processing of rhythmic events in music is influenced by the induced metrical structure. Two mechanisms underlying this may be temporal attending and temporal prediction. Temporal fluctuations in attentional resources may influence the processing of rhythmic events by heightening sensitivity at
Superposed epoch analysis of physiological fluctuations: possible space weather connections
Wanliss, James; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Brown, Denzel; Washington, Brien
2017-10-01
There is a strong connection between space weather and fluctuations in technological systems. Some studies also suggest a statistical connection between space weather and subsequent fluctuations in the physiology of living creatures. This connection, however, has remained controversial and difficult to demonstrate. Here we present support for a response of human physiology to forcing from the explosive onset of the largest of space weather events—space storms. We consider a case study with over 16 years of high temporal resolution measurements of human blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart rate variability to search for associations with space weather. We find no statistically significant change in human blood pressure but a statistically significant drop in heart rate during the main phase of space storms. Our empirical findings shed light on how human physiology may respond to exogenous space weather forcing.
Evaluating platelet aggregation dynamics from laser speckle fluctuations.
Hajjarian, Zeinab; Tshikudi, Diane M; Nadkarni, Seemantini K
2017-07-01
Platelets are key to maintaining hemostasis and impaired platelet aggregation could lead to hemorrhage or thrombosis. We report a new approach that exploits laser speckle intensity fluctuations, emanated from a drop of platelet-rich-plasma (PRP), to profile aggregation. Speckle fluctuation rate is quantified by the speckle intensity autocorrelation, g2(t), from which the aggregate size is deduced. We first apply this approach to evaluate polystyrene bead aggregation, triggered by salt. Next, we assess dose-dependent platelet aggregation and inhibition in human PRP spiked with adenosine diphosphate and clopidogrel. Additional spatio-temporal speckle analyses yield 2-dimensional maps of particle displacements to visualize platelet aggregate foci within minutes and quantify aggregation dynamics. These findings demonstrate the unique opportunity for assessing platelet health within minutes for diagnosing bleeding disorders and monitoring anti-platelet therapies.
Statistical study of density fluctuations in the tore supra tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devynck, P.; Fenzi, C.; Garbet, X.; Laviron, C. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Antar, G.; Gervais, F.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.; Sabot, R.; Truc, A. [LPMI, CNRS UPR-287, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)
1998-03-01
It is believed that the radial anomalous transport in tokamaks is caused by plasma turbulence. Using infra-red laser scattering technique on the Tore Supra tokamak, statistical properties of the density fluctuations are studied as a function of the scales in ohmic as well as additional heating regimes using the lower hybrid or the ion cyclotron frequencies. The probability distributions are compared to a Gaussian in order to estimate the role of intermittency which is found to be negligible. The temporal behaviour of the three-dimensional spectrum is thoroughly discussed; its multifractal character is reflected in the singularity spectrum. The autocorrelation coefficient as well as their long-time incoherence and statistical independence. We also put forward the existence of fluctuations transfer between two distinct but close wavenumbers. A rather clearer image is thus obtained about the way energy is transferred through the turbulent scales. (author) 28 refs.
Superposed epoch analysis of physiological fluctuations: possible space weather connections.
Wanliss, James; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Brown, Denzel; Washington, Brien
2017-10-13
There is a strong connection between space weather and fluctuations in technological systems. Some studies also suggest a statistical connection between space weather and subsequent fluctuations in the physiology of living creatures. This connection, however, has remained controversial and difficult to demonstrate. Here we present support for a response of human physiology to forcing from the explosive onset of the largest of space weather events-space storms. We consider a case study with over 16 years of high temporal resolution measurements of human blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart rate variability to search for associations with space weather. We find no statistically significant change in human blood pressure but a statistically significant drop in heart rate during the main phase of space storms. Our empirical findings shed light on how human physiology may respond to exogenous space weather forcing.
Some comments to the quantum fluctuation theorems
Kuzovlev, Yu. E.
2011-01-01
It is demonstrated that today's quantum fluctuation theorems are component part of old quantum fluctuation-dissipation relations [Sov.Phys.-JETP 45, 125 (1977)], and typical misunderstandings in this area are pointed out.
You, Yu; Stramski, Dariusz; Darecki, Miroslaw; Kattawar, George W
2010-02-20
We develop a computationally fast radiative transfer model for simulating the fluctuations of the underwater downwelling irradiance E(d) at near-surface depths, which occur due to focusing of sunlight by wind-driven surface waves. The model is based on the hybrid matrix operator-Monte Carlo method, which was specifically designed for simulating radiative transfer in a coupled atmosphere-surface-ocean system involving a dynamic ocean surface. In the current version of the model, we use a simplified description of surface waves, which accounts for surface slope statistics, but not surface wave elevation, as a direct source of underwater light fluctuations. We compare the model results with measurements made in the Santa Barbara Channel. The model-simulated and measured time series of E(d)(t) show remarkable similarity. Major features of the probability distribution of instantaneous irradiance, the frequency content of irradiance fluctuations, and the statistical properties of light flashes produced by wave focusing are also generally consistent between the model simulations and measurements for a few near-surface depths and light wavelengths examined. Despite the simplification in the representation of surface waves, this model provides a reasonable first-order approximation to modeling the wave focusing effects at near-surface depths, which require high temporal and spatial resolution (of the order of 1 ms and 1 mm, respectively) to be adequately resolved.
Cadavid, Ana Cristina; Lawrence, John K.; Jennings, Peter John
2017-08-01
We investigate the scaling properties of EUV intensity fluctuations seen in low-latitude coronal holes (CH) and in regions of Quiet Sun (QS), in signals obtained with the SDO/AIA instrument in the 193 Å waveband. Contemporaneous time series in the 171 and 211 Å wavebands are used for comparison among emissions at different heights in the transition region and low corona. Potential-field extrapolations of contemporaneous SDO/HMI line-of-sight magnetic fields provide a context in the physical environment. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) shows that the variance of the fluctuations obeys a power-law as a function of temporal scales with periods in the range ~15-60 min. This scaling is characterized by a generalized Hurst exponent α. In QS regions, and in regions within CHs that include magnetic bipoles, the scaling exponent lies in the range 1.0 < α < 1.5, and it thus corresponds to anti-correlated, turbulent-like, dynamical processes. Regions inside the coronal holes primarily associated with magnetic field of a dominant single polarity, have a generalized exponent (0.5 < α < 1) corresponding to positively correlated (“persistent”) processes. The results indicate the influence of the magnetic fields on the dynamics of the emission.
Hill, R. J.; Clifford, S. F.; Lawrence, R. S.
1980-10-01
The dependence of fluctuations in atmospheric absorption and refraction upon fluctuations in temperature, humidity, and pressure is found for infrared frequencies. This dependence has contributions from line and continuum absorption and from anomalous refraction by water vapor. The functions that relate these fluctuations are necessary for evaluating degradation of electromagnetic radiation by turbulence. They are computed for a given choice of mean atmospheric conditions and graphed as functions of frequency in the wavelength range 5.7 microns to radio waves. It is found that turbulent fluctuations in total pressure give a negligible contribution to absorption and refraction fluctuations. Humidity fluctuations dominate absorption fluctuations, but contributions by temperature and humidity affect refraction fluctuations. Sufficiently strong humidity fluctuations can dominate the refraction fluctuations for some infrared frequencies but not for visible frequencies. The variance of log amplitude is examined for scintillation of infrared light to determine whether absorption or refraction fluctuations dominate under several conditions.
Fluctuation Scaling, Taylor’s Law, and Crime
Hanley, Quentin S.; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May
2014-01-01
Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor’s law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor’s law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057±0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292±0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor’s law exponents from 1.43±0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094±0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation. PMID:25271781
Masking of Wind Turbine Noise: Influence of wind turbulence on ambient noise fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fegeant, Olivier
2002-07-01
In the issue of noise annoyance generated by wind turbines, masking by ambient noise is of great importance. At wind turbine sites, the main source of ambient noise arises from the wind blowing on the vegetation. However, natural wind can barely be described as a steady flow and 'lulls' and 'gusts' are words used to describe its unsteady component. This latter, also called wind turbulence, may affect the masking effect, as the wind turbine may become audible during short laps of time of low wind speed, that is of low ambient noise. The aim of the present report is to study the influence of wind turbulence on ambient noise fluctuations. It is shown that these latter are governed not only by the turbulence intensity, but also by its temporal and spatial structure. This report provides some elements of atmospheric turbulence as well as techniques for the simulation of turbulent wind fields. Simulation results are given that illustrate how the standard deviation of the vegetation noise can vary as function of the canopy size and turbulence spatial patterns. Finally, ambient noise fluctuations and their statistical descriptions are also discussed, based on both theoretical considerations and empirical results.
Fluctuation theory of luminance and chromaticity discrimination
Bouman, M.A.; Vos, J.J.; Walraven, P.L.
1963-01-01
An attempt has been made to describe brightness and color discrimination in the framework of a fluctuation theory. The fluctuation theory states that a difference between two stimuli will be just noticeable if it exceeds, by some factor, the average of the fluctuations in the stimuli. If the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Paul E. [Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, 213 CBC Building, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)
2015-03-07
Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations.
Hnat, Bogdan; Chapman, Sandra C; Rowlands, George
2003-05-01
The solar wind provides a natural laboratory for observations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence over extended temporal scales. Here, we apply a model independent method of differencing and rescaling to identify self-similarity in the probability density functions (PDF) of fluctuations in solar wind bulk plasma parameters as seen by the WIND spacecraft. Whereas the fluctuations of speed v and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude B are multifractal, we find that the fluctuations in the ion density rho, energy densities B2 and rhov(2) as well as MHD-approximated Poynting flux vB(2) are monoscaling on the time scales up to 26 hr. The single curve, which we find to describe the fluctuations PDF of all these quantities up to this time scale, is non-Gaussian. We model this PDF with two approaches--Fokker-Planck, for which we derive the transport coefficients and associated Langevin equation, and the Castaing distribution that arises from a model for the intermittent turbulent cascade.
Vandecar, Karen L; Lawrence, Deborah; Wood, Tana; Oberbauer, Steven F; Das, Rishiraj; Tully, Katherine; Schwendenmann, Luitgard
2009-09-01
The productivity of many tropical wet forests is generally limited by bioavailable phosphorus (P). Microbial activity is a key regulator of P availability in that it determines both the supply of P through organic matter decomposition and the depletion of bioavailable P through microbial uptake. Both microbial uptake and mineralization occur rapidly, and their net effect on P availability varies with soil moisture, temperature, and soil organic matter quantity and quality. Exploring the mechanisms driving P availability at fine temporal scales can provide insight into the coupling of carbon, water, and nutrient cycles, and ultimately, the response of tropical forests to climate change. Despite the recognized importance of P cycling to the dynamics of wet tropical forests and their potential sensitivity to short-term fluctuations in bioavailable P, the diurnal pattern of P remains poorly understood. This study quantifies diurnal fluctuations in labile soil P and evaluates the importance of biotic and abiotic factors in driving these patterns. To this end, measurements of labile P were made every other hour in a Costa Rican wet tropical forest oxisol. Spatial and temporal variation in Bray-extractable P were investigated in relation to ecosystem carbon flux, soil CO2 efflux, soil moisture, soil temperature, solar radiation, and sap-flow velocity. Spatially averaged bi-hourly (every two hours) labile P ranged from 0.88 to 2.48 microg/g across days. The amplitude in labile P throughout the day was 0.61-0.82 microg/g (41-54% of mean P concentrations) and was characterized by a bimodal pattern with a decrease at midday. Labile P increased with soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature and declined with increasing sap flow and solar radiation. Together, soil CO2 efflux, soil temperature, and sap flow explained 86% of variation in labile P.
Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xun-Heng, E-mail: xhwang@hdu.edu.cn [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Li, Lihua [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)
2015-05-15
Highlights: • Temporal patterns within ICNs provide new way to investigate ADHD brains. • ADHD exhibits enhanced temporal activities within and between ICNs. • Network-wise ALFF influences functional connectivity between ICNs. • Univariate patterns within ICNs are correlated to behavior scores. - Abstract: Purpose: Investigating the altered temporal features within and between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) for boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and analyzing the relationships between altered temporal features within ICNs and behavior scores. Materials and methods: A cohort of boys with combined type of ADHD and a cohort of age-matched healthy boys were recruited from ADHD-200 Consortium. All resting-state fMRI datasets were preprocessed and normalized into standard brain space. Using general linear regression, 20 ICNs were taken as spatial templates to analyze the time-courses of ICNs for each subject. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) were computed as univariate temporal features within ICNs. Pearson correlation coefficients and node strengths were computed as bivariate temporal features between ICNs. Additional correlation analysis was performed between temporal features of ICNs and behavior scores. Results: ADHD exhibited more activated network-wise ALFF than normal controls in attention and default mode-related network. Enhanced functional connectivities between ICNs were found in ADHD. The network-wise ALFF within ICNs might influence the functional connectivity between ICNs. The temporal pattern within posterior default mode network (pDMN) was positively correlated to inattentive scores. The subcortical network, fusiform-related DMN and attention-related networks were negatively correlated to Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores. Conclusion: The temporal low frequency oscillations of ICNs in boys with ADHD were more activated than normal controls during resting state; the temporal features within ICNs could
Fluctuation scaling in the visual cortex at threshold
Medina, José M.; Díaz, José A.
2016-05-01
Fluctuation scaling relates trial-to-trial variability to the average response by a power function in many physical processes. Here we address whether fluctuation scaling holds in sensory psychophysics and its functional role in visual processing. We report experimental evidence of fluctuation scaling in human color vision and form perception at threshold. Subjects detected thresholds in a psychophysical masking experiment that is considered a standard reference for studying suppression between neurons in the visual cortex. For all subjects, the analysis of threshold variability that results from the masking task indicates that fluctuation scaling is a global property that modulates detection thresholds with a scaling exponent that departs from 2, β =2.48 ±0.07 . We also examine a generalized version of fluctuation scaling between the sample kurtosis K and the sample skewness S of threshold distributions. We find that K and S are related and follow a unique quadratic form K =(1.19 ±0.04 ) S2+(2.68 ±0.06 ) that departs from the expected 4/3 power function regime. A random multiplicative process with weak additive noise is proposed based on a Langevin-type equation. The multiplicative process provides a unifying description of fluctuation scaling and the quadratic S -K relation and is related to on-off intermittency in sensory perception. Our findings provide an insight into how the human visual system interacts with the external environment. The theoretical methods open perspectives for investigating fluctuation scaling and intermittency effects in a wide variety of natural, economic, and cognitive phenomena.
Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pasan Waidyasekara
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.
Gidoin, Cindy; Roques, Lionel; Boivin, Thomas
2015-03-01
Theories of species coexistence and invasion ecology are fundamentally connected and provide a common theoretical framework for studying the mechanisms underlying successful invasions and their ecological impacts. Temporal fluctuations in resource availability and differences in life-history traits between invasive and resident species are considered as likely drivers of the dynamics of invaded communities. Current critical issues in invasion ecology thus relate to the extent to which such mechanisms influence coexistence between invasive and resident species and to the ability of resident species to persist in an invasive-dominated ecosystem. We tested how a fluctuating resource, and species trait differences may explain and help predict long-term impacts of biological invasions in forest specialist insect communities. We used a simple invasion system comprising closely related invasive and resident seed-specialized wasps (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) competing for a well-known fluctuating resource and displaying divergent diapause, reproductive and phenological traits. Based on extensive long-term field observations (1977-2010), we developed a combination of mechanistic and statistical models aiming to (i) obtain a realistic description of the population dynamics of these interacting species over time, and (ii) clarify the respective contributions of fluctuation-dependent and fluctuation-independent mechanisms to long-term impact of invasion on the population dynamics of the resident wasp species. We showed that a fluctuation-dependent mechanism was unable to promote coexistence of the resident and invasive species. Earlier phenology of the invasive species was the main driver of invasion success, enabling the invader to exploit an empty niche. Phenology also had the greatest power to explain the long-term negative impact of the invasive on the resident species, through resource pre-emption. This study provides strong support for the critical role of species
Chaotic fluctuations in mathematical economics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, Hiroyuki, E-mail: yoshida.hiroyuki@nihon-u.ac.jp [College of Economics, Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8360 (Japan)
2011-03-01
In this paper we examine a Cournot duopoly model, which expresses the strategic interaction between two firms. We formulate the dynamic adjustment process and investigate the dynamic properties of the stationary point. By introducing a memory mechanism characterized by distributed lag functions, we presuppose that each firm makes production decisions in a cautious manner. This implies that we have to deal with the system of integro-differential equations. By means of numerical simulations we show the occurrence of chaotic fluctuations in the case of fixed delays.
Noise and fluctuations an introduction
MacDonald, D K C
2006-01-01
An understanding of fluctuations and their role is both useful and fundamental to the study of physics. This concise study of random processes offers graduate students and research physicists a survey that encompasses both the relationship of Brownian Movement with statistical mechanics and the problem of irreversible processes. It outlines the basics of the physics involved, without the strictures of mathematical rigor.The three-part treatment starts with a general survey of Brownian Movement, including electrical Brownian Movement and ""shot-noise,"" Part two explores correlation, frequency
Electrostatic fluctuations in soap films.
Dean, D S; Horgan, R R
2002-06-01
A field theory to describe electrostatic interactions in soap films, described by electric multilayers with a generalized thermodynamic surface-charging mechanism, is studied. In the limit where the electrostatic interactions are weak, this theory is exactly soluble. The theory incorporates in a consistent way, the surface-charging mechanism and the fluctuations in the electrostatic field that correspond to the zero-frequency component of the van der Waals force. It is shown that these terms lead to a Casimir-like attraction that can be sufficiently large to explain the transition between the common black film to a Newton black film.
An objective fluctuation score for Parkinson's disease.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malcolm K Horne
Full Text Available Establishing the presence and severity of fluctuations is important in managing Parkinson's Disease yet there is no reliable, objective means of doing this. In this study we have evaluated a Fluctuation Score derived from variations in dyskinesia and bradykinesia scores produced by an accelerometry based system.The Fluctuation Score was produced by summing the interquartile range of bradykinesia scores and dyskinesia scores produced every 2 minutes between 0900-1800 for at least 6 days by the accelerometry based system and expressing it as an algorithm.This Score could distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating patients with high sensitivity and selectivity and was significant lower following activation of deep brain stimulators. The scores following deep brain stimulation lay in a band just above the score separating fluctuators from non-fluctuators, suggesting a range representing adequate motor control. When compared with control subjects the score of newly diagnosed patients show a loss of fluctuation with onset of PD. The score was calculated in subjects whose duration of disease was known and this showed that newly diagnosed patients soon develop higher scores which either fall under or within the range representing adequate motor control or instead go on to develop more severe fluctuations.The Fluctuation Score described here promises to be a useful tool for identifying patients whose fluctuations are progressing and may require therapeutic changes. It also shows promise as a useful research tool. Further studies are required to more accurately identify therapeutic targets and ranges.
Fluctuating Asymmetry and Steroid Hormones: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeynep Benderlioglu
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA represents random, minor deviations from perfect symmetry in paired traits. Because the development of the left and right sides of a paired trait is presumably controlled by an identical set of genetic instructions, these small imperfections are considered to reflect genetic and environmental perturbations experienced during ontogeny. The current paper aims to identify possible neuroendocrine mechanisms, namely the actions of steroid hormones that may impact the development of asymmetrical characters as a response to various stressors. In doing so, it provides a review of the published studies on the influences of glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens on FA and concomitant changes in other health and fitness indicators. It follows the premise that hormonal measures may provide direct, non-invasive indicators of how individuals cope with adverse life conditions, strengthening the associations between FA and health, fitness, and behavior.
Lehmann, Benjamin; Valla, Pierre G.; King, Georgina E.; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Christl, Marcus; Herman, Frederic
2017-04-01
Providing tight spatial and temporal constraints on Late Pleistocene glacier fluctuations remains an important challenge for understanding glacier and glacial erosion responses to climatic change. Paleo-glacier reconstructions are often scarce, discrete and spatially-limited during the Lateglacial and Holocene times, which makes their use as a paleoclimate proxy sometimes challenging. Here we focus on the Mer de Glace glacier (Mont-Blanc massif, France) where glacier reconstructions over the Little Ice Age (LIA, Vincent et al. 2014) and since the Mid Holocene (Le Roy et al., 2015) reveal important glacier fluctuations and ice thickness variations. LGM trimline mapping (Coutterand et al., 2006) and cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating on the Italian side of the massif (Wirsig et al., 2016) give important indications on the maximum ice thickness at the LGM and the timing of ice surface lowering in this area. However, continuous records of the Mer de Glace fluctuations have to precisely constrained to provide valuable record of local climate and erosion with time. Therefore, we collected samples of granitic polished bedrock surfaces between the LGM ice surface ( 2505 m a.s.l, Coutterand et al., 2006) and the present-day glacier (1920 m a.s.l) covering 600 m of elevation for the ice surface fluctuations. We first used cosmogenic 10Be dating on quartz (Gosse and Phillips, 2001) to constrain ice surface fluctuations during the Lateglacial and Holocene. Given that cosmic rays exposure produces 10Be over the first 3 m below the rock surface, multiple exposure history from complex glacier fluctuations would be difficult to quantify using this chronometer. To improve the temporal resolution for such complex exposure history, we combined cosmogenic 10Be dating on quartz with OSL surface exposure dating (Sohbati et al., 2011). OSL surface exposure dating is sensitive to light, based on the progressive bleaching of the OSL signal in a rock sample that depends on its exposure time
5th International Conference on Valence Fluctuations
Malik, S
1987-01-01
During the Koln meeting (August 28-31, 1984), Irdia was chosen as the venue for the next International Conference on Valence Fluctuations. lhis was in recognition ard appreciation of the work done, both experimental ard theoretical, by the Irdian scientists in this area during the last decade. We decided to hold this Conference in the month of January, 1987 at Bangalore. lhe subject of Valence Fluctuations has kept itself alive ard active as it has provided many shocks ard suprises particularly among the Ce- ard U-based intermetallies. lhe richness of many interesting physical phenomena occurring in mixed valent materials, the flexibility of modifying their physical properties (by alloying, for example) ard the possibility of synthesizing a wide variety of new such materials seem to be the key factors in this regard. Barely six months before this Conference, an International Conference on Anomalous Rare Earths and Actinides (ICAREA) had been held at Grenoble (July, 1986) which also focussed on mixed valence a...
Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-05-01
Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.
Short-term stratospheric ozone fluctuations observed by GROMOS microwave radiometer at Bern
Moreira, Lorena; Hocke, Klemens; Kämpfer, Niklaus
2018-01-01
The ground-based millimeter wave ozone spectrometer (GROMOS) has been continually measuring middle atmospheric ozone volume mixing ratio profiles above Bern, Switzerland (46.95°N, 7.44°E, 577 m), since 1994 in the frame of NDACC. The high temporal resolution of GROMOS (30 min) allows the analysis of short-term fluctuations. The present study analyses the temporal perturbations, ranging from 1 to 8 h, observed in stratospheric ozone from June 2011 to May 2012. The short-term fluctuations of stratospheric ozone are within 5%, and GROMOS appears to have relative amplitudes stable over time smaller than 2% at 10 hPa (32 km). The strongest natural fluctuations of stratospheric ozone (about 1% at 10 hPa) above Bern occur during winter due to displacements and deformations of the polar vortex towards mid-latitudes.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology
2015-04-01
Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.
Multifractal conductance fluctuations in graphene
Bid, Aveek; Rafsanjani Amin, Kazi; Pal, Nairita; Sankar Ray, Samriddhi; Pandit, Rahul
A multifractal (MF) system is characterized by scaling laws involving an infinite number of exponents. In condensed-matter systems, signatures of multifractality have typically been found in the structure of the critical wave functions at localization delocalization (LD) transitions. We report here the first experimental observation of MF statistics in the transport coefficients of a quantum-condensed matter system. We unearth this through a careful investigation of the magneto-conductance fluctuations in ultra-high mobility single layer graphene at ultra-low temperatures. We obtain the MF spectra over a wide range of temperature and doping levels and show that the multifractality decreases as the temperature increases or as the doping moves the system away from the Dirac point. We show that the fractal exponents are a universal function of the phase coherence length of the carriers. We propose that a probable origin of the MF magneto-conductance fluctuations observed by us is an incipient Anderson LD transition in graphene near the charge neutrality point - a phenomenon predicted but never observed in single layer graphene. We also explore alternate possibilities of the origin of the multifractality namely relativistic quantum scars. AB acknowledges funding from Nanomission, DST, Govt. of India and SERB, DST, Govt. of India.
Protrusion Fluctuations Direct Cell Motion
Caballero, David; Voituriez, Raphaël; Riveline, Daniel
2014-01-01
Many physiological phenomena involve directional cell migration. It is usually attributed to chemical gradients in vivo. Recently, other cues have been shown to guide cells in vitro, including stiffness/adhesion gradients or micropatterned adhesive motifs. However, the cellular mechanism leading to these biased migrations remains unknown, and, often, even the direction of motion is unpredictable. In this study, we show the key role of fluctuating protrusions on ratchet-like structures in driving NIH3T3 cell migration. We identified the concept of efficient protrusion and an associated direction index. Our analysis of the protrusion statistics facilitated the quantitative prediction of cell trajectories in all investigated conditions. We varied the external cues by changing the adhesive patterns. We also modified the internal cues using drug treatments, which modified the protrusion activity. Stochasticity affects the short- and long-term steps. We developed a theoretical model showing that an asymmetry in the protrusion fluctuations is sufficient for predicting all measures associated with the long-term motion, which can be described as a biased persistent random walk. PMID:24988339
Consistency of detrended fluctuation analysis
Løvsletten, O.
2017-07-01
The scaling function F (s ) in detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) scales as F (s ) ˜sH for stochastic processes with Hurst exponent H . This scaling law is proven for stationary stochastic processes with 0 DFA is equal in expectation to (i) a weighted sum of the ACF and (ii) a weighted sum of the second-order structure function. These results enable us to compute the exact finite-size bias for signals that are scaling and to employ DFA in a meaningful sense for signals that do not exhibit power-law statistics. The usefulness is illustrated by examples where it is demonstrated that a previous suggested modified DFA will increase the bias for signals with Hurst exponents 1 application of these developments, an estimator F ̂(s ) is proposed. This estimator can handle missing data in regularly sampled time series without the need of interpolation schemes. Under mild regularity conditions, F ̂(s ) is equal in expectation to the fluctuation function F (s ) in the gap-free case.
Universal time fluctuations in near-critical out-of-equilibrium quantum dynamics.
Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo
2014-02-01
Out-of-equilibrium quantum systems display complex temporal patterns. Such time fluctuations are generically exponentially small in the system volume and therefore can be safely ignored in most of the cases. However, if one consider small quench experiments, time fluctuations can be greatly enhanced. We show that time fluctuations may become stronger than other forms of equilibrium quantum fluctuations if the quench is performed close to a critical point. For sufficiently relevant operators the full distribution function of dynamically evolving observable expectation values becomes a universal function uniquely characterized by the critical exponents and the boundary conditions. At regular points of the phase diagram and for nonsufficiently relevant operators the distribution becomes Gaussian. Our predictions are confirmed by an explicit calculation on the quantum Ising model.
Universal time fluctuations in near-critical out-of-equilibrium quantum dynamics
Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo
2014-02-01
Out-of-equilibrium quantum systems display complex temporal patterns. Such time fluctuations are generically exponentially small in the system volume and therefore can be safely ignored in most of the cases. However, if one consider small quench experiments, time fluctuations can be greatly enhanced. We show that time fluctuations may become stronger than other forms of equilibrium quantum fluctuations if the quench is performed close to a critical point. For sufficiently relevant operators the full distribution function of dynamically evolving observable expectation values becomes a universal function uniquely characterized by the critical exponents and the boundary conditions. At regular points of the phase diagram and for nonsufficiently relevant operators the distribution becomes Gaussian. Our predictions are confirmed by an explicit calculation on the quantum Ising model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ISHIKAWA, M.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available We often observe some kind or another of random fluctuations in physical, chemical and social phenomena to a greater or lesser extent. The analysis of influence of such fluctuations on phenomena is very important as a basic problem in various fields including design and planning of controlled systems in control engineering and analysis of option pricing in economics. In this paper, focusing on biological communities, we study the influence of the random fluctuations on predator-prey systems with diffusion. Noting that interaction of phytoplankton and zooplankton is the basis of a food chain in the lake and the ocean, we consider the two-species predator-prey systems consists of phytoplankton and zooplankton. We analyze the influence of the random fluctuations on the spatio-temporal patterns generated by phytoplankton and zooplankton by the numerical simulations.
Enabling an Integrated Rate-temporal Learning Scheme on Memristor
He, Wei; Huang, Kejie; Ning, Ning; Ramanathan, Kiruthika; Li, Guoqi; Jiang, Yu; Sze, Jiayin; Shi, Luping; Zhao, Rong; Pei, Jing
2014-04-01
Learning scheme is the key to the utilization of spike-based computation and the emulation of neural/synaptic behaviors toward realization of cognition. The biological observations reveal an integrated spike time- and spike rate-dependent plasticity as a function of presynaptic firing frequency. However, this integrated rate-temporal learning scheme has not been realized on any nano devices. In this paper, such scheme is successfully demonstrated on a memristor. Great robustness against the spiking rate fluctuation is achieved by waveform engineering with the aid of good analog properties exhibited by the iron oxide-based memristor. The spike-time-dependence plasticity (STDP) occurs at moderate presynaptic firing frequencies and spike-rate-dependence plasticity (SRDP) dominates other regions. This demonstration provides a novel approach in neural coding implementation, which facilitates the development of bio-inspired computing systems.
Communication, Technology, Temporality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark A. Martinez
2012-08-01
possibilities within this temporality. In attempting to think past a merely human scale of time, my project interfaces with other non-totalizing, anti-anthropocentric philosophies, but begins from modernist and humanist understandings of temporality as opposed to subjectivity. Methodologically, my theory of temporality provides a shift in historical narrative, one that eschews famous inventors, threads of technological or epistemological progress, or other teleological constructions. Epistemologically, this temporality indicates that mediation is an event that occurs among various types of organisms of multiple temporalities. This allows precise interrogation of human notions inflected with time: duration, suspension, desire, fear, and imagination. Ethically, scaling time beyond the human gives a novel form of alterity articulated as the different ways in which we use time to capture the other within theories of communication and history.
Density dependence in demography and dispersal generates fluctuating invasion speeds.
Sullivan, Lauren L; Li, Bingtuan; Miller, Tom E X; Neubert, Michael G; Shaw, Allison K
2017-05-09
Density dependence plays an important role in population regulation and is known to generate temporal fluctuations in population density. However, the ways in which density dependence affects spatial population processes, such as species invasions, are less understood. Although classical ecological theory suggests that invasions should advance at a constant speed, empirical work is illuminating the highly variable nature of biological invasions, which often exhibit nonconstant spreading speeds, even in simple, controlled settings. Here, we explore endogenous density dependence as a mechanism for inducing variability in biological invasions with a set of population models that incorporate density dependence in demographic and dispersal parameters. We show that density dependence in demography at low population densities-i.e., an Allee effect-combined with spatiotemporal variability in population density behind the invasion front can produce fluctuations in spreading speed. The density fluctuations behind the front can arise from either overcompensatory population growth or density-dependent dispersal, both of which are common in nature. Our results show that simple rules can generate complex spread dynamics and highlight a source of variability in biological invasions that may aid in ecological forecasting.
Enhanced conductance fluctuation by quantum confinement effect in graphene nanoribbons.
Xu, Guangyu; Torres, Carlos M; Song, Emil B; Tang, Jianshi; Bai, Jingwei; Duan, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Yuegang; Wang, Kang L
2010-11-10
Conductance fluctuation is usually unavoidable in graphene nanoribbons (GNR) due to the presence of disorder along its edges. By measuring the low-frequency noise in GNR devices, we find that the conductance fluctuation is strongly correlated with the density-of-states of GNR. In single-layer GNR, the gate-dependence of noise shows peaks whose positions quantitatively match the subband positions in the band structures of GNR. This correlation provides a robust mechanism to electrically probe the band structure of GNR, especially when the subband structures are smeared out in conductance measurement.
Phase transitions in polypeptides: analysis of energy fluctuations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2009-01-01
The helix random coil transition in alanine, valine, and leucine polypeptides consisting of 30 amino acids is studied in vacuo using the Langevin molecular dynamics approach. The influence of side chain radicals on internal energy and heat capacity of the polypeptides is discussed. The heat...... capacity of these polypeptides is calculated as a function of temperature using two different methods, namely, as the derivative of the energy with respect to temperature, and on the basis of energy fluctuations in the system. The convergence of the fluctuations based approach is analyzed as a function...... of simulation time. This study provides a comparison of methods for the description of structural transitions in polypeptides....
Hydrodynamic fluctuations, long-time tails, and supersymmetry
Kovtun, Pavel; Yaffe, Laurence G.
2003-07-01
Hydrodynamic fluctuations at a nonzero temperature can cause slow relaxation toward equilibrium even in observables which are not locally conserved. A classic example is the stress-stress correlator in a normal fluid, which, at zero wave number, behaves at large times as t-3/2. A novel feature of the effective theory of hydrodynamic fluctuations in supersymmetric theories is the presence of Grassmann-valued classical fields describing macroscopic supercharge density fluctuations. We show that hydrodynamic fluctuations in supersymmetric theories generate essentially the same long-time power-law tails in real-time correlation functions that are known in simple fluids. In particular, a t-3/2 long-time tail must exist in the stress-stress correlator of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at non-zero temperature, regardless of the value of the coupling. Consequently, this feature of finite-temperature dynamics can provide an interesting test of the AdS/CFT correspondence. However, the coefficient of this long-time tail is suppressed by a factor of 1/N2c. On the gravitational side, this implies that these long-time tails are not present in the classical supergravity limit; they must instead be produced by one-loop gravitational fluctuations.
Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation
Goh, S.J.; Tao, Y.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Biedron, S.G.; Danailov, M.B.; Milton, S.V.; Boller, Klaus J.
2015-01-01
For exploring the application potential of coherent soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) provided by high-harmonic generation, it is important to characterize the central output parameters. Of specific importance are pulse-to-pulse (shot-to-shot) fluctuations of the high-harmonic
Constitutive equation for polymer networks with phonon fluctuations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Rasmus; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Hassager, Ole
2008-01-01
Recent research by Xing [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 075502 (2007)] has provided an expression for the Helmholtz free energy related to phonon fluctuations in polymer networks. We extend this result by constructing the corresponding nonlinear constitutive equation, usable for entirely general, volume...
Global and hemispheric temperature reconstruction from glacier length fluctuations
Leclercq, P.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339579951; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X
2012-01-01
Temperature reconstructions for recent centuries provide a historical context for the warming over the twentieth century. We reconstruct annual averaged surface temperatures of the past 400 years on hemispherical and global scale from glacier length fluctuations. We use the glacier length records of
Quantized fluctuational electrodynamics for three-dimensional plasmonic structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka
2017-01-01
We recently introduced a quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that provides a physically insightful definition of an effective position-dependent photon-number operator and the associated ladder operators. However, this far the formalism has been applicable only for the normal...
Stochastic functionals and fluctuation theorem for multikangaroo processes.
Van den Broeck, C; Toral, R
2014-06-01
We introduce multikangaroo Markov processes and provide a general procedure for evaluating a certain type of stochastic functional. We calculate analytically the large deviation properties. We apply our results to zero-crossing statistics and to stochastic thermodynamics, including the derivation of the fluctuation theorem and the large deviation properties for the stochastic entropy production in a typical solid state device.
Bet Hedging against Demographic Fluctuations
Xue, BingKan; Leibler, Stanislas
2017-09-01
Biological organisms have to cope with stochastic variations in both the external environment and the internal population dynamics. Theoretical studies and laboratory experiments suggest that population diversification could be an effective bet-hedging strategy for adaptation to varying environments. Here we show that bet hedging can also be effective against demographic fluctuations that pose a trade-off between growth and survival for populations even in a constant environment. A species can maximize its overall abundance in the long term by diversifying into coexisting subpopulations of both "fast-growing" and "better-surviving" individuals. Our model generalizes statistical physics models of birth-death processes to incorporate dispersal, during which new populations are founded, and can further incorporate variations of local environments. In this way, we unify different bet-hedging strategies against demographic and environmental variations as a general means of adaptation to both types of uncertainties in population growth.
Graviton fluctuations erase the cosmological constant
Wetterich, C.
2017-10-01
Graviton fluctuations induce strong non-perturbative infrared renormalization effects for the cosmological constant. The functional renormalization flow drives a positive cosmological constant towards zero, solving the cosmological constant problem without the need to tune parameters. We propose a simple computation of the graviton contribution to the flow of the effective potential for scalar fields. Within variable gravity, with effective Planck mass proportional to the scalar field, we find that the potential increases asymptotically at most quadratically with the scalar field. The solutions of the derived cosmological equations lead to an asymptotically vanishing cosmological ;constant; in the infinite future, providing for dynamical dark energy in the present cosmological epoch. Beyond a solution of the cosmological constant problem, our simplified computation also entails a sizeable positive graviton-induced anomalous dimension for the quartic Higgs coupling in the ultraviolet regime, substantiating the successful prediction of the Higgs boson mass within the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity.
Probing quantum fluctuation theorems in engineered reservoirs
Elouard, C.; Bernardes, N. K.; Carvalho, A. R. R.; Santos, M. F.; Auffèves, A.
2017-10-01
Fluctuation theorems (FTs) are central in stochastic thermodynamics, as they allow for quantifying the irreversibility of single trajectories. Although they have been experimentally checked in the classical regime, a practical demonstration in the framework of quantum open systems is still to come. Here we propose a realistic platform to probe FTs in the quantum regime. It is based on an effective two-level system coupled to an engineered reservoir, that enables the detection of the photons emitted and absorbed by the system. When the system is coherently driven, a measurable quantum component in the entropy production is evidenced. We quantify the error due to photon detection inefficiency, and show that the missing information can be efficiently corrected, based solely on the detected events. Our findings provide new insights into how the quantum character of a physical system impacts its thermodynamic evolution.
Dynamical fluctuations in biochemical reactions and cycles
Pressé, S.; Ghosh, K.; Phillips, R.; Dill, K. A.
2010-09-01
We develop theory for the dynamics and fluctuations in some cyclic and linear biochemical reactions. We use the approach of maximum caliber, which computes the ensemble of paths taken by the system, given a few experimental observables. This approach may be useful for interpreting single-molecule or few-particle experiments on molecular motors, enzyme reactions, ion-channels, and phosphorylation-driven biological clocks. We consider cycles where all biochemical states are observable. Our method shows how: (1) the noise in cycles increases with cycle size and decreases with the driving force that spins the cycle and (2) provides a recipe for estimating small-number features, such as probability of backward spin in small cycles, from experimental data. The back-spin probability diminishes exponentially with the deviation from equilibrium. We believe this method may also be useful for other few-particle nonequilibrium biochemical reaction systems.
Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging
Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel
2013-01-01
By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...
Graviton fluctuations erase the cosmological constant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Wetterich
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Graviton fluctuations induce strong non-perturbative infrared renormalization effects for the cosmological constant. The functional renormalization flow drives a positive cosmological constant towards zero, solving the cosmological constant problem without the need to tune parameters. We propose a simple computation of the graviton contribution to the flow of the effective potential for scalar fields. Within variable gravity, with effective Planck mass proportional to the scalar field, we find that the potential increases asymptotically at most quadratically with the scalar field. The solutions of the derived cosmological equations lead to an asymptotically vanishing cosmological “constant” in the infinite future, providing for dynamical dark energy in the present cosmological epoch. Beyond a solution of the cosmological constant problem, our simplified computation also entails a sizeable positive graviton-induced anomalous dimension for the quartic Higgs coupling in the ultraviolet regime, substantiating the successful prediction of the Higgs boson mass within the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity.
Queues and Lévy fluctuation theory
Dębicki, Krzysztof
2015-01-01
The book provides an extensive introduction to queueing models driven by Lévy-processes as well as a systematic account of the literature on Lévy-driven queues. The objective is to make the reader familiar with the wide set of probabilistic techniques that have been developed over the past decades, including transform-based techniques, martingales, rate-conservation arguments, change-of-measure, importance sampling, and large deviations. On the application side, it demonstrates how Lévy traffic models arise when modelling current queueing-type systems (as communication networks) and includes applications to finance. Queues and Lévy Fluctuation Theory will appeal to graduate/postgraduate students and researchers in mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Basic prerequisites are probability theory and stochastic processes.
Resonant amplification of quantum fluctuations in a spinor gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Topic, O.; Scherer, M.; Gebreyesus, G.
2010-01-01
and classical fluctuations. This is strikingly manifested in a sample initially prepared in the m F = 0 state, where spin-changing collisions triggered by quantum fluctuations may lead to the creation of correlated pairs in m F = ±1. We show that the pair creation efficiency is strongly influenced...... of seed atoms is triggered purely by quantum fluctuations and thus the system acts as a matter-wave amplifier for the vacuum state.......Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms with non-zero spin are known to constitute an ideal system to investigate fundamental properties of magnetic superfluids. More recently it was realized that they also provide the fascinating opportunity to investigate the macroscopic amplification of quantum...
Fluctuations in strongly coupled cosmologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonometto, Silvio A. [Department of Physics, Astronomy Unit, Trieste University, Via Tiepolo 11, I 34143 Trieste (Italy); Mainini, Roberto, E-mail: bonometto@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: mainini@mib.infn.it [Department of Physics G. Occhialini, Milano-Bicocca University, Piazza della Scienza 3, I 20126 Milano (Italy)
2014-03-01
In the early Universe, a dual component made of coupled CDM and a scalar field Φ, if their coupling β > (3){sup 1/2}/2, owns an attractor solution, making them a stationary fraction of cosmic energy during the radiation dominated era. Along the attractor, both such components expand ∝a{sup −4} and have early density parameters Ω{sub d} = 1/(4β{sup 2}) and Ω{sub c} = 2 Ω{sub d} (field and CDM, respectively). In a previous paper it was shown that, if a further component, expanding ∝a{sup −3}, breaks such stationary expansion at z ∼ 3–5 × 10{sup 3}, cosmic components gradually acquire densities consistent with observations. This paper, first of all, considers the case that this component is warm. However, its main topic is the analysis of fluctuation evolution: out of horizon modes are then determined; their entry into horizon is numerically evaluated as well as the dependence of Meszaros effect on the coupling β; finally, we compute: (i) transfer function and linear spectral function; (ii) CMB C{sub l} spectra. Both are close to standard ΛCDM models; in particular, the former one can be so down to a scale smaller than Milky Way, in spite of its main DM component being made of particles of mass < 1 keV. The previously coupled CDM component, whose present density parameter is O(10{sup −3}), exhibits wider fluctuations δρ/ρ, but approximately β-independent δρ values. We discuss how lower scale features of these cosmologies might ease quite a few problems that ΛCDM does not easily solve.
Palva, M.J.; Zhigalov, A.; Hirvonen, J.; Korhonen, O.; Palva, S.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, K.
2013-01-01
Scale-free fluctuations are ubiquitous in behavioral performance and neuronal activity. In time scales from seconds to hundreds of seconds, psychophysical dynamics and the amplitude fluctuations of neuronal oscillations are governed by power-law-form longrange temporal correlations (LRTCs). In
Application of VSC-HVDC with Shunt Connected SMES for Compensation of Power Fluctuation
Linn, Zarchi; Kakigano, Hiroaki; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi
This paper describes the application of VSC-HVDC (High Voltage DC Transmission using Voltage Source Converter) with shunt connected SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) for compensation of power fluctuation caused by fluctuating power source such as photovoltaics and wind turbines. The objectives of this proposed system is to smooth out fluctuating power in one terminal side of HVDC in order to avoid causing power system instability and frequency deviation by absorbing or providing power according to the system requirement while another terminal side power is fluctuated. The shunt connected SMES charges and discharges the energy to and from the dc side and it compensates required power of fluctuation to obtain constant power flow in one terminal side of VSC-HVDC system. This system configuration has ability for power system stabilization in the case of power fluctuation from natural energy source. PSCAD/EMTDC simulation is used to evaluate the performance of applied system configuration and control method.
Fluctuation-dissipation relations of a tunnel junction driven by a quantum circuit.
Parlavecchio, O; Altimiras, C; Souquet, J-R; Simon, P; Safi, I; Joyez, P; Vion, D; Roche, P; Esteve, D; Portier, F
2015-03-27
We derive fluctuation-dissipation relations for a tunnel junction driven through a resonator displaying strong quantum fluctuations. We find that the fluctuation-dissipation relations derived for classical external drives hold, provided the effect of the circuit's quantum fluctuations is incorporated into the modified nonlinear current voltage characteristics. We also demonstrate that all quantities measured under a time dependent bias can be reconstructed from their values measured under a dc bias using photoassisted tunneling relations. We confirm these predictions by implementing the circuit and measuring the dc current through the junction, its high frequency admittance, and its current noise at the frequency of the resonator.
General framework for fluctuating dynamic density functional theory
Durán-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Yatsyshin, Peter; Goddard, Benjamin D.; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2017-12-01
We introduce a versatile bottom-up derivation of a formal theoretical framework to describe (passive) soft-matter systems out of equilibrium subject to fluctuations. We provide a unique connection between the constituent-particle dynamics of real systems and the time evolution equation of their measurable (coarse-grained) quantities, such as local density and velocity. The starting point is the full Hamiltonian description of a system of colloidal particles immersed in a fluid of identical bath particles. Then, we average out the bath via Zwanzig’s projection-operator techniques and obtain the stochastic Langevin equations governing the colloidal-particle dynamics. Introducing the appropriate definition of the local number and momentum density fields yields a generalisation of the Dean–Kawasaki (DK) model, which resembles the stochastic Navier–Stokes description of a fluid. Nevertheless, the DK equation still contains all the microscopic information and, for that reason, does not represent the dynamical law of observable quantities. We address this controversial feature of the DK description by carrying out a nonequilibrium ensemble average. Adopting a natural decomposition into local-equilibrium and nonequilibrium contribution, where the former is related to a generalised version of the canonical distribution, we finally obtain the fluctuating-hydrodynamic equation governing the time-evolution of the mesoscopic density and momentum fields. Along the way, we outline the connection between the ad hoc energy functional introduced in previous DK derivations and the free-energy functional from classical density-functional theory. The resultant equation has the structure of a dynamical density-functional theory (DDFT) with an additional fluctuating force coming from the random interactions with the bath. We show that our fluctuating DDFT formalism corresponds to a particular version of the fluctuating Navier–Stokes equations, originally derived by Landau and
Wind fluctuations over the North Sea
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vincent, Claire Louise; Pinson, Pierre; Giebel, Gregor
2011-01-01
Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms. The Hil......Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms...
Temporal averaging of atmospheric turbulence-induced optical scintillation.
Yura, H T; Beck, S M
2015-08-24
Based on the Rytov approximation we have developed for weak scintillation conditions a general expression for the temporal averaged variance of irradiance. The present analysis provides, for what we believe is the first time, a firm theoretical basis for the often-observed reduction of irradiance fluctuations of an optical beam due to atmospheric turbulence. Accurate elementary analytic approximations are presented here for plane, spherical and beam waves for predicting the averaging times required to obtain an arbitrary value of the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean of an optical beam propagating through an arbitrary path in the atmosphere. In particular, a novel application of differential absorption measurement for the purpose of measuring column-integrated concentrations of various so-called greenhouse gas (GHG) atmospheric components is considered where the results of our analysis indicates that relatively short averaging times, on the order of a few seconds, are required to reduce the irradiance fluctuations to a value precise enough for GHG measurements of value to climate related studies.
Distinguishing acute-onset CIDP from fluctuating Guillain-Barre syndrome: a prospective study
Ruts, L.; Drenthen, J.; Jacobs, B. C.; van Doorn, P. A.; Sinnige, H. A. W.; van der Kooi, A. J.; van Dijk, G. W.; Vermeij, F. H.; Badrising, U. A.; van Schaik, I. N.; Verhey, J. C. B.; Straver, J. S.; Linssen, W. H. J. P.; Zandbergen, E. G. J.; de Rijk, M. C.; van der Pol, W. L.; Blankevoort, J. P.; Oenema, D. G.; Feenstra, B.; Hofstee, D. J.; Beekman, R.; Faber, C. G.; Bernsen, R. A. I. A. M.; Oerlemans, W. G. H.; Keunen, R. W. M.; Verheul, G. H. M.; Snoek, J. W.; van der Ree, T. C.; Schuiling, W. J.; Jongen, J. L. M.; Visser, L. H.; Lassouw, G. M. J.; de Kwa, I. H.; Don, J. A.; Taphoorn, M. J. B.; Visscher, F.; Witteveen, R. J. W.; Verschuuren, J. J. G. M.; Leenders, E. M.; van Domburg, P. H. M. F.; Zuidgeest, D. M. H.; Vroon, H. J.; Groen, R. J.
2010-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to provide criteria that can help to distinguish between GBS-TRF and A-CIDP in the early phase of disease. BACKGROUND: The distinction between Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with fluctuations shortly after start of treatment (treatment-related fluctuations, or
Fluctuation BES measurements with the ITER core CXRS prototype spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pokol, G.I., E-mail: pokol@reak.bme.hu [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, EURATOM Association, PO Box 91, H-1521, Budapest (Hungary); Zoletnik, S.; Dunai, D. [WIGNER RCP, RMKI, EURATOM Association, PO Box 91, H-1521, Budapest (Hungary); Marchuk, O. [Institut für Energieforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich Gmbh, Association EURATOM-FZJ, member of Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Baross, T. [WIGNER RCP, RMKI, EURATOM Association, PO Box 91, H-1521, Budapest (Hungary); Erdei, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, EURATOM Association, PO Box 91, H-1521, Budapest (Hungary); Grunda, G.; Kiss, I.G. [WIGNER RCP, RMKI, EURATOM Association, PO Box 91, H-1521, Budapest (Hungary); Kovacsik, A. [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, EURATOM Association, PO Box 91, H-1521, Budapest (Hungary); Hellermann, M. von; Lischtschenko, O. [Dutch-Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Biel, W. [Institut für Energieforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich Gmbh, Association EURATOM-FZJ, member of Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Jaspers, R.J.E. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Durkut, M. [TNO Science and Industry, Partner in ITER-NL, PO Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands)
2013-10-15
Highlights: • We integrated a fluctuation beam emission measurement into the ITER CXRS prototype spectrometer. • The fluctuation BES measurement provided data at TEXTOR that agree well with the simulation based on the Simulation Of Spectra package. • The same simulation method has been used to evaluate the feasibility of a fluctuation BES measurement on the ITER DNB using the CXRS periscopes. -- Abstract: The ITER core CXRS diagnostic system collects the light emitted from the interaction of the diagnostic neutral beam with the core plasma and guides it via a mirror labyrinth through the upper port plug no. 3 towards a fiber bundle, which then transmits the light into a set of spectrometers for spectral analysis. In order to test the accessibility of the special parameter range required for the ITER measurement, a prototype spectrometer was built and operated successfully at the TEXTOR tokamak. In addition to the He/Be, C/Ne and H/D/T regular spectral channels, a fluctuation beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system has been integrated to measure core MHD activity, and validate corresponding ITER simulation results. The fluctuation system can be operated as an alternative to the spectral BES measurement, and has 8 spatial channels sampled at 2 MHz. In this paper, we present details of the fluctuation BES system and its interface to the ITER prototype spectrometer along with simulation and measurement results at TEXTOR. We show that the measurement fully confirms the simulation results on achievable photon current at the detector and on the signal to noise ratio.
Pressure Fluctuations Induced by a Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer
Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Zhang, Chao
2016-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the pressure fluctuations generated by a spatially-developed Mach 5.86 turbulent boundary layer. The unsteady pressure field is analyzed at multiple wall-normal locations, including those at the wall, within the boundary layer (including inner layer, the log layer, and the outer layer), and in the free stream. The statistical and structural variations of pressure fluctuations as a function of wall-normal distance are highlighted. Computational predictions for mean velocity pro les and surface pressure spectrum are in good agreement with experimental measurements, providing a first ever comparison of this type at hypersonic Mach numbers. The simulation shows that the dominant frequency of boundary-layer-induced pressure fluctuations shifts to lower frequencies as the location of interest moves away from the wall. The pressure wave propagates with a speed nearly equal to the local mean velocity within the boundary layer (except in the immediate vicinity of the wall) while the propagation speed deviates from the Taylor's hypothesis in the free stream. Compared with the surface pressure fluctuations, which are primarily vortical, the acoustic pressure fluctuations in the free stream exhibit a significantly lower dominant frequency, a greater spatial extent, and a smaller bulk propagation speed. The freestream pressure structures are found to have similar Lagrangian time and spatial scales as the acoustic sources near the wall. As the Mach number increases, the freestream acoustic fluctuations exhibit increased radiation intensity, enhanced energy content at high frequencies, shallower orientation of wave fronts with respect to the flow direction, and larger propagation velocity.
Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
FA Spane, Jr.
1999-12-16
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.
Wave Beam Propagation Through Density Fluctuations
Balakin, A. A.; Bertelli, N.; Westerhof, E.
2011-01-01
Perturbations induced by edge density fluctuations on electron cyclotron wave beams propagating in fusion plasmas are studied by means of a quasi-optical code. The effects of such fluctuations are illustrated here by showing the beam propagation in the case of single harmonic perturbations to the
temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This research was conducted to study temperature fluctuation inside the inert atmosphere silos loaded with wheat, compare the temperature fluctuation across the top, middle and bottom part of the silo in relation to the ambient temperature. Temperature readings of the ambient and at the top, middle and bottom part of the ...
Nonconformal Fluctuations in Radiation Dominated Anisotropic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tribpo
the non-conformal quantum fluctuations (of expansion and shear) and axisymmetric singularity case in radiation dominated anisotropic cosmology. We show that near the classical singularity the quantum fluctuations tend to diverge. Key words. Quantum Cosmology—Anisotropic universes. 1. Introduction. It has been ...
Pairing fluctuations in trapped Fermi gases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Georg Morten; Minguzzi, Anna; Rosario, F.
2004-01-01
A0530F- Fermion-systems-and-electron-gas-quantum-statistical-mechanics; A0540-Fluctuation-phenomena-random-processes-and-Brownian-motion......A0530F- Fermion-systems-and-electron-gas-quantum-statistical-mechanics; A0540-Fluctuation-phenomena-random-processes-and-Brownian-motion...
A data set of worldwide glacier fluctuations
Leclercq, P.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339579951; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X; Basagic, H.J.; Bushueva, I.; Cook, A.J.; Le Bris, R.
2014-01-01
Glacier fluctuations contribute to variations in sea level and historical glacier length fluctuations are natural indicators of past climate change. To study these subjects, longterm information of glacier change is needed. In this paper we present a data set of global long-term glacier length
The Spectrum of Wind Power Fluctuations
Bandi, Mahesh
2016-11-01
Wind is a variable energy source whose fluctuations threaten electrical grid stability and complicate dynamical load balancing. The power generated by a wind turbine fluctuates due to the variable wind speed that blows past the turbine. Indeed, the spectrum of wind power fluctuations is widely believed to reflect the Kolmogorov spectrum; both vary with frequency f as f - 5 / 3. This variability decreases when aggregate power fluctuations from geographically distributed wind farms are averaged at the grid via a mechanism known as geographic smoothing. Neither the f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum nor the mechanism of geographic smoothing are understood. In this work, we explain the wind power fluctuation spectrum from the turbine through grid scales. The f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum results from the largest length scales of atmospheric turbulence of order 200 km influencing the small scales where individual turbines operate. This long-range influence spatially couples geographically distributed wind farms and synchronizes farm outputs over a range of frequencies and decreases with increasing inter-farm distance. Consequently, aggregate grid-scale power fluctuations remain correlated, and are smoothed until they reach a limiting f - 7 / 3 spectrum. This work was funded by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Japan.
Computer simulations of phospholipid - membrane thermodynamic fluctuations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, U.R.; Peters, Günther H.j.; Schröder, T.B.
2008-01-01
This paper reports all-atom computer simulations of five phospholipid membranes, DMPC, DPPC, DMPG, DMPS, and DMPSH, with a focus on the thermal equilibrium fluctuations of volume, energy, area, thickness, and order parameter. For the slow fluctuations at constant temperature and pressure (defined...
Response of Fusarium solani to Fluctuating Temperatures
Keith F. Jensen; Phillip E. Reynolds; Phillip E. Reynolds
1971-01-01
The purpose of this study was to measure growth under a range of constant temperatures and under a series of fluctuating temperature regimes, and to determine if growth in the fluctuating temperiture regimes could be predicted satisfactorily from the growth data collected in the constant temperature experiments. Growth was measured on both agar and liquid culture to...
Seasonal fluctuations in photochemical efficiency of Symbiodinium ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A. formosa and P. verucosa responded significantly to seasonal fluctuation in both solar radiation and sea surface temperature by regulating their Symbiodinium cells densities and photochemical efficiencies except P. cylindrica. However, such seasonal fluctuations in these environmental parameters are not accompanied ...
Toward models for fluctuating wall quantities in incompressible turbulent flows
Towne, Aaron; Yang, Xiang; Moin, Parviz
2017-11-01
Wall models for large-eddy simulation have been developed that provide accurate estimates of mean wall quantities such as shear stress, heat transfer, and pressure. However, these models typically do not deliver accurate predictions of the space-time fluctuations of these quantities. In this presentation, we describe some first steps toward constructing new wall models that predict the spatiotemporal properties of wall quantities by taking advantage of recent advances in our ability to identify and model the coherent structures that are known to play a central role in the near-wall dynamics. We first analyze data from a direct numerical simulation of a channel at Reτ = 1000 using spectral estimation techniques to isolate the contribution from different scales to fluctuating wall quantities and correlation analysis to link different spatial locations. Then, we explore how modes obtained via singular value decomposition of the resolvent operator, which is obtained from the linearized flow equations, could be used to model these fluctuations. This analysis provides a starting point for leveraging these model reduction ideas to improve the prediction of near-wall fluctuations using wall-modelled large-eddy simulation. Funded by NASA Grant No. NNX15AU93A and PSAAPII Grant No. DE-NA0002373.
Towards General Temporal Aggregation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard
2008-01-01
Most database applications manage time-referenced, or temporal, data. Temporal data management is difficult when using conventional database technology, and many contributions have been made for how to better model, store, and query temporal data. Temporal aggregation illustrates well the problem...
Gour, Natalina; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Soulier, Elisabeth; Guye, Maxime; Didic, Mira; Felician, Olivier
2011-09-15
Spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest, exhibit a temporally coherent activity thought to reflect functionally relevant networks. Antero-mesial temporal structures are the site of early pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease and have been shown to be critical for declarative memory. Our study aimed at exploring the functional impact of basal connectivity of an anterior temporal network (ATN) on declarative memory. A heterogeneous group of subjects with varying performance on tasks assessing memory was therefore selected, including healthy subjects and patients with isolated memory complaint, amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using Independent Component Analysis on resting-state fMRI, we extracted a relevant anterior temporal network (ATN) composed of the perirhinal and entorhinal cortex, the hippocampal head, the amygdala and the lateral temporal cortex extending to the temporal pole. A default mode network and an executive-control network were also selected to serve as control networks. We first compared basal functional connectivity of the ATN between patients and control subjects. Relative to controls, patients exhibited significantly increased functional connectivity in the ATN during rest. Specifically, voxel-based analysis revealed an increase within the inferior and superior temporal gyrus and the uncus. In the patient group, positive correlations between averaged connectivity values of ATN and performance on anterograde and retrograde object-based memory tasks were observed, while no correlation was found with other evaluated cognitive measures. These correlations were specific to the ATN, as no correlation between performance on memory tasks and the other selected networks was found. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that basal connectivity inside the ATN network has a functional role in
Multiplicity Distributions and Charged-neutral Fluctuations
Nayak, Tapan K.; Agnihotri, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Baldine, A.; Barabach, L.; Barlag, C.; Bathe, S.; Batiounia, B.; Bernier, T.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhatia, V.S.; Blume, C.; Bock, R.; Bohne, E.M.; Bucher, D.; Buijs, A.; Buis, E.J.; Busching, H.; Carlen, L.; Chalyshev, V.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chenawi, K.E.; Cherbatchev, R.; Chujo, T.; Claussen, A.; Das, A.C.; Decowski, M.P.; Djordjadze, V.; Donni, P.; Doubovik, I.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumda, M.R.; Eliseev, S.; Enosawa, K.; Feldmann, H.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Frolov, V.; Ganti, M.S.; Garpman, S.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Geurts, F.J.M.; Ghosh, T.K.; Glasow, R.; Gupta, S.K.; Guskov, B.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Higuchi, R.; Hrivnacova, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Kalechofsky, H.; Kamermans, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Karadjev, K.; Karpio, K.; Kato, S.; Kees, S.; Kim, H.; Kolb, B.W.; Kosarev, I.; Koutcheryaev, I.; Kugler, A.; Kulinich, P.; Kumar, V.; Kurata, M.; Kurita, K.; Kuzmin, N.; Langbein, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Lohner, H.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Manko, V.; Martin, M.; Maximov, A.; Mehdiyev, Rashid R.; Mgebrichvili, G.; Miake, Y.; Mikhalev, D.; Mishra, G.C.; Miyamoto, Y.; Mohanty, B.; Morrison, Douglas R.O.; Mukhopadhyay, D.S.; Myalkovski, V.; Naef, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Neumaier, S.; Nianine, A.; Nikitine, V.; Nikolaev, S.; Nishimura, S.; Nomokov, P.; Nystrand, J.; Obenshain, F.E.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Pachr, M.; Parfenov, A.; Pavliouk, S.; Peitzmann, T.; Petracek, V.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M.L.; Raeven, B.; Rak, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.; Rao, N.K.; Retiere, F.; Reygers, K.; Roland, G.; Rosselet, L.; Roufanov, I.; Rubio, J.M.; Sambyal, S.S.; Santo, R.; Sato, S.; Schlagheck, H.; Schmidt, H.R.; Shabratova, G.; Sibiriak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Sinha, B.C.; Slavine, N.; Soderstrom, K.; Solomey, N.; Sood, G.; Sorensen, S.P.; Stankus, P.; Stefanek, G.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stuken, D.; Sumbera, M.; Svensson, T.; Trivedi, M.D.; Tsvetkov, A.; Twenhofel, C.; Tykarski, L.; Urbahn, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; van Heeringen, W.H.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.J.; Vinogradov, A.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voros, S.; Vos, M.A.; Wyslouch, B.; Yagi, K.; Yokota, Y.; Young, G.R.; Nayak, Tapan K.
2001-01-01
Results from the multiplicity distributions of inclusive photons and charged particles, scaling of particle multiplicities, event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations, and charged-neutral fluctuations in 158$\\cdot A$ GeV Pb+Pb collisions are presented and discussed. A scaling of charged particle multiplicity as $N_{part}^{1.07\\pm 0.05}$ and photons as $N_{part}^{1.12\\pm 0.03}$ have been observed, indicating violation of naive wounded nucleon model. The analysis of localized charged-neutral fluctuation indicates a model-independent demonstration of non-statistical fluctuations in both charged particles and photons in limited azimuthal regions. However, no correlated charged-neutral fluctuations are observed.
Predation and resource fluctuations drive eco-evolutionary dynamics of a bacterial community
Hiltunen, Teppo; Friman, Ville-Petri; Kaitala, Veijo; Mappes, Johanna; Laakso, Jouni
2012-01-01
Predation and temporal resource availability are among the most important factors determining prey community dynamics and composition. Both factors have been shown to affect prey diversity, but less is known about their interactive effects, especially in rapidly evolving prey communities. In a laboratory microcosm experiment, we manipulated the presence of the predatory protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila and the temporal patterns in the availability of resources for a bacterial prey community. We found that both predation and temporal fluctuations in prey resources resulted in a more even prey community, and these factors also interacted so that the effect of predation was only seen in a fluctuating environment. One possible explanation for this finding could be differences in prey species grazing resistance and resource use abilities, which likely had the greatest effect on prey community structure in fluctuating environments with periodical resource limitation. We also found that prey communities evolved to be more grazing-resistant during the experiment, and that this effect was due to a clear increase in the grazing resistance of the bacterium Serratia marcescens. Our results demonstrate that temporal variability in prey resources and predation can promote more even prey species proportions by allowing the existence of both defensive and competitive prey life-history strategies.
Diazgranados, Carlos Nicolás; Torres Carreño, Guillermo Andrés; Castell, Edmon; Moreno, Santiago; Ramirez, Natalia
2010-01-01
Esta Hoja de Mano pertenece a la exposición temporal "Ysla S. Catalina & Providence". Contiene un resumen histórico de las Islas de Santa Catalina y Providencia en los idiomas inglés y español y un mapa del siglo VI que lo hace más didáctico apoyado por figuras recortables. Esta muestra hace parte del proyecto IDA y VUELTA del Sistema de Patrimonio Cultural y Museos SPM que gestiona la descentralización del patrimonio cultural de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia a otras ciudades del pa...
Detecting IOP Fluctuations in Glaucoma Patients.
Nuyen, Brenda; Mansouri, Kaweh
2016-01-01
Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the guiding principle of glaucoma management. Although IOP is the only treatable risk factor, its 24-hour behavior is poorly understood. Current glaucoma management usually relies on single IOP measurements during clinic hours, even though IOP is a dynamic parameter with rhythms dependent on individual patients. It has further been shown that most glaucoma patients have their highest IOP measurements outside clinic hours. The fact that these IOP peaks go largely undetected may explain why certain patients progress in their disease despite treatment. Nevertheless, single IOP measurements have determined all major clinical guidelines regarding glaucoma treatment. Other potentially informative parameters, such as fluctuations in IOP and peak IOP, have been neglected, and effects of IOP-lowering interventions on such measures are largely unknown. Continuous 24-hour IOP monitoring has been an interest for more than 50 years, but only recent technological advances have provided clinicians with a device for such an endeavor. This review discusses current uses and shortcomings of current measurement techniques, and provides an overview on current and future methods for 24-hour IOP assessment. It may be possible to incorporate continuous IOP monitoring into clinical practice, potentially to reduce glaucoma-related vision loss.
Fluctuating Asymmetry of Human Populations: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John H. Graham
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry, the random deviation from perfect symmetry, is a widely used population-level index of developmental instability, developmental noise, and robustness. It reflects a population’s state of adaptation and genomic coadaptation. Here, we review the literature on fluctuating asymmetry of human populations. The most widely used bilateral traits include skeletal, dental, and facial dimensions; dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts; and facial shape. Each trait has its advantages and disadvantages, but results are most robust when multiple traits are combined into a composite index of fluctuating asymmetry (CFA. Both environmental (diet, climate, toxins and genetic (aneuploidy, heterozygosity, inbreeding stressors have been linked to population-level variation in fluctuating asymmetry. In general, these stressors increase average fluctuating asymmetry. Nevertheless, there have been many conflicting results, in part because (1 fluctuating asymmetry is a weak signal in a sea of noise; and (2 studies of human fluctuating asymmetry have not always followed best practices. The most serious concerns are insensitive asymmetry indices (correlation coefficient and coefficient of indetermination, inappropriate size scaling, unrecognized mixture distributions, inappropriate corrections for directional asymmetry, failure to use composite indices, and inattention to measurement error. Consequently, it is often difficult (or impossible to compare results across traits, and across studies.
Fluctuations in work motivation: tasks do not matter!
Navarro, Jose; Curioso, Fernando; Gomes, Duarte; Arrieta, Carlos; Cortes, Mauricio
2013-01-01
Previous studies have shown that work motivation fluctuates considerably and in a nonlinear way over time. In the present research, we are interested in studying if the task at hand does or does not influence the presence of these fluctuations. We gathered daily registers from 69 workers during 21 consecutive working days (7036 registers) of task developed and levels of motivation, self-efficacy beliefs and instrumentalities perception. These registers were then categorized into a list of labor activities in main tasks and subtasks by means of three judges with a high level of agreement (97.47% for tasks, and 98.64% for subtasks). Taking the MSSD statistic (mean squared successive difference) of the average of motivation, self-efficacy and instrumentality, and using hierarchical regression analysis we have found that tasks (beta = .03; p = .188) and subtasks (beta = .10; p = .268) do not affect the presence of fluctuations in motivation. These results reveal instability in work motivation independently from the tasks and subtasks that the workers do. We proceed to find that fluctuations in work motivation show a fractal structure across the different tasks we do in a working day. Implications of these results to motivational theory will be discussed as well as possible explanations (e.g. the influence of affect in work motivation) and directions for future research are provided.
On spherical dust fluctuations: the exact vs. the perturbative approach
Sussman, Roberto A; Dunsby, Peter K S; German, Gabriel
2014-01-01
We examine the relation between the dynamics of Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust models (with and without $\\Lambda$) and the dynamics of dust perturbations in two of the more familiar formalisms used in cosmology: the metric based Cosmological Perturbation Theory (CPT) and the Covariant Gauge Invariant (GIC) perturbations. For this purpose we recast the evolution of LTB models in terms of a covariant and gauge invariant formalism of local and non-local "exact fluctuations " on a Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background defined by suitable averages of covariant scalars. We examine the properties of these fluctuations, which can be defined for a confined comoving domain or for an asymptotic domain extending to whole time slices. In particular, the non-local density fluctuation provides a covariant and precise definition for the notion of the "density contrast ". We show that in their linear regime these LTB exact fluctuations (local and non-local) are fully equivalent to the conventional ...
Doin, M.; Cavalié, O.; Lasserre, C.; Briole, P.
2007-12-01
Water level fluctuations in the Lake Mead (Basin and Range, USA) act as a time varying load on the lithosphere. The monitoring of the surface deformation induced by the water load is performed by InSAR using ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat radar acquisitions between 1992 and 2007. The comparison between load and deformation could bring constraints on the uppermost mantle viscosity structure, provided a sufficient accuracy of InSAR measurements. Interferograms from ERS-1 and ERS-2 SAR acquisitions were previously calculated and inverted to retrieve the temporal and spatial subsidence around lake Mead between 1992 and 2001. A peak to peak subsidence of 1.5 cm is recorded between 1995 and 1999 and corresponds to 10m of lake level increase. It was shown in a previous study that the ground motion evolution can be closely associated with the load/unload of lake Mead water level fluctuations (Cavalié et al., J. Geophys. Res, 2007). The ground motion amplitude, evolution, and pattern could be best explained by a visco-elastic rebound of the lithosphere- asthenosphere, with a 30 km thick elastic plate overlying a 1018 Pa.s asthenosphere. In order to provide further constraints on the lithosphere and asthenosphere rheology, it was found necessary to extend the monitoring of surface deformation up to 2007. We need, in particular, to record the uplift that is associated with the drastic lake level fall (25 m) from 2000 to 2004. This should theoretically allow to measure not-in-phase ground motions with respect to loading, that were not yet clearly visible in the 1992-2001 time series. To achieve that goal, we use Envisat data from 2003 to 2007, and a few additional ERS-2 data from 2004 to 2007, acquired with a "reasonable" Doppler centroid frequency. The link between the ERS 1992-2001 and the Envisat 2003-2007 time series is obtained through a few cross-platform ERS/Envisat interferograms and a few ERS-2 interferograms covering the data gap in 2002-2003. We shortly describe the
2015-01-01
Conformational motions of proteins are highly dynamic and intrinsically complex. To capture the temporal and spatial complexity of conformational motions and further to understand their roles in protein functions, an attempt is made to probe multidimensional conformational dynamics of proteins besides the typical one-dimensional FRET coordinate or the projected conformational motions on the one-dimensional FRET coordinate. T4 lysozyme hinge-bending motions between two domains along α-helix have been probed by single-molecule FRET. Nevertheless, the domain motions of T4 lysozyme are rather complex involving multiple coupled nuclear coordinates and most likely contain motions besides hinge-bending. It is highly likely that the multiple dimensional protein conformational motions beyond the typical enzymatic hinged-bending motions have profound impact on overall enzymatic functions. In this report, we have developed a single-molecule multiparameter photon stamping spectroscopy integrating fluorescence anisotropy, FRET, and fluorescence lifetime. This spectroscopic approach enables simultaneous observations of both FRET-related site-to-site conformational dynamics and molecular rotational (or orientational) motions of individual Cy3-Cy5 labeled T4 lysozyme molecules. We have further observed wide-distributed rotational flexibility along orientation coordinates by recording fluorescence anisotropy and simultaneously identified multiple intermediate conformational states along FRET coordinate by monitoring time-dependent donor lifetime, presenting a whole picture of multidimensional conformational dynamics in the process of T4 lysozyme open-close hinge-bending enzymatic turnover motions under enzymatic reaction conditions. By analyzing the autocorrelation functions of both lifetime and anisotropy trajectories, we have also observed the dynamic and static inhomogeneity of T4 lysozyme multidimensional conformational fluctuation dynamics, providing a fundamental
Spin-fluctuation theory beyond Gaussian approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melnikov, N B [Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Reser, B I; Grebennikov, V I, E-mail: melnikov@cs.msu.s, E-mail: reser@imp.uran.r, E-mail: greben@imp.uran.r [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)
2010-05-14
A characteristic feature of the Gaussian approximation in the functional-integral approach to the spin-fluctuation theory is the jump phase transition to the paramagnetic state. We eliminate the jump and obtain a continuous second-order phase transition by taking into account high-order terms in the expansion of the free energy in powers of the fluctuating exchange field. The third-order term of the free energy renormalizes the mean field, and the fourth-order term, responsible for the interaction of the fluctuations, renormalizes the spin susceptibility. The extended theory is applied to the calculation of magnetic properties of Fe-Ni Invar.
Fluctuation theorems for quantum master equations.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Mukamel, Shaul
2006-04-01
A quantum fluctuation theorem for a driven quantum subsystem interacting with its environment is derived based solely on the assumption that its reduced density matrix obeys a closed evolution equation--i.e., a quantum master equation (QME). Quantum trajectories and their associated entropy, heat, and work appear naturally by transforming the QME to a time-dependent Liouville space basis that diagonalizes the instantaneous reduced density matrix of the subsystem. A quantum integral fluctuation theorem, a steady-state fluctuation theorem, and the Jarzynski relation are derived in a similar way as for classical stochastic dynamics.
Population Genetics with Fluctuating Population Sizes
Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.
2017-05-01
Standard neutral population genetics theory with a strictly fixed population size has important limitations. An alternative model that allows independently fluctuating population sizes and reproduces the standard neutral evolution is reviewed. We then study a situation such that the competing species are neutral at the equilibrium population size but population size fluctuations nevertheless favor fixation of one species over the other. In this case, a separation of timescales emerges naturally and allows adiabatic elimination of a fast population size variable to deduce the fluctuation-induced selection dynamics near the equilibrium population size. The results highlight the incompleteness of the standard population genetics with a strictly fixed population size.
Spin-current noise from fluctuation relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Jong Soo [Institut de Fisica Interdisciplinària i Sistemes Complexos IFISC (UIB-CSIC), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Sánchez, David; López, Rosa [Institut de Fisica Interdisciplinària i Sistemes Complexos IFISC (UIB-CSIC), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain and Departement de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2013-12-04
We present fluctuation relations that connect spin-polarized current and noise in mesoscopic conductors. In linear response, these relations are equivalent to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates equilibrium current-current correlations to the linear conductance. More interestingly, in the weakly nonlinear regime of transport, these relations establish a connection between the leading-order rectification spin conductance, the spin noise susceptibility and the third cumulant of spin current fluctuations at equilibrium. Our results are valid even for systems in the presence of magnetic fields and coupled to ferromagnetic electrodes.
Probability distribution of vertical longitudinal shear fluctuations.
Fichtl, G. H.
1972-01-01
This paper discusses some recent measurements of third and fourth moments of vertical differences (shears) of longitudinal velocity fluctuations obtained in unstable air at the NASA 150 m meteorological tower site at Cape Kennedy, Fla. Each set of measurements consisted of longitudinal velocity fluctuation time histories obtained at the 18, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 m levels, so that 15 wind-shear time histories were obtained from each set of measurements. It appears that the distribution function of the longitudinal wind fluctuations at two levels is not bivariate Gaussian. The implications of the results relative to the design and operation of aerospace vehicles are discussed.-
Macroscopic realism of quantum work fluctuations
Blattmann, Ralf; Mølmer, Klaus
2017-07-01
We study the fluctuations of the work performed on a driven quantum system, defined as the difference between subsequent measurements of energy eigenvalues. These work fluctuations are governed by statistical theorems with similar expressions in classical and quantum physics. We show that we can distinguish quantum and classical work fluctuations, as the latter can be described by a macrorealistic theory and hence obey Leggett-Garg inequalities. We show that these inequalities are violated by quantum processes in a driven two-level system and in a harmonic oscillator subject to a squeezing transformation.
Polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arthritis.
Epperly, T D; Moore, K E; Harrover, J D
2000-08-15
Polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arteritis are closely related inflammatory conditions that affect different cellular targets in genetically predisposed persons. Compared with temporal arteritis, polymyalgla rheumatica is much more common, affecting one in 200 persons older than 50 years. Temporal arteritis, however, is more dangerous and can lead to sudden blindness. The diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica is based on the presence of a clinical syndrome consisting of fever, nonspecific somatic complaints, pain and stiffness in the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Temporal arteritis typically presents with many of the same findings as polymyalgia rheumatica, but patients also have headaches and tenderness to palpation over the involved artery. Arterial biopsy usually confirms the diagnosis of temporal arteritis. Early diagnosis and treatment of polymyalgia rheumatica or temporal arteritis can dramatically improve patients' lives and return them to previous functional status. Corticosteroid therapy provides rapid and dramatic improvement of the clinical features of both conditions. Therapy is generally continued for six to 24 months. Throughout treatment, clinical condition is assessed periodically. Patients are instructed to see their physician immediately if symptoms recur or they develop new headache, jaw claudication or visual problems.
Ye, Xuchun; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Xianghu; Zhang, Qi
2017-04-01
The occurrence of flood and drought frequency is highly correlated with the temporal fluctuations of streamflow series; understanding of these fluctuations is essential for the improved modeling and statistical prediction of extreme changes in river basins. In this study, the complexity of daily streamflow fluctuations was investigated by using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) in a large heterogeneous lake basin, the Poyang Lake basin in China, and the potential impacts of human activities were also explored. Major results indicate that the multifractality of streamflow fluctuations shows significant regional characteristics. In the study catchment, all the daily streamflow series present a strong long-range correlation with Hurst exponents bigger than 0.8. The q-order Hurst exponent h(q) of all the hydrostations can be characterized well by only two parameters: a (0.354 ≤ a ≤ 0.384) and b (0.627 ≤ b ≤ 0.677), with no pronounced differences. Singularity spectrum analysis pointed out that small fluctuations play a dominant role in all daily streamflow series. Our research also revealed that both the correlation properties and the broad probability density function (PDF) of hydrological series can be responsible for the multifractality of streamflow series that depends on watershed areas. In addition, we emphasized the relationship between watershed area and the estimated multifractal parameters, such as the Hurst exponent and fitted parameters a and b from the q-order Hurst exponent h(q). However, the relationship between the width of the singularity spectrum (Δα) and watershed area is not clear. Further investigation revealed that increasing forest coverage and reservoir storage can effectively enhance the persistence of daily streamflow, decrease the hydrological complexity of large fluctuations, and increase the small fluctuations.
Blossier, Brice; Bryan, Karin R.; Daly, Christopher J.; Winter, Christian
2017-04-01
Spatial and temporal scales of beach morphodynamics were assessed for the island of Sylt, German Wadden Sea, based on continuous video camera monitoring data from 2011 to 2014 along a 1.3 km stretch of sandy beach. They served to quantify, at this location, the amount of shoreline variability covered by beach monitoring schemes, depending on the time interval and alongshore resolution of the surveys. Correlation methods, used to quantify the alongshore spatial scales of shoreline undulations, were combined with semi-empirical modelling and spectral analyses of shoreline temporal fluctuations. The data demonstrate that an alongshore resolution of 150 m and a monthly survey time interval capture 70% of the kilometre-scale shoreline variability over the 2011-2014 study period. An alongshore spacing of 10 m and a survey time interval of 5 days would be required to monitor 95% variance of the shoreline temporal fluctuations with steps of 5% changes in variance over space. Although monitoring strategies such as land or airborne surveying are reliable methods of data collection, video camera deployment remains the cheapest technique providing the high spatiotemporal resolution required to monitor subkilometre-scale morphodynamic processes involving, for example, small- to middle-sized beach nourishment.
SILAC-Based Temporal Phosphoproteomics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Francavilla, Chiara; Hekmat, Omid; Blagoev, Blagoy
2014-01-01
In recent years, thanks to advances in Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics, studies on signaling pathways have moved from a detailed description of individual components to system-wide analysis of entire signaling cascades, also providing spatio-temporal views of intracellular...... tyrosines by immunoaffinity and then further enriched for phosphorylated serine/threonine peptides by strong cation exchange in combination with titanium dioxide-beads chromatography. Analysis of enriched peptides on Orbitrap-based MS results in comprehensive and accurate reconstruction of temporal changes...... signaling events. Here we provide an optimized SILAC-based proteomic workflow to analyze temporal changes in phosphoproteomes, which involve a generic three step enrichment protocol for phosphopeptides. SILAC-labeled peptides from digested whole cell lysates are as a first step enriched for phosphorylated...
Fluctuation scaling of quotation activities in the foreign exchange market
Sato, Aki-Hiro; Nishimura, Maiko; Hołyst, Janusz A.
2010-07-01
We study the scaling behavior of quotation activities for various currency pairs in the foreign exchange market. The components’ centrality is estimated from multiple time series and visualized as a currency pair network. The power-law relationship between a mean of quotation activity and its standard deviation for each currency pair is found. The scaling exponent α and the ratio between common and specific fluctuations η increase with the length of the observation time window Δt. The result means that although for Δt=1 (min), the market dynamics are governed by specific processes, and at a longer time scale Δt>100 (min) the common information flow becomes more important. We point out that quotation activities are not independently Poissonian for Δt=1 (min), and temporally or mutually correlated activities of quotations can happen even at this time scale. A stochastic model for the foreign exchange market based on a bipartite graph representation is proposed.
Uncertainty in the Fluctuations of the Price of Stocks
Jafari, G. R.; Sadegh Movahed, M.; Norouzzadeh, P.; Bahraminasab, A.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Ghasemi, F.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza
We report on a study of the Tehran Price Index (TEPIX) from 2001 to 2006 as an emerging market that has been affected by several political crises during the recent years, and analyze the non-Gaussian probability density function (PDF) of the log returns of the stock prices. We show that while the average of the index did not fall very much over the time period of the study, its day-to-day fluctuations strongly increased due to the crises. Using an approach based on multiplicative processes with a detrending procedure, we study the scale-dependence of the non-Gaussian PDFs, and show that the temporal dependence of their tails indicates a gradual and systematic increase in the probability of the appearance of large increments in the returns on approaching distinct critical time scales over which the TEPIX has exhibited maximum uncertainty.
Robustness of scale-free networks to cascading failures induced by fluctuating loads.
Mizutaka, Shogo; Yakubo, Kousuke
2015-07-01
Taking into account the fact that overload failures in real-world functional networks are usually caused by extreme values of temporally fluctuating loads that exceed the allowable range, we study the robustness of scale-free networks against cascading overload failures induced by fluctuating loads. In our model, loads are described by random walkers moving on a network and a node fails when the number of walkers on the node is beyond the node capacity. Our results obtained by using the generating function method show that scale-free networks are more robust against cascading overload failures than Erdős-Rényi random graphs with homogeneous degree distributions. This conclusion is contrary to that predicted by previous works, which neglect the effect of fluctuations of loads.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Consolini, G.; Grandioso, S.; Marcucci, M. F.; Pallocchia, G. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Roma (Italy); Yordanova, E. [Swedish Institute for Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)
2015-05-01
Reconnection events in space plasmas are accompanied by the occurrence of large-amplitude turbulent fluctuations of the magnetic and electric field, covering a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Here, we study the scaling and statistical features of magnetic and electric field fluctuations below the ion-gyroperiod (i.e., in the dissipation domain) by carefully investigating the occurrence of local or global scaling features during a reconnection event studied by Eastwood et al . Our results point toward the presence of a global scale invariance, i.e., a mono-fractal nature, of fluctuations above the ion-cyclotron frequency and at spatial scales near the ion-inertial length.
Single-cell protein dynamics reproduce universal fluctuations in cell populations
Brenner, Naama; Rotella, James S; Salman, Hanna
2015-01-01
Protein fluctuations in cell populations have recently been shown to exhibit a universal distribution shape under a broad range of biological realizations. Here, measuring protein content in individual bacteria continuously over ~70 generations, we show that single-cell trajectories fluctuate around their average with the same distribution shape as the population, i.e. their relative fluctuations are ergodic. Analysis of these temporal trajectories reveals that one effective random variable, sampled once each cell cycle, suffices to reconstruct the distribution from the trajectory. This in turn implies that cellular microscopic processes are strongly buffered and population-level protein distributions are insensitive to details of the intracellular dynamics. Probing them thus requires searching for novel universality-breaking experimental perturbations.
Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto
Semantics of temporal models with multi temporal dimensions are examined progressing from non-temporal models unto uni-temporal, and further unto bi- and tri-temporal models. An example of a uni-temporal model is the valid time model, an example of a bi-temporal model is the valid time/transactio...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, Clemens [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, The University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Lisenfeld, Juergen [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Shnirman, Alexander [Institut fuer Theory der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); LD Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Poletto, Stefano [IBM TJ Watson Research Centre, Yorktown Heights (United States)
2016-07-01
Since the very first experiments, superconducting circuits have suffered from strong coupling to environmental noise, destroying quantum coherence and degrading performance. In state-of-the-art experiments, it is found that the relaxation time of superconducting qubits fluctuates as a function of time. We present measurements of such fluctuations in a 3D-transmon circuit and develop a qualitative model based on interactions within a bath of background two-level systems (TLS) which emerge from defects in the device material. In our model, the time-dependent noise density acting on the qubit emerges from its near-resonant coupling to high-frequency TLS which experience energy fluctuations due to their interaction with thermally fluctuating TLS at low frequencies. We support the model by providing experimental evidence of such energy fluctuations observed in a single TLS in a phase qubit circuit.
Li, Zida; Mak, Sze Yi; Sauret, Alban; Shum, Ho Cheung
2014-02-21
We report a new method to display the minute fluctuations induced by syringe pumps on microfluidic flows by using a liquid-liquid system with an ultralow interfacial tension. We demonstrate that the stepper motor inside the pump is a source of fluctuations in microfluidic flows by comparing the frequencies of the ripples observed at the interface to that of the pulsation of the stepper motor. We also quantify the fluctuations induced at different flow rates, using syringes of different diameters, and using different syringe pumps with different advancing distances per step. Our work provides a way to predict the frequency of the fluctuation that the driving syringe pump induces on a microfluidic system and suggests that syringe pumps can be a source of fluctuations in microfluidic flows, thus contributing to the polydispersity of the resulting droplets.
temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
This research was conducted to study temperature fluctuation inside the inert atmosphere silos loaded with wheat, compare ... gases most especially carbondioxide (CO2) is due to safety of ... even to agriculture and resistance of pests to some.
Fluctuations, Environment, Mutations Accumulation and Ageing
Biecek, Przemysław; Cebrat, Stanisław
We present a model of evolution of the age structured population based on the Monte Carlo method. We have assumed that the health status of an individual is described by variance of its fluctuations. Each expressed deleterious mutation increases the fluctuations. Additionally, the fluctuations of the environment are superimposed on the fluctuations of individuals in the population. An individual dies if the combination of both stochastic processes trespass the limit (level of homeostasis) set as the model parameter. The genes are switched on chronologically, what leads to accumulating defective genes expressed during the late periods of life in the genetic pool of the population. That results in the specific age structured population, in accordance with the predictions of Medawar's hypothesis of ageing and the results of the Penna model simulations. A decrease of the variation of the environmental noise increases the average expected lifespan of individuals.
Fluctuations of Intensive Quantities in Statistical Thermodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Artur E. Ruuge
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In phenomenological thermodynamics, the canonical coordinates of a physical system split in pairs, with each pair consisting of an extensive quantity and an intensive one. In the present paper, the quasithermodynamic fluctuation theory of a model system of a large number of oscillators is extended to statistical thermodynamics based on the idea of perceiving the fluctuations of intensive variables as the fluctuations of specific extensive ones in a “thermodynamically dual” system. The extension is motivated by the symmetry of the problem in the context of an analogy with quantum mechanics, which is stated in terms of a generalized Pauli problem for the thermodynamic fluctuations. The doubled Boltzmann constant divided by the number of particles plays a similar role as the Planck constant.
A stochastic model of river discharge fluctuations
Livina, V.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Kizner, Z.; Strygin, V.; Bunde, A.; Havlin, S.
2003-12-01
We study the daily river flow fluctuations of 30 international rivers. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis, we study the correlations in the magnitudes of river flow increments (volatilities), and find power-law correlations in volatilities for time scales less than 1 year; these correlations almost disappear for time scales larger than 1 year. Using surrogate data test for nonlinearity, we show that correlations in the magnitudes of river flow fluctuations are a measure for nonlinearity. We propose a simple nonlinear stochastic model for river flow fluctuations that reproduces the main scaling properties of the river flow series as well as the correlations and periodicities in the magnitudes of river flow increments. According to our model, the source of nonlinearity observed in the data is an interaction between a long-term correlated process and the river discharge itself.
Fluctuating Asymmetry: Methods, Theory, and Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John H. Graham
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry consists of random deviations from perfect symmetry in populations of organisms. It is a measure of developmental noise, which reflects a population’s average state of adaptation and coadaptation. Moreover, it increases under both environmental and genetic stress, though responses are often inconsistent. Researchers base studies of fluctuating asymmetry upon deviations from bilateral, radial, rotational, dihedral, translational, helical, and fractal symmetries. Here, we review old and new methods of measuring fluctuating asymmetry, including measures of dispersion, landmark methods for shape asymmetry, and continuous symmetry measures. We also review the theory, developmental origins, and applications of fluctuating asymmetry, and attempt to explain conflicting results. In the process, we present examples from the literature, and from our own research at “Evolution Canyon” and elsewhere.
Yang, Xiang I. A.; Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz
2017-10-01
Log-layer mismatch refers to a chronic problem found in wall-modeled large-eddy simulation (WMLES) or detached-eddy simulation, where the modeled wall-shear stress deviates from the true one by approximately 15 % . Many efforts have been made to resolve this mismatch. The often-used fixes, which are generally ad hoc, include modifying subgrid-scale stress models, adding a stochastic forcing, and moving the LES-wall-model matching location away from the wall. An analysis motivated by the integral wall-model formalism suggests that log-layer mismatch is resolved by the built-in physics-based temporal filtering. In this work we investigate in detail the effects of local filtering on log-layer mismatch. We show that both local temporal filtering and local wall-parallel filtering resolve log-layer mismatch without moving the LES-wall-model matching location away from the wall. Additionally, we look into the momentum balance in the near-wall region to provide an alternative explanation of how LLM occurs, which does not necessarily rely on the numerical-error argument. While filtering resolves log-layer mismatch, the quality of the wall-shear stress fluctuations predicted by WMLES does not improve with our remedy. The wall-shear stress fluctuations are highly underpredicted due to the implied use of LES filtering. However, good agreement can be found when the WMLES data are compared to the direct numerical simulation data filtered at the corresponding WMLES resolutions.
SPATIAL REPARTITION OF CURRENT FLUCTUATIONS IN A SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerome Lagoute
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM is a technique where the surface topography of a conducting sample is probed by a scanning metallic tip. The tip-to-surface distance is controlled by monitoring the electronic tunneling current between the two metals. The aim of this work is to extend the temporal range of this instrument by characterising the time fluctuations of this current on different surfaces. The current noise power spectral density is dominated by a characteristic 1/f component, the physical origin of which is not yet clearly identified, despite a number of investigations. A new I-V preamplifier was developed in order to characterise these fluctuations of the tunnelling current and to obtain images of their spatial repartition. It is observed that their intensity is correlated with some topographical features. This information can be used to get insights on the physical phenomena involved that are not accessible by the usual STM set-up, which is limited to low frequencies.
Constructing stochastic models for dipole fluctuations from paleomagnetic observations
Buffett, Bruce; Puranam, Abhijit
2017-11-01
Records of relative paleointensity are subject to several sources of error. Temporal averaging due to gradual acquisition of magnetization removes high-frequency fluctuations, whereas random errors introduce fluctuations at high frequency. Both sources of error limit our ability to construct stochastic models from paleomagnetic observations. We partially circumvent these difficulties by recognizing that the largest affects occur at high frequency. To illustrate we construct a stochastic model from two recent inversions of paleomagnetic observations for the axial dipole moment. An estimate of the noise term in the stochastic model is recovered from a high-resolution inversion (CALS10k.2), while the drift term is estimated from the low-frequency part of the power spectrum for a long, but lower-resolution inversion (PADM2M). Realizations of the resulting stochastic model yield a composite, broadband power spectrum that agrees well with the spectra from both PADM2M and CALS10k.2. A simple generalization of the stochastic model permits predictions for the mean rate of magnetic reversals. We show that the reversal rate depends on the time-averaged dipole moment, the variance of the dipole moment and a slow timescale that characterizes the adjustment of the dipole toward the time-averaged value. Predictions of the stochastic model give a mean rate of 4.2 Myr-1, which is in good agreement with observations from marine magnetic anomalies.
Theory of overdispersion in counting statistics caused by fluctuating probabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Semkow, Thomas M. E-mail: semkow@wadsworth.org
1999-11-01
It is shown that the random Lexis fluctuations of probabilities such as probability of decay or detection cause the counting statistics to be overdispersed with respect to the classical binomial, Poisson, or Gaussian distributions. The generating and the distribution functions for the overdispersed counting statistics are derived. Applications to radioactive decay with detection and more complex experiments are given, as well as distinguishing between the source and background, in the presence of overdispersion. Monte-Carlo verifications are provided.
Theory of overdispersion in counting statistics caused by fluctuating probabilities
Semkow, T M
1999-01-01
It is shown that the random Lexis fluctuations of probabilities such as probability of decay or detection cause the counting statistics to be overdispersed with respect to the classical binomial, Poisson, or Gaussian distributions. The generating and the distribution functions for the overdispersed counting statistics are derived. Applications to radioactive decay with detection and more complex experiments are given, as well as distinguishing between the source and background, in the presence of overdispersion. Monte-Carlo verifications are provided.
Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Fluctuation Solution Theory Properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
O’Connell, John P.; Abildskov, Jens
2013-01-01
Fluctuation Solution Theory provides relationships between integrals of the molecular pair total and direct correlation functions and the pressure derivative of solution density, partial molar volumes, and composition derivatives of activity coefficients. For dense fluids, the integrals follow...... a relatively simple corresponding-states behavior even for complex systems, show welldefined relationships for infinite dilution properties in complex and near-critical systems, allow estimation of mixed-solvent solubilities of gases and pharmaceuticals, and can be expressed by simple perturbation models...
Fluctuation Diamagnetism in Two-Band Superconductors
Adachi, Kyosuke; Ikeda, Ryusuke
2016-01-01
Anomalously large fluctuation diamagnetism around the superconducting critical temperature has been recently observed on iron selenide (FeSe) [S. Kasahara et al., unpublished]. This indicates that superconducting fluctuations (SCFs) play a more significant role in FeSe, which supposedly has two-band structure, than in the familiar single-band superconductors. Motivated by the data in FeSe, SCF-induced diamagnetism is examined in a two-band system, on the basis of a phenomenological approach w...
Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS), part A
Tetin, Sergey
2013-01-01
This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial by containing quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers Fluorescence Fluctuation SpectroscopyContains chapters on such topics as Time-integrated fluorescence cumulant analysis, Pulsed Interleaved Excitation, and raster image correlation spectroscopy and number and brightness analysis.Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the fieldCovers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopyContains chapte
Quantum fluctuations of the superconducting cosmic string
Zhang, Shoucheng
1987-01-01
Quantum fluctuations of the proposed superconducting string with Bose charge carriers are studied in terms of the vortices on the string world sheet. In the thermodynamical limit, it is found that they appear in the form of free vortices rather than as bound pairs. This fluctuation mode violates the topological conservation law on which superconductivity is based. However, this limit may not be reached. The critical size of the superconducting string is estimated as a function of the coupling constants involved.
Thermal Fluctuations in Electroweak Phase Transition
Shiromizu, T.; Morikawa, M.; Yokoyama, J.
1995-11-01
We estimate the amplitude of thermal fluctuations by calculating the typical size of subcritical bubbles in cosmological electroweak phase transition and show that this thermal fluctuation effect drastically changes dynamics of the phase transition from the ordinary first order type with supercooling. From this fact, we conclude that the standard electroweak baryogenesis scenario associated with such a first order transition does not work in the minimal standard model in certain conditions.
Kink fluctuation asymptotics and zero modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izquierdo, A.A. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and IUFFyM, Salamanca (Spain); Guilarte, J.M. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Salamanca (Spain)
2012-10-15
In this paper we propose a refinement of the heat-kernel/zeta function treatment of kink quantum fluctuations in scalar field theory, further analyzing the existence and implications of a zero-energy fluctuation mode. Improved understanding of the interplay between zero modes and the kink heat-kernel expansion delivers asymptotic estimations of one-loop kink mass shifts with remarkably higher precision than previously obtained by means of the standard Gilkey-DeWitt heat-kernel expansion. (orig.)
Molecular thermodynamics using fluctuation solution theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ellegaard, Martin Dela
to relevant experimental data is limited. This thesis addresses the issue of generating and using simple thermodynamic models within a rigorous statistical mechanical framework, the so-called fluctuation solution theory, from which relations connecting properties and phase equilibria can be obtained....... The framework relates thermodynamic variables to molecular pair correlation functions of liquid mixtures. In this thesis, application of the framework is illustrated using two approaches: 1. Solubilities of solid solutes in mixed solvent systems are determined from fluctuation solution theory application...
Semiclassical form factor of matrix element fluctuations
Eckhardt, B; Eckhardt, Bruno; Main, Joerg
1995-01-01
We analyze within a semiclassical approximation the form factor for the fluctuations of quantum matrix elements around their classical average. We find two contributions: one is proportional to the form factor for the density of states, with an amplitude determined by the squared average of the matrix elements. The other is constant and related to the fluctuations of finite time classical trajectory segments around the phase space average. The results are illustrated for an observable in the quadratic Zeeman effect.
Equilibrium & Nonequilibrium Fluctuation Effects in Biopolymer Networks
Kachan, Devin Michael
speculate that cells take advantage of this equilibrium effect by tuning near the transition point, where small changes in free cross-linker density will affect large structural rearrangements between free filament networks and networks of bundles. Cells are naturally found far from equilibrium, where the active influx of energy from ATP consumption controls the dynamics. Motor proteins actively generate forces within biopolymer networks, and one may ask how these differ from the random stresses characteristic of equilibrium fluctuations. Besides the trivial observation that the magnitude is independent of temperature, I find that the processive nature of the motors creates a temporally correlated, or colored, noise spectrum. I model the network with a nonlinear scalar elastic theory in the presence of active driving, and study the long distance and large scale properties of the system with renormalization group techniques. I find that there is a new critical point associated with diverging correlation time, and that the colored noise produces novel frequency dependence in the renormalized transport coefficients. Finally, I study marginally elastic solids which have vanishing shear modulus due to the presence of soft modes, modes with zero deformation cost. Although network coordination is a useful metric for determining the mechanical response of random spring networks in mechanical equilibrium, it is insufficient for describing networks under external stress. In particular, under-constrained networks which are fluid-like at zero load will dynamically stiffen at a critical strain, as observed in numerical simulations and experimentally in many biopolymer networks. Drawing upon analogies to the stress induced unjamming of emulsions, I develop a kinetic theory to explain the rigidity transition in spring and filament networks. Describing the dynamic evolution of non-affine deformation via a simple mechanistic picture, I recover the emergent nonlinear strain
Vacuum Fluctuations, Cosmogenesis and Prime Number Gaps
Berezin, Alexander A.
2002-10-01
Starting from E.Tryon (1973), idea of cosmogenesis through quantum tunnelling "from nothing" became popular. Both complimentary streams of it, inflationary models (Guth, Linde) and quantum parallelism (Everett, Deutsch), require some starting point as, e.g., concretisation of Leibnitz Principle (Omnibus ex nihil decendis sufficit unum). This leads to propositional conjecture (axiom?) that (meta)physical "Platonic Pressure" of infinitude of numbers and Cantor "alephs" becomes an engine for self-generation of physical universe directly out of mathematics: inexhaustibility of Number Theory (NT) drives cosmogenesis. While physics in other quantum branches of inflating universe (Megaverse) can be (arbitrary) different from ours, NT is not (it is unique, absolute, immutable and infinitely resourceful). Energy-time uncertainty principle (UP) allows indefinite lifetime provided we start from total zero energy. Analogue of UP in NT is theorem by H.Maier (1981) stating the existence of arbitrary long trails of isolated primes such that each next gap is arbitrary greater than average gap (logN). On physical level these arbitrary large deviations from Prime Number Theorem translate into permissiveness of (arbitrary) large quantum fluctuations.
Love triangles, quantum fluctuations and spin jam
Lee, Seung-Hun
When magnetic moments are interacting with each other in a situation resembling that of complex love triangles, called frustration, a large set of states that are energetically equivalent emerge. This leads to exotic spin states such as spin liquid and spin ice. Recently, we presented evidence for the existence of a topological glassy state, that we call spin jam, induced by quantum fluctuations. The case in point is SrCr9pGa12-9pO19 (SCGO(p)), a highly frustrated magnet, in which the magnetic Cr ions form a quasi-two-dimensional triangular system of bi-pyramids. This system has been an archetype in search for exotic spin states. Understanding the nature of the state has been a great intellectual challenge. Our new experimental data and theoretical spin jam model provide for the first time a coherent understanding of the phenomenon. Furthermore, the findings strongly support the possible existence of purely topological glassy states. Reference:
Structural features that predict real-value fluctuations of globular proteins.
Jamroz, Michal; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kihara, Daisuke
2012-05-01
It is crucial to consider dynamics for understanding the biological function of proteins. We used a large number of molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories of nonhomologous proteins as references and examined static structural features of proteins that are most relevant to fluctuations. We examined correlation of individual structural features with fluctuations and further investigated effective combinations of features for predicting the real value of residue fluctuations using the support vector regression (SVR). It was found that some structural features have higher correlation than crystallographic B-factors with fluctuations observed in MD trajectories. Moreover, SVR that uses combinations of static structural features showed accurate prediction of fluctuations with an average Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.669 and a root mean square error of 1.04 Å. This correlation coefficient is higher than the one observed in predictions by the Gaussian network model (GNM). An advantage of the developed method over the GNMs is that the former predicts the real value of fluctuation. The results help improve our understanding of relationships between protein structure and fluctuation. Furthermore, the developed method provides a convienient practial way to predict fluctuations of proteins using easily computed static structural features of proteins. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hydrodynamic fluctuations in thermostatted multiparticle collision dynamics.
Híjar, Humberto; Sutmann, Godehard
2011-04-01
In this work we study the behavior of mesoscopic fluctuations of a fluid simulated by Multiparticle Collision Dynamics when this is applied together with a local thermostatting procedure that constrains the strength of temperature fluctuations. We consider procedures in which the thermostat interacts with the fluid at every simulation step as well as cases in which the thermostat is applied only at regular time intervals. Due to the application of the thermostat temperature fluctuations are forced to relax to equilibrium faster than they do in the nonthermostatted, constant-energy case. Depending on the interval of application of the thermostat, it is demonstrated that the thermodynamic state changes gradually from isothermal to adiabatic conditions. In order to exhibit this effect we compute from simulations diverse correlation functions of the hydrodynamic fluctuating fields. These correlation functions are compared with those predicted by a linearized hydrodynamic theory of a simple fluid in which a thermostat is applied locally. We find a good agreement between the model and the numerical results, which confirms that hydrodynamic fluctuations in Multiparticle Collision Dynamics in the presence of the thermostat have the properties expected for spontaneous fluctuations in fluids in contact with a heat reservoir.
Longitudinal fluctuations and decorrelation of anisotropic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pang, Long-Gang [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Qin, Guang-You [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Roy, Victor [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division MS70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2016-12-15
We investigate the decorrelation of 2nd and 3rd order anisotropic flow for charged particles in two different pseudo rapidity (η) windows by varying the pseudo rapidity gap, in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model, with fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. We visualize the parton distribution at initial state for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC and Au+Au collisions at RHIC, and demonstrate the longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, the fluctuations of the string length and the fluctuations due to finite number of partons at different beam energies. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation than at LHC, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies.
Remote temporal camouflage: contextual flicker disrupts perceived visual temporal order.
Cass, John; Van der Burg, Erik
2014-10-01
Correctly perceiving the temporal order of events is essential to many tasks. Despite this, the factors constraining our ability to make timing judgments remain largely unspecified. Here we present a new phenomenon demonstrating that perceived timing of visual events may be profoundly impaired by the mere presence of irrelevant events elsewhere in the visual field. Human observers saw two abrupt luminance events presented across a range of onset asynchronies. Temporal order judgment (TOJ) just noticeable differences (JNDs) provided a behavioural index of temporal precision. When target events were presented in isolation or in static distractor environments temporal resolution was very precise (JNDs ∼20ms). However, when surrounded by dynamic distractor events, performance deteriorated more than a factor of four. This contextual effect we refer to as Remote Temporal Camouflage (RTC) operates across large spatial and temporal distances and possesses a unique spatial distribution conforming to neither the predictions of attentional capture by transient events, nor by stimulus dependencies associated with other contextual phenomena such as surround suppression, crowding, object-substitution masking or motion-induced blindness. We propose that RTC is a consequence of motion-related masking whereby irrelevant motion signals evoked by dynamic distractors interfere with TOJ-relevant target-related apparent motion. Consistent with this we also show that dynamic visual distractors do not interfere with audio-visual TOJs. Not only is RTC the most spatially extensive contextual effect ever reported, it offers vision science a new technique with which to investigate temporal order performance, free of motion-related sensory contributions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Algorithms for Simple Temporal Reasoning
Planken, L.R.
2013-01-01
This dissertation describes research into new methods for automated temporal reasoning. For this purpose, several frameworks are available in literature. Chapter 1 presents a concise literature survey that provides a new overview of their interrelation. In the remainder of the dissertation, the
The Maximum Entropy Limit of Small-scale Magnetic Field Fluctuations in the Quiet Sun
Gorobets, A. Y.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; van Noort, M.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Schmidt, W.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Knölker, M.
2017-11-01
The observed magnetic field on the solar surface is characterized by a very complex spatial and temporal behavior. Although feature-tracking algorithms have allowed us to deepen our understanding of this behavior, subjectivity plays an important role in the identification and tracking of such features. In this paper, we continue studies of the temporal stochasticity of the magnetic field on the solar surface without relying either on the concept of magnetic features or on subjective assumptions about their identification and interaction. We propose a data analysis method to quantify fluctuations of the line-of-sight magnetic field by means of reducing the temporal field’s evolution to the regular Markov process. We build a representative model of fluctuations converging to the unique stationary (equilibrium) distribution in the long time limit with maximum entropy. We obtained different rates of convergence to the equilibrium at fixed noise cutoff for two sets of data. This indicates a strong influence of the data spatial resolution and mixing-polarity fluctuations on the relaxation process. The analysis is applied to observations of magnetic fields of the relatively quiet areas around an active region carried out during the second flight of the Sunrise/IMaX and quiet Sun areas at the disk center from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite.
Fluctuations within folded proteins: implications for thermodynamic and allosteric regulation.
DuBay, Kateri H; Bowman, Gregory R; Geissler, Phillip L
2015-04-21
Folded protein structures are both stable and dynamic. Historically, our clearest window into these structures came from X-ray crystallography, which generally provided a static image of each protein's singular "folded state", highlighting its stability. Deviations away from that crystallographic structure were difficult to quantify, and as a result, their potential functional consequences were often neglected. However, several dynamical and statistical studies now highlight the structural variability that is present within the protein's folded state. Here we review mounting evidence of the importance of these structural rearrangements; both experiment and computation indicate that folded proteins undergo substantial fluctuations that can greatly influence their function. Crucially, recent studies have shown that structural elements of proteins, especially their side-chain degrees of freedom, fluctuate in ways that generate significant conformational heterogeneity. The entropy associated with these motions contributes to the folded structure's thermodynamic stability. In addition, since these fluctuations can shift in response to perturbations such as ligand binding, they may play an important role in the protein's capacity to respond to environmental cues. In one compelling example, the entropy associated with side-chain fluctuations contributes significantly to regulating the binding of calmodulin to a set of peptide ligands. The neglect of fluctuations within proteins' native states was often justified by the dense packing within folded proteins, which has inspired comparisons with crystalline solids. Many liquids, however, can achieve similarly dense packing yet fluidity is maintained through correlated molecular motions. Indeed, the studies we discuss favor comparison of folded proteins not with solids but instead with dense liquids, where the internal side chain fluidity is facilitated by collective motions that are correlated over long distances. These
Hnat, B.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Dunlop, M. W.; Sahraoui, F.
2009-12-01
In-situ observations of fluctuations in the solar wind typically show an ‘inertial range’ of MHD turbulence, and at higher frequencies, a cross-over to spatial temporal scales where kinetic effects become important. In-situ monitors such as WIND and ACE have provided observations over a decade of this dissipation/dispersion range that have motivated theoretical studies that in turn predict the nature of the scaling in this region. We will present some results from very high-frequency magnetic field data from the four Cluster II spacecraft in intervals where the spacecraft were in quasi-stationary ambient solar wind and where the instruments were operating in burst mode. The magnetic field data are from the fluxgate and search-coil magnetometers from the Cluster FGM experiment (~67Hz), and the STAFF experiment (~450 Hz). These data sets provide observations of this dissipation/dispersion range over approximately two decades in frequency. This high cadence allows a more precise determination of the statistics at these small scales; especially the estimation of scaling exponents. Theories centred around the dispersion of MHD waves and their associated damping and particle heating have been proposed to account for this scaling range. Since the spacecraft data shows a clean break from the scaling in the inertial range, followed by a different power-law spanning over approximately two decades, these theories centre around predictions of the spectral slope and the associated scaling exponents. Motivated by the need to distinguish these theoretical predictions, we perform a robust multiscale statistical analysis focusing on power spectra, PDFs of field fluctuations, higher-order statistics to quantify the scaling of fluctuations; as well as describing the degree of anisotropy in the fluctuations parallel and perpendicular to the average magnetic field. We use these results to infer the nature of the physical processes as we pass through the crossover from inertial
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kruezi, U.; Stoschus, H.; Schweer, B.; Sergienko, G.; Samm, U. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Juelich (Germany)
2012-06-15
A supersonic helium beam diagnostic, based on the line-ratio technique for high resolution electron density and temperature measurements in the plasma edge (r/a > 0.9) was designed, built, and optimised at TEXTOR (Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research). The supersonic injection system, based on the Campargue skimmer-nozzle concept, was developed and optimised in order to provide both a high neutral helium beam density of n{sub 0}= 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} m{sup -3} and a low beam divergence of {+-}1 Degree-Sign simultaneously, achieving a poloidal resolution of {Delta}{sub poloidal}= 9 mm. The setup utilises a newly developed dead volume free piezo valve for operation in a high magnetic field environment of up to 2 T with a maximum repetition rate of 80 Hz. Gas injections are realised for a duration of 120 ms at a repetition rate of 2 Hz (duty cycle 1/3). In combination with a high sensitivity detection system, consisting of three 32 multi-channel photomultipliers (PMTs), measurements of edge electron temperature and density with a radial resolution of {Delta}{sub radial}= 2 mm and a maximum temporal resolution of {Delta}t Asymptotically-Equal-To 2 {mu}s (470 kHz) are possible for the first time. The diagnostic setup at TEXTOR is presented. The newly developed injection system and its theoretical bases are discussed. The applicability of the stationary collisional-radiative model as basis of the line-ratio technique is shown. Finally, an example of a fluctuation analysis demonstrating the unique high temporal and spatial resolution capabilities of this new diagnostic is presented.
Passive sensorimotor stimulation triggers long lasting alpha-band fluctuations in visual perception.
Tomassini, Alice; D'Ausilio, Alessandro
2018-02-01
Movement planning and execution rely on the anticipation and online control of the incoming sensory input. Evidence suggests that sensorimotor processes may synchronize visual rhythmic activity in preparation of action performance. Indeed, we recently reported periodic fluctuations of visual contrast sensitivity that are time-locked to the onset of an intended movement of the arm. However, the origin of the observed visual modulations has so far remained unclear because of the endogenous (and thus temporally undetermined) activation of the sensorimotor system that is associated with voluntary movement initiation. In this study, we activated the sensorimotor circuitry involved in the hand control in an exogenous and controlled way by means of peripheral stimulation of the median nerve and characterized the spectrotemporal dynamics of the ensuing visual perception. The stimulation of the median nerve triggers robust and long-lasting (∼1 s) alpha-band oscillations in visual perception, whose strength is temporally modulated in a way that is consistent with the changes in alpha power described at the neurophysiological level after sensorimotor stimulation. These findings provide evidence in support of a causal role of the sensorimotor system in modulating oscillatory activity in visual areas with consequences for visual perception. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows that the peripheral activation of the somatomotor hand system triggers long-lasting alpha periodicity in visual perception. This demonstrates that not only the endogenous sensorimotor processes involved in movement preparation but also the passive stimulation of the sensorimotor system can synchronize visual activity. The present work suggests that oscillation-based mechanisms may subserve core (task independent) sensorimotor integration functions.
Chaotic dynamic characteristics of pressure fluctuation signals in hydro-turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Su, Wen Tao; An, Shi [School of Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Li, Xiao Bin; Lan, Chao Feng; Li, Feng Chen [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Wang, Jian Sheng [Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin (China)
2016-11-15
The pressure fluctuation characteristics in a Francis hydro-turbine running at partial flow conditions were studied based on the chaotic dynamic methods. Firstly, the experimental data of pressure fluctuations in the draft tube at various flow conditions was de-noised using lifting wavelet transformation, then, for the de-noised signals, their spectrum distribution on the frequency domain, the energy variation and the energy partition accounting for the total energy was calculated. Hereby, for the flow conditions ranging from no cavitation to severe cavitation, the chaos dynamic features of fluctuation signals were analyzed, including the temporal-frequency distribution, phase trajectory, Lyapunov exponent and Poincaré map etc. It is revealed that, the main energy of pressure fluctuations in the draft tube locates at low-frequency region. As the cavitation grows, the amplitude of power spectrum at frequency domain becomes larger. For all the flow conditions, all the maximal Lyapunov exponents are larger than zero, and they increase with the cavitation level. Therefore, it is believed that there indeed exist the chaotic attractors in the pressure fluctuation signals for a hydro-turbine.
Acoustic pulse propagation through a fluctuating stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer
Chunchuzov, Igor; Kulichkov, Sergey; Otrezov, Alexander; Perepelkin, Vitaly
2005-04-01
Mesoscale wind speed and temperature fluctuations with periods from 1 min to a few hours significantly affect temporal variability and turbulent regime of the stable atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Their statistical characteristics are still poorly understood, although the knowledge of such statistics is required when modeling sound propagation through the stable ABL. Several field experiments have been conducted to study the influence of mesoscale wind speed fluctuations on acoustic pulse propagation through the stable ABL. Some results of these experiments are described in this paper. A special acoustic source was used to generate acoustic pulses by the detonation of an air-propane mixture with a repetition period 30 s. The mean wind speed and temperature profiles were continuously measured by Doppler sodar and temperature profiler, whereas mesoscale wind fluctuations were measured by anemometers placed on a 56-m mast. From the measurements of the pulse travel time fluctuations at different distances from the source, the statistical characteristics of the mesoscale wind fluctuations, such as frequency spectra, coherences, horizontal phase speeds and scales, have been obtained. Some of the obtained results are interpreted with the use of a recently developed model for the internal wave spectrum in a stably stratified atmosphere. .
Understanding international commodity price fluctuations
Arezki, Rabah; Loungani, Prakash; van der Ploeg, Rick; Venables, Anthony J.
An overview is provided of recent work on commodity prices, focusing on three themes: (i) "financialization" of commodity markets--commodities being considered by financial investors as a distinct asset class, (ii) trends and forecasts of commodity prices, and (iii) fracking-a shorthand for the
Nonlinear dynamical effects on reaction rates in thermally fluctuating environments.
Kawai, Shinnosuke; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki
2010-07-21
A framework to calculate the rate constants of condensed phase chemical reactions of manybody systems is presented without relying on the concept of transition state. The theory is based on a framework we developed recently adopting a multidimensional underdamped Langevin equation in the region of a rank-one saddle. The theory provides a reaction coordinate expressed as an analytical nonlinear functional of the position coordinates and velocities of the system (solute), the friction constants, and the random force of the environment (solvent). Up to moderately high temperature, the sign of the reaction coordinate can determine the final destination of the reaction in a thermally fluctuating media, irrespective of what values the other (nonreactive) coordinates may take. In this paper, it is shown that the reaction probability is analytically derived as the probability of the reaction coordinate being positive, and that the integration with the Boltzmann distribution of the initial conditions leads to the exact reaction rate constant when the local equilibrium holds and the quantum effect is negligible. Because of analytical nature of the theory taking into account all nonlinear effects and their combination with fluctuation and dissipation, the theory naturally provides us with the firm mathematical foundation of the origin of the reactivity of the reaction in a fluctuating media.
Emergent dynamics of spiking neurons with fluctuating threshold
Bhattacharjee, Anindita; Das, M. K.
2017-05-01
Role of fluctuating threshold on neuronal dynamics is investigated. The threshold function is assumed to follow a normal probability distribution. Standard deviation of inter-spike interval of the response is computed as an indicator of irregularity in spike emission. It has been observed that, the irregularity in spiking is more if the threshold variation is more. A significant change in modal characteristics of Inter Spike Intervals (ISI) is seen to occur as a function of fluctuation parameter. Investigation is further carried out for coupled system of neurons. Cooperative dynamics of coupled neurons are discussed in view of synchronization. Total and partial synchronization regimes are depicted with the help of contour plots of synchrony measure under various conditions. Results of this investigation may provide a basis for exploring the complexities of neural communication and brain functioning.
[Research on conditional fluctuation characteristics of CHF heart rate variation].
Si, Junfeng; Zhou, Lingling; Huang, Xiaoling; Bian, Chunhua
2013-12-01
In this study, we applied generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model to conditional fluctuation characteristics of heart rate variation (HRV) series (congestive heart failure, Normal), with all the data from PhysioNet ECG database. Research results proved the existence of condition fluctuation characteristic in the series of changing rate of HRV. In the GARCH model family, threshold GARCH (1,1)(TGARCH (1,1)) model performs best in fitting changing rate of HRV. Although the structure of ARCH (1) model is simple, its error is the closest to that of TGARCH (1, 1) model. The results also showed that the difference was obvious between disease group and normal group. All these results provide a new method to the research and clinical application of HRV.
Non-standard primordial fluctuations and nongaussianity in string inflation
Burgess, C P; Gomez-Reino, M; Quevedo, F; Tasinato, G; Zavala, I
2010-01-01
Inflationary scenarios in string theory often involve a large number of light scalar fields, whose presence can enrich the post-inflationary evolution of primordial fluctuations generated during the inflationary epoch. We provide a simple example of such post-inflationary processing within an explicit string-inflationary construction, using a Kahler modulus as the inflaton within the framework of LARGE Volume Type-IIB string flux compactifications. We argue that inflationary models within this broad category often have a selection of scalars that are light enough to be cosmologically relevant, whose contributions to the primordial fluctuation spectrum can compete with those generated in the standard way by the inflaton. These models consequently often predict nongaussianity at a level, f_NL ~ O(10), potentially observable by the Planck satellite, with a bi-spectrum maximized by triangles with squeezed shape in a string realisation of the curvaton scenario. We argue that the observation of such a signal would ...
Fluctuations and transport in the TCV scrape-off layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, Odd Erik; Horacek, J.; Pitts, R.A.
2007-01-01
at the outer midplane scales linearly with the local particle density, suggesting that the particle flux here can be parameterized in terms of an effective convection velocity. Experimental probe measurements also provide evidence for significant parallel flows in the scrape-off layer caused by ballooning...... in the transport of particles and heat into the scrape-off layer. The magnitude of this flow estimated from pressure fluctuation statistics is found to compare favourably with the measured flow offset derived by averaging data obtained from flow profiles observed in matched forward and reversed field discharges....... An interchange turbulence simulation has been performed for a single, relatively high density case, where comparison between code and experiment has been possible. Good agreement is found for almost all aspects of the experimental measurements, indicating that plasma fluctuations and transport in TCV scrape...
Intrinsic Fluctuations and Driven Response of Insect Swarms
Ni, Rui; Puckett, James G.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Ouellette, Nicholas T.
2015-09-01
Animals of all sizes form groups, as acting together can convey advantages over acting alone; thus, collective animal behavior has been identified as a promising template for designing engineered systems. However, models and observations have focused predominantly on characterizing the overall group morphology, and often focus on highly ordered groups such as bird flocks. We instead study a disorganized aggregation (an insect mating swarm), and compare its natural fluctuations with the group-level response to an external stimulus. We quantify the swarm's frequency-dependent linear response and its spectrum of intrinsic fluctuations, and show that the ratio of these two quantities has a simple scaling with frequency. Our results provide a new way of comparing models of collective behavior with experimental data.
Modelling of power fluctuations from large offshore wind farms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Vigueras-Rodriguez, Antonio
2008-01-01
This paper deals with modelling of power fluctuations from large wind farms. The modelling is supported and validated using wind speed and power measurements from the two large offshore wind farms in Denmark. The time scale in focus is from 1 min to a couple of hours, where significant power...... fluctuations have been observed from these wind farms. Power and wind speed are measured with 1 s sampling time in all individual wind turbines in almost 1 year, which provides a substantial database for the analyses. The paper deals with diversified models representing each wind turbine individually...... and with aggregation of a wind farm to be represented by a single large wind turbine model. Copyright (C) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Temporal Ventriloquism in Sensorimotor Synchronization
Parker, Melody Kay
Perception of time is multisensory and therefore requires integration of the auditory and visual systems. Temporal ventriloquism is a phenomenon in which discrepant temporal aspects of multisensory stimuli are resolved through auditory dominance. Numerous prior experiments have demonstrated temporal ventriloquism using simple flash and click stimuli. The experiment presented herein employed a sensorimotor synchronization task to examine the effect of visual stimulus type across a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA). This study compared sensorimotor response to three visual stimuli: a flash, a baton swinging, and a mallet striking a block. The results of the experiment indicated that the influence of SOA was greatly dependent on stimulus type. In contrast with the transient flash stimulus, the oscillatory visual stimuli provided more spatiotemporal information. This could explain the significantly reduced effect of temporal ventriloquism observed in response to the baton and mallet relative to the flash. Multisensory integration did not absolutely bias the auditory system; predictive visual dynamics proved useful in the unified perception of temporal occurrence.
Kim, Y H; Kaur, N; Atkins, B M; Dalal, N S; Takano, Y
2009-12-11
At a quantum critical point (QCP)--a zero-temperature singularity in which a line of continuous phase transition terminates--quantum fluctuations diverge in space and time, leading to exotic phenomena that can be observed at nonzero temperatures. Using a quantum antiferromagnet, we present calorimetric evidence that nuclear spins frozen in a high-temperature nonequilibrium state by temperature quenching are annealed by quantum fluctuations near the QCP. This phenomenon, with readily detectable heat release from the nuclear spins as they are annealed, serves as an excellent marker of a quantum critical region around the QCP and provides a probe of the dynamics of the divergent quantum fluctuations.
Placement of field probes for stabilization of breathing-induced B0-fluctuations in the brain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Mads; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Hanson, L.G.
2015-01-01
Introduction: B0-fluctuations induced by breathing and body motion lead to artifacts for certain brain imaging sequences at ultra-high field (7T). A promising solution is to monitor the B0-fluctuations during the scan using external field probes, and update the shim currents in real-time (1). It ...... SNR. Here, we provide a simulation of breathing-induced B0-fluctuations inside and around the head and use this simulated field to test different sets of probe positions. We also formulate two optimization problems to guide placement of the field probes....
How Would You Like to Aggregate Your Temporal Data?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Böhlen, M. H.; Gamper, J.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard
2006-01-01
and query languages have been proposed. Motivated in part by the emergence of non-traditional data management applications and the increasing proliferation of temporal data, this paper puts focus on the aggregation of temporal data. In particular, it provides a general framework of temporal aggregation...... concepts, and it discusses the abilities of five approaches to the design of temporal query languages with respect to temporal aggregation. Rather than providing focused, polished results, the paper?s aim is to explore the inherent support for temporal aggregation in an informal manner that may serve...
Fluctuation diamagnetism in two-band superconductors
Adachi, Kyosuke; Ikeda, Ryusuke
2016-04-01
Anomalously large fluctuation diamagnetism around the superconducting critical temperature has been recently observed in iron selenide (FeSe) [Kasahara et al. (unpublished)]. This indicates that superconducting fluctuations (SCFs) play a more significant role in FeSe, which supposedly has a two-band structure, than in the familiar single-band superconductors. Motivated by the data on FeSe, SCF-induced diamagnetism is examined in a two-band system, on the basis of a phenomenological approach with a Ginzburg-Landau functional. The obtained results indicate that the SCF-induced diamagnetism may be more enhanced than that in a single-band system due to the existence of two distinct fluctuation modes. Such enhancement of diamagnetism unique to a two-band system seems consistent with the large diamagnetism observed in FeSe, though still far from a quantitative agreement.
Exchange fluctuation theorem for correlated quantum systems.
Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry; Jennings, David; Hirono, Yuji; Nakayama, Shojun; Murao, Mio
2015-10-01
We extend the exchange fluctuation theorem for energy exchange between thermal quantum systems beyond the assumption of molecular chaos, and describe the nonequilibrium exchange dynamics of correlated quantum states. The relation quantifies how the tendency for systems to equilibrate is modified in high-correlation environments. In addition, a more abstract approach leads us to a "correlation fluctuation theorem". Our results elucidate the role of measurement disturbance for such scenarios. We show a simple application by finding a semiclassical maximum work theorem in the presence of correlations. We also present a toy example of qubit-qudit heat exchange, and find that non-classical behaviour such as deterministic energy transfer and anomalous heat flow are reflected in our exchange fluctuation theorem.
Faraday polarization fluctuations of satellite beacon signals
Lee, M. C.; Klobuchar, J. A.
1988-01-01
The anisotropic effects of random density irregularities in causing Faraday polarization fluctuations of VHF radio signals are examined, taking both rod-like and sheet-like irregularities into consideration. It is found that the variance of Faraday polarization fluctuations depends on the ratio of perpendicular to parallel correlation lengths. The anisotropic effect of rod-like ionospheric irregularities are shown to be most appreciable for longitudinal propagation. The anisotropic effect of sheet-like ionospheric irregularities, however, is not strongly dependent on the radio propagation angle. During transionospheric propagation at large angles with respect to the geomagnetic field, sheet-like irregularities may cause greater Faraday polarization fluctuations than rod-like irregularities.
Classical and quantum temperature fluctuations via holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balatsky, Alexander V. [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gudnason, Sven Bjarke [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Thorlacius, Larus [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Zarembo, Konstantin [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Krikun, Alexander [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kedem, Yaron [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)
2014-05-27
We study local temperature fluctuations in a 2+1 dimensional CFT on the sphere, dual to a black hole in asymptotically AdS space-time. The fluctuation spectrum is governed by the lowest-lying hydrodynamic sound modes of the system whose frequency and damping rate determine whether temperature fluctuations are thermal or quantum. We calculate numerically the corresponding quasinormal frequencies and match the result with the hydrodynamics of the dual CFT at large temperature. As a by-product of our analysis we determine the appropriate boundary conditions for calculating low-lying quasinormal modes for a four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in global AdS.
Mesoscale wind fluctuations over Danish waters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vincent, C.L.
2010-12-15
Mesoscale wind fluctuations affect the large scale integration of wind power because they undermine the day-ahead predictability of wind speed and power production, and because they can result in large fluctuations in power generation that must be balanced using reserve power. Large fluctuations in generated power are a particular problem for offshore wind farms because the typically high concentration of turbines within a limited geographical area means that fluctuations can be correlated across large numbers of turbines. Furthermore, organised mesoscale structures that often form over water, such as convective rolls and cellular convection, have length scales of tens of kilometers, and can cause large wind fluctuations on a time scale of around an hour. This thesis is an exploration of the predictability of mesoscale wind fluctuations using observations from the world's first two large offshore wind farms - Horns Rev I in the North Sea, and Nysted in the Baltic Sea. The thesis begins with a climatological analysis of wind fluctuations on time scales of 1-10 hours at the two sites. A novel method for calculating conditional climatologies of spectral information is proposed, based on binning and averaging the time axis of the Hilbert spectrum. Results reveal clear patterns between wind fluctuations and locally observed meteorological conditions. The analysis is expanded by classifying wind fluctuations on time scales of 1-3 hours according to synoptic patterns, satellite pictures and wind classes. Results indicate that cold air outbreaks and open cellular convection are a significant contributor to mesoscale wind variability at Horns Rev. The predictability of mesoscale wind fluctuations is tested by implementing standard statistical models that relate local wind variability to parameters based on a large scale weather analysis. The models show some skill, but only achieve a 15% improvement on a persistence forecast. The possibility of explicitly modelling
RSA fluctuation in major depressive disorder.
Rottenberg, Jonathan; Clift, April; Bolden, Sarah; Salomon, Kristen
2007-05-01
Cardiac vagal control, as measured by indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has been investigated as a marker of impaired self-regulation in mental disorders, including depression. Past work in depressed samples has focused on deficits in resting RSA levels, with mixed results. This study tested the hypothesis that depression involves abnormal RSA fluctuation. RSA was measured in depressed and healthy control participants during rest and during two reactivity tasks, each followed by a recovery period. Relative to controls, depressed persons exhibited lower resting RSA levels as well as less RSA fluctuation, primarily evidenced by a lack of task-related vagal suppression. Group differences in RSA fluctuation were not accounted for by differences in physical health or respiration, whereas group differences in resting RSA level did not survive covariate analyses. Depression may involve multiple deficits in cardiac vagal control.
Scale invariance and universality of economic fluctuations
Stanley, H. E.; Amaral, L. A. N.; Gopikrishnan, P.; Plerou, V.
2000-08-01
In recent years, physicists have begun to apply concepts and methods of statistical physics to study economic problems, and the neologism “econophysics” is increasingly used to refer to this work. Much recent work is focused on understanding the statistical properties of time series. One reason for this interest is that economic systems are examples of complex interacting systems for which a huge amount of data exist, and it is possible that economic time series viewed from a different perspective might yield new results. This manuscript is a brief summary of a talk that was designed to address the question of whether two of the pillars of the field of phase transitions and critical phenomena - scale invariance and universality - can be useful in guiding research on economics. We shall see that while scale invariance has been tested for many years, universality is relatively less frequently discussed. This article reviews the results of two recent studies - (i) The probability distribution of stock price fluctuations: Stock price fluctuations occur in all magnitudes, in analogy to earthquakes - from tiny fluctuations to drastic events, such as market crashes. The distribution of price fluctuations decays with a power-law tail well outside the Lévy stable regime and describes fluctuations that differ in size by as much as eight orders of magnitude. (ii) Quantifying business firm fluctuations: We analyze the Computstat database comprising all publicly traded United States manufacturing companies within the years 1974-1993. We find that the distributions of growth rates is different for different bins of firm size, with a width that varies inversely with a power of firm size. Similar variation is found for other complex organizations, including country size, university research budget size, and size of species of bird populations.
Fluctuations and localization in mesoscopic electron
Janssen, Martin
2001-01-01
The quantum phenomena of tunneling and interference show up not only in the microscopic world of atoms and molecules, but also in cold materials of the real world, such as metals and semiconductors. Though not fully macroscopic, such mesoscopic systems contain a huge number of particles, and the holistic nature of quantum mechanics becomes evident already in simple electronic measurements. The measured quantity fluctuates as a function of applied fields in an unpredictable, yet reproducible way. Despite this fingerprint character of fluctuations, their statistical properties are universal, i.e
Chiral edge fluctuations of colloidal membranes
Jia, Leroy; Zakhary, Mark; Dogic, Zvonimir; Pelcovits, Robert; Powers, Thomas
Using experiments and theory we study chiral fluctuations of the edge of a nearly flat colloidal membrane, consisting of rod-like viruses held together by the depletion interaction. Our measurements show an anomalous peak in the power spectrum around 1 inverse micron. Using an effective theory to describe the liquid crystal degrees of freedom by geometric properties of the edge, such as length, geodesic torsion, and curvature, we calculate the spectrum of out-of-plane edge fluctuations. The peak arises for sufficiently strong chirality, and corresponds to the instability of a flat membrane to a shape with helical, rippled edges.
Fluctuation theorems for continuously monitored quantum fluxes.
Campisi, Michele; Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter
2010-10-01
It is shown that quantum fluctuation theorems remain unaffected if measurements of any kind and number of observables are performed during the action of a force protocol. That is, although the backward and forward probabilities entering the fluctuation theorems are both altered by these measurements, their ratio remains unchanged. This observation allows us to describe the measurement of fluxes through interfaces and, in this way, to bridge the gap between the current theory, based on only two measurements performed at the beginning and end of the protocol, and experiments that are based on continuous monitoring.
Two beam surface fluctuation specular reflection spectroscopy.
Raudsepp, Allan; Fretigny, Christian; Lequeux, François; Talini, Laurence
2012-01-01
In surface fluctuation specular reflection spectroscopy (SFSRS) deflections of a specularly reflected laser beam are used to characterize thermally excited surface waves. Here we report on a new two beam version of SFSRS in which the deflections of two reflected laser beams from separate locations on a surface are correlated. We demonstrate that this new two beam SFSRS technique can be used to determine directly the power spectrum of height fluctuation of thermally excited surface waves over a large range of both frequencies and wavevectors. In addition, we show that the technique is well suited for materials ranging from simple liquids to complex liquids and soft solids, including turbid materials.
Quantum Fluctuation Theorems, Contextuality, and Work Quasiprobabilities
Lostaglio, Matteo
2018-01-01
We discuss the role of contextuality within quantum fluctuation theorems, in the light of a recent no-go result by Perarnau-Llobet et al. We show that any fluctuation theorem reproducing the two-point-measurement scheme for classical states either admits a notion of work quasiprobability or fails to describe protocols exhibiting contextuality. Conversely, we describe a protocol that smoothly interpolates between the two-point-measurement work distribution for projective measurements and Allahverdyan's work quasiprobability for weak measurements, and show that the negativity of the latter is a direct signature of contextuality.
Inductive Temporal Logic Programming
Kolter, Robert
2009-01-01
We study the extension of techniques from Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) to temporal logic programming languages. Therefore we present two temporal logic programming languages and analyse the learnability of programs from these languages from finite sets of examples. In first order temporal logic the following topics are analysed: - How can we characterize the denotational semantics of programs? - Which proof techniques are best suited? - How complex is the learning task? In propositional ...
Following protein association in vivo with fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy
Muller, Joachim D.
2003-07-01
The combination of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and two-photon excitation provides us with a powerful spectroscopic technique. Its submicron resolution and single molecule sensitivity make it an attractive technique for in vivo applications. Experiments have demonstrated that quantitative in vivo fluorescence fluctuation measurements are feasible, despite the presence of autofluorescence and the heterogeneity of the cellular environment. I will demonstrate that molecular brightness of proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a useful and robust parameter for in vivo studies. Knowledge of photon statistics is crucial for the interpretation of fluorescence fluctuation experiments. I will describe photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis, which determines the molecular brightness and complements autocorrelation analysis. Non-ideal detector effects and their influence on the photon statistics will be discussed. The goal of in vivo fluorescence fluctuation experiments is to address functional properties of biomolecules. We will focus on retinoid X receptor (RXR), a nuclear receptor, which is crucial for the regulation of gene expression. The fluorescence brightness of RXR tagged with EGFP will be used to probe the oligomerization state of RXR.
Probing protein interactions in cells by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy
Mueller, Joachim
2003-03-01
The combination of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and two-photon excitation provides us with a powerful spectroscopic technique. Its submicron resolution and single molecule sensitivity make it an attractive technique for in vivo applications. Experiments have demonstrated that quantitative in vivo fluorescence fluctuation measurements are feasible, despite the presence of autofluorescence and the heterogeneity of the cellular environment. I will demonstrate that molecular brightness of proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a useful and robust parameter for in vivo studies. Knowledge of photon statistics is crucial for the interpretation of fluorescence fluctuation experiments. I will describe photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis, which determines the molecular brightness and complements autocorrelation analysis. Non-ideal detector effects and their influence on the photon statistics will be discussed. The goal of in vivo fluorescence fluctuation experiments is to address functional properties of biomolecules. We will focus on retinoid X receptor (RXR), a nuclear receptor, which is crucial for the regulation of gene expression. The fluorescence brightness of RXR tagged with EGFP will be used to probe the oligomerization state of RXR.
Global and hemispheric temperature reconstruction from glacier length fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leclercq, Paul Willem; Oerlemans, Johannes [Universiteit Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)
2012-03-15
Temperature reconstructions for recent centuries provide a historical context for the warming over the twentieth century. We reconstruct annual averaged surface temperatures of the past 400 years on hemispherical and global scale from glacier length fluctuations. We use the glacier length records of 308 glaciers. The reconstruction is a temperature proxy with decadal resolution that is completely independent of other temperature records. Temperatures are derived from glacier length changes using a linear response equation and an analytical glacier model that is calibrated on numerical model results. The global and hemispherical temperatures reconstructed from glacier length fluctuations are in good agreement with the instrumental record of the last century. Furthermore our results agree with existing multi-proxy reconstructions of temperature in the pre-instrumental period. The temperature record obtained from glacier fluctuations confirms the pronounced warming of the twentieth century, giving a global cumulative warming of 0.94 {+-} 0.31 K over the period 1830-2000 and a cumulative warming of 0.84 {+-} 0.35 K over the period 1600-2000. (orig.)
Structural fluctuation governed dynamic diradical character in pentacene.
Yang, Hongfang; Chen, Mengzhen; Song, Xinyu; Bu, Yuxiang
2015-06-07
We unravel intriguing dynamical diradical behavior governed by structural fluctuation in pentacene using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. In contrast to static equilibrium configuration of pentacene with a closed-shell ground state without diradical character, due to structural fluctuation, some of its dynamical snapshot configurations exhibit an open-shell broken-symmetry singlet ground state with diradical character, and such diradical character presents irregular pulsing behavior in time evolution. Not all structural changes can lead to diradical character, only those involving the shortening of cross-linking C-C bonds and variations of the C-C bonds in polyacetylene chains are the main contributors. This scenario about diradicalization is distinctly different from that in long acenes. The essence is that structural distortion cooperatively raises the HOMO and lowers the LUMO, efficiently reducing the HOMO-LUMO and singlet-triplet energy gaps, which facilitate the formation of a broken-symmetry open-shell singlet state. The irregular pulsing behavior originates from the mixing of normal vibrations in pentacene. This fascinating behavior suggests the potential application of pentacene as a suitable building block in the design of new electronic devices due to its magnetism-controllability through energy induction. This work provides new insight into inherent electronic property fluctuation in acenes.
Thermal fluctuations affect the transcriptome through mechanisms independent of average temperature.
Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Loeschcke, Volker
2016-08-04
Terrestrial ectotherms are challenged by variation in both mean and variance of temperature. Phenotypic plasticity (thermal acclimation) might mitigate adverse effects, however, we lack a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of thermal acclimation and how they are affected by fluctuating temperature. Here we investigated the effect of thermal acclimation in Drosophila melanogaster on critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and associated global gene expression profiles as induced by two constant and two ecologically relevant (non-stressful) diurnally fluctuating temperature regimes. Both mean and fluctuation of temperature contributed to thermal acclimation and affected the transcriptome. The transcriptomic response to mean temperatures comprised modification of a major part of the transcriptome, while the response to fluctuations affected a much smaller set of genes, which was highly independent of both the response to a change in mean temperature and to the classic heat shock response. Although the independent transcriptional effects caused by fluctuations were relatively small, they are likely to contribute to our understanding of thermal adaptation. We provide evidence that environmental sensing, particularly phototransduction, is a central mechanism underlying the regulation of thermal acclimation to fluctuating temperatures. Thus, genes and pathways involved in phototransduction are likely of importance in fluctuating climates.
Geometric fluctuation theorem for a spin-boson system.
Watanabe, Kota L; Hayakawa, Hisao
2017-08-01
We derive an extended fluctuation theorem for geometric pumping of a spin-boson system under periodic control of environmental temperatures by using a Markovian quantum master equation. We obtain the current distribution, the average current, and the fluctuation in terms of the Monte Carlo simulation. To explain the results of our simulation we derive an extended fluctuation theorem. This fluctuation theorem leads to the fluctuation dissipation relations but the absence of the conventional reciprocal relation.
Indeterministic Temporal Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trzęsicki Kazimierz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.
Dielectric fluctuations in force microscopy: noncontact friction and frequency jitter.
Yazdanian, Showkat M; Marohn, John A; Loring, Roger F
2008-06-14
Electric force microscopy, in which a charged probe oscillates tens to hundreds of nanometers above a sample surface, provides direct mechanical detection of relaxation in molecular materials. Noncontact friction, the damping of the probe's motions, reflects the dielectric function at the resonant frequency of the probe, while fluctuations in the probe frequency are induced by slower molecular motions. We present a unified theoretical picture of both measurements, which relates the noncontact friction and the power spectrum of the frequency jitter to dielectric properties of the sample and to experimental geometry. Each observable is related to an equilibrium correlation function associated with electric field fluctuations, which is determined by two alternative, complementary strategies for a dielectric continuum model of the sample. The first method is based on the calculation of a response function associated with the polarization of the dielectric by a time-varying external charge distribution. The second approach employs a stochastic form of Maxwell's equations, which incorporate a fluctuating electric polarization, to compute directly the equilibrium correlation function in the absence of an external charge distribution. This approach includes effects associated with the propagation of radiation. In the experimentally relevant limit that the tip-sample distance is small compared to pertinent wavelengths of radiation, the two methods yield identical results. Measurements of the power spectrum of frequency fluctuations of an ultrasensitive cantilever together with measurements of the noncontact friction over a poly(methylmethacrylate) film are used to estimate the minimum experimentally detectable frequency jitter. The predicted jitter for this polymer is shown to exceed this threshold, demonstrating the feasibility of the measurement.
Confidence intervals for concentration and brightness from fluorescence fluctuation measurements.
Pryse, Kenneth M; Rong, Xi; Whisler, Jordan A; McConnaughey, William B; Jiang, Yan-Fei; Melnykov, Artem V; Elson, Elliot L; Genin, Guy M
2012-09-05
The theory of photon count histogram (PCH) analysis describes the distribution of fluorescence fluctuation amplitudes due to populations of fluorophores diffusing through a focused laser beam and provides a rigorous framework through which the brightnesses and concentrations of the fluorophores can be determined. In practice, however, the brightnesses and concentrations of only a few components can be identified. Brightnesses and concentrations are determined by a nonlinear least-squares fit of a theoretical model to the experimental PCH derived from a record of fluorescence intensity fluctuations. The χ(2) hypersurface in the neighborhood of the optimum parameter set can have varying degrees of curvature, due to the intrinsic curvature of the model, the specific parameter values of the system under study, and the relative noise in the data. Because of this varying curvature, parameters estimated from the least-squares analysis have varying degrees of uncertainty associated with them. There are several methods for assigning confidence intervals to the parameters, but these methods have different efficacies for PCH data. Here, we evaluate several approaches to confidence interval estimation for PCH data, including asymptotic standard error, likelihood joint-confidence region, likelihood confidence intervals, skew-corrected and accelerated bootstrap (BCa), and Monte Carlo residual resampling methods. We study these with a model two-dimensional membrane system for simplicity, but the principles are applicable as well to fluorophores diffusing in three-dimensional solution. Using simulated fluorescence fluctuation data, we find the BCa method to be particularly well-suited for estimating confidence intervals in PCH analysis, and several other methods to be less so. Using the BCa method and additional simulated fluctuation data, we find that confidence intervals can be reduced dramatically for a specific non-Gaussian beam profile. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society
Temporal variability of spectro-temporal receptive fields in the anesthetized auditory cortex
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arne Freerk Meyer
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Temporal variability of neuronal response characteristics during sensory stimulation is a ubiquitous phenomenon that may reflect processes such as stimulus-driven adaptation, top-down modulation or spontaneous fluctuations. It poses a challenge to functional characterization methods such as the receptive field, since these often assume stationarity. We propose a novel method for estimation of sensory neurons' receptive fields that extends the classic static linear receptive field model to the time-varying case. Here, the long-term estimate of the static receptive field serves as the mean of a probabilistic prior distribution from which the short-term temporally localized receptive field may deviate stochastically with time-varying standard deviation. The derived corresponding generalized linear model permits robust characterization of temporal variability in receptive field structure also for highly non-Gaussian stimulus ensembles. We computed and analyzed short-term auditory spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF estimates with characteristic temporal resolution 5 s to 30 s based on model simulations and responses from in total 60 single-unit recordings in anesthetized Mongolian gerbil auditory midbrain and cortex. Stimulation was performed with short (100 ms overlapping frequency-modulated tones. Results demonstrate identification of time-varying STRFs, with obtained predictive model likelihoods exceeding those from baseline static STRF estimation. Quantitative characterization of STRF variability reveals a higher degree thereof in auditory cortex compared to midbrain. Cluster analysis indicates that significant deviations from the long-term static STRF are brief, but reliably estimated. We hypothesize that the observed variability more likely reflects spontaneous or state-dependent internal fluctuations that interact with stimulus-induced processing, rather than experimental or stimulus design.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E. [Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, 213 CBC Building, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)
2015-01-28
Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined.
Fluctuations and structure of amphiphilic films; Fluctuations et structure de films d`amphiphiles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gourier, CH
1996-07-01
This thesis is divided in three parts.The first part exposes in a theoretical point of view, how the fluctuations spectrum of an amphiphilic film is governed by its properties and its bidimensional characteristics.The measurements of fluctuations spectra of an interface are accessible with the measurement of intensity that interface diffuses out of the specular angle, we present in the second chapter the principles of the X rays diffusion by a real interface and see how the diffuse diffusion experiments allow to determine the fluctuations spectrum of an amphiphilic film. The second part is devoted to the different experimental techniques that have allowed to realize the study of fluctuation as well as the structural study.The third part is devoted to experimental results concerning the measurements of fluctuations spectra and to the study of the structure of amphiphilic films. We show that it is possible by using an intense source of X rays (ESRF: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) to measure the water and amphiphilic films fluctuations spectra until molecular scales. The last chapter is devoted to the structural study and film fluctuations made of di-acetylenic molecules. (N.C.)
Temporal control mechanism in equaled interval tapping.
Yamada, M
1996-05-01
Subjects who were at intermediate levels of musical performance made equaled interval tapping in several tempos. The temporal fluctuation for the tapping was observed and analysed. The power spectrum of the fluctuation showed a critical phenomenon at around a frequency which corresponds to the period of 20 taps, for all tempos and all subjects, i.e., the slope of the spectrum was flat or had a positive value in the high frequency region above the critical frequency but it increased as the frequency decreased in the low frequency region below the critical frequency. Moreover, auto-regressive models and Akaike's information criterion were introduced to determine the critical tap number. The order of the best auto-regressive model for the temporal fluctuation data was distributed around 20 taps. These results show that the memory capacity of 20 taps governs the control of equaled interval tapping. To interpret the critical phenomenon of 20 taps with the memory capacity of the short term memory, the so called magic number seven, a simple chunking assumption was introduced; subjects might have unconsciously chunked every three taps during the tapping. If the chunking assumption is true, when subjects consciously chunk every seven taps, the memory capacity of taps should shift to about 50 taps. To test if the assumption is true or not, subjects made a three-beat rhythm tapping and a seven-beat rhythm tapping with equaled intervals. As a result, the memory capacity for these accented tappings were also estimated as 20 taps. This suggests that the critical phenomenon cannot be explained by the chunking assumption and the magic number seven, rather this finding suggests that there exists a memory capacity of 20 taps and this is used for equaled interval tapping.
Bag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S S; Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K; Grover, A K
2017-07-17
Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ([Formula: see text]) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above [Formula: see text], the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above [Formula: see text], the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above [Formula: see text], we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above [Formula: see text]. We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above [Formula: see text].
Generalized entropy production fluctuation theorems for quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 80; Issue 2. Generalized entropy ... Based on trajectory-dependent path probability formalism in state space, we derive generalized entropy production fluctuation relations for a quantum system in the presence of measurement and feedback. We have obtained these ...
Magnetic fluctuations in UNi4B
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mentink, S.A.M.; Mason, T.E.; Buyers, W.J.L.
1997-01-01
We investigate the magnetic fluctuation spectrum of the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic compound UNi4B, which partially orders below T-N = 20 K. An overdamped spin excitation is observed at the AF wave vector around 2.4 meV. Low-frequency, weakly Q-dependent inelastic scattering...
temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION INSIDE INERT ATMOSPHERE SILOS. E. S. Ajayi, et al. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 35, No. 3, July 2016. 643 also resist heat flow from solar radiation from outside. This is usually achieved by painting the silo wall with white paint. Some of the advantages of inert atmosphere storage ...
Critical point fluctuations in supported lipid membranes.
Connell, Simon D; Heath, George; Olmsted, Peter D; Kisil, Anastasia
2013-01-01
In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to observe many aspects of critical phenomena in supported lipid bilayers using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with the aid of stable and precise temperature control. The regions of criticality were determined by accurately measuring and calculating phase diagrams for the 2 phase L(d)-L(o) region, and tracking how it moves with temperature, then increasing the sampling density around the estimated critical regions. Compositional fluctuations were observed above the critical temperature (T(c)) and characterised using a spatial correlation function. From this analysis, the phase transition was found to be most closely described by the 2D Ising model, showing it is a critical transition. Below T(c) roughening of the domain boundaries occurred due to the reduction in line tension close to the critical point. Smaller scale density fluctuations were also detected just below T(c). At T(c), we believe we have observed fluctuations on length scales greater than 10 microm. The region of critically fluctuating 10-100 nm nanodomains has been found to extend a considerable distance above T(c) to temperatures within the biological range, and seem to be an ideal candidate for the actual structure of lipid rafts in cell membranes. Although evidence for this idea has recently emerged, this is the first direct evidence for nanoscale domains in the critical region.
Fluctuations in doubly scattered laser light
Rijswijk, F.C. van; Smith, U.L.
1975-01-01
Fluctuations in laser light, doubly scattered by brownian particles, were analysed by measuring the spectral noise power of the photodetector current. Scattering took place at two spatially separated systems of spherical particles. Analytic expressions for the field and intensity correlations are
Effect of programmed circadian temperature fluctuations on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Effect of programmed circadian temperature fluctuations on population dynamics of. Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss). K.N. de Kock and J.A. van Eeden. Snail Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education,. Potchefstroom. Until now all life-table studies on freshwater snails.
Advantages of storage in a fluctuating environment.
Kooi, B.W.; Troost, T.A.
2006-01-01
We will elaborate the evolutionary course of an ecosystem consisting of a population in a chemostat environment with periodically fluctuating nutrient supply. The organisms that make up the population consist of structural biomass and energy storage compartments. In a constant chemostat environment
Quantum and Thermal Fluctuations in Field Theory
Liao, Sen-Ben; Polonyi, Janos; Xu, Dapeng
1994-01-01
Blocking transformation is performed in quantum field theory at finite temperature. It is found that the manner temperature deforms the renormalized trajectories can be used to understand better the role played by the quantum fluctuations. In particular, it is conjectured that domain formation and mass parameter generation can be observed in theories without spontaneous symmetry breaking.
PREDICTION OF VOLTAGE FLUCTUATION IN ELECTRIC GRIDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.A. Sapryka
2013-06-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model of voltage fluctuation versus parameters of power quality and power consumption is developed to allow predicting parameters of the power quality in electric grids. Application of the model will result in an electrical complex functioning optimization
A theory of fluctuations in plasmas
Felderhof, B.U.
A theory of thermal fluctuations in plasmas is developed based on a probability ensemble for one-particle distribution functions ƒ(r, ν). The probability for a specific ƒ(r, ν) is obtained from the canonical ensemble with the aid of the continuum approximation. Subsequently the probability
Macroeconomic fluctuations and mortality in postwar Japan.
Granados, José A Tapia
2008-05-01
Recent research has shown that after long-term declining trends are excluded, mortality rates in industrial countries tend to rise in economic expansions and fall in economic recessions. In the present work, co-movements between economic fluctuations and mortality changes in postwar Japan are investigated by analyzing time series of mortality rates and eight economic indicators. To eliminate spurious associations attributable to trends, series are detrended either via Hodrick-Prescott filtering or through differencing. As previously found in other industrial economies, general mortality and age-specific death rates in Japan tend to increase in expansions and drop in recessions, for both males and females. The effect, which is slightly stronger for males, is particularly noticeable in those aged 45-64. Deaths attributed to heart disease, pneumonia, accidents, liver disease, and senility--making up about 41% of total mortality--tend to fluctuate procyclically, increasing in expansions. Suicides, as well as deaths attributable to diabetes and hypertensive disease, make up about 4% of total mortality and fluctuate countercyclically, increasing in recessions. Deaths attributed to other causes, making up about half of total deaths, don't show a clearly defined relationship with the fluctuations of the economy.
Quantum fluctuations in FRLW space-time
Rabochaya, Y.
2015-01-01
In this paper we study a quantum field theoretical approach, where a quantum probe is used to investigate the properties of generic non-flat FRLW space time. The fluctuations related to a massless conformal coupled scalar field defined on a space-time with horizon is identified with a probe and the procedure to measure the local temperature is presented.
Hurwitz, Shaul; Hunt, Andrew G.; Evans, William C.
2012-01-01
Geysers are rare features that reflect a delicate balance between an abundant supply of water and heat and a unique geometry of fractures and porous rocks. Between April 2007 and September 2008, we sampled Old Faithful, Daisy, Grand, Oblong, and Aurum geysers in Yellowstone National Park's Upper Geyser Basin and characterized temporal variations in major element chemistry and water isotopes (δ18O, δD, 3H). We compare these temporal variations with temporal trends of Geyser Eruption Intervals (GEI). SiO2 concentrations and geothermometry indicate that the geysers are fed by waters ascending from a reservoir with temperatures of ∼190 to 210°C. The studied geysers display small and complex chemical and isotopic seasonal variations, and geysers with smaller volume display larger seasonal variations than geysers with larger volumes. Aurum and Oblong Geysers contain detectable tritium concentrations, suggesting that erupted water contains some modern meteoric water. We propose that seasonal GEI variations result from varying degrees of evaporation, meteoric water recharge, water table fluctuations, and possible hydraulic interaction with the adjacent Firehole River. We demonstrate that the concentrations of major dissolved species in Old Faithful Geyser have remained nearly constant since 1884 despite large changes in Old Faithful's eruption intervals, suggesting that no major changes have occurred in the hydrothermal system of the Upper Geyser Basin for >120 years. Our data set provides a baseline for monitoring future changes in geyser activity that might result from varying climate, earthquakes, and changes in heat flow from the underlying magmatic system.
Persistence of motor-equivalent postural fluctuations during bipedal quiet standing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julius Verrel
Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical work indicates that the central nervous system is able to stabilize motor performance by selectively suppressing task-relevant variability (TRV, while allowing task-equivalent variability (TEV to occur. During unperturbed bipedal standing, it has previously been observed that, for task variables such as the whole-body center of mass (CoM, TEV exceeds TRV in amplitude. However, selective control (and correction of TRV should also lead to different temporal characteristics, with TEV exhibiting higher temporal persistence compared to TRV. The present study was specifically designed to test this prediction. Kinematics of prolonged quiet standing (5 minutes was measured in fourteen healthy young participants, with eyes closed. Using the uncontrolled manifold analysis, postural variability in six sagittal joint angles was decomposed into TEV and TRV with respect to four task variables: (1 center of mass (CoM position, (2 head position, (3 trunk orientation and (4 head orientation. Persistence of fluctuations within the two variability components was quantified by the time-lagged auto-correlation, with eight time lags between 1 and 128 seconds. The pattern of results differed between task variables. For three of the four task variables (CoM position, head position, trunk orientation, TEV significantly exceeded TRV over the entire 300 s-period.The autocorrelation analysis confirmed our main hypothesis for CoM position and head position: at intermediate and longer time delays, TEV exhibited higher persistence than TRV. Trunk orientation showed a similar trend, while head orientation did not show a systematic difference between TEV and TRV persistence. The combination of temporal and task-equivalent analyses in the present study allow a refined characterization of the dynamic control processes underlying the stabilization of upright standing. The results confirm the prediction, derived from computational motor control, that task
Temporal properties of stereopsis
Gheorghiu, E.
2005-01-01
The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity
Temporal Linear System Structure
Willigenburg, van L.G.; Koning, de W.L.
2008-01-01
Piecewise constant rank systems and the differential Kalman decomposition are introduced in this note. Together these enable the detection of temporal uncontrollability/unreconstructability of linear continuous-time systems. These temporal properties are not detected by any of the four conventional
A better understanding of long-range temporal dependence of traffic flow time series
Feng, Shuo; Wang, Xingmin; Sun, Haowei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Li
2018-02-01
Long-range temporal dependence is an important research perspective for modelling of traffic flow time series. Various methods have been proposed to depict the long-range temporal dependence, including autocorrelation function analysis, spectral analysis and fractal analysis. However, few researches have studied the daily temporal dependence (i.e. the similarity between different daily traffic flow time series), which can help us better understand the long-range temporal dependence, such as the origin of crossover phenomenon. Moreover, considering both types of dependence contributes to establishing more accurate model and depicting the properties of traffic flow time series. In this paper, we study the properties of daily temporal dependence by simple average method and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based method. Meanwhile, we also study the long-range temporal dependence by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). The results show that both the daily and long-range temporal dependence exert considerable influence on the traffic flow series. The DFA results reveal that the daily temporal dependence creates crossover phenomenon when estimating the Hurst exponent which depicts the long-range temporal dependence. Furthermore, through the comparison of the DFA test, PCA-based method turns out to be a better method to extract the daily temporal dependence especially when the difference between days is significant.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny
2010-01-01
, constituting a temporal smoothing of rapidly changing illumination. In global illumination temporal smoothing can be achieved with distribution ray tracing (Cook et al., 1984). Unfortunately, this, and resembling methods, requires a high temporal resolution as samples has to be drawn from in-between frames. We...... present a novel method which is able to produce high quality temporal smoothing for indirect illumination without using in-between frames. Our method is based on ray differentials (Igehy, 1999) as it has been extended in (Sporring et al., 2009). Light rays are traced as bundles creating footprints, which......The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively...
Surgical Considerations of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Warren W. Boling
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Surgery of temporal lobe epilepsy is the best opportunity for seizure freedom in medically intractable patients. The surgical approach has evolved to recognize the paramount importance of the mesial temporal structures in the majority of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who have a seizure origin in the mesial temporal structures. For those individuals with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, a selective amygdalohippocampectomy surgery can be done that provides an excellent opportunity for seizure freedom and limits the resection to temporal lobe structures primarily involved in seizure genesis.
Frequency-Specific Alternations in the Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Chronic Tinnitus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Chen eChen
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Tinnitus, a phantom ringing, buzzing or hissing sensation with potentially debilitating consequences, is thought to arise from aberrant spontaneous neural activity at one or more sites within the central nervous system; however, the location and specific features of these oscillations are poorly understood with respect to specific tinnitus features. Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies suggest that aberrant fluctuations in spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (LFO of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signal may be an important factor in chronic tinnitus; however, the role that frequency-specific components of LFO play in subjective tinnitus remains unclear. A total of 39 chronic tinnitus patients and 41 well-matched healthy controls participated in the resting-state fMRI scans. The LFO amplitudes were investigated using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF and fractional ALFF (fALFF in two different frequency bands (slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz and slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz. We observed significant differences between tinnitus patients and normal controls in ALFF/fALFF in the two bands (slow-4 and slow-5 in several brain regions including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG, inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, angular gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus. Across the entire subject pool, significant differences in ALFF/fALFF between the two bands were found in the midbrain, basal ganglia, hippocampus and cerebellum (Slow 4>Slow 5, and in the middle frontal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus (Slow 5>Slow 4. We also observed significant interaction between frequency bands and patient groups in the orbitofrontal gyrus. Furthermore, tinnitus distress was positively correlated with the magnitude of ALFF in right SFG and the magnitude of fALFF slow-4 band in left SFG, whereas tinnitus duration was positively correlated with the magnitude of ALFF in
State-space Geometry, Statistical Fluctuations and Black Holes in String Theory
Bellucci, Stefano
2011-01-01
We study the state-space geometry of various extremal and nonextremal black holes in string theory. From the notion of the intrinsic geometry, we offer a new perspective of black hole vacuum fluctuations. For a given black hole entropy, we explicate the intrinsic state-space geometric meaning of the statistical fluctuations, local and global stability conditions and long range statistical correlations. We provide a set of physical motivations pertaining to the extremal and nonextremal black holes, \\textit{viz.}, the meaning of the chemical geometry and physics of correlation. We illustrate the state-space configurations for general charge extremal black holes. In sequel, we extend our analysis for various possible charge and anticharge nonextremal black holes. From the perspective of statistical fluctuation theory, we offer general remarks, future directions and open issues towards the intrinsic geometric understanding of the vacuum fluctuations and black holes in string theory. Keywords: Intrinsic Geometry; ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Illuminati, Fabrizio [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, and INFM, Unita di Salerno, I-84081 Baronissi SA (Italy); Navez, Patrick [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Materials Science, Demokritos NCSR, POB 60228, 15310 Athens (Greece); Wilkens, Martin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany)
1999-08-14
We derive exact thermodynamic identities relating the average number of condensed atoms and the root-mean-square fluctuations determined in different statistical ensembles for the weakly interacting Bose gas confined in a box. This is achieved by introducing the concept of auxiliary partition functions for model Hamiltonians that do conserve the total number of particles. Exploiting such thermodynamic identities, we provide the first, completely analytical prediction of the microcanonical particle number fluctuations in the weakly interacting Bose gas. Such fluctuations, as a function of the volume V of the box are found to behave normally, in contrast with the anomalous scaling behaviour V{sup 4/3} of the fluctuations in the ideal Bose gas. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.
State-Space Geometry, Statistical Fluctuations, and Black Holes in String Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Bellucci
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study the state-space geometry of various extremal and nonextremal black holes in string theory. From the notion of the intrinsic geometry, we offer a state-space perspective to the black hole vacuum fluctuations. For a given black hole entropy, we explicate the intrinsic geometric meaning of the statistical fluctuations, local and global stability conditions, and long range statistical correlations. We provide a set of physical motivations pertaining to the extremal and nonextremal black holes, namely, the meaning of the chemical geometry and physics of correlation. We illustrate the state-space configurations for general charge extremal black holes. In sequel, we extend our analysis for various possible charge and anticharge nonextremal black holes. From the perspective of statistical fluctuation theory, we offer general remarks, future directions, and open issues towards the intrinsic geometric understanding of the vacuum fluctuations and black holes in string theory.
Computer simulation of laser photon fluctuations - Theory of single-cavity laser
Marcuse, D.
1984-10-01
The reliability of data transmission in optical fiber systems using pulse code modulation is limited by photon fluctuations and mode hopping of injection lasers. It has been found that the fluctuations of laser light depend critically on the type of laser which is being used. For this reason, the development of mathematical models for predicting the fluctuations of the light output of different types of lasers is important for laser design applications. The approach to laser fluctuation studies considered in the present investigation is concerned with a description in terms of multimode, stochastic, and noise driven rate equations. A direct calculation of photon probability distributions is not possible with this approach. However, statistical information can be collected. This paper is concerned with the mathematical tools needed for the numerical solution of the problem. The rate equations are listed, and a description is provided regarding their numerical integration on a computer.
Research on the Voltage Fluctuation Rules of Power System Containing Wind Farms
Chen, Yixi; Xu, Guchao; Ma, Gang; Li, Feng; Ju, Rong
2017-05-01
The global energy shortage and environmental problems have contributed to the rapid development of wind power. However, due to the randomness and volatility of wind power, large-scale access may cause voltage fluctuation in power grid. Therefore, the reactive power control of power system containing wind farms has become a hot research topic in recent years, in which finding key nodes of voltage fluctuation is a foundation work. In this paper, the power model of wind farm is established first. Then, the influence on nodes voltage when wind farms access simple power system is analysed, and promoted to complex power systems in order to reveal the fluctuation rules of nodes voltage, and to summarize the distribution characteristics of key nodes of voltage fluctuation, which can provide the basis for reactive power optimization. At last, the conclusions are verified by IEEE 30-node system.
Correlations of stock price fluctuations under multi-scale and multi-threshold scenarios
Sui, Guo; Li, Huajiao; Feng, Sida; Liu, Xueyong; Jiang, Meihui
2018-01-01
The multi-scale method is widely used in analyzing time series of financial markets and it can provide market information for different economic entities who focus on different periods. Through constructing multi-scale networks of price fluctuation correlation in the stock market, we can detect the topological relationship between each time series. Previous research has not addressed the problem that the original fluctuation correlation networks are fully connected networks and more information exists within these networks that is currently being utilized. Here we use listed coal companies as a case study. First, we decompose the original stock price fluctuation series into different time scales. Second, we construct the stock price fluctuation correlation networks at different time scales. Third, we delete the edges of the network based on thresholds and analyze the network indicators. Through combining the multi-scale method with the multi-threshold method, we bring to light the implicit information of fully connected networks.
Deng, C B; Brower, D L
2010-10-01
The multichannel interferometer system on the helically symmetric experiment (HSX) stellarator is reconfigured to perform far-forward collective scattering measurements of electron density fluctuations. The collective scattering system has nine viewing chords with 1.5 cm spacing. Scattered power is measured using a homodyne detection scheme. Far-forward collective scattering provides a line-integrated measurement of fluctuations within the divergence of the probe beam covering wavenumber range: k(⊥)<2 cm(-1). The perpendicular wavenumber consists of poloidal and radial contributions that vary with chord position. Both coherent modes and broadband fluctuation are measured. When HSX is operated without quasihelical symmetry at B(T)=1 T and n(e)∼4×10(12) cm(-3), a coherent electrostatic fluctuation is observed.
Reconstruction of a broadband spectrum of Alfvénic fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viñas, Adolfo F; Moya, Pablo S.; Maneva, Yana G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Araneda, Jaime A., E-mail: adolfo.vinas@nasa.gov [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Casilla 160-C (Chile)
2014-05-10
Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind exhibit a high degree of velocities and magnetic field correlations consistent with Alfvén waves propagating away and toward the Sun. Two remarkable properties of these fluctuations are the tendencies to have either positive or negative magnetic helicity (–1 ≤ σ {sub m} ≤ +1) associated with either left- or right- topological handedness of the fluctuations and to have a constant magnetic field magnitude. This paper provides, for the first time, a theoretical framework for reconstructing both the magnetic and velocity field fluctuations with a divergence-free magnetic field, with any specified power spectral index and normalized magnetic- and cross-helicity spectrum field fluctuations for any plasma species. The spectrum is constructed in the Fourier domain by imposing two conditions—a divergence-free magnetic field and the preservation of the sense of magnetic helicity in both spaces—as well as using Parseval's theorem for the conservation of energy between configuration and Fourier spaces. Applications to the one-dimensional spatial Alfvénic propagation are presented. The theoretical construction is in agreement with typical time series and power spectra properties observed in the solar wind. The theoretical ideas presented in this spectral reconstruction provide a foundation for more realistic simulations of plasma waves, solar wind turbulence, and the propagation of energetic particles in such fluctuating fields.
Crisanti, A; Sarracino, A; Zannetti, M
2017-05-01
We study analytically the probability distribution of the heat released by an ensemble of harmonic oscillators to the thermal bath, in the nonequilibrium relaxation process following a temperature quench. We focus on the asymmetry properties of the heat distribution in the nonstationary dynamics, in order to study the forms taken by the fluctuation theorem as the number of degrees of freedom is varied. After analyzing in great detail the cases of one and two oscillators, we consider the limit of a large number of oscillators, where the behavior of fluctuations is enriched by a condensation transition with a nontrivial phase diagram, characterized by reentrant behavior. Numerical simulations confirm our analytical findings. We also discuss and highlight how concepts borrowed from the study of fluctuations in equilibrium under symmetry-breaking conditions [Gaspard, J. Stat. Mech. (2012) P0802110.1088/1742-5468/2012/08/P08021] turn out to be quite useful in understanding the deviations from the standard fluctuation theorem.
Morikawa, M.
Assuming an inflationary phase in the early universe, this paper studies the generation of non-uniformity from an entirely uniform universe where no statistical fluctuations nor structure are present.
Compressibilities and Volume Fluctuations of Archaeal Tetraether Liposomes
Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau; Sulc, Michael; Winter, Roland
2010-01-01
Bipolar tetraether lipids (BTLs) are abundant in crenarchaeota, which thrive in both thermophilic and nonthermophilic environments, with wide-ranging growth temperatures (4–108°C). BTL liposomes can serve as membrane models to explore the role of BTLs in the thermal stability of the plasma membrane of crenarchaeota. In this study, we focus on the liposomes made of the polar lipid fraction E (PLFE). PLFE is one of the main BTLs isolated from the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Using molecular acoustics (ultrasound velocimetry and densimetry), pressure perturbation calorimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry, we have determined partial specific adiabatic and isothermal compressibility, their respective compressibility coefficients, partial specific volume, and relative volume fluctuations of PLFE large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) over a wide range of temperatures (20–85°C). The results are compared with those obtained from liposomes made of dipalmitoyl-L-α-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a conventional monopolar diester lipid. We found that, in the entire temperature range examined, compressibilities of PLFE LUVs are low, comparable to those found in gel state of DPPC. Relative volume fluctuations of PLFE LUVs at any given temperature examined are 1.6–2.2 times more damped than those found in DPPC LUVs. Both compressibilities and relative volume fluctuations in PLFE LUVs are much less temperature-sensitive than those in DPPC liposomes. The isothermal compressibility coefficient (βTlipid) of PLFE LUVs changes from 3.59 × 10−10 Pa−1 at 25°C to 4.08 × 10−10 Pa−1 at 78°C. Volume fluctuations of PLFE LUVs change only 0.25% from 30°C to 80°C. The highly damped volume fluctuations and their low temperature sensitivity, echo that PLFE liposomes are rigid and tightly packed. To our knowledge, the data provide a deeper understanding of lipid packing in PLFE liposomes than has been previously reported, as well as a molecular
Spectral coherence model for power fluctuations in a wind farm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vigueras-Rodriguez, A.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Viedma, A.
2012-01-01
This paper provides a model for the coherence between wind speeds located in a horizontal plane corresponding to hub height of wind turbines in a large wind farm. The model has been developed using wind speed and power measurements from the 72 Wind Turbines and two of the meteorological masts from...... Nysted offshore wind farm during 9 months. The coherence model developed in this paper is intended for use of power fluctuations in large offshore wind farms. In this way, analysing the current coherence models it is shown the needing of a new one, adapted to the characteristic distances and the related...
Entropy Production and Fluctuation Theorems for Active Matter
Mandal, Dibyendu; Klymko, Katherine; DeWeese, Michael R.
2017-12-01
Active biological systems reside far from equilibrium, dissipating heat even in their steady state, thus requiring an extension of conventional equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. In this Letter, we have extended the emerging framework of stochastic thermodynamics to active matter. In particular, for the active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model, we have provided consistent definitions of thermodynamic quantities such as work, energy, heat, entropy, and entropy production at the level of single, stochastic trajectories and derived related fluctuation relations. We have developed a generalization of the Clausius inequality, which is valid even in the presence of the non-Hamiltonian dynamics underlying active matter systems. We have illustrated our results with explicit numerical studies.
Fujikura, Kyota; Shimizu, Akira
2016-07-01
For macroscopic quantum systems, we study what is measured when equilibrium fluctuations of macrovariables are measured in an ideal way that mimics classical ideal measurements as closely as possible. We find that the symmetrized time correlation is always obtained for such measurements. As an important consequence, we show that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is partially violated as a relation between observed quantities in macroscopic quantum systems even if measurements are made in such an ideal way.
Fujikura, Kyota; Shimizu, Akira
2016-07-01
For macroscopic quantum systems, we study what is measured when equilibrium fluctuations of macrovariables are measured in an ideal way that mimics classical ideal measurements as closely as possible. We find that the symmetrized time correlation is always obtained for such measurements. As an important consequence, we show that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is partially violated as a relation between observed quantities in macroscopic quantum systems even if measurements are made in such an ideal way.
Effect of thermal fluctuations on a charged dilatonic black Saturn
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Behnam Pourhassan
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a charged dilatonic black Saturn. These thermal fluctuations will correct the thermodynamics of the charged dilatonic black Saturn. We will analyze the corrections to the thermodynamics of this system by first relating the fluctuations in the entropy to the fluctuations in the energy. Then, we will use the relation between entropy and a conformal field theory to analyze the fluctuations in the entropy. We will demonstrate that similar physical results are obtained from both these approaches. We will also study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the phase transition in this charged dilatonic black Saturn.
Effect of thermal fluctuations on a charged dilatonic black Saturn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pourhassan, Behnam, E-mail: b.pourhassan@du.ac.ir [School of Physics, Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada)
2016-04-10
In this paper, we will analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a charged dilatonic black Saturn. These thermal fluctuations will correct the thermodynamics of the charged dilatonic black Saturn. We will analyze the corrections to the thermodynamics of this system by first relating the fluctuations in the entropy to the fluctuations in the energy. Then, we will use the relation between entropy and a conformal field theory to analyze the fluctuations in the entropy. We will demonstrate that similar physical results are obtained from both these approaches. We will also study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the phase transition in this charged dilatonic black Saturn.
Effect of Thermal Fluctuations on a Charged Dilatonic Black Saturn
Pourhassan, Behnam
2016-01-01
In this paper, we will analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a charged dilatonic black Saturn. These thermal fluctuations will correct the thermodynamics of the charged dilatonic black Saturn. We will analyze the corrections to the thermodynamics of this system by first relating the fluctuations in the entropy to the fluctuations in the energy. Then, we will use the relation between entropy and a conformal field theory to analyze the fluctuations in the entropy. We will demonstrate that similar physical results are obtained from both these approaches. We will also study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the phase transition in this charged dilatonic black Saturn.
Spatio-temporal change detection from multidimensional arrays
Lu, Meng; Pebesma, Edzer; Sanchez, Alber; Verbesselt, Jan
2016-01-01
Growing availability of long-term satellite imagery enables change modeling with advanced spatio-temporal statistical methods. Multidimensional arrays naturally match the structure of spatio-temporal satellite data and can provide a clean modeling process for complex spatio-temporal analysis over
Spatio-temporal correlations in models of collective motion ruled by different dynamical laws
Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S; Melillo, Stefania; Viale, Massimiliano
2016-01-01
Information transfer is an essential factor in determining the robustness of collective behaviour in biological systems with distributed control. The most direct way to study the information transfer mechanisms is to experimentally detect the propagation across the system of a signal triggered by some perturbation. However, for field experiments this method is inefficient, as the possibilities of the observer to perturb the group are limited and empirical observations must rely on rare natural perturbations. An alternative way is to use spatio-temporal correlations to assess the information transfer mechanism directly from the spontaneous fluctuations of the system, without the need to have an actual propagating signal on record. We test the approach on ground truth data provided by numerical simulations in three dimensions of two models of collective behaviour characterized by very different dynamical equations and information transfer mechanisms: the classic Vicsek model, describing an overdamped noninertia...
Ultra-short electron beams based spatio-temporal radiation biology and radiotherapy.
Malka, Victor; Faure, Jérôme; Gauduel, Yann A
2010-01-01
Deeply understanding the basic mechanisms of radiation damage in vitro and on living cells, starting from the early radical and molecular processes to mutagenic DNA lesions, cell signalling, genomic instability, apoptosis, microenvironment and Bystander effects, radio sensitivity should have many practical consequences such as the customization of cancer radiotherapy or radioprotection protocols. In this context, innovative laser-plasma accelerators provide ultra-short particle beams (electrons, protons) with parameters of interest for radiation biology and medical physics. This review article approaches some complex links that exist between radiation physics of new pulsed irradiation sources and potential biomedical applications. These links concern mainly the understanding of spatio-temporal events triggered by a radiation, within a fluctuating lapse of time from the initial energy deposition to primary damages of biological interest. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lehmann, Benjamin; King, Georgina; Valla, Pierre; Herman, Frederic
2016-04-01
Providing tight spatial/temporal constraints on late-Pleistocene glacier fluctuations remains an important challenge for understanding glacier response to climate change. In most mountainous settings, paleo-glacier reconstructions are limited because they lack precise temporal constraint, which would enable their use as a paleoclimate proxy. OSL-surface exposure dating has been recently proposed [Sohbati et al., 2011] and offers the potential to improve paleo-glacier reconstruction. Because the OSL signal is sensitive to light, OSL-signal bleaching within a rock sample depends on its exposure time and environmental conditions, and can therefore be used to date the exposure time of glacially-polished bedrock or erratic boulders. However, successful application of this technique first requires calibration and validation. Here, we focus on the Mer de Glace glacier (Mont Blanc massif, France) where the post-LGM glacier dynamics remain poorly constrained with numerous short glacier re-advances occuring during the mid-Pleistocene and Holocene [LeRoy et al., 2015]. First, the different parameters involved in OSL surface exposure dating were calibrated. Vertical transect of polished bedrock surfaces with known exposure ages (from 10 to 165 years) from the Montenvers train station (1913 m a.sl.) to the present-day position of the Mer de Glace (1600 m a.s.l.) was sampled. Secondly, we sampled the Trelaporte transect where exposed bedrock surfaces are of uniform lithology. Here, we will apply similar approach on a much longer timescale, from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~24 ka, Coutterand et al., 2006) to the present day. OSL data from rock slices show increasing exposure age with elevation which is consitent with glacier thinning since the Little Ice Age. Moreover, our results confirmed the possibility to first calibrate the model parameters on known-age surface and use it to constrain the exposure time for nearby bedrock surfaces. In summary, OSL-surface exposure dating
Sarkar, Kingshuk; Banerjee, Sumilan; Mukerjee, Subroto; Ramakrishnan, T. V.
2017-07-01
We study the Nernst effect in fluctuating superconductors by calculating the transport coefficient {α }{xy} in a phenomenological model where the relative importance of phase and amplitude fluctuations of the order parameter is tuned continuously to smoothly evolve from an effective XY model to the more conventional Ginzburg-Landau description. To connect with a concrete experimental realization we choose the model parameters appropriate for cuprate superconductors and calculate {α }{xy} and the magnetization {M} over the entire range of experimentally accessible values of field, temperature and doping. We argue that {α }{xy} and {M} are both determined by the equilibrium properties of the superconducting fluctuations (and not their dynamics) despite the former being a transport quantity. Thus, the experimentally observed correlation between the Nernst signal and the magnetization arises primarily from the correlation between {α }{xy} and {M}. Further, there exists a dimensionless ratio {M}/(T{α }{xy}) that quantifies this correlation. We calculate, for the first time, this ratio over the entire phase diagram of the cuprates and find it agrees with previous results obtained in specific parts of the phase diagram. We conclude that there appears to be no sharp distinction between the regimes dominated by phase fluctuations and Gaussian fluctuations for this ratio in contrast to {α }{xy} and {M} individually. The utility of this ratio is that it can be used to determine the extent to which superconducting fluctuations contribute to the Nernst effect in different parts of the phase diagram given the measured values of magnetization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sifat Sharmin
Full Text Available Local weather influences the transmission of the dengue virus. Most studies analyzing the relationship between dengue and climate are based on relatively coarse aggregate measures such as mean temperature. Here, we include both mean temperature and daily fluctuations in temperature in modelling dengue transmission in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. We used a negative binomial generalized linear model, adjusted for rainfall, anomalies in sea surface temperature (an index for El Niño-Southern Oscillation, population density, the number of dengue cases in the previous month, and the long term temporal trend in dengue incidence. In addition to the significant associations of mean temperature and temperature fluctuation with dengue incidence, we found interaction of mean and temperature fluctuation significantly influences disease transmission at a lag of one month. High mean temperature with low fluctuation increases dengue incidence one month later. Besides temperature, dengue incidence was also influenced by sea surface temperature anomalies in the current and previous month, presumably as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the annual rainfall cycle. Population density exerted a significant positive influence on dengue incidence indicating increasing risk of dengue in over-populated Dhaka. Understanding these complex relationships between climate, population, and dengue incidence will help inform outbreak prediction and control.
Direct evidence of atomic-scale structural fluctuations in catalyst nanoparticles.
Lin, Pin Ann; Gomez-Ballesteros, Jose L; Burgos, Juan C; Balbuena, Perla B; Natarajan, Bharath; Sharma, Renu
2017-05-01
Rational catalyst design requires an atomic scale mechanistic understanding of the chemical pathways involved in the catalytic process. A heterogeneous catalyst typically works by adsorbing reactants onto its surface, where the energies for specific bonds to dissociate and/or combine with other species (to form desired intermediate or final products) are lower. Here, using the catalytic growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a prototype reaction, we show that the chemical pathway may in-fact involve the entire catalyst particle, and can proceed via the fluctuations in the formation and decomposition of metastable phases in the particle interior. We record in situ and at atomic resolution, the dynamic phase transformations occurring in a Cobalt catalyst nanoparticle during SWCNT growth, using a state-of-the-art environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). The fluctuations in catalyst carbon content are quantified by the automated, atomic-scale structural analysis of the time-resolved ETEM images and correlated with the SWCNT growth rate. We find the fluctuations in the carbon concentration in the catalyst nanoparticle and the fluctuations in nanotube growth rates to be of complementary character. These findings are successfully explained by reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) simulations that track the spatial and temporal evolution of the distribution of carbon atoms within and on the surface of the catalyst particle. We anticipate that our approach combining real-time, atomic-resolution image analysis and molecular dynamics simulations will facilitate catalyst design, improving reaction efficiencies and selectivity towards the growth of desired structure.
Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Gogoberidze, G.; Wicks, R. T.
2011-12-01
We present the first scale-by-scale quantitative comparison of the higher order statistics of magnetic field magnitude and component temporal fluctuations in the fast quiet solar wind. The magnetic field magnitude fluctuations show a single global intermittent non-Gaussian scale free behaviour from minutes to over 5 hours. This coexists with the signature in the field components of an inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence up to ~ 30 minutes and a ~ 1/f range of coronal origin on longer timescales. This is found both in the ecliptic with ACE and in ULLYSES polar passes. This suggests a single stochastic process for magnetic field magnitude fluctuations operating across the full range of MHD timescales supported by the solar wind. Fluctuations in velocity and magnetic field show the strongest 'dynamic' alignment on scales in the ~ 1/f range. We wil discuss how uncertainties in velocity and magnetic field measurements propagate through 'compound' measures of the turbulence properties of the flow in this context. Observational evidence of incompressible MHD turbulence in the solar wind must thus be understood in the context of this global scaling of the compressive 'texture' of the solar wind.
Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-11-01
Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.
Towards Temporal Graph Databases
Campos, Alexander; Mozzino, Jorge; Vaisman, Alejandro
2016-01-01
In spite of the extensive literature on graph databases (GDBs), temporal GDBs have not received too much attention so far. Temporal GBDs can capture, for example, the evolution of social networks across time, a relevant topic in data analysis nowadays. In this paper we propose a data model and query language (denoted TEG-QL) for temporal GDBs, based on the notion of attribute graphs. This allows a straightforward translation to Neo4J, a well-known GBD. We present extensive examples of the use...
Fluctuation theorem in quantum heat conduction.
Saito, Keiji; Dhar, Abhishek
2007-11-02
We consider steady-state heat conduction across a quantum harmonic chain connected to reservoirs modeled by infinite collection of oscillators. The heat, Q, flowing across the oscillator in a time interval tau is a stochastic variable and we study the probability distribution function P(Q). We compute the exact generating function of Q at large tau and the large deviation function. The generating function has a symmetry satisfying the steady-state fluctuation theorem without any quantum corrections. The distribution P(Q) is non-Gaussian with clear exponential tails. The effect of finite tau and nonlinearity is considered in the classical limit through Langevin simulations. We also obtain the prediction of quantum heat current fluctuations at low temperatures in clean wires.
Trapped Electron Precession Shear Induced Fluctuation Decorrelation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
T.S. Hahm; P.H. Diamond; E.-J. Kim
2002-07-29
We consider the effects of trapped electron precession shear on the microturbulence. In a similar way the strong E x B shear reduces the radial correlation length of ambient fluctuations, the radial variation of the trapped electron precession frequency can reduce the radial correlation length of fluctuations associated with trapped electrons. In reversed shear plasmas, with the explicit dependence of the trapped electron precession shearing rate on B(subscript)theta, the sharp radial gradient of T(subscript)e due to local electron heating inside qmin can make the precession shearing mechanism more effective, and reduce the electron thermal transport constructing a positive feedback loop for the T(subscript)e barrier formation.
Classicalization of Quantum Fluctuation in Inflationary Universe
Kubotani, H.; Uesugi, T.; Morikawa, M.; Sugamoto, A.
1997-11-01
We discuss the classicalization of a quantum state induced by an environment in the inflationary stage of the universe. The classicalization is necessary for the homogeneous ground state to become the inhomogeneous classical one accompanied with statistical fluctuations, which is a plausible candidate for the seeds of structure formation. Using simple models, we show that i) the two classicalization criteria, the classical correlation and quantum decoherence, are simultaneously satisfied by the environment and that ii) the power spectrum of the resultant statistical fluctuations depends upon the details of the classicalization process. In particular, the result ii) means that, taking into account the classicalization process, the inflationary scenario does not necessarily predict the unique spectrum which is usually believed.
Energy utilization in fluctuating biological energy converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abraham Szőke
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We have argued previously [Szoke et al., FEBS Lett. 553, 18–20 (2003; Curr. Chem. Biol. 1, 53–57 (2007] that energy utilization and evolution are emergent properties based on a small number of established laws of physics and chemistry. The relevant laws constitute a framework for biology on a level intermediate between quantum chemistry and cell biology. There are legitimate questions whether these concepts are valid at the mesoscopic level. Such systems fluctuate appreciably, so it is not clear what their efficiency is. Advances in fluctuation theorems allow the description of such systems on a molecular level. We attempt to clarify this topic and bridge the biochemical and physical descriptions of mesoscopic systems.
Intermittent character of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations
Bruno, Roberto; Carbone, Vincenzo; Chapman, Sandra; Hnat, Bogdan; Noullez, Alain; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca
2007-03-01
Interplanetary magnetic field magnitude fluctuations are notoriously more intermittent than velocity fluctuations in both fast and slow wind. This behavior has been interpreted in terms of the anomalous scaling observed in passive scalars in fully developed hydrodynamic turbulence. In this paper, the strong intermittent nature of the interplanetary magnetic field is briefly discussed comparing results performed during different phases of the solar cycle. The scaling properties of the interplanetary magnetic field magnitude show solar cycle variation that can be distinguished in the scaling exponents revealed by structure functions. The scaling exponents observed around the solar maximum coincide, within the errors, to those measured for passive scalars in hydrodynamic turbulence. However, it is also found that the values are not universal in the sense that the solar cycle variation may be reflected in dependence on the structure of the velocity field.
Quantum Fluctuations of a Superconductor Order Parameter.
Arutyunov, K Yu; Lehtinen, J S
2016-12-01
Tunneling I-V characteristics between very narrow titanium nanowires and "massive" superconducting aluminum were measured. The clear trend was observed: the thinner the titanium electrode, the broader the singularity at eV = Δ1(Al) + Δ2(Ti). The phenomenon can be explained by broadening of the gap edge of the quasi-one-dimensional titanium channels due to quantum fluctuations of the order parameter modulus |Δ2|. The range of the nanowire diameters, where the effect is pronounced, correlates with dimensions where the phase fluctuations of the complex superconducting order parameter Δ = |Δ|e(iφ), the quantum phase slips, broadening the R(T) dependencies, have been observed.
The Warburg effect as an adaptation of cancer cells to rapid fluctuations in energy demand.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tamir Epstein
Full Text Available To maintain optimal fitness, a cell must balance the risk of inadequate energy reserve for response to a potentially fatal perturbation against the long-term cost of maintaining high concentrations of ATP to meet occasional spikes in demand. Here we apply a game theoretic approach to address the dynamics of energy production and expenditure in eukaryotic cells. Conventionally, glucose metabolism is viewed as a function of oxygen concentrations in which the more efficient oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O produces all or nearly all ATP except under hypoxic conditions when less efficient (2 ATP/ glucose vs. about 36ATP/glucose anaerobic metabolism of glucose to lactic acid provides an emergency backup. We propose an alternative in which energy production is governed by the complex temporal and spatial dynamics of intracellular ATP demand. In the short term, a cell must provide energy for constant baseline needs but also maintain capacity to rapidly respond to fluxes in demand particularly due to external perturbations on the cell membrane. Similarly, longer-term dynamics require a trade-off between the cost of maintaining high metabolic capacity to meet uncommon spikes in demand versus the risk of unsuccessfully responding to threats or opportunities. Here we develop a model and computationally explore the cell's optimal mix of glycolytic and oxidative capacity. We find the Warburg effect, high glycolytic metabolism even under normoxic conditions, is represents a metabolic strategy that allow cancer cells to optimally meet energy demands posed by stochastic or fluctuating tumor environments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kathryn E Holt
2011-01-01
Full Text Available typhoid fever remains a public health problem in Vietnam, with a significant burden in the Mekong River delta region. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi, which is frequently multidrug resistant with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone-based drugs, the first choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. We used a GoldenGate (Illumina assay to type 1,500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and analyse the genetic variation of S. Typhi isolated from 267 typhoid fever patients in the Mekong delta region participating in a randomized trial conducted between 2004 and 2005.the population of S. Typhi circulating during the study was highly clonal, with 91% of isolates belonging to a single clonal complex of the S. Typhi H58 haplogroup. The patterns of disease were consistent with the presence of an endemic haplotype H58-C and a localised outbreak of S. Typhi haplotype H58-E2 in 2004. H58-E2-associated typhoid fever cases exhibited evidence of significant geo-spatial clustering along the Sông H u branch of the Mekong River. Multidrug resistance was common in the established clone H58-C but not in the outbreak clone H58-E2, however all H58 S. Typhi were nalidixic acid resistant and carried a Ser83Phe amino acid substitution in the gyrA gene.the H58 haplogroup dominates S. Typhi populations in other endemic areas, but the population described here was more homogeneous than previously examined populations, and the dominant clonal complex (H58-C, -E1, -E2 observed in this study has not been detected outside Vietnam. IncHI1 plasmid-bearing S. Typhi H58-C was endemic during the study period whilst H58-E2, which rarely carried the plasmid, was only transient, suggesting a selective advantage for the plasmid. These data add insight into the outbreak dynamics and local molecular epidemiology of S. Typhi in southern Vietnam.
Schubert, Sebastian
2015-01-01
One of the most relevant weather regimes in the mid latitudes atmosphere is the persistent deviation from the approximately zonally symmetric jet stream to the emergence of so-called blocking patterns. Such configurations are usually connected to exceptional local stability properties of the flow which come along with an improved local forecast skills during the phenomenon. It is instead extremely hard to predict onset and decay of blockings. Covariant Lyapunov Vectors (CLVs) offer a suitable characterization of the linear stability of a chaotic flow, since they represent the full tangent linear dynamics by a covariant basis which explores linear perturbations at all time scales. Therefore, we will test whether CLVs feature a signature of the blockings. We examine the CLVs for a quasi-geostrophic beta-plane two-layer model in a periodic channel baroclinically driven by a meridional temperature gradient $\\Delta T$. An orographic forcing enhances the emergence of localized blocked regimes. We detect the blockin...
Cation exchange in a temporally fluctuating thin freshwater lens on top of saline groundwater
Eeman, S.; Louw, de P.G.B.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.
2017-01-01
In coastal-zone fields with a high groundwater level and sufficient rainfall, freshwater lenses are formed on top of saline or brackish groundwater. The fresh and the saline water meet at shallow depth, where a transition zone is found. This study investigates the mixing zone that is characterized
Single molecule detection, thermal fluctuation and life
YANAGIDA, Toshio; ISHII, Yoshiharu
2017-01-01
Single molecule detection has contributed to our understanding of the unique mechanisms of life. Unlike artificial man-made machines, biological molecular machines integrate thermal noises rather than avoid them. For example, single molecule detection has demonstrated that myosin motors undergo biased Brownian motion for stepwise movement and that single protein molecules spontaneously change their conformation, for switching to interactions with other proteins, in response to thermal fluctuation. Thus, molecular machines have flexibility and efficiency not seen in artificial machines. PMID:28190869
Climatically driven fluctuations in Southern Ocean ecosystems.
Murphy, Eugene J; Trathan, Philip N; Watkins, Jon L; Reid, Keith; Meredith, Michael P; Forcada, Jaume; Thorpe, Sally E; Johnston, Nadine M; Rothery, Peter
2007-12-22
Determining how climate fluctuations affect ocean ecosystems requires an understanding of how biological and physical processes interact across a wide range of scales. Here we examine the role of physical and biological processes in generating fluctuations in the ecosystem around South Georgia in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean have previously been shown to be generated through atmospheric teleconnections with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related processes. These SST anomalies are propagated via the Antarctic Circumpolar Current into the South Atlantic (on time scales of more than 1 year), where ENSO and Southern Annular Mode-related atmospheric processes have a direct influence on short (less than six months) time scales. We find that across the South Atlantic sector, these changes in SST, and related fluctuations in winter sea ice extent, affect the recruitment and dispersal of Antarctic krill. This oceanographically driven variation in krill population dynamics and abundance in turn affects the breeding success of seabird and marine mammal predators that depend on krill as food. Such propagating anomalies, mediated through physical and trophic interactions, are likely to be an important component of variation in ocean ecosystems and affect responses to longer term change. Population models derived on the basis of these oceanic fluctuations indicate that plausible rates of regional warming of 1oC over the next 100 years could lead to more than a 95% reduction in the biomass and abundance of krill across the Scotia Sea by the end of the century.
Fluctuation sensitivity of a transcriptional signaling cascade
Pilkiewicz, Kevin R.; Mayo, Michael L.
2016-09-01
The internal biochemical state of a cell is regulated by a vast transcriptional network that kinetically correlates the concentrations of numerous proteins. Fluctuations in protein concentration that encode crucial information about this changing state must compete with fluctuations caused by the noisy cellular environment in order to successfully transmit information across the network. Oftentimes, one protein must regulate another through a sequence of intermediaries, and conventional wisdom, derived from the data processing inequality of information theory, leads us to expect that longer sequences should lose more information to noise. Using the metric of mutual information to characterize the fluctuation sensitivity of transcriptional signaling cascades, we find, counter to this expectation, that longer chains of regulatory interactions can instead lead to enhanced informational efficiency. We derive an analytic expression for the mutual information from a generalized chemical kinetics model that we reduce to simple, mass-action kinetics by linearizing for small fluctuations about the basal biological steady state, and we find that at long times this expression depends only on a simple ratio of protein production to destruction rates and the length of the cascade. We place bounds on the values of these parameters by requiring that the mutual information be at least one bit—otherwise, any received signal would be indistinguishable from noise—and we find not only that nature has devised a way to circumvent the data processing inequality, but that it must be circumvented to attain this one-bit threshold. We demonstrate how this result places informational and biochemical efficiency at odds with one another by correlating high transcription factor binding affinities with low informational output, and we conclude with an analysis of the validity of our assumptions and propose how they might be tested experimentally.
Financial Factors, Rare Disasters and Macroeconomic Fluctuations.
Gruss, Bertrand
2010-01-01
Defense date: 25/10/2010 Examining Board: Prof. Giancarlo Corsetti, EUI, Supervisor Prof. Ramon Marimon, EUI Prof. Enrique Mendoza, University of Maryland Prof. Vincenzo Quadrini, University of Southern California This thesis attempts to shed light on the role of financial factors and vulnerabilities in shaping macroeconomic fluctuations. It contributes to the literature that integrates financial factors into the real business cycle paradigm by introducing asymmetries and di...
Thermodynamics and fluctuations far from equilibrium
Ross, John
2008-01-01
This book deals with the formulation of the thermodynamics of chemical and other systems far from equilibrium, including connections to fluctuations. It contains applications to non-equilibrium stationary states and approaches to such states, systems with multiple stationary states, stability and equi-stability conditions, reaction diffusion systems, transport properties, and electrochemical systems. The theoretical treatment is complemented by experimental results to substantiate the formulation. Dissipation and efficiency are analyzed in autonomous and externally forced reactions, including several biochemical systems.
Fluctuations along supersymmetric flat directions during Inflation
Enqvist, Kari; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos
2011-01-01
We consider a set of scalar fields, consisting of a single flat direction and one or several non-flat directions. We take our cue from the MSSM, considering separately D-flat and F-flat directions, but our results apply to any supersymmetric scenario containing flat directions. We study the field fluctuations during pure de Sitter Inflation, following the evolution of the infrared modes by numerically solving the appropriate Langevin equations. We demonstrate that for the Standard Model U(1),...
Demographic Fluctuation and Institutional Response in Sparta
DORAN, TIMOTHY DONALD
2011-01-01
AbstractDemographic Fluctuation and Institutional Response in SpartabyTimothy Donald DoranDoctor of Philosophy in Ancient History and Mediterranean ArchaeologyUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Emily Mackil, ChairThe Spartiate population declined from 8000 in the early fifth century to less than 1000 in the mid-fourth, and caused Sparta's political fortunes to drop dramatically from being the unofficial hegemon of the Greek-speaking peoples to a strictly local power in the Hellenisti...
Fluctuation microscopy analysis of amorphous silicon models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gibson, J.M., E-mail: jmgibson@fsu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, Boston MA 02115 (United States); FAMU/FSU Joint College of Engineering, 225 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Treacy, M.M.J. [Arizona State University, Department of Physics, Tempe AZ 85287 (United States)
2017-05-15
Highlights: • Studied competing computer models for amorphous silicon and simulated fluctuation microscopy data. • Show that only paracrystalline/random network composite can fit published data. • Specifically show that pure random network or random network with void models do not fit available data. • Identify a new means to measure volume fraction of ordered material. • Identify unreported limitations of the Debye model for simulating fluctuation microscopy data. - Abstract: Using computer-generated models we discuss the use of fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) to identify the structure of amorphous silicon. We show that a combination of variable resolution FEM to measure the correlation length, with correlograph analysis to obtain the structural motif, can pin down structural correlations. We introduce the method of correlograph variance as a promising means of independently measuring the volume fraction of a paracrystalline composite. From comparisons with published data, we affirm that only a composite material of paracrystalline and continuous random network that is substantially paracrystalline could explain the existing experimental data, and point the way to more precise measurements on amorphous semiconductors. The results are of general interest for other classes of disordered materials.
Stress fluctuations in sheared Stokesian suspensions.
Dasan, J; Ramamohan, T R; Singh, Anugrah; Nott, Prabhu R
2002-08-01
We report an analysis, using the tools of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory, of the fluctuations in the stress determined from simulations of shear flow of Stokesian suspensions. The simulations are for shear between plane parallel walls of a suspension of rigid identical spheres in a Newtonian fluid, over a range of particle concentration. By analyzing the time series of the stress, we find that the dynamics underlying these fluctuations is deterministic, low-dimensional, and chaotic. We use the dynamic and metric invariants of the underlying dynamics as a means of characterizing suspension behavior. The dimension of the chaotic attractor increases with particle concentration, indicating the increasing influence of multiple-body interactions on the rheology of the suspension with rise in particle concentration. We use our analysis to make accurate predictions of the short-term evolution of a stress component from its preceding time series, and predict the evolution of one component of the stress using the time series of another. We comment on the physical origin of the chaotic stress fluctuations, and on the implications of our results on the relation between the microstructure and the stress.
Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater ...
Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management a
Behavior of axisymmetric density fluctuations in TCV
Merlo, Gabriele; Jenko, Frank; Brunner, Stephan; Coda, Stefano; Huang, Zhouji; Villard, Laurent; Goerler, Tobias; Navarro, Alejandro B.; Told, Daniel
2017-10-01
Axisymmetric density fluctuations, either with a radially coherent or dispersive nature, are routinely observed in the TCV tokamak and experimentally interpreted as Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs). We use local and global GENE simulations to investigate their behavior. With a simplified physical model, neglecting impurities and using heavy electrons, simulations reproduce the observed behavior. Simulations allow to conclude that the modification of the safety factor q alone cannot explain the transition between these two different fluctuation regimes, which thus appear as a consequence of variations of other parameters, including collisionality and finite machine size effects. The behavior of the radially coherent GAM is further investigated with high-realism GENE simulations. With this set-up, local simulations reproduce the experimental transport level at different radii while matching the observed GAM frequency at the location where the mode peaks. Global high-realism runs, aiming at reproducing the radial extent of the fluctuations, will be discussed as well. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under Grant Agreement No 633053.
Long-time correlations in company profit fluctuations: presence of extreme events.
Roman, H Eduardo; Siliprandi, Riccardo A; Dose, Christian; Porto, Markus
2009-09-01
The accuracy of earnings predictions is hampered by the several predominantly unpredictable effects due to the complex evolution of economy. Finding out which are the dominant market features embracing uncertainty is therefore the key to get beyond present state-of-art earnings forecasts. The analysis of annual revenues and earnings data (1954-2008) from the 500 largest-revenue U.S. companies suggests a linear relation between company expected mean profit and revenue. Annual profit fluctuations are then obtained as difference between actual annual profits and expected mean values. It is found that the temporal evolution of profit fluctuations for a single company displays a slowly decaying autocorrelation, yielding Hurst exponents in the range H=0.75+/-0.17 . The study of profits cross correlations between companies suggests a way to distinguish typical earnings years from anomalous ones by looking at minimal information structures contained within the space defined by the associated covariance metric.
Itinerancy-enhanced quantum fluctuation of magnetic moments in iron-based superconductors.
Tam, Yu-Ting; Yao, Dao-Xin; Ku, Wei
2015-09-11
We investigate the influence of itinerant carriers on the dynamics and fluctuation of local moments in Fe-based superconductors, via linear spin-wave analysis of a spin-fermion model containing both itinerant and local degrees of freedom. Surprisingly, against the common lore, instead of enhancing the (π,0) order, itinerant carriers with well-nested Fermi surfaces are found to induce a significant amount of spatial and temporal quantum fluctuation that leads to the observed small ordered moment. Interestingly, the underlying mechanism is shown to be an intrapocket nesting-associated long-range coupling rather than the previously believed ferromagnetic double-exchange effect. This challenges the validity of ferromagnetically compensated first-neighbor coupling reported from short-range fitting to the experimental dispersion, which turns out to result instead from the ferro-orbital order that is also found instrumental in stabilizing the magnetic order.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sibani, Paolo
2007-01-01
in a correlated fashion and through irreversible bursts, `quakes', which punctuate reversible and equilibrium-like fluctuations of zero average. The temporal distribution of the quakes is a Poisson distribution with an average growing logarithmically on time, indicating that the quakes are triggered by record...... to capture the time dependencies of the EA simulation results. Finally, we argue that whenever the changes of the linear response function and of its conjugate autocorrelation function follow from the same intermittent events a fluctuation-dissipation-like relation can arise between the two in off......We study the intermittent behavior of the energy decay and the linear magnetic response of a glassy system during isothermal aging after a deep thermal quench, using the Edward-Anderson spin glass model as a paradigmatic example. The large intermittent changes in the two observables occur...
A phenomenological theory of Eulerian and Lagrangian velocity fluctuations in turbulent flows
Chevillard, Laurent; Arneodo, Alain; Leveque, Emmanuel; Pinton, Jean-Francois; Roux, Stephane
2011-01-01
A phenomenological theory of the fluctuations of velocity occurring in a fully developed homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow is presented. The focus is made on the fluctuations of the spatial (Eulerian) and temporal (Lagrangian) velocity increments. The universal nature of the intermittency phenomenon as observed in experimental measurements and numerical simulations is shown to be fully taken into account by the multiscale picture proposed by the multifractal formalism, and its extensions to the dissipative scales and to the Lagrangian framework. The article is devoted to the presentation of these arguments and to their comparisons against empirical data. In particular, explicit predictions of the statistics, such as probability density functions and high order moments, of the velocity gradients and acceleration are derived. In the Eulerian framework, at a given Reynolds number, they are shown to depend on a single parameter function called the singularity spectrum and to a universal constant governing ...
Long-time correlations in company profit fluctuations: Presence of extreme events
Roman, H. Eduardo; Siliprandi, Riccardo A.; Dose, Christian; Porto, Markus
2009-09-01
The accuracy of earnings predictions is hampered by the several predominantly unpredictable effects due to the complex evolution of economy. Finding out which are the dominant market features embracing uncertainty is therefore the key to get beyond present state-of-art earnings forecasts. The analysis of annual revenues and earnings data (1954-2008) from the 500 largest-revenue U.S. companies suggests a linear relation between company expected mean profit and revenue. Annual profit fluctuations are then obtained as difference between actual annual profits and expected mean values. It is found that the temporal evolution of profit fluctuations for a single company displays a slowly decaying autocorrelation, yielding Hurst exponents in the range H=0.75±0.17 . The study of profits cross correlations between companies suggests a way to distinguish typical earnings years from anomalous ones by looking at minimal information structures contained within the space defined by the associated covariance metric.
Inferring interannual fluctuations of the core angular momentum from geomagnetic field models
Asari, Seiki; Wardinski, Ingo
2017-04-01
Satellite models for Earth's core magnetic field, as well as observations of Earth rotation variation, suggest an existence of interannual core dynamics. Due to its small magnetic signal, however, interannual variations in the core flow and accompanying core angular momentum (CAM) are still subject to a large ambiguity, particularly when inferred from pre-satellite magnetic models. It is nevertheless indicated from our systematic flow inversions with a core field model C3FM2 that estimated phases of interannual CAM variations are almost insensitive to prior settings of the inversion. We discuss that the uncertainty of Earth's interannual CAM fluctuations arises from, besides the theoretical lack of resolution, differences of core field models in the interannual secular accelerations. C3FM2 may be optimized for better resolving the interannual CAM fluctuations by properly regulating its temporal smoothness.
... pregnancy Temporal lobe seizure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...
... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. During a temporal lobe seizure, you ... include: A sudden sense of unprovoked fear A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...
Multisensory temporal numerosity judgment
Philippi, T.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Werkhoven, P.J.
2008-01-01
In temporal numerosity judgment, observers systematically underestimate the number of pulses. The strongest underestimations occur when stimuli are presented with a short interstimulus interval (ISI) and are stronger for vision than for audition and touch. We investigated if multisensory
Massive temporal lobe cholesteatoma
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent
2015-01-01
.... There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma...
Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent
2015-01-01
.... There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma...
Fluctuation-Noise Model for PEM Fuel Cell
Denisov, E. S.; Salakhova, A. Sh.; Adiutantov, N. A.; Evdokimov, Yu. K.
2017-08-01
The fluctuation-noise model is presented. This model allows to describe the power spectral density of PEM fuel cell electrical fluctuation. The proposed model can be used for diagnostics of PEM fuel cell state of health.
Phase Fluctuations and the Absence of Topological Defects in Photo-excited Charge Ordered Nickelate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, W.S.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moore, R.G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D.H.; Kirchmann, P.S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J.S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S.Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D.A.; Kaindl, R.A.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Doering, D.
2012-05-15
The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La{sub 1.75}Sr{sub 0.25}NiO{sub 4} to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.
Role of excited state solvent fluctuations on time-dependent fluorescence Stokes shift
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Tanping, E-mail: tanping@lsu.edu, E-mail: revatik@lsu.edu; Kumar, Revati, E-mail: tanping@lsu.edu, E-mail: revatik@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)
2015-11-07
We explore the connection between the solvation dynamics of a chromophore upon photon excitation and equilibrium fluctuations of the solvent. Using molecular dynamics simulations, fluorescence Stokes shift for the tryptophan in Staphylococcus nuclease was examined using both nonequilibrium calculations and linear response theory. When the perturbed and unperturbed surfaces exhibit different solvent equilibrium fluctuations, the linear response approach on the former surface shows agreement with the nonequilibrium process. This agreement is excellent when the perturbed surface exhibits Gaussian statistics and qualitative in the case of an isomerization induced non-Gaussian statistics. However, the linear response theory on the unperturbed surface breaks down even in the presence of Gaussian fluctuations. Experiments also provide evidence of the connection between the excited state solvent fluctuations and the total fluorescence shift. These observations indicate that the equilibrium statistics on the excited state surface characterize the relaxation dynamics of the fluorescence Stokes shift. Our studies specifically analyze the Gaussian fluctuations of the solvent in the complex protein environment and further confirm the role of solvent fluctuations on the excited state surface. The results are consistent with previous investigations, found in the literature, of solutes dissolved in liquids.
Scaling in sub- substorm scale fluctuations in epsilon, AU and AL- solar cycle dependence.
Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.
2006-12-01
A key property of magnetospheric energy release is intermittent, non-Gaussian fluctuations in geomagnetic indices and in single station magnetometer data occurring on shorter than substorm timescales. However, the turbulent solar wind is also intermittent, so that the Poynting flux into the magnetosphere shares these qualitative features. We study the properties of fluctuations of the AU and AL geomagnetic indices and of the epsilon parameter which is a measure of the solar wind driver. We perform analyses that provide quantitative measures within the framework of models for turbulence and for critical phenomena; that is, we find the exponent that captures the self-similarity in the time series, and the functional form of the non- Gaussian Probability Density Function (PDF) that expresses its intermittency. Generalized structure function analysis is accompanied by PDF rescaling. Fluctuations in all quantities are found to exhibit self-similar statistics for up to 1-2 hours. We divide the data into intervals of solar maximum and minimum and find that whereas fluctuations in epsilon and AU change their properties with the solar cycle, fluctuations in AL do not. This places strong statistical constraints on the propagation of information from these below- substorm scale fluctuations from the solar wind to the magnetosphere as seen by the indices.
The mechanisms for passive suppression of fluctuating surface pressure in a supersonic cavity flow
Dudley, Jonathan G.
The study of the passive suppression of supersonic cavity flow using a rod immersed in the upstream boundary layer is a unique and challenging fluid mechanics problem. The flowfield includes a compressible shear layer interacting with a complex pattern of compression and expansion waves. The turbulent fluctuations inside the shear layer may be amplified through a feedback-receptivity cycle resulting in increased pressure loading on the surfaces of the cavity. Studying the mechanisms dictating the suppression of these amplified turbulent fluctuations when control is present makes for an enlightening and challenging problem. A combined experimental and time accurate numerical study using detached-eddy simulation was conducted to study the suppression of pressure fluctuations due to supersonic cavity flow at Minfinity = 1.4 over an open rectangular cavity with a length-to-depth ratio of six. In this study, the focus is confined to suppression due to a rod spoiler. The experimental measurements included temporally resolved fluctuating surface pressure measurements coupled with spatially resolved particle image velocimetry. Analysis of the fluctuating pressures on the cavity surfaces included investigations of the root-mean-square fluctuating pressure, spectral analysis, correlation and coherence analysis and joint time-frequency spectrograms. The shear layer flowfield and turbulence was studied using ensemble averaged turbulent statistics including two-point spatial turbulent velocity correlations and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition. Results indicate that the most effective suppression of the fluctuating pressures was achieved when a rod sized roughly 40% of the boundary layer was placed such that the top of the rod was near the top edge of the boundary layer. It was shown that the rod leads to a thicker shear layer that initially spreads more rapidly. The turbulent structures in the wake of the rod interact with the cavity shear layer with a time periodic excitation
Intermediate-k density and magnetic field fluctuations during inter-ELM pedestal evolution in MAST
Hillesheim, J. C.; Dickinson, D.; Roach, C. M.; Saarelma, S.; Scannell, R.; Kirk, A.; Crocker, N. A.; Peebles, W. A.; Meyer, H.; the MAST Team
2016-01-01
Measurements of local density and magnetic field fluctuations near the pedestal top, conditionally averaged over the edge localized mode (ELM) cycle, have been made in Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). A Doppler backscattering (DBS) system installed at MAST was used to measure intermediate-k ≤ft({{k}\\bot}{ρi}≈ 3~\\text{to}~4\\right) density fluctuations at the top of the pedestal. A novel diagnostic technique combining DBS with cross-polarization scattering (CP-DBS) enabled magnetic field fluctuations to also be locally measured at similar wave numbers. Polarization isolation and other effects for CP-DBS are discussed. Both measurements were used in a series of high-β ≤ft({βn}≈ 4.0\\right. -4.5) MAST plasmas with large type-I ELMs with an ˜ 8~\\text{to}~9~\\text{ms} period where microtearing modes (MTMs) had been predicted to be unstable in similar conditions (Dickinson 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 135002). The measured density fluctuation level increased by a factor of about 4 between 2 and 4 ms after the ELM, which was correlated with the recovery of the density profile while the temperature pedestal height continued to increase slowly. Magnetic field fluctuations showed different temporal behaviors, slowly increasing throughout the ELM cycle as the local β increased. Linear GS2 calculations show both MTM and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes unstable at similar wave numbers as the measurements (although with more overlap between ETG wave numbers and diagnostic spectral resolution) at the top of the pedestal, along with kinetic ballooning modes are unstable lower in the pedestal (at larger wavelengths). The inferred ratio of fluctuation levels from experiment was ≤ft(δ B/B\\right)/≤ft(δ n/n\\right)≈ 1/20 . The comparable ratios from GS2 were ≤ft(δ B/B\\right)/≤ft(δ n/n\\right)≈ 0.4 for the MTM and ≤ft(δ B/B\\right)/≤ft(δ n/n\\right)≈ 0.02 for the ETG. Both the experimental wave number range and the fluctuation ratio
Fluctuating asymmetry in Menidia beryllina before and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
Michaelsen, Savannah; Schaefer, Jacob; Peterson, Mark S
2015-01-01
Assessing the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with a dependable baseline comparison can provide reliable insight into environmental stressors on organisms that were potentially affected by the spill. Fluctuating asymmetry (small, non-random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry) is an informative metric sensitive to contaminants that can be used to assess environmental stress levels. For this study, the well-studied and common Gulf of Mexico estuarine fish, Menidia beryllina, was used with pre and post-oil spill collections. Comparisons of fluctuating asymmetry in three traits (eye diameter, pectoral fin length, and pelvic fin length) were made pre and post-oil spill across two sites (Old Fort Bayou and the Pascagoula River), as well as between years of collection (2011, 2012)--one and two years, respectfully, after the spill in 2010. We hypothesized that fluctuating asymmetry would be higher in post-Deepwater Horizon samples, and that this will be replicated in both study areas along the Mississippi Gulf coast. We also predicted that fluctuating asymmetry would decrease through time after the oil spill as the oil decomposed and/or was removed. Analyses performed on 1135 fish (220 pre and 915 post Deepwater Horizon) showed significantly higher post spill fluctuating asymmetry in the eye but no difference for the pectoral or pelvic fins. There was also higher fluctuating asymmetry in one of the two sites both pre and post-spill, indicating observed asymmetry may be the product of multiple stressors. Fluctuating asymmetry decreased in 2012 compared to 2011. Fluctuating asymmetry is a sensitive measure of sub lethal stress, and the observed variability in this study (pre vs. post-spill or between sites) could be due to a combination of oil, dispersants, or other unknown stressors.
Fluctuating asymmetry in Menidia beryllina before and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Savannah Michaelsen
Full Text Available Assessing the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with a dependable baseline comparison can provide reliable insight into environmental stressors on organisms that were potentially affected by the spill. Fluctuating asymmetry (small, non-random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry is an informative metric sensitive to contaminants that can be used to assess environmental stress levels. For this study, the well-studied and common Gulf of Mexico estuarine fish, Menidia beryllina, was used with pre and post-oil spill collections. Comparisons of fluctuating asymmetry in three traits (eye diameter, pectoral fin length, and pelvic fin length were made pre and post-oil spill across two sites (Old Fort Bayou and the Pascagoula River, as well as between years of collection (2011, 2012--one and two years, respectfully, after the spill in 2010. We hypothesized that fluctuating asymmetry would be higher in post-Deepwater Horizon samples, and that this will be replicated in both study areas along the Mississippi Gulf coast. We also predicted that fluctuating asymmetry would decrease through time after the oil spill as the oil decomposed and/or was removed. Analyses performed on 1135 fish (220 pre and 915 post Deepwater Horizon showed significantly higher post spill fluctuating asymmetry in the eye but no difference for the pectoral or pelvic fins. There was also higher fluctuating asymmetry in one of the two sites both pre and post-spill, indicating observed asymmetry may be the product of multiple stressors. Fluctuating asymmetry decreased in 2012 compared to 2011. Fluctuating asymmetry is a sensitive measure of sub lethal stress, and the observed variability in this study (pre vs. post-spill or between sites could be due to a combination of oil, dispersants, or other unknown stressors.
Suk, Heejun
2017-11-01
A one-dimensional semi-analytical solution of land-derived solute transport, subject to tidal fluctuation in a coastal confined aquifer, was derived using the generalized integral-transform technique (GITT). To investigate the plume migration of land-derived contaminants within a tidally influenced aquifer, both spatially and temporally varying expressions of the Darcy velocity and dispersion coefficients obtained from the analytical solution of the groundwater head response, which were subject to sinusoidal boundary conditions due to tidal fluctuation, were considered. This new semi-analytical solution was verified against a numerical solution, as well as the peak location trajectory obtained using the Predictor-Corrector method. Sensitivity analyses of tidal amplitude, hydraulic conductivity, and storage coefficient using the proposed solution were performed to understand plume behavior with regard to plume shape, plume spatial moments, and macrodispersion coefficients to gain a better understanding of the transport mechanisms. As the tidal amplitude, hydraulic conductivity, and storage coefficient were increased, the peaks were travelled faster, and peak concentrations were decreased. In addition, an increase in tidal amplitude, hydraulic conductivity, and storage coefficient caused an increase in variance as well as the macrodispersion coefficient. It was observed that negative macrodispersion appeared when the storage coefficient was largest, as well as when the difference between landward-directed advective velocity at the leading and trailing edges of the plume was greatest. This newly developed semi-analytical solution provides a useful mathematical tool for validating numerical models and understanding the physical mechanism of the migration of plume discharge to the sea or estuaries within a tidally influenced aquifer.
Cui, Linyan
2014-09-01
Current theoretical temporal power spectra models of an optical wave have been developed for terrestrial environments. The interactions between humidity and temperature fluctuations in the marine atmospheric environments make the marine atmospheric turbulence particularly challenging, and the optical waves' propagation through marine turbulence exhibits a different behavior with respect to terrestrial propagation. In this paper, the temporal power spectra of irradiance scintillation under weak marine atmospheric turbulence, which is one of the key temporal statistics to describe the correlation of irradiance fluctuations at different time instances, is investigated in detail both analytically and numerically. Closed-form expressions for the temporal power spectra of irradiance scintillation are derived for infrared plane and spherical waves under weak marine atmospheric turbulence, and they consider physically the influences of finite turbulence inner and outer scales. The final results indicate that the marine atmospheric turbulence brings more effects on the irradiance scintillation than the terrestrial atmospheric turbulence.
Modeling of effect of LC SLM phase fluctuations on kinoforms optical reconstruction quality
Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.
2015-05-01
Phase-only liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) are actively used in various applications. However, majority of scientific applications require stable phase modulation which might be hard to achieve with commercially available SLM due to its consumer origin. The use of digital voltage addressing scheme leads to phase temporal fluctuations, which results in lower diffraction efficiency and reconstruction quality of displayed diffractive optical elements (DOE). It is often preferable to know effect of these fluctuations on DOE reconstruction quality before SLM is implemented into experimental setup. It is especially important in case of multi-level phaseonly DOE such as kinoforms. Therefore we report results of modeling of effect of phase fluctuations of LC SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS" on kinoforms optical reconstruction quality. Modeling was conducted in the following way. First dependency of LC SLM phase shift on addressed signal level and time from frame start was measured for all signal values (0-255) with temporal resolution of 0.5 ms in time period of one frame. Then numerical simulation of effect of SLM phase fluctuations on kinoforms reconstruction quality was performed. Based on measured dependency, for each time delay new distorted kinoform was generated and then numerically reconstructed. Averaged reconstructed image corresponds to optically reconstructed one with registration time exceeding time period of one frame (16.7 ms), while individual images correspond to momentary optical reconstruction with registration time less than 1 ms. Quality degradation of modeled optical reconstruction of several test kinoforms was analyzed. Comparison of kinoforms optical reconstruction with SLM and numerically simulated reconstruction was conducted.
The Origin of the Density Fluctuations in De Sitter Space
Morikawa, M.
1987-05-01
As the origin of the large scale structure in the universe, statistical fluctuations of a c-number scalar field are evaluated on the basis of the double time-contour path integral method. The source of the fluctuation is a backreaction of spontaneous particle production in de Sitter space. The evaluated fluctuations are quite different from the ordinary quantum fluctuations and are proportional to the particle production rate.
Fluctuations, response, and resonances in a simple atmospheric model
Gritsun, Andrey; Lucarini, Valerio
2017-06-01
We study the response of a simple quasi-geostrophic barotropic model of the atmosphere to various classes of perturbations affecting its forcing and its dissipation using the formalism of the Ruelle response theory. We investigate the geometry of such perturbations by constructing the covariant Lyapunov vectors of the unperturbed system and discover in one specific case-orographic forcing-a substantial projection of the forcing onto the stable directions of the flow. This results into a resonant response shaped as a Rossby-like wave that has no resemblance to the unforced variability in the same range of spatial and temporal scales. Such a climatic surprise corresponds to a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, in agreement with the basic tenets of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The resonance can be attributed to a specific group of rarely visited unstable periodic orbits of the unperturbed system. Our results reinforce the idea of using basic methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and high-dimensional chaotic dynamical systems to approach the problem of understanding climate dynamics.
General Linearized Theory of Quantum Fluctuations around Arbitrary Limit Cycles.
Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Weiss, Talitha; Walter, Stefan; de Valcárcel, Germán J
2017-09-29
The theory of Gaussian quantum fluctuations around classical steady states in nonlinear quantum-optical systems (also known as standard linearization) is a cornerstone for the analysis of such systems. Its simplicity, together with its accuracy far from critical points or situations where the nonlinearity reaches the strong coupling regime, has turned it into a widespread technique, being the first method of choice in most works on the subject. However, such a technique finds strong practical and conceptual complications when one tries to apply it to situations in which the classical long-time solution is time dependent, a most prominent example being spontaneous limit-cycle formation. Here, we introduce a linearization scheme adapted to such situations, using the driven Van der Pol oscillator as a test bed for the method, which allows us to compare it with full numerical simulations. On a conceptual level, the scheme relies on the connection between the emergence of limit cycles and the spontaneous breaking of the symmetry under temporal translations. On the practical side, the method keeps the simplicity and linear scaling with the size of the problem (number of modes) characteristic of standard linearization, making it applicable to large (many-body) systems.
Sweet future: fluctuating blood glucose levels affect future discounting.
Wang, X T; Dvorak, Robert D
2010-02-01
This study explored metabolic mechanisms of future (delay) discounting, a choice phenomenon where people value present goods over future goods. Using fluctuating blood glucose as an index of body-energy budget, optimal discounting should regulate choice among rewards as a function of temporal caloric requirement. We identified this novel link between blood glucose levels measured in the lab and future-discounting rates of participants, who made choices between a "smaller and sooner" reward and a "larger but later" option, with possible actual monetary rewards. A group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained sugar showed a reduced rate of future discounting afterward, when we controlled for sex, age, body mass index, and the taste of the drink. In contrast, a group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained artificial sweetener showed an increased rate of future discounting. Blood glucose levels not only varied as a result of caloric intake but also regulated the rate of future discounting, according to participants' dynamic body-energy budget.
General Linearized Theory of Quantum Fluctuations around Arbitrary Limit Cycles
Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Weiss, Talitha; Walter, Stefan; de Valcárcel, Germán J.
2017-09-01
The theory of Gaussian quantum fluctuations around classical steady states in nonlinear quantum-optical systems (also known as standard linearization) is a cornerstone for the analysis of such systems. Its simplicity, together with its accuracy far from critical points or situations where the nonlinearity reaches the strong coupling regime, has turned it into a widespread technique, being the first method of choice in most works on the subject. However, such a technique finds strong practical and conceptual complications when one tries to apply it to situations in which the classical long-time solution is time dependent, a most prominent example being spontaneous limit-cycle formation. Here, we introduce a linearization scheme adapted to such situations, using the driven Van der Pol oscillator as a test bed for the method, which allows us to compare it with full numerical simulations. On a conceptual level, the scheme relies on the connection between the emergence of limit cycles and the spontaneous breaking of the symmetry under temporal translations. On the practical side, the method keeps the simplicity and linear scaling with the size of the problem (number of modes) characteristic of standard linearization, making it applicable to large (many-body) systems.
Common Origin of Quantum Regression and Quantum Fluctuation Dissipation Theorems
Shiktorov, P.; Starikov, E.; Gruzinskis, V.; Reggiani, L.; L. Varani; Vaissiere, J. C.
2000-01-01
It is shown that the quantum fluctuation dissipation theorem can be considered as a mathematical formulation in the spectral representation of Onsager hypothesis on the regression of fluctuations in physical systems. It is shown that the quantum fluctuation dissipation theorem can be generalized to an arbitrary stationary state.
Correlations and Fluctuations, A Summary of Quark Matter 2002
Pratt, Scott
2003-01-01
Results for correlations and fluctuations presented at Quark Matter 2002 are summarized. These results include Hanbury-Brown Twiss interferometry of a wide variety of species, large scale fluctuations and correlations in $p_t$ and multiplicity, and charge fluctuations and charge balance functions.
Complexity in the scaling of velocity fluctuations in the high-latitude F-region ionosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. L. Parkinson
2008-09-01
Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of F-region velocity fluctuations, δvlos, were characterised over 17 octaves of temporal scale from τ=1 s to <1 day using a new data base of 1-s time resolution SuperDARN radar measurements. After quality control, 2.9 (1.9 million fluctuations were recorded during 31.5 (40.4 days of discretionary mode soundings using the Tasmanian (New Zealand radars. If the fluctuations were statistically self-similar, the probability density functions (PDFs of δvlos would collapse onto the same PDF using the scaling Ps (δvs, τ=ταP (δvlos, τ and δvs=δvlosτ−α where α is the scaling exponent. The variations in scaling exponents α and multi-fractal behaviour were estimated using peak scaling and generalised structure function (GSF analyses, and a new method based upon minimising the differences between re-scaled probability density functions (PDFs. The efficiency of this method enabled calculation of "α spectra", the temporal spectra of scaling exponents from τ=1 s to ~2048 s. The large number of samples enabled calculation of α spectra for data separated into 2-h bins of MLT as well as two main physical regimes: Population A echoes with Doppler spectral width <75 m s−1 concentrated on closed field lines, and Population B echoes with spectral width >150 m s−1 concentrated on open field lines. For all data there was a scaling break at τ~10 s and the similarity of the fluctuations beneath this scale may be related to the large spatial averaging (~100 km×45 km employed by SuperDARN radars. For Tasmania Population B, the velocity fluctuations exhibited approximately mono fractal power law scaling between τ~8 s and 2048 s (34 min, and probably up to several hours. The scaling exponents were generally less than that expected for basic MHD turbulence (α=0.25, except close to magnetic dusk where they peaked towards the basic MHD value. For Population A, the scaling exponents were larger than for Population B
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret
2008-01-01
The Effect of Climate, Environment and Man on Variations in Wildlife Population Fluctuations in Greenland Over 200 Years Moshøj, Charlotte The underlying factors of species fluctuating population dynamics has been the dominant focus of attention in population ecology throughout much of this century...... in the harvests of individual species are believed to be related to changes in climate, as well as variations in hunting pressure. Dating back 200 years, these hunting records therefore represent a unique time series for retrospective modelling of annual and decadal fluctuations in relation to long-term climatic...... data, environmental factors and temporal variations in social and demographic parameters in the existing society. The results of this study model future predictions of wildlife populations under changing climate variables and human hunting pressure. View Presentation....
Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.
2008-01-01
Brain regions which exhibit temporally coherent fluctuations, have been increasingly studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Such networks are often identified in the context of an fMRI scan collected during rest (and thus are called “resting state networks”); however, they are also present during (and modulated by) the performance of a cognitive task. In this article, we will refer to such networks as temporally coherent networks (TCNs). Although there is still some debat...
Radhakrishnan, R.; Uma, B.; Liu, J.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.; Eckmann, D. M.
2012-01-01
We present a fluctuating hydrodynamics approach and a hybrid approach combining fluctuating hydrodynamics with generalized Langevin dynamics to resolve the motion of a nanocarrier when subject to both hydrodynamic interactions and adhesive interactions. Specifically, using these approaches, we compute equilibrium probability distributions at constant temperature as well as velocity autocorrelation functions of the nanocarrier subject to thermal motion in a quiescent Newtonian fluid medium, when tethered by a harmonic spring force mimicking a tether due to a single receptor-ligand bond. We demonstrate that the thermal equipartition of translation, rotation, and spring degrees of freedom are preserved by our formalism while simultaneously resolving the nature of the hydrodynamic correlations. Additionally, we evaluate the potential of mean force (or free energy density) along a specified reaction coordinate to faciltate extensive conformational sampling of the nanocarrier motion. We show that our results are in excellent agreement with analytical results and Monte Carlo simulations, thereby validating our methodologies. The frameworks we have presented provide a comprehensive platform for temporal multiscale modeling of hydrodynamic and microscopic interactions mediating nanocarrier motion and adhesion in vascular targeted drug delivery. PMID:23853388
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Utanohara, Yoichi, E-mail: utanohara@inss.co.jp [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., 64 Sata, Mihama-cho, Mikata-gun, Fukui 919-1205 (Japan); Nakamura, Akira, E-mail: a-naka@inss.co.jp [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., 64 Sata, Mihama-cho, Mikata-gun, Fukui 919-1205 (Japan); Miyoshi, Koji, E-mail: miyoshi.koji@inss.co.jp [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., 64 Sata, Mihama-cho, Mikata-gun, Fukui 919-1205 (Japan); Kasahara, Naoto, E-mail: kasahara@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2016-08-15
-averaged temperature distributions were also reproduced, although overestimation appeared near the wall. The fluid temperature fluctuation intensity near the wall surface could be predicted qualitatively, while the peak value was overestimated. From the engineering viewpoint, it was concluded that the numerical simulation provided results that were conservative and on the side of safety. From the grid convergence study, the coarsest grid for which grid convergence was almost attained was selected and the simulation was continued until 100 s. Frequency analysis of the fluid temperature fluctuation showed that the long-period fluctuation appeared as well as the well-known typical frequency (St = 0.2). This indicated that numerical simulation could reproduce the long-period temperature fluctuation at the mixing tee.
García de León, David; García-Mozo, Herminia; Galán, Carmen; Alcázar, Purificación; Lima, Mauricio; González-Andújar, José L
2015-10-15
Pollen allergies are the most common form of respiratory allergic disease in Europe. Most studies have emphasized the role of environmental processes, as the drivers of airborne pollen fluctuations, implicitly considering pollen production as a random walk. This work shows that internal self-regulating processes of the plants (negative feedback) should be included in pollen dynamic systems in order to give a better explanation of the observed pollen temporal patterns. This article proposes a novel methodological approach based on dynamic systems to investigate the interaction between feedback structure of plant populations and climate in shaping long-term airborne Poaceae pollen fluctuations and to quantify the effects of climate change on future airborne pollen concentrations. Long-term historical airborne Poaceae pollen data (30 years) from Cordoba city (Southern Spain) were analyzed. A set of models, combining feedback structure, temperature and actual evapotranspiration effects on airborne Poaceae pollen were built and compared, using a model selection approach. Our results highlight the importance of first-order negative feedback and mean annual maximum temperature in driving airborne Poaceae pollen dynamics. The best model was used to predict the effects of climate change under two standardized scenarios representing contrasting temporal patterns of economic development and CO2 emissions. Our results predict an increase in pollen levels in southern Spain by 2070 ranging from 28.5% to 44.3%. The findings from this study provide a greater understanding of airborne pollen dynamics and how climate change might impact the future evolution of airborne Poaceae pollen concentrations and thus the future evolution of related pollen allergies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Temporal Variation and Scaling of Hydrological Variables in a Typical Watershed
Yang, C.; Zhang, Y. K.; Liang, X.; Liu, J.
2016-12-01
Temporal variations of the main hydrological variables over 16 years were systematically investigated based on the results from an integrated hydrological modeling at the Sagehen Creek Watershed in northern Sierra Nevada. Temporal scaling of these variables and damping effects of the hydrological system as well as its subsystems, i.e., the land surface, unsaturated zone, and saturated zone, were analyzed with spectral analyses. It was found that the hydrological system may act as a cascade of hierarchical fractal filters which sequentially transfer a non-fractal or less correlated fractal hydrological signal to a more correlated fractal signal. Temporal scaling of infiltration (I), actual evapotraspiration (ET), recharge (R), baseflow (BF), streamflow (SF) exist and the temporal autocorrelation of these variables increase as water moves through the system. The degree of the damping effect of the subsystems is different and is strongest in the unsaturated zone compared with that of the land surface and saturated zone. The temporal scaling of the groundwater levels (h) also exists and is strongly affected by the river: the temporal autocorrelation of h near the river is similar to that of the river stage fluctuations and increases away from the river. There is a break in the temporal scaling of h near the river at low frequencies due to the effect of the river. Temporal variations of the soil moisture (θ) is more complicated: the value of the scaling exponent (β) for θ increases with depth as water moves downwards and its high-frequency fluctuations are damped by the unsaturated zone. The temporal fluctuations of precipitation (P) and I are fractional Gauss noise (fGn), those of ET, R, BF, and SF are fractional Brownian motion (fBm), and those of h away from the river are 2nd-order fBm based on the values of β obtained in this study. Keywords: Temporal variations, Scaling, Damping effect, Hydrological system.
The trophic state of lake water regulates spatial-temporal variations of bloom-forming Microcystis
Li, Yinxia; Liu, Bibo; Liu, Shuaixia; Li, Dunhai
2017-03-01
Although biomass variations in Microcystis and microcystin have been widely reported, few studies have addressed whether different trophic states of natural lake water affect the spatial-temporal variations in abundances of microcystin-producing Microcystis in a given bloom. In this study, we used a harmful algal bloom in Chaohu Lake, eastern China, as an example to investigate the mutual relationship between different nutrient states and environmental factors, and the impact on Microcystis. Overall, cyanobacteria and Microcystis were more abundant in the middle and western parts of the lake under high nutrients levels, while in the eastern part, nutrient concentrations were low enough to limit biomass, and their fluctuations affected the contents of toxic Microcystis. Moreover, microcystin concentration was correlated positively to nutrient levels and Microcystis biomass during bloom developing in 2013 from June to August. Temporally, the cellular content of total microcystin was lowest when the bloom peaked in intensity. Our results suggest that lake eutrophication not only results in cyanobacterial blooms, but may also increase the proportion of toxic Microcystis species and their cell-bound MCs contents (i.e. microcystin cell quotas) under mild eutrophication. The present investigation provided molecular evidence for the selection of MC-producing and non-MC-producing genotypes. The current study provides new evidence advocating the monitoring of partitions of large lakes when studying cyanobacteria and toxin-contaminated freshwaters, which will be beneficial for both water agencies and water researchers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braun-Munzinger, P., E-mail: p.braun-munzinger@gsi.de [Extreme Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Rustamov, A., E-mail: a.rustamov@cern.ch [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Stachel, J., E-mail: stachel@physi.uni-heidelberg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)
2017-04-15
We develop methods to deal with non-dynamical contributions to event-by-event fluctuation measurements of net-particle numbers in relativistic nuclear collisions. These contributions arise from impact parameter fluctuations and from the requirement of overall net-baryon number or net-charge conservation and may mask the dynamical fluctuations of interest, such as those due to critical endpoints in the QCD phase diagram. Within a model of independent particle sources we derive formulae for net-particle fluctuations and develop a rigorous approach to take into account contributions from participant fluctuations in realistic experimental environments and at any cumulant order. Interestingly, contributions from participant fluctuations to the second and third cumulants of net-baryon distributions are found to vanish at mid-rapidity for LHC energies while higher cumulants of even order are non-zero even when the net-baryon number at mid-rapidity is zero. At lower beam energies the effect of participant fluctuations increases and induces spurious higher moments. The necessary corrections become large and need to be carefully taken into account before comparison to theory. We also provide a procedure for selecting the optimal phase–space coverage of particles for fluctuation analyses and discuss quantitatively the necessary correction due to global charge conservation.
Whistler Cyclotron Electromagnetic Fluctuations in a Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like Plasma
Vinas, A. F.; Moya, P. S.; Navarro, R.; Araneda, J. A.
2014-12-01
Observed electron velocity distributions in the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind exhibit a variety of non-thermal features which deviate from thermal equilibrium, for example, in the form of temperature anisotropies, suprathermal tail extensions, and field aligned beams. The state close to thermal equilibrium and its departure from it provides a source for spontaneous emissions of electromagnetic fluctuations, such as the whistler. Here we present a comparative analysis of whistler-cyclotron fluctuations based upon anisotropic plasma modeled with Maxwellian and Tsallis kappa-like particle distributions, to explain the correspondence relationship of the magnetic fluctuations as a function of the electron temperature and thermal anisotropy in the solar wind and magnetosphere plasmas. The analysis presented here considers correlation theory of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the dispersion relation of transverse fluctuations, with wave vectors parallel to the uniform background magnetic field, in a finite temperature anisotropic thermal bi-Maxwellian and non-thermal Tsallis-kappa-like magnetized electron-proton plasma. Dispersion analysis and stability thresholds are derived for these thermal and non-thermal distributions using plasma and field parameters relevant to the solar wind and magnetosphere environments. Our results indicate that there is an enhancement of the fluctuations level in the case of non-thermal distributions due to the effective higher-temperature and the excess of suprathermal particles. These results suggest that a comparison of the electromagnetic fluctuations due to thermal and non-thermal distributions provides a diagnostic signature by which inferences about the nature of the particle velocity distribution function can be ascertained without in-situ particle measurements.
Temporal ecology in the Anthropocene.
Wolkovich, E M; Cook, B I; McLauchlan, K K; Davies, T J
2014-11-01
Two fundamental axes - space and time - shape ecological systems. Over the last 30 years spatial ecology has developed as an integrative, multidisciplinary science that has improved our understanding of the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation and loss. We argue that accelerating climate change - the effective manipulation of time by humans - has generated a current need to build an equivalent framework for temporal ecology. Climate change has at once pressed ecologists to understand and predict ecological dynamics in non-stationary environments, while also challenged fundamental assumptions of many concepts, models and approaches. However, similarities between space and time, especially related issues of scaling, provide an outline for improving ecological models and forecasting of temporal dynamics, while the unique attributes of time, particularly its emphasis on events and its singular direction, highlight where new approaches are needed. We emphasise how a renewed, interdisciplinary focus on time would coalesce related concepts, help develop new theories and methods and guide further data collection. The next challenge will be to unite predictive frameworks from spatial and temporal ecology to build robust forecasts of when and where environmental change will pose the largest threats to species and ecosystems, as well as identifying the best opportunities for conservation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Moreira, Lorena; Hocke, Klemens; Kämpfer, Niklaus
2017-04-01
The ground-based millimeter wave ozone spectrometer (GROMOS) has been continually measuring stratospheric and lower mesospheric ozone volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles above Bern, Switzerland (46.95°N, 7.44°E, 577 m) since 1994. The high temporal resolution of GROMOS (30 minutes) allows the analysis of short-term fluctuations. The present study analyses the temporal perturbations, ranging from 1 to 4 hours, observed in stratospheric ozone from June 2011 to May 2012. We observe an increase in mid- and upper stratospheric ozone fluctuations of about 0.05 ppm or 0.9% from December to January. The strongest variations of stratospheric ozone above Bern are due to displacements of the polar vortex to mid-latitudes, related with sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events and produced by breaking of planetary Rossby waves. The breaking of planetary waves and the disruptions of the polar vortex edge can also generate fluctuations in stratospheric ozone, for instance the so-called stratospheric streamers. The increase of inertia-gravity wave activity at the polar vortex edge during these SSW events can also be related with the short-term fluctuations observed in mid- and upper stratospheric ozone during winter.
Fluctuations of hi-hat timing and dynamics in a virtuoso drum track of a popular music recording.
Räsänen, Esa; Pulkkinen, Otto; Virtanen, Tuomas; Zollner, Manfred; Hennig, Holger
2015-01-01
Long-range correlated temporal fluctuations in the beats of musical rhythms are an inevitable consequence of human action. According to recent studies, such fluctuations also lead to a favored listening experience. The scaling laws of amplitude variations in rhythms, however, are widely unknown. Here we use highly sensitive onset detection and time series analysis to study the amplitude and temporal fluctuations of Jeff Porcaro's one-handed hi-hat pattern in "I Keep Forgettin'"-one of the most renowned 16th note patterns in modern drumming. We show that fluctuations of hi-hat amplitudes and interbeat intervals (times between hits) have clear long-range correlations and short-range anticorrelations separated by a characteristic time scale. In addition, we detect subtle features in Porcaro's drumming such as small drifts in the 16th note pulse and non-trivial periodic two-bar patterns in both hi-hat amplitudes and intervals. Through this investigation we introduce a step towards statistical studies of the 20th and 21st century music recordings in the framework of complex systems. Our analysis has direct applications to the development of drum machines and to drumming pedagogy.
Photoprotection of photosystems in fluctuating light intensities.
Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Suorsa, Marjaana; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari
2015-05-01
Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms experience strong fluctuations in light intensity in their natural terrestrial and aquatic growth environments. Recent studies with both plants and cyanobacteria have revealed that Photosystem (PS) I is the potential target of damage upon abrupt changes in light intensity. Photosynthetic organisms have, however, developed powerful mechanisms in order to protect their photosynthetic apparatus against such potentially hazardous light conditions. Although the electron transfer chain has remained relatively unchanged in both plant chloroplasts and their cyanobacterial ancestors, the photoprotective and regulatory mechanisms of photosynthetic light reactions have experienced conspicuous evolutionary changes. In cyanobacteria, the specific flavodiiron proteins (Flv1 and Flv3) are responsible for safeguarding PSI under rapidly fluctuating light intensities, whilst the thylakoid located terminal oxidases are involved in the protection of PSII during 12h diurnal cycles involving abrupt, square-wave, changes from dark to high light. Higher plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana have evolved different protective mechanisms. In particular, the PGR5 protein controls electron flow during sudden changes in light intensity by allowing the regulation mostly via the Cytochrome b6f complex. Besides the function of PGR5, plants have also acquired other dynamic regulatory mechanisms, among them the STN7-related LHCII protein phosphorylation that is similarly responsible for protection against rapid changes in the light environment. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, as an evolutionary intermediate between cyanobacteria and higher plants, probably possesses both protective mechanisms. In this review, evolutionarily different photoprotective mechanisms under fluctuating light conditions are described and their contributions to cyanobacterial and plant photosynthesis are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of
Curvature of fluctuation geometry and its implications on Riemannian fluctuation theory
Velazquez, L.
2013-08-01
Fluctuation geometry was recently proposed as a counterpart approach of the Riemannian geometry of inference theory (widely known as information geometry). This theory describes the geometric features of the statistical manifold {M} of random events that are described by a family of continuous distributions dp(x|θ). A main goal of this work is to clarify the statistical relevance of the Levi-Civita curvature tensor Rijkl(x|θ) of the statistical manifold {M}. For this purpose, the notion of irreducible statistical correlations is introduced. Specifically, a distribution dp(x|θ) exhibits irreducible statistical correlations if every distribution dp(\\check{x}|\\theta ) obtained from dp(x|θ) by considering a coordinate change \\check{x}=\\phi (x) cannot be factorized into independent distributions as dp(\\check{x}|\\theta )=\\prod _{i}dp^{(i)}(\\check{x}^{i}|\\theta ). It is shown that the curvature tensor Rijkl(x|θ) arises as a direct indicator about the existence of irreducible statistical correlations. Moreover, the curvature scalar R(x|θ) allows us to introduce a criterium for the applicability of the Gaussian approximation of a given distribution function. This type of asymptotic result is obtained in the framework of the second-order geometric expansion of the distribution family dp(x|θ), which appears as a counterpart development of the high-order asymptotic theory of statistical estimation. In physics, fluctuation geometry represents the mathematical apparatus of a Riemannian extension for Einstein’s fluctuation theory of statistical mechanics. Some exact results of fluctuation geometry are now employed to derive the invariant fluctuation theorems. Moreover, the curvature scalar allows us to express some asymptotic formulae that account for the system fluctuating behavior beyond the Gaussian approximation, e.g.: it appears as a second-order correction of the Legendre transformation between thermodynamic potentials, P(\\theta )=\\theta _{i
Martínez-Cruz, B; Godoy, J A; Negro, J J
2007-02-01
The fragmentation of a population may have important consequences for population genetic diversity and structure due to the effects of genetic drift and reduced gene flow. We studied the genetic consequences of the fragmentation of the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) population into small patches through a temporal analysis. Thirty-four museum individuals representing the population predating the fragmentation were analysed for a 345-bp segment of the mitochondrial control region and a set of 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. Data from a previous study on the current population (N = 79) were re-analysed for this subset of 10 microsatellite markers and results compared to those obtained from the historical sample. Three shared mitochondrial haplotypes were found in both populations, although fluctuations in haplotype frequencies and the occurrence of a fourth haplotype in the historical population resulted in lower current levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity. However, microsatellite markers revealed undiminished levels of nuclear diversity. No evidence for genetic structure was observed for the historical Spanish imperial eagle population, suggesting that the current pattern of structure is the direct consequence of population fragmentation. Temporal fluctuations in mitochondrial and microsatellite allelic frequencies were found between the historical and the current population as well as for each pairwise comparison between historical and current Centro and historical and current Parque Nacional de Doñana nuclei. Our results indicate an ancestral panmictic situation for the species that management policies should aim to restore. A historical analysis like the one taken here provides the baseline upon which the relative role of recent drift in shaping current genetic patterns in endangered species can be evaluated and this knowledge is used to guide conservation actions.
Sources of Economic Fluctuations in Central America
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wilfredo Toledo
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Using panel data from Central America, this paper studies the determining factors of inflation and aggregate output fluctuations by estimating two Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. Price and output variables are included in one of the models, whereas M2 and the price of oil are additional variables in the other one. Findings of this study suggest that price is determined by the demand, while output seems to be influenced mainly by the supply shocks in that area. It was also evidenced that the price of oil does not have a significant impact on the general price level in that region.
Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average
Bénet, L; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H
2003-01-01
Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.
Fluctuation Solution Theory Properties from Molecular Simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abildskov, Jens; Wedberg, R.; O’Connell, John P.
2013-01-01
The thermodynamic properties obtained in the Fluctuation Solution Theory are based on spatial integrals of molecular TCFs between component pairs in the mixture. Molecular simulation, via either MD or MC calculations, can yield these correlation functions for model inter- and intramolecular...... potential functions. However, system-size limitations and statistical noise cause uncertainties in the functions at long range, and thus uncertainties or errors in the integrals. A number of methods such as truncation, distance shifting, long-range modeling, transforms, DCF matching, finite-size scaling...
Sample size determination for the fluctuation experiment.
Zheng, Qi
2017-01-01
The Luria-Delbrück fluctuation experiment protocol is increasingly employed to determine microbial mutation rates in the laboratory. An important question raised at the planning stage is "How many cultures are needed?" For over 70 years sample sizes have been determined either by intuition or by following published examples where sample sizes were chosen intuitively. This paper proposes a practical method for determining the sample size. The proposed method relies on existing algorithms for computing the expected Fisher information under two commonly used mutant distributions. The role of partial plating in reducing sample size is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chaotic Maps Dynamics, Fractals, and Rapid Fluctuations
Chen, Goong
2011-01-01
This book consists of lecture notes for a semester-long introductory graduate course on dynamical systems and chaos taught by the authors at Texas A&M University and Zhongshan University, China. There are ten chapters in the main body of the book, covering an elementary theory of chaotic maps in finite-dimensional spaces. The topics include one-dimensional dynamical systems (interval maps), bifurcations, general topological, symbolic dynamical systems, fractals and a class of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems which are induced by interval maps, plus rapid fluctuations of chaotic maps as a
Classical fluctuations in quantum field theory
Morikawa, M.
The question as to whether quantum fluctuations can induce the spontaneous breaking of translational invariance (SBTI) in the extreme cosmic expansion that occurs during any type of inflation is considered. Attention is given to the unstable field, thermofield dynamic, and cosmic anisotropic relaxation quantum systems, defining the appropriate order parameters for each and discussing their properties. A mechanism for SBTI is presented which possesses both generality and applicability to various problems; a complex effective potential can, for example, be obtained for a nonconvex potential, so that a random force arises and stochastically agitates order parameters.
Universality and Specificity in Protein Fluctuation Dynamics
Copperman, J.; Dinpajooh, M.; Beyerle, E. R.; Guenza, M. G.
2017-10-01
We investigate the universal scaling of protein fluctuation dynamics with a site-specific diffusive model of protein motion, which predicts an initial subdiffusive regime in the configurational relaxation. The long-time dynamics of proteins is controlled by an activated regime. We argue that the hierarchical free energy barriers set the time scales of biological processes and establish an upper limit to the size of single protein domains. We find it compelling that the scaling behavior for the protein dynamics is in close agreement with the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling exponents.
Detrended fluctuation analysis of multivariate time series
Xiong, Hui; Shang, P.
2017-01-01
In this work, we generalize the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to the multivariate case, named multivariate DFA (MVDFA). The validity of the proposed MVDFA is illustrated by numerical simulations on synthetic multivariate processes, where the cases that initial data are generated independently from the same system and from different systems as well as the correlated variate from one system are considered. Moreover, the proposed MVDFA works well when applied to the multi-scale analysis of the returns of stock indices in Chinese and US stock markets. Generally, connections between the multivariate system and the individual variate are uncovered, showing the solid performances of MVDFA and the multi-scale MVDFA.
Deng, C B; Brower, D L
2012-10-01
The interferometer system on the Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX) stellarator uses an expanded beam and linear detector array to realize a multichord measurement. Unlike conventional interferometry which determines the plasma phase shift with respect to a reference, directly evaluating the phase between two adjacent chords can be employed to measure the change in plasma phase with impact parameter. This approach provides a measure of the equilibrium density gradient or the density gradient fluctuations and is referred to as differential interferometry. For central chords, measurements are spatially localized due to a geometrical weighting factor and can provide information on core density gradient fluctuations. The measurement requires finite coherence between fluctuations in the two spatially offset chords. This technique is applied on the HSX stellarator to measure both broadband turbulence and coherent modes. Spatial localization is exploited to isolate core turbulence changes associated with change in magnetic configuration or heating location.
The temporal distribution of directional gradients under selection for an optimum.
Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Haller, Benjamin C
2014-12-01
Temporal variation in phenotypic selection is often attributed to environmental change causing movements of the adaptive surface relating traits to fitness, but this connection is rarely established empirically. Fluctuating phenotypic selection can be measured by the variance and autocorrelation of directional selection gradients through time. However, the dynamics of these gradients depend not only on environmental changes altering the fitness surface, but also on evolution of the phenotypic distribution. Therefore, it is unclear to what extent variability in selection gradients can inform us about the underlying drivers of their fluctuations. To investigate this question, we derive the temporal distribution of directional gradients under selection for a phenotypic optimum that is either constant or fluctuates randomly in various ways in a finite population. Our analytical results, combined with population- and individual-based simulations, show that although some characteristic patterns can be distinguished, very different types of change in the optimum (including a constant optimum) can generate similar temporal distributions of selection gradients, making it difficult to infer the processes underlying apparent fluctuating selection. Analyzing changes in phenotype distributions together with changes in selection gradients should prove more useful for inferring the mechanisms underlying estimated fluctuating selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Torson, Alex S; Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Kemp, William P; Bowsher, Julia H
2015-04-01
The transcriptional responses of insects to long-term, ecologically relevant temperature stress are poorly understood. Long-term exposure to low temperatures, commonly referred to as chilling, can lead to physiological effects collectively known as chill injury. Periodically increasing temperatures during long-term chilling has been shown to increase survival in many insects. However, the transcripts responsible for this increase in survival have never been characterized. Here, we present the first transcriptome-level analysis of increased longevity under fluctuating temperatures during chilling. Overwintering post-diapause quiescent alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata) were exposed to a constant temperature of 6°C, or 6°C with a daily fluctuation to 20°C. RNA was collected at two different time points, before and after mortality rates began to diverge between temperature treatments. Expression analysis identified differentially regulated transcripts between pairwise comparisons of both treatments and time points. Transcripts functioning in ion homeostasis, metabolic pathways and oxidative stress response were up-regulated in individuals exposed to periodic temperature fluctuations during chilling. The differential expression of these transcripts provides support for the hypotheses that fluctuating temperatures protect against chill injury by reducing oxidative stress and returning ion concentrations and metabolic function to more favorable levels. Additionally, exposure to fluctuating temperatures leads to increased expression of transcripts functioning in the immune response and neurogenesis, providing evidence for additional mechanisms associated with increased survival during chilling in M. rotundata. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Efficient measurement of point-to-set correlations and overlap fluctuations in glass-forming liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berthier, Ludovic [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221 CNRS and Université de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Charbonneau, Patrick [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Yaida, Sho, E-mail: sho.yaida@duke.edu [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)
2016-01-14
Cavity point-to-set correlations are real-space tools to detect the roughening of the free-energy landscape that accompanies the dynamical slowdown of glass-forming liquids. Measuring these correlations in model glass formers remains, however, a major computational challenge. Here, we develop a general parallel-tempering method that provides orders-of-magnitude improvement for sampling and equilibrating configurations within cavities. We apply this improved scheme to the canonical Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones model for temperatures down to the mode-coupling theory crossover. Most significant improvements are noted for small cavities, which have thus far been the most difficult to study. This methodological advance also enables us to study a broader range of physical observables associated with thermodynamic fluctuations. We measure the probability distribution of overlap fluctuations in cavities, which displays a non-trivial temperature evolution. The corresponding overlap susceptibility is found to provide a robust quantitative estimate of the point-to-set length scale requiring no fitting. By resolving spatial fluctuations of the overlap in the cavity, we also obtain quantitative information about the geometry of overlap fluctuations. We can thus examine in detail how the penetration length as well as its fluctuations evolve with temperature and cavity size.
Holme, Petter
2017-01-01
This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.
Generalized energy measurements and modified transient quantum fluctuation theorems.
Watanabe, Gentaro; Venkatesh, B Prasanna; Talkner, Peter
2014-05-01
Determining the work which is supplied to a system by an external agent provides a crucial step in any experimental realization of transient fluctuation relations. This, however, poses a problem for quantum systems, where the standard procedure requires the projective measurement of energy at the beginning and the end of the protocol. Unfortunately, projective measurements, which are preferable from the point of view of theory, seem to be difficult to implement experimentally. We demonstrate that, when using a particular type of generalized energy measurements, the resulting work statistics is simply related to that of projective measurements. This relation between the two work statistics entails the existence of modified transient fluctuation relations. The modifications are exclusively determined by the errors incurred in the generalized energy measurements. They are universal in the sense that they do not depend on the force protocol. Particularly simple expressions for the modified Crooks relation and Jarzynski equality are found for Gaussian energy measurements. These can be obtained by a sequence of sufficiently many generalized measurements which need not be Gaussian. In accordance with the central limit theorem, this leads to an effective error reduction in the individual measurements and even yields a projective measurement in the limit of infinite repetitions.
Currents and fluctuations of quantum heat transport in harmonic chains
Motz, T.; Ankerhold, J.; Stockburger, J. T.
2017-05-01
Heat transport in open quantum systems is particularly susceptible to the modeling of system-reservoir interactions. It thus requires us to consistently treat the coupling between a quantum system and its environment. While perturbative approaches are successfully used in fields like quantum optics and quantum information, they reveal deficiencies—typically in the context of thermodynamics, when it is essential to respect additional criteria such as fluctuation-dissipation theorems. We use a non-perturbative approach for quantum dissipative dynamics based on a stochastic Liouville-von Neumann equation to provide a very general and extremely efficient formalism for heat currents and their correlations in open harmonic chains. Specific results are derived not only for first- but also for second-order moments, which requires us to account for both real and imaginary parts of bath-bath correlation functions. Spatiotemporal patterns are compared with weak coupling calculations. The regime of stronger system-reservoir couplings gives rise to an intimate interplay between reservoir fluctuations and heat transfer far from equilibrium.
Broadband homodyne reflectometer devoted to density fluctuation measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Estrada, T.; Sanchez, J.; Branas, B.; Navarro, A.P. (Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain))
1990-10-01
A microwave reflectometer has been used in the TJ-I tomakak ({ital R}=0.30 m, {ital a}=0.10 m, {ital I}{sub {ital p}I{ital p}}{lt} 50 kA, {ital B}{sub {ital t}} {lt} 1.5 T) to monitor density fluctuations in the plasma bulk. Experiments were made in the range 33--50 GHz, {ital x} mode. The system uses a single antenna for launching and receiving the microwave beam. Since broadband operation usually requires homodyne detection, different techniques were used to overcome the limitations due to this detection scheme. Radial profiles of the density turbulence were taken and the behavior of the spectra analyzed. A slow frequency sweeping has been performed to provide a method to normalize the signals reflected from different radial positions. In addition this technique can be used to obtain information on the absolute value of the phase oscillation amplitude. Spectra of the edge density fluctuations obtained by reflectometry and by Langmuir probes are compared. By the use of two reflectometers in the same antenna, radial correlation experiments can be performed. Some discussions on the ability of homodyne reflectometry to determine coherence lengths are also presented. A slow sweeping of the frequency is proposed to overcome the lack on the information given by the homodyne system.
Non-standard primordial fluctuations and nongaussianity in string inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burgess, C.P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cicoli, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gomez-Reino, M. [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Oviedo Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Physics; Quevedo, F. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP/CMS; Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Tasinato, G. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Zavala, I. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Inst.
2010-05-15
Inflationary scenarios in string theory often involve a large number of light scalar fields, whose presence can enrich the post-inflationary evolution of primordial fluctuations generated during the inflationary epoch. We provide a simple example of such post-inflationary processing within an explicit string-inflationary construction, using a Kaehler modulus as the inflaton within the framework of LARGE Volume Type-IIB string flux compactifications. We argue that inflationary models within this broad category often have a selection of scalars that are light enough to be cosmologically relevant, whose contributions to the primordial fluctuation spectrum can compete with those generated in the standard way by the inflaton. These models consequently often predict nongaussianity at a level, f{sub NL}{approx_equal}O(10), potentially observable by the Planck satellite, with a bi-spectrum maximized by triangles with squeezed shape in a string realization of the curvaton scenario. We argue that the observation of such a signal would robustly prefer string cosmologies such as these that predict a multi-field dynamics during the very early universe. (orig.)
Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Johnson, Richard K.
2013-01-01
1. Ecosystems at high altitudes and latitudes are expected to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of global change. We assessed the responses of littoral invertebrate communities to changing abiotic conditions in subarctic Swedish lakes with long-term data (1988–2010) and compared the responses of subarctic lakes with those of more southern, hemiboreal lakes. 2. We used a complex systems approach, based on multivariate time-series modelling, and identified dominant and distinct temporal frequencies in the data; that is, we tracked community change at distinct temporal scales. We determined the distribution of functional feeding groups of invertebrates within and across temporal scales. Within and cross-scale distributions of functions have been considered to confer resilience to ecosystems, despite changing environmental conditions. 3. Two patterns of temporal change within the invertebrate communities were identified that were consistent across the lakes. The first pattern was one of monotonic change associated with changing abiotic lake conditions. The second was one of showing fluctuation patterns largely unrelated to gradual environmental change. Thus, two dominant and distinct temporal frequencies (temporal scales) were present in all lakes analysed. 4. Although the contribution of individual feeding groups varied between subarctic and hemiboreal lakes, they shared overall similar functional attributes (richness, evenness, diversity) and redundancies of functions within and between the observed temporal scales. This highlights similar resilience characteristics in subarctic and hemiboreal lakes. 5. Synthesis and applications. The effects of global change can be particularly strong at a single scale in ecosystems. Over time, this can cause monotonic change in communities and eventually lead to a loss of important ecosystem services upon reaching a critical threshold. Dynamics at other spatial or temporal scales can be unrelated to environmental change
Vivienda temporal para refugiados
Amonarraiz Gutiérrez, Ana
2015-01-01
El proyecto se centra en el diseño y desarrollo de un espacio destinado a vivienda temporal para dar hogar a personas que han perdido su casa. Este tipo de vivienda es fundamental dentro del proceso de recuperación post-desastre ya que la construcción inmediata de viviendas permanentes es utópica. El objetivo principal es la construcción de una vivienda temporal formada por elementos prefabricados, logrando así una mayor rapidez en su montaje. Esto también permitirá que cualquier component...
spacetime : Spatio-Temporal Data in R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edzer Pebesma
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This document describes classes and methods designed to deal with different types of spatio-temporal data in R implemented in the R package spacetime, and provides examples for analyzing them. It builds upon the classes and methods for spatial data from package sp, and for time series data from package xts. The goal is to cover a number of useful representations for spatio-temporal sensor data, and results from predicting (spatial and/or temporal interpolation or smoothing, aggregating, or subsetting them, and to represent trajectories. The goals of this paper is to explore how spatio-temporal data can be sensibly represented in classes, and to find out which analysis and visualisation methods are useful and feasible. We discuss the time series convention of representing time intervals by their starting time only. This document is the main reference for the R package spacetime, and is available (in updated form as a vignette in this package.
SOL width and intermittent fluctuations in KSTAR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.E. Garcia
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Radial profiles of the ion saturation current and its fluctuation statistics are presented from probe measurements in L-mode, neutral beam heated plasmas at the outboard mid-plane region of KSTAR. The results are consistent with the familiar two-layer structure, seen elsewhere in tokamak L-mode discharges, with a steep near-SOL profile and a broad far-SOL profile. The profile scale length in the far-SOL increases drastically with line-averaged density, thereby enhancing plasma interactions with the main chamber walls. Time series from the far-SOL region are characterised by large-amplitude bursts attributed to the radial motion of blob-like plasma filaments. Analysis of a data time series of several seconds duration under stationary plasma conditions reveals the statistical properties of these fluctuations, including the rate of level crossings and the average duration of periods spent above a given threshold level. This is shown to be in excellent agreement with predictions of a stochastic model, giving novel predictions of plasma–wall interactions due to transient transport events.
SOL width and intermittent fluctuations in KSTAR
Garcia, O E; Theodorsen, A; Bak, J -G; Hong, S -H; Kim, H -S; Pitts, R A
2016-01-01
Radial profiles of the ion saturation current and its fluctuation statistics are presented from probe measurements in L-mode, neutral beam heated plasmas at the outboard mid-plane region of KSTAR. The familiar two-layer structure, seen elsewhere in tokamak L-mode discharges, with a steep near-SOL profile and a broad far-SOL profile, is observed. The profile scale length in the far-SOL increases drastically with line-averaged density, thereby enhancing plasma interactions with the main chamber walls. Time series from the far-SOL region are characterised by large-amplitude bursts attributed to the radial motion of blob-like plasma filaments. Analysis of a data time series of several seconds duration under stationary plasma conditions reveals the statistical properties of these fluctuations, including the rate of level crossings and the average duration of periods spent above a given threshold level. This is shown to be in excellent agreement with predictions of a stochastic model, giving novel predictions of pl...
Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations and Zodiacal Light
Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J.
2017-01-01
We performed a specific observational test to measure the effect that the zodiacal light can have on measurements of the spatial fluctuations of the near-IR (near-infrared)background. Previous estimates of possible fluctuations caused by zodiacal light have often been extrapolated from observations of the thermal emission at longer wavelengths and low angular resolution or from IRAC (Infrared Array Camera) observations of high-latitude fields where zodiacal light is faint and not strongly varying with time. The new observations analyzed here target the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey) field at low ecliptic latitude where the zodiacal light intensity varies by factors of approximately 2 over the range of solar elongations at which the field can be observed. We find that the white-noise component of the spatial power spectrum of the background is correlated with the modeled zodiacal light intensity. Roughly half of the measured white noise is correlated with the zodiacal light, but a more detailed interpretation of the white noise is hampered by systematic uncertainties that are evident in the zodiacal light model. At large angular scales (greater than or approximately equal to 100 arcseconds) where excess power above the white noise is observed, we find no correlation of the power with the modeled intensity of the zodiacal light. This test clearly indicates that the large-scale power in the infrared background is not being caused by the zodiacal light.
Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States
Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.
2017-08-01
Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balanced dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify the constraints on excess heat and dissipated work necessary to control a system that is kept far from equilibrium by background, uncontrolled "housekeeping" forces. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes thermodynamic feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. We also generalize an approach recently used to determine the work dissipated when driving between functionally relevant configurations of an active energy-consuming complex system. Altogether, these results highlight universal thermodynamic laws that apply to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, we analyze a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.
Quantum fluctuations of voltage in superconducting nanowires
Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.
2017-07-01
At low temperatures non-equilibrium voltage fluctuations can be generated in current-biased superconducting nanowires due to proliferation of quantum phase slips (QPS) or, equivalently, due to quantum tunneling of magnetic flux quanta across the wire. In this paper we review and further extend recent theoretical results related to this phenomenon. Employing the phase-charge duality arguments combined with Keldysh path integral technique we analyze such fluctuations within the two-point and four-point measurement schemes demonstrating that voltage noise detected in such nanowires in general depends on the particular measurement setup. In the low frequency limit we evaluate all cumulants of the voltage operator which turn out to obey Poisson statistics and exhibit a power law dependence on the external bias. We also specifically address a non-trivial frequency dependence of quantum shot noise power spectrum SΩ for both longer and shorter superconducting nanowires. In particular, we demonstrate that SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T → 0. Furthermore, we predict that SΩ may depend non-monotonously on temperature due to quantum coherent nature of QPS noise. The results of our theoretical analysis can be directly tested in future experiments with superconducting nanowires.