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Sample records for temporal das taxas

  1. Revisão das teorias tradicionais da estrutura temporal das taxas de juro para títulos de renda fixa livres do risco de inadimplência

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Gérson Maurício

    2010-01-01

    Faz uma revisão das quatro teorias trandicionais da estrutura temporal das taxas de juro para títulos de renda fixa não sujeitos ao risco de inadimplência: segmentação de mercado, expectativas puras, preferência por liquidez e habitat preferido e aborda a extensão dessas teorias para títulos com pagameno de cupons.

  2. Temporal consistency in background mortality of four dominant coral taxa along Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, C.; Anderson, K. D.; Pratchett, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Studies on the population and community dynamics of scleractinian corals typically focus on catastrophic mortality associated with acute disturbances (e.g., coral bleaching and outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish), though corals are subject to high levels of background mortality and injuries caused by routine and chronic processes. This study quantified prevalence (proportion of colonies with injuries) and severity (areal extent of injuries on individual colonies) of background mortality and injuries for four common coral taxa (massive Porites, encrusting Montipora, Acropora hyacinthus and branching Pocillopora) on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Sampling was conducted over three consecutive years during which there were no major acute disturbances. A total of 2276 adult colonies were surveyed across 27 sites, within nine reefs and three distinct latitudinal sectors. The prevalence of injuries was very high (>83%) across all four taxa, but highest for Porites (91%) and Montipora (85%). For these taxa ( Montipora and Pocillopora), there was also significant temporal and spatial variation in prevalence of partial mortality. The severity of injuries ranged from 3% to more than 80% and varied among coral taxa, but was fairly constant spatially and temporally. This shows that some injuries have considerable longevity and that corals may invest relatively little in regenerating tissue over sites of previous injuries. Inter-colony variation in the severity of injury also had no apparent effect on the realized growth of individual colonies, suggesting that energy diverted to regeneration has a limited bearing on overall energetic allocation, or impacts on other life-history processes (e.g., reproduction) rather than growth. Establishing background levels of injury and regeneration is important for understanding energy investment and life-history consequences for reef-building corals as well as for predicting susceptibility to, and capacity to recover from, acute

  3. Arterite temporal com comprometimento das glândulas salivares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu C. Werneck

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available E relatado um caso de arterite temporal em paciente com crises de cefaléia paroxística associadas a síndrome depressiva e, na última crise, a aumento de volume das glândulas salivares. Biopsia de artéria temporal superficial mostrou aspecto típico de arterite, com células gigantes mononucleadas. A cefalalgia e o aumento de volume das glândulas salivares regrediram mediante a administração de corticoesteróides.

  4. Taxa de corte sustentável para manejo das florestas tropicais

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    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985086Existe uma grande lacuna dos planos de manejo de florestas tropicais com relação à intensidade de extração e às taxas de corte, usualmente sendo definidas de forma arbitrária. Este trabalho visa definir intensidades de corte diferenciadas para grupos de espécies arbóreas comerciais, com diferentes ritmos de crescimento, por unidade de produção, no estado do Amazonas. Utilizou-se o incremento periódico anual percentual em volume, de 26 espécies arbóreas, obtido de parcelas permanentes. O incremento periódico anual, percentual em volume, para efeito diferenciador, considerou 1% como diferença limite. Foram identificadas três intensidades de corte, para as classes comerciais: 24,4% (grupo I, 35,4% (grupo II e 42,4% (grupo III. Considerando a exploração total sustentável por hectare, para as 26 espécies, seria de 11,5 m³ha-1 com intensidade de corte de 37%. O procedimento de cálculo é simples e pode ser utilizado pelos órgãos fiscalizadores, certificadores ou legisladores como balizador do ciclo de corte e taxa de corte.

  5. Estimativa das Taxas de Erosão das Terras Altas da Alta Bacia do Rio Das Velhas no Quadrilátero Ferrífero: Implicações para A Evolução Do Relevo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Rodrigues Salgado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho investiga a evolução das terras altas da alta Bacia do Rio das Velhas no Quadrilátero Ferrífero/MG – Bacia do São Francisco. A metodologia adotada se baseia na mensuração da produção do isótopo cosmogênico 10Be em escarpas e superfícies erosivas e na confecção de modelo digital do terreno. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que estas terras altas - substrato de quartzitos, cangas e itabiritos – são extremamente resistentes ao rebaixamento vertical do relevo (downwearing – taxas de erosão de 1,71 e 2,58 metros por milhão de anos (m/Ma - mas apresentam certa fragilidade frente o processo de retração lateral das escarpas (backwearing – taxas de erosão entre 12,71 e 14,60 m/Ma. Demonstram ainda um aumento areal das terras baixas em detrimento das terras de altitude mediana na alta Bacia do Rio das Velhas.

  6. Fórmula de valoração racional (RVF e variabilidade no tempo das taxas de retornos de ativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ripamonti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O relacionamento de longo prazo e o correspondente mecanismo de correção de erros no curto prazo, entre dados agregados de preço e dividendos, é estudado no presente trabalho, através dos conceitos de fórmula de valoração racional e cointegração variante no tempo, e sob o referencial da teoria das expectativas racionais e de movimentação de preços de Muth (1961, para se supor a variabilidade das taxas de retorno de ativos, testando as hipóteses nulas de mecanismos de correção de erros dos vetores de cointegração constantes no tempo e de desigualdade entre valor fundamental e preço da ação. As séries obtidas foram as disponibilizadas por Shiller (2005 e se referem aos dados agregados de preço e dividendos do mercado acionário norte-americano, no período de 1871 a 2010. Os dados foram analisados através dos modelos de cointegração de Johansen, com a utilização de variáveis restritas decorrentes da combinação das variáveis estudadas com o polinômio temporal de Chebyshev, como proposto por Bierens e Martins (2010. Os resultados indicam a rejeição da hipótese nula de constância dos vetores de cointegração e, ainda, a não rejeição da hipótese nula de desigualdade entre valor fundamental e preço da ação. Tais resultados são consistentes com os obtidos por Bierens e Martins (2010 e não consistentes com a teoria das expectativas racionais de Muth (1961. Conclui-se, portanto, que os investidores possuem diferentes expectativas de retorno para diferentes períodos futuros, que os resultados sugerem a validação do modelo utilizado e que existe a possibilidade da ocorrência de movimentos especulativos suportados pela racionalidade ou bolhas especulativas racionais.

  7. Coassimetria, cocurtose e as taxas de retorno das ações: uma análise com dados em painel.

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    Francisco Henrique Figueiredo de Castro Junior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Modelos de apreçamento de ativos têm sido um tema sob constante investigação em finanças. Desde o capital asset pricing model (CAPM proposto por Sharpe (1964, tais modelos relacionam, geralmente de maneira linear, a taxa de retorno esperada de um ativo ou carteira de ativos com fatores de risco sistêmico. Esta pesquisa apresenta um teste de um modelo de apreçamento, com dados brasileiros, introduzindo em sua formulação fatores de risco baseados em comomentos estatísticos. O modelo proposto é uma extensão do CAPM original acrescido da coassimetria e da cocurtose entre as taxas de retorno das ações das empresas que compõem a amostra e as taxas de retorno da carteira de mercado. Os efeitos de outras variáveis, como o valor de mercado sobre valor contábil, a alavancagem financeira e um índice de negociabilidade em bolsa, serviram de variáveis de controle. A amostra foi composta de 179 empresas brasileiras não financeiras negociadas na BM&FBovespa e com dados disponíveis entre os anos de 2003 a 2007. A metodologia consistiu em calcular os momentos sistêmicos anuais a partir de taxas de retornos semanais e em seguida testá-los em um modelo de apreçamento, a fim de verificar se há um prêmio pelo risco associado a cada uma dessas medidas de risco. Foi empregada a técnica de análise de dados em painel, estimada pelo método dos momentos generalizado (GMM. O emprego do GMM visa lidar com potenciais problemas de determinação simultânea e endogeneidade nos dados, evitando a ocorrência de viés nas estimações. Os resultados das estimações mostram que a relação das taxas de retorno dos ativos com a covariância e a cocurtose são estatisticamente significantes. Os resultados se mostraram robustos a especificações alternativas do modelo. O artigo contribui para a literatura por apresentar evidências empíricas brasileiras de que há um prêmio pelo risco associado aos momentos sistêmicos.

  8. Previsão dos preços de commodities por meio das taxas de câmbio

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    Davi Rosolen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura modelar e prever o comportamento dos preços de commodities utilizando taxas de câmbio de países exportadores de commodities. A compreensão do comportamento desses preços é importante para um apropriado controle da inflação e planejamento da produção. Os resultados obtidos apontam para uma relação de causalidade entre a taxa de câmbio e os preços de commodities para os países estudados, com exceção da África do Sul e Argentina. Para Austrália, Brasil, Canadá, Chile, Colômbia e Nova Zelândia, a taxa de câmbio se mostra uma informação significativa para previsões de preços de commodities para o período dentro da amostra. No caso da Austrália e do Canadá, a relação também é significativa para o período fora da amostra. Os resultados encontrados confirmam os obtidos por Chen, Rogoff e Rossi (2010, além de estender aquele trabalho aos casos da Argentina, Brasil e Colômbia.

  9. A trajetória das taxas de alfabetização no Brasil nas décadas de 1990 e 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro,Alceu Ravanello

    2011-01-01

    O artigo analisa o andar da alfabetização no Brasil nas décadas de 1990 e 2000, com base nos microdados de uma série de PNAD e dos Censos Demográficos de 1991 e 2000. Discutidas a utilidade do conceito censitário de alfabetização e a importância da noção de analfabetismo infantil, o texto demonstra, primeiro, como as desigualdades quanto à alfabetização se constituem na largada do processo de escolarização, passando, então, à análise das trajetórias da taxa de alfabetização, dos diferentes ní...

  10. Taxa de sobrevivência e crescimento inicial das espécies em plantio de recomposição da mata ciliar

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    Giselda Durigan

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de recomposição da mata ciliar em domínio de cerrado, na Estação Experimental de Assis, SP, foram utilizadas 20 espécies arbóreas, escolhidas em função da ocorrência natural em matas ciliares da região ou, no caso das espécies comerciais, com base na adaptabilidade a solos com lençol freático superficial ou pouco profundo. As espécies foram agrupadas em nove tratamentos (puros e mistos, com quatro repetições, num total de 3.624 mudas plantadas em uma área de 16.308m². Oito meses após o plantio avaliou-se a sobrevivência e o crescimento inicial das espécies plantadas. Destacaram-se pelo crescimento vigoroso e alta taxa de sobrevivência: Anadenanthera falcata (angico, Tapirira guianensis (peito-de-pombo, Calophyllum brasiliense (guanandi e Pinus elliottii var. densa (espécie exótica produtora de resina. Mostraram-se mal adaptadas, com baixa taxa de sobrevivência ou limitações no desenvolvimento: Euterpe edulis (palmito branco, Citharexylum myrianthum (pau-viola, Bauhinia bongardii (mororó e Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus (embira-de-sapo.Experimental data on riparian forest restoration at the Assis Experimental Station, São Paulo, Brazil are presented. The 20 tree species used were chosen based upon natural ocurrence in remnant riparian forests of the region or, in the case of commercial species, upon adaptability to swampy soils. Eight months after planting, survival and initial growth of the plants were evaluated. Species which presented vigorous growth and high survival rates were: Anadenanthera falcata, Tapirira guianensis, Calophyllum brasiliense and Pinus elliottii var. densa. Those with poor survival rates and restricted growth were: Euterpe edulis, Citharexylum myrianthum, Bauhinia bongardii and Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus.

  11. Colorectal cancer in Porto Alegre and Fortaleza, Brazil: incidence trends and distribution pattern from 1990 to 1999 Câncer de cólon e reto em Porto Alegre e Fortaleza, Brasil: tendência das taxas de incidência e padrão de distribuição no período 1990-1999

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    Rejane de Souza Reis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the incidence distribution of colorectal cancer in Fortaleza, Ceará State, and Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and the time trend in the disease from 1990 to 1999. Mean annual age-adjusted incidence rates and estimated annual percent change were calculated by gender, using population-based cancer registries. EAPC showed an increase in the rates in Porto Alegre and Fortaleza for men, +4.2% (p = 0.14 and +9.3% (p O objetivo foi descrever a distribuição da incidência de câncer de cólon e reto em Fortaleza, Ceará, e Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, no Brasil, e a tendência temporal da doença entre 1990-1999. Foram calculadas taxas médias anuais de incidência ajustadas por idade e a variação percentual anual estimada (estimated annual percent change - EAPC das taxas, por sexo, utilizando-se os registros de câncer de base populacional. O EAPC apontou aumento das taxas em Porto Alegre e Fortaleza para homens, +4,2% (p = 0,14 e +9,3% (p < 0,001, e mulheres, +4,6% (p = 0,11 e +5,3% (p = 0,15, respectivamente. As taxas médias de incidência ajustadas foram cerca de três vezes maiores em Porto Alegre do que em Fortaleza, tanto para homens (25,1 vs. 8,6/100 mil quanto para mulheres (19,9 vs. 7,1/100 mil. O aumento das taxas de incidência pode ser devido a estratégias de detecção precoce do câncer, mudanças no estilo de vida das pessoas e a alterações da estrutura etária da população. Um perfil populacional semelhante ao de países desenvolvidos pode justificar as maiores taxas de incidência encontradas em Porto Alegre. Apesar disso, Fortaleza apresentou os maiores incrementos para o período.

  12. Estimativa das Taxas de Erosão das Terras Altas da Alta Bacia do Rio Das Velhas no Quadrilátero Ferrífero: Implicações para A Evolução Do Relevo.

    OpenAIRE

    André Augusto Rodrigues Salgado; César Augusto Chicarino Varajão; Fabrice Colin; Régis Braucher; Angélica Fortes Drummond Chicarino Varajão; Hermínio Arias Nalini Júnior; Luis Felipe Soares Cherem; Breno Ribeiro Marrent; Cristina Budei Brindusa

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho investiga a evolução das terras altas da alta Bacia do Rio das Velhas no Quadrilátero Ferrífero/MG – Bacia do São Francisco. A metodologia adotada se baseia na mensuração da produção do isótopo cosmogênico 10Be em escarpas e superfícies erosivas e na confecção de modelo digital do terreno. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que estas terras altas - substrato de quartzitos, cangas e itabiritos – são extremamente resistentes ao rebaixamento vertical do relevo (downwear...

  13. Efeito das drogas anti-retrovirais sobre as taxas de fertilidade de ratas Wistar Effects of antiretroviral drugs on fertility of Wistar rats

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    Ernesto Antonio Figueiró Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos de drogas anti-retrovirais isoladas e em associação sobre as taxas de fertilidade em ratas prenhes expostas a estes fármacos, bem como o efeito perinatal nas crias. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas ratas fêmeas prenhes adultas da raça Wistar, pesando inicialmente entre 200 e 230 g. Foram testadas a azidotimidina (AZT, lamivudina (3TC e nelfinavir (NFV, cujas dosagens foram padronizadas em 10 vezes a dose normalmente utilizada em gestantes, proporcionalmente ao peso dos animais. No total foram avaliados sete grupos, incluindo o controle. O início da experimentação foi o dia zero da prenhez e as cesarianas foram realizadas com 21 dias de prenhez. Para o cálculo das taxas de fertilidade, avaliaram-se o número de fetos vivos e mortos, sítios de implantação e número de corpos lúteos. Utilizaram-se o teste t de Student e Mann-Whitney para a análise estatística. RESULTADOS: não houve alterações significativas nas taxas de perdas pré-implantação e da eficiência de implantação de ratas tratadas com anti-retrovirais isolados e em associação. No entanto, houve aumento significativo nas taxas de perdas pós-implantação (grupo controle: 7,6%; grupos medicamentos: de 20,2 a 26,7%, redução significativa nas taxas de viabilidade fetal (grupo controle: 92,4%; grupos medicamentos: de 73,3 a 79,8% e redução significativa no número de fetos por ninhada (grupo controle: 14,7, grupos medicamentos: de 11,1 a 12,7. Observou-se também que houve redução do peso materno e dos fetos nos grupos tratados com 3TC, AZT + 3TC e AZT + 3TC + NFV. CONCLUSÃO: com a utilização de doses elevadas de medicamentos anti-retrovirais na presente casuística, efeitos importantes sobre a fertilidade foram encontrados, o que sinaliza para a necessidade de se pesquisarem outros fármacos anti-retrovirais com menor potencial histotóxico e que possam, com segurança, ser utilizados por gestantes portadoras da infecção pelo v

  14. Estudo das relações entre as taxas de glicose no líqüido cefalorraqueano e no sangue

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    Horacio M. Canelas

    1953-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar a influência da administração intravenosa de glicose sôbre a glicorraquia, os autores, após avaliação do êrro do método de dosagem, estudaram particularmente os efeitos da injeção de glicose em três grupos de pacientes: grupo 1, constituído por 3 casos que serviram de contrôle dos resultados; grupo 2, compreendendo 5 casos com líquor normal e 5 com líquor alterado; grupo 3, composto de 10 casos com líquor normal e 10 com líquor alterado. Nos pacientes do grupo 1 não foi injetada glicose; nos do grupo 2 foram administradas 10 g de glicose; os do grupo 3 receberam 50 g de glicose. O método utilizado consistiu no seguinte: a colheita simultânea de sangue e líquor, em jejum, para determinação dos valores iniciais; b injeção intravenosa de glicose; c 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180 e 240 minutos após a injeção, colheita de novas amostras de sangue e líquor em cada paciente. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística. Foi verificado, inicialmente, que as oscilações dos valores médios obtidos nos grupos 1 e 2 eram comparáveis às devidas ao êrro experimental. Não foram significantes as diferenças entre a média inicial e os valores médios obtidos 15 e 30 minutos após a injeção de 10 g de glicose; nos pacientes que receberam 50 g de glicose, apenas após 30 minutos foi obtido um valor médio que diferia significantemente do inicial. Foram calculadas as equações de regressão linear relacionando a taxa de glicose no líquor com o momento da colheita. Foram estudados os quocienles entre as taxas de glicose no líquor e no sangue (L/S. Foi estudada a duração do efeito da injeção de glicose no grupo 3. Os autores chegaram às seguintes conclusões: 1. A injeção intravenosa de 10 g de glicose não determina alteração significativa da glicorraquia. 2. Após a administração intravenosa de 50 g de glicose, obtém-se, durante a primeira hora, uma elevação uniforme das

  15. Spatio-temporal dynamics of ocean conditions and forage taxa reveal regional structuring of seabird–prey relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A; Schroeder, Isaac D; Field, John C; Wells, Brian K; Sydeman, William J

    Studies of predator–prey demographic responses and the physical drivers of such relationships are rare, yet essential for predicting future changes in the structure and dynamics of marine ecosystems. Here, we hypothesize that predator–prey relationships vary spatially in association with underlying physical ocean conditions, leading to observable changes in demographic rates, such as reproduction. To test this hypothesis, we quantified spatio-temporal variability in hydrographic conditions, krill, and forage fish to model predator (seabird) demographic responses over 18 years (1990–2007). We used principal component analysis and spatial correlation maps to assess coherence among ocean conditions, krill, and forage fish, and generalized additive models to quantify interannual variability in seabird breeding success relative to prey abundance. The first principal component of four hydrographic measurements yielded an index that partitioned “warm/weak upwelling” and “cool/strong upwelling” years. Partitioning of krill and forage fish time series among shelf and oceanic regions yielded spatially explicit indicators of prey availability. Krill abundance within the oceanic region was remarkably consistent between years, whereas krill over the shelf showed marked interannual fluctuations in relation to ocean conditions. Anchovy abundance varied on the shelf, and was greater in years of strong stratification, weak upwelling and warmer temperatures. Spatio-temporal variability of juvenile forage fish co-varied strongly with each other and with krill, but was weakly correlated with hydrographic conditions. Demographic responses between seabirds and prey availability revealed spatially variable associations indicative of the dynamic nature of “predator–habitat” relationships. Quantification of spatially explicit demographic responses, and their variability through time, demonstrate the possibility of delineating specific critical areas where the

  16. Fórmula de valoração racional (RVF e variabilidade no tempo das taxas de retornos de ativos Rational valuation formula (RVF and time variability in asset rates of return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ripamonti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O relacionamento de longo prazo e o correspondente mecanismo de correção de erros no curto prazo, entre dados agregados de preço e dividendos, é estudado no presente trabalho, através dos conceitos de fórmula de valoração racional e cointegração variante no tempo, e sob o referencial da teoria das expectativas racionais e de movimentação de preços de Muth (1961, para se supor a variabilidade das taxas de retorno de ativos, testando as hipóteses nulas de mecanismos de correção de erros dos vetores de cointegração constantes no tempo e de desigualdade entre valor fundamental e preço da ação. As séries obtidas foram as disponibilizadas por Shiller (2005 e se referem aos dados agregados de preço e dividendos do mercado acionário norte-americano, no período de 1871 a 2010. Os dados foram analisados através dos modelos de cointegração de Johansen, com a utilização de variáveis restritas decorrentes da combinação das variáveis estudadas com o polinômio temporal de Chebyshev, como proposto por Bierens e Martins (2010. Os resultados indicam a rejeição da hipótese nula de constância dos vetores de cointegração e, ainda, a não rejeição da hipótese nula de desigualdade entre valor fundamental e preço da ação. Tais resultados são consistentes com os obtidos por Bierens e Martins (2010 e não consistentes com a teoria das expectativas racionais de Muth (1961. Conclui-se, portanto, que os investidores possuem diferentes expectativas de retorno para diferentes períodos futuros, que os resultados sugerem a validação do modelo utilizado e que existe a possibilidade da ocorrência de movimentos especulativos suportados pela racionalidade ou bolhas especulativas racionais.The present study examines the long-term relationship between aggregate price and dividend data and the corresponding mechanism for shortterm error correction using the rational valuation formula and time-varying cointegration and based on Muth

  17. Caracterização das frações que constituem as proteínas e os carboidratos, e respectivas taxas de digestão, do feno de capim-tifton 85 de diferentes idades de rebrota

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    Ribeiro Karina Guimarães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a composição bromatológica, as frações da proteína bruta (A, B1, B2, B3 e C e dos carboidratos totais (A, B1, B2 e C e as respectivas taxas de digestão das frações B1, B2 e B3 de proteínas e das frações A + B1 e B2 de carboidratos e do feno de capim-tifton 85, obtido de plantas colhidas com 28, 35, 42 e 56 dias de rebrota, adubadas com 75 kg/ha/corte de N. Os teores protéicos dos fenos com idades de rebrota de 28 a 56 dias variaram de 17,58 a 12,58%. Os valores das frações protéicas A, B1, B2, B3 e C apresentaram-se, respectivamente, entre 22,10 e 35,53%; 0,24 e 4,55%; 30,37 e 31,34%; 26,55 e 36,62%; e 5,75 e 6,76%, como proporções da proteína bruta total, nos fenos com idades de rebrota entre 28 e 56 dias. As taxas de digestão das frações protéicas B1, B2 e B3 encontraram-se entre 0,319 e 1,324; 0,0724 e 0,0936; e 0,0077 e 0,012 h -1, respectivamente, nos fenos com idades de rebrota entre 28 e 56 dias. Os teores de carboidratos totais variaram de 72,98 a 78,77%, em fenos com 28 a 56 dias de rebrota. Os valores das frações A, B1, B2 e C de carboidratos apresentaram-se entre 2,73 e 5,44%; 1,91 e 2,35%; 77,49 e 80,59%; e 13,59 e 17,87%, respectivamente, como proporções dos carboidratos totais, em fenos com idades entre 28 e 56 dias de rebrota. As taxas de digestão das frações de carboidratos A + B1 e B2 encontraram-se entre 0,181 e 0,20 e 0,04 e 0,0466 h -1, respectivamente, em fenos com idades entre 28 e 56 dias de rebrota.

  18. O papel das taxas de inundação na distribuição da vegetação e fauna em manguezais de um estuário subtropical

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Daphne Spier Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: A hidrodinâmica estuarina pode ser vista como um condicionador primário da sustentabilidade ecológica e econômica das regiões estuarinas. Ela condiciona os processos físico-químicos, geomorfológicos e biológicos nas áreas entremarés, que por sua vez, definem os padrões de ocorrência e abundância da biota aquática, sujeita a diferentes tempos de submersão e emersão. Este trabalho descreve os efeitos das taxas de inundação no padrão de distribuição da vegetação e de espécies bênticas de...

  19. Intervenção governamental, crescimento e bem-estar: efeitos da política de Equalização das Taxas de Juros do crédito rural nas regiões brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Freire Cardoso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo geral do trabalho é avaliar os impactos dos gastos governamentais com a política de Equalização das Taxas de Juros (ETJ no crescimento econômico e bem-estar das cinco macrorregiões brasileiras. As simulações foram realizadas através do Projeto de Análise de Equilíbrio Geral da Economia Brasileira (PAEG. Verifica-se que a política de ETJ proporciona crescimento econômico nas regiões Centro-Oeste, Nordeste e Sul superior a seu custo. Por outro lado, nas regiões Norte e Sudeste, observa-se queda no PIB mediante os gastos com a ETJ. Para o Brasil, a política é custo-efetiva e apresenta retorno de 34%. Além disso, todas as regiões são beneficiadas em termos de bem-estar. Conclui-se que a política de ETJ é eficiente e contribui para a redução das disparidades regionais.

  20. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water quality in Rio das Pedras reservoir (Billings Complex, São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Moschini-Carlos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar em escalas espacial (vertical e horizontal e temporal as características limnológicas do Reservatório Rio das Pedras (Complexo Billings, São Bernardo do Campo, SP – Brasil. Nos meses de março e outubro de 2004 foram amostradas em perfil três estações no reservatório. As variáveis analisadas foram: temperatura, condutividade elétrica e pH, com sonda multiparâmetros; concentrações de amônio, nitrito, nitrato, fosfato, ortosilicato, fósforo total, clorofila-a e feofitina, por método espectrofotométrico; oxigênio dissolvido por método titulométrico; além das concentrações de sólidos totais e material em suspensão. Para análise estatística dos dados foi aplicada a ACP (Análise de Componentes Principais. A heterogeneidade temporal observada foi conseqüência das diferenças de temperatura, que geraram estratificação térmica, química e biológica, no mês de março. As diferenças espaciais verticais também resultaram da estratificação térmica. As maiores discrepâncias das características limnológicas, em relação ao padrão de distribuição espacial horizontal, foram obtidas na estação 1, e são diretamente relacionadas à influência das águas provenientes do reservatório Billings. De acordo com a CONAMA 357/05, para o mês de outubro de 2004 as águas do reservatório estão em conformidade com a Classe 3. Para o mês de março, na estação 3 os valores estão abaixo do estabelecido, conferindo não conformidade para a Classe 3.

  1. Ultrasound Doppler but not temporal summation of pain predicts DAS28 response in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anton Wulf; Rifbjerg-Madsen, Signe; Christensen, Robin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested a link between inflammation and central sensitization of pain in patients with RA. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine whether US Doppler (USD), temporal summation (TS) of pain-assessed at baseline-and the potential interaction between...

  2. O sobe e desce das taxas de homicídios na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte: Armas de fogo, drogas e políticas de segurança pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Couto Marinho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa, através do diálogo com a literatura especializada e dados do Ministério da Saúde, à análise de determinados fatores sociais e políticos sobre as oscilações na taxa de homicídio na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte entre 1998 e 2007. Analisamos fatores como o aumento das mortes decorrentes do uso de armas de fogo; a possível influência do crack; a vitimização juvenil; políticas públicas preventivas, como o programa Fica Vivo, e de cunho repressivo, como a ampliação do sistema penitenciário. E, por fim, explora-se o modo como a metropolização incide sobre a distribuição espacial do homicídio. The Rising and Falling Homicide Rates in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte: Firearms, Drugs and Public Security Policies draws on specialist literature and official numbers to review certain social and political factors related to the fluctuations in the murder rate in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte between 1998 and 2007. We assessed factors such as the increased number of deaths resulting from firearms, the possible influence of crack, juvenile victimisation, and public preventive and repressive policies. Finally, there is an examination of how metropolitanization overlaps the spatial distribution of homicides.Key words: homicide, metropolitan region, Belo Horizonte, public security

  3. Taxa de adequação (ingestão/requerimento de energia como indicador do estado nutricional das famílias: uma análise crítica dos métodos aplicados em pesquisas de consumo de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Teixeira Leite de Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available O artigo discute os problemas associados ao uso da taxa de adequação de energia como um indicador do estado nutricional, em estudos populacionais derivados de pesquisas domiciliares de consumo de alimentos. Para tanto, descreve o tratamento dos dados de consumo alimentar para estimar a ingestão familiar de energia e compará-la entre famílias, e com os requerimentos da família para determinar a taxa de adequação familiar de energia. O artigo discute, também, uso das recomendações internacionais sobre os requerimentos humanos de energia e suas limitações decorrentes da não-consideração das condições não-alimentares, dos mecanismos de adaptação, da inadequação das estimativas da taxa metabólica basal e da insuficiência de informações para avaliar o gasto energético das atividades físicas não-laborais nas pesquisas domiciliares consideradas. Para exemplificar aspectos da discussão desenvolvida, os dados do Estudo Nacional da Despesa Familiar (ENDEF realizado pelo IBGE, em 1974-1975, são usados. O artigo conclui que o uso principal da taxa de adequação é na identificação das famílias que sofrem de restrição alimentar.

  4. Avaliação do prognóstico das crises, depressão, memória verbal, efeitos adversos das drogas e qualidade de vida dos pacientes operados por epilepsia do lobo temporal mesial

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Luís Augusto Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: A cirurgia para epilepsia permanece subutilizada apesar da evidência robusta, em estudos randomizados, da sua superioridade no controle das crises. Todavia, o impacto na qualidade de vida e indicadores sociais são de avaliação mais complexa e demandam estudos com maior seguimento. Objetivos: Analisar, após longo prazo, o impacto do tratamento cirúrgico no controle das crises, depressão, memória verbal e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes operados por epilepsia do lobo temporal me...

  5. Padrão temporal das internações e óbitos por diarréia em crianças, 1995 a 1998, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kale Pauline Lorena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão temporal dos óbitos e internações, no período de 1995 a 1998, associadas à diarréia em crianças menores de cinco anos de idade para subsidiar ações específicas de prevenção e controle dessa doença. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM e Sistema de Internações Hospitalares (SIH do Ministério da Saúde. As séries mensais de internações e de óbitos por diarréia foram decompostas em componentes de tendência linear estocástica, sazonalidade determinística e irregularidades mediante a aplicação dos modelos estruturais para análise de séries temporais. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de ambas as séries apresentaram mudanças ao longo do tempo, com declínio mais perceptível na série de internações. A variação das taxas de inclinação foi constante para cada uma das séries, em média, a menos 5,3 internações por mês (p-valor <0,001 e menos um óbito por mês (p-valor <0,1, respectivamente. Na análise dos resíduos do modelo de internações, observou-se mudança no nível da tendência em janeiro de 1996. O componente sazonal de ambos os modelos foi estatisticamente significante (p-valor <0,0001, sendo maio e junho os meses com maior excesso de internações e óbitos. Os pressupostos de normalidade e de independência temporal dos resíduos não puderam ser rejeitados ao nível de 0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem a predominância da etiologia viral das diarréias moderadas e graves. Neste caso, a vacinação específica é a medida mais eficaz na prevenção e controle, sendo necessários estudos de eficácia de novas candidatas à vacina contra o rotavírus no Brasil.

  6. prepare_taxa_charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhujani, Vijay; Badapanda, Chandan

    2017-06-01

    QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) is one of the most popular open-source bioinformatics suite for performing metagenome, 16S rRNA amplicon and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) data analysis. Although, it is very comprehensive and powerful tool, it lacks a method to provide publication ready taxonomic pie charts. The script plot_taxa_summary . py bundled with QIIME generate a html file and a folder containing taxonomic pie chart and legend as separate images. The images have randomly generated alphanumeric names. Therefore, it is difficult to associate the pie chart with the legend and the corresponding sample identifier. Even if the option to have the legend within the html file is selected while executing plot_taxa_summary . py , it is very tedious to crop a complete image (having both the pie chart and the legend) due to unequal image sizes. It requires a lot of time to manually prepare the pie charts for multiple samples for publication purpose. Moreover, there are chances of error while identifying the pie chart and legend pair due to random alphanumeric names of the images. To bypass all these bottlenecks and make this process efficient, we have developed a python based program, prepare_taxa_charts . py , to automate the renaming, cropping and merging of taxonomic pie chart and corresponding legend image into a single, good quality publication ready image. This program not only augments the functionality of plot_taxa_summary . py but is also very fast in terms of CPU time and user friendly.

  7. Abundância de liquidez e crise financeira em Roma: questões jurídicas e econômicas em torno das taxas de juros na época de Augusto e de Tibério Abundance of currency and financial crisis in Rome: legal and economic issues around interest rates at the time of Augustus and Tiberius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivid Valério Gaia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Após ter vencido Antônio e Cleópatra na Batalha do Ácio em 31 a.C., Otaviano levou o tesouro dos reis do Egito a Roma, criando uma abundância de riquezas que contribui, consideravelmente, para estabilizar as finanças romanas, públicas e privadas, e que provocou a alta do preço da terra e a baixa das taxas de juros. Durante o Principado de Augusto, a economia romana conheceu um período de equilíbrio financeiro. No entanto, este equilíbrio foi rompido no início da década de 30 d.C. quando, de acordo com os relatos de Tácito, Suetônio e Dion Cássio, eclodiu a primeira crise financeira do Império Romano, crise de inopia nummorum (insuficiência de moedas em circulação, no Principado de Tibério. Partindo do estudo dos autores citados e de uma perspectiva comparativa com outras crises financeiras no Império romano, o meu objetivo neste artigo é de apresentar: na primeira parte, algumas considerações sobre as taxas de juros do fim da República ao Principado; na segunda parte, um quadro geral das questões dos empréstimos de dinheiro e das taxas de juros na época de Augusto; para, na terceira parte, propor uma nova leitura da crise de 33 d.C.After defeating Antony and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 BC, Octovian brought the treasury of Egypt to Rome thus providing an abundance of wealth wich contributed to stabilize both public and private finances. The value of land increased and interest rates fell. During the Augustan Principate, Roman economy went through a period of financial equilibrium. However, this balance was broken in the early 30's AD under Tiberius' Principate when, according to Tacitus, Suetonius and Dion Cassius, the first inopia nummorum (lack of liquidity crisis of the Roman Empire came about. Based on the accounts cited above and a comparative perspective with other financial crises in the Roman Empire, this paper examines issues concerning interest rates from the end of the Republic to the Principate, it presents

  8. Estudo da erosão na microbacia do Ceveiro (Piracicaba, SP): I - Estimativa das taxas de perda de solo e estudo de sensibilidade dos fatores do modelo EUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Weill,Mara de Andrade Marinho; Sparovek,Gerd

    2008-01-01

    A erosão acelerada do solo constitui um sério problema global de degradação de terras agrícolas. Por ser a pesquisa de erosão comumente cara e morosa, a utilização de modelos permite estimar a perda de solo em localidades e condições não diretamente representadas nos estudos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a expectativa de erosão do solo em uma área intensivamente cultivada com cana-de-açúcar no município de Piracicaba (SP), como subsídio ao diagnóstico do uso atual das terras visando ...

  9. Caracterização das condições ambientais de um rio neotropical a partir da densidade, composição e riqueza de taxa de invertebrados bênticos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4844 Environmental conditions of a neo-tropical river featuring density, composition and taxa richness of bentic invertebrates - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4844

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Monkolski

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As atividades antrópicas podem causar profundas alterações nas características físicas e químicas dos ambientes aquáticos, assim como na biota. Muitas espécies de invertebrados bentônicos podem auxiliar a indicação dessas alterações. No presente estudo, foi realizada a caracterização das condições ambientais de diferentes pontos do rio 119, Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brasil. Para tanto, foram analisadas condições físico-químicas da água e coletadas amostras do substrato do rio para análises físicas e biológicas. A densidade, a composição e a riqueza dos táxons de invertebrados bênticos encontrados foram utilizadas para diferenciar os pontos quanto às condições de alteração ambiental. Mudanças na densidade, na composição e na riqueza foram relatadas em todos os pontos de coleta, principalmente em locais a jusante de áreas alteradas antropicamente. Alguns táxons característicos de locais com boa qualidade de água foram registrados, mas em número inferior ao de táxons que indicam alterações ambientais. Por ser um rio que corta longitudinalmente o perímetro urbano, ele sofre pressão antrópica contínua, e a distribuição dos organismos ao longo desse gradiente provavelmente está respondendo às alterações ocorridas em cada local de coleta. Dessa forma, sugere-se a implementação imediata de um plano de manejo e recuperação para todo o rio ao longo do perímetro urbanoAnthropic activities cause changes in physical and chemical characteristics in aquatic environments, as well as in the biotic component, and several benthic invertebrates species may indicate these changes. In this paper, we characterized the environmental conditions of different sample points in the 119 River, Campo Mourão, State of Paraná, Brazil. Physical and chemical conditions were analyzed in water, and samples of the river substrate were collected for physical and biological analysis. Density, composition and taxa richness of

  10. Série temporal do mezooplâncton do sistema estuarino de Barra das Jangadas, Pernambuco, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALCANTI, Eliane Aparecida Holanda

    2008-01-01

    O conhecimento da comunidade planctônica é de importância prioritária, pois, enquanto o fitoplâncton produz a matéria orgânica através da fotossíntese, o zooplâncton constitui um elo importante na transferência energética na forma fitoplâncton-bacterioplâncton ou de detritos orgânicos particulados para os demais níveis tróficos. Estudos sobre o mesozooplâncton foram realizados no sistema estuarino de Barra das Jangadas, Pernambuco, Brasil (8º14 36 S, 34º56 28 W) visando analisa...

  11. DIAGNÓSTICO TEMPORAL E ESPACIAL DA QUALIDADE DAS ÁGUAS SUPERFICIAIS DO RIO UBERABA – MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Farias do Valle Junior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade das águas superficiais do Rio Uberaba, situado no Triângulo Mineiro, abrangendo os municípios de Uberaba, Veríssimo, Conceição das Alagoas e Planura. Os parâmetros físico-químicos pH, condutividade elétrica, potencial de oxirredução (ORP, oxigênio dissolvido (OD, turbidez, sólidos totais foram analisados em campo com o uso de sonda multiparâmetros HORIBA enquanto demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio (DBO, nitrogênio, fosforo total, fosforo dissolvido, amônia, alcalinidade, acidez total, cloretos, coliformes totais, coliformes fecais, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, nitrato, nitrito, nitrogênio orgânico, óleo e graxas e sulfatos foram analisados em laboratório, nos períodos chuvoso e seco, entre março de 2009 a julho de 2010, em cinco ponto de amostrais ao longo do rio . De acordo com a Resolução CONAMA No 357/2005, dentre os parâmetros avaliados os coliformes fecais, totais e fósforo total apresentaram-se acima dos limites estabelecidos para Classe III e II, para o período chuvoso enquanto no período seco todos os parâmetros encontraram-se dentro do limite da Classe II. Esses resultados indicam que as águas superficiais da bacia encontram-se contaminadas com grandes concentrações de poluentes principalmente de origem orgânica em especial durante o período chuvoso

  12. O Efeito das Emendas ao Orçamento no Comportamento Parlamentar e a Dimensão Temporal: Velhas Teses, Novos Testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Vasselai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa se, entre 1996 e 2010, a execução por parte do Executivo das emendas individuais de deputados federais ao orçamento aproximou esses parlamentares das preferências do governo nas votações nominais. Os argumentos que enxergam componente não partidário, personalista e paroquial no apoio parlamentar ao Executivo inspiram-se na influência dessas emendas. No entanto, tanto sua defesa como sua refutação deixam lacunas importantes que mantêm aberta a questão, pois ou desconsideraram o fator tempo nos testes realizados ou seu tratamento metodológico necessita correções. Buscamos superar esses problemas verificando se a distância entre pontos ideais dos parlamentares e da indicação do líder do governo, em dado ano, é influenciada pelas emendas orçamentárias executadas tanto naquele ano como nos anteriores. Propomos modelar tal defasagem temporal entre emendas e apoio parlamentar, corrigindo autocorrelação serial, controlando por medidas de pertencimento à coalizão e lidando com os inerentes problemas de instrumentalização desses modelos.

  13. Heterogeneidade espacial e temporal da qualidade da água no reservatório Rio das Pedras (Complexo Billings, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Moschini-Carlos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns of limnological characteristics of the Rio das Pedras Reservoir (Billings Complex, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo – Brazil. Profile samples were taken at three stations during two periods (March and October, 2004. The variables analyzed were: temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, with multiparameter probe; concentration of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, orthosilicate, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and phaeophytin, by spectrophotometric method; dissolved oxygen by titrimetric method; beyond concentrations of total solids and suspended material. PCA (Principal Components Analyses was applied for the statistical analyses. The temporal heterogeneity observed was a consequence of differences in temperature observed in the month of March, which generated thermal, chemical and biological stratification. The vertical spatial differences also resulted from the thermal stratification. The largest discrepancies in the limnological characteristics, in relation to the pattern of horizontal spatial distribution, were obtained in station 1, and are directly related to the influence of the incoming waters of the Billings reservoir. According to CONAMA 357/05, for the month of October, 2004, the waters of the reservoir were in accordance with Class 3. In March, the values for station 3 were below the standards established, indicating non-conformity with Class 3.

  14. Taxa de adequação (ingestão/requerimento de energia como indicador do estado nutricional das famílias: uma análise crítica dos métodos aplicados em pesquisas de consumo de alimentos Energy adequacy ratio (intake/requirements as an indicator of household nutritional assessment: a critical analysis of methods applied to food consumption surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Teixeira Leite de Vasconcellos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute os problemas associados ao uso da taxa de adequação de energia como um indicador do estado nutricional, em estudos populacionais derivados de pesquisas domiciliares de consumo de alimentos. Para tanto, descreve o tratamento dos dados de consumo alimentar para estimar a ingestão familiar de energia e compará-la entre famílias, e com os requerimentos da família para determinar a taxa de adequação familiar de energia. O artigo discute, também, uso das recomendações internacionais sobre os requerimentos humanos de energia e suas limitações decorrentes da não-consideração das condições não-alimentares, dos mecanismos de adaptação, da inadequação das estimativas da taxa metabólica basal e da insuficiência de informações para avaliar o gasto energético das atividades físicas não-laborais nas pesquisas domiciliares consideradas. Para exemplificar aspectos da discussão desenvolvida, os dados do Estudo Nacional da Despesa Familiar (ENDEF realizado pelo IBGE, em 1974-1975, são usados. O artigo conclui que o uso principal da taxa de adequação é na identificação das famílias que sofrem de restrição alimentar.The authors discuss problems associated with the use of the energy adequacy ratio as an indicator of nutritional status in population-based studies derived from household food consumption surveys. They describe the use of food consumption data to estimate family energy intake and to compare it among families and with family requirements to determine the family energy adequacy ratio. The article also discusses the use of international recommendations for human energy requirements and their limitations, based on the lack of consideration of non-food conditions, adaptive mechanisms, inadequacy of estimates of the baseline metabolism rate, and the lack of information to evaluate energy expenditure in non-work physical activities in the household surveys consulted. To illustrate the discussion, the

  15. Estudo das habilidades auditivas de resolução temporal e figura-fundo em dançarinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Richetto da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:OBJETIVO:avaliar a habilidade auditiva de resolução temporal e de identificação de sentenças com mensagem competitiva em dançarinos.MÉTODOS:trata-se de um estudo prospectivo em que foram avaliados 40 indivíduos distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo 1 (dançarinos e grupo 2 (não-dançarinos. Os instrumentos de avaliação do processamento auditivo utilizados foram: teste Gaps-in-noise (GIN e teste de reconhecimento de sentenças na presença de mensagem competitiva (SSI.RESULTADOS:os limiares de gap de ambos os grupos variaram de 3 a 6 ms e não demostraram diferença estatisticamente significante na comparação entre os grupos. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante ao comparar a porcentagem de identificação de gaps entre os dois grupos, sendo que o grupo de dançarinos apresentou média maior que o grupo de não dançarinos.O teste de reconhecimento de frases em escuta monótica (rel -10dB mostrou resultados que variaram de 50% até 100% para o grupo de dançarinos e de 40% até 100% para o de não - dançarinos. A idade de início da dança (antes ou depois dos sete anos não influenciou no desempenho dos testes estudados. Não houve correlação entre as variáveis dos achados obtidos nos testes estudados no grupo de dançarinos considerando o tempo de dança.CONCLUSÃO:a dança influenciou positivamente a habilidade auditiva de resolução temporal, pois o grupo de dançarinos apresentou desempenho melhor do que o grupo de não-dançarinos. A dança parece não ter influenciado a habilidade auditiva de figura-fundo.

  16. Influência das correntes de soldagem do processo plasma-MIG sobre a geometria do cordão de solda e taxa de fusão do arame Influence of welding current in plasma-MIG weld process on the bead weld geometry and wire fusion rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Alves de Resende

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma das versões do processo Plasma-MIG consiste basicamente da combinação de um arco Plasma com um arco MIG/MAG em uma única tocha. Com essa associação, se procura unir vantagens individuais de cada arco. A principal característica consiste na independência entre o aporte de energia imposto pelo processo e o material adicionado, resultando em uma maior facilidade em atuar sobre a geometria do cordão de solda. Na literatura corrente existem poucas informações relacionadas com o processo, além de que a maioria remota principalmente das décadas de 70 e 80, quando a tecnologia disponível não era capaz de viabilizar o processo para a indústria da época. No entanto, nos últimos anos, a difusão das novas fontes eletrônicas utilizadas em soldagem contribuiu na retomada do interesse pelo processo Plasma-MIG. Neste contexto, este trabalho objetivou ampliar os estudos relacionados à influência do balanço das correntes Plasma e MIG/MAG sobre a geometria do cordão de solda e taxa de fusão do arame. Soldagens de simples deposição sobre chapa forma realizadas com uma combinação de corrente de Plasma e de MIG/MAG em 3 níveis cada, mantendo-se, pela correção da velocidade de soldagem, o mesmo volume de cordão. Foi observado que a introdução da corrente Plasma sobre a corrente MIG/MAG reduz a penetração e a diluição e proporciona cordões menos convexos. Por outro lado, o uso da corrente Plasma faz aumentar a taxa de fusão do arame MIG/MAG. Entretanto, parece que a intensidade da corrente Plasma não é o fator governante nestas alterações.One of the versions of the Plasma-MIG process is basically a combination of a Plasma arc with a MIG/MAG arc in a single torch. With this association, the advantages of each arc are searched. The main characteristic of it is the independence between the heat input by the process and the deposited material, resulting in greater facility for control the bead weld geometry. In current

  17. Temporal changes in fish species composition of headwater streams of the upper Paraguay and Paraná basins, Brazil = Alteração temporal na composição de espécies de peixes em riachos de cabeceira das bacias do alto Paraguai e Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yzel Rondon Súarez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in headwater streams in the Paraguay and Paraná river basins, with bi-monthly samples from January to November 2004, aiming to quantify the influence of environmental factors on the temporal rate of turnover in species composition of the fish communities. The environmental variables explained 73.5% of the variation in beta diversity and 52.5% of the variation in mean dissimilarity. Altitude was the only environmental descriptor that significantly explained the variation in beta diversity and mean dissimilarity in both basins.O presente estudo foi realizado em riachos de cabeceira nas bacias dos rios Paraguai e Paraná, por amostragens bimestrais de janeiro a novembro de 2004, com o objetivo de se quantificar a influência dos fatores ambientais sobre a taxa de alteração temporal na composição de espécies nas comunidades de peixes. As variáveis ambientais utilizadas explicaram 73,5% da variação na taxa de alteração na composição de espécies, utilizando a diversidade beta e 52,5% da variação na taxa de alteração pelo coeficiente de Jaccard. A altitude dos locais amostrados foi o único preditor significativo da taxa de alteração temporal na composição de espécies para ambas as bacias.

  18. Três anos de avaliação das taxas de infecção nosocomial em UTI Tres años de evaluación de las tasas de infección nosocomial en UCI Three-year evaluation of nosocomial infection rates of the ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Dereli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a incidência de infecções nosocomiais associadas aos dispositivos invasivos permite comparar as infecções associadas aos cuidados em saúde (IACS entre as unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI de diferentes hospitais e unidades do mesmo hospital. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: De janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2010, um estudo de vigilância retrospectivo foi realizado para identificar infecções nosocomiais, taxas de infecções relacionadas a dispositivos e agentes causadores na UTI de anestesiologia. As IACS foram definidas de acordo com os critérios do Centro de Controle e Prevenção de Doenças (CDC e as infecções relacionadas aos dispositivos invasivos definidas de acordo com os critérios do Sistema Nacional de Vigilância de Infecções Nosocomiais (NNIS. RESULTADOS: Durante dois anos, 939 pacientes em um universo de 7.892 pacientes/dia foram avaliados. As taxas de IACS foram de 53% em 2007, 29,15% em 2008, 28,85% em 2009 e 16,62% em 2010. A IACS mais comum foi infecção da corrente sanguínea. A taxa de infecção de tecido mole e pele foi a segunda. Entre os pacientes com infecções nosocomiais, os agentes causadores mais comuns foram Gram (- 56,68%, Gram (+ 31,02% e candidíase 12,3%. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de IACS na UTI de nosso hospital foi alta, em comparação com as taxas turcas globais obtidas no Refik Saydam Center em 2007. Quando as taxas de infecções relacionadas aos dispositivos foram comparadas entre 2007 e 2008, foram maiores em 2007. A taxas de infecções relacionadas aos dispositivos em 2008 foram reduzidas abaixo da média nacional por causa das medidas de controle de infecção. Como a taxa de infecções relacionada ao cateter urinário ainda permanece alta, devemos exercer esforços contínuos para o controle das infecções.JUSTIfiCATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La evaluación de la incidencia de las infecciones nosocomiales asociadas con los dispositivos invasivos, permite comparar las

  19. Percepção de fala: análise das vogais do português brasileiro em tempo comprimido

    OpenAIRE

    Joseane dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    O aspecto temporal da fala é um dos fatores que interferem na inteligibilidade de fala, assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo estudar a percepção das vogais do português brasileiro (PB) em diferentes taxas de elocução por meio de análise acústica e metodologia psicofísica. Na análise acústica foi averiguado a duração das frases contendo as vogais alvo e, posteriormente, apenas as vogais. No experimento I - a ANOVA mostrou que existe diferença significativa apenas entre a duração das fra...

  20. About the scientific names of paraphyletic taxa

    OpenAIRE

    TIMM, Tarmo

    2012-01-01

    The 'naturality' of monophyletic taxa in comparison with that of paraphyletic ones is discussed, with examples from Clitellata. Regular scientific names for paraphyletic taxa are inevitable in a workable biological classification.

  1. Estudo da erosão na microbacia do Ceveiro (Piracicaba, SP: I - Estimativa das taxas de perda de solo e estudo de sensibilidade dos fatores do modelo EUPS Erosion study in the Ceveiro Watershed (Piracicaba, SP.: I - Estimation o soil loss rates and sensitivity factor analysis of the USLE model

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    Mara de Andrade Marinho Weill

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A erosão acelerada do solo constitui um sério problema global de degradação de terras agrícolas. Por ser a pesquisa de erosão comumente cara e morosa, a utilização de modelos permite estimar a perda de solo em localidades e condições não diretamente representadas nos estudos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a expectativa de erosão do solo em uma área intensivamente cultivada com cana-de-açúcar no município de Piracicaba (SP, como subsídio ao diagnóstico do uso atual das terras visando ao controle do processo. O trabalho foi realizado em ambiente de sistema de informação geográfica aplicando a equação universal de perda de solo (EUPS. Especificamente pretendeu-se estudar a influência dos fatores K (erodibilidade do solo, LS (topográfico, C (uso e manejo da cultura e P (práticas de controle da erosão nas estimativas de perda de solo. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o processo de degradação dos solos por erosão acelerada é intenso em cerca de dois terços da área avaliada, ocupados principalmente com cana-de-açúcar. Nessas áreas, a perda média estimada de 58 Mg ha-1 ano-1 equivale a cerca de quatro vezes o limite superior da tolerância média indicada. Nas áreas remanescentes, ocupadas com mata, vegetação ciliar, reflorestamento e pastagens, as taxas estimadas de perda de solo são baixas, em torno de 2 Mg ha-1 ano-1 , abaixo dos valores de tolerância. O estudo de sensibilidade dos fatores do modelo revelou que, para uma mesma condição climática (fator R constante, os fatores C e P (cobertura e manejo da cultura e práticas de controle da erosão definiram a ordem de grandeza das perdas, em unidades, dezenas ou centenas de Mg ha-1 ano-1 . Para uma mesma categoria de uso da terra (fatores C e P constantes, o fator LS foi o que explicou a maior parte da variação observada. Os resultados obtidos a partir de uma simulação mostraram que a influência do fator K (erodibilidade do solo nas

  2. Indicator taxa revisited: useful for conservation planning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper; Rahbek, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    their usefulness as indicators of broader biodiversity. Here we assess several aspects, such as influence of species number, of indicator taxa for three extensive data sets to improve our insight into the effectiveness of indicator taxa. Location:  Denmark, sub-Saharan Africa and Uganda. Methods:  First, we...... sets: sub-Saharan Africa (4,039 spp.), Denmark (847 spp.) and Uganda (2,822 spp.). Results:  We overall found that indicator taxa comprising a greater number of species tend to perform better than indicator taxa with fewer species (e.g. 488 mammal spp. outperform 210 snake spp.), although...

  3. AVALIAÇÃO TEMPORAL DO USO DA TERRA NA SUB-BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO ARROIO CADENA E PASSO DAS TROPAS

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    Mônica Brucker

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos classificar, mapear e quantificar, a nível de reconhecimento, o uso da terra na Sub-Bacia Hidrográfica do Arroio Cadena e Passo das Tropas - município de Santa Maria, RS. Utilizou-se aerofotogramas pancromáticos obtidos em 1964 e 1975, com escalas aproximadas de 1:60.000 e 1:110.000 respectivamente, e composições coloridas do LANDSAT 5 - TM de 1986 e 1987, na escala aproximada de 1:110.000. Quantificou-se as áreas utilizando as técnicas da amostragem sistemática por grade de pontos. Observou-se que a Classe Pastagem predominou sobre as outras nas três épocas estudadas, ocupando 65,2% da área em 1964, 68,1% em 1975 e 67,4% em 1986/87. A Classe Florestas apresentou um decréscimo de 30,8% e a Classe Agricultura, de 17,6% no período de 1964 a 1986/87; a Classe Construções aumentou sua ocupação em 64,6% neste mesmo período. A técnica de amostragem sistemática por grade de pontos utilizada na quantificação das áreas superestimou a área da sub-classe rede de drenagem em 354,0% e da sub-classe rede viária em 287,6% (média das três épocas de levantamento.

  4. Avaliação da taxa de metilação do DNA de leucócitos na região promotora dos genes IFNγ, Serpin B5 e Stratifin durante o período gestacional e sua relação com o metabolismo das vitaminas e metabólitos

    OpenAIRE

    Thaiomara Alves Silva

    2010-01-01

    A metilação do DNA é uma alteração epigenética que atua na regulação da expressão gênica. A deficiência de vitaminas (cobalamina, B6 e folato) pode interferir na taxa de metilação. O efeito da deficiência destas vitaminas foi determinado em estudos com cultura de células e em animais. No entanto, são raros os estudos realizados com seres humanos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar a taxa de metilação do DNA de leucócitos na região promotora dos genes Interferon gama (IFNγ), Serpi...

  5. Caracterização das chuvas erosivas em Urussanga, SC, com relação ao padrão de distribuição temporal

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    Morgana Levati Valvassori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da distribuição temporal de chuvas é realizado com objetivo de caracterizar o padrão de chuva mais frequente. O conhecimento das características físicas das chuvas com relação aos padrões de precipitação permite realizar modelagem matemática de eventos hidrológicos em condições mais próximas às condições reais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar as chuvas erosivas em Urussanga, SC, com relação aos padrões hidrológicos de distribuição temporal. Foram usados os pluviogramas da estação meteorológica de Urussanga (latitude 28,31º S, longitude 49,19º W e altitude de 49 m relativos ao período de outubro de 1980 a março de 2012. As chuvas erosivas foram classificadas em padrões avançado, intermediário e atrasado, se a maior intensidade ocorre no terço de duração inicial, intermediário e final, respectivamente. Foram determinadas as características de altura pluvial, duração da chuva, energia cinética, intensidade máxima em 30 min, erosividade e frequência de chuvas mensais de cada padrão de chuva. Verificou-se a ocorrência de 1.221 chuvas erosivas, das quais 651 com perfil avançado; 416, intermediário; e 154, atrasado. A duração média das chuvas erosivas é de 14,4 h. A média total de intensidade média para as chuvas erosivas foi de 17,4 mm h-1. A maior concentração de chuvas (32,9 % foi observada no intervalo de duração de 6 a 12 h. Para duração inferior a 18 h, ocorre maior frequência de chuvas do padrão avançado; já para acima de 18 h, as frequências de chuvas do padrão avançado e intermediário são semelhantes.

  6. Someshwar Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Skills of different mesoscale models over Indian region during monsoon season: Forecast errors · Someshwar Das Raghavendra Ashrit Gopal Raman Iyengar Saji Mohandas M Das Gupta John P George E N Rajagopal Surya Kanti Dutta · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Performance of four mesoscale models namely ...

  7. Kalyan Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Kalyan Das. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 5 Issue 12 December 2000 pp 76-76 Book Review. Linear Algebra and Linear Models · Kalyan Das · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  8. Abhijit Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 13 Issue 11 November 2008 pp 1049-1064 General Article. What is a Species? An Endless Debate · Uttam Saikia Narayan Sharma Abhijit Das · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 15 Issue 4 April 2010 pp 321-336 General Article. Vanishing Species: The Planet in Crisis · Uttam Saikia Narayan Sharma Abhijit Das.

  9. S Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. S Das. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 25 Issue 6 November 2002 pp 557-560. 3-D mapping with ellipsometrically determined physical thickness/refractive index of spin coated sol–gel silica layer · S Das P Pal S Roy S Chakraboarty P K Biswas.

  10. Spatial distribution of suicide incidence rates in municipalities in the state of Espírito Santo (Brazil, 2003-2007: spatial analysis to identify risk areas Distribuição especial das taxas de incidência de suicídio nos municípios do Estado do Espírito Santo (Brasil, no período de 2003 a 2007

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    Luciene Bolzam Macente

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial distribution of suicide incidence rate in a residential municipality of the state of Espírito Santo (ES, Brazil, from 2003 to 2007. METHODS: Ecologic study of the exploratory kind, based on secondary data. Deaths per suicide, which took place in each municipality of ES, were included in the data according to information provided by the Mortality Information System. For the spatial data analysis, a Bayesian approach was used (Global empirical and Local Bayesian ones to correct epidemiological rates. Moran's I index was calculated to a worldwide spatial level dependence, and Local Moran (LISA to a local spatial correlation. The following software applications were used: Excel; R 2.6.2; SPSS 11.5 and TerraView 3.3.1. RESULTS: The geographical localization of the municipalities that showed an incidence rate characterized as the average for suicide after adjustment (EBest Global forms a corridor in the countryside. Some common characteristics among these municipalities are: a immigration (Italians, Pomeranians/ Germans; b rural population (average of 53%; c supporting economy (agriculture, husbandry and livestock. A global and local spatial correlation was found among the municipalities (p OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial das taxas de incidência de suicídio segundo o município de residência no estado do Espírito Santo (2003 a 2007. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico do tipo exploratório, baseado em dados secundários. Foram incluídos os óbitos por suicídio ocorridos no período, em cada um dos municípios do Estado, conforme o Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade. Para análise espacial dos dados, utilizou-se a abordagem bayesiana (Bayesianos Empírico Global e Local para correção de taxas epidemiológicas. Calculou-se o índice I de Moran, para dependência espacial em nível global, e o Moran Local (LISA, para correlação espacial local. Foram utilizados os seguintes programas: Excel; R 2

  11. Epidemiology of suicide in Brazil (1980 - 2000: characterization of age and gender rates of suicide Epidemiologia do suicídio no Brasil (1980 - 2000: caracterização das taxas de suicídio por idade e gênero

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    Carolina de Mello-Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the suicide rates in Brazil in recent decades, drawing comparisons with the worldwide epidemiological situation. METHODS: Descriptive analyses of Brazilian suicide data, relating to the 1980-2000 period and extracted from the DATASUS database. Brazilian suicide trends were examined by age and gender. RESULTS: The overall rate of suicide in Brazil increased 21% in 20 years. Men were found to be 2.3 to 4.0 times more likely to commit suicide than were women, and the highest suicide rates were found in the over-65 age group. The greatest increase in suicide rates (1900% was seen in the 15-24 age range. CONCLUSION: Brazilian suicide rates, although low, are consistent with the global trend toward growth. Although the highest rates are still seen among the elderly, members of the younger population have been killing themselves with ever-increasing frequency.OBJETIVOS: Descrever as taxas de suicídio do Brasil nas últimas décadas, bem como compará-las com a situação epidemiológica mundial. MÉTODOS: Análise descritiva dos dados brasileiros sobre o suicídio, extraídos a partir do banco de dados de DATASUS, cobrindo o período de 1980-2000. Foram examinadas as tendências de suicídio no Brasil quanto à distribuição etária e gênero. RESULTADOS: A taxa global de suicídio no Brasil cresceu 21% em 20 anos. Os homens se suicidaram de 2,3 a 4 vezes mais que as mulheres e os idosos acima de 65 anos apresentaram as maiores taxas de suicídio. O estrato de jovens entre 15 a 24 anos foi o grupo de maior crescimento (1.900%. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de suicídio no Brasil, embora baixa, segue a tendência mundial de crescimento. Os idosos apresentam as taxas mais altas, mas, em números absolutos, a população jovem está se matando cada vez mais.

  12. Diagnostic methods for extra-temporal neocortical focal epilepsies: present and future Métodos diagnósticos das epilepsias focais neocorticais extratemporais: presente e futuro

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    Ricardo André Amorim Leite

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The progress of epilepsies diagnosis has been great, but, amongst the diagnostic detailing that demand research, one of the most important is the essential lateralization and localization of epileptogenic zone, considered as the cerebral cortex region, that removed, will result in a free state of seizures. The present study aims to analyze the possible uses of proton spectroscopy for clinical and pre-surgical evaluation of focal extratemporal epilepsies, since this group presents the highest difficulty degree for lateralizing and locating epileptogenic zones. In almost all cases, a non invasive diagnosis can be performed using routine electroencephalography, video-electroencephalography - considered as gold standard, and magnetic resonance imaging. However, when the results of these exams are contradictory, some patients need invasive techniques, as the intra-cranial video-EEG, using deep electrodes, sub-dural strip and grid, that are associated with increased diagnostic cost and risk of complications, as cerebral hemorrhages and intra-cranial infections. Proton spectroscopy appears as a possibility, given its capacity to evaluate cerebral metabolism, by N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA, creatine (Cre and choline (Cho concentrations, amongst other metabolites. This non invasive method may provide time reduction of this evaluation and reliable level improvement for this topographical diagnosis.Tem sido grande o progresso no diagnóstico das epilepsias, mas dentre os detalhamentos diagnósticos a exigir pesquisas, estão a lateralização e a localização precisas da zona epileptogênica, considerada como a região do córtex cerebral que, removida, irá resultar num estado livre de crises. Por meio de revisão da literatura, o objetivo deste estudo é expor e analisar os métodos diagnósticos das epilepsias neocorticais extratemporais, dadas as características que as tornam mais complexas do que as epilepsias temporais visto que estas apresentam o

  13. Tendência temporal da mortalidade por doenças infecciosas intestinais em crianças menores de cinco anos de idade, no estado de São Paulo, 2000-2012

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    Renata Soares Martins

    Full Text Available Resumo OBJETIVO: analisar a tendência temporal da mortalidade por doenças infecciosas intestinais (DII em crianças menores de cinco anos de idade no estado de São Paulo e suas Redes Regionais de Atenção à Saúde (RRAS, no período 2000-2012. MÉTODOS: estudo de série temporal sobre os óbitos com causa básica, antecedente ou contribuinte de morte por DII, obtidos a partir do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM. RESULTADOS: ocorreram 2.886 óbitos por DII no estado; a taxa de mortalidade por DII apresentou diminuição de 10,5% ao ano (intervalo de confiança de 95% 4,8; 15,8%; em 13 das 17 RRAS ocorreu diminuição significativa da taxa de mortalidade, com decréscimo anual variável entre 16,6 e 8,3% ao ano. CONCLUSÃO: a taxa de mortalidade por DII apresentou decréscimo significativo na maioria das RRAS, com diferentes velocidades, possível reflexo das desigualdades das condições socioeconômicas e de organização das redes de atenção à saúde.

  14. Estimate of respiration rate and physicochemical changes of fresh-cut apples stored under different temperatures Estimativa da taxa de respiração e das mudanças físico-químicas de maçãs minimamente processadas e estocadas sob diferentes temperaturas

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    Cristiane Fagundes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of storage temperature and passive modified packaging (PMP on the respiration rate and physicochemical properties of fresh-cut Gala apples (Malus domestica B. was investigated. The samples were packed in flexible multilayer bags and stored at 2 °C, 5 °C, and 7 °C for eleven days. Respiration rate as a function of CO2 and O2 concentrations was determined using gas chromatography. The inhibition parameters were estimated using a mathematical model based on Michaelis-Menten equation. The following physicochemical properties were evaluated: total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and reducing sugars. At 2 °C, the maximum respiration rate was observed after 150 hours. At 5 °C and 7 °C the maximum respiration rates were observed after 100 and 50 hours of storage, respectively. The inhibition model results obtained showed a clear effect of CO2 on O2 consumption. The soluble solids decreased, although not significantly, during storage at the three temperatures studied. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity decreased during storage and the pH increased. These results indicate that the respiration rate influenced the physicochemical properties.Neste estudo, a influência da temperatura de armazenamento e da embalagem com atmosfera modificada passiva (AMP na taxa respiratória e nas propriedades físico-químicas de maçãs da variedade Gala (Malus domestica, B. minimamente processadas foi investigada. As amostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens flexíveis e armazenados a 2 °C, 5 °C e 7 °C, durante 11 dias. A taxa de respiração foi gerada para diferentes concentrações de O2 e CO2, obtidas por cromatografia gasosa. Os parâmetros de inibição foram estimados por um modelo matemático baseado na equação de Michaelis-Menten. Foram avaliadas as seguintes propriedades físico-químicas: sólidos solúveis totais, pH, acidez titulável e açúcares redutores. A 2 °C, a taxa de respiração máxima foi

  15. DINÂMICA ESPACIAL E TEMPORAL DO USO DAS TERRAS E ÍNDICE DE VEGETAÇÃO POR DIFERENÇA NORMALIZADA (NDVI EM SETOR DE CABECEIRA DO RIO SÃO LOURENÇO, CAMPO VERDE, MT

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    Anny Keli Aparecida Alves Cândido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica espacial e temporal do uso do solo na microbacia que contém a nascente do Rio São Lourenço, situada no bioma Cerrado. Foram utilizadas imagens orbitais obtidas pelo sensor Mapeador Temático (TM do Landsat 5, referentes à órbita/ponto 226/71 dos anos de 1985, 1997 e 2011, com resolução espacial de 30 metros, compreendendo um período de 26 anos. O mapa de uso das terras foi gerado a partir de classificação supervisionada, utilizando o algoritmo Máximo Verossimilhança. O Índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI foi gerado a partir das bandas 4 e 3 correspondentes ao infravermelho próximo e ao vermelho, respectivamente. Verificou-se que mais de 78% da área da microbacia é destinada à agricultura. A classe floresta aumentou no decorrer dos anos analisados, fato este explicado pelo plantio de floresta de eucalipto, no setor norte da microbacia. O NDVI evidenciou áreas que estavam com pouca biomassa vegetal, diferenciando-as das áreas com cobertura vegetal densa. Considerando o NDVI de uma área em processo de recuperação ambiental, denominada de unidade demonstrativa de restauração ecológica, observou-se que com nove meses de implantação, a mesma ainda não apresenta resposta espectral semelhante à mata ciliar adjacente. As matas ciliares da microbacia representam potenciais corredores de dispersão de fluxo biológico, que conectam áreas de planalto situadas no bioma Cerrado à planície sedimentar do Pantanal situada no sudoeste de Mato Grosso. A pesquisa fornece subsídios para a adequação ambiental das propriedades rurais junto à legislação ambiental pertinente.

  16. In vitro propagation of endangered Dianthus taxa

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    Marković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of recent researches regarding the in vitro culture of 30 endangered Dianthus taxa is presented in this paper. Various in vitro protocols developed for selected rare and threatened Dianthus taxa are analysed in order to provide a useful synthesis of the data obtained with the main principles, techniques and recommendations for futher research and practice. The recapitulated data presented in this review can be used as a tool for the micropropagation of other endangered Dianthus taxa, enabling their propagation and obtaining a sufficient amount of plants for reintroduction. In addition, the obtained results represent the basis for ex situ conservation of the investigated taxa, especially for medium-term and long-term conservation (cryopreservation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  17. Spatial and temporal change characterization of Ceratium furcoides (Dinophyta in the equatorial reservoir Riogrande II, Colombia Caracterização das mudanças espaciais e temporais de Ceratium furcoides (Dinophyta no reservatório equatorial Riogrande II (Entrerríos, Antioquia, Colombia

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    Carolina Bustamante Gil

    2012-06-01

    principais fatores ecológicos relacionados com sua dinâmica. MÉTODOS: As amostras foram coletadas em cinco estações entre julho de 2002 e julho de 2003. As variáveis físicas e químicas foram amostrados mensalmente e a densidade foi estimada a través de coletas realizadas dentro da zona fótica, a taxa de crescimento (r, taxa de rotatividade (T, Tempo de Geração (GT, Largura do nicho (NW, Power Taylor's Law, e a taxa de mudança da população (σs foram utilizados. Análise de Correspondência Canônica (CCA foi usado também. RESULTADOS: A densidade total foi 264.163,4 cel.L-1, a maior foi encontrada em Up Río Chico e a mais baixa na barragem. As espécie foi achada mais agrupada no espaço que no tempo. O valor de r variou entre 0,29 e 0,3 cel.d-1, GT entre 1,8 e 2,4 dias, T entre 0,55 e 0,42 divisões por dia, NW entre 0,58 e 0,72, e σs entre 0,3 e 2,3 d-1. Os três primeiros componentes da CCA explicaram 92,2% da variação. A densidade foi positivamente associado com clorofila a, NH4+, RWCS e direção do vento. A atenuação da luz, NO3-, SiO2 e O2 estiveram associados negativamente com C. furcoides. DISCUSSÃO: C. furcoides é um estrategista tipo S, aumenta sua densidade nos periodos mais quentes perante condições eutróficas, penetração de luz baixa e alta estabilidade térmica. A espécie é independente da temperatura, mas dependente das mudanças na precipitação e nutrientes, - especialmente nitrogênio - não fósforo solúvel. Up Río Chico apresentou as melhores condições para o aumento de C. furcoides, porque esta estação apresentou os mais altos níveis de nitrogênio total e a maior estabilidade relativa. CONCLUSÃO: C. furcoides tem uma ecologia muito semelhante a aquela de C. hirundinella; é um organismo altamente variável nas escalas temporal e espacial, com uma vasta gama de nicho e uma distribuição agregada. Pertence ao Grupo morfo-funcional V e às associações Lo e LM.

  18. AIDS e grau de escolaridade no Brasil: evolução temporal de 1986 a 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Fonseca

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a evolução temporal dos casos de AIDS por grau de escolaridade como variável identificadora do nível sócio-econômico do caso. Todos os casos de AIDS em indivíduos com idades entre 20 e 69 anos, notificados até 29 de maio de 1999, diagnosticados entre 1986 e 1996, foram incluídos no estudo. As taxas de incidência para ambos os sexos foram calculadas segundo dois graus de escolaridade - "grau 1" (casos com até oito anos de estudo e "grau 2" (com mais de oito anos de estudo -, por região e ano de diagnóstico. Entre os homens, as taxas de incidência de AIDS para aqueles com menor escolaridade ultrapassam (sendo mais evidente na Região Sudeste ou se aproximam das taxas dos homens com maior escolaridade. Para as mulheres, a evolução temporal das taxas mostrou maior ritmo de crescimento entre as mulheres de menor escolaridade para todas as regiões, sendo que, na Sudeste, as taxas entre as mulheres com menor escolaridade ultrapassa as taxas daquelas com maior escolaridade em anos anteriores a 1989. Concluindo, a presente análise mostra, de forma consistente, que a epidemia de AIDS no Brasil se iniciou nos estratos sociais de maior escolaridade, com progressiva disseminação para os estratos sociais de menor escolaridade.

  19. Taxa de respiração de cenouras minimamente processadas e armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas

    OpenAIRE

    Spagnol,Wigberto Antonio; Park,Kil Jin; Sigrist,José Maria Monteiro

    2006-01-01

    Entre as hortaliças minimamente processadas, a cenoura é uma das mais populares, sendo comercializada de várias maneiras: raladas, cortadas em fatias, palitos, e ainda apresentadas na forma de mini-cenoura (baby carrot). O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as taxas respiratórias de cenouras (Daucus carota) da cultivar Nantes minimamente processadas. O armazenamento foi realizado nas temperaturas de 1 °C, 5 °C e 11 °C, e 90% UR. A taxa respiratória foi determinada usando um flux...

  20. Ecological niches of open ocean phytoplankton taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Vogt, Meike; Payne, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We characterize the realized ecological niches of 133 phytoplankton taxa in the open ocean based on observations from the MAREDAT initiative and a statistical species distribution model (MaxEnt). The models find that the physical conditions (mixed layer depth, temperature, light) govern large......-scale patterns in phytoplankton biogeography over nutrient availability. Strongest differences in the realized niche centers were found between diatoms and coccolithophores. Diatoms (87 species) occur in habitats with significantly lower temperatures, light intensity and salinity, with deeper mixed layers...... conditions in the open ocean. Our estimates of the realized niches roughly match the predictions of Reynolds' C-S-R model for the global ocean, namely that taxa classified as nutrient stress tolerant have niches at lower nutrient and higher irradiance conditions than light stress tolerant taxa. Yet...

  1. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2009-09-21

    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  2. Estudo da erosão na microbacia do Ceveiro (Piracicaba, SP): I - Estimativa das taxas de perda de solo e estudo de sensibilidade dos fatores do modelo EUPS Erosion study in the Ceveiro Watershed (Piracicaba, SP).: I - Estimation o soil loss rates and sensitivity factor analysis of the USLE model

    OpenAIRE

    Mara de Andrade Marinho Weill; Gerd Sparovek

    2008-01-01

    A erosão acelerada do solo constitui um sério problema global de degradação de terras agrícolas. Por ser a pesquisa de erosão comumente cara e morosa, a utilização de modelos permite estimar a perda de solo em localidades e condições não diretamente representadas nos estudos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a expectativa de erosão do solo em uma área intensivamente cultivada com cana-de-açúcar no município de Piracicaba (SP), como subsídio ao diagnóstico do uso atual das terras visando ...

  3. Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marcell K; Hemp, Andreas; Appelhans, Tim; Behler, Christina; Classen, Alice; Detsch, Florian; Ensslin, Andreas; Ferger, Stefan W; Frederiksen, Sara B; Gebert, Friederike; Haas, Michael; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Hemp, Claudia; Kindeketa, William J; Mwangomo, Ephraim; Ngereza, Christine; Otte, Insa; Röder, Juliane; Rutten, Gemma; Schellenberger Costa, David; Tardanico, Joseph; Zancolli, Giulia; Deckert, Jürgen; Eardley, Connal D; Peters, Ralph S; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Schleuning, Matthias; Ssymank, Axel; Kakengi, Victor; Zhang, Jie; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Brandl, Roland; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kleyer, Michael; Nauss, Thomas; Tschapka, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-12-22

    The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress towards general explanatory models has been hampered by limitations in the phylogenetic coverage of past studies. By parallel sampling of 25 major plant and animal taxa along a 3.7 km elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro, we quantify cross-taxon consensus in diversity gradients and evaluate predictors of diversity from single taxa to a multi-taxa community level. While single taxa show complex distribution patterns and respond to different environmental factors, scaling up diversity to the community level leads to an unambiguous support for temperature as the main predictor of species richness in both plants and animals. Our findings illuminate the influence of taxonomic coverage for models of diversity gradients and point to the importance of temperature for diversification and species coexistence in plant and animal communities.

  4. Influência das condições socioeconômicas nas alterações nutricionais e na taxa de metabolismo de repouso em crianças escolares moradoras em favelas no município de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillo L.P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal para avaliar a taxa de metabolismo de repouso (TMR e condições socioeconômicas em 15 crianças escolares do sexo feminino; eutróficas (EU= estatura/idade 3 95% e peso/idade entre 90-110% e 15 com desnutrição pregressa (DP= estatura/idade < 95% e peso/estatura entre 90-110% moradoras em favelas no município de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Avaliou-se a TMR por calorimetria indireta, e a situação socioeconômica por entrevista domiciliar. RESULTADOS: O grupo DP apresentou TMR mais alta quando expressa por unidade de peso corpóreo (EU= 40,5 Kcal/kg/dia; DP=44,4 Kcal/kg/dia, p<0,05 e por quilograma de massa magra (EU= 49,2 Kcal/kg/dia; DP=52,5 Kcal/kg/dia, p<0,05; e diferenças significantes para renda per capita, analfabetismo materno, número de parasitas por criança, número de ordem entre os filhos e número de irmãos. Em análise multivariada as variáveis associadas à desnutrição foram renda per capita e analfabetismo materno. CONCLUSÕES: Embora os dois grupos tenham peso/estatura normais, a presença de baixa estatura leve foi acompanhada por alterações metabólicas e socioeconômicas típicas de um quadro de desnutrição.

  5. Estudo da evolução da paisagem do quadrilátero ferrífero (Minas Gerais, Brasil por meio da mensuração das taxas de erosão (10be e da pedogênese Evolution of the landscape in the region of quadrilátero ferrífero (Minas Gerais, Brazil based on the measurement of erosion rates (10be and pedogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Chicarino Varajão

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Geomorfologicamente o Quadrilátero Ferrífero é uma região conspícua, onde raízes de estruturas metassedimentares proterozóicas, apresentando feições de um relevo jovem, encontram-se em destaque sobre um mar de colinas de rochas cristalinas do Arqueano. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da evolução da paisagem do Quadrilátero Ferrífero por meio da análise integrada dos dados quantitativos das taxas de erosão (10Be e dos tipos de perfis de solos desenvolvidos a partir dos principais litotipos da região. A mensuração da concentração de 10Be extraído do quartzo de veios, de quartzitos e de sedimentos fluviais foi obtida utilizando um espectrômetro de massa por acelerador. A razão média de erosão de 7 m por milhão de anos coloca em evidência um importante soerguimento epirogenético da região em estudo. Concordantemente, os estudos macromorfológicos, mineralógicos e micromorfológicos de todos os perfis de solos investigados por meio de trabalhos de campo, da difração de raios X e da microscopia óptica mostram perfis imaturos e autóctones. Esses resultados sugerem que o relevo do Quadrilátero Ferrífero é um produto de constante e intenso processo erosivo.A geomorphological overview of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero reveals a conspicuous region where roots of metassedimentary Proterozoic strucutures, displaying young relief features, are in evidence over a sea of hills from the Archean basement. This paper deals with the landscape evolution in the "Quadrilátero Ferrífero" region, based on the integrated analysis of quantitative data of the erosion rates (10 Be and of the soil types developed from the main rocks of the region. The 10Be concentration extracted from quartz of veins, quartzites and fluvial sediments was measured by a mass spectrometer (accelerator. The mean erosion ratio of 7 m Ma-1 highlights a significant regional epirogenetic uplift. In agreement, the macromorphological, mineralogical

  6. Someshwar Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Improvement is noticed in rainfall forecasts that used NCEP data, probably because of its high spatial and temporal resolution. Volume 116 Issue 4 August 2007 pp 275-304. Assimilation of Doppler weather radar observations in a mesoscale model for the prediction of rainfall associated with mesoscale convective systems.

  7. Avaliação da taxa de crescimento de frutos de mamão (Carica papaya L. em função das épocas do ano e graus-dias acumulados Evaluation of the growth tax of papaya fruitS (Carica papaya L. infunction of different times of the year and accumulated degree-days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio da Silva Berilli

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento do desenvolvimento dos órgãos vegetais, como o fruto, pode ser de grande interesse científico. O acompanhamento da fase de crescimento dos frutos pode indicar os pontos críticos de exigências nutricionais e de água, e sua relação com fatores climáticos, como a temperatura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a taxa de crescimento do fruto de mamão híbrido UENF/CALIMAN 01 em diferentes épocas do ano, em função do número de graus-dia (GD acumulados. O ponto máximo de crescimento dos frutos variou de acordo com as diferentes épocas de desenvolvimento dos mesmos. Frutos desenvolvidos em períodos com temperaturas mais elevadas atingiram, num menor tempo, seu ponto de colheita, ocorrendo o inverso em frutos desenvolvidos em períodos de temperaturas mais amenas. Os resultados mostraram, no entanto, que o crescimento dos frutos, invariavelmente, estabilizou-se após os mesmos atingirem o nível de aproximadamente 800 GD. Cessada a fase de crescimento do fruto, o processo de maturação dos mesmos foi tão rápido quanto maior a temperatura mensal do período.The monitoring of the vegetable organ development, as the fruit, is a great scientific interest. The knowledge of the different phases of growth of these fruits can indicate the critical points of nutritional requirements and water, and its relation with climatic factors effect, as the temperature. The aim of this work was to evaluate the growth rate of the hybrid papaya fruit UENF/CALIMAN 01 at different times of the year, in function of the number of degree-day (DD accumulated. The fruits had reached the harvest point varying in accordance to the different times of development throughout the year. Fruits developed in periods with high temperatures had in smaller time its point of harvest, and it was inverse in fruits developed in colder periods. However, when reaching around 800 DD after anthesis, the fruits had tended to stabilize its growth invariably. After

  8. Analysis of the concordance rates between core needle biopsy and surgical excision in patients with breast cancer Análise das taxas de concordância entre a biópsia com agulha grossa e a excisão cirúrgica em pacientes com câncer de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Desidério Ricci

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether immunohistochemical marker studies performed on core needle biopsy (CNB specimens accurately reflect the marker status of the tumor obtained from final surgical specimen. METHODS: This was a retrospective study that used the database of the Division of Mastology of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. Sixty-nine patients submitted to ultrasound-guided CNB diagnosed with breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC on core biopsy specimens was compared to that of excisional biopsy regarding estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, human epidermal gowth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2, p53, and Ki67. The analysis of the concordance between CNB and surgical biopsy was performed using the kappa (k coefficient (95% CI. RESULTS: A perfect concordance between the labeling in the surgical specimens and the preoperative biopsies in p53 (k = 1.0; 95% CI: 0.76-1.0 was identified. There was an almost perfect concordance for ER (k = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.65-1.0 and a substantial concordance for PR (k = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.46-0.93. HER2 (k = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.84 and Ki-67 (k = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98 obtained a substantial concordance this analysis. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that the immunohistochemical analysis of ER, PR, Ki-67, and p53 from core biopsy specimens provided results that accurately reflect the marker status of the tumor. The concordance rate of HER2 was less consistent; although it produced substantial concordance, values were very close to moderate concordance.OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a análise dos marcadores imunoistoquímicos obtidos por meio de espécimes de core biopsy (CB refletem com precisão o perfil dos marcadores tumorais obtidos por biópsia cirúrgica excisional (BCE. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo usando dados da Divisão de Mastologia do Hospital das Clínicas de São Paulo. Sessenta e nove pacientes submetidas à CB guiada por ultrassom com

  9. Association of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression with recurrence rate of hair follicle tumor in dogs Associação das regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e da expressão do Ki-67 com a taxa de recorrência dos tumores de folículo piloso em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Souza

    2008-10-01

    ndice mitótico, número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e expressão do Ki-67 significativamente maiores quando comparado aos outros tipos de tumores. Dentre as neoplasias benignas, o tricoblastoma apresentou índice mitótico e número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos significativamente maiores. A expressão do Ki-67 não diferiu entre os tumores benignos de folículo piloso. A recorrência foi observada apenas em dois casos, incluindo um tricoepitelioma benigno e um tricoepitelioma maligno. Em dois casos, os nódulos não foram removidos com margem cirúrgica completa. Desta forma, conclui-se que nas neoplasias benignas de folículo piloso, o número das regiões organizadoras de nucléolo e da expressão de Ki-67 foram significativamente menores que em neoplasias malignas. Além disto, sugere-se que a margem cirúrgica completa está mais associada à recorrência dos tumores que as regiões organizadoras de nucléolo, a expressão de Ki-67 e o índice mitótico.

  10. Temporal variation of Nitella furcata subsp. mucronata var. mucronata f. oligospira (Charophyceae in the Ninféias pond, São Paulo State, southeast Brazil Variação temporal de Nitella furcata subsp. mucronata var. mucronata f. oligospira (Charophyceae no Lago das Ninféias, São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Catarina Bueno

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial variation of Nitella furcata (Roxburgh ex Bruzelius C. Agardh emend. R.D. Wood subsp. mucronata (A. Braun R.D. Wood var. mucronata f. oligospira (A. Braun R.D. Wood were studied at the Ninféias pond (23°38'18.9"S, 46°37'16.3"W, a tropical, shallow, mesotrophic reservoir located in the Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga Biological Reserve, Municipality of São Paulo, southeast Brazil. Water samples were collected monthly from October/1996 to October/1997 for turbidity, electric conductivity, pH, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, biomass, and algal phenology analysis. Spatial distribution pattern of algal biomass showed that all four sampling stations were similar among themselves during the whole study period. Regarding the temporal variation, greatest algal total biomass values (98.35-266.06 g.m-2 were measured during the rainy period whereas the smallest ones (48.86-170.56 g.m-2 were detected during the dry period. Algal population density peaked at all four sampling stations from October/1996 to April/1997 (rainy period when the greatest values of air and water temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, turbidity, total nitrogen, and ammonium were measured allowing favorable conditions for the algal growth. Period from May/1997 (late fall to October/1997 (early spring was favorable to the development of reproductive structures (nucules and globules with consequent decrease of algal biomass and population density, clearly suggesting the greatest energy allocation towards the development of sexual reproductive structures. This fact was confirmed by the canonic correspondence analysis that indicated strong correlation between nucules length and width, number of nucules per plant, and oospores length and width with the low values of pH and high ones of dissolved inorganic matter detected during the dry period. Consequently, environmental factors such as increasing of water temperature and nutrients availability

  11. Avaliação da técnica de epifisiodese temporária com o uso das placas de Sherman: resultados preliminares Evaluation of the temporary epiphysiodesis procedure using the sherman plate: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Pinto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados preliminares da técnica de epifisiodese temporária utilizando-se as placas de Sherman no tratamento de distúrbios e deformidades dos membros inferiores. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, retrospectivamente, 27 pacientes submetidos à epifisiodese temporária do fêmur distal ou tíbia proximal com as placas de Sherman, em um total de 28 procedimentos. A idade média no momento da cirurgia foi de 11,2 anos (3-15 anos. Os implantes de dois furos eram confeccionados em liga de aço e apresentavam um orifício central para ser utilizado como guia. A fixação foi feita com dois parafusos canulados de 3,5mm. As indicações para o tratamento foram os desvios angulares dos membros inferiores em valgo (n = 10, varo (n = 2 e mistos (n = 1; discrepância do comprimento dos membros (n = 9; e contratura em flexo do joelho (n = 5. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 11,78 meses (±4,07. Observamos apenas um evento adverso (migração do implante em um paciente submetido à epifisiodese anterior do fêmur distal para correção de flexo de joelho. Não houve nenhum caso de quebra do material ou fechamento fisário prematuro. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica de epifisiodese temporária com o uso das placas de Sherman mostrou ser de fácil execução e esteve envolvida com um baixo índice de complicações e custo inferior aos implantes similares em titânio. Por ser um procedimento de baixa morbidade, pode ser indicado em uma ampla faixa etária e para uma grande variedade de distúrbios do esqueleto imaturo.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the preliminary results of a technique using temporary epiphysiodesis plates using a Sherman plate in the treatment of disorders and deformities of the lower limbs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 27 patients who underwent temporary epiphysiodesis of the distal femur or proximal tibia with Sherman plates, comprising 28 procedures. The mean age at surgery was 11.2 years (3-15 years. The two

  12. New Oppioidea taxa from Madagascar (Acari: Oribatida

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    Mahunka, S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the continuous survey of the Madagascan Oribatida Fauna some newly surveyed Oppioidea (Acari: Oribatida species are discussed. Altogether 15 species are listed of the recently studied, identified and described taxa originating from several sites of the island (Malagasy Republic. Seven species of them are new to science and some other known only from few localities. One species represents also a new genus, Interbelba gen. nov. Three species, Berniniella bicarinata (Paoli, 1908, Quadroppia circumita (Hammer, 1961 and Discosuctobelba variosetosa (Hammer, 1961are recorded from Madagascar for the first time. With 22 figures.

  13. Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, M.; Raup, D. M.

    1996-01-01

    The incompleteness of the fossil record hinders the inference of evolutionary rates and patterns. Here, we derive relationships among true taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and observed taxonomic ranges. We use these relationships to estimate original distributions of taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and completeness (proportion of taxa preserved), given only the observed ranges. No data on occurrences within the ranges of taxa are required. When preservation is random and the original distribution of durations is exponential, the inference of durations, preservability, and completeness is exact. However, reasonable approximations are possible given non-exponential duration distributions and temporal and taxonomic variation in preservability. Thus, the approaches we describe have great potential in studies of taphonomy, evolutionary rates and patterns, and genealogy. Analyses of Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician trilobite species, Paleozoic crinoid genera, Jurassic bivalve species, and Cenozoic mammal species yield the following results: (1) The preservation probability inferred from stratigraphic ranges alone agrees with that inferred from the analysis of stratigraphic gaps when data on the latter are available. (2) Whereas median durations based on simple tabulations of observed ranges are biased by stratigraphic resolution, our estimates of median duration, extinction rate, and completeness are not biased.(3) The shorter geologic ranges of mammalian species relative to those of bivalves cannot be attributed to a difference in preservation potential. However, we cannot rule out the contribution of taxonomic practice to this difference. (4) In the groups studied, completeness (proportion of species [trilobites, bivalves, mammals] or genera [crinoids] preserved) ranges from 60% to 90%. The higher estimates of completeness at smaller geographic scales support previous suggestions that the incompleteness of the fossil record reflects loss of

  14. Análises visual e volumétrica por ressonância magnética das formações hipocampais em um grupo de pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de epilepsia do lobo temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROGACHESKI ÊNIO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando comparar a sensibilidade da avaliação volumétrica com a análise visual na avaliação por ressonância magnética (RM das formações hipocampais de pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal refratária e candidatos à lobectomia temporal, estudamos 153 casos com diagnóstico clínico de epilepsia do lobo temporal, utilizando um equipamento de 0,5 Tesla, com técnica de inversion-recovery ponderada em T1, com cortes de 5 mm no plano coronal. Houve boa concordância entre a análise visual prospectiva e outra retrospectiva, realizada por dois observadores independentes (C=0,748 e 0,720. Houve também concordância entre a análise retrospectiva dos dois observadores (C=0,733. Houve ainda concordância genuína (C=0,788 entre os resultados das análises quantitativa e qualitativa realizadas prospectivamente. A análise quantitativa demonstrou uma tendência não-significativa a lateralizar mais casos de atrofia hipocampal presumida clinicamente. Nossos resultados confirmam a confiabilidade da análise visual qualitativa e indicam a utilidade da volumetria hipocampal como uma medida suplementar, objetiva e quantitativa, de esclerose hipocampal.

  15. DAS performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, G.; Bodine, S.; Carroll, T.; Keller, M.

    1984-02-01

    This report begins with an overview of the Data Acquisition System (DAS), which supports several of PPPL's experimental devices. Performance measurements which were taken on DAS and the tools used to make them are then described

  16. Tendência temporal da mortalidade por homicídios na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, 1979-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a tendência da mortalidade por homicídios segundo sexo e idade na cidade de São Paulo entre 1979 e 1994, utilizando modelos de ajuste de tendência temporal selecionados com base na significância de beta e valor de R², e análise de resíduos pela técnica de box and whisker plot. A mortalidade por homicídios em São Paulo passou de 12,2 óbitos por 100.000 hab. em 1979 para 34,2 em 1994, apresentando crescimento linear de 1,17 ao ano. O mesmo comportamento é observado em ambos os sexos, embora as taxas para os homens sejam cerca de 14 vezes maiores, denotando a deterioração das condições de vida urbana. Tanto os menores de dez anos como os maiores de 60 anos apresentam taxas constantes no período em valores relativamente baixos. O grupo de 10 a 19 anos apresenta crescimento das taxas segundo o modelo multiplicativo (incrementos 132,55. Os adultos jovens de 20 a 39 anos apresentam taxas crescentes durante todo o período, segundo o modelo linear, enquanto os adultos de 40 a 59 anos apresentam crescimento segundo o modelo recíproco. Observa-se, assim, que cada grupo de idade e sexo apresenta tendência temporal peculiar no período considerado.

  17. Symbiont acquisition as neoseme: origin of species and higher taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudes, D.; Margulis, L.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that, in the origin of species and higher taxa of eukaryotes, symbiont acquisition followed by partner integration has been equivalent to neoseme appearance leading to speciation. The formation of stable symbiotic associations involves partner-surface recognition, behavioral and metabolic interaction, and, in some cases, gene product (RNA, protein) and genic (RNA, DNA) integration. This analysis is applied here to examples of neosemes that define specific taxa and to neosemes in plants, fungi, and animals that involve the appearance of new types of tissue. If this hypothesis is correct--if the origin of major genetic variation leading to speciation and even higher taxa may occur through symbiont acquisition and integration--then the analysis of "origins of species and higher taxa" becomes analogous to the study of microbial community ecology.

  18. A DINÂMICA ESPAÇO-TEMPORAL DO PROCESSO DE VOÇOROCAMENTO NO PERÍMETRO URBANO DE RANCHARIA-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Bueno Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este texto apresenta as considerações de um estudo sobre a dinâmica do voçorocamento localizado na periferia da cidade de Rancharia-SP, através de resultados analisados na escala espacial e temporal, tendo como base a aplicação do método de estaqueamento proposto por De Ploey e Gabriels (1980, Morgan (1986 e Guerra (1996. Considerando as taxas de erosão das bordas, o estudo constatou a influência das características texturais dos solos e do regime pluviométrico na dinâmica do voçorocamento.

  19. Surrogate taxa and fossils as reliable proxies of spatial biodiversity patterns in marine benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Carrie L; Kowalewski, Michał

    2017-03-15

    Rigorous documentation of spatial heterogeneity (β-diversity) in present-day and preindustrial ecosystems is required to assess how marine communities respond to environmental and anthropogenic drivers. However, the overwhelming majority of contemporary and palaeontological assessments have centred on single higher taxa. To evaluate the validity of single taxa as community surrogates and palaeontological proxies, we compared macrobenthic communities and sympatric death assemblages at 52 localities in Onslow Bay (NC, USA). Compositional heterogeneity did not differ significantly across datasets based on live molluscs, live non-molluscs, and all live organisms. Death assemblages were less heterogeneous spatially, likely reflecting homogenization by time-averaging. Nevertheless, live and dead datasets were greater than 80% congruent in pairwise comparisons to the literature estimates of β-diversity in other marine ecosystems, yielded concordant bathymetric gradients, and produced nearly identical ordinations consistently delineating habitats. Congruent estimates from molluscs and non-molluscs suggest that single groups can serve as reliable community proxies. High spatial fidelity of death assemblages supports the emerging paradigm of Conservation Palaeobiology. Integrated analyses of ecological and palaeontological data based on surrogate taxa can quantify anthropogenic changes in marine ecosystems and advance our understanding of spatial and temporal aspects of biodiversity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos: Publications and status of described taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Javier H; Urteaga, Diego; Teso, Valeria

    2015-10-28

    Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos was an Argentinian malacologist working in the "Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo" at La Plata University where she taught invertebrate zoology between 1947 and 1990. Her scientific publications are listed in chronological order. Described genus-group and species-group taxa are listed. Information about the type locality and type material, and taxonomic remarks are also provided. Finally, type material of all described taxa was requested and, when located, illustrated.

  1. Disponibilidade de fósforo em seis solos do Uruguai afetada pela variação temporal das condições de oxirredução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hernández

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Os processos de oxirredução influem na reatividade dos óxidos de ferro no solo, o que pode afetar a disponibilidade do fósforo. Com o objetivo de avaliar como estes processos interferem na disponibilidade do fósforo, realizou-se um estudo com seis solos do Uruguai sujeitos a variações temporais nas condições de oxirredução. Amostras do horizonte A desses solos, com diferente material de origem e que ocupam posição topográfica plana e encostas baixas da paisagem, foram colocadas sob condições de alagamento por 5, 15 e 45 dias. Decorridos estes períodos de tempo, os materiais de solo foram secos durante um período de 21 dias e amostrados para análises químicas. As formas de ferro de baixa cristalinidade, extraídas pelo oxalato de amônio a pH 6 (Fe6, aumentaram com o alagamento dos solos e, após a secagem, decresceram, mas ficaram, entretanto, acima dos teores iniciais. Encontrou-se uma relação significativa entre o conteúdo de carbono orgânico dos solos e a proporção de formas de ferro de baixa cristalinidade, antes e depois dos diferentes períodos de alagamento. Os teores de fósforo disponível extraídos por Bray-1 aumentaram com o alagamento e, com exceção do solo Algorta, após a secagem dos solos, diminuíram para valores similares aos iniciais. O alagamento do solo e a posterior secagem determinaram o aumento das frações de ferro de maior reatividade, acarretando a adsorção de fósforo, evidenciado pelos menores teores de fósforo remanescentes na solução. Houve tendência muito definida de diminuição do fósforo na solução dos solos com o aumento dos teores de ferro em formas de alta reatividade química (Fe6. Estes resultados indicam que, após ciclos de alagamento-secagem do solo, a adsorção do fósforo aumenta pela reação com compostos de ferro recentemente precipitados, o que resulta em menor disponibilidade do fósforo para as plantas.

  2. S K Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. S K Das. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 24 Issue 4 August 2001 pp 373-378 Metals and Alloys. Evaluation of solid–liquid interface profile during continuous casting by a spline based formalism · S K Das · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. A numerical ...

  3. P Chaitanya Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chaitanya Das G Srinivasa Murthy C P Gopalakrishnan P C Deshmukh · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 7 July 2004 pp 77-85 Classroom. Motion of Charged Particles in Electromagnetic Fields and Special Theory of Relativity · P Chaitanya Das G Srinivasa Murthy P C Deshmukh K Satish Kumar T A Venkatesh.

  4. Dermatite das Fraldas

    OpenAIRE

    Girão, Leonor; Godinho, Mário; Fiadeiro, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    A dermatite das fraldas é uma das patologias mais frequentes na primeira infância, podendo as causas serem múltiplas.Os autores abordam as diferentes entidades clínicas salientando a importância de uma terapêutica correcta e atempada destas dermatoses.

  5. I M L Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. I M L Das. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 33 Issue 4 August 2010 pp 383-390 Electrical Properties. Temperature dependence of electromechanical properties of PLZT /57/43 ceramics · A K Shukla V K Agrawal I M L Das Janardan Singh S L Srivastava.

  6. A K Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. A K Das. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 28 Issue 2 April 2005 pp 131-136 Fly Ash. Some studies on the reaction between fly ash and lime · A Basumajumdar A K Das N Bandyopadhyay S Maitra · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The reaction between ...

  7. P K Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. P K Das. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 4 August 2000 pp 249-253 Nitride Ceramics. Optimization of time–temperature schedule for nitridation of silicon compact on the basis of silicon and nitrogen reaction kinetics · J Rakshit P K Das.

  8. B P Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. B P Das. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 25 Issue 6 November 2002 pp 517-519. Structural, dielectric and electrical properties of Sm-modified Pb(SnTi)O3 ferroelectric system · B P Das R N P Choudhary P K Mahapatra · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  9. Sumit R Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. Sumit R Das. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 69 Issue 1 July 2007 pp 93-108. String theory and cosmological singularities · Sumit R Das · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. In general relativity space-like or null singularities are common: they imply ...

  10. Efeito da temperatura e velocidade do ar sobre a taxa de secagem da madeira de Pinus elliottii Engelm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio José Santini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o efeito da temperatura e velocidade do ar sobre a taxa de secagem, peças de madeira de Pinus elliottii de 25 x 125 x 750 mm foram submetidas à secagem em estufa semi-industrial de convecção forçada. O processo foi conduzido para duas temperaturas e duas velocidades de ar e controlado por meio de um sistema computadorizado. Os resultados mostraram que a taxa de secagem tem uma relação diretamente proporcional com a temperatura, velocidade do ar e umidade da madeira. Por meio da análise de regressão múltipla detectou-se efeito estatisticamente significativo da temperatura e da velocidade do ar sobre a taxa e o tempo de secagem, com um nível de confiança de 99%. Como a importância da velocidade do ar na secagem decresce com a diminuição do teor de umidade, sugere-se, por razões de economia, mais investigações acerca das relações entre as duas variáveis durante o período de taxa de secagem decrescente.

  11. Ecologia alimentar e distribuição espaço-temporal das diferentes fases ontogenéticas da espécie Cynoscion acoupa no estuário do Rio Goiana (PE/PB)

    OpenAIRE

    FERREIRA, Guilherme Vitor Batista

    2016-01-01

    Este estudo avalia a influência espaço-temporal nos padrões de distribuição, ecologia alimentar e ingestão de microplástico da espécie Cynoscion acoupa (Pescada Amarela) ao longo da sua ontogenia, no estuário do rio Goiana, localizado no nordeste do Brasil. A área de estudo se trata de um estuário tropical, com altas médias de temperatura anual e pequenas oscilações. O ambiente está submetido a um regime de mesomaré semi-diurna. As principais alterações encontradas no estuário são oriundas do...

  12. Temporal correlations in population trends: Conservation implications from time-series analysis of diverse animal taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Keith; H. Resit Akcakaya; Stuart H.M. Butchart; Ben Collen; Nicholas K. Dulvy; Elizabeth E. Holmes; Jeffrey A. Hutchings; Doug Keinath; Michael K. Schwartz; Andrew O. Shelton; Robin S. Waples

    2015-01-01

    Population trends play a large role in species risk assessments and conservation planning, and species are often considered threatened if their recent rate of decline meets certain thresholds, regardless how large the population is. But how reliable an indicator of extinction risk is a single estimate of population trend? Given the integral role this decline-...

  13. Braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose no Brasil High-dose rate brachytherapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carlos Barros Esteves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose foi introduzida em nosso meio em janeiro de 1991. Desde então, houve uma mudança significativa na abordagem das neoplasias malignas em relação às vantagens do novo método, e também resolução da demanda reprimida de braquiterapia para as neoplasias ginecológicas. Nos primeiros dez anos de atividade, o Brasil tratou, em 31 serviços, 26.436 pacientes com braquiterapia, sendo mais de 50% das pacientes portadoras de neoplasias do colo uterino. Este estudo mostra o número e o perfil de pacientes tratados com esse método e a sua distribuição no território nacional, deixando explícito o benefício da braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose para o Brasil.High-dose rate brachytherapy was first introduced in Brazil in January 1991. Significant changes in the management of malignant neoplasms were observed since utilization of high-dose rate brachytherapy. The high number of gynecological patients awaiting for brachytherapy also decreased during this period. In the first ten years 26,436 patients were treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy. More than 50% of these patients presented neoplasms of the uterine cervix. In this study we present the number and profile of the patients treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy as well as the distribution of these patients in the Brazilian territory, proving the benefit of the use of high-dose rate brachytherapy in Brazil.

  14. TAXAS DE INFECÇÃO HOSPITALAR EM UMA UNIDADE DE TERAPIA INTENSIVA NEONATAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska de Oliveira Bittencourt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva quantitativa que teve o seguinte objetivo: identificar as taxas de infecção hospitalar relacionadas ao trato vascular em recém-nascidos hospitalizados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um Hospital Universitário localizado no estado do Rio de Janeiro no período de 2005 a 2007. A amostra foi constituída todos os recém-nascidos internados em 2005 e 2007. Os resultados indicaram que, embora a taxa de infecções hospitalares em 2007 seja menor que no ano de 2005, a proporção de infecções relacionadas ao trato vascular sofreu um discreto aumento considerando as demais topografias. Embora a educação continuada seja empregada na unidade, acredita-se que fatores como a alta rotatividade de profissionais e o uso de mais cateteres venosos centrais na rotina reduzam sua efetividade. Desta forma, foram elaboradas algumas propostas para a redução das infecções hospitalares na unidade estudada.

  15. Erosão hídrica e taxa de entrega de sedimentos na bacia hidrográfica semiárida do riacho Exu, PE.

    OpenAIRE

    Cícero Gomes dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    A compreensão dos processos envolvidos na produção e transferência de sedimentos dentro do ciclo hidrossedimentológico em uma bacia hidrográfica depende fundamentalmente do entendimento de fatores controladores da taxa de entrega destes sedimentos, ou seja, da produção de sedimentos e das formas de erosão bruta. Desta maneira, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a taxa de entrega de sedimento na bacia hidrográfica do riacho Exu no semiárido Pernambucano através da produção de sedimento t...

  16. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadley, M.R.; Willey, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 μg radiolabelled Cs g -1 soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author)

  17. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadley, M.R.; Willey, N.J. [University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom). Faculty of Applied Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 {mu}g radiolabelled Cs g{sup -1} soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author).

  18. Comportamento das concentrações séricas e urinárias de creatinina e uréia ao longo de uma periodização desenvolvida em futebolistas profissionais: relações com a taxa de filtração glomerular Comportamiento de las concentraciones séricas y urinarias de creatinina y urea a lo largo de una periodicidad desarrollada en futbolistas profesionales: relaciones con la tasa de filtración glomerular Behavior of the creatinine and urea seric and urinary concentrations during a periodization developed in professional soccer players: relations with the glomerular filtration rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As determinações de creatinina e uréia têm sido utilizadas para avaliar o impacto do treinamento físico. Portanto, o principal objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o comportamento das concentrações séricas e urinárias de creatinina e uréia em futebolistas profissionais ao longo de uma periodização. Participaram do estudo 18 jogadores de futebol que foram avaliados no início (T1, meio (T2 e fim (T3 de uma periodização específica. Os atletas foram submetidos às avaliações antropométrica e de determinação da capacidade aeróbia e da eficiência do metabolismo anaeróbio alático. As concentrações de creatinina e uréia dos atletas foram mensuradas no soro e na urina, além da taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG, determinada por três métodos distintos, sendo um independente e dois dependentes do volume urinário. A análise das respostas das variáveis em T1, T2 e T3 foi realizada por Anova one-way, seguida de post hoc de Newman-Keuls, assim como foi aplicado teste de correlação de Pearson. Para todos os casos o nível de significância prefixado foi de 5%. Houve melhora nos parâmetros aeróbio (p Las respuestas de urea y creatinina han sido extensamente usadas para evaluar el impacto del entrenamiento físico. De ahí que el propósito de nuestro estudio ha sido el de investigar el comportamiento del suero y la creatinina urinaria y las concentraciones de urea durante el entrenamiento de fútbol. Fueron evaluados 18 jugadores brasileños de fútbol al inicio (T1, a la mitad (T2 y en el final (T3 de un programa de entrenamiento de fútbol. En los atletas se midieron la eficiencia de sus características antropométricas, capacidad aeróbica y metabolismo anaeróbico alatico. Sumadas a las medidas de suero y creatinina urinaria y concentraciones de urea, también se evaluó en los atletas la eliminación de creatinina mediante tres métodos diferentes. Mientras que el primer método fue independiente del volumen

  19. Processing Approaches for DAS-Enabled Continuous Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Wood, T.; Freifeld, B. M.; Robertson, M.; McDonald, S.; Pevzner, R.; Lindsey, N.; Gelvin, A.; Saari, S.; Morales, A.; Ekblaw, I.; Wagner, A. M.; Ulrich, C.; Daley, T. M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is creating a "field as laboratory" capability for seismic monitoring of subsurface changes. By providing unprecedented spatial and temporal sampling at a relatively low cost, DAS enables field-scale seismic monitoring to have durations and temporal resolutions that are comparable to those of laboratory experiments. Here we report on seismic processing approaches developed during data analyses of three case studies all using DAS-enabled seismic monitoring with applications ranging from shallow permafrost to deep reservoirs: (1) 10-hour downhole monitoring of cement curing at Otway, Australia; (2) 2-month surface monitoring of controlled permafrost thaw at Fairbanks, Alaska; (3) multi-month downhole and surface monitoring of carbon sequestration at Decatur, Illinois. We emphasize the data management and processing components relevant to DAS-based seismic monitoring, which include scalable approaches to data management, pre-processing, denoising, filtering, and wavefield decomposition. DAS has dramatically increased the data volume to the extent that terabyte-per-day data loads are now typical, straining conventional approaches to data storage and processing. To achieve more efficient use of disk space and network bandwidth, we explore improved file structures and data compression schemes. Because noise floor of DAS measurements is higher than that of conventional sensors, optimal processing workflow involving advanced denoising, deconvolution (of the source signatures), and stacking approaches are being established to maximize signal content of DAS data. The resulting workflow of data management and processing could accelerate the broader adaption of DAS for continuous monitoring of critical processes.

  20. Influência da capacidade de campo na taxa de crescimento do cafeeiro conilon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Junger Delôgo Dardengo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da capacidade de campo (CC na taxa de crescimento do cafeeiro conilon a partir da adoção de três tensões: 0,006 MPa (CC1, 0,010 MPa (CC2 e 0,033 MPa (CC3, em dois tipos de solo (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O experimento foi montado em casa de vegetação no Núcleo de Estudos e de Difusão de Tecnologia em Floresta, Recursos Hídricos e Agricultura Sustentável, município de Jerônimo Monteiro, Espírito Santo. A espécie vegetal utilizada foi a Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner, variedade Robusta Tropical (EMCAPER 8151, cultivada em vaso de 12 litros, por um período de 255 dias. As análises de crescimento foram realizadas 15 dias após o transplantio das mudas e no final do experimento, para determinação de matéria seca total e área foliar. O teor de umidade do solo na capacidade de campo varia com a tensão adotada em sua determinação. As maiores taxas de crescimentos relativo e absoluto do cafeeiro conilon foram obtidas quando a umidade do solo foi mantida na capacidade de campos determinada na tensão de 0,010 MPa no Latossolo Vermelho­Amarelo e de 0,006 MPa no Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. As menores taxas de crescimento da cultura foram observa­das na capacidade de campo determinada na tensão de 0,033 MPa, o que inviabiliza a sua adoção na estimativa da lâmina de irrigação utilizando-se a câmara de pressão de Richards.

  1. Mammal taxa constituting potential coevolved reservoirs of filoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, A.Townsend; Papes, Monica; Carroll, Darin S.

    2007-01-01

    The virus family Filoviridae includes 2 genera, the Marburg viruses and the Ebola viruses. The ecology of the filoviruses is poorly known, and indeed their host relationships remain completely unknown. An earlier effort prioritized mammalian taxa as to their possible status as the long-term coevo...

  2. Florae Malesianae Precursores. XI. New taxa in Canarium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1955-01-01

    English diagnoses of the following new taxa will before long be published in Flora Malesiana, I, 5²; with the exception of C. pseudosumatranum, the Latin diagnoses are exclusively based on the typecollection. The abbreviations used are as follows: BS = Bureau of Science, Manila BW = Boswezen, Dutch

  3. The effectiveness of surrogate taxa to conserve freshwater biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Underwood, Zachary E.; Rahel, Frank J.; Walters, Annika W.

    2018-01-01

    Establishing protected areas has long been an effective conservation strategy, and is often based on more readily surveyed species. The potential of any freshwater taxa to be a surrogate of other aquatic groups has not been fully explored. We compiled occurrence data on 72 species of freshwater fish, amphibians, mussels, and aquatic reptiles for the Great Plains, Wyoming. We used hierarchical Bayesian multi-species mixture models and MaxEnt models to describe species distributions, and program Zonation to identify conservation priority areas for each aquatic group. The landscape-scale factors that best characterized aquatic species distributions differed among groups. There was low agreement and congruence among taxa-specific conservation priorities (<20%), meaning that no surrogate priority areas would include or protect the best habitats of other aquatic taxa. We found that common, wide-ranging aquatic species were included in taxa-specific priority areas, but rare freshwater species were not included. Thus, the development of conservation priorities based on a single freshwater aquatic group would not protect all species in the other aquatic groups.

  4. Taxa de polinização cruzada em cubiu Natural outcrossing in cocona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldelice Oliveira de Paiva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a frequência de hibridação natural em Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal foram avaliadas em Manaus, AM, duas cultivares que se diferenciavam pela presença ou ausência de pigmentação de antocianina nos ramos, pecíolos e nervuras das folha. A taxa de polinização cruzada foi avaliada em três épocas do florescimento das plantas e foi estimada em 31%. Durante o desenvolvimento da cultura, observou-se grande presença de abelhas dos gêneros (Apidae Paratrigona, Trigona e Melipona e coleópteros Crysomelidae.In order to evaluate the natural rates of outcrossing in cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal, two cultivars, one with antocyanin presence and other without antocyanin, were planted in Manaus, AM, Brazil. The percentage of cross-polination was evaluated in three plant flowering periods and was estimated in 31%. During the period of cultivation, high presence of beas of Apidae genus Paratrigona, Trigona and Melipona and beetle Crysomelidae were observed.

  5. Efeitos de diferentes padrões respiratórios no desempenho e na organização temporal das braçadas do nado "Crawl" Effects of different breathing patterns on the performance and the arm stroke in the front Crawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Apolinario

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos de diferentes padrões respiratórios no desempenho e na organização temporal das braçadas do nado "Crawl" de atletas de elite. Vinte e um jovens atletas do gênero masculino participaram de forma voluntária do estudo. Eles foram filmados nadando 25 m do nado "Crawl", em velocidade máxima, em quatro condições de respiração: inspiração para o lado preferido (LP; para o lado não preferido (LNP; bilateral (B; e, sem respiração (S. Duas filmadoras digitais (60 fps captaram as imagens que foram analisadas através do "software" Kinovea 0.8.7 nos 10 metros centrais do percurso. Para análise foram consideradas medidas de desempenho e de organização temporal das braçadas. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o padrão respiratório afeta o desempenho de atletas jovens de elite. Mostraram que, em termos de velocidade, tempo, frequência e comprimento de braçada, é mais vantajosa a condição de nadar "Crawl" em apneia (S que em qualquer das condições com inspiração (B, LP e LNP. Portanto, o padrão preferido de respiração, não necessariamente, corresponde ao mais eficiente em termos do desempenho. Assim, professores e técnicos de Natação deveriam incentivar a prática e o emprego do padrão em apneia como estratégia tática para nadadores velocistas. Em relação à braçada, os resultados mostraram que diante da modificação do padrão respiratório, nadadores peritos jovens mantêm a estrutura temporal das braçadas direita e esquerda (aspectos invariantes da braçada bem como a coordenação entre os braços inalterada enquanto efetuam ajustes na fase aérea da braçada (aspectos variantes. Assim sendo, atletas jovens de elite apresentam braçada com relativa autonomia frente ao componente respiração e nadam efetuando ajustes considerando a economia de recursos.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different breathing patterns on the performance and

  6. TAXA DE PREDAÇÃO DE NINHOS ARTIFICIAIS EM UMA ÁREA DE MANEJO FLORESTAL SUSTENTÁVEL NA AMAZÔNIA CENTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Souza de Moura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A predação de ninhos vem sendo sugerida como uma das causas do declínio de populações de aves, influenciando a estrutura e funcionamento das comunidades.  Apesar de diversos estudos terem avaliado fatores relacionados às variações nas taxas de predação de ninhos, poucos verificaram os efeitos do manejo florestal sustentável sobre estas taxas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do manejo florestal sustentável sobre a taxa de predação de ninhos artificiais em uma floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Central. Para isso foram instalados ninhos artificiais em três áreas entre 11/2014 e 06/2015. Dos 240 ninhos montados 72 foram predados, sendo 29 na área não manejada, 24 na Área de Preservação Permanente e 19 na área manejada. Dos 72 ninhos predados 55,56% foram ninhos de sub-bosque e 44,44% ninhos de solo. A menor taxa de predação na área manejada pode estar relacionada às alterações na estrutura da vegetação e ao consequente afugentamento dos predadores.

  7. Spatial and temporal changes in interstitial meiofauna on a sandy ocean beach of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine F. Albuquerque

    2007-06-01

    densidades em dezembro. Os resultados da regressão múltipla mostraram que os efeitos médios das zonas, estratos e meses nos organismos foram significativamente correlacionados com os principais grupos da meiofauna. A zona de retenção e o estrato de 0-10 cm apresentaram os mais altos valores de densidade. A distribuição temporal mostrou diferentes padrões, onde alguns taxa foram mais abundantes na estação seca e outros na estação úmida. As variáveis sedimentológicas tiveram um forte efeito significante sobre os grupos meiofaunísticos. As ótimas condições de vida da zona de retenção para o meiobentos fazem desta região uma área favorável para estudos de ecologia básica e aplicada.

  8. MiDAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study...... of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes—knowledge that will be an invaluable resource...

  9. Extinction, diversity and survivorship of taxa in the fossil record

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M. E. J.; Sibani, Paolo

    1998-01-01

    Using data drawn from large-scale databases, a number of interesting trends in the fossil record have been observed in recent years. These include the average decline in extinction rates throughout the Phanerozoic, the average increase in standing diversity, correlations between rates of origination and extinction, and simple laws governing the form of survivorship curves and the distribution of the lifetimes of taxa. In this paper we derive a number of mathematical relationships between thes...

  10. Agaricus section Xanthodermatei: a phylogenetic reconstruction with commentary on taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Richard W; Callac, Philippe; Guinberteau, Jacques; Challen, Michael P; Parra, Luis A

    2005-01-01

    Agaricus section Xanthodermatei comprises a group of species allied to A. xanthodermus and generally characterized by basidiomata having phenolic odors, transiently yellowing discolorations in some parts of the basidiome, Schaeffer's reaction negative, and mild to substantial toxicity. The section has a global distribution, while most included species have distributions restricted to regions of single continents. Using specimens and cultures from Europe, North America, and Hawaii, we analyzed DNA sequences from the ITS1+2 region of the nuclear rDNA to identify and characterize phylogenetically distinct entities and to construct a hypothesis of relationships, both among members of the section and with representative taxa from other sections of the genus. 61 sequences from affiliated taxa, plus 20 from six (or seven) other sections of Agaricus, and one Micropsalliota sequence, were evaluated under distance, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. We recognized 21 discrete entities in Xanthodermatei, including 14 established species and 7 new ones, three of which are described elsewhere. Four species from California, New Mexico, and France deserve further study before they are described. Type studies of American taxa are particularly emphasized, and a lectotype is designated for A. californicus. Section Xanthodermatei formed a single clade in most analyses, indicating that the traditional sectional characters noted above are good unifying characters that appear to have arisen only once within Agaricus. Deep divisions within the sequence-derived structure of the section could be interpreted as subsections in Xanthodermatei; however, various considerations led us to refrain from proposing new supraspecific taxa. The nearest neighbors of section Xanthodermatei are putatively in section Duploannulati.

  11. Are troglobitic taxa troglobiomorphic? A test using phylogenetic inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Desutter-Grandcolas

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Obligate cave dwelling organisms are frequently characterised by a peculiar morphological syndrome, named troglomorphosis or troglobiomorphosis. This hypothesis, which deals with the evolutionary influence of the subterranean environment on cave organisms is far from being universally accepted. Yet it has been adopted by many authors and is often included in the definitions of the current classification of cave taxa. In this paper I present a test of the troglobiomorphosis hypothesis, using the case study of the cricket clade Amphiacustae (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae. Such a test preliminarily requires that observations of the habitat of the taxa (achieved on present-day populations are clearly separated from hypotheses on the evolutionary transformations of cave taxa (troglobiomorphosis hypothesis s. str.. The evolutionary hypotheses on troglobite morphology are tested using phylogenetic inference, that is by parsimoniously mapping the states of several morphological characters (eye size, body colour, relative hindleg size onto the cladogram of the Amphiacustae. According to these phylogenetic analyses, the troglobiomorphosis hypothesis is corroborated by the patterns reconstructed for eye size and body coloration characters, but is refuted by the patterns built for hindleg size.

  12. Desempenho exportador brasileiro recente e taxa de câmbio real: uma análise setorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannebley Júnior Sérgio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga a relação entre medidas alternativas de taxa de câmbio real e a evolução do quantum exportado para 13 setores exportadores nacionais, no período de 1985 a 1998. É possível concluir, por meio de análise descritiva e econométrica, que não existe uma relação de longo prazo estável entre a evolução do nível da taxa de câmbio real e o quantum exportado para a maioria dos setores analisados. Argumenta-se, entretanto, que a manutenção de um nível de taxa real de câmbio capaz de preservar a rentabilidade e/ou competitividade dos setores exportadores é condição necessária, porém não suficiente, para a expansão das exportações ao longo do tempo.

  13. Impactos da volatilidade da taxa de câmbio no comércio setorial do Mercosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio V. L. Bittencourt

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo capta o impacto da volatilidade da taxa de câmbio real bilateral no comércio. Estima-se um modelo gravitacional setorial utilizando-se duas medidas de volatilidade da taxa de câmbio. Os resultados mostram que uma redução na volatilidade da taxa de câmbio, o crescimento da renda e a redução das tarifas comerciais contribuem para aumentar o comércio bilateral no Mercosul. Este estudo sugere a inclusão e implementação de políticas comuns, estáveis e integradas entre os países do Mercosul, de modo a reduzir os impactos adversos da volatilidade cambial no comércio dos países envolvidos.This study captures the impact of real bilateral exchange rate volatility on trade. A sectoral gravity model is estimated under two different measures of exchange rate volatility. Results show that a reduction in exchange rate volatility, an increase in the country’s income, and a reduction in trade tariffs can increase bilateral trade in Mercosur. This study suggests the inclusion and implementation of common, stable, and integrated policies among Mercosur countries, aiming to reduce the adverse effects of the exchange rate volatility on bilateral trade among these countries.

  14. Avaliação espaço-temporal das armazenagens gravimétrica e volumétrica da água num Latossolo com citros Spatial and temporal evaluation of gravimetric and volumetric water storage in an Oxisol under citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolorice Moreti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A estabilidade temporal é descrita como a persistência temporal de um padrão espacial e é avaliada pela análise de correlação de medidas em datas sucessivas. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a armazenagem de água no solo em duas transeções de 76 m cada, contendo 20 pontos em cada uma. em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo argissólico cultivado com citros com 11 anos em Piracicaba/SP. A umidade do solo para determinação da armazenagem, na camada de 0,00-1,10 m, ao longo do tempo, foi obtida com uma sonda de nêutrons, calibrada para o solo em estudo, realizando leituras semanais às profundidades de 0,20, 0,40, 0,60, 0,80, 1,0 e 1,10 m. A armazenagem de água no solo foi determinada utilizando-se o método de Simpson. Os dados da armazenagem média de água no solo nos três anos de estudo mostraram que sua distribuição, ao longo do tempo, apresentou comportamento semelhante e que os coeficientes de correlação linear e de posição de Spearman foram altos entre o ano 1 e o ano 2, o ano 2 e o ano 3 e o ano 1 e o ano 3, indicando existência de estabilidade temporal e persistência temporal significativa do padrão espacial observado. Foi verificada dependência espacial moderada de 17,10 m pelo semivariograma exponencial. Pela técnica da diferença relativa, os pontos que apresentaram comportamento estável no tempo foram o ponto 29, para os anos 1 e 2, e os pontos 16, 29 e 39, para o ano 3, que podem ser usados para estimar com segurança a armazenagem média de água no solo. O ponto 29 foi o que se apresentou estável para os três anos de estudo, sendo, portanto, o mais recomendável tanto para a armazenagem gravimétrica como para a volumétrica.Temporal stability is described as the temporal persistence of a spatial pattern and is evaluated through correlation analysis of successive measurement data. In this study, the soil water storage was evaluated along two 76 m transects, each of them sampled at 20 points. The soil is an Oxisol

  15. Investigação da temporalidade das características definidoras do diagnóstico de resposta disfuncional ao desmame ventilatório La investigación de la temporalidad de las características definitorias de diagnóstico de la respuesta disfuncional para el destete ventilatorio Investigation of the temporality of the defining characteristics of the diagnostic response to dysfunctional ventilatory weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Avellar Cerqueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo que investigou a distribuição temporal das características definidoras da Resposta Disfuncional ao Desmame Ventilatório. Teve como objetivos: descrever a conformação da distribuição cronológica das características definidoras desse diagnóstico em pacientes sob ventilação prolongada na fase de interrupção da ventilação mecânica e verificar a existência de um padrão temporal predominante. Trata-se de um estudo do tipo descritivo-exploratório com abordagem quantitativa. Foram sujeitos os clientes adultos internados por causas clínicas no Centro de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, sob ventilação mecânica prolongada e que estavam em desmame. Com os resultados se obteve a confirmação da hipótese de existência de uma distribuição temporal predominante na amostra observada. Foi possível distinguir os principais intervalos de observação/manifestação das Características Definidoras, a saber: precoce, intermediário e tardio. Em relação ao gerenciamento do processo de desmame foi possível indicar algumas contribuições ao aprimoramento das avaliações protocolares.Un estudio investigó la distribución temporal de las características definitorias de Respuesta Disfuncional al Destete Ventilatorio. Tuvo como objetivo describir la conformación de la distribución cronológica de las características definitorias de este diagnóstico en pacientes sometidos a ventilación prolongada durante el destete de la ventilación mecánica y para verificar la existencia de un patrón climático predominante. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo de enfoque cuantitativo y exploratorio. Los sujetos fueron clientes adultos ingresados por razones clínicas en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Pro-cardiaco, bajo ventilación mecánica prolongada y que habían de ser destetados. Con los resultados se obtuvo la confirmación de la hipótesis de una distribución temporal que prevalecen en la muestra

  16. Multi-taxa trait and functional responses to physical disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedley, Scott M; Dolman, Paul M

    2014-11-01

    Examining assemblage trait responses to environmental stressors extends our understanding beyond patterns of taxonomic diversity and composition, with results potentially transferable among bioregions. But the degree to which trait responses may be generalized across taxonomic groups remains incompletely understood. We compared trait responses among carabids, spiders and plants to an experimentally manipulated gradient of physical disturbance, replicated in open habitats within a forested landscape. Recolonization of recently disturbed habitats is expected to favour species with traits that promote greater dispersal ability, independent of taxa. We specifically predicted that physical disturbance would increase the representation of carabids with smaller body size, wings or wing dimorphism, spiders able to disperse aerially, and plants with therophyte life-history and wind-dispersed seed. We sampled 197 arthropod species (14,738 individuals) and 164 species of plant. The strength of association between each trait and the disturbance intensity was quantified by correlating matrices of species by traits, species abundance by sites and sites by environment, with significance assessed by comparison with a null model. Responses of biological traits varied among taxa but could be consistently interpreted in terms of dispersal ability. Trait shifts for carabid and plant assemblages were as predicted and correspond to those observed in other disturbance regimes. Assemblages after disturbance comprised smaller and winged carabids, and smaller plants with wind-dispersed seed, consistent with selection for species with better dispersal ability. In contrast, aerial dispersal did not appear important in spider recolonization, instead terrestrial dispersal ability was suggested by the increased abundance of larger-bodied and cursorial species. However, larger spider body size was also associated with an active-hunting strategy, also favoured in the post-disturbance environment

  17. Mapa das mortes por violência Map of violent deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Jacobo Waiselfisz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dando continuidade à série de Mapas da violência, o atual estudo focaliza a situação da mortalidade violenta - homicídios e mortes por armas de fogo - nos 5.560 municípios do país, utilizando as bases de dados do Subsistema de Informações de Mortalidade (SIM do Ministério da Saúde. Dadas as possíveis oscilações temporais em municípios de pequeno porte, o indicador utilizado foi a média dos incidentes acontecidos nos três últimos anos disponíveis (2002 a 2004. As evidências levantadas permitiram verificar que está em andamento um processo de reconfiguração espacial da violência homicida no país, com a emergência de municípios com taxas de violência extremamente elevadas, maiores que os das capitais e das regiões metropolitanas.As a continuation of the Maps of violence series, the present study focuses on the situation of violent mortality - homicides and firearm-related deaths - in all 5.560 Brazilian municipalities, using the SIM's (Mortality Information Subsystem of the Ministry of Health database. Due to possible temporal oscillations of small municipalities, the average of the number of incidents registered from 2002 to 2004 was used as an indicator. The evidences found in the study allowed us to notice that a spatial reconfiguration process of homicidal violence is taking place in the country: some municipalities arose with extremely high violence rates - higher than those of the capitals and metropolitan regions.

  18. Das Kapital e Eu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schweickart

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir da sua própria biografia, o autor ensaia sobre sua interpretação de Das Kapital, de Karl Marx. Argumenta sobre a exploração capitalista, sobre o fetichismo e aponta para o problema central do capitalismo: a falta de controle dos concernidos sobre a produção de produtor úteis.

  19. Das, Prof. Gobardhan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Das, Prof. Gobardhan Ph.D. (Imtech), FNASc. Date of birth: 10 December 1966. Specialization: Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Cell Biology Address: Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, U.T.. Contact: Office: (011) 2670 4559, 2673 8824. Residence: (0124) 424 2351

  20. Das, Prof. Saumitra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2009 Section: General Biology. Das, Prof. Saumitra Ph.D. (Calcutta), FNASc, FNA. Date of birth: 20 January 1962. Specialization: Molecular Virology, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology Address: Microbiology and Cell Biology Department, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, Karnataka

  1. Das, Prof. Shankar Prasad

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2005 Section: Physics. Das, Prof. Shankar Prasad Ph.D. (Chicago), FNA. Date of birth: 16 March 1959. Specialization: Condensed Matter Theory, Statistical Physics and Stochastic Processes Address: School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, ...

  2. Das, Prof. Prosad Kumar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1975 Section: Earth & Planetary Sciences. Das, Prof. Prosad Kumar D.Phil. (Calcutta), FNA Council Service: 1980-82. Date of birth: 20 May 1926. Date of death: 14 January 2011. Specialization: Numerical Weather Prediction, Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling, Storm Surges and Dynamic Meteorology

  3. Das, Dr Amitava

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 2010 Section: Chemistry. Das, Dr Amitava Ph.D. (Jadavpur), FNASc, FNA. Date of birth: 24 December 1959. Specialization: Molecular Reactions, Supramolecular Chemistry, Assembly Photo-included Processes Address: Director, Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute, GB Marg, Bhavnagar 364 002, ...

  4. Das Reflektierende Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorensen, Marlene Ringgaard; Gaarden, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    dazu hat Marlene Ringgaard Lorensen das Potenzial des von außen kommenden, dezidiert ›andersartigen‹ Beitrags der Hörenden für die dialogische Predigt im Rückgriff auf Theorien von Mikhail Bakhtin analysiert. Als theologische Grundfigur steht hinter der Arbeit im reflektierenden homiletischen Team also...

  5. Ikea das Rendas

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Aeron; Salinas, Alejandra

    2008-01-01

    FIALENA fabric design by Anna Svanfeldt for IKEA of Sweden. It took Maria da Guia 2 months to reproduce the Ikea pattern using traditional Portuguese improvised knots. 2008 Installasjon i Museu das Rendas, Vila do Conde, Portugal, 01.09.2008 - 01.10.2008. Sponsor: City of Villa do Conde.

  6. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...

  7. Variabilidade espacial da biomassa da forragem e taxa de lotação animal em pastagem de capim Marandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Pereira da Silva Neto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a modelagem variográfica da disponibilidade de matéria seca da Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu e a simulação da taxa de lotação animal por meio do ajuste dos modelos esférico, exponencial e gaussiano ao semivariograma experimental, bem como a robustez das predições. A biomassa da gramínea foi coletada em 50 pontos em uma área de 36,22 ha. A simulação da taxa de lotação foi realizada com base na disponibilidade de folhas verdes em cada ponto amostrado, consumo diário de matéria seca por cada unidade animal (UA e o tempo de pastejo. Os dados referentes às variáveis foram submetidos à análise descritiva, estudo geoestatístico e interpolação por krigagem ordinária. A modelagem variográfica da disponibilidade de matéria seca do capim marandu e a taxa de lotação foram caracterizadas pelos modelos esférico, exponencial e gaussiano. Entretanto, apesar da aparente precisão dos ajustes, o modelo esférico apresentou melhor inferência, segundo o critério de informação de Akaike e soma dos erros ao quadrado. Assim, a adoção de modelos com ajustes de critérios somente visuais levam a estimativas da disponibilidade de biomassa de forragem e da taxa de lotação animal que não refletem a realidade da área. Palavras–chave: Estrutura do pasto. Carga animal. Distribuição espacial. Pecuária de precisão. Produção animal. Semivariograma.

  8. Three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of fossils across taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mietchen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of life forms in the fossil record is largely determined by the extent to which they were mineralised at the time of their death. In addition to mineral structures, many fossils nonetheless contain detectable amounts of residual water or organic molecules, the analysis of which has become an integral part of current palaeontological research. The methods available for this sort of investigations, though, typically require dissolution or ionisation of the fossil sample or parts thereof, which is an issue with rare taxa and outstanding materials like pathological or type specimens. In such cases, non-destructive techniques could provide a valuable methodological alternative. While Computed Tomography has long been used to study palaeontological specimens, a number of complementary approaches have recently gained ground. These include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI which had previously been employed to obtain three-dimensional images of pathological belemnites non-invasively on the basis of intrinsic contrast. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether 1H MRI can likewise provide anatomical information about non-pathological belemnites and specimens of other fossil taxa. To this end, three-dimensional MR image series were acquired from intact non-pathological invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils. At routine voxel resolutions in the range of several dozens to some hundreds of micrometers, these images reveal a host of anatomical details and thus highlight the potential of MR techniques to effectively complement existing methodological approaches for palaeontological investigations in a wide range of taxa. As for the origin of the MR signal, relaxation and diffusion measurements as well as 1H and 13C MR spectra acquired from a belemnite suggest intracrystalline water or hydroxyl groups, rather than organic residues.

  9. Variability of essential oil content of Mentha L. taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Neugebauerová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of genus Mentha L. can be described like herbs with many possibilities to use in industry and pharmacology. The most important product is essential oil. For commercially cultivating of species Mentha L. is variability of essential oil content very important characteristic. Variability of essential oil yield of twelve different taxa were monitored for four years. Essential oils were obtained via hydro-distillation and expressed as ml/kg. The highest variability of essential oil content during monitored period showed sample Pulegium vulgare and the lowest variability of essential oil content showed Mentha spicata.

  10. New colporate pollen taxa from Neyveli lignite, South India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Misra, B.K. (Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India))

    1991-02-19

    Four new pollen genera: {ital Bacuspinulopollenites} {ital Cuddaloripollis}, {ital Scrobiculatricolporites}, {ital Tamilipollenites} and seven new species from the subsurface lignite samples of the Mine III area of the Neyveli Lignite Field are described. {ital Tricolporopilites} (Kar and Saxena) Kar 1985 is amended and three new species {ital T. uniformis}, {ital T. differentialis} and {ital T. tectatus} are assigned to it. These colporate angiospermous pollen taxa provide additional information on the palynofloral composition of the main lignite seam encountered in three boreholes. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Treatment of fluctuations of startup rates for core subcriticality monitoring; Tratamento das flutuacoes das taxas de partida para monitoracao da subcriticalidade do nucleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos de Abreu [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martinez, Aquilino Senra [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1996-07-01

    In this paper it is presented a method to eliminate the variations in the source and intermediate range count rate, which are used for the on-line and real time monitoring of the critical safety function Subcriticality. The method may be applied to a safety parameters display system, because it is very simple and precise, which it will not affect the real time requirements of such systems. Variations in the count range could cause a temporary positive startup rate, that could lead to incorrect addressing of function restoration guideline. (author)

  12. Das DNA-Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Stefan

    Im Jahre 1953 wurde von James Watson und Francis Crick erstmalig der strukturelle Aufbau der sogenannten DNA (Desoxyribonukleinsäure) beschrieben, welche das Erbgut jedes Lebewesens enthält. Der wesentliche Teil des Erbguts wird dabei durch eine sehr lange Folge der vier Basen Adenin (A), Cytosin (C), Guanin (G) und Thymin (T) codiert. Seit einigen Jahren ist es möglich, die Folge der vier Basen zu einer gegebenen DNA zu bestimmen. Biologen bezeichnen diesen Vorgang als Sequenzierung.

  13. Quais Fatores Influenciam a Taxa de Aprovação na Disciplina de Anatomia Humana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Silva-e-Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO A Anatomia Humana (AH é uma disciplina básica para todos os estudantes dos cursos superiores das áreas da saúde e biológica. A maior parte a considera de conteúdo difícil. O ensino da AH precisa ser repensado no contexto da política atual de acesso amplo ao ensino superior. E corresponder ao dever das instituições de proporcionar ao estudante uma formação de qualidade com vistas à formação de um profissional crítico e de perfil criativo frente às distintas situações do cotidiano. É preciso entender possíveis fatores que levam às elevadas taxas de reprovação nesta disciplina. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi relacionar o resultado do vestibular/Enem com hábitos de estudo e desejo profissional no desempenho acadêmico da disciplina dos alunos dos cursos de Educação Física, Ciências Biológicas e Nutrição do IF Sudeste MG. Foram entrevistados 129 alunos. A pontuação do vestibular/Enem foi maior entre os aprovados em AH; não houve entre os grupos diferença quantitativa nas horas de estudo e tampouco na escolha do curso, que ocorreu por opção do aluno (versus por falta de opção.

  14. Taxa de evaporação em função do processo de recobrimento de grânulos de quebra pedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. T. Rocha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito das variáveis do processo de recobrimento de grânulos de quebra-pedra (Phyllantus niruri L. com suspensão polimérica em secador de leito de jorro convencional sobre a taxa de evaporação. Os grânulos foram obtidos a partir do processo de granulação por via úmida do extrato seco de quebra pedra e, como ligante, o PVP-K30. A suspensão polimérica à base de Eudragit® foi atomizada sobre o leito de partículas. Foi realizado um delineamento composto central rotacional (DCCR simétrico e de segunda ordem constituído de um fatorial 23, com 8 ensaios, 3 pontos centrais e 6 pontos axiais, totalizando 17 experimentos. Os resultados mostraram que a vazão de suspensão influencia positivamente a taxa de evaporação. As variáveis pressão e temperatura não apresentaram influência significativa na taxa de evaporação. Foram encontrados modelos estatisticamente significativos e preditivos para taxa de evaporação. Em se tratando das interações entre as variáveis do processo observa-se que vazão/temperatura, pressão/vazão e pressão/temperatura exercem efeito significativo sobre a taxa de evaporação.

  15. Laticiferous taxa as a source of energy and hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, S.; Subramanian, R.B.; Kothari, I.L.; Inamdar, J.A. (Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India))

    Twenty-nine laticiferous taxa of Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, and Sapotaceae were screened for suitability as alternative sources of renewable energy, rubber, and phytochemicals and to select the most promising ones for large-scale cultivation. Of these, Allamanda violacea (14.9% protein, 13.8% polyphenol, 8.6% oil, 3.2% hydrocarbon), Catharanthus roseus (15.4% protein, 10.4% polyphenol, 11.5% oil, 1.9% hydrocarbon), and Holarrhena antidysenterica (14.2% protein, 16.4% polyphenol, 5,4% oil, 4.8% hydrocarbon) of Apocynaceae; Asclepias curassavica (19.3% protein, 6.5% polyphenol, 3.9% oil, 2.0% hydrocarbon), Calotropis gigantea (18.5% protein, 6.8% polyphenol, 7.0% oil, 2.8% hydrocarbon) of Asclepiadaceae; Mimusops elengi (11.3% protein, 9.7% polyphenol, 7.2% oil, 4.0% hydrocarbon) of Sapotaceae show promising potential for future petrochemical plantations; of all these taxa, Holarrhena antidysenterica yielded an unusually high percentage (4.8%) of hydrocarbon fraction followed by Mimusops elengi (4.0%). NMR spectra confirmed the presence of cis-polyisoprene in all species studied except Nerium indicum (white-flowered var.). These data indicate that the majority of the species under investigation may be considered for large-scale cultivation as an alternative source of rubber, intermediate energy, and other phytochemicals.

  16. Tendências temporais e espaciais da qualidade das águas superficiais da sub-bacia do Rio das Velhas, estado de Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Ana Laura Cerqueira; Almeida, Katiane Cristina de Brito; Barbosa, Pedro Engler; Oliveira, Sílvia Maria Alves Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Este artigo apresenta uma análise da tendência temporal e espacial da qualidade das águas superficiais da sub-bacia do Rio das Velhas, inserida na bacia do Rio São Francisco, em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram analisados 16.625 dados coletados no período de 2002 a 2011 pelo programa de monitoramento de qualidade das águas superficiais efetuado pelo Instituto Mineiro de Gestão das Águas (Igam). Testes estatísticos, multivariados e não paramétricos foram utilizados para avaliar 11 variáveis ...

  17. Biomarker responses to environmental contamination in estuaries: A comparative multi-taxa approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Irina A; Reis-Santos, Patrick; França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique; Fonseca, Vanessa F

    2017-08-01

    Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems subjected to numerous anthropogenic pressures with consequent environmental quality degradation. In this study, multiple biomarker responses [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage (DNAd)] were determined in two fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Pomatoschistus microps) and four macroinvertebrate species (Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon, Hediste diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) from the Ria de Aveiro and Tejo estuaries over distinct months. Two sites per estuarine system were selected based on anthropogenic pressures and magnitude of environmental contamination. Antioxidant enzyme activities in fish species suggested a ubiquitous response to oxidative stress, while biotransformation and effect biomarkers exhibited higher spatial and temporal variation. In invertebrate species, biotransformation enzyme activity was clearly less variable than in fish evidencing lower xenobiotic transformation capability. Overall, largest biomarker responses were found in the most contaminated sites (Tejo), yet species-specific patterns were evident. These should be factored in multi-taxa approaches, considering that the differential functional traits of species, such as habitat use, life-stage, feeding or physiology can influence exposure routes and biomarker responses. The Integrated Biomarker Response index highlighted patterns in biomarker responses which were not immediately evident when analyzing biomarkers individually. Overall, results provided insights into the complexity of species responses to contamination in naturally varying estuarine environments. Ultimately, multi-taxa and multi-biomarker approaches provide a comprehensive and complementary view of ecosystem health, encompassing diverse forms of biological integration and exposure routes, and allow the validation of results among markers

  18. Temporal evolution of natural radionuclides distributions {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the Bransfield strait, Antarctica peninsula; Evolucao temporal das distribuicoes dos radionuclideos naturais {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po no estreito de Bransfiel, peninsula Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, Flavia Valverde

    2013-07-01

    Research on the distribution of natural radionuclides in Antarctica is rare and thus, there is great interest in to know their occurrence and factors related to its mobilization, transference and accumulation in this extremely fragile environment. Natural radionuclides have been used intensively as tracers in the ocean, helping to better understand processes as sinking and particle resuspension, water masses mixture and oceanic circulation. {sup 234}Th (t½ = 24.1 days) is a particle-reactive radionuclide produced continuously in seawater by the decay of its soluble precursor conservative with salinity {sup 238}U (t½ = 4.5 10{sup 9} years). Since {sup 234}Th presents relatively short half-life, it is used to quantify processes that occur in temporal scale varying from days to weeks. The disequilibrium {sup 234}Th/{sup 238}U in the surface ocean has been applied to estimate carbon fluxes exported via sinking material. The flux of particles biologically productive out of the euphotic zone in the Southern Ocean has special attention due to its importance in the control of CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentrations. The radionuclides {sup 210}Pb (t½ = 22.3 years) and {sup 210}Po (t½ = 138 days) are also particle-reactive. The disequilibrium {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb has been used to estimate fluxes of particles exported in the ocean in the time scale of weeks. The long-lived Ra isotopes, {sup 226}Ra (t½ = 1,600 years) and {sup 228}Ra (t½ = 5.75 years) are soluble in seawater, presenting unique properties that make them excellent tracers of water masses. This research work had the aim to study the distributions of natural radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 22}'6Ra, {sup 22}'8Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the Bransfield Strait during 2 samplings carried out in the 2011 Austral Summer (OPERANTAR XXIX and XXX). (author)

  19. MiDAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Bianca

    A deep understanding of the microbial communities and dynamics in wastewater treatment systems is a powerful tool for process optimization and design (Rittmann et al., 2006). With the advent of amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the diversity within the microbial communities can now...... web platform about the microbes in activated sludge and their associated ADs. The MiDAS taxonomy proposes putative names for each genus-level-taxon that can be used as a common vocabulary for all researchers in the field....

  20. Inovulações não cirúrgicas e taxa de gestação de receptoras de embrião

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes C.A.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no sentido de classificar, quanto a facilidade, inovulações não cirúrgicas, e correlacionar os níveis de classificação com a taxa de gestação das receptoras. Foram usadas 23 vacas e novilhas da raça Limousin como doadoras e 172 novilhas mestiças como receptoras. A classificação foi feita em três níveis, considerando-se a duração, a facilidade de transposição cervical e a manipulação uterina e o local de deposição do embrião. Os resultados mostram que as receptoras que tiveram as inovulações classificadas como "boas" apresentaram melhor taxa de gestação (59% que aquelas que tiveram seu procedimento classificado como "ruim" (31%. Conclui-se que a dificuldade em se transferir o embrião pelo método não cirúrgico pode afetar a taxa de gestação das receptoras.

  1. New light on names and naming of dark taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ryberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing proportion of fungal species and lineages are known only from sequence data and cannot be linked to any physical specimen or resolved taxonomic name. Such fungi are often referred to as “dark taxa” or “dark matter fungi”. As they lack a taxonomic identity in the form of a name, they are regularly ignored in many important contexts, for example in legalisation and species counts. It is therefore very urgent to find a system to also deal with these fungi. Here, issues relating to the taxonomy and nomenclature of dark taxa are discussed and a number of questions that the mycological community needs to consider before deciding on what system/s to implement are highlighted.

  2. Distribution of isoflavonoids in non-leguminous taxa - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackova, Zuzana; Koblovska, Radka; Lapcik, Oldrich

    2006-05-01

    Common emphasis of the fact that isoflavonoids are characteristic metabolites of leguminous plants sometimes leads to overlooking that the presence of isoflavonoids has been reported in several dozen other families. The spectrum of isoflavonoid producing taxa includes the representatives of four classes of multicellular plants, namely the Bryopsida, the Pinopsida, the Magnoliopsida and the Liliopsida. A review, recently published by Reynaud et al. [Reynaud, J., Guilet D., Terreux R., Lussignol M., Walchshofer N., 2005. Isoflavonoids in non-leguminous families: an update. Nat. Prod. Rep. 22, 504-515], provided listing of 164 isoflavonoids altogether reported in 31 non-leguminous angiosperm families. In this contribution we complement the abovementioned inventory bringing the references on further 17 isoflavonoid producing families and on additional 49 isoflavonoids reported to occur in non-leguminous plants.

  3. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  4. Realized climatic niche of North American plant taxa lagged behind climate during the end of the Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    Predicting species responses to climate change has become a dynamic field in global change research. A crucial question in this debate is whether-or-not species have been and will be able to respond quickly enough to keep up with changing climatic conditions. Focusing on fossil pollen records and paleoclimatic simulations, this work assesses the change in realized climatic niches (climatic temporal trajectories) of 20 plant taxa over the last 16000 yr, and whether this tracking has been the same for different climatic niche dimensions. Climatic factors showed a consistent trend toward warmer temperatures and higher precipitation. Although the response types varied across taxa, species' realized climatic niches lagged in response to changes in climatic conditions. Temperature niches responded to late Pleistocene (16000-11000 yr ago) climate change, but did so at slower rates than changes in climatic conditions during the same period. In contrast, precipitation niches were relatively stable from 16000 to 11000 yr ago, but still lagged behind changes in climatic conditions. Changes in temperature and precipitation niches eventually stabilized during the Holocene (11000-1000 yr ago). These results underscore how the climatic niche realized at any one moment represents a subset of the climate conditions in which a taxon can persist, particularly during times of fast climatic change. Variability in the rates of temporal trajectories across evaluated climatic variables showed taxa specific responses to changes in climatic conditions over time and emphasizes the need to incorporate variation, intensity, and duration of lag effects in assessments of the possible effects of climatic change.

  5. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  6. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    the main goal of this paper, the taxa Scaphopoda and Bivalvia are supported by 8 and by 7 synapomorphies respectively. The taxon Protobranchia resulted paraphyletic. Both scaphopod orders resulted monophyletic. The obtained cladogram is: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.Este estudo analisa a morfologia e anatomia detalhadas de 4 espécies de Scaphopoda e 5 espécies de bivalves protobrânquios. Ambas as classes são tradicionalmente agrupadas no táxon Diasoma, o qual vem sendo questionado por diferentes metodologias, tais como molecular e de desenvolvimento. Este estudo é desenvolvido sob uma metodologia filogenética, a qual a maior preocupação é fornecer um procedimento inteligível e testável. As espécies de Scaphopoda analisadas provieram da costa brasileira e pertencem à família Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] e Gadilidae [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. Estas espécies representam os ramos principais da classe Scaphopoda. Dos bivalves protobrânquios, representantes das famílias Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, da Flórida; S. notialis, n. sp. do S.E. Brasil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri, da Flórida] e Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, do sul do Brasil] são incluídos. Estas espécies representam os principais ramos dos bivalves basais. As descrições anatômicas de S. occidentalis e de P. carpentieri estão sendo publicadas em outro artigo, as das demais espécies estão incluídas neste, o qual também inclui um completo tratamento taxonômico. Além dessas espécies, representantes de outros táxons são operacionalmente incluídos como parte do ingroup (então os índices s

  7. O Impacto da comunicação do Banco Central sobre a estrutura a termo da taxa de juros

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Daniel El-Jaick de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Após a adoção do sistema de metas para a inflação, o Banco Central do Brasil aumentou a sua preocupação em estabelecer uma comunicação mais clara e transparente com o público para ajudar a atingir os seus objetivos. Este trabalho analisa o impacto das divulgações da Ata do Comitê de Política Monetária (COPOM) e do Relatório Trimestral de Inflação sobre a estrutura a termo da taxa de juros brasileira através de um modelo E-GARCH. Os resultados apontam uma redução da volatilidade...

  8. Taxa de secagem e qualidade da madeira serrada de Hovenia dulcis submetida a dois métodos de secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Susin

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a taxa de secagem e a qualidade da madeira, 30 tábuas de Hovenia dulcis com dimensões de 2,5 × 15,0 × 280,0 cm foram submetidas à secagem ao ar e em estufa solar. Para a condução do primeiro método, a madeira foi empilhada sobre uma fundação constituída de toretes de madeira tratada e coberta com telhas de amianto; para o segundo método, a madeira foi colocada em uma estufa com armação de madeira e plástico PVC transparente, dotada de circulação forçada de ar. Os resultados evidenciaram que o tempo de secagem ao ar foi duas vezes maior do que na secagem em estufa solar, para atingir o teor de umidade de 15%. Embora a qualidade da madeira tenha sido semelhante nos dois métodos, a taxa de secagem foi significativamente maior na estufa solar, sendo que a maior diferença em relação à secagem ao ar foi abaixo do ponto de saturação das fibras.

  9. Temporal contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host’s reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host’s contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

  11. TAXA DE GESTAÇÃO EM ÉGUAS DA RAÇA CRIOULA APÓS ASPIRAÇÃO FOLICULAR GUIADA POR ULTRASSOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Campos Laia Franco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Há poucos estudos sobre aspiração folicular transvaginal guiada por ultrassom na medicina equina abordando complicações futuras na fertilidade das éguas aspiradas. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aspiração folicular na fertilidade das éguas, foram conduzidos dois experimentos. No experimento I, 15 éguas da raça Crioula foram distribuídas em três grupos de acordo com o diâmetro do folículo aspirado durante o estro: 25-29mm (n=4; grupo 1; 30-34mm (n=6; grupo 2;  35mm (n=5; grupo 3 e grupo controle (n=15; grupo 4. No experimento II, a aspiração folicular foi realizada em 25 éguas durante o diestro quando pelo menos 4 folículos (>5mm foram observados na ultrassonografia transretal em ambos os ovários. Foram aspirados todos os folículos visíveis, entre 4 e 8 mm. Trinta e uma éguas serviram como controle. No experimento I, a taxa de prenhez no ciclo seguinte a aspiração foi de 75% (grupo 1, 83,3% (grupo 2, 60% (grupo 3, e 73,3% (grupo 4. No experimento II foi de 76% no grupo aspirado e 77,4% no grupo controle (não aspirado. Em ambos os experimentos, as taxas de prenhez foram similares (P>0,05. Os resultados mostram que a taxa de concepção no primeiro ciclo após a aspiração folicular não é afetada pelo procedimento.

  12. O Desempenho das Exportações Brasileiras Frente aos Mecanismos de Financiamentos entre 1995 e 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasaré Vieira Nogueira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar as principais variáveis que afetam o comportamento dos exportadores brasileiros levando-se em conta o dinamismo econômico mundial, o custo Brasil, as flutuações cambiais, as taxas de juros e principalmente o recente desempenho das modalidades de financiamentos públicos e privados.

  13. Das James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Dietrich

    2005-07-01

    Nicht nach einem berühmten Astronomen, sondern nach einem ihrer erfolgreichen Behördenleiter hat die NASA ihr neues astronomisches Flaggschiff benannt: Im Jahre 2011 soll das James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) das Weltraumteleskop Hubble ablösen.

  14. Das Messiasgeheimnis und die Spruchquelle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    die dies Logion redaktionell an die vorangehende christologische Aussage anschließt, begegnet dabei expressis verbis das markinische Motiv der esoterischen Jüngerbelehrung. Das Geheimnis der Person Jesu offenbart. Jesus exklusiv seinen Jüngern. Die Wendung entspricht wortgleich den gleichsinnigen Aussagen, ...

  15. Origens das formas budistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carlos Chamas

    Full Text Available RESUMO As características de uma imagem de Buda são o resultado do processo milenar que uniu três fatores: as mitologias orientais mais antigas que o budismo, sua capacidade de se adequar às crenças locais e as suas próprias reinterpretações. Após o surgimento das primeiras estátuas que representavam o Buda histórico, o ideal de beleza para um ser que alcançou a Iluminação baseou-se nas antigas "ciências" orientais, predominantemente mentais e de energias sutis. Enquanto a estética ocidental discutia as idealizações da arte com racionalidade, ignorando um oriente "pagão e supersticioso", as imagens budistas personificavam estados mentais que o ocidente só cogitaria na sua modernidade. A arte budista transmite o legado ancestral e imutável de chaves místicas da consciência e do equilíbrio..

  16. Bingo das Ervilhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bonato Lovato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a utilização de um jogo didático sobre conteúdos de Genética ministrados no Ensino Fundamental. O material utilizado foi elaborado a partir da literatura existente e trabalhado sob a forma de uma oficina ministrada a professores de Ensino Fundamental e Médio de escolas de abrangência da 4a. Coordenadoria Regional de Educação do Rio Grande do Sul. A oferta desta oficina partiu do pressuposto de que os jogos educacionais são uma importante estratégia no processo de ensino-aprendizagem por se tratarem de uma ferramenta facilitadora nas aulas de Ciências, uma vez que contribuem para a aprendizagem de conceitos e termos complexos de maneira lúdica e estimulam o desenvolvimento das competências dos educandos. Todos os participantes consideraram que a oficina realizada contribuirá para sua prática docente, e acreditam que os jogos didáticos oferecem experiências de aprendizado que contribuem para construção do conhecimento.

  17. Crossing rate and distance in upland rice Taxa e distância de cruzamento do arroz-de-sequeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira da Silva

    2005-01-01

    essa característica foi utilizada como marcador morfológico. Já na cultivar IAC 201 não, por ser portadora dos alelos recessivos (hlhl. Os experimentos foram compostos por quatro blocos, constituídos de dez linhas circunscritas da cultivar em estudo, espaçados a 50 cm entre si, e no centro de cada bloco plantou-se a cultivar Guarani. A taxa e a distância de cruzamento natural foram avaliadas nas plantas provenientes das sementes da cultivar IAC 201, oriundas do cruzamento natural, expressando pilosidade nas folhas. Após a avaliação das plantas referentes às duas primeiras linhas do experimento desenvolvido em Carpina e das três primeiras linhas do experimento de Recife, constatou-se que apenas na primeira linha (0,5 m houve plantas resultantes de cruzamento natural. Nessa distância, verificou-se que a taxa média de cruzamento natural de 0,30% em Carpina e de 0,35% no Recife.

  18. easyDAS: Automatic creation of DAS servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez Rafael C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Distributed Annotation System (DAS has proven to be a successful way to publish and share biological data. Although there are more than 750 active registered servers from around 50 organizations, setting up a DAS server comprises a fair amount of work, making it difficult for many research groups to share their biological annotations. Given the clear advantage that the generalized sharing of relevant biological data is for the research community it would be desirable to facilitate the sharing process. Results Here we present easyDAS, a web-based system enabling anyone to publish biological annotations with just some clicks. The system, available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/panda-srv/easydas is capable of reading different standard data file formats, process the data and create a new publicly available DAS source in a completely automated way. The created sources are hosted on the EBI systems and can take advantage of its high storage capacity and network connection, freeing the data provider from any network management work. easyDAS is an open source project under the GNU LGPL license. Conclusions easyDAS is an automated DAS source creation system which can help many researchers in sharing their biological data, potentially increasing the amount of relevant biological data available to the scientific community.

  19. Sustaining salmonid populations: A caring understanding of naturalness of taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Regier, Henry A.; Knudsen, E. Eric

    2004-01-01

    Species of the family of Salmonidae occur naturally in Northern Hemisphere waters that remain clear and cool to cold in summer. For purposes of reproduction, salmonids generally behaviorally respond to the currents of streams and lakes in recently glaciated areas. For feeding and maturation, many larger species migrate into existing systems of large lakes, seas, and oceans. The subfamilies include Salmoninae, Coregoninae, and Thymallinae. In many locales and regions of the hemisphere, numerous species of these subfamilies evolved and self-organized into species flocks or taxocenes of bewildering complexity. For example, any individual species may play different or unique ecological roles in different taxocenes. The northern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, with their seas and tributaries, each contained a metacomplex of such taxocenes that, in their natural state some centuries ago, resembled each other but differed in many ways. Humans have valued all species of this family for subsistence, ceremonial, naturalist, gustatory, angling, and commercial reasons for centuries. Modern progressive humans (MPHs), whose industrial and commercial enterprises have gradually spread over this hemisphere in recent time, now affect aquatic ecosystems at all scales from local to global. These human effects mingle in complex ways that together induce uniquely natural salmonid taxocenes to disintegrate with the loss of species, including those groups least tolerant to human manipulations, but extending more recently to those taxa more adapted to anthropogenic change. As we leave the modern era, dominated by MPHs, will we find ways to live sustainably with salmonid taxocenes that still exhibit self-organizational integrity, or will only individual, isolated populations of salmonid species, derived from those most tolerant of MPHs, survive? To achieve future sustainability of salmonids, we suggest implementation of a search for intuitive knowledge based on faith in the wisdom of

  20. Understanding selection for long necks in different taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David M; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2012-08-01

    There has been recent discussion about the evolutionary pressures underlying the long necks of extant giraffes and extinct sauropod dinosaurs. Here we summarise these debates and place them in a wider taxonomic context. We consider the evolution of long necks across a wide range of (both living and extinct) taxa and ask whether there has been a common selective factor or whether each case has a separate explanation. We conclude that in most cases long necks can be explained in terms of foraging requirements, and that alternative explanations in terms of sexual selection, thermoregulation and predation pressure are not as well supported. Specifically, in giraffe, tortoises, and perhaps sauropods there is likely to have been selection for high browsing. It the last case there may also have been selection for reaching otherwise inaccessible aquatic plants or for increasing the energetic efficiency of low browsing. For camels, wading birds and ratites, original selection was likely for increased leg length, with correlated selection for a longer neck to allow feeding and drinking at or near substrate level. For fish-eating long-necked birds and plesiosaurs a small head at the end of a long neck allows fast acceleration of the mouth to allow capture of elusive prey. A swan's long neck allows access to benthic vegetation, for vultures the long neck allows reaching deep into a carcass. Geese may be an unusual case where anti-predator vigilance is important, but so may be energetically efficient low browsing. The one group for which we feel unable to draw firm conclusions are the pterosaurs, this is in keeping with the current uncertainty about the biology of this group. Despite foraging emerging as a dominant theme in selection for long necks, for almost every taxonomic group we have identified useful empirical work that would increase understanding of the selective costs and benefits of a long neck. © 2011 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical

  1. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    and attractive renderings of bright light sources. Based on the anatomy of the human eye, we propose a model that enables real-time simulation of dynamic glare on a GPU. This allows an improved depiction of HDR images on LDR media for interactive applications like games, feature films, or even by adding movement......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic...

  2. Critical Taxonomic Appraisal of Some Taxa of Pedicularis from Indian Himalayas Belonging to Section Siphonanthae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Garg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The existing confusion on the taxonomic status of five taxa of Pedicularis viz. P. punctata Decne, P. siphonantha D. Don, P. hookeriana Wall. ex Benth., P. megalantha D. Don and P. hoffmeisteri Kl. ex Kl. & Garcke is resolved on the basis of critical morphological study. These taxa belong to section Siphonanthae, subgenus Longirostres. Pennell’s view of segregating these taxa into distinct species is defended and upheld.

  3. Red Queen: from populations to taxa and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liow, Lee Hsiang; Van Valen, Leigh; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-07-01

    Biotic interactions via the struggle for control of energy and the interactive effects of biota with their physical environment characterize Van Valen's Red Queen (VRQ). Here, we review new evidence for and against a VRQ view of the world from studies of increasing temporal and spatial scales. Interactions among biota and with the physical environment are important for generating and maintaining diversity on diverse timescales, but detailed mechanisms remain poorly understood. We recommend directly estimating the effect of biota and the physical environment on ecological and evolutionary processes. Promising approaches for elucidating VRQ include using mathematical modelling, controlled experimental systems, sampling and processes-oriented approaches for analysing data from natural systems, while paying extra attention to biotic interactions discernable from the fossil record. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Coddington

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unique DNA sequences as a method for taxonomic identification is no longer fundamentally controversial, even though debate continues on the best markers, methods, and technology to use. Although both existing databanks such as GenBank and BOLD, as well as reference taxonomies, are imperfect, in best case scenarios “barcodes” (whether single or multiple, organelle or nuclear, loci clearly are an increasingly fast and inexpensive method of identification, especially as compared to manual identification of unknowns by increasingly rare expert taxonomists. Because most species on Earth are undescribed, a complete reference database at the species level is impractical in the near term. The question therefore arises whether unidentified species can, using DNA barcodes, be accurately assigned to more inclusive groups such as genera and families—taxonomic ranks of putatively monophyletic groups for which the global inventory is more complete and stable. We used a carefully chosen test library of CO1 sequences from 49 families, 313 genera, and 816 species of spiders to assess the accuracy of genus and family-level assignment. We used BLAST queries of each sequence against the entire library and got the top ten hits. The percent sequence identity was reported from these hits (PIdent, range 75–100%. Accurate assignment of higher taxa (PIdent above which errors totaled less than 5% occurred for genera at PIdent values >95 and families at PIdent values ≥ 91, suggesting these as heuristic thresholds for accurate generic and familial identifications in spiders. Accuracy of identification increases with numbers of species/genus and genera/family in the library; above five genera per family and fifteen species per genus all higher taxon assignments were correct. We propose that using percent sequence identity between conventional barcode sequences may be a feasible and reasonably accurate method to identify animals to family/genus. However

  5. Influência da crosta superficial nas taxas de infiltração de água medidas com simulador de chuva e anéis concêntricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Levien

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A taxa de infiltração de água no solo, conjuntamente com a taxa de chuva, determina a taxa de enxurrada, constituindo medida importante para a previsão de erosão e estudos de conservação do solo. Pode-se medir a taxa de infiltração por meio de um infiltrômetro de cilindros concêntricos (CC ou de um simulador de chuva (SC. A utilização do CC requer menos trabalho do que o SC, mas os resultados obtidos com o CC comumente estão em desacordo com as taxas de infiltração que ocorrem em situações de chuva natural, possivelmente por causa da formação de uma crosta superficial sob chuva. A formação dessa crosta procede tanto de fatores independentes do manejo do solo, como a intensidade da chuva e a textura do solo, quanto de fatores dependentes do manejo, principalmente a resistência ao cisalhamento e a cobertura vegetal. Em situações favoráveis à ocorrência de formação de crosta, espera-se que taxas de infiltração medidas com o CC superestimem as taxas reais durante uma chuva. Para verificar a correlação entre o manejo do solo e a razão das taxas de infiltração obtidas com CC e SC, essas taxas foram medidas por ambos os métodos em dois Podzólicos (Ultissolos da região sul do Brasil. Os tratamentos diferiram com a cobertura vegetal e com a existência de crosta superficial. Medidas da taxa de infiltração com SC foram realizadas com um simulador de chuva com bicos aspersores Veejet 80100, em parcelas de 3,5 x 11,0 m, gerando chuva de intensidade de 64,2 mm h-1, durante 100 a 150 minutos. As parcelas foram delimitadas com chapas de metal e a enxurrada foi coletada no lado inferior por três segundos a cada três minutos. O CC consistiu de dois cilindros (diâmetros de 0,30 e 0,60 m, cravados no solo até 0,10 m pouco antes da determinação com o SC. A área dentro dos anéis foi inundada e as taxas de infiltração foram registradas dentro do anel interior, em intervalos de tempo regulares, com três repeti

  6. Desvelando a Internet das Coisas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Santaella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende relatar as origens da Internet das Coisas, seu estado de arte e evidenciar seus principais vetores. Para tal, o estudo percorrerá as eras midiáticas de Santaella (2007, p. 179-189, a par da discussão das máquinas de Turing, da arquitetura Von Neumann até chegar à Internet e seu estado atual, implementada nas coisas.

  7. Desvelando a Internet das Coisas

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Santaella; Adelino Gala; Clayton Policarpo; Ricardo Gazoni

    2013-01-01

    O presente artigo pretende relatar as origens da Internet das Coisas, seu estado de arte e evidenciar seus principais vetores. Para tal, o estudo percorrerá as eras midiáticas de Santaella (2007, p. 179-189), a par da discussão das máquinas de Turing, da arquitetura Von Neumann até chegar à Internet e seu estado atual, implementada nas coisas.

  8. Morphological and genetic differentiation and reproductive isolation among closely related taxa in the Ipomoea series Batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Tanya M; Rausher, Mark D

    2013-11-01

    Identifying recently diverged taxa can be useful for studying the process of speciation. Ipomoea lacunosa and I. cordatotriloba, along with a putative homoploid hybrid, I. ×leucantha, are closely related taxa, which are promising for investigating the early stages of speciation. The objectives of this investigation were to determine how distinct these purported taxa are morphologically and genetically, and to assess the magnitude of reproductive isolation among the taxa. We measured morphological characteristics and determined genotypes at four microsatellite loci in several populations of each of the taxa in North Carolina and South Carolina to quantify genetic and morphological differentiation. We also included a previously undescribed fourth taxon, which we term 'I. austinii'. Our study revealed that all four taxa had distinct but overlapping geographical ranges, and had significantly distinct morphologies. Patterns of microsatellite variation and the results of crosses indicate that I. ×leucantha and I. austinii are morphologically and genetically distinct taxa. Each exhibits substantial reproductive isolation from the other three taxa. By contrast, microsatellite markers indicate that I. lacunosa and I. cordatotriloba exhibit little differentiation at neutral markers, despite substantial morphological differentiation, and exhibit some reproductive isolation. I. ×leucantha and I. austinii should be considered separate species. Our results provide no evidence that either species originated through homoploid hybrid speciation. I. cordatotriloba and I. lacunosa should be considered incipient species, but may be experiencing considerable reciprocal gene flow.

  9. Climate, vegetation, distribution of taxa and diversity: A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazrul-Islam, A.K.M.

    2005-07-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate from a range of viewpoints the principle of the climatic control of plant distribution. The accumulated plant weight (w) is related to the incoming solar radiation (S) and is dependent on leaf area index, the incoming solar radiation and the efficiency of solar radiation to dry matter conversion. A review is presented and a model is discussed in order to stimulate interest and knowledge in this crucial and central theme of ecology. The aim is to develop a model based on eco-physiological principles to predict the major vegetational zones of the globe. Predictions were based on various plant responses, such as low temperature survival and evapo-transpiration. Taxonomic diversity declined in a poleward direction; for both the northern and southern hemispheres family diversity is greatest near the equator, declined markedly from latitude 30 deg. to 90 deg. Strong correlation between family diversity and absolute minimum temperature exists and a regression line suggests a decrease of 3.3 families per deg. C reductions in minimum temperature. Analysis of the islands ecology differing in areas at various altitudes of the present and past has been most productive in providing means of investigating dispersal and migration and vertical diversity. Experimental studies have been attempted in herbaceous vegetation at different latitudes (tundra and British Isles) by clearing the native species (Carex bigelowii, Eriphorum vaginatum) of the area and by introducing exotic species such as Lolium perenne. The cover of the exotic species subsequently declined and ultimately became extinct and was covered by the native species. In order to investigate the climatic control of the distribution of taxa it becomes necessary to split the life (life cycles) of a plant into a number of stages, each of which is a link in the chain of survival and each of which can dominate the control of distribution. When a stage of life cycle is broken then

  10. Efeito da somatotrofina bovina (bST-r, do implante de progestágeno e do desmame por 72 horas na indução do estro e na taxa de prenhez em vacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de tratamentos hormonais sobre a fertilidade de vacas de corte no pós-parto com diferentes condições corporais, durante a estação de monta de outono. Setenta e três vacas pluríparas cruzadas (Hereford x Nelore criadas extensivamente, com condição corporal entre 2 e 4, foram pesadas e distribuídas em três grupos experimentais. O grupo GSED, constituído por 25 vacas, recebeu pessário vaginal (dia 0 contendo 250mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona e 500mg de somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST-r. Na retirada dos pessários (dia 7, as vacas receberam 0,5mg de cipionato de estradiol e procedeu-se o desmame temporário dos bezerros por 72 horas. No grupo SED, 25 vacas receberam tratamento semelhante ao grupo GSED, porém não receberam bST-r. No grupo-controle, as 23 vacas somente foram separadas dos seus bezerros por 72h. Quando da retirada dos pessários as vacas foram colocadas com touros por 30 dias. Os animais foram pesados e avaliados quanto à condição corporal no início do experimento e na retirada dos touros (dia 37. Foi constatada perda média de peso de 0,648 kg/dia e os percentuais de estro foram de 26,1%, 33,3% e 56,5%, respectivamente, para os grupos controle, SED e GSED. O diagnóstico de gestação, realizado pela palpação retal 60 dias após a retirada dos touros, indicou percentuais de prenhez de 13,0%, 8,3% e 21,7%, respectivamente, para os grupos controle, SED e GSED (P=0,16, demonstrando que os programas hormonais adotados não foram eficientes no incremento das taxas de prenhez de vacas que perdiam peso entre 50 e 70 dias após o parto.

  11. Related herbivore species show similar temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, F G; Roslin, T; Kimura, M T; Huotari, T; Kaartinen, R; Gripenberg, S; Tack, A J M

    2018-02-08

    1.Within natural communities, different taxa display different dynamics in time. Why this is the case we do not fully know. This thwarts our ability to predict changes in community structure, which is important for both the conservation of rare species in natural communities and for the prediction of pest outbreaks in agriculture. 2.Species sharing phylogeny, natural enemies and/or life history traits have been hypothesized to share similar temporal dynamics. We operationalized these concepts into testing whether feeding guild, voltinism, similarity in parasitoid community, and/or phylogenetic relatedness explained similarities in temporal dynamics among herbivorous community members. 3.Focusing on two similar data sets from different geographical regions (Finland and Japan), we used asymmetric eigenvector maps as temporal variables to characterize species- and community-level dynamics of specialist insect herbivores on oak (Quercus). We then assessed whether feeding guild, voltinism, similarity in parasitoid community, and/or phylogenetic relatedness explained similarities in temporal dynamics among taxa. 4.Species-specific temporal dynamics varied widely, ranging from directional decline or increase to more complex patterns. Phylogeny was a clear predictor of similarity in temporal dynamics at the Finnish site, whereas for the Japanese site, the data were uninformative regarding a phylogenetic imprint. Voltinism, feeding guild and parasitoid overlap explained little variation at either location. Despite the rapid temporal dynamics observed at the level of individual species, these changes did not translate into any consistent temporal changes at the community level in either Finland or Japan. 5.Overall, our findings offer no direct support for the notion that species sharing natural enemies and/or life history traits would be characterised by similar temporal dynamics, but reveal a strong imprint of phylogenetic relatedness. As this phylogenetic signal cannot be

  12. Quantum Temporal Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Mankei; Psaltis, Demetri

    2006-01-01

    The concept of quantum temporal imaging is proposed to manipulate the temporal correlation of entangled photons. In particular, we show that time correlation and anticorrelation can be converted to each other using quantum temporal imaging.

  13. Exploring the Ecological Coherence between the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bacterioplankton in Boreal Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Niño-García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major contemporary challenges in microbial ecology has been to discriminate the reactive core from the random, unreactive components of bacterial communities. In previous work we used the spatial abundance distributions of bacterioplankton across boreal lakes of Québec to group taxa into four distinct categories that reflect either hydrology-mediated dispersal along the aquatic network or environmental selection mechanisms within lakes. Here, we test whether this categorization derived from the spatial distribution of taxa is maintained over time, by analyzing the temporal dynamics of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs within those spatially derived categories along an annual cycle in the oligotrophic lake Croche (Québec, Canada, and assessing the coherence in the patterns of abundance, occurrence, and environmental range of these OTUs over space and time. We report that the temporal dynamics of most taxa within a single lake are largely coherent with those derived from their spatial distribution over large spatial scales, suggesting that these properties must be intrinsic of particular taxa. We also identified a set of rare taxa cataloged as having a random occupancy based on their spatial distribution, but which showed clear seasonality and abundance peaks along the year, yet these comprised a very small fraction of the total rare OTUs. We conclude that the presence of most rare bacterioplankton taxa in boreal lakes is random, since both their temporal and spatial dynamics suggest links to passive downstream transport and persistence in freshwater networks, rather than environmental selection.

  14. Exploring the Ecological Coherence between the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bacterioplankton in Boreal Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-García, Juan Pablo; Ruiz-González, Clara; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    One of the major contemporary challenges in microbial ecology has been to discriminate the reactive core from the random, unreactive components of bacterial communities. In previous work we used the spatial abundance distributions of bacterioplankton across boreal lakes of Québec to group taxa into four distinct categories that reflect either hydrology-mediated dispersal along the aquatic network or environmental selection mechanisms within lakes. Here, we test whether this categorization derived from the spatial distribution of taxa is maintained over time, by analyzing the temporal dynamics of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within those spatially derived categories along an annual cycle in the oligotrophic lake Croche (Québec, Canada), and assessing the coherence in the patterns of abundance, occurrence, and environmental range of these OTUs over space and time. We report that the temporal dynamics of most taxa within a single lake are largely coherent with those derived from their spatial distribution over large spatial scales, suggesting that these properties must be intrinsic of particular taxa. We also identified a set of rare taxa cataloged as having a random occupancy based on their spatial distribution, but which showed clear seasonality and abundance peaks along the year, yet these comprised a very small fraction of the total rare OTUs. We conclude that the presence of most rare bacterioplankton taxa in boreal lakes is random, since both their temporal and spatial dynamics suggest links to passive downstream transport and persistence in freshwater networks, rather than environmental selection.

  15. Associação entre fatores institucionais, perfil da assistência ao parto e as taxas de cesariana em Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fontoura Freitas

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Objetivo: Investigar como fatores institucionais, representados pelo perfil social da maternidade na assistência ao parto, se associam às taxas de cesariana. Métodos: Estudo com delineamento transversal com base em dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC para Santa Catarina. Foram selecionados, para cada uma das macrorregionais, os seis municípios com o maior número de partos. Para esses municípios, foram considerados todos os estabelecimentos que possuíam leitos obstétricos. Um total de 61.278 partos teve lugar nas 61 maternidades selecionadas. Razões de prevalência de cesariana (RP, brutas e ajustadas para confundimento, foram estimadas para cada uma das variáveis individuais por meio de Regressão de Cox Robusta. Resultados: Nascimentos por cesariana foram quase o dobro nas maternidades privadas (89%, quando comparados aos do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS (45,1%. Ter parto nas maternidades privadas aumentou em pelo menos 50% a ocorrência de cesariana entre as primíparas (RP = 1,64, caucasianas (RP = 1,57, mulheres com maior frequência ao pré-natal (RP = 1,54 e tendo parto diurno (RP = 1,51, quando comparadas àquelas tendo parto pelo SUS. Conclusão: Diferenças nas taxas de cesariana em favor do sistema privado, entre mulheres de melhores condições sociais, em meio às quais seria esperado menor risco obstétrico, apontaram para diferenças de permeabilidade da cultura médica/obstétrica e flexibilização na interpretação médica das indicações clínicas do parto operatório.

  16. Bacterial indicator taxa in soils under different long-term agricultural management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bueno, N G; Valenzuela-Encinas, C; Marsch, R; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, D; Verhulst, N; Govaerts, B; Dendooven, L; Navarro-Noya, Y E

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the species indicator test was used to identify key bacterial taxa affected by changes in the soil environment as a result of conservation agriculture or conventional practices. Soils cultivated with wheat (Triticum spp. L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) under different raised bed planting systems for 20 years, that is, varying crop residue and fertilizer management, were used. Taxonomic- and divergence-based 16S-metagenomics, and IndVal analysis were used to study the bacterial communities and identify indicator taxa (genus and OTU97 ) affected by agricultural practices. Although, some phyla were affected significantly by different treatments, the taxonomic assemblages at phylum level were similar. Bacterial taxa related to different processes of the N-cycle were indicators of different fertilization rates, for example, Azorhizobium, Nostoc and Nitrosomonas. A large number of OTU97 were indicators for conventionally tilled beds and their distribution was defined by soil organic carbon. IndVal analysis identified different taxa in each of the residue management systems. This suggests that although the same organic material remains in the field, crop residue management affects specific taxa. The taxa indicator of the burned residues belonged mainly to the order SBR1031 (Anaerolineae, Chloroflexi), and the genera Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. N-fertilizer application rates affected N-cycling taxa. Tillage affected Actinobacteria members and organic matter decomposers. Although the same crop residue was retained in the field, organic material management was important for specific taxa. In this study, we report that agricultural practice affected soil bacterial communities. We also identified distinctive taxa and related their distribution to changes in the soil environment resulting from different agricultural practices. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Variação temporal e espacial de ovos e de larvas das espécies de interesse para a pesca na sub-bacia do rio Miranda, Pantanal, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1314 Temporal and spatial variation of fish eggs and larvae of the main exploited species in the sub-basin of Miranda River, Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1314

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshyiu Nakatani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a variação temporal de ovos e de larvas das principais espécies exploradas no Pantanal: Piaractus mesopotamicus; Prochilodus lineatus; Salminus maxillosus; Leporinus macrocephalus e Pseudoplatystoma spp., no rio Miranda. As coletas foram realizadas nos meses de outubro a março, quinzenalmente, de 1996 a 1999. O rio foi dividido em trecho superior, médio e inferior, com 15 pontos de coleta. Foram utilizadas rede de plâncton cônico-cilindrica, com fluxômetro, e as amostras fixadas em formol 4%. Para a identificação, utilizaram-se características morfológicas e merísticas, grau de flexão da notocorda e elementos da nadadeira caudal. No primeiro período, foram capturadas 5.979 larvas e 1.075 ovos; no segundo, 108.912 larvas e 1.836 ovos; no terceiro, 13.465 larvas e 1.855 ovos. A ANOVA, entre os anos e trechos do rio, foi significativa (F= 6.5, p >0,05 no trecho médio, indicando que a reprodução ocorre do trecho médio para o superior, nos meses de novembro a janeiroThe aim of this study was to analyze temporal variation of fish eggs and larvae of the main exploited species in Miranda river, Pantanal wetland (Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus maxillosus, Leporinus macrocephalus, and Pseudoplatystoma spp., which were collected from October to March, biweekly, from 1996 to 1999. The river was divided into superior, medium and inferior sections, of 15 collection sites. Conical-cylindrical plankton net with a fluxometer and samples fixed in formol 4% were utilized. Morphological and meristic characteristics, notochord flexion degree and caudal fin elements were utilized for identification. A total of 5,979 larvae and 1,075 eggs were collected in the first period; 108,912 larvae and 1,836 eggs in the second; 13,465 larvae and 1,855 eggs in the third. Results showed that ANOVA, between the years and the river stretches, was significant (F = 6.5, p >0.05 in the medium section, which indicates that the

  18. Cognitive Temporal Document Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal information retrieval exploits temporal features of document collections and queries. Temporal document priors are used to adjust the score of a document based on its publication time. We consider a class of temporal document priors that is inspired by retention functions considered in

  19. [The role of heterochrony in the establishment of archetype in higher Echinoderm taxa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnov, S V

    2009-01-01

    The analysis based on paleontological data shows that the body plans of higher echinoderm taxa were established through the combination of previously developed characters. These combinations appeared due to various heterochronies and resulted in more or less complete filling of the morphological space of logical capabilities. The maximum rank of new taxa decreased with time. New body plans of higher taxa did not replace the old plans but rather overlay them, extending the hierarchy of body plans and the respective hierarchy of taxa. The macroevolution of echinoderms and other metazoans progressed from the formation of an archetype (a general body plan) to individual details, the development of structural plans of lower levels. Heterochrony resulted in mosaic evolution and obscurity of intermediate forms.

  20. Two new taxa and three new combinations in East African Adenia (Passifloraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1969-01-01

    The treatment of the genus Adenia in the forthcoming ‘Herbaceous Flora of Upland Kenya’ necessitates the publication of two new taxa, a species and a subspecies, and of three new combinations of subspecific rank.

  1. Divergence time estimation using fossils as terminal taxa and the origins of Lissamphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyron, R Alexander

    2011-07-01

    Were molecular data available for extinct taxa, questions regarding the origins of many groups could be settled in short order. As this is not the case, various strategies have been proposed to combine paleontological and neontological data sets. The use of fossil dates as node age calibrations for divergence time estimation from molecular phylogenies is commonplace. In addition, simulations suggest that the addition of morphological data from extinct taxa may improve phylogenetic estimation when combined with molecular data for extant species, and some studies have merged morphological and molecular data to estimate combined evidence phylogenies containing both extinct and extant taxa. However, few, if any, studies have attempted to estimate divergence times using phylogenies containing both fossil and living taxa sampled for both molecular and morphological data. Here, I infer both the phylogeny and the time of origin for Lissamphibia and a number of stem tetrapods using Bayesian methods based on a data set containing morphological data for extinct taxa, molecular data for extant taxa, and molecular and morphological data for a subset of extant taxa. The results suggest that Lissamphibia is monophyletic, nested within Lepospondyli, and originated in the late Carboniferous at the earliest. This research illustrates potential pitfalls for the use of fossils as post hoc age constraints on internal nodes and highlights the importance of explicit phylogenetic analysis of extinct taxa. These results suggest that the application of fossils as minima or maxima on molecular phylogenies should be supplemented or supplanted by combined evidence analyses whenever possible. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Divergence Time Estimation Using Fossils as Terminal Taxa and the Origins of Lissamphibia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Pyron, R.

    2011-01-01

    Were molecular data available for extinct taxa, questions regarding the origins of many groups could be settled in short order. As this is not the case, various strategies have been proposed to combine paleontological and neontological data sets. The use of fossil dates as node age calibrations for divergence time estimation from molecular phylogenies is commonplace. In addition, simulations suggest that the addition of morphological data from extinct taxa may improve phylogenetic estimation ...

  3. Das Gupta, Prof. Chanchal Kumar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1998 Section: General Biology. Das Gupta, Prof. Chanchal Kumar Ph.D. (Calcutta), FNASc, FNA. Date of birth: 9 November 1945. Specialization: Genetic Recombination and Protein Folding Address: EE-72/2, Sector II, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 091, W.B.. Contact: Residence: (033) 4006 5279. Mobile: 90078 89857

  4. Das "Al-Capone"-Prinzip

    OpenAIRE

    Wirtz, Georg

    2006-01-01

    Das "Al-Capone"-Prinzip : Risiken u. Chancen e. "Gewinnabschöpfung durch Besteuerung" nach d. Steuerverkürzungsbekämpfungsgesetz. - Baden-Baden : Nomos-Verl.-Ges., 2006. - 300 S. - (Schriftenreihe zum deutschen, europäischen und internationalen Wirtschaftsstrafrecht ; 3). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 2005

  5. Ashok Jhunjhunwala and Das Gupta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Ashok Jhunjhunwala and Das Gupta. Is there a cost effective solution for connectivity in the NE. Is there an Innovative Business model. Is there a national solution with satellites which can benefit NE.

  6. APLIKASI DATA CITRA SATELIT LANDSAT UNTUK PEMANTAUAN DINAMIKA PESISIR MUARA DAS BARITO DAN SEKITARNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Telah terjadi terjadi kerusakan habitat lingkungan mangrove, abrasi dan akresi yang menyebabkan semakin tingginya muka air  di sepanjang DAS Sungai Barito (DAS Martapura, DAS Alalak dan DAS Kuin, sebab erjadinya proses abrasi dan akresi  yang terjadi di sepanjang garis pantai, terutama DAS Martapura, DAS Alalak dan DAS Kuin. Klasifikasi pemanfaatan lahan dan konversinya serta perubahan pesisir berupa akresi dan abrasi di sepanjang pantai area penelitian di analisis dengan memanfaatkan informasi dari data citra satelit Landsat multi temporal yang di peroleh pada tanggal 29 Juni tahun 1985, dan 03 September 2006. Dominasi pemanfaatan lahan berupa HPH, pertambangan dan pemukiman dengan konversi lahan pada hutan untuk pemanfaatan lain memberikan dampak erosi yang cukup besar dengan ditunjukannya wilayah pesisir yang mengalami peningkatan akresi terutama pada bagian muara sungai (delta. Tren perubahan yang terlihat pada kawasan pesisir di area penelitian selama 21 tahun adalah abrasi sebesar 294,55 m2 di daerah Muara S. Martapura, 75,53 m2 di sekitar muara S. Alalak. Dan perubahan Abrasi sebesar 177,42 m2 , dan akresi sebesar 610,86 m2 di sekitar Muara S. Barito/Kuin. Have happened happened damage of environmental habitat of mangrove, and abrasi of akresi causing its excelsior of face irrigate alongside DAS River of Barito (DAS Martapura, DAS Alalak and of DAS Kuin, because the happening of process of abrasi and of akresi that happened alongside coastline, especially DAS Martapura, DAS Alalak and  DAS Kuin. Classification exploiting of farm and its conversion and also change of coastal area in the form of and akresi of abrasi alongside research area coast in analysis by exploiting information of satellite image data of Landsat temporal multi which in obtaining on 29 June year 1985, and 03 September 2006. Domination exploiting of farm in the form of HPH, settlement and mining with farm conversion at forest for other exploiting give big enough

  7. Análise Espacial e Temporal dos Dados de Precipitação das Estações de Entorno da Bacia do Ribeirão Concórdia, Lontras (SC Visando Sua Inserção no Contexto de Mudanças Climáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Antonio Piazza

    Full Text Available Resumo Mudanças climáticas são cada vez mais evidentes no cenário atual, provocando alterações em processos físicos, químicos e biológicos. O aumento da precipitação, por exemplo, é uma consequência das mudanças do clima. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar o comportamento tendencial de dados mensais e anuais, assim como os máximos, das estações de entorno da bacia do Ribeirão Concórdia no município de Lontras no estado de Santa Catarina. Foi analisada a normalidade dos dados utilizados, além de três testes de aferição de tendências; o da análise da linha de tendência, o teste Mann-Kendall e a técnica da DFA (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, além de uma correlação com índices do clima global. Foram encontradas tendências positivas para grande parte das estações analisadas por ambos os métodos (16 de 20, com significância para 11 estações. Os dados de máxima precipitação diária no mês também apresentaram aumento. Por meio de métodos estatísticos simplificados não foi encontrada correlação entre os dados pluviométricos e os índices globais na área analisada.

  8. Endividamento das famílias brasileiras no sistema financeiro nacional : o impacto de indicadores macroeconômicos

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Geovane de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    A expansão da oferta de crédito nos últimos anos causada principalmente pelo aumento dos prazos e da diminuição das taxas de juros fez com que o endividamento das famílias brasileiras atingisse patamares nunca antes experimentados. É certo que o maior acesso ao crédito pode trazer benefícios como o aumento do poder de compra, mas em determinado nível o devedor pode não conseguir arcar com suas obrigações. O presente trabalho visa identificar uma possív...

  9. Temporal and spatial variations in the magnitude of completeness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temporal and spatial variations in the magnitude of completeness for homogenized moment magnitude catalogue for northeast India. Ranjit Das H R ... Orthogonal regression relations for conversion of body and surface wave magnitudes to w,HRVD based on events data for the period 1978–2006 have been derived.

  10. Das Wörterbuch als Grammatik?

    OpenAIRE

    Wellmann, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Das Wörterbuch als Grammatik? - In: Das Lernerwörterbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache in der Diskussion / hrsg. von Irmhild Barz ... - Heidelberg : Winter, 1996. - S. 219-241. - (Sprache - Literatur und Geschichte ; 12)

  11. Psicoterapia das depressões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Schestatsky

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Os autores examinam o status atual das psicoterapias no tratamento das depressões, principalmente das quatro formas melhor testadas empiricamente nos últimos 10 anos: psicoterapia interpessoal, psicoterapia cognitiva e comportamental, e psicoterapia psicodinâmica breve. São descritos os principais estudos de eficácia dessas psicoterapias assim como uma revisão metaanalítica sobre o assunto. Conclui-se que já há sólidas evidências de bons resultados nas depressões ambulatoriais e unipolares quando tratadas por intervenções psicossociais, combinadas ou não com farmacoterapia.It is examined the present status of psychotherapeutic treatment of depression, specially the impact of the four types of psychotherapy best empirically tested for the past 10 years: interpersonal therapy, cognitive and behavioral therapies, and brief psychodynamic therapy. Both the main efficacy studies of those therapies as well as a meta-analytic review of their results are described. The conclusion is that there are already strong evidences of good outcome when ambulatorial unipolar depression is treated by psychossocial interventions, alone or in combination with pharmacotherapy.

  12. Modelos de Índice de Difusão para prever a taxa de crescimento do PIB agrícola brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tatiwa Ferreira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo usa modelos lineares e não lineares de Índice de Difusão para prever, um período à frente, a taxa de crescimento trimestral do PIB agrícola brasileiro. Esses modelos são compostos de fatores comuns que permitem redução significativa do número de variáveis explicativas originais. Os resultados de eficiência preditiva apontam para uma superioridade das previsões geradas pelos modelos de Índice de Difusão sobre os modelos ARMA. Entre os modelos de Índice de Difusão, o modelo não linear com efeito threshold superou os resultados do modelo linear e do modelo AR.

  13. Epilepsia temporal: relato de caso = Temporal epilepsy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Taís Amara da Costa de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem o objetivo de divulgar um recurso terapêutico da epilepsia do lobo temporal por esclerose hipocampal: a cirurgia. Aproximadamente vinte e cinco mil pacientes com esta patologia são refratários aos tratamentos medicamentosos no sul do país e muitos chegam ao neurocirurgião com 30-40 anos de evolução, muitas vezes já mutilados em conseqüência das crises. Convulsões parciais originadas no lobo temporal são comuns, e grande parte originam-se em estruturas mesiais (esclerose mesial temporal – EMT. Como aí se encontram a sede de funções nobres do sistema nervoso – memória, aprendizagem, comportamento, entre outras –, os sintomas podem apresentar-se como alterações em qualquer uma delas. Ressaltamos a necessidade do correto diagnóstico e dos métodos para fazê-lo: através da anamnese, da ressonância magnética, do eletroencefalograma (EEG, do vídeo-EEG e por vezes através de sensores intracranianos (strips. Apesar de existirem métodos confiáveis para realizar o diagnóstico e tratamento cirúrgico com grande índice de sucesso, a desinformação dos profissionais que atendem pacientes com EMT acerca do assunto leva ao prolongamento de tratamentos clínico ineficiente e conseqüente seqüelas físicas, psicológicas e sociais

  14. A distributional and cytological survey of the presently recognized taxa of Hibiscus section Furcaria (Malvaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Douglas Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus section Furcaria is a natural group of plants that presently includes 109 recognized taxa. Taxa are found in subsaharan Africa, India, southeastern Asia, Malesia, Australia, islands of the Pacific basin, the Caribbean, North, Central, and South America. The basic chromosome number is x = 18. In nature, ploidy levels range from diploid to decaploid. The taxa exhibit a remarkable amount of genome diversity. At least 13 genomes have been identified, some distributed widely and others with more restricted distributions. No modern taxonomic monograph ofHibiscus section Furcaria exists, but a number of regional studies have appeared that are essentially global in extent. Also, a number of studies of chromosome numbers and genome relationships have been published. The present paper includes a census of all the presently accepted taxa, the geographical distribution of each taxon, and chromosome numbers and genome designations of the 49 taxa for which the information is available. Important mechanisms of speciation include genome divergence at the diploid level, followed by hybridization and allopolyploidy, significant species radiation at the tetraploid and hexaploid levels, and the development of even higher levels of allopolyploids.

  15. The influence of invasive Fallopia taxa on resident plant species in two river valleys (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Chmura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zones in two rivers in southern Poland were studied in terms of species composition and soil parameters in patches dominated by three knotweed taxa (Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis and the hybrid F. ×bohemica. The main purpose was to detect any differences in species diversity, environmental conditions and in the impact of the three Fallopia spp. on resident species. Fieldwork was conducted in spring and summer in 30 invaded plots (in total 90 subplots. It was demonstrated that vegetation dominated by particular knotweed taxa differed in response to soil pH and ammonium, nitrate, and magnesium content. Fallopia spp. (living plants and necromass had a stronger negative impact on the cover and species diversity of the resident species in summer in comparison with spring. Vegetation patches differed significantly in species composition in relation to the knotweed taxa present. These differences may be the consequence of the differentiated biotopic requirements of Fallopia taxa and the coexisting plants, or to the different impact of the knotweed taxa on the resident species.

  16. Differences among Major Taxa in the Extent of Ecological Knowledge across Four Major Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rebecca; Knowlton, Nancy; Brainard, Russell E.; Caley, M. Julian

    2011-01-01

    Existing knowledge shapes our understanding of ecosystems and is critical for ecosystem-based management of the world's natural resources. Typically this knowledge is biased among taxa, with some taxa far better studied than others, but the extent of this bias is poorly known. In conjunction with the publically available World Registry of Marine Species database (WoRMS) and one of the world's premier electronic scientific literature databases (Web of Science®), a text mining approach is used to examine the distribution of existing ecological knowledge among taxa in coral reef, mangrove, seagrass and kelp bed ecosystems. We found that for each of these ecosystems, most research has been limited to a few groups of organisms. While this bias clearly reflects the perceived importance of some taxa as commercially or ecologically valuable, the relative lack of research of other taxonomic groups highlights the problem that some key taxa and associated ecosystem processes they affect may be poorly understood or completely ignored. The approach outlined here could be applied to any type of ecosystem for analyzing previous research effort and identifying knowledge gaps in order to improve ecosystem-based conservation and management. PMID:22073172

  17. The "most wanted" taxa from the human microbiome for whole genome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A Fodor

    Full Text Available The goal of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP is to generate a comprehensive catalog of human-associated microorganisms including reference genomes representing the most common species. Toward this goal, the HMP has characterized the microbial communities at 18 body habitats in a cohort of over 200 healthy volunteers using 16S rRNA gene (16S sequencing and has generated nearly 1,000 reference genomes from human-associated microorganisms. To determine how well current reference genome collections capture the diversity observed among the healthy microbiome and to guide isolation and future sequencing of microbiome members, we compared the HMP's 16S data sets to several reference 16S collections to create a 'most wanted' list of taxa for sequencing. Our analysis revealed that the diversity of commonly occurring taxa within the HMP cohort microbiome is relatively modest, few novel taxa are represented by these OTUs and many common taxa among HMP volunteers recur across different populations of healthy humans. Taken together, these results suggest that it should be possible to perform whole-genome sequencing on a large fraction of the human microbiome, including the 'most wanted', and that these sequences should serve to support microbiome studies across multiple cohorts. Also, in stark contrast to other taxa, the 'most wanted' organisms are poorly represented among culture collections suggesting that novel culture- and single-cell-based methods will be required to isolate these organisms for sequencing.

  18. List of Zooplankton Taxa in the Caspian Sea Waters of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 61 zooplankton taxa were found in the southwestern Caspian Sea between 1996 and 2010. Thirteen of them were meroplankton taxa and forty-eight were holoplankton taxa. The occurrence of 14 freshwater taxa indicated the influence of the Anzali wetland and river inflows. The decrease in zooplankton taxa was detected since 1996-1997 and continued till 2010. Pleopis polyphemoides, the only one out of the nine recorded Cladocera species in 1996-1997, was found after 2001. Similarly, of the five Copepoda species recorded in 1996-1997, only one, Acartia tonsa, was found abundant during the 2001–2010 sampling period. It was striking that many species which were abundant in the Caspian Sea in 1996-1997 were not found after 2000. Many reasons could have contributed to the changes in the zooplankton composition of the southern Caspian Sea, notably the serious environmental degradation since the early 1990s. It is also possible that invasive species might play a role in wiping out some sensitive endemic species.

  19. Time linkages between pollination onsets of different taxa in Perugia, Central Italy--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Ghitarrini, Sofia; Tedeschini, Emma

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, increasing attention has been paid to pollinosis. Numerous studies have been carried out concerning the pollination timing of allergenic plant species and the possibility to forecast its beginning and intensity using several statistical methods and models. This study proposes a simple and fast method to identify in advance the time lapse in which the pollination of some allergenic taxa should start. The times of pollination of 14 taxa were recorded in the area of Perugia (Central Italy) by means of a 7-volumetric Hirst-Type pollen trap. For a 30-year period (1984-2013), annual starting dates were calculated for each taxa, using the 5% method (Lejoly-Gabriel). The time linkages between these starting dates were then estimated, considering them in pairs and calculating linear regression coefficients. For the significantly linked species, forecasting models were obtained by means of linear regression analysis. To apply these models to the ongoing pollen season, pollination beginning of the earlier species has to be calculated using a sum-based method. From this date, through the obtained equations, it is possible to predict the approximate period in which the pollination of the second linked taxa should start. The possibility to predict the start of the pollen season of these taxa could be of great importance from the allergological point of view. In fact, an early or delayed flowering can have considerable effects in the prophylaxis programming and efficacy.

  20. A Methodology to Model Environmental Preferences of EPT Taxa in the Machangara River Basin (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Jerves-Cobo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rivers have been frequently assessed based on the presence of the Ephemeroptera— Plecoptera—Trichoptera (EPT taxa in order to determine the water quality status and develop conservation programs. This research evaluates the abiotic preferences of three families of the EPT taxa Baetidae, Leptoceridae and Perlidae in the Machangara River Basin located in the southern Andes of Ecuador. With this objective, using generalized linear models (GLMs, we analyzed the relation between the probability of occurrence of these pollution-sensitive macroinvertebrates families and physicochemical water quality conditions. The explanatory variables of the constructed GLMs differed substantially among the taxa, as did the preference range of the common predictors. In total, eight variables had a substantial influence on the outcomes of the three models. For choosing the best predictors of each studied taxa and for evaluation of the accuracy of its models, the Akaike information criterion (AIC was used. The results indicated that the GLMs can be applied to predict either the presence or the absence of the invertebrate taxa and moreover, to clarify the relation to the environmental conditions of the stream. In this manner, these modeling tools can help to determine key variables for river restoration and protection management.

  1. Roles of epi-anecic taxa of earthworms in the organic matter recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffner, Kevin; Monard, Cécile; Santonja, Mathieu; Pérès, Guénola; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Given their impact on soil functioning and their interactions with soil organisms, earthworms contribute to the recycling of organic matter and participate significantly in the numerous ecosystem services provided by soils. Most studies on the role of earthworms in organic matter recycling were conducted at the level of the four functional groups (epigeic, epi-anecic, anecic strict and endogeic), but their effects at taxa level remain largely unknown. Still, within a functional group, anatomic and physiologic earthworm taxa traits are different, which should impact organic matter recycling. This study aims at determining, under controlled conditions, epi-anecic taxa differences in (i) leaf litter mass loss, (ii) assimilation and (iii) impact on microorganisms communities implied in organic matter degradation. In seperate microcosms, we chose 4 epi anecic taxa (Lumbricus rubellus, Lumbricus festivus, Lumbricus centralis and Lumbricus terrestris). Each taxon was exposed separately to leaves of three different plants (Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne and Corylus avellana). In the same microcosm, leaves of each plant was both placed on the surface and buried 10cm deep. The experiment lasted 10 days for half of the samples and 20 days for the second half. Microorganisms communities were analysed using TRFLP in each earthworm taxon burrow walls at 20 days. We observed differences between epi-anecic taxa depending on species of plant and the duration of the experiment. Results are discussed taking into account physical and chemical properties of these 3 trophic resources (e.g. C/N ratio, phenolic compounds, percentage of lignin and cellulose...).

  2. Taxa de gestação e níveis plasmáticos de progesterona, em receptoras de embrião bovino, tratadas com buserelina após a inovulação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimberti Antonio Marcos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 42 vacas ou novilhas mestiças, de aptidão leiteira, distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 ( n=22 - grupo controle, sem tratamento hormonal; T2 (n=20 - grupo tratado com buserelina no quarto dia após a transferência de embrião (inovulação, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tratamento hormonal na taxa de gestação e nas concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona das receptoras de embrião bovino. As coletas de sangue para obtenção do plasma sangüíneo foram realizadas no dia da inovulação (dia 0 e de dois em dois dias, num total de cinco amostras por receptora. O diagnóstico de gestação foi realizado via transretal. O uso de um agonista do GnRH (Buserelina no 4º dia após a inovulação não resultou em diferença entre os tratamentos na taxa de gestação. Entretanto, os níveis de progesterona das receptoras gestantes do grupo-tratado foram maiores em comparação às do grupo-controle.

  3. Temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Although pluridirectional tomography had been the standard method to evaluate the temporal bone, computed tomography has replaced it for nearly all applications. Magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate nonosseous temporal bone structures as well

  4. SERÁ QUE “ACABOU O DINHEIRO”? FINANCIAMENTO DO GASTO PÚBLICO E TAXAS DE JUROS NUM PAÍS DE MOEDA SOBERANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Serrano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho discute como se financiam os gastos públicos e se determinam as taxas de juros sobre os títulos de dívida pública de curto e longo prazo num país de moeda soberana. A análise segue a abordagem da taxa de juros exógena, que sintetiza os resultados comuns da visão da moeda endógena da Modern Monetary Theory e das finanças funcionais de Lerner. Focado particularmente no caso brasileiro, o trabalho começa com a análise dos procedimentos operacionais do financiamento do gasto público e a relação entre o Tesouro e o Banco Central, discute a relação entre financiamento do governo e as taxas de juros de títulos públicos de curto e longo prazo. Como um país (e não apenas o setor público pode sim quebrar em moeda estrangeira, a seção seguinte analisa a questão do spread de “risco soberano” e sua relação com os passivos externos em moeda estrangeira do país (e não do setor público e discute brevemente também a relação entre esse spread e as notas concedidas pelas agências de rating. O artigo conclui discutindo de forma sucinta algumas implicações da análise anterior para a discussão recente no Brasil (a partir de 2015 sobre a necessidade e formas do “ajuste fiscal”.

  5. Taxa de suspensão de cirurgia em um hospital universitário e os motivos de absenteísmo do paciente à cirurgia programada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschoal Maria Lúcia Habib

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do estudo foram identificar a taxa de suspensão de cirurgia e verificar os motivos do absenteísmo do paciente à cirurgia programada. O trabalho foi realizado em um hospital universitário, voltado à assistência secundária, no município de São Paulo, no período de três meses e realizada entrevista com 60 pacientes que deixaram de comparecer à cirurgia. Os resultados mostraram taxa de suspensão de cirurgia de 19,91% e o absenteísmo de 54,30% das 186 suspensões de cirurgias. Foram encontrados 10 motivos para o absenteísmo do paciente que, agrupados, puderam ser atribuídos à condição institucional (53,33%, na maioria pela desinformação sobre a data do agendamento cirúrgico; condição clínica (28,33% decorrente de infecções de vias aéreas e outras doenças; condição social (10% pela falta de dinheiro e problemas familiares e condição pessoal (8,33% em conseqüência da desistência do paciente.

  6. A hierarquia monetária e suas implicações para as taxas de câmbio e de juros e a política econômica dos países periféricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Martarello De Conti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Países periféricos apresentam especificidades na dinâmica de suas taxas de câmbio e juros e na condução de sua política econômica que nem sempre são consideradas pela teoria econômica convencional. As distintas moedas nacionais têm usos e status diferenciados na economia mundial, gerando padrões igualmente diferenciados na demanda por essas moedas e nos fluxos de capitais que entram e saem dos paísesemissores. Este artigo baseia-se na hipótese de que essa diferença no posicionamento das moedas no Sistema Monetário Internacional (SMI - que caracteriza a "hierarquia monetária" - constitui o elemento central de explicação das peculiaridades verificadas no comportamento das taxas de câmbio e juros e, ao fim, na condução da política econômica dos diversos países, tendo influência, portanto, sobre as possibilidades de desenvolvimento econômico desses países. O objetivo deste artigo, portanto, é entender o comportamento diferenciado das taxas de câmbio e juros dos países periféricos, relacionando-o às características do SMI.

  7. Mesial temporal sclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    2005-07-29

    Jul 29, 2005 ... tail of the hippocampus were involved, with associated poor grey- white matter differentiation. In addi- tion, there was atrophy of the hip- pocampus and fornix, with dilatation of the temporal horn (Figs 1 - 4). Discussion. Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the commonest cause of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  8. A taxa de câmbio real de equilíbrio no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Camacho Badani; Álvaro Barrantes Hidalgo

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo é estimar a Taxa de Câmbio Real de Equilíbrio (TCRE) no Brasil e compará-la com a Taxa de Câmbio Real (TCR) observada para o período recente. A fim de estimar a TCRE, adotou-se a metodologia desenvolvida inicialmente por Sebastian Edwards. Os dados são mensais e abrangem o período entre julho de 1994 (momento da implementação do Plano Real) até dezembro de 2002. Os resultados mostram que no momento da implementação do Plano Real a Taxa de Câmbio Real encontrava-se valo...

  9. Systematics and genetic structure of Ponderosae taxa (Pinaceae) inhabiting the mountain islands of the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeldt, G E

    1999-05-01

    The systematics and genetic structure of taxa representing the Ponderosae subsection of genus Pinus were assessed for disjunct, isolated, and peripheral populations occupying the mountain islands of the Southwest. Wind-pollinated progenies of 290 trees were compared in common gardens according to ten variables reflecting allometric, needle, and phenologic characteristics of 2-yr-old trees. The tests also included populations of similar taxa from the Rocky Mountains to the north and the Sierra Madre to the south. Principal component and canonical discriminant analyses demonstrated that the taxa segregated into three distinct groups, one of which contained two subgroups. These groupings collectively accounted for all of the many and confusing taxonomic descriptions that exist for the Ponderosae of the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The results suggested that intertaxa hybrids or hybrid derivatives may have been segregating within the progenies of only three of the parental trees. Hybridization, therefore, appears to be infrequent and inconsequential to the interrelationships among taxa and to contemporary genetic structures of taxa. Univariate analyses showed that the three distinct groups displayed different genetic structures despite similarities in their geographic distributions. While genetic variation within populations of all groups was abundant, a group labeled "quinquefoliata" displayed little variation among populations; one labeled "engelmannii" had abundant interpopulation variation that was largely randomly distributed across the landscape; and in a group containing the subgroups called "scopulorum" and "taxon X," abundant interpopulation variability was arranged systematically along moderately steep clines. These disparate genetic structures showed no apparent effects of the isolated, disjunct, and peripheral conditions under which populations of these taxa exist.

  10. Catalog of taxa introduced by Luitfried Salvini-Plawen (1939-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affenzeller, Susanne; Steiner, Gerhard

    2017-10-17

    Luitfried Salvini-Plawen was one of the most distinguished researchers for molluscan phylogenetic systematics of the last decades. In his publications he described a total of 193 species: 134 Solenogastres, 34 Caudofoveata, 14 interstitial Gastropoda, one polyplacophoran and the remaining comprising Cnidaria, Priapulida, Kamptozoa, and Echinodermata. In addition, he introduced 47 genus-group names and 54 names for family-level and higher taxa. This catalog comprises lists of all taxon names published by Luitfried Salvini-Plawen. The catalog entries contain taxonomic information, original citations, type localities and type collections. It aims to facilitate further research on these and related taxa.

  11. Short-Term Protein Stable Isotope Probing of Microbial Communities to Associate Functions with Taxa (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, M. S.; Slysz, G. W.; Steinke, L. A.; Ward, D. M.; Klatt, C. G.; Clauss, T. R.; Purvine, S. O.; Anderson, G. A.; Payne, S. H.; Bryant, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Determining which taxa in a community perform which functions is essential for understanding metabolite fluxes and metabolic interactions among community members. Specific taxa will alter their metabolism in order to acclimate to changing environmental factors such as light through the diel cycle, changing temperature and other factors. Monitoring which proteins are being expressed, and the quantitative protein expression patterns in the individual taxa as a response to external stimuli is key to understanding these mechanisms. Protein stable isotope probing (Pro-SIP) has strong potential for revealing key metabolizing taxa in complex microbial communities. In Pro-SIP studies, label incorporation is determined by the extent of the change in the isotopic profile of peptides when measured by mass spectrometry. While most Pro-SIP work to date has been performed under controlled laboratory conditions to allow extensive isotope labeling of the target organism(s), these techniques have not been applied to short term in situ studies due to the small degree of partial labeling of the proteins. We have applied Pro-SIP to study the assimilation of a labeled substrate into proteins to determine which taxa are responsible for sequestration of dissolved inorganic carbon in microbial mats associated with the alkaline siliceous hot springs of Yellowstone National Park. This community is fueled by sunlight as it transitions from dark to light; the aim was to understand the light-dependent pathway of inorganic carbon incorporation into different taxa during the early morning hours when the mat was in low light and anoxic. Each mat sample was incubated with 13C-bicarbonate for 3 h. Substrate assimilation was determined through standard proteomic techniques along with the use of SIPPER, a collection of algorithms that sensitively measure small changes in peptide isotopic patterns, allowing the determination of which taxa assimilated the substrate during this period. For the

  12. Crickets (Insecta, Orthoptera, Grylloidea) from Southern New Caledonia, with descriptions of new taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anso, Jérémy; Jourdan, Hervé; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

    2016-06-15

    Intensive sampling of cricket communities has been undertaken in southern New Caledonia in selected plots of vegetation, i.e. rain forest, preforest and maquis shrubland. This leads to the discovery of many new taxa, which are described in the present paper, together with closely related species from nearby areas. Descriptions are based on general morphology and characters of genitalia. Calling songs are described for all acoustic taxa but two, and observations about species habitats are given. In total, 35 species belonging to 13 genera are studied, including 21 new species and two new genera. The pattern of assemblages of cricket species in New Caledonia is discussed.

  13. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. de Wet

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations to the inventory of about 24 000 species and infraspecific taxa of bryophytes and vascular plants in southern Africa are reported for the year 1988. The inventory, as currently maintained in the Taxon component of the PRECIS system, contains the accepted name for each taxon, synonyms previously in use as accepted names during the past half-century, and literature references necessary to identify species in each genus and to establish the synonymy. The inventory is updated as new research affecting plant classification in southern Africa is published. During 1988 there were 744 alterations, affecting about 3% of the total number of taxa.

  14. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Alterations to the inventory of about 24 000 species and infraspecific taxa of bryophytes and vascular plants in southern Africa are reported for the year 1987. The inventory, as presently maintained in the Taxon component of the PRECIS system, contains the accepted name for each taxon, synonyms previously in use as accepted names during the past half-century, and literature references necessary to identify species in each genus and to establish the synonymy. The inventory is updated as new research affecting plant classification in southern Africa is published. During 1987 there were 678 alterations, representing about 2,8% of the total number of taxa.a

  15. Comparative Root and Stem Anatomy of Four Rare Onobrychis Mill. (Fabaceae Taxa Endemic in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TEKİN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Four endemic taxa of Onobrychis Mill. genus, some of them being classified in the endangered threat category, were investigated for root and stem anatomy. Onobrychis quadrijuga, O. argyrea subsp. argyrea, O. tournefortii and O. albiflora were studied in regard to specific anatomy for the first time within the hereby study. Anatomical characters as the size and shape of the periderm, cortex, cambium cells in root and epidermis, collenchyma, cortex, cambium and pith cells in stem belonging to these four Onobrychis taxa were determined in detail. Based on the roots and stems measurements and analysis, specific anatomical differences between species were revealed.

  16. Sistema regional de inovação: estudo das regiões brasileiras

    OpenAIRE

    Casali,Giovana F. Rossi; Silva,Orlando Monteiro da; Carvalho,Fátima M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho analisou o processo de formação regional do Brasil, os desequilíbrios existentes entre as regiões e as perspectivas futuras. Teve como proposta básica analisar o possível processo de convergência de renda das regiões brasileiras, utilizando o conceito de gap tecnológico. Segundo esse conceito, os desequilíbrios regionais são o resultado de diferentes taxas de desenvolvimento econômico, que, por sua vez, resultam de diferentes níveis de desenvolvimento tecnológico, os quais, por ...

  17. A evolução das cooperativas de trabalho no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos, Ana Paula da Silva de

    2004-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Sócio-Econômico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia. A evolução das cooperativas de trabalho no Brasil apresenta um avanço significativo desde o início da década de 1990, que vem se mantendo nos primeiros anos do século XXI. Este avanço tem sido explicado pela atual crise no mercado de trabalho, que se caracteriza, principalmente, pelo aumento da taxa de desemprego e pelo crescimento do setor informal. E é neste cen...

  18. Mesozooplankton of the estuarine system of Barra das Jangadas, Pernambuco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Eliane A. H.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Vieira, Dilma A. do N.

    2008-01-01

    Estudos sobre o mesozooplâncton foram realizados no sistema estuarino de Barra das Jangadas, Pernambuco, Brasil (8º14'36"S, 34º56'28"W) visando analisar a estrutura da comunidade. As amostras foram obtidas com rede de plâncton, com malha de 300 µm, durante os períodos, seco (janeiro/2001) e chuvoso (julho/2001), nas marés de sizígia e de quadratura, em intervalos de três horas. Foram identificados 37 taxa, destacando-se Copepoda com as espécies Pseudodiaptomus acutus (F. Dahl, 1894), Pseudodi...

  19. Das vermeintlich Säkulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lücke

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Was haben Bruce Springsteen, Parzival und männliche heterosexuelle Freier gemeinsam? In ihrem Band Erlöser. Figurationen männlicher Hegemonie zeigen Sven Glawion, Elahe Haschemi Yekani und Jana Husmann-Kastein, dass das religiös aufgeladene Motiv einer (christlichen männlichen Erlöserfigur als eine aufschlussreiche heuristische Folie dienen kann, um Mechanismen männlicher Hegemonie gerade auch in (vermeintlich säkularen Gesellschaften sichtbar zu machen.

  20. ESTUDO SOBRE A EVOLUÇÃO DA CONCENTRAÇÃO DO SETOR BANCÁRIO NO BRASIL E DA TAXA DE JUROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Rocha Bittencourt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nos contextos nacional e internacional há indícios de crescente concentração do setor bancário. Essa reestruturação pode ser observada ao se comparar o número de instituições financeiras existentes há 10 anos com o número registrado em 2013. Assim, este artigo tem por objetivo avaliar a concentração do setor bancário no período de 1996 a 2013, bem como a evolução das taxas de juros dos seus principais produtos no mesmo período. Foi analisada a concentração do setor com base em quatro indicadores Herfindahl-Hirschman (HHI, a Razão de Concentração (CRK, o Índice de Hall-Tideman (HTI e a Entropia de Theil (ET e, posteriormente, realizada a análise da correlação entre estes indicadores as taxas de juros. O índice HHI mostrou que o setor caminha para uma concentração moderada, quando consideradas as variáveis ativo total e patrimônio líquido. Quanto ao lucro líquido e aos depósitos totais, o setor se mostra moderadamente concentrado. O indicador CRK evidenciou que as quatro maiores instituições do país detêm quase 50% do patrimônio líquido total do Sistema Financeiro Nacional e mais de 55% dos ativos totais, do lucro líquido total e dos depósitos totais. Os demais indicadores evidenciaram que o setor não é concentrado, sendo, porém, evidente o crescimento desses indicadores rumo à concentração. Quanto à evolução das taxas de juros, apesar de o setor se encaminhar para a concentração moderada, registrou-se queda nesse indicador, em todas as modalidades estudadas. 

  1. Twelve invasive plant taxa in U.S. western riparian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessments of stream ecosystems often include an evaluation of riparian condition; a key stressor in riparian ecosystems is the presence of invasive plants. We analyzed the distribution of 12 invasive taxa (common burdock [Arctium minus], giant reed [Arundo donax], cheatgrass [B...

  2. Giemsa C-Banding in Asiactic Taxa of Hordeum Section Stenostachys with Notes on Chromosome Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von; Jacobsen, N.

    1980-01-01

    C-banding patterns of eight cytotypes of six Asiatic taxa of Hordeum sect. Stenostachys were characterized by (1) the small size of most centromeric bands, (2) the paucity and generally small size of the intercalary bands and of the bands at the secondary constrictions, and (3) the existence...

  3. New records of truffle taxa in Tuber and Terfezia from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Angelo Castellano; Aziz. Turkoglu

    2012-01-01

    Turkey has one of the richest floras in the northern hemisphere as it is located at the convergence of 3 phytogeographical regions: Euro-Siberian, Mediterranean, and Irano-Turanian. This is reflected in the high number of plant taxa, particularly plant families that have truffles associated with them. The forests of these regions are dominated by ectomycorrhizal...

  4. Potentilla (Rosaceae) in New Guinea: Census, key, and some new taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.

    1989-01-01

    A renewed study has been made of the Potentilla species of New Guinea. Fourteen species are recognized, twelve of which are endemic. Distribution data are given and a census of the taxa. A key to species and varieties is added. Four new species and two new varieties are described.

  5. Sur la presence du genre Gammarus au Liban, avec description de deux nouveaux taxa (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alouf, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    Description of two new taxa, Gammarus oronticus n.sp. and G. laticoxalis libanicus n.ssp., both related to the Gammarus pulex-group, from the Lebanon. Data about their ecology and new data on G. syriacus Chevreux are given.

  6. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. de Wet

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Additions and alterations to the inventory of about 26 000 plant taxa in southern Africa are reported for the period from February 1990 to February 1991. In this period a total of 1 080 alterations have been recorded. These changes result from the continual surveying of taxonomic literature received by the library of the National Botanical Institute.

  7. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. de Wet

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Additions and alterations to the inventory of approximately 25 000 southern African plant taxa are reported for the period from February 1989 to February 1990. In this period, a total of 890 alterations have been recorded. These changes result  from the continual surveying of taxonomic literature received by the library of the National Botanical Institute.

  8. Comparative lophotrochozoan neurogenesis and larval neuroanatomy: recent advances from previously neglected taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, A

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a number of neurodevelopmental studies of hitherto neglected taxa have become available, contributing to questions relating to the evolution of the nervous system of Lophotrochozoa (Spiralia + Lophophorata). As an example, neurogenesis of echiurans showed that these worm-shaped spiralians...

  9. Preliminary assessment of biogeographic affinities of selected insect taxa of the state of Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Jones; Alejandro Obregon-Zuniga; Sandra Guzman-Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The biogeographic affinites of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperidae), damsel and dragonflies (Odonata), and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reported from the State of Sonora, Mexico were analyzed using published species lists. The combined distribution of these taxa was proportionally greater (47.4%) for those species within the Mega-Mexico3...

  10. New taxa of Aphyllophorales and Agaricales described by S. Domański

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with 105 new taxa und new combinations of fungi proposed by Polish mycologist Professor Stanisław Domański during thę years 1962-1992 (Aphyllophorales, Coniophoraceae, Corticiaceae, Echnodontiaceae, Hericiaceae, Hymenochaetaceae, Polyporaceae and Agaricales: Pleurotaceac.

  11. List of abbreviations for currently valid generic-level taxa in family Culicidae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    A list of two letter abbreviations for all genera and three letter abbreviations for all subgenera of mosquitoes (family Culicidae, order Diptera) is given. This information on generic-level taxa of mosquitoes is useful in reducing printed space in publications, tables and lists. The work was comp...

  12. Neue Taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1987-01-01

    12 new species and 3 new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards from Greece and Turkey are described or defined. The new taxa are: T. (L.) montifer tasucuensis, T. (L.) musensis, T. (L.) vermooleni, T. (L.) lyrion, Tipula (Lunatipula) paravelox, T. (L.) soosi izmirensis, T. (L.) brinki, T. (L.)

  13. Neue Taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1979-01-01

    Eight new species and three new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards are described and their affinities are discussed. The new taxa are: Tipula (Lunatipula) rocina from Spain, T. (L.) antichasia, T. (L.) hera, T. (L.) klytaimnestra, T. (L.) pythia. T. (L.) caudispina parnonensis, T. (L.) penelope

  14. PERENNIAL HELIANTHUS TAXA IN TÂRGU-MURES CITY AND ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FILEP RITA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although in the neighbouring countries several perennial Helianthus taxa have been recorded in the last decade, in Romania only three have been identified so far. The literature and herbaria data of Târgu-Mures date back to the end of the XIXth century, and only refer to H. × multiflorus and H. tuberosus. The aim of this study was to identify the perennial Helianthus taxa in this region and to prepare their current distribution map. The survey was conducted in Târgu Mures city and the neighbouring villages: Livezeni, Sântana de Mures, Sâncraiu de Mures, Sângeorgiu de Mures, and Corunca. Four taxa were identified: H. pauciflorus Nutt., H. × laetiflorus Pers., H. tuberosus L. s.str., and Helianthus tuberosus L. s.l. The first two taxa are cultivated as ornamental plants, H. tuberosus s. str. is cultivated in a few farms, whereas H. tuberosus s. l. is an invasive species that spreads along the rivers.

  15. Taxa de sobrevivência e desempenho agronômico de melancia sob enxertia Grafted watermelon survival rate and agronomic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Natália C de S Gama

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia tem sido empregada para conferir resistência às plantas, possibilitando o cultivo em áreas contaminadas por patógenos do solo e quando realizada sobre porta-enxertos apropriados, oferece uma série de vantagens agronômicas em relação ao cultivo convencional. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a taxa de sobrevivência e o desempenho agronômico e qualitativo da cultivar BRS Opara enxertada por encostia em quatro genótipos de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata: BGC 186, BGC 217, BGC 830 e BGC 830.1; e em dois genótipos de melancia forrageira (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides: BGCIA 223 e BGCIA 857. Quantificou-se a taxa de sobrevivência, em casa de vegetação, sob delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado; a produtividade das plantas enxertadas e não-enxertadas, bem como os frutos foram caracterizados quanto às seguintes características: formato, coloração externa e interna, massa fresca, firmeza da polpa, sólidos solúveis do centro da polpa e da polpa homogeneizada, acidez titulável, relação sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável e pH. Para a avaliação agronômica e qualitativa dos frutos adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e parcelas com cinco plantas. A taxa de sobrevivência das mudas enxertadas, após o "desmame", variou em função do porta-enxerto, sendo as melhores taxas observadas em BGC 186 e BGC 830.1. Comparando-se ao rendimento da testemunha (23,5 t/ha, houve um incremento médio de 66,5% na produtividade das plantas enxertadas em BGCIA 223, BGC 830, BGC 217 e BGCIA 857. Para a cultivar BRS Opara, pode-se recomendar inicialmente, estes porta-enxertos que determinaram incremento na produtividade sem afetar a qualidade dos frutos.Grafting has been used in order to provide resistance to plants, allowing cultivation in areas contaminated by soil pathogens and, when performed on suitable rootstocks, offers a number of agronomic advantages when compared to

  16. Tendência de declínio da taxa de mortalidade por suicídio no Paraná, Brasil: contribuição para políticas públicas de saúde mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalina Maria da Rosa

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a tendência da mortalidade por suicídio no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Métodos Estudo ecológico, de séries temporais, com análise da tendência da mortalidade por suicídio no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, utilizando dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade de 1996 a 2012, por meio de regressão polinomial. Resultados Houve tendência decrescente de 0,16 ao ano na taxa de mortalidade por suicídio no Estado do Paraná e aumento da taxa de mortalidade apenas para a Regional de Saúde de Paranaguá (0,19 ao ano. Verificou-se que o sexo masculino apresentou maior taxa de mortalidade por suicídio, com queda significativa para os homens com idade de 65 anos ou mais. Conclusões A maioria das Regionais de Saúde do Estado do Paraná apresentou tendência decrescente nas taxas de mortalidade por suicídio. Contudo, houve variações da tendência entre as regiões, faixas etárias e sexo, com maior queda na taxa de mortalidade por suicídio no sexo masculino, com idade de 65 anos ou mais. A análise de tendência da mortalidade por suicídio reportou ser um importante instrumento para identificar as regiões no Paraná que necessitam de ações diretivas de promoção à saúde mental.

  17. Microbial Taxa Distribution Is Associated with Ecological Trophic Cascades along an Elevation Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fei; Yang, Shan; Wang, Zhirui; Wang, Xue; Ye, Ji; Wang, Xugao; DeBruyn, Jennifer M.; Feng, Xue; Jiang, Yong; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The elevational pattern of soil microbial diversity along mountain slopes has received considerable interest over the last decade. An increasing amount of taxonomic data on soil microbial community composition along elevation gradients have been collected, however the trophic patterns and environmental drivers of elevational changes remain largely unclear. Here, we examined the distribution patterns of major soil bacterial and fungal taxa along the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China, at five typical vegetation types located between 740 and 2,691 m above sea level. Elevational patterns of the relative abundance of specific microbial taxa could be partially explained by the oligotrophic-copiotrophic theory. Specifically, two dark-coniferous forests, located at mid-elevation sites, were considered to be oligotrophic habitats, with relatively higher soil C/N ratio and NH4+-N concentrations. As expected, oligotrophic microbial taxa, belonging to the bacterial phyla Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and fungal phylum Basidiomycota, were predominant in the two dark-coniferous forests, exhibiting a mid-elevation maximum pattern. In contrast, the broad leaf-Korean pine mixed forest located at the foot of the mountain, Betula ermanii-dominated forest located below the tree line, and alpine tundra at the highest elevation were considered more copiotrophic habitats, characterized by higher substrate-induced-respiration rates and NO3--N concentrations. Microbial taxa considered to be so called copiotrophic members, such as bacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and fungal phylum Ascomycota, were relatively abundant in these locations, resulting in a mid-elevation minimum pattern. At finer taxonomic levels, the two most abundant proteobacterial classes, alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria, along with Acidobacteria Gp1, 2, 3, 15, and the Basidiomycotal class of Tremellomycetes were classified with the copiotrophic group. Gamma- and delta

  18. Microbial Taxa Distribution Is Associated with Ecological Trophic Cascades along an Elevation Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The elevational pattern of soil microbial diversity along mountain slopes has received considerable interest over the last decade. An increasing amount of taxonomic data on soil microbial community composition along elevation gradients have been collected, however the trophic patterns and environmental drivers of elevational changes remain largely unclear. Here, we examined the distribution patterns of major soil bacterial and fungal taxa along the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China, at five typical vegetation types located between 740 and 2,691 m above sea level. Elevational patterns of the relative abundance of specific microbial taxa could be partially explained by the oligotrophic-copiotrophic theory. Specifically, two dark-coniferous forests, located at mid-elevation sites, were considered to be oligotrophic habitats, with relatively higher soil C/N ratio and NH4+-N concentrations. As expected, oligotrophic microbial taxa, belonging to the bacterial phyla Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and fungal phylum Basidiomycota, were predominant in the two dark-coniferous forests, exhibiting a mid-elevation maximum pattern. In contrast, the broad leaf-Korean pine mixed forest located at the foot of the mountain, Betula ermanii-dominated forest located below the tree line, and alpine tundra at the highest elevation were considered more copiotrophic habitats, characterized by higher substrate-induced-respiration rates and NO3--N concentrations. Microbial taxa considered to be so called copiotrophic members, such as bacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and fungal phylum Ascomycota, were relatively abundant in these locations, resulting in a mid-elevation minimum pattern. At finer taxonomic levels, the two most abundant proteobacterial classes, alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria, along with Acidobacteria Gp1, 2, 3, 15, and the Basidiomycotal class of Tremellomycetes were classified with the copiotrophic group. Gamma- and

  19. GEOGRAFIA DA MORTALIDADE INFANTIL NO CONTEXTO DAS DESIGUALDADES REGIONAIS DO ESTADO DE MINAS GERAIS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivaldo Mauro Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A taxa de mortalidade infantil (TMI é um dos indicadores de saúde mais sensíveis às desigualdades sociais e as disparidades regionais. Por isso, contrariando-se os reconhecidos avanços na redução da mortalidade infantil no Brasil, ainda são encontradas TMIs elevadas e bem acima das metas estabelecidas nos programas de vigilância e controle. É o caso da meta estabelecida pelo Brasil no âmbito dos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento do Milênio (ODM. Embora essa meta tenha sido antecipadamente alcançada e celebrada, realidades locais mais carenciadas estão muito distantes de atendê-la. Esse é o contexto motivador para a realização deste trabalho, cujo objetivo, expresso de forma sintética, é analisar as variações espaciais das TMIs, ao nível das microrregiões do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, nos períodos de 2003-2007 e 2008-2012. A fim de propor algumas razões de contexto regional capazes de explicar as variações espaciais nas TMIs, levantamos indicadores relacionados com o sistema de atenção (oferta e uso dos serviços de atenção primária e com as desigualdades socioespaciais (expressas através de um indicador composto de privação social. Os dados foram coletados em fontes secundárias oficiais, modelados e inseridos em Sistema de Informação Geográfica. Os resultados indicaram a redução das TMIs em quase todas as microrregiões de Minas Gerais. Mas ainda persistem enormes desigualdades regionais, com taxas ainda muito elevadas nas microrregiões mais carenciadas.

  20. Relationships among different facets of host specificity in three taxa of haematophagous ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mescht, Luther; Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S; Vinarski, Maxim V; Korallo-Vinarskaya, Natalia P; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-12-01

    Host specificity is a fundamental trait of a parasite species. Recently, multiple aspects of host specificity have been recognized, but the relationships between these facets are still poorly understood. Here, we studied pairwise relationships between basic, structural, phylogenetic and geographic host specificity in three taxa of haematophagous ectoparasitic arthropods that differ in tightness of their association with the host. We asked which metrics of host specificity are correlated within each parasite taxon and whether the patterns of the association between different facets of host specificity are similar among parasite taxa. Data on bat flies were taken from published surveys across the Neotropics while data on fleas and mites parasitic on small mammals were compiled from multiple published surveys across the Palaearctic. Basic, structural, phylogenetic and geographic specificity indices were calculated for 18 bat fly species recorded on 40 host species from 15 regions, 109 flea species recorded on 120 host species from 51 regions and 34 mite species recorded on 67 host species from 28 regions. Then, we tested for the correlation between any two measures of host specificity using model II regressions. We found that structural and basic specificity, as well as structural and geographic specificity, exhibited a positive association in all three taxa. However, basic and geographic specificity, as well as basic and phylogenetic specificity, were significantly positively associated in fleas but did not correlate in bat flies or mites. In addition, we found a significant negative association between structural and phylogenetic specificity in bat flies but no association in the remaining taxa. Moreover, geographic and phylogenetic specificity were not associated in any parasite taxon. Our results suggest that different facets of host specificity were shaped differently by natural selection in different taxa. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology

  1. Trait-based diversification shifts reflect differential extinction among fossil taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Peter J; Estabrook, George F

    2014-11-18

    Evolution provides many cases of apparent shifts in diversification associated with particular anatomical traits. Three general models connect these patterns to anatomical evolution: (i) elevated net extinction of taxa bearing particular traits, (ii) elevated net speciation of taxa bearing particular traits, and (iii) elevated evolvability expanding the range of anatomies available to some species. Trait-based diversification shifts predict elevated hierarchical stratigraphic compatibility (i.e., primitive→derived→highly derived sequences) among pairs of anatomical characters. The three specific models further predict (i) early loss of diversity for taxa retaining primitive conditions (elevated net extinction), (ii) increased diversification among later members of a clade (elevated net speciation), and (iii) increased disparity among later members in a clade (elevated evolvability). Analyses of 319 anatomical and stratigraphic datasets for fossil species and genera show that hierarchical stratigraphic compatibility exceeds the expectations of trait-independent diversification in the vast majority of cases, which was expected if trait-dependent diversification shifts are common. Excess hierarchical stratigraphic compatibility correlates with early loss of diversity for groups retaining primitive conditions rather than delayed bursts of diversity or disparity across entire clades. Cambrian clades (predominantly trilobites) alone fit null expectations well. However, it is not clear whether evolution was unusual among Cambrian taxa or only early trilobites. At least among post-Cambrian taxa, these results implicate models, such as competition and extinction selectivity/resistance, as major drivers of trait-based diversification shifts at the species and genus levels while contradicting the predictions of elevated net speciation and elevated evolvability models.

  2. Quaternary disappearance of tree taxa from Southern Europe: Timing and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Donatella; Di Rita, Federico; Aranbarri, Josu; Fletcher, William; González-Sampériz, Penélope

    2017-05-01

    A hundred pollen and plant macrofossil records from the Iberian Peninsula, Southern France, the Italian Peninsula, Greece and the Aegean, and the southwestern Black Sea area formed the basis for a review of the Quaternary distribution and extirpation of tree populations from Southern Europe. Following a discussion of the caveats/challenges about using pollen data, the Quaternary history of tree taxa has been reconstructed with attention to Taxodium/Glyptostrobus, Sciadopitys, Cathaya, Cedrus, Tsuga, Eucommia, Engelhardia, Carya, Pterocarya, Parrotia, Liquidambar, and Zelkova. The timing of extinction, distributed over the whole Quaternary, appears very diverse from one region to the other, in agreement with current biodiversity in Southern Europe. The geographical patterns of persistence/disappearance of taxa show unexpected trends and rule out a simple North to South and/or West to East trend in extirpations. In particular, it is possible to detect disjunct populations (Engelhardia), long-term persistence of taxa in restricted regions (Sciadopitys), distinct populations/species/genera in different geographical areas (Taxodium type). Some taxa that are still widespread in Europe have undergone extirpation in Mediterranean areas in the lateglacial period and Holocene (Buxus, Carpinus betulus, Picea); they provide an indication of the modes of disappearance of tree populations that may be useful to evaluate correctly the vulnerability of modern fragmented plant populations. The demographic histories of tree taxa obtained by combined palaeobotanical and genetic studies is a most challenging field of research needed not only to assess species/population differentiation, but also to reach a better understanding of extinction processes, an essential task in the current global change scenario.

  3. Influence of anglers' specializations on catch, harvest, and bycatch of targeted taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Wiley, Christopher L.; Martin, Dustin R.

    2016-01-01

    Fishery managers often use catch per unit effort (CPUE) of a given taxon derived from a group of anglers, those that sought said taxon, to evaluate fishery objectives because managers assume CPUE for this group of anglers is most sensitive to changes in fish taxon density. Further, likelihood of harvest may differ for sought and non-sought taxa if taxon sought is a defining characteristic of anglers’ attitude toward harvest. We predicted that taxon-specific catch across parties and reservoirs would be influenced by targeted taxon after controlling for number of anglers in a party and time spent fishing (combine to quantify fishing effort of party); we also predicted similar trends for taxon-specific harvest. We used creel-survey data collected from anglers that varied in taxon targeted, from generalists (targeting “anything” [no primary target taxa, but rather targeting all fishes]) to target specialists (e.g., anglers targeting largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides) in 19 Nebraska reservoirs during 2009–2011 to test our predictions. Taxon-specific catch and harvest were, in general, positively related to fishing effort. More importantly, we observed differences of catch and harvest among anglers grouped by taxon targeted for each of the eight taxa assessed. Anglers targeting a specific taxon had the greatest catch for that taxon and anglers targeting anything typically had the second highest catch for that taxon. In addition, anglers tended to catch more of closely related taxa and of taxa commonly targeted with similar fishing techniques. We encourage managers to consider taxon-specific objectives of target and non-target catch and harvest.

  4. Floral traits driving reproductive isolation of two co-flowering taxa that share vertebrate pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Joel A.; Quirino, Zelma G. M.; Machado, Isabel C.

    2015-01-01

    Floral attributes evolve in response to frequent and efficient pollinators, which are potentially important drivers of floral diversification and reproductive isolation. In this context, we asked, how do flowers evolve in a bat–hummingbird pollination system? Hence, we investigated the pollination ecology of two co-flowering Ipomoea taxa (I. marcellia and I. aff. marcellia) pollinated by bats and hummingbirds, and factors favouring reproductive isolation and pollinator sharing in these plants. To identify the most important drivers of reproductive isolation, we compared the flowers of the two Ipomoea taxa in terms of morphometry, anthesis and nectar production. Pollinator services were assessed using frequency of visits, fruit set and the number of seeds per fruit after visits. The studied Ipomoea taxa differed in corolla size and width, beginning and duration of anthesis, and nectar attributes. However, they shared the same diurnal and nocturnal visitors. The hummingbird Heliomaster squamosus was more frequent in I. marcellia (1.90 visits h−1) than in I. aff. marcellia (0.57 visits h−1), whereas glossophagine bats showed similar visit rates in both taxa (I. marcellia: 0.57 visits h−1 and I. aff. marcellia: 0.64 visits h−1). Bat pollination was more efficient in I. aff. marcellia, whereas pollination by hummingbirds was more efficient in I. marcellia. Differences in floral attributes between Ipomoea taxa, especially related to the anthesis period, length of floral parts and floral arrangement in the inflorescence, favour reproductive isolation from congeners through differential pollen placement on pollinators. This bat–hummingbird pollination system seems to be advantageous in the study area, where the availability of pollinators and floral resources changes considerably throughout the year, mainly as a result of rainfall seasonality. This interaction is beneficial for both sides, as it maximizes the number of potential pollen vectors for plants and

  5. Differential growth responses of soil bacterial taxa to carbon substrates of varying chemical recalcitrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, K.C.; Karaoz, U.; Hanson, C.A.; Santee, C.A.; Bradford, M.A.; Treseder, K.K.; Wallenstein, M.D.; Brodie, E.L.

    2011-04-18

    Soils are immensely diverse microbial habitats with thousands of co-existing bacterial, archaeal, and fungal species. Across broad spatial scales, factors such as pH and soil moisture appear to determine the diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities. Within any one site however, bacterial taxon diversity is high and factors maintaining this diversity are poorly resolved. Candidate factors include organic substrate availability and chemical recalcitrance, and given that they appear to structure bacterial communities at the phylum level, we examine whether these factors might structure bacterial communities at finer levels of taxonomic resolution. Analyzing 16S rRNA gene composition of nucleotide analog-labeled DNA by PhyloChip microarrays, we compare relative growth rates on organic substrates of increasing chemical recalcitrance of >2,200 bacterial taxa across 43 divisions/phyla. Taxa that increase in relative abundance with labile organic substrates (i.e., glycine, sucrose) are numerous (>500), phylogenetically clustered, and occur predominantly in two phyla (Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria) including orders Actinomycetales, Enterobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Rhodocyclales, Alteromonadales, and Pseudomonadales. Taxa increasing in relative abundance with more chemically recalcitrant substrates (i.e., cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein) are fewer (168) but more phylogenetically dispersed, occurring across eight phyla and including Clostridiales, Sphingomonadalaes, Desulfovibrionales. Just over 6% of detected taxa, including many Burkholderiales increase in relative abundance with both labile and chemically recalcitrant substrates. Estimates of median rRNA copy number per genome of responding taxa demonstrate that these patterns are broadly consistent with bacterial growth strategies. Taken together, these data suggest that changes in availability of intrinsically labile substrates may result in predictable shifts in soil bacterial composition.

  6. Advances in temporal logic

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  7. O livro das pequenas coisas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alckmar Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2016v12n2p209 O livro das pequenas coisas foi produzido a partir da oficina “Criação poética digital” ministrada pelo coletivo formado por Nupill, 1maginári0: poéticas computacionais e Ateliê Ciclope de arte e publicação digital durante o VI Simpósio Internacional e VIII Simpósio Nacional de Literatura e Informática, realizado na Universidade de Passo Fundo entre os dias 9 e 11 de novembro de 2016. Atualmente está disponível na internete em http://ciclope.com.br/livrocoisas/.

  8. Níveis de nitrogênio e a taxa fotossintética do mamoeiro "golden" Nitrogen levels and photosynthetic rate of papaya 'golden'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson Lopes Cruz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da nutrição nitrogenada sobre alguns aspectos relacionados à taxa fotossintética em plantas de mamão da variedade "Golden". As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos sob condições de casa de vegetação, em soluções nutritivas contendo três concentrações de N-N3- (1,0; 5,0 e 8,0molm-3. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com sete repetições. As avaliações foram realizadas 61 dias após o início do experimento. Observou-se que a deficiência de nitrogênio reduziu a matéria seca total; no entanto, a relação raiz:parte aérea foi maior nessas plantas. A taxa fotossintética líquida foi reduzida pela menor disponibilidade de nitrogênio. Os resultados observados para a condutância estomática e a correlação negativa encontrada entre a taxa fotossintética e a concentração interna de CO2 claramente indicam que a menor taxa fotossintética não foi devida à limitação estomática. Adicionalmente, a redução verificada nas concentrações de pigmentos foliares, como as clorofilas a e b e os carotenóides, também pode ter contribuído para a menor taxa fotossintética e o menor crescimento das plantas. A taxa transpiratória foi maior para as plantas cultivadas sob estresse; como conseqüência, observou-se, para essas plantas, menor ganho de CO2 por unidade de água transpirada.This research was aimed at evaluating the effect of nitrogen (N levels on some aspects related to the photosynthetic rate in plants of papaya Cv. Golden. The plants were cultivated under greenhouse conditions on different nutritional solutions with three concentrations of N-N3- (1.0; 5.0; 8.0molm-3. The experiment was carried out under a randomized blocks experimental design, with seven repetitions. The evaluations occurred on the 61st day after the beginning of the experiment. The nitrogen deficiency reduced the total dry mass; however, the relation root:shoot was highest for these

  9. Contrasting spatial patterns and ecological attributes of soil bacterial and archaeal taxa across a landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constancias, Florentin; Saby, Nicolas P A; Terrat, Sébastien; Dequiedt, Samuel; Horrigue, Wallid; Nowak, Virginie; Guillemin, Jean-Philippe; Biju-Duval, Luc; Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Ranjard, Lionel

    2015-06-01

    Even though recent studies have clarified the influence and hierarchy of environmental filters on bacterial community structure, those constraining bacterial populations variations remain unclear. In consequence, our ability to understand to ecological attributes of soil bacteria and to predict microbial community response to environmental stress is therefore limited. Here, we characterized the bacterial community composition and the various bacterial taxonomic groups constituting the community across an agricultural landscape of 12 km(2) , by using a 215 × 215 m systematic grid representing 278 sites to precisely decipher their spatial distribution and drivers at this scale. The bacterial and Archaeal community composition was characterized by applying 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing directly to soil DNA from samples. Geostatistics tools were used to reveal the heterogeneous distribution of bacterial composition at this scale. Soil physical parameters and land management explained a significant amount of variation, suggesting that environmental selection is the major process shaping bacterial composition. All taxa systematically displayed also a heterogeneous and particular distribution patterns. Different relative influences of soil characteristics, land use and space were observed, depending on the taxa, implying that selection and spatial processes might be differentially but not exclusively involved for each bacterial phylum. Soil pH was a major factor determining the distribution of most of the bacterial taxa and especially the most important factor explaining the spatial patterns of α-Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes. Soil texture, organic carbon content and quality were more specific to a few number of taxa (e.g., β-Proteobacteria and Chlorobi). Land management also influenced the distribution of bacterial taxa across the landscape and revealed different type of response to cropping intensity (positive, negative, neutral or hump-backed relationships

  10. Ambiguous taxa: Effects on the characterization and interpretation of invertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Bilger, Michael D.; Haigler, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Damaged and immature specimens often result in macroinvertebrate data that contain ambiguous parent-child pairs (i.e., abundances associated with multiple related levels of the taxonomic hierarchy such as Baetis pluto and the associated ambiguous parent Baetis sp.). The choice of method used to resolve ambiguous parent-child pairs may have a very large effect on the characterization of invertebrate assemblages and the interpretation of responses to environmental change because very large proportions of taxa richness (73-78%) and abundance (79-91%) can be associated with ambiguous parents. To address this issue, we examined 16 variations of 4 basic methods for resolving ambiguous taxa: RPKC (remove parent, keep child), MCWP (merge child with parent), RPMC (remove parent or merge child with parent depending on their abundances), and DPAC (distribute parents among children). The choice of method strongly affected assemblage structure, assemblage characteristics (e.g., metrics), and the ability to detect responses along environmental (urbanization) gradients. All methods except MCWP produced acceptable results when used consistently within a study. However, the assemblage characteristics (e.g., values of assemblage metrics) differed widely depending on the method used, and data should not be combined unless the methods used to resolve ambiguous taxa are well documented and are known to be comparable. The suitability of the methods was evaluated and compared on the basis of 13 criteria that considered conservation of taxa richness and abundance, consistency among samples, methods, and studies, and effects on the interpretation of the data. Methods RPMC and DPAC had the highest suitability scores regardless of whether ambiguous taxa were resolved for each sample separately or for a group of samples. Method MCWP gave consistently poor results. Methods MCWP and DPAC approximate the use of family-level identifications and operational taxonomic units (OTU), respectively. Our

  11. Perspective of the frontolateral craniotomies Perspectivas das craniotomias frontolaterais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pterional craniotomy is one of the most frequently surgical approaches used in neurosurgery and currently it has become a mainsteam. It allows excellent microsurgical exposure of anterior and posterior regions of the arterial circle of Willis, supra and paraselar regions, the superior orbital fissure of sphenoid bone, cavernous sinus, orbit, temporal lobe, midbrain and the frontal lobe. Like others techniques, the pterional craniotomy presented disadvantages related to dissection of the temporal muscle. From the first fronto lateral craniotomy described by Dandy to expose the optic chiasm and the pituitary we pass through the Yasargil's classical description of craniotomy centered in fronto-temporal sylvian fissure until reaching the recent"minipterional craniotomy", modifications of the pterional craniotomy were proposed to reduce the extra cranial tissue trauma and reduce the area of craniotomy without affecting the exposure of surgical targets, thus improving their aesthetic and functional results. An historical analysis of the frontolateral approaches has demonstrated that they have evolved from larger craniotomies to smaller ones, however only the minipterional craniotomy is able to offer similar surgical exposure.A craniotomia pterional é um dos acessos cirúrgicos mais freqüentemente utilizados. Esta técnica permite excelente exposição microcirúrgica das regiões anterior e posterior do polígono de Willis, regiões supra-selar, fissura orbital superior do osso esfenóide, seio cavernoso, órbita, lobo temporal, mesencéfalo e lobo frontal. Como outras técnicas, a craniotomia pterional tem desvantagens relacionadas à manipulação do músculo temporal. Desde a primeira craniotomia fronto lateral descrita por Dandy para expor o quiasma óptico e a hipófise, passando pela descrição clássica de Yasrgil para craniotomia centrada na fissura silviana, até chegar em craniotomias recentes como a"minipterional", modificações da

  12. A influência litológica nas taxas de denudação geoquímica do médio Espinhaço Meridional – MG / Lithological influence on rates of geochemical denudation in the middle Espinhaço Meridional – MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Andrade Rezende, , , ,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa investigar a influência da litologia nas atuais taxas de denudação geoquímica na média Serra do Espinhaço Meridional. As taxas de denudação correspondem ao volume de material proveniente da alteração das rochas retirado de uma determinada área em um dado período de tempo (Souch, 2004. Estas taxas são intensamente controladas pelo substrato geológico, notadamente em bacias hidrográficas de menor extensão. O método adotado baseia-se na coleta de amostras das águas superficiais de dezesseis sub-bacias hidrográficas – que apresentam baixa interferência antrópica e estão sobre substrato geológico predominantemente quartzítico – e na medição da vazão dos canais amostrados. Análises químicas de águas superficiais, coletadas nos períodos úmido e seco do ano, foram utilizadas no cálculo da taxa de denudação geoquímica, que, de modo geral, apresentou-se baixa devido a alta resistência dos quartzitos - litologia predominante. Os resultados demonstraram que, apesar da relativa homogeneidade litológica, a área apresenta uma denudação geoquímica diferencial, onde: (i bacias que drenam rochas carbonáticas possuem taxas mais elevadas de denudação, confirmando a alta solubilidade desse material, (ii bacias que drenam unidades quartzíticas apresentam taxas baixas de denudação, principalmente aquelas sobre as formações Galho do Miguel e Sopa-Brumadinho.

  13. Das berufliche und das private Geschlecht Gender: Professional and Private

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut Sülzle

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Jutta Wergen untersucht Geschlechterkonstruktionen in Männerberufen, indem sie Frauen befragt, die als Lkw-Fahrerinnen, als Binnenschifferinnen und als Bus- bzw Straßenbahnfahrerinnen im öffentlichen Nahverkehr arbeiten. Dabei kann sie zeigen, dass diese Berufe sehr unterschiedliche Kontexte für Geschlechterarrangements zur Verfügung stellen, von traditioneller Arbeitsteilung bis zur Umkehrung derselben. Der Kern der Erkenntnis dieser Arbeit, das sei hier schon vorweggenommen, ist bestechend und zugleich faszinierend einfach: die Trennung in ein „professionelles“ und ein „privates“ Geschlecht.Jutta Wergen examines gender constructions in traditionally male careers by interviewing women who work as truck drivers, ship captains, and bus and tram drivers in public transportation. In doing so she can show that these careers provide very different contexts for gender arrangements, from traditional division of work to its reversal. The core of the realization of this study-this is anticipated here-is fascinating and amazingly simple: the division between a “professional” and a “private” gender.

  14. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  15. Dynamic Temporal Decoupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mountakis, K.S.; Klos, T.; Witteveen, C.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal decoupling is a method to distribute a temporal constraint problem over a number of actors, such that each actor can solve its own part of the problem. It then ensures that the partial solutions provided can be always merged to obtain a complete solution. This paper discusses static and

  16. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available Alterations for the year 1986 to the inventory maintained in PRECIS are reported for bryophytes, pteridophytes and monocotyledons, and for a few dicotyledons. For the cryptogams and monocots there are 77 newly described species or infraspecific taxa, 27 names brought back into use, and nine species newly reported for southern Africa, resulting in 113 additions to the total list of species. Five species were removed because they were mistakenly recorded from the area. Seventy-five names have gone into synonymy, there are 52 new combinations, and there are 35 orthographic corrections, resulting in 237 alterations to the list of species. The total of 355 additions, deletions and alterations represents about 5% of the total species and infraspecific taxa for the cryptogams and monocots.

  17. Taxonomic features of fruits and seeds of Nymphaea and Nuphar taxa of the Southern Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latowski Karol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out on fruits and seeds of Nymphaea and Nuphar taxa collected from Poland, Latvia and Estonia. The aim of the research was to establish diagnostic features which could enable identification of the examined taxa on the basis of the fruit and seed structure and creating a key to identify them. The examined organs were observed through an optic microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. New diagnostic features were discovered: spotting of fresh pericarp, the range of the fruit shape coefficient, the colour of the rays in the fruit stigma disc, the thickness of the seed testa, ribs in the seeds, and occurrence of the “puzzle shaped” cells on the surface of the testa. The discovered features were used in the taxonomic characteristics.

  18. Morphotaxonomy of three rare Terricolous taxa of Jungermanniales occurring in Nilgiri hills (Western Ghats India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz Alam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nilgiri hills being a part of biodiversity hot spot, is a home of colossal life forms including bryophytes. Bryophytes have a great diversity in Nilgiri hills which includes both terricolous and corticolous forms. This study deals with morphotaxonomy of three extremely infrequent terricolous taxa of order Jungermanniales, viz., Gottschelia schizopleura (Spruce Grolle, Lethocolea javanica (Schiffn. Grolle and Jackiella javanica var. cordifolia Schiffn, occurring in Nilgiri hills. These taxa were located to a few restricted pockets and facing high risk of habitat loss which need urgent/immediate conservation management. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10640 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 263-275

  19. A nomenclator of extant and fossil taxa of the Melanopsidae (Gastropoda, Cerithioidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    This nomenclator provides details on all published names in the family-, genus-, and species-group, as well as for a few infrasubspecific names introduced for, or attributed to, the family Melanopsidae. It includes nomenclaturally valid names, as well as junior homonyms, junior objective synonyms, nomina nuda, common incorrect subsequent spellings, and as far as possible discussion on the current status in taxonomy. The catalogue encompasses three family-group names, 79 genus-group names, and 1381 species-group names. All of them are given in their original combination and spelling (except mandatory corrections requested by the Code), along with their original source. For each family- and genus-group name, the original classification and the type genus and type species, respectively, are given. Data provided for species-group taxa are type locality, type horizon (for fossil taxa), and type specimens, as far as available.

  20. Das Konzept des 'Medialen Habitus'

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    Sven Kommer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sven Kommer fragt in seinem Beitrag, inwieweit das Habitus-Konzept als Erklärungsmuster für die beobachtbare Zementierung sozialer Ungleichheit im Schulsystem greift. Dabei konstatiert der Beitrag, dass alle an der Weiterschreibung des Habitus-Konzepts beteiligten AutorInnen sich darin einig sind, dass es wichtige Beiträge für die Selbst-Aufklärung einer weitestgehend mediatisierten Gesellschaft leistet. Der Artikel geht dabei – auch angesichts der PISA-Studien – von dem empirischen Befund aus, dass die individuelle Ausprägung der Medienkompetenz aufs engste mit den Ressourcen des Elternhauses verbunden ist und sich dabei die elterlichen Formen der Medienerziehung unübersehbar mit den aktuellen medialen Handlungspraxen verbinden. Dieser Befund deckt sich auf weite Strecken auch mit den Ergebnissen der Bildungssoziologie Pierre Bourdieus, weshalb die Diskussionen zum medialen Habitus im Rahmen dieser Ausführungen auch mit empirischen Argumenten unterfüttert werden. Ganz in diesem Sinne arbeitet der Artikel auch heraus, dass die aus dem Kontext der Cultural Studies stammenden Thesen zur Nivellierung kultureller Milieu-Unterschiede wenig empirisch fundiert sind. Der Artikel betont dahingehend, dass hier eine unreflektierte Infiltration durch genuin neoliberales Gedankengut vorliegt, da mit ihr auch die Annahme einer "freien Wahl" von Lebensweg, Milieuzugehörigkeit oder Gender verbunden werden kann. Dabei wir auch eingehend der "Clash of Habitus" diskutiert, der zwischen Lehrenden und Lernenden stattfindet und das Augenmerk ein Mal mehr auf die Tatsache lenkt, das unser Bildungssystem auf dieser pädagogisch relevanten Ebene durch soziale Ungleichheiten gekennzeichnet ist. In his essay, Sven Kommer questions whether the notion of habitus is suitable to support the understanding of the obvious consolidation of inequality in the school system. He shows that all authors active in the continued use of the notion of habitus agree that it

  1. Crisis of Japanese vascular flora shown by quantifying extinction risks for 1618 taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Kadoya

    Full Text Available Although many people have expressed alarm that we are witnessing a mass extinction, few projections have been quantified, owing to limited availability of time-series data on threatened organisms, especially plants. To quantify the risk of extinction, we need to monitor changes in population size over time for as many species as possible. Here, we present the world's first quantitative projection of plant species loss at a national level, with stochastic simulations based on the results of population censuses of 1618 threatened plant taxa in 3574 map cells of ca. 100 km2. More than 500 lay botanists helped monitor those taxa in 1994-1995 and in 2003-2004. We projected that between 370 and 561 vascular plant taxa will go extinct in Japan during the next century if past trends of population decline continue. This extinction rate is approximately two to three times the global rate. Using time-series data, we show that existing national protected areas (PAs covering ca. 7% of Japan will not adequately prevent population declines: even core PAs can protect at best <60% of local populations from decline. Thus, the Aichi Biodiversity Target to expand PAs to 17% of land (and inland water areas, as committed to by many national governments, is not enough: only 29.2% of currently threatened species will become non-threatened under the assumption that probability of protection success by PAs is 0.5, which our assessment shows is realistic. In countries where volunteers can be organized to monitor threatened taxa, censuses using our method should be able to quantify how fast we are losing species and to assess how effective current conservation measures such as PAs are in preventing species extinction.

  2. Bias and sensitivity in the placement of fossil taxa resulting from interpretations of missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Robert S

    2015-03-01

    The utility of fossils in evolutionary contexts is dependent on their accurate placement in phylogenetic frameworks, yet intrinsic and widespread missing data make this problematic. The complex taphonomic processes occurring during fossilization can make it difficult to distinguish absence from non-preservation, especially in the case of exceptionally preserved soft-tissue fossils: is a particular morphological character (e.g., appendage, tentacle, or nerve) missing from a fossil because it was never there (phylogenetic absence), or just happened to not be preserved (taphonomic loss)? Missing data have not been tested in the context of interpretation of non-present anatomy nor in the context of directional shifts and biases in affinity. Here, complete taxa, both simulated and empirical, are subjected to data loss through the replacement of present entries (1s) with either missing (?s) or absent (0s) entries. Both cause taxa to drift down trees, from their original position, toward the root. Absolute thresholds at which downshift is significant are extremely low for introduced absences (two entries replaced, 6% of present characters). The opposite threshold in empirical fossil taxa is also found to be low; two absent entries replaced with presences causes fossil taxa to drift up trees. As such, only a few instances of non-preserved characters interpreted as absences will cause fossil organisms to be erroneously interpreted as more primitive than they were in life. This observed sensitivity to coding non-present morphology presents a problem for all evolutionary studies that attempt to use fossils to reconstruct rates of evolution or unlock sequences of morphological change. Stem-ward slippage, whereby fossilization processes cause organisms to appear artificially primitive, appears to be a ubiquitous and problematic phenomenon inherent to missing data, even when no decay biases exist. Absent characters therefore require explicit justification and taphonomic

  3. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Gavin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  4. Immunological change in a parasite-impoverished environment: divergent signals from four island taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon S Beadell

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic declines of native Hawaiian avifauna due to the human-mediated emergence of avian malaria and pox prompted an examination of whether island taxa share a common altered immunological signature, potentially driven by reduced genetic diversity and reduced exposure to parasites. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing parasite prevalence, genetic diversity and three measures of immune response in two recently-introduced species (Neochmia temporalis and Zosterops lateralis and two island endemics (Acrocephalus aequinoctialis and A. rimitarae and then comparing the results to those observed in closely-related mainland counterparts. The prevalence of blood parasites was significantly lower in 3 of 4 island taxa, due in part to the absence of certain parasite lineages represented in mainland populations. Indices of genetic diversity were unchanged in the island population of N. temporalis; however, allelic richness was significantly lower in the island population of Z. lateralis while both allelic richness and heterozygosity were significantly reduced in the two island-endemic species examined. Although parasite prevalence and genetic diversity generally conformed to expectations for an island system, we did not find evidence for a pattern of uniformly altered immune responses in island taxa, even amongst endemic taxa with the longest residence times. The island population of Z. lateralis exhibited a significantly reduced inflammatory cell-mediated response while levels of natural antibodies remained unchanged for this and the other recently introduced island taxon. In contrast, the island endemic A. rimitarae exhibited a significantly increased inflammatory response as well as higher levels of natural antibodies and complement. These measures were unchanged or lower in A. aequinoctialis. We suggest that small differences in the pathogenic landscape and the stochastic history of mutation and genetic drift are likely to be important in

  5. Lectotypification of names of Himalayan Brassicaceae taxa currently placed in the genus Cardamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Marhold

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lectotypes of twenty-eight names of taxa currently recognized or synonymized in Cardamine are designated as part of the work on the account of the genus for the Pan-Himalayan Flora. Among them, the previous first-step lectotypification of the name C. calthifolia is finalized. In cases when specimen images are available online, stable identifiers for specimens, other permanent links, or links via JSTOR Global Plants are provided.

  6. Lectotypification of names of Himalayan Brassicaceae taxa currently placed in the genus Cardamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhold, Karol; Kempa, Matúš; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A

    2015-01-01

    Lectotypes of twenty-eight names of taxa currently recognized or synonymized in Cardamine are designated as part of the work on the account of the genus for the Pan-Himalayan Flora. Among them, the previous first-step lectotypification of the name Cardaminecalthifolia is finalized. In cases when specimen images are available online, stable identifiers for specimens, other permanent links, or links via JSTOR Global Plants are provided.

  7. Nine endangered taxa, one recovering ecosystem: Identifying common ground for recovery on Santa Cruz Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Wilken, Dieter H.

    2011-01-01

    It is not uncommon to have several rare and listed taxa occupying habitats in one landscape or management area where conservation amounts to defense against the possibility of further loss. It is uncommon and extremely exciting, however, to have several listed taxa occupying one island that is managed cooperatively for conservation and recovery. On Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the northern California island group in the Santa Barbara Channel, we have a golden opportunity to marry ecological knowledge and institutional "good will" in a field test of holistic rare plant conservation. Here, the last feral livestock have been removed, active weed control is underway, and management is focused on understanding and demonstrating system response to conservation management. Yet funding limitations still exist and we need to plan the most fiscally conservative and marketable approach to rare plant restoration. We still experience the tension between desirable quick results and the ecological pace of system recovery. Therefore, our research has focused on identifying fundamental constraints on species recovery at individual, demographic, habitat, and ecosystem levels, and then developing suites of actions that might be taken across taxa and landscapes. At the same time, we seek a performance middle ground that balances an institutional need for quick demonstration of hands-on positive results with a contrasting approach that allows ecosystem recovery to facilitate species recovery in the long term. We find that constraints vary across breeding systems, life-histories, and island locations. We take a hybrid approach in which we identify several actions that we can take now to enhance population size or habitat occupancy for some taxa by active restoration, while allowing others to recover at the pace of ecosystem change. We make our recommendations on the basis of data we have collected over the last decade, so that management is firmly grounded in ecological observation.

  8. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon’s diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  9. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  10. A carga das doenças cardiovasculares no estado de Santa Catarina no ano de 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Traebert

    Full Text Available RESUMO OBJETIVO: estimar a carga das doenças cardiovasculares no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudo ecológico cujas unidades de análise foram as nove macrorregiões de saúde do estado; foram estimados o número de anos de vida perdidos precocemente, o número de anos vividos com incapacidade e o número de anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (DALYs para 2009. RESULTADOS: foram estimados 358.777 DALYs, a uma taxa de 5.852 DALYs/100 mil habitantes, 51,1% no sexo masculino; as faixas etárias que apresentaram maiores taxas de DALYs foram as de 60-69, 70-79 e 45-59 anos; as doenças que mais contribuíram para DALYs foram doenças isquêmicas do coração e cerebrovasculares; as macrorregiões com maiores taxas de DALYs foram Planalto Norte, Sul e Serra Catarinense. CONCLUSÃO: a alta carga das doenças cardiovasculares em Santa Catarina evidencia a necessidade de intensificar as ações de promoção de saúde e de prevenção em todas as macrorregiões do estado.

  11. Combining phylogenomics and fossils in higher-level squamate reptile phylogeny: molecular data change the placement of fossil taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Kuczynski, Caitlin A; Townsend, Ted; Reeder, Tod W; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Sites, Jack W

    2010-12-01

    Molecular data offer great potential to resolve the phylogeny of living taxa but can molecular data improve our understanding of relationships of fossil taxa? Simulations suggest that this is possible, but few empirical examples have demonstrated the ability of molecular data to change the placement of fossil taxa. We offer such an example here. We analyze the placement of snakes among squamate reptiles, combining published morphological data (363 characters) and new DNA sequence data (15,794 characters, 22 nuclear loci) for 45 living and 19 fossil taxa. We find several intriguing results. First, some fossil taxa undergo major changes in their phylogenetic position when molecular data are added. Second, most fossil taxa are placed with strong support in the expected clades by the combined data Bayesian analyses, despite each having >98% missing cells and despite recent suggestions that extensive missing data are problematic for Bayesian phylogenetics. Third, morphological data can change the placement of living taxa in combined analyses, even when there is an overwhelming majority of molecular characters. Finally, we find strong but apparently misleading signal in the morphological data, seemingly associated with a burrowing lifestyle in snakes, amphisbaenians, and dibamids. Overall, our results suggest promise for an integrated and comprehensive Tree of Life by combining molecular and morphological data for living and fossil taxa.

  12. Late Silurian fish microfossils from an East Baltic-derived erratic from Oosterhaule, with a description of new acanthodian taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergoossen, JMJ

    1999-01-01

    Fish microfossils were extracted from an erratic. The taxa from the rich microvertebrate fauna of late Pridolian (latest Silurian) age ( P. punctatus Zone) are listed. A full description is given of two new Gomphonchus taxa, G. mediocostatus and G. boekschoteni. On the basis of old and new material,

  13. Morphological variations of genus Alnus in Iran: assessment of five new taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shayanmehr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alnus has two species in old references of the flora of Iran in which two varieties and one subspecies have been recorded. However, recently, five new taxa have been described and recorded for the flora of Iran. In this study, the herbarium samples were obtained during a widespread sampling from 25 stands, ranged from the most eastern limit of alder dispersion in Golestan to the west of Talish, across the plains and highlands of Hyrcanian forests. After sampling, 28 leaf and female cone morphological traits belonging to 140 alder individuals were measured and analyzed. The results of discriminant analysis showed 11 most important traits in differentiation of the taxa such as leaf angle in apex, blade shape at the base, type of serration, villosity intensity, presence of hairs on the upper surface of leaf and cone shape. In this analysis, 84.3% of recognized individuals were correctly grouped in the related taxon. The maximum disagreement between predicted and recognized groups corresponded to allocation of A. subcordata varieties to villosa and visc versa. Generally, the morphological traits of the two new species including A. dolichocarpa and A. djavanshirii were very similar to that of A. subcordata var. subcordata. While, three sub-species of A. glutinosa were distinguished by the same traits. Finally, the use of DNA barcoding techniques is suggested in order to verify the presence of new taxa in Iran.

  14. Biomechanical modeling and sensitivity analysis of bipedal running ability. II. Extinct taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John R

    2004-10-01

    Using an inverse dynamics biomechanical analysis that was previously validated for extant bipeds, I calculated the minimum amount of actively contracting hindlimb extensor muscle that would have been needed for rapid bipedal running in several extinct dinosaur taxa. I analyzed models of nine theropod dinosaurs (including birds) covering over five orders of magnitude in size. My results uphold previous findings that large theropods such as Tyrannosaurus could not run very quickly, whereas smaller theropods (including some extinct birds) were adept runners. Furthermore, my results strengthen the contention that many nonavian theropods, especially larger individuals, used fairly upright limb orientations, which would have reduced required muscular force, and hence muscle mass. Additional sensitivity analysis of muscle fascicle lengths, moment arms, and limb orientation supports these conclusions and points out directions for future research on the musculoskeletal limits on running ability. Although ankle extensor muscle support is shown to have been important for all taxa, the ability of hip extensor muscles to support the body appears to be a crucial limit for running capacity in larger taxa. I discuss what speeds were possible for different theropod dinosaurs, and how running ability evolved in an inverse relationship to body size in archosaurs. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Darwin's diagram of divergence of taxa as a causal model for the origin of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, Juan L

    2014-03-01

    On the basis that Darwin's theory of evolution encompasses two logically independent processes (common descent and natural selection), the only figure in On the Origin of Species (the Diagram of Divergence of Taxa) is often interpreted as illustrative of only one of these processes: the branching patterns representing common ancestry. Here, I argue that Darwin's Diagram of Divergence of Taxa represents a broad conceptual model of Darwin's theory, illustrating the causal efficacy of natural selection in producing well-defined varieties and ultimately species. The Tree Diagram encompasses the idea that natural selection explains common descent and the origin of organic diversity, thus representing a comprehensive model of Darwin's theory on the origin of species. I describe Darwin's Tree Diagram in relation to his argumentative strategy under the vera causa principle, and suggest that the testing of his theory based on the evidence from the geological record, the geographical distribution of organisms, and the mutual affinities of organic beings can be framed under the hypothetico-deductive method. Darwin's Diagram of Divergence of Taxa therefore represents a broad conceptual model that helps understanding the causal construction of Darwin's theory of evolution, the structure of his argumentative strategy, and the nature of his scientific methodology.

  16. Identification of polyamine-responsive bacterioplankton taxa in South Atlantic Bight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxin; Sun, Shulei; Hollibaugh, James T; Mou, Xiaozhen

    2015-12-01

    Putrescine and spermidine are short-chained aliphatic polyamines (PAs) that are ubiquitously distributed in seawater. These compounds may be important sources of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen for marine bacterioplankton. Here, we used pyrotag sequencing to quantify the response of bacterioplankton to putrescine and spermidine amendments in microcosms established using surface waters collected at various stations in the South Atlantic Bight in October 2011. Our analysis showed that PA-responsive bacterioplankton consisted of bacterial taxa that are typically dominant in marine systems. Rhodobacteraceae (Alphaproteobacteria) was the taxon most responsive to PA additions at the nearshore site. Gammaproteobacteria of the families Piscirickettsiaceae; Vibrionaceae; and Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae, were the dominant PA-responsive taxa in samples from the river-influenced coastal station, offshore station and open ocean station, respectively. The spatial variability of PA-responsive taxa may be attributed to differences in composition of the initial bacterial community and variations of in situ physiochemical conditions among sites. Our results also provided the first empirical evidence that Gammaproteobacteria might play an important role in PA transformation in marine systems. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluating the adaptive evolutionary convergence of carnivorous plant taxa through functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Gregory L; Carstens, Bryan C

    2018-01-01

    Carnivorous plants are striking examples of evolutionary convergence, displaying complex and often highly similar adaptations despite lack of shared ancestry. Using available carnivorous plant genomes along with non-carnivorous reference taxa, this study examines the convergence of functional overrepresentation of genes previously implicated in plant carnivory. Gene Ontology (GO) coding was used to quantitatively score functional representation in these taxa, in terms of proportion of carnivory-associated functions relative to all functional sequence. Statistical analysis revealed that, in carnivorous plants as a group, only two of the 24 functions tested showed a signal of substantial overrepresentation. However, when the four carnivorous taxa were analyzed individually, 11 functions were found to be significant in at least one taxon. Though carnivorous plants collectively may show overrepresentation in functions from the predicted set, the specific functions that are overrepresented vary substantially from taxon to taxon. While it is possible that some functions serve a similar practical purpose such that one taxon does not need to utilize both to achieve the same result, it appears that there are multiple approaches for the evolution of carnivorous function in plant genomes. Our approach could be applied to tests of functional convergence in other systems provided on the availability of genomes and annotation data for a group.

  18. Evaluating the adaptive evolutionary convergence of carnivorous plant taxa through functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory L. Wheeler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carnivorous plants are striking examples of evolutionary convergence, displaying complex and often highly similar adaptations despite lack of shared ancestry. Using available carnivorous plant genomes along with non-carnivorous reference taxa, this study examines the convergence of functional overrepresentation of genes previously implicated in plant carnivory. Gene Ontology (GO coding was used to quantitatively score functional representation in these taxa, in terms of proportion of carnivory-associated functions relative to all functional sequence. Statistical analysis revealed that, in carnivorous plants as a group, only two of the 24 functions tested showed a signal of substantial overrepresentation. However, when the four carnivorous taxa were analyzed individually, 11 functions were found to be significant in at least one taxon. Though carnivorous plants collectively may show overrepresentation in functions from the predicted set, the specific functions that are overrepresented vary substantially from taxon to taxon. While it is possible that some functions serve a similar practical purpose such that one taxon does not need to utilize both to achieve the same result, it appears that there are multiple approaches for the evolution of carnivorous function in plant genomes. Our approach could be applied to tests of functional convergence in other systems provided on the availability of genomes and annotation data for a group.

  19. "... aber all das mit Freude" (Janusz Korczak)

    OpenAIRE

    Rehle, Cornelia

    2005-01-01

    "... aber all das mit Freude" (Janusz Korczak) : wiederspenstige Gedanken gegen das "Diktat der Eiffizienz" in der Bildung / Pius Thoma ; Cornelia Rehle. - In: Anthropologie und Kulturelle Identität : Friedemann Maurer zum 65. Geburtstag / hrsg. von Hans-Otto Mühleisen ... - Lindenberg u.a. : Fink u.a., 2005. – S. 181-196

  20. Diversity and dynamics of dominant and rare bacterial taxa in replicate sequencing batch reactors operated under different solids retention time

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik

    2014-10-19

    In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was applied in order to provide a better insight on the diversity and dynamics of total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa in replicate lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated at different solids retention time (SRT). Rank-abundance curves showed few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a long tail of rare OTUs in all reactors. Results revealed that there was no detectable effect of SRT (2 vs. 10 days) on Shannon diversity index and OTU richness of both dominant and rare taxa. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa were highly dynamic during the entire period of stable reactor performance. Also, the rare taxa were more dynamic than the dominant taxa despite expected low invasion rates because of the use of sterile synthetic media.

  1. Mesial temporal sclerosis in children Esclerose mesial temporal em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Domingues Brandão

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal sclerosis is the most frequent cause of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy but has a satisfactory response to surgery, and is considered infrequent in children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrographic and radiological spectrum of the disease in children. METHOD: Retrospective study by review of charts of 44 children with a diagnosis of mesial temporal sclerosis on magnetic resonance imaging, attended at the "Hospital das Clínicas" of the University of São Paulo Faculty of Medicine. RESULTS: Febrile seizure was identified in the history of 54% of the patients. Injuries at the left side predominated in patients with schooling difficulties (p=0.049, in those with the first seizures between six months and five years (p=0.021 and in those with complex febrile seizure (p=0.032. Thirteen patients were submitted to surgery and of these, eight remained without seizures. CONCLUSION: Febrile seizure may be related in a more direct way to the presence of left-side mesial temporal sclerosis.Em adultos, esclerose mesial temporal é a causa mais freqüente de epilepsia do lobo temporal intratável por medicamentos e que responde satisfatoriamente a cirurgia, sendo considerada pouco freqüente em criança. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o espectro clínico, eletrográfico e radiológico desta patologia em crianças. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo, por revisão de prontuário de 44 crianças com diagnóstico de esclerose mesial temporal na ressonância magnética, atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de São Paulo. RESULTADO: Foi identificado que 54% dos pacientes apresentaram antecedente de crise febril. Lesão no lado esquerdo predominou nos pacientes com dificuldade escolar (p=0.049, naqueles com primeiras crises entre seis meses e cinco anos (p=0,021 e naqueles com crise febril complicada (p=0,032. Treze pacientes foram operados, dos quais oito ficaram livres de crises. CONCLUSÃO: Crise febril pode estar

  2. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Interaction design is distinguished from most other design disciplines through its temporal form. Temporal form is the computational structure that enables and demands a temporal expression in the resulting design. Temporal form is what enables poetry. In music, temporal form is the composition o...

  3. [Analysis of phylogenetic criteria for estimation of the rank of taxa in methane-oxidizing bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V

    2011-01-01

    To determine a possibility of application of phylogenetic criteria for estimating the taxa rank, the intra- and interspecies, as well as intergeneric relatedness of methanotrophs on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was estimated. We used sequences of 16S rRNA genes of the studied isolates of obligate methanotrophs which have been deposited in UCM (Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms), and of type strains of other obligate methanotrophs species (from GenBank database). It is shown, that the levels of interspecies and intergeneric relatedness in different families of methanotrophs are not identical, and therefore they can be used for differentiation of taxa only within one family. The carried out analysis has shown, that it is necessary to reconsider taxonomic position: (1) of two phenotypically similar species of Methylomonas (M. aurantiaca and M. fodinarum), similarity of 16S rRNA genes which is 99.4%, similarity of their total DNA--up to 80% that rather testifies to strain differences, than to species differences; (2) of species Methylomicrobium agile and M album which are phylogenetically more related to genus Methylobacter (97% of affinity), than Methylomicrobium (94% of affinity); (3) of genera of the family Beijerinckiaceae (Methylocella and Methylocapsa), and also genera of the family Methylocystaceae (Methylosinus and Methylocystis), whereas high level of relatedness (97% and more) of these bacteria with other methanotrophic genera (within one family) practically corresponds to a range of relatedness of species (within some genera) in the family Methylococcaceae. When determining phylogenetic criteria which can characterize the ranks of taxa, it was revealed, that the levels of interspecies relatedness of methanotrophic genera of the families Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae (97.8-99.1% and 97.8%, accordingly) considerably exceed the level of genera formation in the family Methylococcaceae (94.0-98.2%) and, moreover, approach the value of

  4. A taxa de câmbio no centro da teoria do desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta as principais ideias da macroeconomia estruturalista do desenvolvimento - a teoria por trás de novo-desenvolvimentismo. Seu foco é a taxa de câmbio que é pela primeira vez colocada no centro da economia do desenvolvimento. A teoria econômica geralmente vê a taxa de câmbio como um problema de curto prazo a ser discutido na macroeconomia. A macroeconomia estruturalista do desenvolvimento mostra que há, nos países em desenvolvimento, a tendência à sobreapreciação cíclica da taxa de câmbio causada pela falta de neutralização da doença holandesa e por entradas de capital excessivas. Em consequência, considera a taxa de câmbio cronicamente sobreapreciada e, por isso, um grande obstáculo ao crescimento econômico. No processo de desenvolvimento, a taxa de câmbio tem a função de um interruptor de luz que conecta ou desconecta as empresas nacionais que utilizam a tecnologia no estado da arte mundial dos mercados mundiais.This paper presents the main ideas of structuralist development macroeconomics - the theory behind new developmentalism. Its focus is on the exchange rate that is positioned for the first time in the core of development economics. Economic theory usually views the exchange rate as a short term problem to be discussed in open macroeconomics. Structuralist development macroeconomics argues that there is in developing countries a tendency to the cyclical overvaluation of the exchange rate caused by the lack of neutralization of the Dutch disease and by excessive capital inflows. In consequence it views the exchange rate as chronically overvalued, and, for that reason, a major obstacle to economic growth. In the development process, the exchange rate has the role of light switch that connects or disconnects the national business enterprises utilizing technology in the world state of the art from world markets.

  5. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    , these query languages are implemented by translating temporal queries into standard relational queries. However, the compiled queries are often quite cumbersome and expensive to execute even using state-of-the-art relational products. This paper presents an optimization technique that produces more efficient...... translated SQL queries by taking into account the properties of the encoding used for temporal attributes. For concreteness, this translation technique is presented in the context of SQL/TP; however, these techniques are also applicable to other temporal query languages....

  6. TAXAS DE RECUPERAÇÃO DE BORO POR EXTRATORES EM SOLOS DA BAHIA E DE MINAS GERAIS, NA PRESENÇA E AUSÊNCIA DE CALAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto dos Santos Neto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As informações referentes às taxas de recuperação do boro pelo extrator em razão das doses adicionadas são escassas e necessárias para os sistemas de recomendação de adubação e corretivos. Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de determinar as taxas de recuperação desse nutriente com água fervente e CaCl2 fervente em solos dos Estados da Bahia e Minas Gerais, na ausência e na presença de calagem. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, utilizando tratamentos em esquema fatorial (6 × 2 + 9 × 6, correspondendo a seis solos com e sem calagem, nove solos sem calagem e seis doses de B. Utilizaram-se blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As unidades experimentais foram constituídas por 0,6 dm3 de solo. A calagem foi calculada com base na análise de solo, seguindo a recomendação de calagem usada para o Estado de Minas Gerais. Após 15 dias de incubação, os solos receberam doses de B (0,0; 1,5; 3,0; 6,0; 9,0; e 15 mg dm-3, fazendo-se uma nova incubação por um período de 45 dias. Usou-se ácido bórico como fonte de B. Terminada a incubação, o teor de B disponível foi extraído com água fervente e CaCl2 5 mmol L-1 fervente, sendo a dosagem feita com azometina-H. Foram feitas análises de regressão e correlação para as diversas variáveis. O B extraído do solo com água fervente e o CaCl2 fervente, independentemente da calagem, aumentou linearmente com a elevação das doses aplicadas desse nutriente aos solos. Os extratores água fervente e o CaCl2fervente não são sensíveis à calagem. As taxas de recuperação de B dos solos pelos extratores usados variam de acordo com os teores de matéria orgânica, a quantidade e qualidade de argila e pelo equivalente de umidade. Os extratores utilizados foram altamente correlacionados entre si na extração do B do solo.

  7. TAXA DE DESENVOLVIMENTO DE FORÇA E ATIVAÇÃO NEURAL EM MULHERES PÓS-MENOPAUSADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piettra Moura Galvão Pereira

    Full Text Available RESUMO Introdução: O envelhecimento associa-se à redução da velocidade de contração e ativação das fibras musculares, influenciando a aptidão física e o desempenho funcional. Objetivo: Verificar o comportamento da taxa de desenvolvimento de força (TDF e ativação neural em mulheres pós-menopausadas. Métodos: Vinte e quatro mulheres pós-menopausadas (63,2 ± 5,6 anos; 154,5 ± 7,3 cm e 64,7 ± 7,6 kg, funcionalmente independentes e fisicamente ativas, foram submetidas simultaneamente, à mensuração da força isométrica máxima e dos sinais eletromiográficos (EMG dos seguintes músculos: vasto lateral (VL, reto femoral (RF e vasto medial (VM, durante uma extensão unilateral do joelho do membro dominante. Tais resultados foram utilizados para calcular a TDF, o impulso contrátil, em intervalos de 20 ms nos primeiros 200 ms da contração muscular pelo uso da curva força/tempo, a taxa de ativação EMG (TAE e a amplitude média EMG, em intervalos de 40 a 80 ms do início da integração EMG pelo uso da curva EMG/tempo. Resultados: Os valores da força variaram entre 29,19 a 86,04 N.m; a TDF variou de 1459,42 N.m.s-1 para 430,21 N.m.s-1 em 20 ms e 200 ms respectivamente, apontando valores decrescentes com o tempo; para o impulso foram observados valores entre 0,65 a 11,07 N.m.s; na mesma direção da TDF, a TAE apresentou valores decrescentes para o VL (1676,08 a 844,41 µVs-1, para o RF (1320,88 a 637,59 µVs-1 e para o VM (1747,63 a 914,09 µVs-1 em 20 e 200 ms, enquanto a amplitude EMG média teve valores de 33,77 a 50,32 µV para o VL, de 24,93 a 38,07 µV para o RF e de 37,07 a 54,78 µV para o VM em 40 ms e 80 ms, respectivamente. Conclusão: Em mulheres pós-menopausadas, a velocidade de aumento, a manutenção da força e a ativação EMG não são suficientes para manter TDF e TAE crescentes, demonstrando um possível risco de incapacidades funcionais e ocorrência de quedas.

  8. VOLATILIDADE DA TAXA DE CÂMBIO E SEUS EFEITOS SOBRE O FLUXO DE COMÉRCIO DOS PAÍSES DA AMÉRICA DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Diante da importância da taxa de câmbio no comércio externo, considerando que suas flutuações podem modificar a escala de preços entre os países, a presente pesquisa buscou identificar o impacto da volatilidade da taxa de câmbio real bilateral sobre o fluxo de comércio entre os países da América do Sul. Para tal, foi estimado um modelo gravitacional utilizando uma amostra de nove países, entre 1998 e 2012. O método utilizado na estimação foi o modelo Poisson-Pseudo Maximum Likehood (PPML. Os resultados mostraram que a instabilidade cambial é prejudicial à relação de comércio entre países da América do Sul, já que maior incerteza cambial leva os agentes econômicos, a longo prazo, a reduzir suas atividades no comércio internacional, dada maior exposição ao risco. Outro resultado importante foi a constatação de que os países membros do Mercosul, de fato, têm o comércio favorecido diante das vantagens oferecidas pelo bloco, como a redução de tarifas comerciais. Quanto à variável utilizada para captar o efeito da crise do subprime em 2008, verificou-se aumento no fluxo comercializado pelos países sul-americanos nesse período.

  9. Histology of sheep temporal bone A histologia do osso temporal do ovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hormy Biavatti Soares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that there is an excellent correlation between the morphology and dimensions of ear structures in sheep and human beings. AIM: To analyze and describe the histology of structures inside the temporal bone in sheep. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 307 slides obtained from vertical and horizontal sections of the temporal bone of eight sheep were analyzed. Structures were classified as similar or not similar to human structures, based on cellularity and histological architecture parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. RESULTS: The study revealed similarities between sheep and humans in terms of type of epithelium, bone component, spaces in the auditory meatus, in addition to a marked histological resemblance of cellularity and that of the structures surrounding the ear. The main differences observed were the presence of an anatomic bulla, the absence of aeration in the mastoid and the inferior opening of the hypotympanum into the bulla in sheep. CONCLUSION: Based on these observations, it is possible to conclude that sheep represent an adequate option for training and research in otologic surgery.Resultados prévios apontam para uma ótima correlação entre a morfologia e as dimensões das estruturas anatômicas de ovelhas e seres humanos. OBJETIVO: Analisar e descrever a histologia das estruturas que compõem o osso temporal do ovino. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Um total de 307 lâminas obtidas a partir de secções verticais e horizontais do osso temporal de oito ovelhas foi analisado. As estruturas foram caracterizadas como semelhantes ou não semelhantes às do ser humano, com base na celularidade e na arquitetura histológica das estruturas. DESENHO CIENTÍFICO: Experimental. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se semelhança quanto ao tipo de epitélio, componente ósseo, espaços da fenda auditiva e arquitetura, além da semelhança, em nível histológico, tanto dos componentes celulares como das estruturas contíguas ao ouvido. As

  10. Das biochemische Rezidiv beim Prostatakarzinom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauchenwald M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Als biochemisches Rezidiv (BCR wird der Wiederanstieg des nach kurativer Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms (PCa abgefallenen PSA-Werts bezeichnet. Der PSA-Verlauf nach kurativer Therapie ist von der primären Behandlungsmethode abhängig, weshalb auch unterschiedliche Definitionen dafür vorliegen. Der Verlauf selbst scheint prognostische Bedeutung zu haben. Ein Wiederanstieg des PSA-Werts geht der klinischen Progression voraus, wodurch frühzeitig eine Therapie eingeleitet werden kann. Der ideale Zeitpunkt für eine Sekundärbehandlung ist allerdings noch ungenügend definiert. Fast die Hälfte der BCR treten innerhalb der ersten 2 Jahre, ¾ innerhalb der ersten 5 Jahre nach Primärtherapie auf. Als Risikofaktoren für einen BCR werden ein primäres Tumorstadium ≥ T2c, PSA 15, Samenblaseninvasion, Lymphknotenbefall sowie Gleason-Score ≥ 8 angesehen. Von klinischer Bedeutung ist vor allem die Unterscheidung zwischen lokoregionärem und systemischem Rezidiv. Hierzu werden als Parameter neben dem primären Tumorstadium und Gleason-Score das posttherapeutische Intervall und die PSA-Dynamik empfohlen. Als diagnostische Maßnahmen erscheinen nur die Skelettszintigraphie und die Positronenemissionstomographie mit Acetat- oder Cholintracern und diese ebenfalls nur bei entsprechend hohen PSA-Werten sinnvoll. Therapeutisch kommt nach primärer Radikaloperation und Verdacht auf einen lokalen Progress in erster Linie die Salvagebestrahlung zur Anwendung, nach primärer Radiatio wird allerdings vorwiegend die hormonelle Manipulation einer Salvageoperation oder alter“nativen lokaltherapeutischen Maßnahmen vorgezogen.

  11. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy Temporal lobe seizure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  12. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  13. Spatial and temporal variability in a butterfly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C D

    1991-09-01

    The dynamics of a butterfly (Plebejus argus) population were analysed at two levels, (i) the population as a whole and (ii) sections within the population. Some sections of the population fluctuated out of synchrony with others, such that the variability [SD Log(Density+1)] shown by the population as a whole was less than the variability shown by each part of the population - overall temporal variability was dampened by spatial asynchrony. Since observed population variability depends on the spatial scale that is sampled, comparisons of population variability among taxa should be carried out only with caution. Implications for island biogeography and conservation biology are discussed.

  14. Temporal bone meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrionis, F D; Robertson, J H; Gardner, G; Heilman, C B

    1999-01-01

    Meningiomas involving the temporal bone may originate from arachnoid cell nests present within the temporal bone (intratemporal), but more frequently originate from arachnoid cell nests of the posterior or middle cranial fossa with secondary invasion of the TB (extratemporal). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of 13 patients with meningiomas involving the temporal bone who underwent surgery. Tumors of the posterior fossa with only temporal bone hyperostosis, but without invasion, were excluded. Patients presented primarily with otologic symptoms and signs. The tumors originated in the temporal bone (5/13), jugular foramen (4/13), petroclival region (2/13), the asterion (1/13) or the internal auditory meatus (1/13). All of the intratemporal meningiomas had the radiological appearance of en-plaque menigiomas. The tumor extended into the middle ear (11/13), eustachian tube (5/13), and/or the labyrinth (3/13). A gross total resection was achieved in 11 patients and a subtotal resection in 2 patients. The lower cranial nerves were infiltrated by tumor in 4 patients, and were sacrificed. At a mean follow-up of approximately 6 years, 12 patients are currently alive and doing well and 1 died from tumor progression. Six patients showed tumor recurrence and were reoperated on (5/6) or followed conservatively (1/6). Surgical treatment of temporal bone meningiomas is associated with high recurrence rate due to indiscreet tumor margins. Combined surgical approaches (temporal craniotomy and mastoidectomy) by neurosurgical and otological teams are recommended for meningiomas originating in the temporal bone.

  15. Taxa de respiração de cenouras minimamente processadas e armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas Respiration rate of storage processed carrots at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigberto Antonio Spagnol

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre as hortaliças minimamente processadas, a cenoura é uma das mais populares, sendo comercializada de várias maneiras: raladas, cortadas em fatias, palitos, e ainda apresentadas na forma de mini-cenoura (baby carrot. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as taxas respiratórias de cenouras (Daucus carota da cultivar Nantes minimamente processadas. O armazenamento foi realizado nas temperaturas de 1 °C, 5 °C e 11 °C, e 90% UR. A taxa respiratória foi determinada usando um fluxo contínuo de ar. O teor de CO2 e etileno foi medido por um cromatógrafo a gás. A taxa de respiração para as cenouras fatiadas foi mais alta do que para os produtos inteiros. Os valores da energia de ativação obtidos para as cenouras fatiadas e inteiras foi de 69,82 kJmol-1 e 54,60 kJmol-1, respectivamente. A produção de etileno foi insignificante para as cenouras durante os 14 dias de armazenamento.The carrot is one of the most popular vegetables from minimally processed vegetables. It is commercialized in many different ways: shreds, slices, sticks and baby carrots. The aim of this work is to determine the respiration rate of minimally processed carrots. They were in storage at temperatures of 1 °C, 5 °C and 11 °C, and 90% RH. The respiration rate was determined using continuous humidification airflow and measuring the CO2 concentration using a gas chromatograph connected to a microcomputer. The respiration rates of the minimally processed carrots showed a higher respiration rate than for the whole products. The activation energy values calculated for the minimally processed carrots corresponded to 69.82 kJmol-1 for the whole products. The ethylene production for the carrots remained insignificant throughout the 14 days of storage.

  16. Alguns problemas de teoria das classes sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, João Ferreira de

    1981-01-01

    A teoria das classes constitui um quadro de pesquisa estratégico da realidade social, sem lugar disciplinar específico de origem nem campo de aplicação exclusivo. Ela pode globalmente contribuir para a análise das estruturas e dos processos sociais, para a explicação de práticas socialmente relevantes e para a identificação dos respectivos portadores, dos protagonistas essenciais dessas práticas. Não se trata, neste artigo, de tentar proceder ao impossível inventário sistemático das múltiplas...

  17. The phylogenetic trunk: maximal inclusion of taxa with missing data in an analysis of the lepospondyli (Vertebrata, Tetrapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J S

    2001-04-01

    The importance of fossils to phylogenetic reconstruction is well established. However, analyses of fossil data sets are confounded by problems related to the less complete nature of the specimens. Taxa that are incompletely known are problematic because of the uncertainty of their placement within a tree, leading to a proliferation of most-parsimonious solutions and "wild card" behavior. Problematic taxa are commonly deleted based on a priori criteria of completeness. Paradoxically, a taxon's problematic behavior is tree dependent, and levels of completeness are not directly associated with problematic behavior. Exclusion of taxa on the basis of completeness eliminates real character conflict and, by not allowing incomplete taxa to determine tree topology, diminishes the phylogenetic hypothesis. Here, the phylogenetic trunk approach is proposed to allow optimization of taxonomic inclusion and tree stability. The use of this method in an analysis of the Paleozoic Lepospondyli finds a single most-parsimonious tree, or trunk, after the removal of one taxon identified as being problematic. Moreover, the 38 trees found at one additional step from this primary trunk were reduced to 2 by removal of one additional taxon. These trunks are compared with the trees that were found by excluding taxa with various degrees of completeness, and the effects of incomplete taxa are explored with regard to use of the trunk. Correlated characters associated with limblessness are discussed regarding the assumption of character independence; however, inclusion of intermediate taxa is found to be the single best method for breaking down long branches.

  18. Avaliação da construção e operação de técnicas compensatórias de drenagem urbana: o transporte de finos, a capacidade de infiltração, a taxa de infiltração real do solo e a permeabilidade da manta geotêxtil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Hirata Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou aspectos da construção e operação de técnicas compensatórias em drenagem urbana e seu efeito na taxa de infiltração das unidades em escala real. Para tal, foram estudados dois sistemas, a saber: i filtro-vala-trincheira de infiltração (FVT e ii poço de infiltração (PI. A infiltração do solo foi avaliada por meio de ensaios de campo (ensaios de duplo anel e poço invertido e por medidas das unidades experimentais. Além disso, foram investigados o teor de material pulverulento e a permeabilidade de amostras do geotêxtil utilizado no FVT e PI, nas condições pré e pós-instalação. A despeito das proteções instaladas, houve transporte de finos para o interior das unidades e que esses influenciaram na permeabilidade da manta geotêxtil (redução de 30 a 90% para o FVT e de 40 a 70% para o PI e nas taxas de infiltração nas unidades em escala real (de 4,7 x 10-6 a 10-5 m.s-1.

  19. Taxa de geração de resíduos da construção civil em edificações na cidade de João Pessoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vasconcelos Gomes da Costa

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a quantidade de resíduos da construção civil (RCC em função da área construída da edificação, para efetuar acompanhamento e fiscalização mais eficazes da geração e destinação final em dada obra. Foi escolhida uma amostra representativa das edificações em fase de construção na cidade de João Pessoa. Uma ficha para coleta das características e acompanhamento de volume de RCC descartado ao longo do cronograma de execução da construção foi fornecida aos gestores das edificações; a partir do volume descartado pelas construtoras, determinou-se a massa de RCC gerado em cada obra utilizando uma massa unitária de 1.025 kg m-3 Os resultados indicaram uma taxa média de geração de RCC classe A de 86,27 kg m-². Ainda para os RCC classe A, foram definidos os limites inferior e superior com 90% de confiança para a taxa de geração: 62,31 e 136,02 kg m-² respectivamente. A partir desses valores, o controle da geração e disposição de RCC pode ser realizado pelos órgãos competentes, dando o indicativo de quais obras podem estar infringindo a legislação vigente no tocante à destinação de tais resíduos.

  20. Crescimento econômico e taxa de inflação: implicações na receita municipal e na despesa com saúde dos municípios de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciana Feliciano

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo analisa implicações do crescimento da receita orçamentária municipal e da política monetária de metas da inflação na disponibilidade de recursos públicos para a saúde do ente municipal. A pesquisa é descritiva, exploratória, de natureza quantitativa e de corte longitudinal retrospectivo, abrangendo os anos de 2002 a 2011. Analisaram-se variáveis de Financiamento e Gasto em Saúde dos municípios do estado de Pernambuco, descrevendo a evolução e a relação entre elas. Os dados demonstraram crescimento das variáveis e tendência à homogeneidade. A exceção foi a participação das Transferências Intergovernamentais na Despesa Total do Município com Saúde. Constatou-se correlação significativa entre Receita Orçamentária per capita e Despesa com Saúde per capita e correlação negativa significante forte entre Taxa de Inflação, Receita Orçamentária per capita e Despesa com Saúde per capita. Concluiu-se que o incremento da despesa com saúde deve-se mais ao crescimento da arrecadação municipal que ao das transferências. Estas, em termos relativos, não se elevaram. A forte relação inversa entre Taxa de Inflação e variáveis de Financiamento e Gasto comprovam que a política monetária de metas da inflação tem restringido o financiamento da saúde no ente municipal.

  1. Higher Thermal Acclimation Potential of Respiration but Not Photosynthesis in Two Alpine Picea Taxa in Contrast to Two Lowland Congeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Wei; Wang, Jing Ru; Ji, Ming Fei; Milne, Richard Ian; Wang, Ming Hao; Liu, Jian-Quan; Shi, Sheng; Yang, Shu-Li; Zhao, Chang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The members of the genus Picea form a dominant component in many alpine and boreal forests which are the major sink for atmospheric CO2. However, little is known about the growth response and acclimation of CO2 exchange characteristics to high temperature stress in Picea taxa from different altitudes. Gas exchange parameters and growth characteristics were recorded from four year old seedlings of two alpine (Picea likiangensis vars. rubescens and linzhiensis) and two lowland (P. koraiensis and P. meyeri) taxa. Seedlings were grown at moderate (25°C/15°C) and high (35°C/25°C) day/night temperatures, for four months. The approximated biomass increment (ΔD2H) for all taxa decreased under high temperature stress, associated with decreased photosynthesis and increased respiration. However, the two alpine taxa exhibited lower photosynthetic acclimation and higher respiratory acclimation than either lowland taxon. Moreover, higher leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA) and leaf nitrogen content per unit area (Narea), and a smaller change in the nitrogen use efficiency of photosynthesis (PNUE) for lowland taxa indicated that these maintained higher homeostasis of photosynthesis than alpine taxa. The higher respiration rates produced more energy for repair and maintenance biomass, especially for higher photosynthetic activity for lowland taxa, which causes lower respiratory acclimation. Thus, the changes of ΔD2H for alpine spruces were larger than that for lowland spruces. These results indicate that long term heat stress negatively impact on the growth of Picea seedlings, and alpine taxa are more affected than low altitude ones by high temperature stress. Hence the altitude ranges of Picea taxa should be taken into account when predicting changes to carbon fluxes in warmer conditions. PMID:25874631

  2. Diversity of Dominant Bacterial Taxa in Activated Sludge Promotes Functional Resistance following Toxic Shock Loading

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-12-14

    Examining the relationship between biodiversity and functional stability (resistance and resilience) of activated sludge bacterial communities following disturbance is an important first step towards developing strategies for the design of robust biological wastewater treatment systems. This study investigates the relationship between functional resistance and biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa by subjecting activated sludge samples, with different levels of biodiversity, to toxic shock loading with cupric sulfate (Cu[II]), 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP), or 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Respirometric batch experiments were performed to determine the functional resistance of activated sludge bacterial community to the three toxicants. Functional resistance was estimated as the 30 min IC50 or the concentration of toxicant that results in a 50% reduction in oxygen utilization rate compared to a referential state represented by a control receiving no toxicant. Biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-T-RFLP) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Statistical analysis of 30 min IC50 values and PCR-T-RFLP data showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between functional resistance and microbial diversity for each of the three toxicants tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a positive correlation between biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa in activated sludge and functional resistance. In this system, activated sludge bacterial communities with higher biodiversity are functionally more resistant to disturbance caused by toxic shock loading. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. Identifying the microbial taxa that consistently respond to soil warming across time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliverio, Angela M; Bradford, Mark A; Fierer, Noah

    2017-05-01

    Soil microbial communities are the key drivers of many terrestrial biogeochemical processes. However, we currently lack a generalizable understanding of how these soil communities will change in response to predicted increases in global temperatures and which microbial lineages will be most impacted. Here, using high-throughput marker gene sequencing of soils collected from 18 sites throughout North America included in a 100-day laboratory incubation experiment, we identified a core group of abundant and nearly ubiquitous soil microbes that shift in relative abundance with elevated soil temperatures. We then validated and narrowed our list of temperature-sensitive microbes by comparing the results from this laboratory experiment with data compiled from 210 soils representing multiple, independent global field studies sampled across spatial gradients with a wide range in mean annual temperatures. Our results reveal predictable and consistent responses to temperature for a core group of 189 ubiquitous soil bacterial and archaeal taxa, with these taxa exhibiting similar temperature responses across a broad range of soil types. These microbial 'bioindicators' are useful for understanding how soil microbial communities respond to warming and to discriminate between the direct and indirect effects of soil warming on microbial communities. Those taxa that were found to be sensitive to temperature represented a wide range of lineages and the direction of the temperature responses were not predictable from phylogeny alone, indicating that temperature responses are difficult to predict from simply describing soil microbial communities at broad taxonomic or phylogenetic levels of resolution. Together, these results lay the foundation for a more predictive understanding of how soil microbial communities respond to soil warming and how warming may ultimately lead to changes in soil biogeochemical processes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The structure of cystoliths in selected taxa of the genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummu-Hani, B.; Noraini, T.

    2013-11-01

    A study was undertaken on mature leaves of 15 taxa of the genus Ficus in Peninsular Malaysia. The main objectives of this study are to determine the morphology and distribution of cystoliths in the epidermal layers of the leaf lamina in selected taxa of Ficus. The morphology of cystoliths is classified based on its size, shape, colour, and the presence of stalk cystolith. There are seven types of cystolith morphology observed in this study. Most of the cystoliths are either solitary, elongated, narrow or broad, and pointed or blunt at one or both ends. However, double- and rarely triple-cystoliths are also present in some species. The size of the cystoliths varies even within the same species. Based on the position of cystoliths, all the 15 taxa studied can be generally classified into three groups: Group 1 - with cystoliths adjacent to the adaxial epidermis layer (F. annulata, F. benghalensis and F. superba), Group 2 - with cystoliths adjacent to the abaxial epidermis layer (F. aurantiacea, F. lepicarpa, F. hispida, F. obscura var. borneensis, F. religiosa, F. schwarzii, F. ucinata and F. vasculosa), and Group 3 - with cystoliths present in both adaxial and abaxial epidermis layers (F. benjamina, F. depressa, F. microcarpa and F. tinctoria). Based on the occurrence of cystoliths, the types of lithocysts were related to the number of epidermal layers, i.e. hair-like lithocysts in uniseriate epidermis is present in all species studied. However, the characteristics of the cystoliths may not suitably be used as a taxonomic marker but it can be useful as additional character for group identification in Ficusper.

  5. DNA barcoding the genus Chara: molecular evidence recovers fewer taxa than the classical morphological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Susanne C; Rodrigues, Anuar; Moe, Therese Fosholt; Ballot, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Charophytes (Charales) are benthic algae with a complex morphology. They are vulnerable to ecosystem changes, such as eutrophication, and are red-listed in many countries. Accurate identification of Chara species is critical for understanding their diversity and for documenting changes in species distribution. Species delineation is, however, complicated, because of high phenotypic plasticity. We used barcodes of the ITS2, matK and rbcL regions to test if the distribution of barcode haplotypes among individuals is consistent with species boundaries as they are currently understood. The study included freshly collected and herbarium material of 91 specimens from 10 European countries, Canada and Argentina. Results showed that herbarium specimens are useful as a source of material for genetic analyses for aquatic plants like Chara. rbcL and matK had highest sequence recoverability, but rbcL had a somewhat lower discriminatory power than ITS2 and matK. The tree resulting from the concatenated data matrix grouped the samples into six main groups contrary to a traditional morphological approach that consisted of 14 different taxa. A large unresolved group consisted of C. intermedia, C. hispida, C. horrida, C. baltica, C. polyacantha, C. rudis, C. aculeolata, and C. corfuensis. A second unresolved group consisted of C. virgata and C. strigosa. The taxa within each of the unresolved groups shared identical barcode sequences on the 977 positions of the concatenated data matrix. The morphological differences of taxa within both unresolved groups include the number and length of spine cells, stipulodes, and bract cells. We suggest that these morphological traits have less taxonomic relevance than hitherto assumed. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-11-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria.

  7. Automatic selection of reference taxa for protein-protein interaction prediction with phylogenetic profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Martin; Maetschke, S.R.; Ragan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    available, identifying the most-informative RT is becoming increasingly difficult. Previous studies on the selection of RT have provided guidelines for manual taxon selection, and for eliminating closely related taxa. However, no general strategy for automatic selection of RT is currently available. Results......: We present three novel methods for automating the selection of RT, using machine learning based on known protein–protein interaction networks. One of these methods in particular, Tree-Based Search, yields greatly improved prediction accuracies. We further show that different methods for constituting...

  8. A molecular analysis of the Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea) with an interpretative grouping of its taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko; Lee, Sangmi

    2013-01-01

    , Isocitrate dehydrogenase, Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and Carbamoylphosphate synthase domain protein). Fifty-two taxa representing nearly all established subfamilies and tribes of Gelechiidae, and about 10% of described gelechiid genera, in addition to five......, Palumbina Rondani and Polyhymno Chambers. Gelechiidae display a wide array of life-history strategies, but the diversity in patterns of larval mode of life has direct phylogenetic correlation only below subfamily level, suggesting multiple origins and/or frequent reversals for traits such as external...

  9. Estrutura de capital: o papel das fontes de financiamento nas quais companhias abertas brasileiras se baseiam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Tarantin Junior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEste estudo avaliou a estrutura de capital de companhias abertas brasileiras, no período de 2005 a 2012, verificando o papel das fontes de financiamento nas quais tais companhias se baseiam. Para tanto, foi avaliada a proporção das dívidas em 3 fontes distintas: as instituições financeiras, o mercado de capitais e as fontes com taxas de juros subsidiadas, estas últimas representando um fator institucional da economia brasileira. Foi utilizada uma amostra de 95 empresas, dentre as 150 maiores empresas com ações negociadas na Bolsa de Valores, Mercadorias e Futuros de São Paulo (BM&FBOVESPA. Por meio de modelos com dados em painel, os resultados mostram que as fontes de financiamento impactam a formação da estrutura de capital das empresas, exercendo influência tanto na alavancagem quanto na maturidade das dívidas. Em relação à alavancagem, empresas que têm maior proporção de seus recursos captados no mercado de capitais são mais alavancadas. O mesmo não acontece com as empresas que têm maior proporção de recursos subsidiados. Em relação à maturidade das dívidas, recursos de diferentes maturidades são captados em diferentes fontes: os recursos de menores maturidades são captados em instituições financeiras e os recursos de maiores maturidades são captados no mercado de capitais e nas fontes com taxas de juros subsidiadas - leia-se Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. Comparando-se os recursos do mercado de capitais com os recursos subsidiados, verifica-se que os primeiros têm maior maturidade. Tal resultado pode ser justificado em virtude do crescimento do mercado de capitais brasileiro nos últimos anos, a partir de 2009, de modo que as companhias estão se baseando no mercado de capitais para seus financiamentos de maior maturidade e nos recursos subsidiados, do BNDES, para seus financiamentos de maturidades intermediárias.

  10. Claves para el reconocimiento taxonómico dentario en taxa del Superorden Squalomorphi de Chile (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii Taxonomic dental keys for the Chilean taxa of the Superorder Squalomorphi (Chondricthyes: Elasmobranchii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Sáez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una serie de claves para el reconocimiento dentario de diferentes taxa del Superorden Squalomorphi de Chile. Se seleccionaron características dentarias externas que permitan obtener una observación más expedita que conduzcan a un estudio más acabado, de la diagnosis de los diferentes taxa constituyentes de este grupo de peces, haciéndolas extensibles para estudios de piezas dentales fósiles.A series of taxonomic dental keys is presented for the Chilean taxa of the Superorder Squalomorphi. External dental characteristics were selected for easier observation, leading to more thorough studies. This allows diagnoses of the different taxa comprising this group of fishes and, moreover, can be extended to studies of fossil teeth.

  11. Secular trends in the rate of low birth weight in Brazilian State Capitals in the period 1996 to 2010 Tendencia secular de la tasa de bajo peso al nacer en las capitales brasileñas de 1996 a 2010 Tendência secular da taxa de baixo peso ao nascer nas capitais brasileiras de 1996 a 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Jane Ferreira Veloso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Secular trends in rates of low birth weight in Brazilian state capital cities were evaluated for the period 1996 to 2010 using joinpoint regression models. The rates were calculated using data from the Live Births Information System. Newborns weighing less than 500g were excluded. Only data for capital cities was included since under-registration of births in these cities is lower and new trends can be detected earlier. There was a significant increase in the rate of low birth weight in the Brazilian capitals of the North Region, Northeast Region, South Region and Southeast Region up to 2003/2004, stabilizing thereafter. In the capitals of the Center-west Region the rate increased throughout the whole study period. The rate of low birth weight was higher in the capitals of the more developed regions. The rate of multiple births increased significantly in all Brazilian capitals, while the stillbirth rate decreased and showed a negative correlation with the rate of low birth weight. The increase in the rate of low birth weight may be partially explained by the increase in multiple births, an increase in the birth of infants weighing 500 to 999g and by the reduction in the stillbirth rate.La tendencia secular de la tasa de bajo peso al nacer de 1996 a 2010 en las capitales brasileñas se evaluó utilizando modelos de regresión joinpoint. Las tasas se calcularon a partir del Sistema de Información sobre Nacidos Vivos, excluyéndose recién nacidos con un peso A tendência secular da taxa de baixo peso ao nascer de 1996 a 2010 nas capitais brasileiras foi avaliada utilizando-se modelos de regressão joinpoint. As taxas foram calculadas a partir do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos, excluindo-se recém-nascido com peso < 500g. Foram incluídos apenas dados das capitais, onde o sub-registro é menor e novas tendências podem ser detectadas mais precocemente. A taxa de baixo peso ao nascer aumentou significantemente nas capitais

  12. QUAL O FUTURO DAS ESCOLAS NO CAMPO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Vendramini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:Tendo como ponto de partida a questão sobre o futuro das escolas rurais ou do campo, o artigo aborda o contexto social, político e econômico que suporta ou não a existência das escolas, bem como uma análise sobre a situação das escolas em diferentes contextos, particularmente no Brasil, em Portugal e nos Estados Unidos. Problematizamos as respostas dadas pelo poder público, acadêmicos e organizações e movimentos sociais sobre o fechamento, a redução do número de alunos e de comunidades rurais com escola, as condições de funcionamento, a distância percorrida pelos alunos, além das implicações das escolas para a vitalidade do campo. Concluímos que o futuro das escolas está diretamente relacionado com o futuro do campo.

  13. Sniffer para redes Ethernet de tempo-real baseado em FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, João Pedro Puga

    2008-01-01

    A crescente utilização de sistemas distribuídos em aplicações de tempo-real tem levado á criação de protocolos de comunicação cada vez mais com- plexos e sofisticados. Apesar da rede Ethernet não apresentar característi- cas de tempo-real, devido ás suas vantagens, têm sido desenvolvidos muitos protocolos de comunicação tempo-real baseados em Ethernet. Nesta disser- tação é analisada a importância das arquitecturas distribuídas em aplicações de tempo-real, sendo apresentados...

  14. Conteúdo energético das operárias da formiga cortadeira, Atta sexdens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto da Silva Camargo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do conteúdo energético das operárias é essencial para mensurar a disponibilidade energética, responsável pela manutenção e execução de atividades essenciais para o crescimento da colônia de formigas. Mas pouco se conhece sobre o conteúdo energético das operárias e quanto estará disponível para realizar atividades de, por exemplo, escavar do ninho. O presente estudo determinou o teor de lipídeo e o conteúdo energético das operárias de formigas cortadeiras inativas, antes e pós atividade de escavação. Por meio da determinação do teor de lipídeos, pode-se calcular o conteúdo energético das operárias em repouso (paradas e compará-las com as que escavaram. O teor de lipídeo e conteúdo energético das operárias foram em média 9,1±0,8% e 111,31±54,71J, respectivamente, entretanto, as séries experimentais não diferiram significativamente. Adicionalmente, a taxa do fluxo catabólico, embasado na massa corporal das operárias foi de 14,76±10,11µW. Conclui-se que o recurso energético para a escavação do ninho não é proveniente de reserva de lipídeos corporal e, dessa forma, o conteúdo energético das operárias não alterou antes e pós-atividade de escavação.

  15. Analysis of essential macro-micro mineral content of twelve hosta taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mehraj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hosta is a perennial ornamental herb, sometimes consumed as a vegetable in Japan. We evaluated the leaf mineral content of twelve hosta plant taxa, namely Hosta sieboldiana, H. alismifolia, H. sieboldii, H. longissima, H. tardiva, H. longipes var. gracillima, H. nakaiana, H. kikutii var. caput-avis, H. kikutii var. polyneuron, H. longipes var. caduca, H. kiyosumiensis, and H. montana. The leaf K content of 12 hosta plant taxa ranged from 2.85 to 4.05%; the P content from 0.13 to 0.34%; Ca from 0.02 to 1.15%; Mg from 540.00 to 794.12 ppm; Mn 26.93 to 133.77 ppm; Zn 115.39 to 334.52 ppm; Cu 1.78 to 5.95 ppm and Fe 26.43 to 251.95 ppm. Our results indicate that H. alismifolia is the best source of K; H. sieboldii the best sources of Ca and Fe; H. nakaiana of P, Mg and Zn; and H. longissima of Mg and Cu. The K content value for H. montana was statistically identical to that for H. alismifolia. The Cu content values for H. montana and H. nakaiana were statically identical to that for H. longissima. H. alismifolia, H. sieboldii, H. longissima, H. nakaiana, and H. montana were found to be richer in the minerals studied than the other species studied here.

  16. Integrated Analyses Resolve Conflicts over Squamate Reptile Phylogeny and Reveal Unexpected Placements for Fossil Taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Tod W.; Townsend, Ted M.; Mulcahy, Daniel G.; Noonan, Brice P.; Wood, Perry L.; Sites, Jack W.; Wiens, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are a pivotal group whose relationships have become increasingly controversial. Squamates include >9000 species, making them the second largest group of terrestrial vertebrates. They are important medicinally and as model systems for ecological and evolutionary research. However, studies of squamate biology are hindered by uncertainty over their relationships, and some consider squamate phylogeny unresolved, given recent conflicts between molecular and morphological results. To resolve these conflicts, we expand existing morphological and molecular datasets for squamates (691 morphological characters and 46 genes, for 161 living and 49 fossil taxa, including a new set of 81 morphological characters and adding two genes from published studies) and perform integrated analyses. Our results resolve higher-level relationships as indicated by molecular analyses, and reveal hidden morphological support for the molecular hypothesis (but not vice-versa). Furthermore, we find that integrating molecular, morphological, and paleontological data leads to surprising placements for two major fossil clades (Mosasauria and Polyglyphanodontia). These results further demonstrate the importance of combining fossil and molecular information, and the potential problems of estimating the placement of fossil taxa from morphological data alone. Thus, our results caution against estimating fossil relationships without considering relevant molecular data, and against placing fossils into molecular trees (e.g. for dating analyses) without considering the possible impact of molecular data on their placement. PMID:25803280

  17. Integrated analyses resolve conflicts over squamate reptile phylogeny and reveal unexpected placements for fossil taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Tod W; Townsend, Ted M; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Noonan, Brice P; Wood, Perry L; Sites, Jack W; Wiens, John J

    2015-01-01

    Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are a pivotal group whose relationships have become increasingly controversial. Squamates include >9000 species, making them the second largest group of terrestrial vertebrates. They are important medicinally and as model systems for ecological and evolutionary research. However, studies of squamate biology are hindered by uncertainty over their relationships, and some consider squamate phylogeny unresolved, given recent conflicts between molecular and morphological results. To resolve these conflicts, we expand existing morphological and molecular datasets for squamates (691 morphological characters and 46 genes, for 161 living and 49 fossil taxa, including a new set of 81 morphological characters and adding two genes from published studies) and perform integrated analyses. Our results resolve higher-level relationships as indicated by molecular analyses, and reveal hidden morphological support for the molecular hypothesis (but not vice-versa). Furthermore, we find that integrating molecular, morphological, and paleontological data leads to surprising placements for two major fossil clades (Mosasauria and Polyglyphanodontia). These results further demonstrate the importance of combining fossil and molecular information, and the potential problems of estimating the placement of fossil taxa from morphological data alone. Thus, our results caution against estimating fossil relationships without considering relevant molecular data, and against placing fossils into molecular trees (e.g. for dating analyses) without considering the possible impact of molecular data on their placement.

  18. Distance decay relationships in foliar fungal endophytes are driven by rare taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, Ryoko; Rasmussen, Anna; Lefèvre, Emilie

    2017-07-01

    Foliar fungal endophytes represent a diverse and species-rich plant microbiome. Their biogeography provides essential clues to their cryptic relationship with hosts and the environment in which they disperse. We present species composition, diversity, and dispersal patterns of endophytic fungi associated with needles of Pinus taeda trees across regional scales in the absence of strong environmental gradients as well as within individual trees. An empirical designation of rare and abundant taxa enlightens us on the structure of endophyte communities. We report multiple distance-decay patterns consistent with effects of dispersal limitation, largely driven by community changes in rare taxa, those taxonomic units that made up less than 0.31% of reads per sample on average. Distance-decay rates and community structure also depended on specific classes of fungi and were predominantly influenced by rare members of Dothideomycetes. Communities separated by urban areas also revealed stronger effects of distance on community similarity, confirming that host density and diversity plays an important role in symbiont biogeography, which may ultimately lead to a mosaic of functional diversity as well as rare species diversity across landscapes. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Isoflavonoids in non-leguminous taxa: a rarity or a rule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapcík, Oldrich

    2007-01-01

    Isoflavonoids are characteristic metabolites in legumes and an overwhelming number of reports concerning them come from the Leguminosae. Nevertheless, the spectrum of isoflavonoid producing taxa includes the representatives of four classes of multicellular plants, namely the Bryopsida, the Pinopsida, the Magnoliopsida and the Liliopsida. At least 59 non-leguminous families have been reported to produce isoflavones sensu lato; coumestans have been reported in 3 families, coumaronochromones in 3, pterocarpans in 9 and rotenoids in 8 families. Prenylated isoflavones have been found in 15 non-leguminous families and isoflavone dimers, heterodimers or oligomers in three families. More than two hundred different isoflavonoid aglycones have been reported in non-legumes altogether. The number of individual structures is even greater if the variety of glycosides are considered. Enzymology and genetics of isoflavonoid biosynthesis have been studied almost exclusively in legumes, with the exception of a few model plants (i.e. Beta vulgaris, Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum and Zea mays). The key step at the very beginning of the isoflavonoid metabolic pathway is the oxidation of flavanone connected with the migration of aryl moiety from C2 to C3 mediated by a CYP450 enzyme isoflavone synthase (IFS), which has been identified and cloned in multiple legumes and in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, Chenopodiaceae). No information is available about the enzyme(s) responsible for the biosynthesis of isoflavonoid core in other taxa. Experimental data demonstrates the capability of numerous enzymes of non-legume origin to metabolize isoflavones as alternative substrates to other phenolics.

  20. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of various leaf extracts of Amphoricarpos vis. (Asteraceae taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of diethyl ether, 80% methanol and 50% acetone extracts of the leaves of three Amphoricarpos taxa (Asteraceae; A. neumayerianus, A. autariatus ssp. autariatus and A. autariatus ssp. bertisceus from the Balkan Peninsula were investigated. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the broth microdilution assay against eight bacterial and eight fungal species. The in vitro antioxidative activity was assessed by the DPPH assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. The most sensitive bacterial species were Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The best antibacterial potential was obtained for the methanol extract of A. neumayerianus, while the diethyl ether extract of this species showed the lowest effect. In general, the tested extracts showed higher activity than the commercial antibiotics streptomycin and ampicillin. Also, all micromycetes were sensitive to the tested extracts. The most sensitive was Trichoderma viride. The highest and lowest antifungal effect was determined in A. a. ssp. autariatus for the diethyl ether and acetone extracts, respectively. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined in the methanol extract of A. a. autariatus. The best antioxidative activity was demonstrated by the methanol extract of A. a. ssp. autariatus as comparing to matching extracts from the other two taxa.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil of Six Pinus Taxa Native to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%–20.55%, bornyl acetale (3.32%–12.71%, β-caryophellene (18.26%–26.31%, α-guaiene (1.23%–8.19%, and germacrene D (1.26%–9.93%. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential by three assays (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS and tested for their total phenolic content. The results showed that all essential oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant activities and these strongly suggest that these pine needles may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food and medical purposes.

  2. Seasonality of helminth infection in wild red deer varies between individuals and between parasite taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albery, Gregory F; Kenyon, Fiona; Morris, Alison; Morris, Sean; Nussey, Daniel H; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2018-03-09

    Parasitism in wild mammals can vary according to myriad intrinsic and extrinsic factors, many of which vary seasonally. However, seasonal variation in parasitism is rarely studied using repeated samples from known individuals. Here we used a wild population of individually recognized red deer (Cervus elaphus) on the Isle of Rum to quantify seasonality and intrinsic factors affecting gastrointestinal helminth parasitism over the course of a year. We collected 1020 non-invasive faecal samples from 328 known individuals which we then analysed for propagules of three helminth taxa: strongyle nematodes, the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and the tissue nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi. Zero-inflated Poisson models were used to investigate how season, age and sex were associated with parasite prevalence and count intensity, while Poisson models were used to quantify individual repeatability within and between sampling seasons. Parasite intensity and prevalence varied according to all investigated factors, with opposing seasonality, age profiles and sex biases between parasite taxa. Repeatability was moderate, decreased between seasons and varied between parasites; both F. hepatica and E. cervi showed significant between-season repeatability, while strongyle nematode counts were only repeatable within-season and showed no repeatability within individuals across the year.

  3. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  4. Culturas das Ciências Naturais Cultures of Natural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margaret Lopes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta subsídios para o ensino de História das Ciências, considerando particularmente o campo da História da História Natural e das Ciências Naturais. Sem ser uma revisão completa da historiografia desses campos de conhecimento sobre o mundo natural, retoma alguns traços gerais desses longos processos de definição de campos disciplinares que se configuram desde a Renascença até o final do século XVIII. Considera diversas tradições culturais e historiográficas que contribuíram para os nossos entendimentos atuais, de como a História Natural do Renascimento foi abandonando seus antigos quadros conceituais, assumindo novas práticas e se constituindo nas tradições da História Natural do século XVIII. Comenta esses processos, em que tanto a Botânica, a Zoologia, a Mineralogia se individualizam como áreas de conhecimentos apoiadas em práticas locais e coleções globais, indo além de sua subordinação à utilidade médica; bem como suas organizações em áreas de conhecimento, por começarem a se colocar questões relativas à origem e à historicidade dos seres e processos naturais, dados os avanços das temáticas classificatórias e das discussões envolvendo temporalidades.This paper provides insights into the teaching of the History of Science, especially the field of the History of Natural History and Natural Sciences. Although not claiming to be a complete historiographic review of these areas of knowledge about the natural world, it outlines the general traits of the long process of definition of disciplines that were shaped from the Renaissance to the end of the XVIII century. It encompasses various cultural and historiographic traditions that contributed to our present understanding of how Renaissance Natural History abandoned its ancient conceptual frameworks and assumed new practices and shaped itself in the tradition of XVIII century Natural History. The paper comments on these processes by which

  5. Temporal Experience and Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Peebles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The well-known phenomenological argument draws metaphysical conclusions about time, specifically about change through time and the resulting passage or flow of time, from our temporal experience. The argument begins with the phenomenological premise that there is a class of properties which underlies our experience of time and change through time, and its conclusion is that these properties are not merely experienced but exemplified. I argue that the phenomenological argument is best served by the adoption of a representational theory of perception. I then present a representational theory of temporal experience.

  6. Phylogeography of the land snail genus Orcula (Orculidae, Stylommatophora) with emphasis on the Eastern Alpine taxa: speciation, hybridization and morphological variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harl, Josef; Páll-Gergely, Barna; Kirchner, Sandra; Sattmann, Helmut; Duda, Michael; Kruckenhauser, Luise; Haring, Elisabeth

    2014-10-30

    The Central and Southern European mountain ranges represent important biodiversity hotspots and show high levels of endemism. In the land snail genus Orcula Held, 1837 nine species are distributed in the Alps and a few taxa inhabit the Carpathians, the Dinarids and the Western Black Sea region. In order to elucidate the general patterns of temporal and geographic diversification, mitochondrial and nuclear markers were analyzed in all 13 Orcula species. We particularly aimed to clarify whether the Alpine taxa represent a monophyletic group and if the local species diversity is rather the result of isolation in geographically separated Pleistocene glacial refuges or earlier Tertiary and Quaternary palaeogeographic events. In order to test if patterns of molecular genetic and morphological differentiation were congruent and/or if hybridization had occurred, shell morphometric investigations were performed on the Orcula species endemic to the Alps. The phylogenetic trees resulting from the analyses of both the mitochondrial (COI, 12S and 16S) and the nuclear (H4/H3) data sets revealed three main groups, which correspond to the three subgenera Orcula, Illyriobanatica and Hausdorfia. The reconstruction of the historic geographic ranges suggested that the genus originated in the Dinarides during the Middle Miocene and first colonized the Alps during the Late Miocene, giving rise to the most diverse subgenus Orcula. Within the latter subgenus (including all Alpine endemics) almost all species were differentiated by both molecular genetic markers and by shell morphometrics, except O. gularis and O. pseudodolium. The present study confirms the importance of the Alps as biodiversity hotspot and origin center of land snail diversity. The species diversity in the subgenus Orcula was likely promoted by Miocene to Pliocene palaeogeographic events and the insular distribution of preferred limestone areas. In some cases, speciation events could be linked to the divergence of

  7. A VELHICE NÃO CONTEMPLADA: INVISIBILIDADE DAS DEMANDAS SOCIAIS DA PESSOA IDOSA EM FERNANDO DE NORONHA - NORDESTE DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sálvea de Oliveira Campelo e Paiva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo geral deste trabalho é apresentar informações epidemiológicas e reflexões sobre os padrões e as desigualdades no processo de envelhecimento. Os resultados da pesquisa sobre o perfil socioeconômico e epidemiológico da população idosa do Distrito Estadual de Fernando de Noronha (DEFN, PE, e uma leitura crítica analisando o IDH, a prevalência de déficit cognitivo, as taxas de envelhecimento e as condições de vida encontradas na ilha reforçam o tom de invisibilidade e negligência das demandas sociais do segmento mais velho da população no conteúdo das políticas públicas do país. Palavras-chave: processo de envelhecimento; desigualdade social; saúde do idoso.

  8. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B; Frair, Jacqueline L; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs. We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour - giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) - to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size. We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex. Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates. Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  9. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs.We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour – giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) – to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size.We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex.Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates.Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  10. Gradiente ventrículo-lombar de concentração das proteínas totais do líquido cefalorraquiano: 1 - Mecanismo de origem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Menezes Braga

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito estudo do mecanismo de origem do gradiente ventriculo-lombar de concentração das proteínas totais do LCR baseado no comportamento da taxa das proteínas totais e do título da reação de fixação de complemento para cisticerco em pacientes com neurocisticercose em atividade. O aumento concomitante da taxa das proteínas totais e da intensidade da reação imunitária, em amostras simultâneas cisternal e lombar do LCR de pacientes com comunicação livre no espaço subaracnóideo espinhal, e as grandes elevações simultâneas destes dados da semiologia no LCR lombar de pacientes que apresentaram bloqueio do espaço subaracnóideo espinhal, indicam que o gradiente de concentração das proteínas ao longo do neuro-eixo resulta da saída seletiva de água.

  11. Coralsnake Venomics: Analyses of Venom Gland Transcriptomes and Proteomes of Six Brazilian Taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Aird

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Venom gland transcriptomes and proteomes of six Micrurus taxa (M. corallinus, M. lemniscatus carvalhoi, M. lemniscatus lemniscatus, M. paraensis, M. spixii spixii, and M. surinamensis were investigated, providing the most comprehensive, quantitative data on Micrurus venom composition to date, and more than tripling the number of Micrurus venom protein sequences previously available. The six venomes differ dramatically. All are dominated by 2–6 toxin classes that account for 91–99% of the toxin transcripts. The M. s. spixii venome is compositionally the simplest. In it, three-finger toxins (3FTxs and phospholipases A2 (PLA2s comprise >99% of the toxin transcripts, which include only four additional toxin families at levels ≥0.1%. Micrurus l. lemniscatus venom is the most complex, with at least 17 toxin families. However, in each venome, multiple structural subclasses of 3FTXs and PLA2s are present. These almost certainly differ in pharmacology as well. All venoms also contain phospholipase B and vascular endothelial growth factors. Minor components (0.1–2.0% are found in all venoms except that of M. s. spixii. Other toxin families are present in all six venoms at trace levels (<0.005%. Minor and trace venom components differ in each venom. Numerous novel toxin chemistries include 3FTxs with previously unknown 8- and 10-cysteine arrangements, resulting in new 3D structures and target specificities. 9-cysteine toxins raise the possibility of covalent, homodimeric 3FTxs or heterodimeric toxins with unknown pharmacologies. Probable muscarinic sequences may be reptile-specific homologs that promote hypotension via vascular mAChRs. The first complete sequences are presented for 3FTxs putatively responsible for liberating glutamate from rat brain synaptosomes. Micrurus C-type lectin-like proteins may have 6–9 cysteine residues and may be monomers, or homo- or heterodimers of unknown pharmacology. Novel KSPIs, 3× longer than any seen

  12. Coralsnake Venomics: Analyses of Venom Gland Transcriptomes and Proteomes of Six Brazilian Taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Steven D; da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Qiu, Lijun; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Saddi, Vera Aparecida; Pires de Campos Telles, Mariana; Grau, Miguel L; Mikheyev, Alexander S

    2017-06-08

    Venom gland transcriptomes and proteomes of six Micrurus taxa ( M. corallinus , M. lemniscatus carvalhoi , M. lemniscatus lemniscatus , M. paraensis , M. spixii spixii , and M. surinamensis ) were investigated, providing the most comprehensive, quantitative data on Micrurus venom composition to date, and more than tripling the number of Micrurus venom protein sequences previously available. The six venomes differ dramatically. All are dominated by 2-6 toxin classes that account for 91-99% of the toxin transcripts. The M. s. spixii venome is compositionally the simplest. In it, three-finger toxins (3FTxs) and phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s) comprise >99% of the toxin transcripts, which include only four additional toxin families at levels ≥0.1%. Micrurus l. lemniscatus venom is the most complex, with at least 17 toxin families. However, in each venome, multiple structural subclasses of 3FTXs and PLA₂s are present. These almost certainly differ in pharmacology as well. All venoms also contain phospholipase B and vascular endothelial growth factors. Minor components (0.1-2.0%) are found in all venoms except that of M. s. spixii . Other toxin families are present in all six venoms at trace levels (venom components differ in each venom. Numerous novel toxin chemistries include 3FTxs with previously unknown 8- and 10-cysteine arrangements, resulting in new 3D structures and target specificities. 9-cysteine toxins raise the possibility of covalent, homodimeric 3FTxs or heterodimeric toxins with unknown pharmacologies. Probable muscarinic sequences may be reptile-specific homologs that promote hypotension via vascular mAChRs. The first complete sequences are presented for 3FTxs putatively responsible for liberating glutamate from rat brain synaptosomes. Micrurus C-type lectin-like proteins may have 6-9 cysteine residues and may be monomers, or homo- or heterodimers of unknown pharmacology. Novel KSPIs, 3× longer than any seen previously, appear to have arisen in three

  13. Ecological characterization and molecular differentiation of Culex pipiens complex taxa and Culex torrentium in eastern Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittra, Carina; Flechl, Eva; Kothmayer, Michael; Vitecek, Simon; Rossiter, Heidemarie; Zechmeister, Thomas; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-04-11

    Culex pipiens complex taxa differ in behaviour, ecophysiology and epidemiologic importance. Despite their epidemiologic significance, information on genetic diversity, occurrence and seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of the Cx. pipiens complex is still insufficient. Assessment of seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of Culex pipiens forms and their congener Cx. torrentium is crucial for the understanding of their vector-pathogen dynamics. Female mosquitoes were trapped from April-October 2014 twice a month for a 24-h time period with BG-sentinel traps at 24 sampling sites in eastern Austria, using carbon dioxide as attractant. Ecological forms of Cx. pipiens s.l. and their hybrids were differentiated using the CQ11 locus, and Cx. pipiens forms and their congener Cx. torrentium using the ACE-2 gene. Differential exploitation of ecological niches by Cx. pipiens forms and Cx. torrentium was analysed using likelihood ratio tests. Possible effects of environmental parameters on these taxa were tested using PERMANOVA based on distance matrices and, if significant, were modelled in nMDS ordination space to estimate non-linear relationships. For this study, 1476 Culex spp. were sampled. Culex pipiens f. pipiens representing 87.33 % of the total catch was most abundant, followed by hybrids of both forms (5.62 %), Cx. torrentium (3.79 %) and Cx. pipiens f. molestus (3.25 %). Differences in proportional abundances were found between land cover classes. Ecological parameters affecting seasonal and spatial distribution of these taxa in eastern Austria are precipitation duration, air temperature, sunlight and the interaction term of precipitation amount and the Danube water level, which can be interpreted as a proxy for breeding habitat availability. The Cx. pipiens complex of eastern Austria comprises both ecologically different forms, the mainly ornithophilic form pipiens and the mainly mammalophilic and anthropophilic form molestus. Heterogeneous agricultural

  14. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  15. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2017-12-12

    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  16. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively...

  17. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  18. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...

  19. Dynamic epistemic temporal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renne, B.; Sack, Joshua; Yap, Audrey; He, X.; Horty, J.; Pacuit, E.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new type of arrow in the update frames (or "action models") of Dynamic Epistemic Logic in a way that enables us to reason about epistemic temporal dynamics in multi-agent systems that need not be synchronous. Since van Benthem and Pacuit (later joined by Hoshi and Gerbrandy) showed

  20. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  1. Information and Temporality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flender, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Being able to give reasons for what the world is and how it works is one of the defining characteristics of modernity. Mathematical reason and empirical observation brought science and engineering to unprecedented success. However, modernity has reached a post-state where an instrumental view of technology needs revision with reasonable arguments and evidence, i.e. without falling back to superstition and mysticism. Instrumentally, technology bears the potential to ease and to harm. Easing and harming can't be controlled like the initial development of technology is a controlled exercise for a specific, mostly easing purpose. Therefore, a revised understanding of information technology is proposed based upon mathematical concepts and intuitions as developed in quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics offers unequaled opportunities because it raises foundational questions in a precise form. Beyond instrumentalism it enables to raise the question of essences as that what remains through time what it is. The essence of information technology is acausality. The time of acausality is temporality. Temporality is not a concept or a category. It is not epistemological. As an existential and thus more comprehensive and fundamental than a concept or a category temporality is ontological; it does not simply have ontic properties. Rather it exhibits general essences. Datability, significance, spannedness and openness are general essences of equiprimordial time (temporality).

  2. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-8, č. článku 38076. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal quantum steering * EPR steering Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  3. Type specimens of taxa of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Insitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korobkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Typification of 97 Artemisia (Asteraceae taxa from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute was carried out. Holotypes for 39 taxa, lectotypes for 48 taxa, 28 syntypes and 4 isotypes are given.

  4. TESTING BAYESIAN ALGORITHMS TO DETECT GENETIC STRUCTURE IN TWO CLOSELY RELATED OAK TAXA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Mihai Enescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the Bayesian algorithm implemented in the software STRUCTURE in order to detect the number of clusters, by using microsatellite data from four oak species. Several assignment models, with or without a priori grouping of individuals to species, were proposed. Better results were obtained by using the sampling location information and when only two taxa were analyzed. Particularly, pedunculate oak and sessile oak formed distinct clusters whatever the assignment model we use. By contrast, no separation between the two oaks from series Lanuginosae was observed. This can be explained, on one hand, by the small sampling size for Italian oak, or by the genetic similarities of the two pubescent oaks, namely Quercus pubescens and Q. virgiliana, on the other hand. Our findings support the hypothesis according which Italian oak is an intraspecific taxonomic unit of pubescent oak.

  5. New taxa, combinations and records of Pteridophyta from southern and central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Burrows

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new taxa of ferns are described and illustrated from southern Africa:  Ophioglossum convexum J.E. Burrows, Mohria caffrorum (L. Desv. var. ferruginea J.E. & S.M. Burrows,  Marsilea farinosa Launert subsp. arrecta J.E. Burrows and Asplenium sebungweense J.E. Burrows. The combination of Grammitis rigescens (Bory ex Willd. J.E. Burrows is made. Ophioglossum thomasii Clausen,  O. rube Hum Welw. ex A. Braun.  Vinana ensiformis Swartz and Asplenium buettneri Hieron. ex Brause are new records for Zimbabwe, while Hymenophyllum splendidum V.d. Bosch and  Asplenium uhligii Hieron. are new records for Malawi and Zimbabwe. Actiniopteris semiflabellata Pichi-Sermolli is recorded from Namibia and Thelypteris oppositiformis (C. Chr. Ching is recorded from the Transvaal.

  6. Morphological diagnoses of higher taxa in Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata in support of a new classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. O'Hara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new classification of Ophiuroidea, considering family rank and above, is presented. The new family and superfamily taxa in O’Hara et al. (2017 were proposed to ensure a better readability of the new phylogeny but are unavailable under the provisions of the ICZN. Here, the morphological diagnoses to all 33 families and five superfamilies are provided. Ten new families, Ophiosphalmidae fam. nov., Ophiomusaidae fam. nov., Ophiocamacidae fam. nov., Ophiopteridae fam. nov., Clarkcomidae fam. nov., Ophiopezidae fam. nov., Ophiernidae fam. nov., Amphilimnidae fam. nov., Ophiothamnidae fam. nov. and Ophiopholidae fam. nov., are described. The family Ophiobyrsidae Matsumoto, 1915, not yet discovered in the previous publication, is added, based on new molecular data. A new phylogenetic reconstruction is presented. Definitions of difficult-to-apply morphological characters are given.

  7. Theoretical size distribution of fossil taxa: analysis of a null model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Barry D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article deals with the theoretical size distribution (of number of sub-taxa of a fossil taxon arising from a simple null model of macroevolution. Model New species arise through speciations occurring independently and at random at a fixed probability rate, while extinctions either occur independently and at random (background extinctions or cataclysmically. In addition new genera are assumed to arise through speciations of a very radical nature, again assumed to occur independently and at random at a fixed probability rate. Conclusion The size distributions of the pioneering genus (following a cataclysm and of derived genera are determined. Also the distribution of the number of genera is considered along with a comparison of the probability of a monospecific genus with that of a monogeneric family.

  8. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  9. Dinâmica das exportações e avaliação da competitividade do setor de base florestal de Moçambique

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanzule, Rosalina Zefanais

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo geral analisar a competitividade das exportações moçambicanas de produtos de madeira no período de 1994 a 2010. Os dados utilizados foram séries históricas das exportações moçambicanas e mundiais de produtos de madeira coletados no site da base de dados das Nações Unidas- UN- Comtrade. As metodologias utilizadas para alcançar os objetivos específicos traçados foram: estatística descritiva, princípio de Pareto, taxas de crescimento, razão de concentração ...

  10. Comportamento da eosinofilia após o tratamento das geohelmintoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Bozóti

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available A eosinofilia sanguínea após o tratamento anti-helmíntico específico se comportou numa amostragem de 57 crianças da seguinte forma: .Na ascaridíase isolada ou associada à trieuríase a hipereosinofilia parasitária ou descia uniformemente após o tratamento, ou houve primeiro uma exacerbação que durava até a terceira semana após a erradicação da, parasitose, descendo em seguida. Em ambos os casos houve normalização do hemograma em dois meses. Na associação ascaridíase/ancilostomíase também são possíveis dois tipos de comportamento da eosinofilia após tratamento eficaz: ou vai diminuindo a hipereosinofilia, logo em seguida à expulsão dos parasitos, ou há no primeiro mês um aumento da hipereosinofilia (geralmente mais acentuado na primeira semana que se segue ao tratamento, para diminuir após o fim do primeiro mês progressivamente até desaparecer. Na estrongiloidíase e na associação ascaridíase/estrongiloidíase há diminuição constante da hipereosinofilia logo após o tratamento e o hemograma se normaliza em cerca de dois meses. Na trieuríase, a hipereosinofilia, aliás já discreta, diminui pouco com o tratamento. Na ancilostomíase e na associação ancilostomíase/trieuríase a hipereosinofilia ou desce após o tratamento gradativo e lentamente, ou primeiro há uma exaltação temporária nas primeiras três semanas após a terapêutica, para diminuir em seguida. Na associação ancilostomíase/estrongiloidíase também se encontram esses dois tipos de comportamento da hipereosinofilia verminótica, mas a exacerbação da hipereosinofilia, que ocorre na metade dos casos, só dura duas semanas; a regressão eosinofílica ocorre dois meses após o tratamento. Nas tri e tetraeparasitoses a involução pós-terapêutica da hipereosinofilia é irregular e a normalização das taxas sanguíneas de eosinófilos é sempre arrastada, principalmente nas associações ascaridíase/estrongiloidíase/ancilostomíase e

  11. Comportamento da eosinofilia após o tratamento das geohelmintoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Bozóti

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available A eosinofilia sanguínea após o tratamento anti-helmíntico específico se comportou numa amostragem de 57 crianças da seguinte forma: .Na ascaridíase isolada ou associada à trieuríase a hipereosinofilia parasitária ou descia uniformemente após o tratamento, ou houve primeiro uma exacerbação que durava até a terceira semana após a erradicação da, parasitose, descendo em seguida. Em ambos os casos houve normalização do hemograma em dois meses. Na associação ascaridíase/ancilostomíase também são possíveis dois tipos de comportamento da eosinofilia após tratamento eficaz: ou vai diminuindo a hipereosinofilia, logo em seguida à expulsão dos parasitos, ou há no primeiro mês um aumento da hipereosinofilia (geralmente mais acentuado na primeira semana que se segue ao tratamento, para diminuir após o fim do primeiro mês progressivamente até desaparecer. Na estrongiloidíase e na associação ascaridíase/estrongiloidíase há diminuição constante da hipereosinofilia logo após o tratamento e o hemograma se normaliza em cerca de dois meses. Na trieuríase, a hipereosinofilia, aliás já discreta, diminui pouco com o tratamento. Na ancilostomíase e na associação ancilostomíase/trieuríase a hipereosinofilia ou desce após o tratamento gradativo e lentamente, ou primeiro há uma exaltação temporária nas primeiras três semanas após a terapêutica, para diminuir em seguida. Na associação ancilostomíase/estrongiloidíase também se encontram esses dois tipos de comportamento da hipereosinofilia verminótica, mas a exacerbação da hipereosinofilia, que ocorre na metade dos casos, só dura duas semanas; a regressão eosinofílica ocorre dois meses após o tratamento. Nas tri e tetraeparasitoses a involução pós-terapêutica da hipereosinofilia é irregular e a normalização das taxas sanguíneas de eosinófilos é sempre arrastada, principalmente nas associações ascaridíase/estrongiloidíase/ancilostomíase e

  12. New reports of nuclear DNA content for 407 vascular plant taxa from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chengke; Alverson, William S; Follansbee, Aaron; Waller, Donald M

    2012-12-01

    The amount of DNA in an unreplicated haploid nuclear genome (C-value) ranges over several orders of magnitude among plant species and represents a key metric for comparing plant genomes. To extend previously published datasets on plant nuclear content and to characterize the DNA content of many species present in one region of North America, flow cytometry was used to estimate C-values of woody and herbaceous species collected in Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA. A total of 674 samples and vouchers were collected from locations across Wisconsin and Michigan, USA. From these, C-value estimates were obtained for 514 species, subspecies and varieties of vascular plants. Nuclei were extracted from samples of these species in one of two buffers, stained with the fluorochrome propidium iodide, and an Accuri C-6 flow cytometer was used to measure fluorescence peaks relative to those of an internal standard. Replicate extractions, coefficients of variation and comparisons to published C-values in the same and related species were used to confirm the accuracy and reliability of our results. Prime C-values for 407 taxa are provided for which no published data exist, including 390 angiosperms, two gymnosperms, ten monilophytes and five lycophytes. Non-prime reports for 107 additional taxa are also provided. The prime values represent new reports for 129 genera and five families (of 303 genera and 97 families sampled). New family C-value maxima or minima are reported for Betulaceae, Ericaceae, Ranunculaceae and Sapindaceae. These data provide the basis for phylogenetic analyses of C-value variation and future analyses of how C-values covary with other functional traits.

  13. Determining Clostridium difficile intra-taxa diversity by mining multilocus sequence typing databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Marina; Ríos-Chaparro, Dora Inés; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Ramírez, Juan David

    2017-03-14

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a highly discriminatory typing strategy; it is reproducible and scalable. There is a MLST scheme for Clostridium difficile (CD), a gram positive bacillus causing different pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. This work was aimed at describing the frequency of sequence types (STs) and Clades (C) reported and evalute the intra-taxa diversity in the CD MLST database (CD-MLST-db) using an MLSA approach. Analysis of 1778 available isolates showed that clade 1 (C1) was the most frequent worldwide (57.7%), followed by C2 (29.1%). Regarding sequence types (STs), it was found that ST-1, belonging to C2, was the most frequent. The isolates analysed came from 17 countries, mostly from the United Kingdom (UK) (1541 STs, 87.0%). The diversity of the seven housekeeping genes in the MLST scheme was evaluated, and alleles from the profiles (STs), for identifying CD population structure. It was found that adk and atpA are conserved genes allowing a limited amount of clusters to be discriminated; however, different genes such as drx, glyA and particularly sodA showed high diversity indexes and grouped CD populations in many clusters, suggesting that these genes' contribution to CD typing should be revised. It was identified that CD STs reported to date have a mostly clonal population structure with foreseen events of recombination; however, one group of STs was not assigned to a clade being highly different containing at least nine well-supported clusters, suggesting a greater amount of clades for CD. This study shows the usefulness of CD-MLST-db as a tool for studying CD distribution and population structure, identifying the need for reviewing the usefulness of sodA as housekeeping gene within the MLST scheme and suggesting the existence of a greater amount of CD clades. The study also shows the plausible exchange of genetic material between STs, contributing towards intra-taxa genetic diversity.

  14. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

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    Henri A Thomassen

    Full Text Available Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi, Reticulated (G. reticulata and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1 isolation-by-distance; 2 physical barriers to dispersal; 3 general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4 regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically

  15. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Henri A; Freedman, Adam H; Brown, David M; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  16. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

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    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  17. Molecular evolutionary patterns of NAD+/Sirtuin aging signaling pathway across taxa.

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    Uma Gaur

    Full Text Available A deeper understanding of the conserved molecular mechanisms in different taxa have been made possible only because of the evolutionary conservation of crucial signaling pathways. In the present study, we explored the molecular evolutionary pattern of selection signatures in 51 species for 10 genes which are important components of NAD+/Sirtuin pathway and have already been directly linked to lifespan extension in worms and mice. Selection pressure analysis using PAML program revealed that MRPS5 and PPARGC1A were under significant constraints because of their functional significance. FOXO3a also displayed strong purifying selection. All three sirtuins, which were SIRT1, SIRT2 and SIRT6, displayed a great degree of conservation between taxa, which is consistent with the previous report. A significant evolutionary constraint is seen on the anti-oxidant gene, SOD3. As expected, TP53 gene was under significant selection pressure in mammals, owing to its major role in tumor progression. Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP genes displayed the most sites under positive selection. Further 3D structural analysis of PARP1 and PARP2 protein revealed that some of these positively selected sites caused a change in the electrostatic potential of the protein structure, which may allow a change in its interaction with other proteins and molecules ultimately leading to difference in the function. Although the functional significance of the positively selected sites could not be established in the variants databases, yet it will be interesting to see if these sites actually affect the function of PARP1 and PARP2.

  18. Influence of aeration implements, phosphorus fertilizers, and soil taxa on phosphorus losses from grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, D H; Butler, D M; Cabrera, M L; Calvert, V H; West, L T; Rema, J A

    2011-01-01

    Attenuation of rainfall within the solum may help to move contaminants and nutrients into the soil to be better sequestered or utilized by crops. Surface application of phosphorus (P) amendments to grasslands may lead to elevated concentrations of P in surface runoff and eutrophication of surface waters. Aeration of grasslands has been proposed as a treatment to reduce losses of applied P. Here, results from two small-plot aeration studies and two field-scale, paired-watershed studies are supplemented with previously unpublished soil P data and synthesized. The overall objective of these studies was to determine the impact of aeration on soil P, runoff volume, and runoff P losses from mixed tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.]-bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) grasslands fertilized with P. Small-scale rainfall simulations were conducted on two soil taxa using three types of aeration implements: spikes, disks, and cores. The-field scale study was conducted on four soil taxa with slit and knife aeration. Small-plot studies showed that core aeration reduced loads of total P and dissolved reactive P (DRP) in runoff from plots fertilized with broiler litter and that aeration was effective in reducing P export when it increased soil P in the upper 5 cm. In the field-scale study, slit aeration reduced DRP losses by 35% in fields with well-drained soils but not in poorly drained soils. Flow-weighted concentrations of DRP in aerated fields were related to water-soluble P applied in amendments and soil test P in the upper 5 cm. These studies show that the overall effectiveness of mechanical soil aeration on runoff volume and P losses is controlled by the interaction of soil characteristics such as internal drainage and compaction, soil P, type of surface-applied manure, and type of aeration implement.

  19. Taxa de juros: comportamento, determinação e implicações para a economia brasileira Interest rate: its behavior, determination, and implications for the Brazilian economy

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    Jabr H. D. Omar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho é analisar o comportamento e os fatores determinantes da taxa de juros e seus efeitos sobre a condução da política macroeconômica no Brasil desde julho de 1994. Assim, tenta responder às seguintes questões: Por que as taxas reais de juros são altas? Quais são as forças que realmente as determinam? Quais são as implicações para a economia, se essas permanecerem altas? O que pode ser feito para reduzir os seus níveis atuais? Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as causas principais das altas taxas de juros se encontram no âmbito de reduzir e controlar a taxa de inflação, na vulnerabilidade do setor externo, na alta dívida pública e na estrutura de mercado bancário. Inclusive, constatou-se que as altas taxas de juros têm efeitos perversos e não condizentes, tanto para o crescimento como para a estabilidade econômica. Para diminuí-las foram sugeridas recomendações no campo da política monetária, política fiscal, setor externo e política de concorrência.The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the behavior and the factors that determine the interest rate and its impact on conducting the macroeconomic policy in Brazil through the period of July 1994 to August 2004. Thus, the article attempts to address answers for three main questions: why real interest rates are high in Brazil and what are the main forces that stand behind their determination? What are the economic implications if real interest rates remain high? What can be done to reduce real interest rates from their present levels? Results obtained show that the main reasons for high real interest rates were found to be in: reducing and controlling the high rates of inflation, vulnerability of the foreign sector, high public debt, and the market structure of the banking sector. More over, it was argued that high real interest rates have perverse effects for economic growth and economic stability. To reduce interest rates from

  20. Taxas de infecção relacionadas a partos cesáreos e normais no HCPA

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    Bianca Chassot Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Indicadores de gestão hospitalar são utilizados para mensurar quantitativamente a qualidade da gestão e proporcionam informações fundamentais para o seu controle. Esse estudo compara a taxa de infecção pós-parto relacionada ao parto cesáreo e vaginal. Embora o risco de infecção puerperal esteja presente em ambos os procedimentos, o risco é maior após o parto por cesariana, devido à natureza invasiva do procedimento.  Objetivo: Comparar a taxa de infecção relacionada ao parto cesáreo com a de parto normal buscando avaliar a correlação de um possível aumento de risco.  Métodos: Estudo de caráter observacional, cujos dados foram coletados no sistema de Indicadores de Gestão (IG do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2004 a dezembro de 2010. Resultados: A taxa de cesariana no HCPA foi 32,55% durante o período investigado. Houve uma diferença entre a taxa de cesarianas cobertas pelo SUS (31,80% e por outros convênios (70,59%. Entre os nascimentos no HCPA durante o mesmo período, a taxa de infecção após partos por cesariana foi de 2,8% e 0,8% após partos vaginais. Conclusão: A taxa de infecção associada à cesariana é maior do que a relacionada aos partos normais. A taxa de infecção de cesarianas vem diminuindo desde 2009. Palavras-chave: parto normal; parto cesáreo; infecção puerperal.

  1. The evolutionary trajectory of the mating-type (mat genes in Neurospora relates to reproductive behavior of taxa

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    Johannesson Hanna

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative sequencing studies among a wide range of taxonomic groups, including fungi, have led to the discovery that reproductive genes evolve more rapidly than other genes. However, for fungal reproductive genes the question has remained whether the rapid evolution is a result of stochastic or deterministic processes. The mating-type (mat genes constitute the master regulators of sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and here we present a study of the molecular evolution of the four mat-genes (mat a-1, mat A-1, mat A-2 and mat A-3 of 20 Neurospora taxa. Results We estimated nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates of genes to infer their evolutionary rate, and confirmed that the mat-genes evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the evolutionary trajectories are related to the reproductive modes of the taxa; likelihood methods revealed that positive selection acting on specific codons drives the diversity in heterothallic taxa, while among homothallic taxa the rapid evolution is due to a lack of selective constraint. The latter finding is supported by presence of stop codons and frame shift mutations disrupting the open reading frames of mat a-1, mat A-2 and mat A-3 in homothallic taxa. Lower selective constraints of mat-genes was found among homothallic than heterothallic taxa, and comparisons with non-reproductive genes argue that this disparity is not a nonspecific, genome-wide phenomenon. Conclusion Our data show that the mat-genes evolve rapidly in Neurospora. The rapid divergence is due to either adaptive evolution or lack of selective constraints, depending on the reproductive mode of the taxa. This is the first instance of positive selection acting on reproductive genes in the fungal kingdom, and illustrates how the evolutionary trajectory of reproductive genes can change after a switch in reproductive behaviour of an organism.

  2. Towards stressor-specific macroinvertebrate indices: Which traits and taxonomic groups are associated with vulnerable and tolerant taxa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Elisabeth; Haase, Peter; Schäfer, Ralf B; Sundermann, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring of macroinvertebrate communities is frequently used to define the ecological health status of rivers. Ideally, biomonitoring should also give an indication on the major stressors acting on the macroinvertebrate communities supporting the selection of appropriate management measures. However, most indices are affected by more than one stressor. Biological traits (e.g. size, generation time, reproduction) could potentially lead to more stressor-specific indices. However, such an approach has rarely been tested. In this study we classify 324 macroinvertebrate taxa as vulnerable (decreasing abundances) or tolerant (increasing abundances) along 21 environmental gradients (i.e. nutrients, major ions, oxygen and micropollutants) from 422 monitoring sites in Germany using Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN). Subsequently, we investigate which biological traits and taxonomic groups are associated with taxa classified as vulnerable or tolerant with regard to specific gradients. The response of most taxa towards different gradients was similar and especially high for correlated gradients. Traits associated with vulnerable taxa across most gradients included: larval aquatic life stages, isolated cemented eggs, reproductive cycle per year ovoviviparity or egg clutches in vegetation, food preference for dead animals or living microinvertebrates, substrate preference for macrophytes, microphytes, silt or mud and a body size >2-4cm. Our results question whether stressor-specific indices based on macroinvertebrate assemblages can be achieved using single traits, because we observed that similar taxa responded to different gradients and also similar traits were associated with vulnerable and tolerant taxa across a variety of water quality gradients. Future studies should examine whether combinations of traits focusing on specific taxonomic groups achieve higher stressor specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Taxa metabólica basal em universitários: comparação entre valores medidos e preditos Basal metabolic rate of university students: comparison between measured and predicted values

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    Bruna Camargo Brunetto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a taxa metabólica basal medida por recursos de calorimetria indireta com a taxa metabólica basal estimada por equações de predição em universitários. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 48 voluntários (23 moças e 25 rapazes na faixa etária entre 20 e 25 anos. A taxa metabólica basal medida por calorimetria indireta foi comparada à taxa metabólica basal estimada pelas equações de predição propostas pela World Health Organization e por Henry & Rees. As informações foram analisadas mediante o teste t pareado, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, desvio-padrão das diferenças e técnica de Bland-Altman. RESULTADOS: Não ocorreram diferenças significativas entre os valores da taxa metabólica basal medidos e estimados por ambas as equações de predição. Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse entre os valores medidos e estimados foram significativos em linguagem estatística nos dois gêneros e mais elevados nos rapazes, e a magnitude do desvio-padrão das diferenças foi similar em ambos os gêneros. A técnica de Bland-Altman sugere comportamento de variabilidade similar entre a taxa metabólica basal medida e predita por ambas as equações, porém a taxa metabólica basal predita pela equação de Henry & Rees apresentou coincidências mais elevadas, sobretudo entre as moças. CONCLUSÃO: Mediante indicadores estatísticos mais conservadores, conclui-se que a taxa metabólica basal medida por recursos de calorimetria indireta e predita por ambas as equações não apresentam diferenças significativas. No entanto, ao considerar procedimentos estatísticos aparentemente de maior sensibilidade na detecção de eventuais diferenças entre os valores medidos e preditos, verificou-se algum comprometimento quanto à potencialidade das equações para estimar a taxa metabólica basal, apresentando viés entre 12,5% e 15,6% em comparação com a taxa metabólica basal medida por recursos de

  4. Teoria das Relações Internacionais

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    Alexandre Cesar Cunha Leite

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A obra Teoria das Relações Internacionais de autoria de Daniel Jatobá é parte de um projeto coordenado por Antônio Carlos Lessa e Henrique Altemani de Oliveira cujo objetivo é aproximar o leitor interessado nos diversos assuntos que permeiam os estudos das relações internacionais situando-os na evolução da construção teórica das Relações Internacionais.  The Theory of International Relations authored by Daniel Jatoba is part of a project coordinated by Antônio Carlos Lessa de Oliveira and Henrique Altemani  whose goal is to bring the reader interested in the many issues that permeate the study of international relations situating them in the evolution of the theorical construction of International Relations.

  5. Estudo temporal das doenças associadas à AIDS no Brasil, 1980-1999

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    Guimarães Mark Drew Crosland

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estimadas as incidências de condições associadas (CA à AIDS/100 casos de AIDS em adultos (> 12 anos, a nível nacional, de 1980 a maio de 1999. A análise incluiu qui-quadrado e regressão linear simples. As CA analisadas foram candidíase (CD, tuberculose (TB, pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii (PCP, neurotoxoplasmose(NT, Herpes, Sarcoma de Kaposi (SK, meningite criptocócica (MC e infecções por protozoários (IP. As incidências acumuladas/100 casos de AIDS foram: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, Herpes = 12, SK = 5, MC = 4 e IP = 4. A tendência anual indicou queda estatisticamente significativa em todas as CA. Entretando, houve aumento na incidência de TB (b = 0,39 e NT (b = 0,20, para as regiões Nordeste e Centro-Oeste, respectivamente. TB apresentou maior incidência entre aqueles com baixa escolaridade (< 8 anos, enquanto que PCP e SK tiveram maiores incidências entre aqueles com melhor escolaridade (8+ anos, apesar de declínios semelhantes. Acesso à terapia anti-retroviral e profilaxias para as CA explicam parcialmente estes resultados. Entretanto, a confiabilidade dos dados, o atraso na notificação, a incidência de CA pós-AIDS, bem como os critérios de notificação e diagnóstico, são fatores que devem ser avaliados.

  6. Estudo temporal das doenças associadas à AIDS no Brasil, 1980-1999

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    Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estimadas as incidências de condições associadas (CA à AIDS/100 casos de AIDS em adultos (> 12 anos, a nível nacional, de 1980 a maio de 1999. A análise incluiu qui-quadrado e regressão linear simples. As CA analisadas foram candidíase (CD, tuberculose (TB, pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii (PCP, neurotoxoplasmose(NT, Herpes, Sarcoma de Kaposi (SK, meningite criptocócica (MC e infecções por protozoários (IP. As incidências acumuladas/100 casos de AIDS foram: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, Herpes = 12, SK = 5, MC = 4 e IP = 4. A tendência anual indicou queda estatisticamente significativa em todas as CA. Entretando, houve aumento na incidência de TB (b = 0,39 e NT (b = 0,20, para as regiões Nordeste e Centro-Oeste, respectivamente. TB apresentou maior incidência entre aqueles com baixa escolaridade (< 8 anos, enquanto que PCP e SK tiveram maiores incidências entre aqueles com melhor escolaridade (8+ anos, apesar de declínios semelhantes. Acesso à terapia anti-retroviral e profilaxias para as CA explicam parcialmente estes resultados. Entretanto, a confiabilidade dos dados, o atraso na notificação, a incidência de CA pós-AIDS, bem como os critérios de notificação e diagnóstico, são fatores que devem ser avaliados.

  7. Memorial das mídias mortas

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Mario Schramm jr

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2012v8n2p132   A cultura digital é permeada pelo tema das mídias mortas. Esse tema, entretanto, possui uma história demasiado rica, no que diz respeito aos diversos tipos de mídias obsoletas no decorrer da história. O presente ensaio procura refletir acerca das mídias mortas, tendo como objetivo relacionar o papel dessas mídias defuntas na constituição da memória e do esquecimento no contexto dos ambientes digitais.

  8. Números reais e curiosidades das somas infinitas

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Priscila Klitzke

    2016-01-01

    Podemos encontrar muitas surpresas interessantes no estudo das somas infinitas de números reais (series). Nessa perspectiva, este trabalho traz um estudo sobre as somas infinitas e mostra algumas curiosidades sobre elas, em especial sobre a serie harmônica. Começamos nosso estudo sobre somas infinitas, considerando exemplos com interpretações geométricas que tornam o estudo de series mais atraente. Discutimos também propriedades aritméticas, comutativa e associativa, das somas ...

  9. IDENTIDADE E CORPO NA MARCHA DAS VADIAS

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro Quintanilha de Souza, Aline

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar os temas de identidade de gênero e corporalidade na Marcha das Vadias. Esta é um movimento social que tem recebido visibilidade e experimentado um grande crescimento em adeptos e importância para as questões de gênero no Brasil. Este trabalho busca entender como práticas corporais são construídas para um objetivo político específico. Pretendo relacionar as principais reivindicações políticas desenvolvidas na manifestação com a construção da identidade "vad...

  10. Temporal lobe epilepsy semiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert D G

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  11. Processamento da cana-de-açúcar: efeitos sobre a digestibilidade, o consumo e a taxa de passagem Effects of sugar cane processing on digestibility, intake and rate of passage

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    Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do tratamento alcalino da cana-de-açúcar com hidróxido de sódio (1,5 a 50% de NaOH sobre a digestibilidade total e o consumo de matéria seca das dietas experimentais e as taxas de passagem das canas-de-açúcar. Foram utilizados quatro bovinos mestiços (Zebu x Holandês alimentados com canas-de-açúcar in natura, hidrolisada, hidrolisada fenada e hidrolisada ensilada como fontes volumosas, constituindo 70% das dietas. O tratamento alcalino foi mais eficiente na fração fibra, proporcionando aumentos de pelo menos 45% na digestibilidade. Os aumentos de 25,0 e 16,7% no consumo das dietas contendo as cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada (1,5% PV e hidrolisada fenada (1,4% PV provavelmente foram influenciados pela maior digestibilidade da fibra. Os valores estimados de taxa de passagem ruminal no ceco-cólon e o tempo de retenção em cada compartimento não diferiram entre as cana-de-açúcar in natura, hidrolisada e hidrolisada fenada. Entretanto, para a cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada ensilada, observaram-se as menores taxas (1,5 e 7,4%/h e o maior tempo de retenção (71,4 horas. Concluiu-se que o tratamento alcalino com hidróxido de sódio, com ou sem fenação, melhorou a digestão da fibra da cana-de-açúcar no trato digestivo total e proporcionou acréscimo do consumo de matéria seca da cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada, sem afetar a taxa de passagem. Entretanto, a posterior ensilagem pode não trazer esses benefícios.Four crossbred bovines (Zebu x Holstein fed in nature, hydrolyzed, hydrolyzed sugar cane hay and silage as roughage sources constituting 70% of the diets were used to study the effect of alkali treatment of sugar cane (1.5% of NaOH at 50% on dietary total digestibility and dry matter intake and rate of passage of sugar canes. The fiber was the most influenced fraction by the alkali treatment and increased at least by 45% of digestibility. The increases of 25.0 and 16.7% on intake of

  12. Especulação sobre a taxa de infecção da difteria no Modelo Estocástico Simples de Epidemia Speculation on the diphtheria infection in the Simples Stochastic Epidemic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A.S. Lavrador

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available Com base em um programa em linguagem Fortran, utilizando a técnica de simulação em computador e através das pressuposições do Modelo Estocástico Simples de Epidemia, é estabelecida uma conjectura a respeito de valores para a taxa de infecção para a difteria, a partir de ocorrência de casos em um domicílio de cinco pessoas.An epidemic outbreak according to a simple stochastic epidemic model, it was simulate, by means of a Fortran Programme, to formulate conjectures on infection rate values in the case of diphtheria in a household of five.

  13. Qualitative and temporal aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral assumptions, rational or otherwise, are not solid enough to be eligible as first principles of theoretical economics. Hence all endeavors to lay the formal foundation on a new site and at a deeper level actually need no further vindication. The present paper suggests three non-behavioral axioms as groundwork and applies them to the analysis of qualitative and temporal aggregation in the pure consumption economy. It turns out that the structural axiom set is self-similar with regard...

  14. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  15. Application of decision tree algorithms for discriminating among woody plant taxa based on the pollen season characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubik-Komar Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify whether and which parameters of the atmospheric pollen season can distinguish between pollen types, the ranges of parameter values that delineate classes of taxa, and finally which taxa are similar to others within the domain of these parameter ranges. Decision tree algorithms were applied and the best tree was chosen to describe the rules of pollen classification. The study material consisted of airborne pollen grains of the following eight taxa: Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus, Cupressaceae, Fraxinus, Populus and Ulmus. Research was conducted in Lublin in eastern Poland during 2001-2013. The following six atmospheric pollen season parameters were analyzed: season start and end, duration, maximum daily pollen concentration, date of maximum pollen concentration, and the Seasonal Pollen Index (SPI. Four algorithms were used in data analysis and the J4.8 algorithm was chosen as the best for taxa classification, date of the end of season and the SPI value belonging to characteristics that served most to discriminate between pollen types. Based on the classification tree, the following four groups of taxa were identified: (i Ulmus; (ii Corylus, Alnus, Populus; (iii Betula; and (iv Carpinus, Fraxinus, Cupressaceae.

  16. Object-Based Image Analysis for Detection of Japanese Knotweed s.l. taxa (Polygonaceae in Wales (UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jones

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Knotweed s.l. taxa are amongst the most aggressive vascular plant Invasive Alien Species (IAS in the world. These taxa form dense, suppressive monocultures and are persistent, pervasive invaders throughout the more economically developed countries (MEDCs of the world. The current paper utilises the Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA approach of Definiens Imaging Developer software, in combination with very high spatial resolution (VHSR colour infra-red (CIR and visible‑band (RGB aerial photography in order to detect Japanese Knotweed s.l. taxa in Wales (UK. An algorithm was created using Definiens in order to detect these taxa, using variables found to effectively distinguish them from landscape and vegetation features. The results of the detection algorithm were accurate, as confirmed by field validation and desk‑based studies. Further, these results may be incorporated into Geographical Information Systems (GIS research as they are readily transferable as vector polygons (shapefiles. The successful detection results developed within the Definiens software should enable greater management and control efficacy. Further to this, the basic principles of the detection process could enable detection of these taxa worldwide, given the (relatively limited technical requirements necessary to conduct further analyses.

  17. Multiple stressor effects on marine infauna: responses of estuarine taxa and functional traits to sedimentation, nutrient and metal loading

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne

    2017-09-14

    Sedimentation, nutrients and metal loading to coastal environments are increasing, associated with urbanization and global warming, hence there is a growing need to predict ecological responses to such change. Using a regression technique we predicted how maximum abundance of 20 macrobenthic taxa and 22 functional traits separately and interactively responded to these key stressors. The abundance of most taxa declined in response to sedimentation and metal loading while a unimodal response was often associated with nutrient loading. Optimum abundances for both taxa and traits occurred at relatively low stressor levels, highlighting the vulnerability of estuaries to increasing stressor loads. Individual taxa were more susceptible to stress than traits, suggesting that functional traits may be less sensitive for detecting changes in ecosystem health. Multiplicative effects were more common than additive interactions. The observed sensitivity of most taxa to increasing sedimentation and metal loading and the documented interaction effects between multiple stressors have important implications for understanding and managing the ecological consequences of eutrophication, sedimentation and contaminants on coastal ecosystems.

  18. O impacto da liquidez nos retornos esperados das debêntures brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hofheinz Giacomoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, teve-se como objetivo identificar o impacto do risco de liquidez nos retornos excedentes esperados das debêntures no mercado secundário brasileiro. Foram realizadas análises de regressão em painel desbalanceado com dados semestrais de 101 debêntures ao longo de oito semestres (primeiro semestre de 2006 ao segundo semestre de 2009, totalizando 382 observações. Sete proxies (spread de compra e venda, %zero returns, idade, volume de emissão, valor nominal de emissão, quantidade emitida e %tempo foram utilizadas para testar o impacto do risco de liquidez nos yield spreads das debêntures. O yield spread foi controlado por até dez outras variáveis determinantes que não a liquidez (fator de juros, fator de crédito, taxa livre de risco, rating, duration, quatro variáveis contábeis e volatilidade de equity. A hipótese nula de que não há prêmio de liquidez para o mercado secundário de debêntures no Brasil foi rejeitada apenas para três das sete proxies (spread de compra e venda, valor nominal de emissão e quantidade emitida. Os prêmios encontrados são bastante baixos (1,9 basis point para cada 100 basis point de incremento no spread de compra e venda, 0,5 basis point para um aumento de 1% no valor do valor nominal de emissão e 0,17 basis point para cada menos 1.000 debêntures emitidas. De qualquer forma, houve perda na eficiência das proxies de liquidez após correção das autocorrelações e potenciais endogeneidades, seja por meio da inclusão de efeitos fixos, da análise de primeiras diferenças ou da utilização de um sistema de três equações. Esses resultados apontam para a suspeita de que o risco de liquidez não é um fator importante na composição das expectativas dos investidores no mercado secundário de debêntures.

  19. Variabilidade espacial da taxa de infiltração de água e da espessura do horizonte A, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, sob diferentes usos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Bertolani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no município de Vera Cruz (SP, no período de 1996 a 1998, com vistas em estudar a variabilidade espacial da taxa de infiltração de água em solo saturado e a espessura do horizonte A. O solo utilizado foi um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico abrúptico, apresentando evidentes sinais de processos erosivos. As determinações de infiltração nos horizontes A, E e Bt, bem como da espessura do horizonte A, foram obtidas em malhas regulares de 40 x 40 m, com espaçamento de 5 x 5 m, totalizando 64 pontos, em café, pastagem e mata/capoeira. A análise das medidas de dispersão estatística revelou elevada variação das taxas de infiltração, bem como da espessura do horizonte A. Os semivariogramas indicaram a existência de dependência espacial da infiltração no horizonte E, em todos os usos amostrados. Com a utilização do semivario-grama cruzado, detectou-se a existência de correlação espacial entre a espessura do horizonte A e a infiltração, em cultivo de café e na mata/capoeira. A cobertura vegetal existente na mata/capoeira reduziu a perda do horizonte A, o que foi comprovado pela maior espessura e menor variação espacial.

  20. AVALIAÇÃO DA RELAÇÃO ENTRE A PERFORMANCE E A TAXA DE ADMINISTRAÇÃO DOS FUNDOS DE AÇÕES ATIVOS BRASILEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA ZÓBOLI DALMÁCIO

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a existência, ou não, da relação entre a taxa de administração atribuída às instituições administradoras dos fundos de investimento e a performance (risco x retorno dos mesmos fundos. A população de fundos de ações ativos é representada por 127 fundos de investimento do tipo Ações IBOVESPA Ativo e 56 fundos de investimento do tipo Ações IBX Ativo. Deste total, foram analisados 82 fundos pertencentes ao primeiro grupo e 32 pertencentes ao segundo grupo. Como estratégia metodológica, foi realizada inicialmente uma pesquisa bibliográfica, além de uma pesquisa empírica (ex-post facto, na amostra selecionada. As análises foram feitas utilizando-se gráficos de dispersão e cálculo das correlações. Como conclusão, verifica-se que a correlação entre a taxa de administração e a performance (representada pelo Índice Sharpe é fraca, não se encontrando evidências para afirmar que os fundos que cobram as maiores taxas de administração produzem as melhores performances. Como complemento dos resultados apresentados, verifica-se que existem outras variáveis que influenciam a performance dos fundos, fazendo-se necessárias investigações complementares.

  1. Dinâmica folicular e taxa de prenhez em novilhas receptoras de embrião (Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus tratadas com o protocolo "Ovsynch" para inovulação em tempo fixo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Sampaio Baruselli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência da sincronização da ovulação para inovulação em tempo fixo em novilhas Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus receptoras de embrião. No Experimento 1, a dinâmica folicular foi acompanhada durante o protocolo "Ovsynch" (G1; n=35 e após a aplicação de PGF2alfa (G2; n=34. No Experimento 2, os mesmos tratamentos foram realizados a campo em 168 (G1 e 177 (G2 novilhas. No D6, colheu-se sangue para dosagem de P4 e se realizaram exames ultra-sonográficos. No D7, realizou-se a inovulação. No Experimento 1, 45,7% dos animais ovularam após o 1º GnRH (P;0,05. Ao final, a taxa de prenhez no Gl foi de 35,7% e no G2 de 25,4% (P<0,05. Foram detectadas em estro 53,7% das novilhas do G2 e 33,3% do Gl (P<0,05. Os corpos lúteos com maior área determinaram maiores concentrações de P4 e taxa de concepção (P<0,05. A sincronização da ovulação para inovulação em tempo fixo aumentou as taxas de ovulação, de aproveitamento e de prenhez em novilhas receptoras de embrião.

  2. Taxas de gestação de novilhas receptoras submetidas à administração de rbST, GnRH ou hCG no quinto dia do ciclo estral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a habilidade de diferentes hormônios administrados no quinto dia do ciclo estral em elevar a taxa de gestação em 196 novilhas receptoras, mestiças Holandês-Zebu, aleatoriamente distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: T1-controle (n=50, T2-administração subcutânea de 500mg de rbST (n=44, T3-administração intramuscular de 100m g de GnRH (gonadorelina; n=46 e T4-administração de 3000UI de hCG (1000UI endovenosa e 2000UI intramuscular; n=56. Embriões coletados aos sete dias foram eqüitativamente distribuídos (estádio e qualidade e transferidos para as receptoras no sétimo dia do ciclo estral. As taxas de gestação detectadas por palpação transretal 53 dias após a transferência dos embriões não diferiram entre os tratamentos, sendo: 15/24 em T1 (62,5%, 15/25 em T2 (60,0%, 13/29 em T3 (44,8% e 22/31 em T4 (71,0%. Estes resultados demonstraram que a administração de rbST, GnRH ou hCG no quinto dia do ciclo estral não foi capaz de elevar as taxas de gestação.

  3. Produção de rainhas (Apis mellifera L., e taxa de fecundação natural em quatro municípios do nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santiago Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a taxa de natalidade de rainhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L. e o índice de aceitação de abelhas rainha mediante a utilização de dois métodos de introdução em colônias órfãs. A produção de rainhas deu-se na, fazenda Experimental Rafael Fernandes, Campus: UFERSA/Mossoró-RN, de maio a setembro de 2011.  As larvas foram obtidas de colmeias com CH superior a 90%, utilizando o método de transferência proposto por Doolittle (1889. Realizou-se a transferência de 1920 larvas para colmeias mini recria modelo “Ribeirão Preto” que receberam alimentação energética e proteica de acordo com o consumo. Utilizaram-se 40 colmeias modelo Langstroth contendo enxames de abelhas distribuídas em quatro municípios: Pedro Avelino/RN; Mossoró/RN; Jaguaruana/CE; Russas/CE. Foram selecionadas 10 colmeias por município, orfanadas e após setenta e duas horas introduziram-se rainhas virgens com cinco dias de idade e 180mg. A introdução se deu de duas formas: 1 – Alternada: As rainhas foram introduzidas aleatoriamente nas colônias. 2 – Controlada: As rainhas introduzidas passaram por uma pré-seleção pelas operárias antes da introdução. Verificou-se que houve uma queda na produção e peso de rainhas ao longo do experimento. Produziram-se 1150 rainhas entre maio e setembro de 2011. Os métodos de introdução de rainhas Alternada e controlada apresentaram taxas de fecundação de 80% e 95%, respectivamente.

  4. Das Unplanbare bewältigen

    OpenAIRE

    Böhle, Fritz (Prof.)

    2003-01-01

    Das Unplanbare bewältigen : erfahrungsgeleitetes Handeln im Projektmanagement / Fritz Böhle ; Pamela Meil. - In: Projektmanagement in Zeiten des Wandels : 2. Fachtagung Projektmanagement, 1. Oktober 2003 / ZWW, Zentrum für Weiterbildung und Wissenstransfer. Cornelia Butz .... - Augsburg : ZWW, 2003. - S. 36-46

  5. Die Gestalten und das Gestalten der Welt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierna, Carlo; Höfer, Ulf; Valent, Juta

    2017-01-01

    In seiner Kosmogonie bespricht Ehrenfels den Ursprung, die Entwicklung, und das endgültige Schicksal des Universums: die Gestalt der Welt. Einerseits ist sie ein Kosmos, ein Geschöpf des Ordnungsprinzips, andererseits ein Chaos, als Resultat des Prinzips des Zufalls und der Entropie. Diese beiden

  6. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Adebola Aj; Anderson, James V; Kolade, Olufisayo A; Ugwu, Chike D; Dixon, Alfred Go; Ingelbrecht, Ivan L

    2009-09-11

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and castor bean (Ricinus communis). Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8%) displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1%) amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita) whereas 13 (15.3%) amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6%) amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for cultivar identification, taxonomic studies, and

  7. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz: prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu Chike D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. Results A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula and castor bean (Ricinus communis. Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8% displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1% amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita whereas 13 (15.3% amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6% amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. Conclusion A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for

  8. S1 satellite DNA repetitive units display identical structure and overall variability in all Anatolian brown frog taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Orfeo; Feliciello, Isidoro; Chinali, Gianni

    2016-02-01

    S1 satellite DNA from Palearctic brown frogs has a species-specific structure in all European species. We characterized S1 satellite DNA from the Anatolian brown frogs Rana macrocnemis, R. camerani, and R. holtzi in order to define their taxonomic rank and the structure of this satellite in this frog lineage. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested with KpnI, EcoRV, NdeI, NheI, or StuI produced the same pattern of satellite DNA bands. Moreover, quantitative dot blots showed that this satellite DNA accounts for 0.1 % of the genome in all taxa. Analysis of the overall genomic variability of the S1a repeat sequence in specimens from various populations demonstrated that this repetitive unit also has the same size (476 bp), the same most common sequence (MCS) and the same overall variability in all three taxa, and also in R. macrocnemis tavasensis. The S1a repetitive unit presents three deletions of 9, 8 and 1 bp compared to the 494-bp S1a repeat from European frogs. The S1a MCS has three variable positions (sequence WWTK in positions 183-186), due to the presence of two repeat subpopulations with motifs AATG and WWTT in all taxa. Unlike previously analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequences that show considerable variations among these taxa, no difference could be detected in the structure and variability of the S1 satellite repetitive units. This suggests that these taxa should belong to a single species. Our results indicate that this satellite DNA variety probably formed when the Anatolian lineage radiated from common ancestor about 4 mya, and since then has maintained its structure in all four taxa examined.

  9. Identifying the plant-associated microbiome across aquatic and terrestrial environments: the effects of amplification method on taxa discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackrel, Sara L. [Department of Ecology and Evolution, The University of Chicago, 1101 E 57th Street Chicago IL 60637 USA; Owens, Sarah M. [Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Gilbert, Jack A. [Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; The Microbiome Center, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave Chicago IL 60637 USA; Pfister, Catherine A. [Department of Ecology and Evolution, The University of Chicago, 1101 E 57th Street Chicago IL 60637 USA

    2017-01-25

    Plants in terrestrial and aquatic environments contain a diverse microbiome. Yet, the chloroplast and mitochondria organelles of the plant eukaryotic cell originate from free-living cyanobacteria and Rickettsiales. This represents a challenge for sequencing the plant microbiome with universal primers, as ~99% of 16S rRNA sequences may consist of chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences. Peptide nucleic acid clamps offer a potential solution by blocking amplification of host-associated sequences. We assessed the efficacy of chloroplast and mitochondria-blocking clamps against a range of microbial taxa from soil, freshwater and marine environments. While we found that the mitochondrial blocking clamps appear to be a robust method for assessing animal-associated microbiota, Proteobacterial 16S rRNA binds to the chloroplast-blocking clamp, resulting in a strong sequencing bias against this group. We attribute this bias to a conserved 14-bp sequence in the Proteobacteria that matches the 17-bp chloroplast-blocking clamp sequence. By scanning the Greengenes database, we provide a reference list of nearly 1500 taxa that contain this 14-bp sequence, including 48 families such as the Rhodobacteraceae, Phyllobacteriaceae, Rhizobiaceae, Kiloniellaceae and Caulobacteraceae. To determine where these taxa are found in nature, we mapped this taxa reference list against the Earth Microbiome Project database. These taxa are abundant in a variety of environments, particularly aquatic and semiaquatic freshwater and marine habitats. To facilitate informed decisions on effective use of organelle-blocking clamps, we provide a searchable database of microbial taxa in the Greengenes and Silva databases matching various n-mer oligonucleotides of each PNA sequence.

  10. Os determinantes do investimento das PME's portuguesas

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Sílvia Margarida Dinis

    2011-01-01

    Neste estudo, com base numa amostra de PME´s Portuguesas estudamos os determinantes do investimento em contexto de PME´s. Como determinantes do investimento consideramos: 1) investimento do período anterior, 2) as vendas, 3) os cash-flows, 4) o endividamento, 5) a idade, 6) as oportunidades de investimento, 7) taxas de juro, e 8) Produto Interno Bruto. Após a revisão da literatura, procedemos à apresentação dos resultados empíricos. Inicialmente, estudamos os determinantes do investimento ...

  11. Abundance of broad bacterial Taxa in the Sargasso Sea explained by environmental conditions but not water mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstedt, Johanna; Martiny, Jennifer Bellanca Hughes; Munk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To explore the potential linkage between distribution of marine bacterioplankton groups, environmental conditions, and water mass, we investigated the factors determining the abundance of bacterial taxa across the hydrographically complex Subtropical Convergence Zone in the Sargasso Sea. Based...... of Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, and picoalgae were determined by flow cytometry. Linear multiple-regression models determining the relative effects of eight environmental variables and of water mass explained 35 to 86% of the variation in abundance of the quantified taxa, even though only one to three variables...... the Sargasso Sea using only a few environmental parameters....

  12. Influência das vitaminas C e E sobre a qualidade do semen criopreservado de Prochilodus brevis (Prochilodontidae, Teleostei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silva de Almeida-Monteiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A criopreservação seminal permite a conservação em longo prazo dos gametas de diversas espécies, inclusive as ameaçadas, como a Prochilodus brevis. Contudo, a aplicação dessa biotecnologia pode causar danos às células espermáticas, reduzindo a qualidade seminal. Assim, tem-se buscado substâncias que minimizem os danos causados por esse processo, como os antioxidantes. Deste modo, este estudo objetivou avaliar a associação entre dois crioprotetores e duas vitaminas, em diferentes concentrações, sobre a qualidade do sêmen criopreservado de P. brevis. Para a criopreservação, o experimento foi realizado em duas etapas. Na primeira, o sêmen de 10 animais foi submetido a seis diferentes meios de congelação, oriundos da combinação de glicose 5%, dois crioprotetores (Dimetilsulfóxido [DMSO] ou Metilglicol e duas vitaminas (C ou E a 0,0001 mg, para a criopreservação. Na segunda etapa, amostras de sêmen de oito animais foram diluídas em Glicose 5% e DMSO (melhor crioprotetor encontrado na primeira etapa, associados a três diferentes concentrações das vitaminas C ou E (0,01; 0,001 e 0,0001 mg. Em ambas as etapas, as amostras in natura e pós-descongeladas foram submetidas às análises de cinética, morfologia e integridade de membrana espermática. O sêmen criopreservado com DMSO apresentou resultados significativamente superiores (p < 0,05 comparado ao congelado com Metilglicol, independente da vitamina utilizada. A taxa de espermatozoides morfologicamente normais foi superior (p < 0,05 nas amostras contendo vitamina, contudo a vitamina E reduziu as taxas de motilidade espermática, independente do crioprotetor utilizado. Quanto às concentrações das vitaminas, obtiveram-se maiores taxas de motilidade quando se criopreservou sêmen com 0,01 e 0,0001 mg de qualquer uma das vitaminas. Entretanto, a maior concentração teve efeito deletério sobre a morfologia espermática de P. brevis. Portanto, a glicose associada ao

  13. Distribuição espacial e temporal da tuberculose em indígenas e não indígenas de Rondônia, Amazônia Ocidental, Brasil Spatial and temporal distribution of tuberculosis in indigenous and non-indigenous of Rondônia State, Western Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Eustáquia Magalhães de Pinho Melo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou a distribuição espacial e temporal das incidências brutas e ajustadas de tuberculose (TB no período 1997-2006, identificando áreas de maior risco para indígenas e não indígenas de Rondônia, Brasil. Foi realizado estudo ecológico, tendo como unidades de análise municípios e Terras Indígenas (TI, utilizando método bayesiano empírico local para ajuste das taxas. A incidência média bruta de TB para não indígenas foi 35,6/100.000 habitantes, enquanto para indígenas foi 415,0/100.000 habitantes. As TI Karipuna, Sete de Setembro, Igarapé Ribeirão e Karitiana apresentaram incidência > 600/100.000. Observou-se nos indígenas maior número de casos em This study analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of crude and adjusted rates of incidence of tuberculosis (TB between 1997 and 2006, identifying areas of greatest risk to the indigenous and non-indigenous population of Rondônia State, Brazil. An ecological study was conducted analyzing municipalities and Indian reserves, using the local empirical Bayesian method. The crude average rate of incidence of TB among the non-indigenous population was 35.6/100,000 inhabitants, while for the indigenous population it was 415.0/100,000. Rates greater than 600/100,000 were reported in the Karipuna, Sete de Setembro, Igarapé, Ribeirão and Karitiana reserves. We observed a greater number of cases in under 15 year-olds with little schooling in contrast to the situation in the non-indigenous population. After making adjustments, the rates in some Indian reserves exceeded 240/100,000 inhabitants, while in coinciding municipalities incidence was between the range of 61-120/100,000. The Bayesian method led to decreased overall heterogeneity in rates. Evidence suggests that the indigenous population is more vulnerable to contracting TB and highlighted areas that require further attention to ensure the adequate control of TB in Rondônia.

  14. Impacts of invasive plants on resident animals across ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types: a global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmel, Jens; Bundschuh, Mirco; Entling, Martin H; Kowarik, Ingo; Buchholz, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    As drivers of global change, biological invasions have fundamental ecological consequences. However, it remains unclear how invasive plant effects on resident animals vary across ecosystems, animal classes, and functional groups. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis covering 198 field and laboratory studies reporting a total of 3624 observations of invasive plant effects on animals. Invasive plants had reducing (56%) or neutral (44%) effects on animal abundance, diversity, fitness, and ecosystem function across different ecosystems, animal classes, and feeding types while we could not find any increasing effect. Most importantly, we found that invasive plants reduced overall animal abundance, diversity and fitness. However, this significant overall effect was contingent on ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types of animals. Decreasing effects of invasive plants were most evident in riparian ecosystems, possibly because frequent disturbance facilitates more intense plant invasions compared to other ecosystem types. In accordance with their immediate reliance on plants for food, invasive plant effects were strongest on herbivores. Regarding taxonomic groups, birds and insects were most strongly affected. In insects, this may be explained by their high frequency of herbivory, while birds demonstrate that invasive plant effects can also cascade up to secondary consumers. Since data on impacts of invasive plants are rather limited for many animal groups in most ecosystems, we argue for overcoming gaps in knowledge and for a more differentiated discussion on effects of invasive plant on native fauna. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Studies on Leaf Venation in Selected Taxa of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badron, Ummu Hani; Talip, Noraini; Mohamad, Abdul Latiff; Affenddi, Affina Eliya Aznal; Juhari, Amirul Aiman Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    A study on the variation of leaf venation patterns was conducted on 21 taxa of the genus Ficus in Peninsular Malaysia. The results showed the existence of eight leaf venation patterns based on veinlets, the ultimate marginal and areolar venation. The majority of species, such as F. annulata, F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea var. angustifolia, F. deltoidea var. kunstleri, F. depressa, F. elastica, F. hispida, F. microcarpa, F. religiosa, F. tinctoria, F. ucinata and F. vasculosa, show tri-veinlets. The others exhibit the following: bi-veinlets in F. aurata and F. heteropleura; uni-veinlets in F. lepicarpa, F. schwarzii and F. superba; and simple veinlets in F. aurantiacea and F. fulva. F. sagittata presents no veinlets for areolar venation. The presence of tracheid or swollen veins at the centre of the lamina and the presence of cystolith cells and trichomes are common anatomical characteristics that could assist in group classification of the studied species. Variations in leaf venation patterns are not only valuable in identifying a taxon group, but can also be used to differentiate between species in the genus Ficus.

  16. Transcriptomic underpinning of toxicant-mediated physiological function alterations in three terrestrial invertebrate taxa: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulle, Franck [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Morgan, A. John [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 915, Cardiff, CF10 3US Wales (United Kingdom); Cocquerelle, Claude [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Vandenbulcke, Franck, E-mail: franck.vandenbulcke@univ-lille1.f [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-09-15

    Diverse anthropogenic activities often lead to the accumulation of inorganic and organic residues in topsoils. Biota living in close contact with contaminated soils may experience stress at different levels of biological organisation throughout the continuum from the molecular-genetic to ecological and community levels. To date, the relationship between changes at the molecular (mRNA expression) and biochemical/physiological levels evoked by exposures to chemical compounds has been partially established in a limited number of terrestrial invertebrate species. Recently, the advent of a family of transcriptomic tools (e.g. Real-time PCR, Subtractive Suppressive Hybridization, Expressed Sequence Tag sequencing, pyro-sequencing technologies, Microarray chips), together with supporting informatic and statistical procedures, have permitted the robust analyses of global gene expression changes within an ecotoxicological context. This review focuses on how transcriptomics is enlightening our understanding of the molecular-genetic responses of three contrasting terrestrial macroinvertebrate taxa (nematodes, earthworms, and springtails) to inorganics, organics, and agrochemicals. - Environmental toxicology and transcriptomics in soil macroinvertebrates.

  17. Chemical cocktails in aquatic systems: Pesticide effects on the response and recovery of >20 animal taxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jessica; Relyea, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Natural systems are often exposed to individual insecticides or combinations of multiple insecticides. Using an additive and substitutive design, we examined how populations and communities containing >20 animal taxa are affected by four insecticides applied individually and as a mixture for 18 wks in aquatic mesocosms. The four insecticides had distinct lethal effects on the response and recovery of cladocerans, copepods, amphipods, isopods, and amphibians but not snails. The lethal effect on cladocerans and copepods induced trophic cascades that facilitated algal blooms and abiotic changes (higher pH and dissolved oxygen, but lower light transmission). Exposure to endosulfan resulted in a lag effect reducing cladocerans and spring-breeding amphibian abundance. The reduction in spring-breeding amphibian abundance led to cascading indirect effects on summer-breeding amphibians. Finally, the mixture treatment had lethal effects throughout the community that led to long-term effects on amphibian mass and unique indirect consequences on phytoplankton and abiotic variables. - Highlights: • Insecticides had unique direct and indirect effects on response and recovery. • Due to lag effects, endosulfan was more toxic than expected based on 4d tests. • Variation in oviposition phenology led to positive effects on amphibians. • Lethal direct effects of mixtures were pervasive and led to unique indirect effects. - Insecticides applied individually and in a mixture have complex direct and indirect consequences on aquatic system response and recovery

  18. I-HEDGE: determining the optimum complementary sets of taxa for conservation using evolutionary isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn L. Jensen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of the current biodiversity crisis, conservation efforts might profitably be directed towards ensuring that extinctions do not result in inordinate losses of evolutionary history. Numerous methods have been developed to evaluate the importance of species based on their contribution to total phylogenetic diversity on trees and networks, but existing methods fail to take complementarity into account, and thus cannot identify the best order or subset of taxa to protect. Here, we develop a novel iterative calculation of the heightened evolutionary distinctiveness and globally endangered metric (I-HEDGE that produces the optimal ranked list for conservation prioritization, taking into account complementarity and based on both phylogenetic diversity and extinction probability. We applied this metric to a phylogenetic network based on mitochondrial control region data from extant and recently extinct giant Galápagos tortoises, a highly endangered group of closely related species. We found that the restoration of two extinct species (a project currently underway will contribute the greatest gain in phylogenetic diversity, and present an ordered list of rankings that is the optimum complementarity set for conservation prioritization.

  19. Environmental heterogeneity as a universal driver of species richness across taxa, biomes and spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Anke; Gerstner, Katharina; Kreft, Holger

    2014-07-01

    Environmental heterogeneity is regarded as one of the most important factors governing species richness gradients. An increase in available niche space, provision of refuges and opportunities for isolation and divergent adaptation are thought to enhance species coexistence, persistence and diversification. However, the extent and generality of positive heterogeneity-richness relationships are still debated. Apart from widespread evidence supporting positive relationships, negative and hump-shaped relationships have also been reported. In a meta-analysis of 1148 data points from 192 studies worldwide, we examine the strength and direction of the relationship between spatial environmental heterogeneity and species richness of terrestrial plants and animals. We find that separate effects of heterogeneity in land cover, vegetation, climate, soil and topography are significantly positive, with vegetation and topographic heterogeneity showing particularly strong associations with species richness. The use of equal-area study units, spatial grain and spatial extent emerge as key factors influencing the strength of heterogeneity-richness relationships, highlighting the pervasive influence of spatial scale in heterogeneity-richness studies. We provide the first quantitative support for the generality of positive heterogeneity-richness relationships across heterogeneity components, habitat types, taxa and spatial scales from landscape to global extents, and identify specific needs for future comparative heterogeneity-richness research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Root isoflavonoids and hairy root transformation influence key bacterial taxa in the soybean rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura J; Ge, Xijin; Brözel, Volker S; Subramanian, Senthil

    2017-04-01

    Rhizodeposits play a key role in shaping rhizosphere microbial communities. In soybean, isoflavonoids are a key rhizodeposit component that aid in plant defense and enable symbiotic associations with rhizobia. However, it is uncertain if and how they influence rhizosphere microbial communities. Isoflavonoid biosynthesis was silenced via RNA interference of isoflavone synthase in soybean hairy root composite plants. Rhizosphere soil fractions tightly associated with roots were isolated, and PCR amplicons from 16S rRNA gene variable regions V1-V3 and V3-V5 from these fractions were sequenced using 454. The resulting data was resolved using MOTHUR and vegan to identify bacterial taxa and evaluate changes in rhizosphere bacterial communities. The soybean rhizosphere was enriched in Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and had relatively lower levels of Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria compared with bulk soil. Isoflavonoids had a small effect on bacterial community structure, and in particular on the abundance of Xanthomonads and Comamonads. The effect of hairy root transformation on rhizosphere bacterial communities was largely similar to untransformed plant roots with approximately 74% of the bacterial families displaying similar colonization underscoring the suitability of this technique to evaluate the influence of plant roots on rhizosphere bacterial communities. However, hairy root transformation had notable influence on Sphingomonads and Acidobacteria. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Erotylidae (Insecta, Coleoptera of Poland – problematic taxa, updated keys and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Ruta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New data concerning the occurrence of pleasing fungus beetles (Coleoptera: Erotylidae in Poland are given, with a focus on rare and difficult to identify Central European taxa. Cryptophilus cf. integer (Heer (Cryptophilinae is reported from the Polish territory for the first time based on adult and larval specimens collected in the Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland. Identification problems concerning species of Cryptophilus introduced to Europe are discussed. Triplax carpathica Reitter (Erotylinae is recorded from the Białowieża Primeval Forest, which is the first known non-Carpathian finding of this species, located in the close proximity of the Polish-Belarussian UNESCO World Heritage Site “Białowieża Forest”. Discussion of T. carpathica being conspecific with Siberian T. rufiventris Gebler is provided. New Polish localities of several other Erotylidae are reported, and an updated key to Central European species of Triplax is given. The Triplax key is supplemented with dorsal and ventral habitus images of all treated Triplax species. One of the rarest Central European erotyline species Combocerus glaber (Schaller is recorded from xerothermic grasslands in North-West Poland.

  2. Erotylidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) of Poland - problematic taxa, updated keys and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Rafał; Jałoszyński, Paweł; Sienkiewicz, Paweł; Konwerski, Szymon

    2011-01-01

    New data concerning the occurrence of pleasing fungus beetles (Coleoptera: Erotylidae) in Poland are given, with a focus on rare and difficult to identify Central European taxa. Cryptophilus cf. integer (Heer) (Cryptophilinae) is reported from the Polish territory for the first time based on adult and larval specimens collected in the Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland. Identification problems concerning species of Cryptophilus introduced to Europe are discussed. Triplax carpathica Reitter (Erotylinae) is recorded from the Białowieża Primeval Forest, which is the first known non-Carpathian finding of this species, located in the close proximity of the Polish-Belarussian UNESCO World Heritage Site "Białowieża Forest". Discussion of Triplax carpathica being conspecific with Siberian Triplax rufiventris Gebler is provided. New Polish localities of several other Erotylidae are reported, and an updated key to Central European species of Triplax is given. The Triplax key is supplemented with dorsal and ventral habitus images of all treated Triplax species. One of the rarest Central European erotyline species Combocerus glaber (Schaller) is recorded from xerothermic grasslands in North-West Poland.

  3. Erotylidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) of Poland – problematic taxa, updated keys and new records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Rafał; Jałoszyński, Paweł; Sienkiewicz, Paweł; Konwerski, Szymon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract New data concerning the occurrence of pleasing fungus beetles (Coleoptera: Erotylidae) in Poland are given, with a focus on rare and difficult to identify Central European taxa. Cryptophilus cf. integer (Heer) (Cryptophilinae) is reported from the Polish territory for the first time based on adult and larval specimens collected in the Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland. Identification problems concerning species of Cryptophilus introduced to Europe are discussed. Triplax carpathica Reitter (Erotylinae) is recorded from the Białowieża Primeval Forest, which is the first known non-Carpathian finding of this species, located in the close proximity of the Polish-Belarussian UNESCO World Heritage Site “Białowieża Forest”. Discussion of Triplax carpathica being conspecific with Siberian Triplax rufiventris Gebler is provided. New Polish localities of several other Erotylidae are reported, and an updated key to Central European species of Triplax is given. The Triplax key is supplemented with dorsal and ventral habitus images of all treated Triplax species. One of the rarest Central European erotyline species Combocerus glaber (Schaller) is recorded from xerothermic grasslands in North-West Poland. PMID:22140339

  4. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics for zoonotic infectious diseases: deciphering variables influencing disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Sarah S T; Gonzalez, Andrew; Millien, Virginie

    2016-05-01

    Zoonotic disease transmission systems involve sets of species interacting with each other and their environment. This complexity impedes development of disease monitoring and control programs that require reliable identification of spatial and biotic variables and mechanisms facilitating disease emergence. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a framework that simultaneously examines all species involved in disease emergence by integrating concepts and methods from population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics (MTILG) can reveal how interspecific interactions and landscape variables influence disease emergence patterns. We test the potential of our MTILG-based framework by modelling the emergence of a disease system across multiple species dispersal, interspecific interaction, and landscape scenarios. Our simulations showed that both interspecific-dependent dispersal patterns and landscape characteristics significantly influenced disease spread. Using our framework, we were able to detect statistically similar inter-population genetic differences and highly correlated spatial genetic patterns that imply species-dependent dispersal. Additionally, species that were assigned coupled-dispersal patterns were affected to the same degree by similar landscape variables. This study underlines the importance of an integrated approach to investigating emergence of disease systems. MTILG is a robust approach for such studies and can identify potential avenues for targeted disease management strategies.

  5. Comparative study of Passiflora taxa leaves: I. A morpho-anatomic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Wosch

    Full Text Available AbstractDetermining the authenticity and quality of plant raw materials used in the formulation of herbal medicines, teas and cosmetics is essential to ensure their safety and efficacy for clinical use. Some Passiflora species are officially recognized in the pharmaceutical compendia of various countries and have therapeutic uses, particularly as sedatives and anxiolytics. However, the large number of Passiflora species, coupled with the fact that most species are popularly known as passion fruit, increases the misidentification problem. The purpose of this study is to make a pharmacognostic comparison between various Passiflora species to establish a morpho-anatomical profile that could contribute to the quality control of herbal drug products that contain passion fruit. This was conducted by collecting samples of leaves from twelve Passiflora taxa (ten species and two forms of P. edulis: P. actinia, P. alata, P. amethystina, P. capsularis, P. cincinnata, P. edulisf. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis, P. incarnata, P. morifolia, P. urnifolia, P. coccinea and P. setacea, from different locations and their morpho-anatomical features were analyzed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Microscopic analysis allowed to indicate a set of characters that can help to differentiate species. These include midrib and petiole shape, midrib and petiole vascular pattern, medium vein shape, presence of trichomes, presence of blade epidermal papillae and sclerenchymatic cells adjoining the vascular bundles. These characters could be used to assist in the determination of herbal drug quality and authenticity derived from a species of Passiflora.

  6. Isozyme variation and genetic relationships among taxa in the Asplenium obovatum group (Aspleniaceae, Pteridophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A; Pajarón, S; Prada, C

    2001-11-01

    The Asplenium obovatum group consists of diploid and tetraploid taxa; the origin of the tetraploid A. obovatum subsp. lanceolatum was previously considered to have occurred via autopolyploidy, involving one of the diploids of the group, either A. obovatum subsp. obovatum var. obovatum or var. protobillotii. To test this hypothesis, electrophoretic analyses of eight enzyme systems encoded by fourteen putative loci and cytological studies of the artificial hybrid between both diploid varieties were conducted. Alleles of the loci Lap-1, Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Pgm-1, Pgm-1', and 6Pgd-1 emerged as genetic markers for the diploids and were present in an additive pattern in most of the analyzed individuals of the tetraploid. Cytological results indicated a high degree of genomic homology between the diploids. These results indicated that the tetraploid behaves as a segmental allopolyploid. Our results showed that both diploids were involved in the origin of the tetraploid. We propose the new combination Asplenium obovatum subsp. protobillotii for one of the diploids.

  7. Nonbreeding-Season Drivers of Population Dynamics in Seasonal Migrants: Conservation Parallels Across Taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For seasonal migrants, logistical constraints have often limited conservation efforts to improving survival and reproduction during the breeding season only. Yet, mounting empirical evidence suggests that events occurring throughout the migratory life cycle can critically alter the demography of many migrant species. Herein, we build upon recent syntheses of avian migration research to review the role of non-breeding seasons in determining the population dynamics and fitness of diverse migratory taxa, including salmonid fishes, marine mammals, ungulates, sea turtles, butterflies, and numerous bird groups. We discuss several similarities across these varied migrants: (i non-breeding survivorship tends to be a strong driver of population growth; (ii non-breeding events can affect fitness in subsequent seasons through seasonal interactions at individual- and population-levels; (iii broad-scale climatic influences often alter non-breeding resources and migration timing, and may amplify population impacts through covariation among seasonal vital rates; and (iv changes to both stationary and migratory non-breeding habitats can have important consequences for abundance and population trends. Finally, we draw on these patterns to recommend that future conservation research for seasonal migrants will benefit from: (1 more explicit recognition of the important parallels among taxonomically diverse migratory animals; (2 an expanded research perspective focused on quantification of all seasonal vital rates and their interactions; and (3 the development of detailed population projection models that account for complexity and uncertainty in migrant population dynamics.

  8. Estimativa do vigor das sementes e das plântulas de Bixa orellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Leopoldo Ferreira

    Full Text Available RESUMO A multiplicação de espécies como as da planta de urucum tem limitações em função do conhecimento limitado das características morfológicas e fisiológicas das sementes e das plântulas e da restrição de métodos para determinar a qualidade dessas sementes. Nessa pesquisa, o objetivo foi estudar a adequação do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para estimar o vigor das sementes de urucum (Bixa orellana L., relacionando os resultados desse teste com a formação das plântulas e as diferenças de genótipo dos acessos genéticos. As sementes de urucum, representadas por quatro acessos genéticos, e por três lotes, foram avaliadas pelos testes de germinação, primeira contagem da germinação, classificação do vigor das plântulas e emergência das plântulas (total e índice de velocidade. No teste de envelhecimento acelerado foram avaliados a temperatura, de 41 ºC, e os períodos, de 48; 72 e 96 horas, de exposição das sementes às umidades relativas de 100% (água e de 76% (solução saturada de NaCl. A solução saturada reduz a quantidade de água absorvida pelas sementes de urucum, expostas às condições do teste de envelhecimento acelerado, reduzindo a deterioração das sementes, favorecendo a uniformidade dos resultados e a redução da proliferação de fungos, comuns na germinação das sementes de urucum. O teste de envelhecimento acelerado, com água ou solução salina, por 72 horas ou 96 horas, é eficiente para classificar as sementes de urucum quanto à qualidade. Assim, as variações dos teores de água das sementes de urucum devem ser entre 23;6 e 28;9% (72 horas e 29;7 e 32;9% (96 horas para a utilização da água e entre 7,3 e 9,5% para a utilização da solução salina de NaCl.

  9. Revisão sistemática sobre antissepsia cirúrgica das mãos com preparação alcoólica em comparação aos produtos tradicionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen de Jesus Gonçalves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A antissepsia cirúrgica das mãos visa à prevenção de infecções do sítio cirúrgico, importante causa de morbimortalidade pós-operatória e aumento dos custos hospitalares. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a eficácia de preparações alcoólicas com os produtos tradicionais na antissepsia cirúrgica das mãos por meio de uma revisão sistemática da literatura. Foram considerados estudos primários ou secundários, tendo como desfecho a contagem microbiana das mãos ou taxas de infecções do sítio cirúrgico. A busca foi realizada no Portal BVS, PubMed, Ask e MEDLINE. Foram selecionados 25 estudos (2 revisões sistemáticas, 19 experimentais e 4 de coorte. As preparações alcoólicas tiveram uma redução microbiana igual e/ou maior aos produtos tradicionais em 17 estudos e inferior em 4; as taxas de infecções do sítio cirúrgico foram similares. Portanto, existem evidências científicas que suportam a segurança das preparações alcoólicas para antissepsia cirúrgica das mãos.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  11. Expressão de certeza e dúvida na gagueira: estudo dos aspectos temporais da fala Expression of certainty and doubt on stuttering: study of speech's temporal features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Correa Celeste

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: examinar o papel da organização temporal do discurso na expressão das atitudes de certeza e dúvida em grupo de adultos com gagueira, comparando-a em um grupo de adultos fluentes. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 24 indivíduos, sendo 12 com gagueira (GE1 e GE2 e 12 sem gagueira (GC. Foram coletadas amostras que teve como base um corpus de 10 frases chave que foram produzidas nas formas neutra, de dúvida e de certeza, totalizando 840 enunciados. A análise acústica foi realizada por meio do programa Praat e os seguintes parâmetros foram analisados: tempos e taxas de elocução e articulação, ocorrência e duração de pausas e disfluências, duração das vogais tônica e pré-tônica e ocorrência da vogal pós-tônica. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio dos testes Kruskall Wallis e qui-quadrado, com índice de significância de 95%. RESULTADOS: a expressão da dúvida apresenta taxa de articulação mais baixa no grupo controle, seguida da forma neutra e de certeza, com diferenças estatisticamente significantes. Ainda no grupo controle, foi observado presença de pausas e disfluências somente na expressão de dúvida. No grupo experimental, a maior diferença encontrada foi na duração da vogal da sílaba tônica. CONCLUSÃO: de uma forma geral, o GC variou mais sua organização temporal a fim de expressar as atitudes. No entanto, é possível observar também uma tendência semelhante no grupo de pessoas com gagueira. Quanto à velocidade de fala, ao retirar as pausas e as disfluências, vemos que tanto GE1 quanto GE2 diferenciam a certeza, articulando cada sílaba de forma mais rápida.PURPOSE: to examine the role of speech temporal organization on the expression as for the attitudes of certainty and doubt in the group of adults who stutter, comparing such analysis with a group of speech-fluent adults. METHOD: we analyzed 24 individuals, 12 with stuttering (SG1 and SG2 and 12 without stuttering (CG

  12. Determinação da taxa metabólica basal em cutias, Dasyprocta azarae, por calorimetria indireta Determination of the basal metabolic rate in agoutis, Dasyprocta azarae, by indirect calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald F.V. Brito

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A melhor ferramenta para comparação fisiológica entre organismos diferentes é a taxa metabólica basal, inter-relação fundamental que existe entre todos os seres vivos. Mensurações diretas das concentrações de oxigênio e dióxido de carbono, pela análise do ar inspirado e expirado, podem ser usadas para a mensuração de taxa metabólica. Este trabalho foi executado com o propósito de aferir as taxas metabólicas basal e específica, e reexaminar o escalonamento do metabolismo basal em cutias (Dasyprocta azarae. Foram utilizadas 34 cutias (D. azarae adultas sadias, sendo 9 machos não castrados, 9 machos castrados e 16 fêmeas, pertencentes ao plantel do Criadouro Científico do Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, Curitiba, PR. Os animais passaram por jejum prévio de 6 horas e foram acondicionados em caixas especiais, com temperatura ambiente controlada (22,0±1,0ºC, sendo então submetidos à aferição da taxa metabólica basal, por calorimetria indireta. Empregou-se o monitor metabólico Deltatrac®II, (Datex Ohmeda, Finlândia usualmente indicado para a mensuração da produção de dióxido de carbono (VCO2 e do consumo de oxigênio (VO2 em seres humanos, por meio da mensuração das variações na concentração de VCO2 e de VO2, com uma precisão de 0,01%. Após a aferição da taxa metabólica basal, foi calculada a taxa metabólica específica, e efetuada a análise dos dados por estatística indutiva. Os testes de hipóteses para comparação entre amostras indicaram que a taxa metabólica específica de machos não castrados é maior que a de fêmeas e machos castrados (5% de significância, e que a taxa metabólica específica de fêmeas e machos castrados é equivalente (1% de significância. Constatou-se ainda, com a análise da correlação de pontos experimentais, que outra variável que não o tamanho corporal afeta a taxa metabólica dos machos não castrados (1% de significância, o que indica a

  13. Estimativa da taxa de desmatamento do município de bannach, pará - amazônia legal, utilizando imagens landsat5/tm Estimation of deforestation rate in bannach municipality, pará state - amazon, using images landsat5/tm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Luna Arraes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Amazônia, maior floresta tropical do planeta, apresenta uma superfície de aproximadamente 6,4 milhões de quilômetros quadrados na América do Sul e ocupa 63% do território Brasileiro. Devido ao desmatamento, o monitoramento dessas áreas se faz necessário, principalmente pelo avanço das fronteiras agrícolas. Assim, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo estimar a taxa de desmatamento anual e diária para o Município de Bannach, Pará, Brasil. Foram adquiridas imagens do satélite Landsat 5, sensor TM (Thematic Mapper, para os anos de 1997 a 2009. Utilizou-se a classificação supervisionada por Maximum Likelihood. O índice de exatidão global apresentou resultados superiores a 90% e índices Kappa superiores a 0,83 para todos os anos de estudo. Ao longo da série temporal, observa-se um aumento do desmatamento de forma contínua, acarretado principalmente pela pecuária.The Amazon, the planet’s largest rain forest, has an area of approximately 6.4 million square kilometers in South America and occupies 63% of the Brazilian territory. Due to deforestation, the monitoring of these areas is needed, mainly by the expansion of management of the productive farming process. Thus, this study aims to estimate the annual and daily rate of deforestation for the Municipality of Bannach, Para State, Brazil. The Landsat images, sensor 5 TM (Thematic Mapper from 1997 to 2009 years were used. The supervised classification by Maximum Likelihood was made for analysis the deforestation rate. The index showed an overall accuracy results above 90% and the Kappa index above 0.83 for all years of study. Therefore, throughout the series, there is an increase in deforestation continuously with mainly land use by livestock.

  14. Tratamento da bulimia nervosa: síntese das evidências

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    Bacaltchuk Josué

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As duas abordagens terapêuticas mais estudadas para o tratamento da bulimia nervosa (BN são os tratamentos psicológicos, principalmente a terapia cognitivo-comportamental (TCC e o uso de antidepressivos. Os resultados de duas revisões sistemáticas da literatura mostram que a TCC é melhor que fila de espera e que os antidepressivos são superiores ao placebo na remissão a curto prazo dos sintomas bulímicos. A comparação direta das duas abordagens mostra que, quando usados como abordagens exclusivas, a TCC é clinicamente mais eficaz e mais aceita do que os antidepressivos. A associação dos dois tipos de tratamento é clinicamente mais eficaz que cada um isoladamente, mas a aceitação das abordagens psicológicas exclusivas é maior. Como a BN é um transtorno grave e com baixa taxa de remissão espontânea, o tratamento associado, com abordagem multidimensional e multidisciplinar, pode ser indicado.

  15. Algas perifíticas em dois ambientes do baixo rio Doce (lagoa Juparanã e rio Pequeno – Linhares, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil: variação espacial e temporal = Periphytic algae in two environments of the lower Doce river (Juparanã lagoon and Pequeno river – Linhares, Espírito Santo State, Brazil: spatial and temporal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Cavati

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou avaliar a variação espacial e temporal da comunidade de algas perifíticas em dois ambientes do baixo rio Doce: lagoa Juparanã e rio Pequeno. Foram realizadas coletas trimestrais (agosto/04 a maio/05 em duas estações amostrais, uma na lagoae outra no rio. Foram coletados pecíolos de Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. Os atributos da comunidade analisados foram: riqueza de táxons, freqüência de ocorrência, densidade, abundância e dominância. Na lagoa Juparanã, foram registrados 86 táxons e a densidadevariou de 20.592 ind cm-2 (mai/05 a 88.712 ind. cm-2 (nov/04. No rio Pequeno, foram registrados 83 táxons e a densidade variou de 16.049 ind. cm-2 (fev/05 a 71.663 ind. cm-2 (ago/04. Em ambos os ambientes, as classes predominantes qualitativamente foramCyanophyceae, Bacillariophyceae e Zygnemaphyceae, havendo domínio das formas filamentosas e unicelulares seguidas das coloniais. As classes Cyanophyceae e Bacillariophyceae foram mais representativas quantitativamente. Não houve variação espacial. Pluviosidade, temperatura da água, condutividade elétrica e transparência foram asvariáveis que mais oscilaram conforme a estação (seca ou chuvosa e as que apresentaram maior número de correlações significativas com as variáveis biológicas, evidenciando heterogeneidade temporal.This research aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of the periphytic algae community within two environments of the lower Doce River: Juparanã Lagoon and Pequeno River. Samplings were carried out every three months from August 2004 to May 2005 at both sites. Natural substrata of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth petioles were collected from the sites. The community was analyzed according to species richness, frequency of occurrence, density of organisms, abundance and dominancy. Eighty-six taxa were recorded in the lagoon,and the density of organisms varied from 20,595 ind. cm-2 (May/05 to 88,712 ind. cm-2 (Nov/04. Eighty

  16. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  17. Emergências em braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose: manual de conduta Radiology emergencies in high-dose rate brachytherapy: code of practice

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    Paulo José Cecilio

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available É crescente o uso de alta taxa de dose em braquiterapia para tratamento do câncer. O número de pacientes tratados em relação ao número de equipamentos existentes no Brasil é muito grande, sendo constantes os fatores tempo e pressão na rotina de funcionamento. Por isso, é comum, até mesmo nos grandes serviços, a falta de uma reflexão mais cuidadosa voltada à resolução de situações de emergência. Este trabalho faz uma análise prática das situações de emergência mais freqüentes e propõe um manual de conduta básico quando erros impossibilitam o retorno da fonte radioativa ao cofre, causando possível irradiação adicional à paciente e ao "staff" em unidades remotas de braquiterapia. Sugerem-se treinamentos, cuidados adicionais e controle de qualidade como forma de minimizar doses indesejáveis, bem como atenuar transtornos causados nas situações de emergência.The use of high-dose rate brachytherapy for cancer treatment is increasing and the number of patients treated in Brazil is high, considering the number of existing equipments. However, the small number of equipments is a limiting factor that bring on a lot of pressure on the working routine. For this reason, a reevaluation of emergency procedures is not carried out in most centers. This paper describes the most frequent emergency situations and suggests a code of practice when errors do not allow the return of the radiation source to the shield and result in undesirable radiation exposure to the patient and staff in remote centers for brachytherapy. We suggest training, additional caution measures and quality control in order to minimize undesirable doses.

  18. Reinstatement of Nepenthes hemsleyana (Nepenthaceae), an endemic pitcher plant from Borneo, with a discussion of associated Nepenthes taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharmann, M.; Grafe, T.U.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, N. baramensis and N. rafflesiana var. subglandulosa were described from Borneo as new taxa closely related to N. rafflesiana. However, comparison of new collections made in Borneo with N. baramensis and N. rafflesiana var. subglandulosa indicated a synonymy. Furthermore, they were

  19. Eucalyptus microfungi known from culture. 1. Cladoriella and Fulvoflamma genera nova, with notes on some other poorly known taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2006-01-01

    A study of microfungi associated with living Eucalyptus leaves and leaf litter revealed several novel and interesting taxa. Cladoriella eucalypti gen. et sp. nov. is described as a Cladosporium-like genus associated with litter collected in South Africa, while Fulvoflamma eucalypti gen. et. sp. nov.

  20. Diversity of kelp holdfast-associated fauna in an Arctic fjord - inconsistent responses to glacial mineral sedimentation across different taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronowicz, Marta; Kukliński, Piotr; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Kelp forests are complex underwater habitats that support diverse assemblages of animals ranging from sessile filter feeding invertebrates to fishes and marine mammals. In this study, the diversity of invertebrate fauna associated with kelp holdfasts was surveyed in a high Arctic glacial fjord (76 N, Hornsund, Svalbard). The effects of algal host identity (three kelp species: Laminaria digitata, Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta), depth (5 and 10 m) and glacier-derived disturbance (three sites with varying levels of mineral sedimentation) on faunal species richness and composition were studied based on 239 collected algal holdfasts. The species pool was mostly made up by three taxa: colonial Bryozoa and Hydrozoa, and Polychaeta. While the all-taxa species richness did not differ between depths, algal hosts and sites, the patterns varied when the two colonial sessile filter-feeding taxa were analysed alone (Hydrozoa and Bryozoa). The Hydrozoa sample species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were the highest at undisturbed sites, whereas Bryozoa species richness was higher in sediment-impacted localities, indicating relative insensitivity of this phylum to the increased level of mineral suspension in the water column. The average taxonomic distinctness of Bryozoa did not vary between sites. The species composition of kelp-associated fauna varied between sites and depths for the whole community and the most dominant taxa (Bryozoa, Hydrozoa). The high load of inorganic suspension and sedimentation did not cause pauperization of kelp holdfast-associated fauna but instead triggered the changes in species composition and shifts between dominant taxonomic groups.

  1. Composition of the essential oils from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and several closely related taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Hendriks, Henk; Scheffer, Johannes J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The volatile constituents from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and of several closely related Valeriana taxa were investigated by GC and GCMS (EI and NICI) analysis. Seeds were obtained from different botanical gardens in Europe, and the plants investigated were grown in an

  2. Neue taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus). IV. Fortsetzung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1982-01-01

    13 new species and two new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards are described. The new taxa are: Tipula (Lunatipula) mallorca from Mallorca, T. (L.) bimacula minos from Crete, T. (L.) simova from Thasos, T. (L.) artemis asiaeminoris, T. (L.) christophi, T. (L.) franzressli, T. (L.) horsti, T. (L.)

  3. Neue taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus). III. Fortsetzung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1980-01-01

    Six new species and three new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards are described respectively characterized. The geographical variation of some species is illustrated. The new taxa are: Tipula (Lunatipula) iberica spimila from Morocco, T. (L.) capra from Italy, T. (L.) profdrassi and T. (L.)

  4. 14C labelling of algal pigments to estimate the contribution of different taxa to primary production in natural seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, Winfried W.C.; Kraaij, Gijs W; Buma, Anita

    1993-01-01

    Several attempts have been made in the past to measure taxon-specific growth rates in natural phytoplankton populations in order to evaluate the conditions leading to success of individual taxa, to estimate the specific role of the various taxonomic components of algae in the food web and in

  5. Neue Taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Paläearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1977-01-01

    21 new species and one new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards are described and their affinities are discussed. The new taxa are: Tipula (Lunatipula) hermes from Marocco, T.(L.) parallela from the Iberian peninsula, T.(L.) xyrophora from Italy and France, T.(L.) lubenauorum and rauschorum from Italy,

  6. Phytophthora taxa associated with cultivated Agathosma, with emphasis on the P. citricola complex and P. capensis sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Denman, S.; Kirk, S.A.; Botha, W.J.; Mostert, L.; McLeod, A.

    2010-01-01

    Agathosma species, which are indigenous to South Africa, are also cultivated for commercial use. Recently growers experienced severe plant loss, and symptoms shown by affected plants suggested that a soilborne disease could be the cause of death. A number of Phytophthora taxa were isolated from

  7. Do the rich get richer? Varying effects of tree species identity and diversity on the richness of understory taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Juilette; Paine, C. E. Timothy; Schoolmaster, Donald; Stejskal, Robert; Volařík, Daniel; Šebesta, Jan; Trnka, Filip; Koutecký, Tomáš; Švarc, Petr; Svátek, Martin; Hector, Andy; Matula, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Understory herbs and soil invertebrates play key roles in soil formation and nutrient cycling in forests. Studies suggest that diversity in the canopy and in the understory are positively associated, but these studies often confound the effects of tree species diversity with those of tree species identity and abiotic conditions. We combined extensive field sampling with structural equation modeling to evaluate the simultaneous effects of tree diversity on the species diversity of understory herbs, beetles, and earthworms. The diversity of earthworms and saproxylic beetles was directly and positively associated with tree diversity, presumably because species of both these taxa specialize on certain species of trees. Tree identity also strongly affected diversity in the understory, especially for herbs, likely as a result of interspecific differences in canopy light transmittance or litter decomposition rates. Our results suggest that changes in forest management will disproportionately affect certain understory taxa. For instance, changes in canopy diversity will affect the diversity of earthworms and saproxylic beetles more than changes in tree species composition, whereas the converse would be expected for understory herbs and detritivorous beetles. We conclude that the effects of tree diversity on understory taxa can vary from positive to negative and may affect biogeochemical cycling in temperate forests. Thus, maintaining high diversity in temperate forests can promote the diversity of multiple taxa in the understory.

  8. Third annual report on birds from the Cape Verde Islands, including records of seven taxa new to the Archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazevoet, Cornelis J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent data on the distribution of birds in the Cape Verde Islands are presented, including records of seven taxa new tot the archipelago, viz. Montagu’s Harrier Circus pygargus, Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria, Namaqua Dove Oena capensis, Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus, Savi’s Warbler

  9. The Endemic Plant Taxa of the Köprülü Kanyon National Park and Its Surroundings (Antalya-Isparta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan ÖZÇELİK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted in 2003-2004 in order to identify the endemic plants of the Köprülü Kanyon National Park (Antalya-Isparta and its surroundings. A total of 230 endemic taxa belonging to 29 families were determined in the national park and its surroundings. There are 229 taxa belonging to Angiospermae subdivision and 1 taxon belonging to Gymnospermae subdivision in these collected and identified endemic taxa from the research area. There is no endemic taxon in the Bryophyta and Pteridophyta divisions of the park. 218 of the 229 taxa belonging to the Angiospermae subdivision are in the Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledoneae class and other 11 are in the Liliopsida (Monocotyledoneae class. 18 taxa of the vascular plants are specific to the research area. 44 of endemic taxa are included in the endangered category. The number of priority conservation requiring taxa is 21. Endemic taxon number is almost 25% of total flora of the area. The top five families with the highest number of taxa in the study area are Lamiaceae (38, Caryophyllaceae (37, Asteraceae (26, Scrophulariaceae (20, Fabaceae (16 (Table 2. The 10 largest genera with the highest number of taxa are as follows: Silene (15, Astragalus (9, Sideritis (8, Verbascum (7, Centaurea (7, Stachys (6, Helichrysum (6, Alkanna (6, Veronica (5 and Minuartia (5. The distributions according to the phytogeographical regions of the endemic plants identified from the area is as follows: 59.565% Mediterranean elements (137 taxa, 23.478% Irano-Turanian elements (54 taxa, 0.304% Euro-Siberian elements (7 taxa and 13.913% with unknown phytogeographical region (32 taxa. The distributions of these taxa according to the conservation status is as follows: CR (Critically Endangered: 3, EN (Endangered: 22, VU (Vulnerable: 34, LR (Low Risk: 164, (cd (Conservation Dependent: 29, (lc (Least Concern: 106, (nt (Near Threatened: 29. In this study, menacing factors on the flora and vegetation of the area and

  10. PET imaging of focal demyelination and remyelination in a rat model of multiple sclerosis : comparison of [C-11]MeDAS, [C-11]CIC and [C-11]PIB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, Daniele de Paula; Copray, Sjef; Sijbesma, Jurgen W. A.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; de Vries, Erik F. J.

    PURPOSE: In this study, we compared the ability of [(11)C]CIC, [(11)C]MeDAS and [(11)C]PIB to reveal temporal changes in myelin content in focal lesions in the lysolecithin rat model of multiple sclerosis. Pharmacokinetic modelling was performed to determine the best method to quantify tracer

  11. Droht den "kleinen Sprachen" das Aussterben?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Lemić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Prozesse der Globalisierung sind die Ursache für viele Änderungen in der Weltgemeinschaft, vor allem die Entfernung von Unterscheidungsmerkmalen (in Bezug darauf, dass „zwischen vielen ethnischen Zeichen, das was dauernd ist, ist die Dichotomisierung/Differenzierung eines „Wir-und-die-Anderen“ (Grbić, 2003, 93-64. Diese Zeichen wirken als Zeichen der Resozialisierung, die die bestehenden Identitäten löschen und sich an der Schaffung neuer Strukturen beteiligen. Die Zeit der Romantik in Europa ermöglichte die Schaffung von Nationalstaaten und ihr Hauptmerkmal war die Nationalsprache. Diese Art der sozialen Differenzierung hatte das Ziel, die Illusion einer vollständig homogenisierten Gesellschaft zu schaffen und damit den Prozess der Zerstörung der „kleinen“ Sprachen zu beginnen. Sprache und Kultur erwiesen sich als Grundlage der Gemeinschaftserhaltung. Die Homogenisierung ermöglicht Aktivitäten mit dem Ziel, einem Individuum zu helfen, sich als Individuum und als Mitglied der Gemeinschaft zu behaupten. Keine dieser beiden Identitäten kann ohne die Wechselwirkung mit der Umgebung erreicht werden. Die sprachliche Interaktion mit anderen Mitgliedern ist das Schlüsselsegment, das Menschen von anderen Lebensformen unterscheidet. Durch den Austausch von Erfahrungen mit anderen kommt der Mensch auf allen Ebenen voran und mit der Erfindung der Schrift öffnete er die Tür zur Entwicklung der Zivilisation. In dieser Arbeit beschäftigen wir uns mit der Frage der „Prestige“-Sprachen, die auf der Grundlage der Macht der Gemeinschaft der Muttersprachler ihren Bereich weit über die Grenzen des eigenen Landes hinaus erweitern und so eine politische und wirtschaftliche Vormachtstellung schaffen, aber auch mit den Auswirkungen jener Sprachen auf die Dekonstruktion oder möglicherweise vollständige Ausrottung der Sprachen, die auf diese Weise an Einfluss verlieren, unmodern werden und sich die Frage der Notwendigkeit ihrer

  12. DISPOSITIVO DAS DROGAS E GOVERNO DA VIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Vilton Silva

    Full Text Available Resumo Na perspectiva da Psicologia Social em diálogo com as teorizações de Michel Foucault e Giorgio Agamben, o objetivo deste artigo é problematizar de que maneira as drogas são constituídas como explicação para assassinatos de moradores de rua, construindo práticas e discursos relacionados ao governo da vida e da morte nas cidades. O material que apresentamos consiste em textos midiáticos e documentos públicos elaborados entre julho de 2010 e novembro de 2012 abordando tais assassinatos. Analisamos como o dispositivo das drogas formula uma ambiguidade e uma complexidade importantes para o governo dos moradores de rua a partir da construção de oposições: criminoso ou em situação de vulnerabilidade social. Procuramos contribuir criticamente com políticas públicas que visem os diversos modos de existir na cidade, pensar os espaços urbanos, os modos de governo e os processos de subjetivação, considerando a análise da ambiguidade e da complexidade produzidas em torno do dispositivo das drogas.

  13. Two Distinct Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811) Taxa Are Found in Sympatry in Guatemala and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguel, Barbara; Solorzano, Elizabeth; Dumonteil, Eric; Rodas, Antonieta; de la Rua, Nick; Garnica, Roberto; Monroy, Carlota

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, which remains the most serious parasitic disease in the Americas. Most people are infected via triatomine vectors. Transmission has been largely halted in South America in areas with predominantly domestic vectors. However, one of the main Chagas vectors in Mesoamerica, Triatoma dimidiata, poses special challenges to control due to its diversity across its large geographic range (from Mexico into northern South America), and peridomestic and sylvatic populations that repopulate houses following pesticide treatment. Recent evidence suggests T. dimidiata may be a complex of species, perhaps including cryptic species; taxonomic ambiguity which confounds control. The nuclear sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt cyt b) gene were used to analyze the taxonomy of T. dimidiata from southern Mexico throughout Central America. ITS2 sequence divides T. dimidiata into four taxa. The first three are found mostly localized to specific geographic regions with some overlap: (1) southern Mexico and Guatemala (Group 2); (2) Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica (Group 1A); (3) and Panama (Group 1B). We extend ITS2 Group 1A south into Costa Rica, Group 2 into southern Guatemala and show the first information on isolates in Belize, identifying Groups 2 and 3 in that country. The fourth group (Group 3), a potential cryptic species, is dispersed across parts of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize. We show it exists in sympatry with other groups in Peten, Guatemala, and Yucatan, Mexico. Mitochondrial cyt b data supports this putative cryptic species in sympatry with others. However, unlike the clear distinction of the remaining groups by ITS2, the remaining groups are not separated by mt cyt b. This work contributes to an understanding of the taxonomy and population subdivision of T

  14. Evaluating green infrastructure in urban environments using a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Pedro; Correia, Otília; Lecoq, Miguel; Munzi, Silvana; Vasconcelos, Sasha; Gonçalves, Paula; Rebelo, Rui; Antunes, Cristina; Silva, Patrícia; Freitas, Catarina; Lopes, Nuno; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Forested areas within cities host a large number of species, responsible for many ecosystem services in urban areas. The biodiversity in these areas is influenced by human disturbances such as atmospheric pollution and urban heat island effect. To ameliorate the effects of these factors, an increase in urban green areas is often considered sufficient. However, this approach assumes that all types of green cover have the same importance for species. Our aim was to show that not all forested green areas are equal in importance for species, but that based on a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach it is possible to value green infrastructure in urban environments. After evaluating the diversity of lichens, butterflies and other-arthropods, birds and mammals in 31 Mediterranean urban forests in south-west Europe (Almada, Portugal), bird and lichen functional groups responsive to urbanization were found. A community shift (tolerant species replacing sensitive ones) along the urbanization gradient was found, and this must be considered when using these groups as indicators of the effect of urbanization. Bird and lichen functional groups were then analyzed together with the characteristics of the forests and their surroundings. Our results showed that, contrary to previous assumptions, vegetation density and more importantly the amount of urban areas around the forest (matrix), are more important for biodiversity than forest quantity alone. This indicated that not all types of forested green areas have the same importance for biodiversity. An index of forest functional diversity was then calculated for all sampled forests of the area. This could help decision-makers to improve the management of urban green infrastructures with the goal of increasing functionality and ultimately ecosystem services in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A study on the genetic relationships of Avena taxa and the origins of hexaploid oat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Paul; Meade, Kendra; Hayes, Alec; Harjes, Carlos; Bao, Yong; Beattie, Aaron D; Puddephat, Ian; Gusmini, Gabe; Tanksley, Steven D

    2016-07-01

    Using next-generation DNA sequencing, it was possible to clarify the genetic relationships of Avena species and deduce the likely pathway from which hexaploid oat was formed by sequential polyploidization events. A sequence-based diversity study was conducted on a representative sample of accessions from species in the genus Avena using genotyping-by-sequencing technology. The results show that all Avena taxa can be assigned to one of four major genetic clusters: Cluster 1 = all hexaploids including cultivated oat, Cluster 2 = AC genome tetraploids, Cluster 3 = C genome diploids, Cluster 4 = A genome diploid and tetraploids. No evidence was found for the existence of discrete B or D genomes. Through a series of experiments involving the creation of in silico polyploids, it was possible to deduce that hexaploid oat likely formed by the fusion of an ancestral diploid species from Cluster 3 (A. clauda, A. eriantha) with an ancestral diploid species from Cluster 4D (A. longiglumis, A. canariensis, A. wiestii) to create the ancestral tetraploid from Cluster 2 (A. magna, A. murphyi, A. insularis). Subsequently, that ancestral tetraploid fused again with another ancestral diploid from Cluster 4D to create hexaploid oat. Based on the geographic distribution of these species, it is hypothesized that both the tetraploidization and hexaploidization events may have occurred in the region of northwest Africa, followed by radiation of hexaploid oat to its current worldwide distribution. The results from this study shed light not only on the origins of this important grain crop, but also have implications for germplasm collection and utilization in oat breeding.

  16. The Ophiostoma clavatum species complex: a newly defined group in the Ophiostomatales including three novel taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Jankowiak, Robert; Villari, Caterina; Kirisits, Thomas; Solheim, Halvor; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Two species of blue-stain fungi with similar morphologies, Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum and Ophiostoma clavatum, are associates of bark beetles infesting Pinus spp. in Europe. This has raised questions whether they represent distinct taxa. Absence of herbarium specimens and contaminated or mistakenly identified cultures of O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum have accentuated the uncertainty regarding their correct identification. The aim of this study was to reconsider the identity of European isolates reported as O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum by applying DNA-based identification methods, and to provide appropriate type specimens for them. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, βT, TEF-1α and CAL gene sequences revealed that the investigated isolates represent a complex of seven cryptic species. The study confirmed that ITS data is insufficient to delineate species in some Ophiostoma species clusters. Lectotypes and epitypes were designated for O. clavatum and O. brunneo-ciliatum, and three new species, Ophiostoma brunneolum, Ophiostoma macroclavatum and Ophiostoma pseudocatenulatum, are described in the newly defined O. clavatum-complex. The other two species included in the complex are Ophiostoma ainoae and Ophiostoma tapionis. The results suggest co-evolution of these fungi in association with specific bark beetles. The results also confirm the identity of the fungus associated with the pine bark beetle Ips acuminatus as O. clavatum, while O. brunneo-ciliatum appears to be mainly associated with another pine bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus.

  17. A Metagenomic Assembly-Based Approach to Decoding Taxa in the Dead Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Baker, B.; Seitz, K.; Gillies, L.; Temperton, B.; Rabalais, N. N.; Mason, O. U.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal regions of eutrophication-driven oxygen depletion are widespread and increasing in number. Also known as dead zones, these regions take their name from the deleterious effects of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen less than 2 mg/L) on shrimp, demersal fish, and other animal life. Dead zones result from nutrient enrichment of primary production, concomitant consumption by chemoorganotrophic aerobic microorganisms, and strong stratification that prevents ventilation of bottom water. One of the largest dead zones in the world occurs seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), where hypoxia can reach up to 22,000 square kilometers. To explore the underlying genomic variation and metabolic potential of microorganisms in hypoxia, we performed metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing on six samples from the 2013 nGOM dead zone from both hypoxic and oxic bottom waters. Over 217 Mb of sequence was assembled into contigs of at least 3 kb with IDBA-UD, with 72 greater than 100 kb, and the largest 495 kb in length. Annotation by IMG recovered over 224 thousand genes in these contigs. Binning with tetra-ESOM and quality filtering based on relative coverage of sample-specific reads led to the recovery of 83 partial to near complete (31 over 70%) high-quality genomes. These metagenomes represent key microbial taxa previously determined to be numerically abundant from 16S rRNA data, such as Thaumarcheaota, Marine Group II Euryarchaeota, SAR406, Synechococcus spp., Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Ongoing work includes the recruitment of metatranscriptomic data to binned contigs for evaluation of relative gene expression, metabolic reconstruction, and comparative genomics with related organisms elsewhere in the global oceans. These data will provide us with detailed information regarding the metabolic potential and activity of many of the key players in the nGOM dead zone.

  18. Supplementing non-target taxa: bird feeding alters the local distribution of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J Hunter; Bonter, David N

    2018-03-06

    Although the effects of bird feeding on avian species have been extensively examined, few studies evaluate the indirect effects of bird feeding on non-target taxa. Bird seed could provide direct nourishment to several mammalian species (e.g., Lagomorpha, Rodentia, and Cetartiodactyla), potentially altering their distribution and behavior with possible unintended consequences for some avian populations, particularly those not directly benefiting from the resource. To examine how bird feeders may influence the presence and behavior of mammals, we used camera traps to quantify differences in the distribution and richness of mammal species frequenting sites with bird feeders and control sites (lacking feeders) in Ithaca, New York, USA. We recorded 15,684 images capturing 12 mammal species with gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and raccoon (Procyon lotor) detected significantly more often at feeder sites than at control sites. Detections of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) marginally increased near feeders whereas detections of several carnivorous species were unrelated to the presence of bird feeders. We recorded larger gray squirrel and raccoon group sizes and greater mammal richness at feeder sites than at nearby control sites. We detected squirrels and raccoons less when snow covered the ground than on snow-free days. Ambient temperature was not a strong predictor of mammal detections. Camera trapping revealed strong, species-specific patterns in the timing of daily visitation to areas with feeders. Because many mammals depredate bird nests, the local increases in mammal richness and activity near bird feeders may create an ecological trap for avian species nesting in close proximity to supplemental feeding stations. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Two distinct Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811 taxa are found in sympatry in Guatemala and Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Dorn

    Full Text Available Approximately 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, which remains the most serious parasitic disease in the Americas. Most people are infected via triatomine vectors. Transmission has been largely halted in South America in areas with predominantly domestic vectors. However, one of the main Chagas vectors in Mesoamerica, Triatoma dimidiata, poses special challenges to control due to its diversity across its large geographic range (from Mexico into northern South America, and peridomestic and sylvatic populations that repopulate houses following pesticide treatment. Recent evidence suggests T. dimidiata may be a complex of species, perhaps including cryptic species; taxonomic ambiguity which confounds control. The nuclear sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt cyt b gene were used to analyze the taxonomy of T. dimidiata from southern Mexico throughout Central America. ITS2 sequence divides T. dimidiata into four taxa. The first three are found mostly localized to specific geographic regions with some overlap: (1 southern Mexico and Guatemala (Group 2; (2 Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica (Group 1A; (3 and Panama (Group 1B. We extend ITS2 Group 1A south into Costa Rica, Group 2 into southern Guatemala and show the first information on isolates in Belize, identifying Groups 2 and 3 in that country. The fourth group (Group 3, a potential cryptic species, is dispersed across parts of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize. We show it exists in sympatry with other groups in Peten, Guatemala, and Yucatan, Mexico. Mitochondrial cyt b data supports this putative cryptic species in sympatry with others. However, unlike the clear distinction of the remaining groups by ITS2, the remaining groups are not separated by mt cyt b. This work contributes to an understanding of the taxonomy and population subdivision of T

  20. Prediksi Erosi Lahan DAS Bengkulu dengan Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG)

    OpenAIRE

    Tunas, I Gede

    2005-01-01

    Sebagian endapan sedimen di muara Sungai Bengkulu diperkirakan berasal dari erosi permukaan di DAS. Alih fungsi lahan (land use) di DAS juga diperkirakan telah mempengaruhi laju erosi permukaan. Untuk memprediksi laju erosi permukaan DAS Bengkulu, penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode USLE dan Sistem Informasi Geografis sebagai alat bantu analisis data berbasis digital. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju erosi permukaan DAS Bengkulu adalah 40.64 ton/ha/tahun. Angka ini setar...

  1. Phytophthora taxa associated with cultivated Agathosma, with emphasis on the P. citricola complex and P. capensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, C M; Denman, S; Kirk, S A; Botha, W J; Mostert, L; McLeod, A

    2010-12-01

    Agathosma species, which are indigenous to South Africa, are also cultivated for commercial use. Recently growers experienced severe plant loss, and symptoms shown by affected plants suggested that a soilborne disease could be the cause of death. A number of Phytophthora taxa were isolated from diseased plants, and this paper reports their identity, mating type, and pathogenicity to young Agathosma plants. Using morphological and sequence data seven Phytophthora taxa were identified: the A1 mating type of P. cinnamomi var. cinnamomi, P. cinnamomi var. parvispora and P. cryptogea, the A2 mating type of P. drechsleri and P. nicotianae, and two homothallic taxa from the P. citricola complex. The identity of isolates in the P. citricola complex was resolved using reference isolates of P. citricola CIT groups 1 to 5 sensu Oudemans et al. (1994) along with multi-locus phylogenies (three nuclear and two mitochondrial regions), isozyme analyses, morphological characteristics and temperature-growth studies. These analyses revealed the isolates from Agathosma to include P. multivora and a putative novel species, P. taxon emzansi. Furthermore, among the P. citricola reference isolates the presence of a new species was revealed, described here as P. capensis. Findings of our study, along with some recent other studies, have contributed to resolving some of the species complexity within the P. citricola complex, resulting in the identification of a number of phylogenetically distinct taxa. The pathogenicity of representative isolates of the taxa from Agathosma was tested on A. betulina seedlings. The putative novel species, P. taxon emzansi, and P. cinnamomi var. parvispora were non-pathogenic, whereas the other species were pathogenic to this host.

  2. A powerful microbiome-based association test and a microbial taxa discovery framework for comprehensive association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hyunwook; Blaser, Martin J; Li, Huilin

    2017-04-24

    The role of the microbiota in human health and disease has been increasingly studied, gathering momentum through the use of high-throughput technologies. Further identification of the roles of specific microbes is necessary to better understand the mechanisms involved in diseases related to microbiome perturbations. Here, we introduce a new microbiome-based group association testing method, optimal microbiome-based association test (OMiAT). OMiAT is a data-driven testing method which takes an optimal test throughout different tests from the sum of powered score tests (SPU) and microbiome regression-based kernel association test (MiRKAT). We illustrate that OMiAT efficiently discovers significant association signals arising from varying microbial abundances and different relative contributions from microbial abundance and phylogenetic information. We also propose a way to apply it to fine-mapping of diverse upper-level taxa at different taxonomic ranks (e.g., phylum, class, order, family, and genus), as well as the entire microbial community, within a newly introduced microbial taxa discovery framework, microbiome comprehensive association mapping (MiCAM). Our extensive simulations demonstrate that OMiAT is highly robust and powerful compared with other existing methods, while correctly controlling type I error rates. Our real data analyses also confirm that MiCAM is especially efficient for the assessment of upper-level taxa by integrating OMiAT as a group analytic method. OMiAT is attractive in practice due to the high complexity of microbiome data and the unknown true nature of the state. MiCAM also provides a hierarchical association map for numerous microbial taxa and can also be used as a guideline for further investigation on the roles of discovered taxa in human health and disease.

  3. Das Waldenserbekenntnís von Chanforan 1532 - ein reformiertes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ist Paradigma fiir das Christentum der Bergpredigt, das fiir die Waidenser typisch war. Der geforderte Eid wird zugelassen, wenn er 'zum grolieren Ruhm Gottes und dem Heil des Nachsten dient'. Das heiBt: Die Forderung Jesu Matth 5,33ff muB im. Kontext des Neuen Testamentes verstanden werden. Nicht zufallig wird der ...

  4. Gastroprotective Effects of DAS-77 (a Phytomedicine) in Ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: DAS-77 is a phytomedicine that contains the dried bark of Mangifera indica and root of Carica papaya. This study investigated the antiulcer effects of DAS-77 in rats. Methods: DAS-77 was administered orally twice daily for five consecutive days at doses of 50 - 400 mg/kg. Ulcer was induced in rats with ethanol, ...

  5. Model Based Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Marla J.; Spinrad, Paul R.; Fall, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Systems that assess the real world must cope with evidence that is uncertain, ambiguous, and spread over time. Typically, the most important function of an assessment system is to identify when activities are occurring that are unusual or unanticipated. Model based temporal reasoning addresses both of these requirements. The differences among temporal reasoning schemes lies in the methods used to avoid computational intractability. If we had n pieces of data and we wanted to examine how they were related, the worst case would be where we had to examine every subset of these points to see if that subset satisfied the relations. This would be 2n, which is intractable. Models compress this; if several data points are all compatible with a model, then that model represents all those data points. Data points are then considered related if they lie within the same model or if they lie in models that are related. Models thus address the intractability problem. They also address the problem of determining unusual activities if the data do not agree with models that are indicated by earlier data then something out of the norm is taking place. The models can summarize what we know up to that time, so when they are not predicting correctly, either something unusual is happening or we need to revise our models. The model based reasoner developed at Advanced Decision Systems is thus both intuitive and powerful. It is currently being used on one operational system and several prototype systems. It has enough power to be used in domains spanning the spectrum from manufacturing engineering and project management to low-intensity conflict and strategic assessment.

  6. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  7. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  8. Relaciones polen-vegetación de algunos taxa de la estepa patagónica (Argentina Pollen-vegetation relationships of some taxa from the Patagonian steppe (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIDIA S. BURRY

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de un análisis de regresión lineal simple a datos de lluvia de polen y de vegetación, en una zona de la Patagonia (Provincia de Chubut, Argentina permitió relacionar cuantitativamente los porcentajes de lluvia polínica y de cobertura de la vegetación para los taxa Poaceae, Papilionoideae, tipo Senecio y Mulinum spinosum. Se obtuvo un buen ajuste de las rectas de regresión para cada uno de los taxa considerados, con coeficientes de correlación r de Pearson altos para M. spinosum (0,82 y tipo Senecio (0,81 y coeficientes algo menores en el caso de Poaceae (0,66 y Papilionoideae (0,61. Estas regresiones permitieron inferir la presencia o ausencia de polen regional y el valor predictivo de la presencia de polen en ausencia de la vegetación que lo produce. Al respecto, la lluvia de polen estudiada incluye el aporte regional (excepto Papilionoideae aun cuando M. spinosum tiene una baja contribución. Esta sobrerrepresentación es atribuible al transporte de larga distancia, a través de los vientos que provienen del oeste. Estas relaciones cuantitativas nos permitirán extrapolar cambios vegetacionales pasados en estos taxa a partir de espectros de polen fósil para el área de estudioThe use of simple linear regression to data of pollen rain and vegetation cover in Patagonia (Province of Chubut, Argentina allowed us to develop quantitative relationships between modern pollen rain perecentages and vegetation cover for the taxa Poaceae, Papilionoideae, Senecio type, and Mulinum spinosum. The analysis revealed a good fit of data to regression lines for all taxa, with high Pearson r coefficient values in the case of M. spinosum (0.82 and Senecio type (0.81, and somewhat lower values in the case of Poaceae (0.66 and Papilionoideae (0.61. These regressions allowed us to infer the presence or absence of regional pollen and predict the quantity of pollen in the absence of the vegetation producing it. In this regard, the studied pollen

  9. A dinâmica da taxa de lucro, da taxa de juros e do grau de utilização da capacidade produtiva em um modelo pós-keynesiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Dias de Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é analisar, por meio de simulação computacional, as trajetórias dinâmicas da taxa de acumulação de capital, da taxa de lucro, da taxa de juros e do grau de utilização da capacidade diante de mudanças exógenas do ritmo do progresso tecnológico e da propensão a poupar dos capitalistas. A simulação foi realizada a partir de um modelo macrodinâmico pós-keynesiano que leva em consideração a interação entre o lado real e monetário da economia. Dentre outros resultados, as simulações mostraram que: (i a taxa de lucro é significativamente elástica com relação a um choque tecnológico positivo, ao passo que a taxa de juros e o grau de utilização da capacidade são pouco sensíveis a esse tipo de choque; e (ii a confirmação do paradoxo da frugalidade, segundo o qual o aumento da propensão a poupar dos capitalistas acaba por reduzir o nível da poupança agregada, a taxa de lucro e o grau de utilização da capacidade.The objective of this paper is to analyze the dynamic path of the profit rate, the interest rate, the rate of capital accumulation and the degree of utilization of the productive capacity - face exogenous changes of the intensity of technological progress and the propensity to save of capitalists within a Post-Keynesian macroeconomic dynamic model that join the real and monetary side of the economy. The computational simulation allowed investigating the degree of proximity of the model to the dynamics of a real economy. The simulation showed, amongst other results, that: (i the profit rate is significantly elastic with regard to the rate of technological progress, while the interests rate and the degree of utilization of the capacity are little sensible to this variable; and (ii the confirmation of the paradox of the thrift, according to which an increase of the propensity to save of the capitalists reduces the level of the aggregate saving.

  10. Estimation of taxa included in the first volume of the Red Data Book of the Republic of Mordovia (Russia using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy A. Khapugin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an estimation of taxa included in the first volume of the Red Data Book of the Republic of Mordovia using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Each taxon is provided by a category and all criteria appropriate for it within the region. The paper contains the estimation results of 177 taxa of vascular plants, mosses and algae from the first volume Red Data Book of the Republic of Mordovia (second edition. Of these, 137 are Threatened: 73 taxa are Critically Endangered (category CR, 41 taxa Endangered (category EN, 23 are Vulnerable (category VU, 31 taxa are Near Threatened (category NT. Nine taxa are in the category Data Deficient (DD, due to a lack of sufficient factual material needed for the evaluation. Another 59 taxa of the Red Data Book of the Republic of Mordovia (35 macromycetes and 24 lichens were not evaluated in the present study, also due to the lack of sufficient data needed for an evaluation. Therefore, these taxa are temporarily in the category Not Evaluated (NE. But they could be assigned to one of the threatened categories when evaluated in the future, according to the Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria. This paper is considered as a base for establishing the Red List of plant taxa of the Republic of Mordovia in the future.

  11. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  12. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    with equality predicates rather than the inequality predicates prevalent in valid-time queries. Second, the presence of temporally varying data dramatically increases the size of a database. These factors indicate that specialized techniques are needed to efficiently evaluate temporal joins. We address......, if any, comparison of the various operators. We then address evaluation algorithms, comparing the applicability of various algorithms to the temporal join operators and describing a performance study involving algorithms for one important operator, the temporal equijoin. Our focus, with respect...... to implementation, is on non-index-based join algorithms. Such algorithms do not rely on auxiliary access paths but may exploit sort orderings to achieve efficiency....

  13. The Temporality of Power and the Power of Temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends existing understandings of power, resistance and subjectivity in professional service organizations by developing an analysis of how these relate to temporality. Drawing in particular on Hoy’s reading of the Foucauldian account of temporality, we conceive of disciplinary power...... light on the interplay of power, resistance and subjectivity....

  14. Estrutura a termo da taxa de juros e imunização: novas perspectivas na gestão do risco de taxa de juros em fundo de pensão

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Sérgio Jurandyr; Motta,Luis Felipe Jacques da

    2007-01-01

    O termo imunização denota a construção de uma carteira de títulos de forma a torná-la imune a variações nas taxas de juros. No caso dos fundos de pensão, o objetivo da imunização é distribuir os recebimentos intermediários e finais dos ativos de acordo com a previsão para o fluxo de pagamentos dos benefícios. Nesse sentido, o artigo busca comparar o desempenho de duas alternativas de imunização ao método tradicional que restringe o gerenciamento do risco de taxa de juros à compatibilização da...

  15. Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and Abiotic Factors to Plant Microbiome Variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Agler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms context. Host-associated microbial community structures are affected by abiotic and host factors, and increased attention is given to the role of the microbiome in interactions such as pathogen inhibition. However, little is known about how these factors act on the microbial community, and especially what role microbe-microbe interaction dynamics play. We have begun to address this knowledge gap for phyllosphere microbiomes of plants by simultaneously studying three major groups of Arabidopsis thaliana symbionts (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes using a systems biology approach. We evaluated multiple potential factors of microbial community control: we sampled various wild A. thaliana populations at different times, performed field plantings with different host genotypes, and implemented successive host colonization experiments under lab conditions where abiotic factors, host genotype, and pathogen colonization was manipulated. Our results indicate that both abiotic factors and host genotype interact to affect plant colonization by all three groups of microbes. Considering microbe-microbe interactions, however, uncovered a network of interkingdom interactions with significant contributions to community structure. As in other scale-free networks, a small number of taxa, which we call microbial "hubs," are strongly interconnected and have a severe effect on communities. By documenting these microbe-microbe interactions, we uncover an important mechanism explaining how abiotic factors and host genotypic signatures control microbial communities. In short, they act directly on "hub" microbes, which, via microbe-microbe interactions, transmit the effects to the microbial community. We analyzed two "hub" microbes (the

  16. Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and Abiotic Factors to Plant Microbiome Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agler, Matthew T; Ruhe, Jonas; Kroll, Samuel; Morhenn, Constanze; Kim, Sang-Tae; Weigel, Detlef; Kemen, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms) context. Host-associated microbial community structures are affected by abiotic and host factors, and increased attention is given to the role of the microbiome in interactions such as pathogen inhibition. However, little is known about how these factors act on the microbial community, and especially what role microbe-microbe interaction dynamics play. We have begun to address this knowledge gap for phyllosphere microbiomes of plants by simultaneously studying three major groups of Arabidopsis thaliana symbionts (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes) using a systems biology approach. We evaluated multiple potential factors of microbial community control: we sampled various wild A. thaliana populations at different times, performed field plantings with different host genotypes, and implemented successive host colonization experiments under lab conditions where abiotic factors, host genotype, and pathogen colonization was manipulated. Our results indicate that both abiotic factors and host genotype interact to affect plant colonization by all three groups of microbes. Considering microbe-microbe interactions, however, uncovered a network of interkingdom interactions with significant contributions to community structure. As in other scale-free networks, a small number of taxa, which we call microbial "hubs," are strongly interconnected and have a severe effect on communities. By documenting these microbe-microbe interactions, we uncover an important mechanism explaining how abiotic factors and host genotypic signatures control microbial communities. In short, they act directly on "hub" microbes, which, via microbe-microbe interactions, transmit the effects to the microbial community. We analyzed two "hub" microbes (the obligate biotrophic

  17. The Evolution of Diapsid Reproductive Strategy with Inferences about Extinct Taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R Moore

    Full Text Available Diapsids show an extremely wide range of reproductive strategies. Offspring may receive no parental care, care from only one sex, care from both parents, or care under more complex regimes. Young may vary from independent, super-precocial hatchlings to altricial neonates needing much care before leaving the nest. Parents can invest heavily in a few young, or less so in a larger number. Here we examine the evolution of these traits across a composite phylogeny spanning the extant diapsids and including the limited number of extinct taxa for which reproductive strategies can be well constrained. Generalized estimating equation(GEE-based phylogenetic comparative methods demonstrate the influences of body mass, parental care strategy and hatchling maturity on clutch volume across the diapsids. The influence of polygamous reproduction is not important despite a large sample size. Applying the results of these models to the dinosaurs supports the hypothesis of paternal care (male only in derived non-avian theropods, previously suggested based on simpler analyses. These data also suggest that sauropodomorphs did not care for their young. The evolution of parental-care occurs in an almost linear series of transitions. Paternal care rarely gives rise to other care strategies. Where hatchling condition changes, diapsids show an almost unidirectional tendency of evolution towards increased altriciality. Transitions to social monogamy from the ancestral state in diapsids, where both sexes are polygamous, are common. In contrast, once evolved, polygyny and polyandry are very evolutionarily stable. Polygyny and maternal care correlate, as do polyandry and paternal care. Ancestral-character estimation (ACE of these care strategies with the character transition likelihoods estimated from the original data gives good confidence at most important nodes. These analyses suggest that the basalmost diapsids had no parental care. Crocodilians independently evolved

  18. APPROACHES ON THE INVASIVE ALIEN TAXA IN ROMANIA - AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA (RAGWEED II

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    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    simply reducing its biomass. Individual measures often do not solve the real problem. In Timisoara, the fight against such a quarantine organism became in fact obligatory by administrative decision in 2007. A. artemisiifolia has been fought by grubbing and repeated cutting (in parks, along the main roads. This taxa respond to the cutting by producing more secondary branches. Under these conditions we determined and compared several eco-physiological parameters. SLA and SLW are good indicators of leaf toughness. LWL is useful measure of the physiological water status of plants. Leaves of Ambrosia are highly plastic in response to their growing conditions, varying greatly in morphology, anatomy and physiology.

  19. Atrás das grades: redes sociais, habitus e interação social no sistema carcerário do RN

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, Thadeu de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    A presente tese procura discutir e compreender os diversos tipos de redes sociais e as formas de interação social presentes no sistema prisional do Rio Grande do Norte. Nossa problemática pautou-se no aumento significativo das taxas de encarceramento e de aprisionamento no Brasil e no mundo nos últimos dez anos. Também o surgimento de organizações criminosas que passaram, em certa medida, a controlar as prisões brasileiras, como o Comando Vermelho (CV) e o Primeiro Comando da C...

  20. Emergency EEG: study of survival EEG de urgência: taxa de sobrevivência

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    Moacir Alves Borges

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the survival rate according to the main findings of emergency electroencephalography (EEGs of patients treated in a tertiary hospital. METHOD: In this prospective study, the findings of consecutive emergency EEGs performed on inpatients in Hospital de Base in São José do Rio Preto, Brazil were correlated with survival utilizing Kaplan-Meyer survival curves. RESULTS: A total of 681 patients with an average age of 42 years old (1 day to 96 years were evaluated, of which 406 were male. The main reasons for EEGs were epileptic seizures (221 cases, hepatic encephalopathy [116 cases of which 85 (73.3% were men, p-value=0.001], status epilepticus (104 cases and impaired consciousness (78 cases. The underlying disease was confirmed in 578 (84.3% cases with 119 (17.5% having liver disease [91 (76.0% were men, p-value=0.001], 105 (15.4% suffering strokes, 67 (9.9% having metabolic disorders, 51 (7.5% central nervous system infections and 49 (7.2% epilepsy. In the three months following EEG, a survival rate of 75% was found in patients with normal, discreet slow activity or intermittent rhythmic delta activity EEGs, of 50% for those with continuous delta activity and generalized epileptiform discharges, and of 25% for those with burst-suppression, diffuse depression, and in alpha/theta-pattern coma. Death was pronounced immediately in patients with isoelectric EEGs. CONCLUSION: The main findings of EEGs, differentiated different survival rates and are thus a good prognostic tool for patients examined in emergencies.OBJETIVO: Determinar a taxa de sobrevivência (TS, segundo os principais achados de eletrencefalograma de urgência (E-EEG, dos pacientes atendidos nas emergências de hospital de alta complexidade. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo, por ordem de chegada, da correlação entre os achados de E-EEG, feitos nos pacientes à beira do leito, com TS, utilizando-se as curvas de sobrevidas de Kaplan Meyer no Hospital de Base de S

  1. Das Ehegattensplitting im Widerstreit der Argumente

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    Sabine Berghahn

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Der von Barbara Seel herausgegebene Sammelband beschäftigt sich u. a. aus familienpolitischer Sicht mit den Pro- und Contra-Argumenten zu der in Deutschland geltenden Ehegattenbesteuerung. Der Band ist interdisziplinär angelegt und stellt einen Überblick her, der auch für Expert/-innen noch neue Gesichtspunkte enthält. Als Gesamttendenz zeigt sich ein Plädoyer für eine individualisierende Reform. Zu einem ähnlichen Ergebnis kommt Britta Dietrich in ihrer schmalen Abhandlung, in der sie – knapp und kaum erkenntnisfördernd – die juristische Debatte über das Ehegattensplitting nachzeichnet.

  2. Macht auf das Tor! - Opens the gate!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir de Quadros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Macht auf das Tor! (Abra o portão foi publicado, possivelmente, na primeira metade do século 20. Editado por Max Dirkschneider, Raimund Heuler e Felix Oberborbeck, apresenta músicas, rimas, piadas, jogos e canções.A edição apresentada nesse espaço é de um livro que pertence à família de Carolina Drebes, estudante do curso de Pedagogia do Centro Universitário Franciscano, Santa Maria/RS.

  3. Das CARNOTsche Paradigma und seine erkenntnistheoretischen Implikationen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, Hans-Georg

    Der vorliegende historisch-kritische Essay führt die Eigentümlichkeiten der klassischen phänomenologischen Thermodynamik auf das von CARNOT geschaffene Paradigma zurück und greift einige damit zusammenhängende Fragen auf.Translated AbstractCARNOT's Paradigm and its Epistemological ImplicationsThe present historic-critical essay traces the pecularities of classical phenomenological thermodynamics back to the paradigm, created by CARNOT, and takes up some questions to which this paradigm gives rise.

  4. Das COSO Enterprise Risk Management-Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ruud, Flemming; Reichert, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Der Verwaltungsrat und die Geschäftsleitung tragen die Verantwortung, ein Internes Kontrollsystem (IKS) im Unternehmen auszugestalten. Ab dem Geschäftsjahr 2008 wird die Existenz eines IKS durch den externen Revisor geprüft (Art. 728a, 728b revOR). Auch sind im Anhang Angaben über die Durchführung einer Risikobeurteilung zu publizieren (Art. 663b revOR). Das Enterprise-Risk-Management-Framework von COSO (COSO ERM) kann als Führungsinstrument helfen, wichtige Chancen und Risiken zu erkennen...

  5. Desempenho tardio das bioproteses valvares porcinas

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Vinicius Henriques de Carvalho

    1991-01-01

    Resumo: o objetivo deste trabalho foi ode estudar o desempenho tardio das biopróteses porcinas modelo Carpentier-Edwards, com ênfase a todos os eventos mórbidos e/ou 1etais que pudessem estar relacionados à presença da bioprótese. Foram estudados 100 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à substituição de valva mitral e 100 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à substituição de valva aórtica. O seguimento médio dos pacientes foi de 93 meses para pacientes submetidos à substituição de valva mitral e ...

  6. Para politizar o mundo das coisas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Machado Balbi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To politicize the world of things – This review presents A comunicação das coisas: teoria ator-rede e cibercultura [The communication of things: Actor-network theory and cyberculture], by André Lemos, raising its key aspects. In a constant dialogue with Bruno Latour's theory, and other like-minded authors, Lemos offers to Brazilian readers more than a book about cyberculture, but a deep reflection about communication and hybridization between people and things, namely, humans and non-humans, dealing with the political, ethical and pedagogical consequences of the hybrids in society.

  7. Das Internet als Ort der Erinnerung

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    Christian Oggolder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Digitale Kommunikationsmedien spielen eine zentrale Rolle in einem globalen Transformationsprozess, der alle Bereiche der Gesellschaft, das einzelne Individuum, Politik, Wirtschaft und Kultur betrifft. Entsprechend der fundamentalen Bedeutung des Internets in unserer mediatisierten Gesellschaft ist es wesentlich, auch den Bereich der Erinnerungskultur im Netz sowohl in seiner praktischen Anwendung als auch in der wissenschaftlichen Analyse zu berücksichtigen. Der Essay diskutiert die theoretischen Rahmenbedingungen und erörtert mögliche Zugänge zur Erforschung webbasierten Erinnerns.

  8. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

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    Pasan Waidyasekara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.

  9. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  10. Spatial Grouping Determines Temporal Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Frouke; Scharnowski, Frank; Herzog, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    To make sense out of a continuously changing visual world, people need to integrate features across space and time. Despite more than a century of research, the mechanisms of features integration are still a matter of debate. To examine how temporal and spatial integration interact, the authors measured the amount of temporal fusion (a measure of…

  11. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Jensen, K; Podelski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  12. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  13. Imaginando trans: saberes e ativismos em torno das regulações das transformações corporais do sexo

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Cesar Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Através do trabalho de campo e de análise bibliográfica e documental durante os anos de 2010 a 2014, esta pesquisa teve por objetivo compreender a produção das categorias travesti, transexual, trans e transgênero a partir das relações entre saberes e ativismos. Tomei como fio condutor os debates em torno das regulações das transformações corporais do sexo, argumentando que estas discussões são uma importante porta de entrada para o entendimento das relações entre movimentos sociais e especial...

  14. Positive correlation of trophic level and proportion of sexual taxa of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in alpine soil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Barbara M; Meyer, Erwin; Maraun, Mark

    2014-08-01

    We investigated community structure, trophic ecology (using stable isotope ratios; (15)N/(14)N, (13)C/(12)C) and reproductive mode of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) along an altitudinal gradient (2,050-2,900 m) in the Central Alps (Obergurgl, Austria). We hypothesized that (1) the community structure changes with altitude, (2) oribatid mites span over four trophic levels, (3) the proportion of sexual taxa increases with altitude, and (4) the proportion of sexual taxa increases with trophic level, i.e. is positively correlated with the δ(15)N signatures. Oribatid mite community structure changed with altitude indicating that oribatid mites occupy different niches at different altitudes. Oribatid mites spanned over 12 δ(15)N units, i.e. about four trophic levels, which is similar to lowland forest ecosystems. The proportion of sexually reproducing taxa increased from 2,050 to 2,900 m suggesting that limited resource availability at high altitudes favors sexual reproduction. Sexual taxa more frequently occurred higher in the food web indicating that the reproductive mode is related to nutrition of oribatid mites. Generally, oribatid mite community structure changed from being decomposer dominated at lower altitude to being dominated by fungal and lichen feeders, and predators at higher altitude. This supports the view that resources from dead organic material become less available with increasing altitude forcing species to feed on living resources such as fungi, lichens and nematodes. Our findings support the hypothesis that limited resource accessibility (at high altitudes) favors sexually reproducing species whereas ample resource supply (at lower altitudes) favors parthenogenetic species.

  15. Taxa-specific eco-sensitivity in relation to phytoplankton bloom stability and ecologically relevant lake state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napiórkowska-Krzebietke, Agnieszka; Dunalska, Julita A.; Zębek, Elżbieta

    2017-05-01

    Phytoplankton (including plant-like, animal-like algae and Cyanobacteria) blooms have recently become a serious global threat to the sustenance of ecosystems, to human and animal health and to economy. This study focused on the composition and stability of blooms as well as their taxa-specific ecological sensitivity to the main causal factors (especially phosphorus and nitrogen) in degraded urban lakes. The analyzed lakes were assessed with respect to the trophic state as well as ecological status. Total phytoplankton biomass (ranging from 1.5 to 181.3 mg dm-3) was typical of blooms of different intensity, which can appear during a whole growing season but are the most severe in early or late summer. Our results suggested that steady-state and non-steady-state bloom assemblages including mono-, bi- and multi-species or heterogeneous blooms may occur in urban lakes. The most intense blooms were formed by the genera of Cyanobacteria: Microcystis, Limnothrix, Pseudanabaena, Planktothrix, Bacillariophyta: Cyclotella and Dinophyta mainly Ceratium and Peridinium. Considering the sensitivity of phytoplankton assemblages, a new eco-sensitivity factor was proposed (E-SF), based on the concept of Phytoplankton Trophic Index composed of trophic scores of phytoplankton taxa along the eutrophication gradient. The E-SF values of 0.5, 1.3, 6.7 and 15.1 were recognized in lakes having a high, good, moderate or poor ecological status, respectively. For lake restoration, each type of bloom should be considered separately because of different sensitivities of taxa and relationships with environmental variables. Proper recognition of the taxa-specific response to abiotic (especially to N and P enrichment) and biotic factors could have significant implications for further water protection and management.

  16. Multi-taxa approach shows consistent shifts in arthropod functional traits along grassland land-use intensity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Nadja K; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-03-01

    Intensification of land use reduces biodiversity but may also shift the trait composition of communities. Understanding how land use affects single traits and community trait composition, helps to understand why some species are more affected by land use than others. Trait-based analyses are common for plants, but rare for arthropods. We collected literature-based traits for nearly 1000 insect and spider species to test how land- use intensity (including mowing, fertilization, and grazing) across 124 grasslands in three regions of Germany affects community-weighted mean traits across taxa and in single taxa. We additionally measured morphometric traits for more than 150 Heteroptera species and tested whether the weighted mean morphometric traits change with increasing land-use intensity. Community average body size decreased and community average dispersal ability increased from low to high land-use intensity. Furthermore, the relative abundance of herbivores and of specialists among herbivores decreased and the relative abundance of species using the herb layer increased with increasing land-use intensity. Community-weighted means of the morphometric traits in Heteroptera also changed from low to high land-use intensity toward longer and thinner shapes as well as longer appendices (legs, wings, and antenna). While changes in traits with increasing mowing and fertilization intensity were consistent with the combined land-use intensity, community average traits did often not change or with opposite direction under increasing grazing intensity. We conclude that high land-use intensity acts as an environmental filter selecting for on average smaller, more mobile, and less specialized species across taxa. Although trait collection across multiple arthropod taxa is laborious and needs clear trait definitions, it is essential for understanding the functional consequences of biodiversity loss due to land-use intensification.

  17. Carbon concentration of standing and downed woody detritus: effects of tree taxa, decay class, position, and tissue type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Harmon; Becky Fasth; Christopher W. Woodall; Jay. Sexton

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which carbon concentration (CC) of woody detritus varies by tree taxa, stage of decay, tissue type (i.e., bark versus wood), and vertical orientation was examined in samples of 60 tree species from the Northern Hemisphere. The mean CC of 257 study samples was 49.3% with a range of 43.4-56.8%. Angiosperms had a significantly lower CC than gymnosperms, with...

  18. A review of Chorthippus species with angled pronotal lateral keels from Greece with special reference to transitional populations between some Peloponnesean taxa (Orthoptera, Acrididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, F.; Helversen, von O.; Odé, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the current knowledge on the systematics of the Greek taxa of Chorthippus, morphologically characterised by angled lateral pronotal keels (usually grouped as Glyptobothrus). Prior to this paper, based on traditional morphology, ten taxa of Chorthippus with angled

  19. Das fantasias vazias ao referencial discursivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salztrager

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se analisar o estatuto de uma modalidade peculiar de fantasmatização para a qual propomos o nome de 'fantasias vazias'. No campo das fantasias vazias, a ambigüidade e a polissemia das palavras são postas de lado e seus enunciados se tornam absolutos e unívocos, de modo a anularem quaisquer possibilidades metafóricas ou simbólicas. Investigamos os limites que as fantasias em questão impõem à teoria do significante, propondo, em seguida, concebê-las como uma escritura balizada por uma série de elementos que denominamos 'referenciais discursivos'.From empty fantasies to dissertational reference. The purpose of the article is to analyze the state of a peculiar modality of fantasizing which we have named empty fantasies. Thus, in the field of empty fantasies, the ambiguity and the multiple meaning of the words are put aside and, for that reason, their statement becomes obsolete and univocal, in a way that they eliminate any metaphoric or symbolic possibilities. We investigate the limits that those fantasies impose to the theory of the signifier, proposing, then, to conceive them as a writing delimitated by a series of elements that we have called discourse references.

  20. ESTUDO DO EMPODERAMENTO NA PERSPECTIVA DAS MULHERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Brasil de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou conhecer como as mulheres que ocupam cargos de liderança, utilizam o empoderamento no exercício profissional em uma instituição de ensino e tecnologia em Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Na revisão da literatura foram contextualizados a mulher e sua inserção no mercado de trabalho, em busca de uma concepção de empoderamento e as dimensões do empoderamento da mulher no mercado de trabalho. A metodologia utilizada teve caráter descritivo e qualitativo. O instrumento de coleta de dados consistiu num roteiro com 16 questões que abordaram o bem-estar e sucesso profissional, o reconhecimento familiar, o processo de ascensão profissional e a participação das mulheres nos processos decisórios organizacionais. A pesquisa foi realizada com 10 mulheres que ocupavam cargos de chefia em diferentes setores da instituição em análise. Os resultados obtidos na pesquisa revelaram que as entrevistadas já demonstram expressões de empoderamento em seus cotidianos e a mulher se apresenta mais confiante e preparada para participar das tomadas de decisões em níveis hierárquicos maiores, além de interferir no próprio meio.

  1. Pollen Performance in Clarkia Taxa with Contrasting Mating Systems: Implications for Male Gametophytic Evolution in Selfers and Outcrossers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. Hove

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We tested three predictions regarding the joint evolution of pollen performance and mating system. First, due to the potential for intense intrasexual competition in outcrossing populations, we predicted that outcrossers would produce faster-growing pollen than their selfing relatives. Second, if elevated competition promotes stronger selection on traits that improve pollen performance, then, among-plant variation in pollen performance would be lower in outcrossers than in selfers. Third, given successive generations of adaptation to the same maternal genotype in selfers, we predicted that, in selfing populations (but not in outcrossing ones, pollen would perform better following self- than cross-pollinations. We tested these predictions in field populations of two pairs of Clarkia (Onagraceae sister taxa. Consistent with our predictions, one outcrosser (C. unguiculata exhibited faster pollen germination and less variation in pollen tube growth rate (PTGR among pollen donors than its selfing sister species, C. exilis. Contrary to our predictions, the selfing C. xantiana ssp. parviflora exhibited faster PTGR than the outcrossing ssp. xantiana, and these taxa showed similar levels of variation in this trait. Pollen performance following self- vs. cross-pollinations did not differ within either selfing or outcrossing taxa. While these findings suggest that mating system and pollen performance may jointly evolve in Clarkia, other factors clearly contribute to pollen performance in natural populations.

  2. Desiccation as a mitigation tool to manage biofouling risks: trials on temperate taxa to elucidate factors influencing mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Grant A; Prince, Madeleine; Cahill, Patrick L; Fletcher, Lauren M; Atalah, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The desiccation tolerance of biofouling taxa (adults and early life-stages) was determined under both controlled and 'realistic' field conditions. Adults of the ascidian Ciona spp. died within 24 h. Mortality in the adult blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis occurred within 11 d under controlled conditions, compared with 7 d when held outside. The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was the most desiccation-tolerant taxon tested (up to 34 d under controlled conditions). Biofouling orientated to direct sunlight showed faster mortality rates for all the taxa tested. Mortality in Mytilus juveniles took up to 24 h, compared with 8 h for Ciona, with greater survival at the higher temperature (18.5°C) and humidity (~95% RH) treatment combination. This study demonstrated that desiccation can be an effective mitigation method for a broad range of fouling taxa, especially their early life-stages. Further work is necessary to assess risks from other high-risk species such as algae and cyst forming species.

  3. Phalangopsidae crickets from Tropical Africa (Orthoptera, Grylloidea), with descriptions of new taxa and an identification key for African genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

    2015-04-22

    New Phalangopsidae crickets are described from tropical Africa, including three new genera and ten new species: Afrophaloria Desutter-Grandcolas, n.gen., Afrophaloria amani Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., type species, Afrophaloria apiariensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Afrophaloria hempae Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Kameruloria gabonensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Kameruloria nigricornis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Kameruloria trimaculata Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Paragryllodes amani Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Phasmagryllus Desutter-Grandcolas, n.gen., Phasmagryllus elegans Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., type species, Upupagryllus Desutter-Grandcolas, n.gen., Upupagryllus subalatus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., type species, and Upupagryllus alatus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp. All these taxa, except Paragryllodes amani Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., belong to the subfamily Phaloriinae. The subfamily is redefined, to take into account their morphological (apterous taxa) and ecological (straminicolous taxa) diversity. A key for phalangopsid African genera is proposed, and the status of Larandeicus Chopard, 1937 briefly discussed.

  4. Cytological and genome size data analyzed in a phylogenetic frame: Evolutionary implications concerning Sisyrinchium taxa (Iridaceae: Iridoideae

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    Paula Burchardt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sisyrinchium is the largest genus of Iridaceae in the Americas and has the greatest amount of cytological data available. This study aimed at investigating how genomes evolved in this genus. Chromosome number, genome size and altitude from species of sect. Viperella were analyzed in a phylogenetic context. Meiotic and pollen analyses were performed to assess reproductive success of natural populations, especially from those polyploid taxa. Character optimizations revealed that the common ancestor of sect. Viperella was probably diploid (2n = 2x =18 with two subsequent polyplodization events. Total DNA content (2C varied considerably across the phylogeny with larger genomes detected mainly in polyploid species. Altitude also varied across the phylogeny, however no significant relationship was found between DNA content changes and altitude in our data set. All taxa presented regular meiosis and pollen viability (> 87%, except for S. sp. nov. aff. alatum (22.70%, suggesting a recent hybrid origin. Chromosome number is mostly constant within this section and polyploidy is the only source of modification. Although 2C varied considerably among the 20 taxa investigated, the diversity observed cannot be attributed only to polyploidy events because large variations of DNA content were also observed among diploids.

  5. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Antimicrobial Activity of Scaligeria DC. Taxa and Implications for Taxonomy

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    Ayşe Baldemir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Six different Scaligeria DC. taxa (Apiaceae essential oils (EOs obtained by hydrodistillation from herba with the flowers collected from different sites from Turkey. The oils were analyzed and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS simultaneously. A total of 133 different compounds were identified and relative qualitative and quantitative differences were observed among the evaluated samples. Analytical profiles of the Scaligeria EOs showed characteristic differences in terms of different main chemical constituents, between the two taxa S. lazica Boiss. and S. tripartita (Kalen. Tamamsch; and S. napiformis (Sprengel Grande, S. meifolia (Fenzl Boiss., S. capillifolia Post, S. hermonis Post, S. glaucescens (DC. Boiss. taxa, respectively. The main component germacrene D can be utilized as marker for the chemical discrimination of the Scaligeria genus. In addition, Scaligeria EOs were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei standard strains by using a micro-dilution assay. As a general result, the oils showed moderate inhibitory range when compared with standard antimicrobial agents.

  6. Hidrófitas fanerogâmicas de ecossistemas aquáticos temporários da planície costeira do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Phanerogamic hydrophytes from the temporary swampy environments of coastal plains of northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Claudia Petean Bove

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento florístico das hidrófitas fanerogâmicas de ambientes aquáticos temporários da planície costeira do norte fluminense. O material botânico foi coletado em 27 expedições entre setembro/1998 a julho/2001, herborizado e identificado segundo a metodologia tradicional. As exsicatas foram depositadas no Herbário da Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (HUNI. Foram encontrados 113 táxons, distribuídos em 40 famílias. Os ambientes estudados podem ser caracterizados floristicamente pela família Cyperaceae, representada por 23 táxons (cerca de 20%; seguida pelas famílias Fabaceae e Onagraceae (sete táxons, Poaceae (seis táxons, Asteraceae e Scrophulariaceae (cinco táxons e Apiaceae, Lentibulariaceae e Polygonaceae (quatro táxons. Estes ambientes sofrem alterações fitofisionômicas marcantes relacionadas com a hidrogeologia. Algumas espécies são anuais, desaparecendo completamente na estiagem; outras suportam a seca, mas têm a população profundamente reduzida, alterando substancialmente a paisagem. Algumas espécies consideradas exclusivamente aquáticas foram encontradas em solo úmido, inclusive em floração. Isto demonstra a necessidade da inclusão de espécies anfíbias nos estudos da flora aquática pois, algumas vezes, a delimitação dos tipos biológicos não é muito definida, além de caracterizar de forma mais adequada estes ambientes.A floristic inventory of phanerogamic hydrophytes from the temporary swampy environments of coastal plains of northern of Rio de Janeiro State was made. The botanical vouchers were collected in 27 expeditions between September/1998 and July/2001. They were herborized and identified by the traditional methodology. The exsicatae were deposited in the UNIRIO herbarium (HUNI. One hundred and thirteen taxa, distributed among 40 families were found. The environment analyzed could be floristically characterized by the Cyperaceae, represented by 23 taxa (ca. 20%, followed

  7. Permeabilidade do solo na sub-bacia do córrego Centenário, Lavras, MG, em apoio à legislação das cidades

    OpenAIRE

    Furtini, Marcelo Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    As ações antrópicas geram uma série de mudanças nos ambientes urbanos, sendo necessárias medidas que minimizem os conflitos entre o meio urbano e o natural. Uma das questões a serem trabalhadas em planejamento urbano, almejando cidades sustentáveis, é a permeabilidade do solo. A análise das características físicas da região e a capacidade que o solo oferece à passagem de água através de seus vazios são ferramentas indispensáveis para viabilizar a implantação da taxa de permeabilidade (TP) em ...

  8. [Spatial and temporal variation patterns in aquatic macroinvertebrates of Tecocomulco Lake, Hidalgo (México)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Sánchez, Axel Eduardo; Rodríguez-Romero, Alexis Joseph; López-López, Eugenia; Sedeño-Díaz, Jacinto Elías

    2014-04-01

    Lake Tecocomulco, Hidalgo, is a relic of the ancient lakes ofAnahuac, important for the conservation of resident and migratory birds. However, the composition of aquatic macroinvertebrates is unknown; this is an important gap in conservation as they play an important role in the food web. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal variations in macroinvertebrate assemblages and their relationship with habitat characteristics. We carried out four monitoring campaigns covering the rainy and dry seasons. The monitoring was conducted at six study sites (four in the littoral zone and two in the middle part of the lake), environmental factors were recorded at each study site, water samples were collected for their physical and chemical analysis and aquatic macroinvertebrates were collected. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to group study sites based on physical and chemical characteristics. Richness of taxa was analysed with rarefaction. We assessed the importance value index of each taxon (considering their frequency of occurrence and abundance). Similarity analyzes were performed between study sites and similarity of taxa with indices of Jaccard and Bray-Curtis, respectively. We performed a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) between environmental factors and macroinvertebrate taxa. The PCA showed a marked seasonal variation represented by warm periods, with high values of conductivity, alkalinity, hardness, sulfates, and macronutrients (N and P) and the cold period with low values. We found a total of 26 taxa of aquatic macroinvertebrates and the highest richness was found in August. The Jaccard similarity analysis found differences between the littoral area and the limnetic zone, which differ also in the composition of macrophytes. The littoral zone had the highest taxa richness of macroinvertebrates and macrophytes, while the lowest diversity was found in the offshore zone. The CCA related physicochemical characteristics of the water body with

  9. HUMANIZAÇÃO DO DISCURSO DAS MARCAS DIANTE DAS NOVAS EXPERIÊNCIAS DE CONSUMO

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    Rogério Luiz Covaleski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista que o processo de consumo não se resume à compra de mercadorias, e que vivenciamos um momento de negociação de discursos entre consumidores e anunciantes, potencializado pelas ferramentas dos meios de comunicação pós-massivos, este artigo pretende refletir sobre o fenômeno da humanização do discurso das marcas. Para isso, tomaremos como referência as considerações sobre a mudança do fluxo comunicacional da linguagem publicitária (BEKESAS, 2012, as características da cibercultura (LEMOS; LÉVY, 2010, a cultura da participação (SHIRKY, 2011 e a necessidade de uma conduta ética para a manutenção da credibilidade das empresas (BLACKSHAW, 2010. Neste trabalho, também citaremos casos ilustrativos da humanização dos discursos das marcas colhidas nas redes sociais na Internet, como forma de exemplificar os esforços das empresas em manter a integridade da imagem da marca no atual cenário do refluxo comunicacional. Palavras-chave: Discurso. Marcas. Consumo. Refluxo comunicacional. Mídias sociais.

  10. Temporal and spatial influences incur reconfiguration of Arctic heathland soil bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard; Saetnan, Eli R; Scullion, John; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Ostle, Nick; Edwards, Arwyn

    2016-06-01

    Microbial responses to Arctic climate change could radically alter the stability of major stores of soil carbon. However, the sensitivity of plot-scale experiments simulating climate change effects on Arctic heathland soils to potential confounding effects of spatial and temporal changes in soil microbial communities is unknown. Here, the variation in heathland soil bacterial communities at two survey sites in Sweden between spring and summer 2013 and at scales between 0-1 m and, 1-100 m and between sites (> 100 m) were investigated in parallel using 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP and amplicon sequencing. T-RFLP did not reveal spatial structuring of communities at scales structuring effects may not confound comparison between plot-scale treatments, temporal change is a significant influence. Moreover, the prominence of two temporally exclusive keystone taxa suggests that the stability of Arctic heathland soil bacterial communities could be disproportionally influenced by seasonal perturbations affecting individual taxa. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES OF NEW CALEDONIAN STREAMS.

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    MARY N. J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one sites located on 14 New Caledonian streams were surveyed four times between October 1996 and October 1997 in order to examine the spatial and temporal changes in the structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities. About 250 000 invertebrates representing 167 taxa were collected in the streams. Seventy-five percent of identified taxa and 67% of individuals were insects. Major spatial and temporal changes in the composition of the fauna were detected by multivariate analyses (ordination and classification. Overall, the number of individuals was significantly higher in the dry season (October than in the wetter seasons (January and June. However, a low temporal variability was detected in the structure of benthic communities during the sampling period. A cluster analysis based on taxonomic composition separated five groups of sites in relation with rock type, land use, and geographic characteristics. Several metrics (total invertebrate density, taxon richness, relative abundance of major invertebrate groups, diversity indices were used to characterize each group of sites. Forested streams, where the highest specific diversity occurred, represented the most speciose habitat for benthic fauna. A less rich and abundant fauna occurred in streams draining ultramafic rocks probably because of their low content in food resources and organic matter.

  12. Response of bacterioplankton communities to cadmium exposure in coastal water microcosms with high temporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Demin; Xiong, Jinbo; Chen, Xinxin; Zheng, Jialai; Hu, Changju; Yang, Yina; Zhu, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple anthropogenic disturbances to bacterial diversity have been investigated in coastal ecosystems, in which temporal variability in the bacterioplankton community has been considered a ubiquitous process. However, far less is known about the temporal dynamics of a bacterioplankton community responding to pollution disturbances such as toxic metals. We used coastal water microcosms perturbed with 0, 10, 100, and 1,000 μg liter(-1) of cadmium (Cd) for 2 weeks to investigate temporal variability, Cd-induced patterns, and their interaction in the coastal bacterioplankton community and to reveal whether the bacterial community structure would reflect the Cd gradient in a temporally varying system. Our results showed that the bacterioplankton community structure shifted along the Cd gradient consistently after a 4-day incubation, although it exhibited some resistance to Cd at low concentration (10 μg liter(-1)). A process akin to an arms race between temporal variability and Cd exposure was observed, and the temporal variability overwhelmed Cd-induced patterns in the bacterial community. The temporal succession of the bacterial community was correlated with pH, dissolved oxygen, NO3 (-)-N, NO2 (-)-N, PO4 (3-)-P, dissolved organic carbon, and chlorophyll a, and each of these parameters contributed more to community variance than Cd did. However, elevated Cd levels did decrease the temporal turnover rate of community. Furthermore, key taxa, affiliated to the families Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Erythrobacteraceae, Piscirickettsiaceae, and Alteromonadaceae, showed a high frequency of being associated with Cd levels during 2 weeks. This study provides direct evidence that specific Cd-induced patterns in bacterioplankton communities exist in highly varying manipulated coastal systems. Future investigations on an ecosystem scale across longer temporal scales are needed to validate the observed pattern. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All

  13. How do low-abundance taxa affect river biomonitoring? Exploring the response of different macroinvertebrate-based indices

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    Simone Guareschi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of rare taxa to aquatic bioassessments remains a subject of debate, and generates contrasting positions among researchers. Very little is known about the effect of low-abundance taxa (LAT for calculating both single and multimetric macroinvertebrate-based indices, as well as the ecological status classification. In this study, we aimed to: i identify the aquatic macroinvertebrates that need special attention during index applications given their low abundance; ii analyse the effect of excluding LAT on single (IBMWP and IASPT and multimetric (STAR_ICMi biological indices; and iii investigate the influence of LAT on river ecological status assessments. To this end, two different river basins in SE Spain and N Italy with contrasting climatic conditions and river types were selected. Our results showed that almost all the taxa at the family level can act as low-abundance taxa. In particular, the LAT belonged mainly to orders Diptera, Trichoptera, Coleoptera, Gastropoda and Hemiptera. The IndVal analysis stressed Tabanidae, Cordulegasteridae and Hydroptilidae as the most characteristic low-abundance families in the Spanish data set, while Dryopidae and Athericidae were identified mostly in N Italy. Excluding LAT affected the studied index values and the resulting bioassessment classification, except for the IASPT index. Loss of the entire LAT pool reduced the ecological status for 78% of the samples for the IBMWP index. Changing took place in 41% of the samples when considering the STAR_ICM index. Relevant changes were detected even when considering loss of 50% of the LAT, especially with the IBMWP index. Similar values and patterns were obtained in each considered quality class and river type. Our results provide useful information about controversial taxa and stress the significance of LAT in river biomonitoring. Excluding LAT is discouraged, although different responses according to the considered index were detected. The IBMWP

  14. New or previously unrecorded avian taxa from the Middle Eocene of Messel (Hessen, Germany

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    G. Mayr

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new or from this site previously unrecorded birds are described from the Middle Eocene of Messel (Hessen, Germany. Serudaptus pohli n. gen. n. sp. is a new taxon of the Pseudasturidae and is distinguished from the other species of this family by its short and stout tarsometatarsus and the long and strong claws. An isolated foot of a gruiform bird is assigned to Idiornis cf. itardiensis (Idiornithidae and would, if this assignment can be confirmed, demonstrate the existence of this species for a period of 23 million years. The proportions of the toes suggest that Idiornis cf. itardiensis was less cursorial than its next recent relatives, the Cariamidae. In addition thereto, an exceptionally well preserved skeleton of a sandcoleid bird (Coliiformes: Sandcoleidae gives new information on the osteology and feathering of sandcoleid birds. The specimen resembles the genera Eoglaucidium and Anneavis but it has not been possible to assign it to one of these two genera with certainty. Drei neue oder von dieser Fundstelle bisher nicht nachgewiesene Vögel werden aus dem Mittel-Eozän von Messel (Hessen, Deutschland beschrieben. Serudaptus pohli n. gen. n. sp. ist ein neues Taxon der Pseudasturidae und unterscheidet sich von den anderen Arten dieser Familie durch den kurzen und gedrungenen Tarsometatarsus und die langen, kräftigen Krallen. Der isolierte Fuß eines gruiformen Vogels wird Idiornis cf. itardiensis (Idiornithidae zugeordnet und würde, wenn sich diese Zuordnung bestätigt, die Existenz dieser Art über einen Zeitraum von 23 Millionen Jahren zeigen. Die Zehenproportionen legen nahe, dass Idiornis cf. itardiensis weniger an eine laufende Lebensweise angepasst war als seine nächsten rezenten Verwandten, die Cariamidae. Darüber hinaus zeigt ein außergewöhnlich gut erhaltenes Skelett eines Vertreters der Sandcoleidae bisher unbekannte Einzelheiten der Osteologie und Befiederung dieser Familie. Das Exemplar ähnelt den Gattungen

  15. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    ending up with lexical data models. In particular we look upon the representations by sets of normalised tables, by sets of 1NF tables and by sets of N1NF/nested tables. At each translation step we focus on how the temporal semantic is consistently maintained. In this way we recognise the requirements...... for representation of temporal properties in different models and the correspondence between the models. The results rely on the assumptions that the temporal dimensions are interdependent and ordered. Thus for example the valid periods of existences of a property in a mini world are dependent on the transaction...... periods in which the corresponding recordings are valid. This is not the normal way of looking at temporal dimensions and we give arguments supporting our assumption....

  16. Algas perifíticas em dois ambientes do baixo rio Doce (lagoa Juparanã e rio Pequeno – Linhares, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil: variação espacial e temporal - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.535 Periphytic algae in two environments of the lower Doce river (Juparanã lagoon and Pequeno river – Linhares, Espírito Santo State, Brazil: spatial and temporal variation - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.535

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    Bruna Cavati

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou avaliar a variação espacial e temporal da comunidade de algas perifíticas em dois ambientes do baixo rio Doce: lagoa Juparanã e rio Pequeno. Foram realizadas coletas trimestrais (agosto/04 a maio/05 em duas estações amostrais, uma na lagoa e outra no rio. Foram coletados pecíolos de Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. Os atributos da comunidade analisados foram: riqueza de táxons, freqüência de ocorrência, densidade, abundância e dominância. Na lagoa Juparanã, foram registrados 86 táxons e a densidade variou de 20.592 ind cm-2 (mai/05 a 88.712 ind cm-2 (nov/04. No rio Pequeno, foram registrados 83 táxons e a densidade variou de 16.049 ind cm-2 (fev/05 a 71.663 ind cm-2 (ago/04. Em ambos os ambientes, as classes predominantes qualitativamente foram Cyanophyceae, Bacillariophyceae e Zygnemaphyceae, havendo domínio das formas filamentosas e unicelulares seguidas das coloniais. As classes Cyanophyceae e Bacillariophyceae foram mais representativas quantitativamente. Não houve variação espacial. Pluviosidade, temperatura da água, condutividade elétrica e transparência foram as variáveis que mais oscilaram conforme a estação (seca ou chuvosa e as que apresentaram maior número de correlações significativas com as variáveis biológicas, evidenciando heterogeneidade temporal.This research aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of the periphytic algae community within two environments of the lower Doce River: Juparanã Lagoon and Pequeno River. Samplings were carried out every three months from August 2004 to May 2005 at both sites. Natural substrata of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth petioles were collected from the sites. The community was analyzed according to species richness, frequency of occurrence, density of organisms, abundance and dominancy. Eighty-six taxa were recorded in the lagoon, and the density of organisms varied from 20,595 ind cm-2 (May/05 to 88,712 ind cm-2 (Nov/04. Eighty

  17. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Joins are arguably the most important relational operators. Poor implementations are tantamount to computing the Cartesian product of the input relations. In a temporal database, the problem is more acute for two reasons. First, conventional techniques are designed for the evaluation of joins wit...... to implementation, is on non-index-based join algorithms. Such algorithms do not rely on auxiliary access paths but may exploit sort orderings to achieve efficiency......., if any, comparison of the various operators. We then address evaluation algorithms, comparing the applicability of various algorithms to the temporal join operators and describing a performance study involving algorithms for one important operator, the temporal equijoin. Our focus, with respect...

  18. As Muitas Arqueologias das Minas Gerais

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    André Prous

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma história crítica das pesquisas em arqueologia - particularmente pré-histórica - realizadas em território mineiro desde o século XIX. Após a fase do pioneirismo (P. Lund, amadores diversos, missões internacionais estudam a região de Lagoa Santa no terceiro quarto do século XX, enquanto o Programa Nacional de Pesquisas Arqueológicas (PRONAPA inicia levantamentos no alto vale do rio São Francisco. Com a abertura de pesquisas mais sistemáticas pelo Instituto de Arqueologia Brasileira (IAB no Norte mineiro e a criação do Setor de Pesquisa da UFMG, na segunda metade dos anos de 1970, abre-se uma fase de pesquisas mais intensivas e regionais, tematicamente diversificadas. O início deste século XXI é marcado pela multiplicação das pesquisas preventivas e de resgate, a emergência de novos centros de pesquisa e a criação de cursos de formação de arqueólogos na UFMG. O Patrimônio pré-histórico de Minas Gerais é notável pela importância de preservação de materiais perecíveis, de restos esqueletais humanos de grande antiguidade, pela riqueza dos registros rupestres e a variedade regional das indústrias realizadas sobre matérias-primas muito diversas. A arqueologia histórica, cuja importância cresceu exponencialmente nos dois últimos decênios, é marcada pela importância dos vestígios da mineração de pedras e metais preciosos, dos assentamentos de escravos fugitivos e os remanescentes de fazendas antigas, cujo estudo se desenvolveu comparativamente mais que a arqueologia da urbanização e dos monumentos barrocos.

  19. Braquiterapia endobrônquica de alta taxa de dose: estudo dosimétrico High dose-rate endobronchial brachytherapy: a dosimetric study

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    Regina Maria Godoy Lopes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a distribuição de dose em diferentes situações de braquiterapia endobrônquica de alta taxa de dose, com foco principalmente nos volumes de altas doses, e tentar definir situações de melhor ou pior distribuição de dose que possam servir de guia na prática clínica. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo teórico, simulando braquiterapia endobrônquica de alta taxa de dose utilizando dois cateteres, com variação da extensão de carregamento, angulação entre os cateteres, profundidade de cálculo e o intervalo entre as paradas da fonte. Com prescrição de 7,5 Gy, foram calculados os volumes englobados pelas isodoses correspondentes a 100%, 150% e 200% da dose prescrita (V100, V150 e V200, respectivamente e as razões V150/V100 e V200/V100. RESULTADOS: Os volumes aumentaram com o aumento da extensão de carregamento dos cateteres, profundidade de cálculo e angulação, com tendência a um aumento proporcionalmente menor para angulações maiores. As relações V150/V100 e V200/V100 foram, em geral, homogêneas, ao redor de 0,50 e 0,30, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A distribuição de dose na situação considerada padrão é em geral adequada. Nenhum parâmetro específico que pudesse ser relacionado à maior toxicidade foi identificado. Recomendamos uma avaliação rápida da qualidade do implante por meio da análise das relações V150/V100 e V200/V100.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose distribution in different situations of high dose-rate endobronchial brachytherapy, focusing especially on high-dose volumes, and try to identify better or worse situations in terms of dose distribution to aid as guidance in the clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Theoretical study simulating high dose-rate endobronchial brachytherapy utilizing two catheters, varying the loading extent, angle between the catheters, prescription depth, and source step. With a prescription dose of 7.5 Gy, the volumes involved by the 100%, 150% and 200

  20. Epidemiologia das infecções por rotavírus no Brasil e os desafios para o seu controle

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    Linhares Alexandre C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Os rotavírus causam de 600.000 a 870.000 óbitos por ano entre crianças em todo o mundo. Esses vírus foram visualizados pela primeira vez no Brasil em 1976, a partir da microscopia eletrônica das fezes de crianças diarréicas em Belém, Pará. Estudos conduzidos em hospitais registraram prevalência de diarréia por rotavírus de 12% e 42%. A par disso, investigações longitudinais assinalaram taxa média de 0,25 episódio de diarréia por criança/ano. Os tipos G1, G2, G3 e G4 representam cerca de 2/3 das amostras circulantes, porém, sustenta-se que o genótipo P[8], G5 associa-se a, no mínimo, 10% das diarréias. Estudos sobre a imunidade natural para rotavírus revelaram que 70% das crianças adquirem anticorpos já aos 4-5 anos de idade. A vacina tetravalente, de origem símio-humana (RRV-TV conferiu proteção de 35% após dois anos de estudo; contudo, o nível protetor alcançou 60% no primeiro ano de vida. A RRV-TV, no norte do Brasil, revelou eficácia de 75% frente às diarréias graves. Há poucos meses interrompeu-se o uso dessa vacina nos EUA devido à ocorrência de intussuscepção como efeito colateral. É provável que futuros experimentos no Brasil contemplem outras "candidatas" a vacina contra rotavírus, que não a RRV-TV.