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Sample records for temporal constraints related

  1. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  2. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...

  3. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin

    2001-01-01

    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  4. Enhancing Formal Specification and Verification of Temporal Constraints in Business Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheikhrouhou, Saoussen; Kallel, Slim; Guermouche, Nawal; Jmaiel, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Formal specification and verification support of time-related constraints constitute fundamental challenges for any Business Process Management (BPM) system. Reluctantly, the literature on the subject of formal specification and verification of advanced temporal constraints such as absolute temporal constraints associated with relative temporal constraints is scarce. In this paper, we propose a novel approach enabling the formal specification and verification of advanc...

  5. Traverse Planning with Temporal-Spatial Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresina, John L.; Morris, Paul H.; Deans, Mathew C.; Cohen, Tamar E.; Lees, David S.

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach to planning rover traverses in a domain that includes temporal-spatial constraints. We are using the NASA Resource Prospector mission as a reference mission in our research. The objective of this mission is to explore permanently shadowed regions at a Lunar pole. Most of the time the rover is required to avoid being in shadow. This requirement depends on where the rover is located and when it is at that location. Such a temporal-spatial constraint makes traverse planning more challenging for both humans and machines. We present a mixed-initiative traverse planner which addresses this challenge. This traverse planner is part of the Exploration Ground Data Systems (xGDS), which we have enhanced with new visualization features, new analysis tools, and new automation for path planning, in order to be applicable to the Re-source Prospector mission. The key concept that is the basis of the analysis tools and that supports the automated path planning is reachability in this dynamic environment due to the temporal-spatial constraints.

  6. Discovering metric temporal constraint networks on temporal databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Miguel R; Félix, Paulo; Cariñena, Purificación

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we propose the ASTPminer algorithm for mining collections of time-stamped sequences to discover frequent temporal patterns, as represented in the simple temporal problem (STP) formalism: a representation of temporal knowledge as a set of event types and a set of metric temporal constraints among them. To focus the mining process, some initial knowledge can be provided by the user, also expressed as an STP, that acts as a seed pattern for the searching procedure. In this manner, the mining algorithm will search for those frequent temporal patterns consistent with the initial knowledge. Health organisations demand, for multiple areas of activity, new computational tools that will obtain new knowledge from huge collections of data. Temporal data mining has arisen as an active research field that provides new algorithms for discovering new temporal knowledge. An important point in defining different proposals is the expressiveness of the resulting temporal knowledge, which is commonly found in the bibliography in a qualitative form. ASTPminer develops an Apriori-like strategy in an iterative algorithm where, as a result of each iteration i, a set of frequent temporal patterns of size i is found that incorporates three distinctive mechanisms: (1) use of a clustering procedure over distributions of temporal distances between events to recognise similar occurrences as temporal patterns; (2) consistency checking of every combination of temporal patterns, which ensures the soundness of the resultant patterns; and (3) use of seed patterns to allow the user to drive the mining process. To validate our proposal, several experiments were conducted over a database of time-stamped sequences obtained from polysomnography tests in patients with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. ASTPminer was able to extract well-known temporal patterns corresponding to different manifestations of the syndrome. Furthermore, the use of seed patterns resulted in a reduction in the size of

  7. Relative constraints and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan G. Diaz

    2014-03-01

    Several mathematical models of evolving systems assume that changes in the micro-states are constrained to the search of an optimal value in a local or global objective function. However, the concept of evolution requires a continuous change in the environment and species, making difficult the definition of absolute optimal values in objective functions. In this paper, we define constraints that are not absolute but relative to local micro-states, introducing a rupture in the invariance of the phase space of the system. This conceptual basis is useful to define alternative mathematical models for biological (or in general complex) evolving systems. We illustrate this concept with a modified Ising model, which can be useful to understand and model problems like the somatic evolution of cancer.

  8. Embedding Temporal Constraints For Coordinated Execution in Habitat Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul; Schwabacher, Mark; Dalal, Michael; Fry, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Future NASA plans call for long-duration deep space missions with human crews. Because of light-time delay and other considerations, increased autonomy will be needed. This will necessitate integration of tools in such areas as anomaly detection, diagnosis, planning, and execution. In this paper we investigate an approach that integrates planning and execution by embedding planner-derived temporal constraints in an execution procedure. To avoid the need for propagation, we convert the temporal constraints to dispatchable form. We handle some uncertainty in the durations without it affecting the execution; larger variations may cause activities to be skipped.

  9. Organizational Constraints on Corporate Public Relations Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Catalogs various internal constraints under which many public relations practitioners work, including constraints on (1) access to management; (2) information collection; (3) dissemination of timely, accurate information; and (4) the public relations mission. Reports that most practitioners see organizational constraints as more of a problem for…

  10. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach. PMID:25893212

  11. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreanu, Lorina

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach.

  12. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorina Negreanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment’s evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach.

  13. Ecological and Temporal Constraints in the Evolution of Bacterial Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Martínez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the experimental evolution of microorganisms, on their in vivo evolution (mainly in the case of bacteria producing chronic infections, as well as the availability of multiple full genomic sequences, are placing bacteria in the playground of evolutionary studies. In the present article we review the differential contribution to the evolution of bacterial genomes that processes such as gene modification, gene acquisition and gene loss may have when bacteria colonize different habitats that present characteristic ecological features. In particular, we review how the different processes contribute to evolution in microbial communities, in free-living bacteria or in bacteria living in isolation. In addition, we discuss the temporal constraints in the evolution of bacterial genomes, considering bacterial evolution from the perspective of processes of short-sighted evolution and punctual acquisition of evolutionary novelties followed by long stasis periods.

  14. On the Expressive Power of Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank D.

    2002-01-01

    The tcc paradigm is a formalism for timed concurrent constraint programming. Several tcc languages differing in their way of expressing infinite behavior have been proposed in the literature. In this paper we study the expressive power of some of these languages. In particular, we show that: (1...

  15. Gaze behaviors of goaltenders under spatial-temporal constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchuk, D; Vickers, J N

    2006-12-01

    It is still not known what underlies successful performance in goaltending. Some studies have reported that advanced cues from the shooter's body (hip, kicking leg or support leg) are most important (Savelsbergh, G. J. P., Williams, A. M., Van der Kamp, J., & Ward, P. (2002). Visual search, anticipation and expertise in soccer goalkeepers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 279-287; Savelsbergh, G. J. P., Williams, A. M., Van der Kamp, J., & Ward, P. (2005). Anticipation and visual search behaviour in expert soccer goalkeepers. Ergonomics, 48, 1686-1697; Williams, A. M., & Burwitz, L. (1993). Advanced cue utilization in soccer. In T. Reilly, J. Clarys, & A. Stibbe (Eds.), Science and football II (pp. 239-243). London, England: E&FN Spon), while others have found that the early tracking of the object prior to and during flight is most critical (Bard, C., & Fleury, M. (1981). Considering eye movement as a predictor of attainment. In: I. M. Cockerill, & W. M. MacGillvary (Eds.), Vision and Sport (pp. 28-41). Cheltenham, England: Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd.). These results are similar to those found in a number of interceptive timing studies (Land, M. F., & McLeod, P. (2000). From eye movements to actions: How batsmen hit the ball. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 1340-1345; Ripoll and Fleurance, 1988; Vickers, J. N., & Adolphe, R. M. (1997). Gaze behaviour during a ball tracking and aiming skill. International Journal of Sports Vision, 4, 18-27). The coupled gaze and motor behavior of elite goaltenders were determined while responding to wrist shots taken from 5 m and 10 m on ice. The results showed that the goalies faced shots that were significantly different in phase durations due to distance (5 versus 10 m), but this was not a factor in making saves. Instead, the ability to stop the puck was dependent on the location, onset and duration of the final fixation/tracking gaze (or quiet eye) prior to initiating the saving action. The relative onset of quiet eye was

  16. Constraint-Based Abstract Semantics for Temporal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Gourinath; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Abstract interpretation provides a practical approach to verifying properties of infinite-state systems. We apply the framework of abstract interpretation to derive an abstract semantic function for the modal mu-calculus, which is the basis for abstract model checking. The abstract semantic funct...... abstract domains based on linear constraints. The implementation of the abstract semantic function makes use of an SMT solver. We describe an implemented system for proving properties of linear hybrid automata and give some experimental results....

  17. Identify Dynamic Network Modules with Temporal and Spatial Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, R; McCallen, S; Liu, C; Almaas, E; Zhou, X J

    2007-09-24

    Despite the rapid accumulation of systems-level biological data, understanding the dynamic nature of cellular activity remains a difficult task. The reason is that most biological data are static, or only correspond to snapshots of cellular activity. In this study, we explicitly attempt to detangle the temporal complexity of biological networks by using compilations of time-series gene expression profiling data.We define a dynamic network module to be a set of proteins satisfying two conditions: (1) they form a connected component in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network; and (2) their expression profiles form certain structures in the temporal domain. We develop the first efficient mining algorithm to discover dynamic modules in a temporal network, as well as frequently occurring dynamic modules across many temporal networks. Using yeast as a model system, we demonstrate that the majority of the identified dynamic modules are functionally homogeneous. Additionally, many of them provide insight into the sequential ordering of molecular events in cellular systems. We further demonstrate that identifying frequent dynamic network modules can significantly increase the signal to noise separation, despite the fact that most dynamic network modules are highly condition-specific. Finally, we note that the applicability of our algorithm is not limited to the study of PPI systems, instead it is generally applicable to the combination of any type of network and time-series data.

  18. Coping with temporal constraints in multimedia presentation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, E.; Rist, T.

    1996-12-31

    Computer-based presentation systems enable the realization of effective and dynamic presentation styles that incorporate multiple media. Obvious examples are animated user interface agents which verbally comment on multimedia objects displayed on the screen while performing cross-media and cross-window pointing gestures. The design of such presentations must account for the temporal coordination of media output and the agent`s behavior. In this paper we describe a new presentation system which not only creates the multimedia objects to be presented, but also generates a script for presenting the material to the user. In our system, this script is forwarded to an animated presentation agent running the presentation. The paper details the kernel of the system which is a component for planning temporally coordinated multimedia.

  19. Ecological Constraints of Timescales, Production, and Perception in Temporal Experiences of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Inge Godøy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In trying to structure our discussions of temporal experience in music, it could be useful to look at some basic ecological constraints of timescales, production, and perception of music. This may hopefully help us to distinguish between on the one hand readily perceived features of sound and music-related body motion, i.e. concrete sonic, kinematic, and proprioceptive features, and on the other hand, more generic, amodal, and abstract elements in musical discourse, manifest in various symbolic representations such as notation, numbers, and diagrams. Given easily accessible music technologies, it is possible to experiment with different editions of musical works, i.e. concatenate fragments in a different order and then evaluate the emergent contextual effects in listening experiments. Also, given the faculties of musical imagery (defined as our ability to mentally re-experience musical sound and body motion in the absence of physically present sound and body motion, we can at will recombine chunks of music in our minds and mentally scan through large musical works. The contention here is that such recombination in actual re-editing of musical sound or in musical imagery will still be related to the basic ecological constraints of the timescales, production, and perception in music.

  20. Temporal constraints on predation risk assessment in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivers, Douglas P., E-mail: doug.chivers@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada); Ramasamy, Ryan A.; McCormick, Mark I.; Watson, Sue-Ann [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville Qld4811 (Australia); School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville Qld4811 (Australia); Siebeck, Ulrike E. [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Qld4072 (Australia); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7W 5B4 (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    Habitat degradation takes various forms and likely represents the most significant threat to our global biodiversity. Recently, we have seen considerable attention paid to increasing global CO{sub 2} emissions which lead to ocean acidification (OA). Other stressors, such as changing levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), also impact biodiversity but have received much less attention in the recent past. Here we examine fundamental questions about temporal aspects of risk assessment by coral reef damselfish and provide critical insights into how OA and UVR influence this assessment. Chemical cues released during a predator attack provide a rich source of information that other prey animals use to mediate their risk of predation and are the basis of the majority of trait-mediated indirect interactions in aquatic communities. However, we have surprisingly limited information about temporal aspects of risk assessment because we lack knowledge about how long chemical cues persist after they are released into the environment. Here, we showed that under ambient CO{sub 2} conditions (∼ 385 μatm), alarm cues of ambon damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis) did not degrade within 30 min in the absence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), but were degraded within 15 min when the CO{sub 2} was increased to ∼ 905 μatm. In experiments that used filters to eliminate UVR, we found minimal degradation of alarm cues within 30 min, whereas under ambient UVR conditions, alarm cues were completely degraded within 15 min. Moreover, in the presence of both UVR and elevated CO{sub 2}, alarm cues were broken down within 5 min. Our results highlight that alarm cues degrade surprisingly quickly under natural conditions and that anthropogenic changes have the potential to dramatically change rates of cue degradation in the wild. This has considerable implications for risk assessment and consequently the importance of trait-mediated indirect interactions in coral-reef communities. - Highlights:

  1. Effects of temporal constraints on medio-lateral stability when negotiating obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Wataru; Fukaya, Takashi; Kanai, Yoshihide; Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2015-07-01

    If an obstacle suddenly appears during walking, either the crossing step can be lengthened or the precrossing step shortened to avoid the obstacle. We investigated the effects of temporal constraints on dynamic stability during step adjustments. Twelve healthy young adults avoided a virtual white planar obstacle by lengthening or shortening their steps under free or constrained conditions. When constrained, participants had only one step to avoid the obstacle. The results indicated that center of mass (COM) displacement in the mediolateral (ML) direction and the COM velocity toward the swing-leg side during the crossing step were significantly increased in the long-constraint compared with the long-free condition. Consequently, the extrapolated COM (XcoM) position at the swing foot contact was also located further toward the swing-leg side. However, the distances between the XcoM and base of support (BOS) at the swing foot contact in the ML direction was unchanged because of greater lateral foot placement. In the anteriorposterior (AP) direction, temporal constraints led to greater AP COM displacement. The XcoM-BOS distance in the AP direction was unchanged in the long-constraint condition because of greater step length. However, the value became negative in the short-constraint condition, violating the conditions for dynamic stability, because step length adjustments were obstructed by the spatial constraints of the obstacles. These results suggest that temporal constraints affect postural stability in the AP and ML directions during step adjustments. AP and ML stability at swing foot contact are maintained through adjustments of step length and lateral foot placement, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Constraint Logic Programming for Resolution of Relative Time Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Translating time expression into absolute time points or durations is a challenge for natural languages processing such as text mining and text understanding in general. We present a constraint logic language CLP(Time) tailored to text usages concerned with time and calendar. It provides a simple...... and flexible formalism to express relationships between different time expressions in a text, thereby giving a recipe for resolving them into absolute time. A constraint solver is developed which, as opposed to some earlier approaches, is independent of the order in which temporal information is introduced...

  3. RSS Fingerprint Based Indoor Localization Using Sparse Representation with Spatio-Temporal Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Xinglin; Zhang, Yong; Li, Tingshu; Hu, Yongli; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Ke; Ge, Yun

    2016-11-03

    The Received Signal Strength (RSS) fingerprint-based indoor localization is an important research topic in wireless network communications. Most current RSS fingerprint-based indoor localization methods do not explore and utilize the spatial or temporal correlation existing in fingerprint data and measurement data, which is helpful for improving localization accuracy. In this paper, we propose an RSS fingerprint-based indoor localization method by integrating the spatio-temporal constraints into the sparse representation model. The proposed model utilizes the inherent spatial correlation of fingerprint data in the fingerprint matching and uses the temporal continuity of the RSS measurement data in the localization phase. Experiments on the simulated data and the localization tests in the real scenes show that the proposed method improves the localization accuracy and stability effectively compared with state-of-the-art indoor localization methods.

  4. Integrating Relational Databases and Constraint Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Hansen, Bo S.; Lucas, Peter

    1989-01-01

    for sharing among different applications than procedural or functional rules because these latter rules always determine inputs and outputs.To support such a repository, an extended relational algebra is explored. This algebra serves as the semantic model for a proposed rules language and is the basis......A new structure of application programs is suggested, which separates the algorithmic parts from factual information (data and rules). The latter is to be stored in a repository that can be shared among multiple applications. It is argued that rules stating pure relations are better suited...... for a seamless integration of data and rules. The paper focuses on equational rules. A number of potentially useful algebraic laws are stated. Examples will demonstrate the use of these algebraic laws in query evaluation and optimization.The paper elaborates the Rules/Database system from a programming language...

  5. Kinematics of the Pelvis, Torso, and Lower Limb During Obstacle Negotiation While Under Temporal Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jesse C; Wilson, Christopher R; Merryweather, Andrew S; Foreman, K Bo

    2017-04-01

    Biomechanics of unobstructed locomotion consists of synchronized complex movements of the pelvis, torso, and lower limbs. These movement patterns become more complex as individuals encounter obstacles or negotiate uneven terrain. To date, limited research has explored how specifically the pelvis, torso, and lower limb segments relate to obstacle negotiation of varying sized objects combined with temporal constraints to perform the task. Understanding pelvis and adjoining segment movements during object negotiation will provide necessary information in identifying abnormal mechanics and potential fall risk characteristics in balance compromised patient populations. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to compare pelvic, torso, and lower limb kinematics during unobstructed locomotion with obstacle negotiation of varying heights. Ten healthy young adults (7 females and 3 males, mean age 28.4 ± 4.1 years, mean body mass index 22.5 ± 3.6 kg/m2 ) enrolled in this study. Analysis of within-subject differences revealed a significant increase in sagittal (posterior tilt) and frontal (ipsilateral hike) plane pelvic angular displacement and higher sagittal plane posterior torso lean angular displacement with increased obstacle height. Furthermore, both sagittal plane hip and knee maximum joint flexion were significantly higher with increasing heights of the obstacles during negotiation. These data provide insight on segment mechanics within a non-mobility-impaired population; therefore, providing a baseline to understand the kinematic demands necessary for safe and effective gait in mobility-compromised populations. Anat Rec, 300:732-738, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Symmetry constraints on temporal order in measurement-based quantum computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raussendorf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the interdependence of resource state, measurement setting and temporal order in measurement-based quantum computation. The possible temporal orders of measurement events are constrained by the principle that the randomness inherent in quantum measurement should not affect the outcome of the computation. We provide a classification for all temporal relations among measurement events compatible with a given initial stabilizer state and measurement setting, in terms of a matroid. Conversely, we show that classical processing relations necessary for turning the local measurement outcomes into computational output determine the resource state and measurement setting up to local equivalence. Further, we find a symmetry transformation related to local complementation that leaves the temporal relations invariant.

  7. Societal constraints related to environmental remediation and decommissioning programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja; Monken-Fernandes, Horst; Martell, Meritxell; Zeleznik, Nadja; O'Sullivan, Patrick

    2017-06-20

    The decisions related to decommissioning or environmental remediation projects (D/ER) cannot be isolated from the socio-political and cultural environment. Experiences of the IAEA Member States point out the importance of giving due attention to the societal aspects in project planning and implementation. The purpose of this paper is threefold: i) to systematically review societal constraints that some organisations in different IAEA Member States encounter when implementing D/ER programmes, ii) to identify different approaches to overcome these constraints and iii) to collect examples of existing practices related to the integration of societal aspects in D/ER programmes worldwide. The research was conducted in the context of the IAEA project Constraints to Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation (CIDER). The research results show that societal constraints arise mostly as a result of the different perceptions, attitudes, opinions and concerns of stakeholders towards the risks and benefits of D/ER programmes and due to the lack of stakeholder involvement in planning. There are different approaches to address these constraints, however all approaches have common points: early involvement, respect for different views, mutual understanding and learning. These results are relevant for all on-going and planned D/ER programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatio-temporal constraints on upright children's coordination when hitting a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosey, Florence; Keller, Jean; Golomer, Eveline

    2007-12-01

    To determine if the spatial and/or temporal context affected the coordination patterns of children under five in upright interceptive tasks, 3-year-olds hit a ball dropped from a ramp from five heights (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 3.5 m) to control drop time. We studied the initiation time of hitting a ball with a cinematic analysis of the different joint movements (foot, knee, hip, shoulder, and hand). Two patterns of joint coordination were observed according to the rolling height of the ball: a de-synchronized pattern for heights of 2 m or above where the foot was the first to move and the hand the last, and a "synchronized" pattern, for the lowest height (1.5 m) where all joints started moving at the same time due to a strong temporal pressure. These two coordination patterns highlight a functional adaptation of body joints according to the spatio-temporal constraints among children from the age of three.

  9. Constraints to feedback provision on forestry-related technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper ascertained the constraints to feedback provision on forestry-related technologies. Interview schedule was used to elicit information from 163 randomly selected respondents. Descriptive (frequencies, percentages) and inferential (Chi square and Ordinary Least square regression) statistics were used to analyse ...

  10. Relational Constraint Driven Test Case Synthesis for Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Fu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a relational constraint driven technique that synthesizes test cases automatically for web applications. Using a static analysis, servlets can be modeled as relational transducers, which manipulate backend databases. We present a synthesis algorithm that generates a sequence of HTTP requests for simulating a user session. The algorithm relies on backward symbolic image computation for reaching a certain database state, given a code coverage objective. With a slight adaptation, the technique can be used for discovering workflow attacks on web applications.

  11. ASPECTUAL INFLUENCE ON TEMPORAL RELATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF THE EXPERIENTIAL GUO IN MANDARINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Shiung Wu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the temporal relation between a clause containing the experiential guo and an adjacent clause is determined. Mandarin is a language not morphologically marked for tenses (e.g., Lin 2006, and therefore, tenses cannot help in determining temporal relations in Mandarin. However, Mandarin has a rich aspectual system. This paper argues that the experiential guo indirectly influences temporal relations via rhetorical relations by either specifying a default rhetorical relation, or by constraining the circumstances under which a certain rhetorical relation can connect a clause with guo to an adjacent clause. This paper also argues that the default rhetorical relation and the constraints are determined by the aspectual properties of the experiential marker. Other information, such as discourse connectors, lexical information, etc., can override the default rhetorical relation indicated by guo and specifies a rhetorical relation. Therefore, this paper concludes that in Mandarin aspect markers can indirectly affect temporal relations by means of rhetorical relations, a result consistent with Wu’s (2005b paper on the perfective marker le in Mandarin, and Wu’s (2007b, 2004 work on the progressive marker zai and the durative marker zhe.

  12. Role of DARPP-32 and ARPP-21 in the Emergence of Temporal Constraints on Striatal Calcium and Dopamine Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Upinder S.; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    In reward learning, the integration of NMDA-dependent calcium and dopamine by striatal projection neurons leads to potentiation of corticostriatal synapses through CaMKII/PP1 signaling. In order to elicit the CaMKII/PP1-dependent response, the calcium and dopamine inputs should arrive in temporal proximity and must follow a specific (dopamine after calcium) order. However, little is known about the cellular mechanism which enforces these temporal constraints on the signal integration. In this computational study, we propose that these temporal requirements emerge as a result of the coordinated signaling via two striatal phosphoproteins, DARPP-32 and ARPP-21. Specifically, DARPP-32-mediated signaling could implement an input-interval dependent gating function, via transient PP1 inhibition, thus enforcing the requirement for temporal proximity. Furthermore, ARPP-21 signaling could impose the additional input-order requirement of calcium and dopamine, due to its Ca2+/calmodulin sequestering property when dopamine arrives first. This highlights the possible role of phosphoproteins in the temporal aspects of striatal signal transduction. PMID:27584878

  13. Role of DARPP-32 and ARPP-21 in the Emergence of Temporal Constraints on Striatal Calcium and Dopamine Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu G Nair

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In reward learning, the integration of NMDA-dependent calcium and dopamine by striatal projection neurons leads to potentiation of corticostriatal synapses through CaMKII/PP1 signaling. In order to elicit the CaMKII/PP1-dependent response, the calcium and dopamine inputs should arrive in temporal proximity and must follow a specific (dopamine after calcium order. However, little is known about the cellular mechanism which enforces these temporal constraints on the signal integration. In this computational study, we propose that these temporal requirements emerge as a result of the coordinated signaling via two striatal phosphoproteins, DARPP-32 and ARPP-21. Specifically, DARPP-32-mediated signaling could implement an input-interval dependent gating function, via transient PP1 inhibition, thus enforcing the requirement for temporal proximity. Furthermore, ARPP-21 signaling could impose the additional input-order requirement of calcium and dopamine, due to its Ca2+/calmodulin sequestering property when dopamine arrives first. This highlights the possible role of phosphoproteins in the temporal aspects of striatal signal transduction.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Suicide-Related Emergency Calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Marco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerable effort has been devoted to incorporate temporal trends in disease mapping. In this line, this work describes the importance of including the effect of the seasonality in a particular setting related with suicides. In particular, the number of suicide-related emergency calls is modeled by means of an autoregressive approach to spatio-temporal disease mapping that allows for incorporating the possible interaction between both temporal and spatial effects. Results show the importance of including seasonality effect, as there are differences between the number of suicide-related emergency calls between the four seasons of each year.

  15. Age-Dependent Modulation of Songbird Summer Feather Molt by Temporal and Functional Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiat, Yosef; Sapir, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Time constraints influence various ecological, life-history, and demographic properties of individuals and populations of many species throughout the annual cycle. Feather molt is a timely undertaking that is considered among the three most energy-demanding processes in the life cycle of birds. To deal with time pressure, passerines may shorten their molt duration, using three non-mutually exclusive mechanisms: (1) replacing only part of the plumage, (2) increasing the speed of molt, and (3) postponing the renewal of some or all the plumage to a later season (i.e., from the summer to the overwintering period). We used a comparative approach by measuring 12,349 individuals from 134 passerine species to explore how feather molt of juvenile and adult passerines is evolutionarily modulated under time constraints. The results indicate that breeding at northern latitudes and long-distance migration limit the time available for molt and that the consequences of time constraints were age dependent. While the duration of adult summer molt decreased, the extent, rather than the duration, of juvenile molt declined under time constraints. This study highlights the importance of considering time constraints in order to enhance the understanding of selective forces that shape life-history processes and their consequences throughout the annual routine.

  16. Strategies and determinants for selection of alternate foot placement during human locomotion: influence of spatial and temporal constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Renato; Lewis, M Anthony; Patla, Aftab E

    2004-11-01

    During locomotion in a cluttered terrain, certain terrain surfaces such as an icy one are not appropriate for foot placement; an alternate choice is required. In a previous study we showed that the selection of foot placement is not random but systematic; the dominant choices made are not uniquely defined by the available or predicted sensory inputs. We argued that selection is guided by specific rules and involves minimal displacement of the foot from its normal landing spot. The experimental protocol involved implicit spatial constraint by requiring individuals to step on the force plate that could trigger a lighted area to be avoided, thereby requiring individuals to respond within one step-cycle. Alternate foot placement was visually identified, but not measured. The purpose of this study was to directly measure foot placement, validate and/or refine the rules used to guide selection, and identify whether the alternate foot placement choices are influenced by spatial and temporal constraints on response selection. The area to be avoided was visible from the start and therefore individuals could plan and implement appropriate avoidance strategies without any temporal constraint. Spatial constraint introduced in this experiment included requirement both to step on a specific location and to avoid stepping on a specific location on the next step. The results provide support for the rules previously identified in guiding foot placement to an alternate location. Minimal displacement of the foot from its normal landing spot was validated as an important factor for selecting alternate foot placement. When several choices satisfied this factor, additional factors guide alternate foot placement. Modifications in the plane of progression are preferred while stepping wide is avoided. When no temporal constraints are imposed on the response selection, enhancing forward progression of the body becomes the dominant determinant followed by stability and lastly by energy costs

  17. Incorporating Temporal Constraints in the Planning Task of a Hybrid Intelligent IDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Álvaro; Navarro, Martí; Julián, Vicente; Corchado, Emilio

    Accurate and swift responses are crucial to Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs), especially if automatic abortion mechanisms are running. In keeping with this idea, this work presents an extension of a Hybrid Intelligent IDS characterized by incorporating temporal control to facilitate real-time processing. The hybrid intelligent -IDS has been conceived as a Hybrid Artificial Intelligent System to perform Intrusion Detection in dynamic computer networks. It combines Artificial Neural Networks and Case-based Reasoning within a multiagent system, in order to develop a more efficient computer network security architecture. Although this temporal issue was taken into account in the initial formulation of this hybrid IDS, in this upgraded version, temporal restrictions are imposed in order to perform real/execution time processing. Experimental results are presented which validate the performance of this upgraded version.

  18. Combining offsets with precedence constraints to improve temporal analysis of cyclic real-time streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtin, Philip Sebastian; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Stream processing applications executed on multiprocessor systems usually contain cyclic data dependencies due to the presence of bounded FIFO buffers and feedback loops, as well as cyclic resource dependencies due to the usage of shared processors. In recent works it has been shown that temporal

  19. A structure-based model of semantic integrity constraints for relational data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdorf, William J.; Ulberg, Karen J.; Baugh, John W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Data base management systems (DBMSs) are in widespread use because of the ease and flexibility with which users access large volumes of data. Ensuring data accuracy through integrity constraints is a central aspect of DBMS use. However, many DBMSs still lack adequate integrity support. In additon, a comprehensive theoretical basis for such support the role of a constraint classification system - has yet to be developed. This paper presents a formalism that classifies semantic integrity constraints based on the structure of the relational model. Integrity constraints are characterized by the portion of the data base structure they access, whether one or more relations, attributes, or tuples. Thus, the model is completely general, allowing the arbitrary specification of any constraint. Examples of each type of constraint are illustrated using a small engineering data base, and various implementation issues are discussed.

  20. Visual Constraints for the Perception of Quantitative Depth from Temporal Interocular Unmatched Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rui; Chen, Lin; Andersen, George J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research (Brooks & Gillam, 2006) has found that temporal interocular unmatched (IOUM) features generate a perception of subjective contours and can result in a perception of quantitative depth. In the present study we examine in detail the factors important for quantitative depth perception from IOUM features. In Experiments 1 and 2 observers were shown temporal IOUM features based on three dots that disappeared behind an implicit surface. Subjects reported a perception of a subjective surface and were able to perceive qualitative depth. In Experiments 3 and 4 metrical depth was perceived when binocular disparity features were added to the display. These results suggest that quantitative depth from IOUM information is perceived when binocular matched information is present in regions adjacent to the surface. In addition, the perceived depth of the subjective surface decreased with an increase in the width of the subjective surface suggesting a limitation in the propagation of quantitative depth to surface regions where qualitative depth information is available. PMID:20493899

  1. Temporal phase relation of circadian neural oscillations as the basis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    Hence, the present study was undertaken to pinpoint the specific phase relation between the two injections which determines this change in gonadal response. To address the putative regulatory role of circadian oscillations in the reproductive development of laboratory mice and to pinpoint the exact temporal phase relation ...

  2. Pushing the P300-based brain-computer interface beyond 100 bpm: extending performance guided constraints into the temporal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, G; Platsko, V

    2016-04-01

    A new presentation paradigm for the P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) referred to as the 'asynchronous paradigm' (ASP) is introduced and studied. It is based on the principle of performance guided constraints (Townsend et al 2012 Neurosci. Lett. 531 63-8) extended from the spatial domain into the temporal domain. The traditional constraint of flashing targets in predefined constant epochs of time is eliminated and targets flash asynchronously with timing based instead on constraints intended to improve performance. We propose appropriate temporal constraints to derive the ASP and compare its performance to that of the 'checkerboard paradigm' (CBP), which has previously been shown to be superior to the standard 'row/column paradigm' introduced by Farwell and Donchin (1988 Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 70 510-23). Ten participants were tested in the ASP and CBP conditions both with traditional flashing items and with flashing faces in place of the targets (see Zhang et al 2012 J. Neural Eng. 9 026018; Kaufmann and Kübler 2014 J. Neural Eng. 11 ; Chen et al 2015 J. Neurosci. Methods 239 18-27). Eleven minutes of calibration data were used as input to a stepwise linear discriminant analysis to derive classification coefficients used for online classification. Accuracy was consistently high for both paradigms (87% and 93%) while information transfer rate was 45% higher for the ASP than the CBP. In a free spelling task, one subject spelled a 66 character sentence (from a 72 item matrix) with 100% accuracy in 3 min and 24 s demonstrating a practical throughput of 120 bits per minute (bpm) with a theoretical upper bound of 258 bpm. The subject repeated the task three times in a row without error. This work represents an advance in P300 speller technology and raises the ceiling that was being reached on P300-based BCIs. Most importantly, the research presented here is a novel and effective general strategy for organising timing for flashing items. The ASP

  3. Event Related Potentials Index Rapid Recalibration to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David M.; Noel, Jean-Paul; Wallace, Mark T.

    2017-01-01

    Asynchronous arrival of multisensory information at the periphery is a ubiquitous property of signals in the natural environment due to differences in the propagation time of light and sound. Rapid adaptation to these asynchronies is crucial for the appropriate integration of these multisensory signals, which in turn is a fundamental neurobiological process in creating a coherent perceptual representation of our dynamic world. Indeed, multisensory temporal recalibration has been shown to occur at the single trial level, yet the mechanistic basis of this rapid adaptation is unknown. Here, we investigated the neural basis of rapid recalibration to audiovisual temporal asynchrony in human participants using a combination of psychophysics and electroencephalography (EEG). Consistent with previous reports, participant’s perception of audiovisual temporal synchrony on a given trial (t) was influenced by the temporal structure of stimuli on the previous trial (t−1). When examined physiologically, event related potentials (ERPs) were found to be modulated by the temporal structure of the previous trial, manifesting as late differences (>125 ms post second-stimulus onset) in central and parietal positivity on trials with large stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). These findings indicate that single trial adaptation to audiovisual temporal asynchrony is reflected in modulations of late evoked components that have previously been linked to stimulus evaluation and decision-making. PMID:28381993

  4. Event-related Potentials Reflecting the Processing of Phonological Constraint Violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domahs, Ulrike; Kehrein, Wolfgang; Knaus, Johannes; Wiese, Richard; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Flow are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of ail event-related potentials (ERP) Study oil a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within it syllable or word (CC(i)VC(i)). We examined three

  5. Event-related potentials reflecting the processing of phonological constraint violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domahs, U.; Kehrein, W.; Knaus, J.; Wiese, R.; Schlesewsky, M.

    2009-01-01

    How are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of an event-related potentials (ERP) study on a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within a syllable or word (CC iVCi). We examined three types of

  6. Temporal Relations and Structures in Real-Time Operating Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    0l A.2 Non-Convex Interval Relations ......................... 44 13 2 Distribution/ _ Ivallability Codes Avail and/or Dist Speolal L 1 Introduction...7: Laxity Interaction of Overlapping Time Constraints If the context swiching can be regarded as negligible, then one can allocate a resource portion...City, State, and ZIP Code ) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code ) Dept. of Computor Science 800 North Quincy St. University of Maryland Arlington

  7. Movement-related feedback and temporal accuracy in clarinet performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, C.; Koopmans, E.; Loehr, J.D.; Carter, C.

    2009-01-01

    SENSORY INFORMATION AVAILABLE WHEN MUSICIANS' fingers arrive on instrument keys contributes to temporal accuracy in piano performance (Goebl & Palmer, 2008). The hypothesis that timing accuracy is related to sensory (tactile) information available at finger-key contact was extended to clarinetists'

  8. Assimilation of SWARM and CHAMP data under realistic spatial and temporal core flow constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrois, Olivier; Finlay, Christopher; Gillet, Nicolas; Hammer, Magnus

    2017-04-01

    We assimilate geomagnetic data from both ground-based and virtual observatories (from CHAMP and SWARM satellite records) to simultaneously build models of the magnetic field and of fluid motions at the core surface. We consider data cleaned from external magnetic field contributions, equally distributed in space and time. We use spatial constraints from geodynamo simulations and dense observation error covariance matrices. We use an augmented state ensemble Kalman filter that allows to estimate uncertainties on core motions and the magnetic model as a function of length and time-scales. The model is time-stepped using stochastic equations coherent with the occurrence of geomagnetic jerks. The algorithm is applied to observations over the period 2000-2017. It gives reasonable solutions in terms of misfit to the data. The geomagnetic model obtained is in agreement with alternative models such as CHAOS or COV-OBS. We retrieve the eccentric westward gyre, and core motions are essentially in agreement with the quasi-geostrophic approximation - with local violation under Indonesia. The method is able to provide probability densities for core flows, magnetic field and secular variation forecasts both at the core surface and at observatory locations.

  9. A Multi-Band Uncertainty Set Based Robust SCUC With Spatial and Temporal Budget Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Chenxi; Wu, Lei; Wu, Hongyu

    2016-11-01

    The dramatic increase of renewable energy resources in recent years, together with the long-existing load forecast errors and increasingly involved price sensitive demands, has introduced significant uncertainties into power systems operation. In order to guarantee the operational security of power systems with such uncertainties, robust optimization has been extensively studied in security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) problems, for immunizing the system against worst uncertainty realizations. However, traditional robust SCUC models with single-band uncertainty sets may yield over-conservative solutions in most cases. This paper proposes a multi-band robust model to accurately formulate various uncertainties with higher resolution. By properly tuning band intervals and weight coefficients of individual bands, the proposed multi-band robust model can rigorously and realistically reflect spatial/temporal relationships and asymmetric characteristics of various uncertainties, and in turn could effectively leverage the tradeoff between robustness and economics of robust SCUC solutions. The proposed multi-band robust SCUC model is solved by Benders decomposition (BD) and outer approximation (OA), while taking the advantage of integral property of the proposed multi-band uncertainty set. In addition, several accelerating techniques are developed for enhancing the computational performance and the convergence speed. Numerical studies on a 6-bus system and the modified IEEE 118-bus system verify the effectiveness of the proposed robust SCUC approach for enhancing uncertainty modeling capabilities and mitigating conservativeness of the robust SCUC solution.

  10. Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Ivana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (ČAK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksička, semantička i pragmatička istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

  11. Ethical Tensions Related to Systemic Constraints: Occupational Alienation in Occupational Therapy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Evelyne; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; McCorquodale, Lisa; Phelan, Shanon

    2016-09-03

    Ethical tensions arise daily in health care practice and are frequently related to health care system structures or policies. Collective case study methodology was adopted to examine ethical tensions reported by occupational therapists practicing in different settings in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Inductive analysis involving multiple layers of coding was conducted. This article focuses on tensions related to systemic constraints. Participants reported ethical tensions related to balancing client priorities with those of health care services. Four themes related to systemic constraints were identified including imposed practices, ineffective processes, resource limitations, and lack of services. Therapists' aims could be seen to align with an "ethic of care" and were seen to be in tension in light of systemic constraints. The findings raise issues related to occupational justice, particularly related to occupational alienation in occupational therapy practice, and open conversations related to neoliberalist health care agendas. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Normalization of relative and incomplete temporal expressions in clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiyi; Rumshisky, Anna; Uzuner, Ozlem

    2015-09-01

    To improve the normalization of relative and incomplete temporal expressions (RI-TIMEXes) in clinical narratives. We analyzed the RI-TIMEXes in temporally annotated corpora and propose two hypotheses regarding the normalization of RI-TIMEXes in the clinical narrative domain: the anchor point hypothesis and the anchor relation hypothesis. We annotated the RI-TIMEXes in three corpora to study the characteristics of RI-TMEXes in different domains. This informed the design of our RI-TIMEX normalization system for the clinical domain, which consists of an anchor point classifier, an anchor relation classifier, and a rule-based RI-TIMEX text span parser. We experimented with different feature sets and performed an error analysis for each system component. The annotation confirmed the hypotheses that we can simplify the RI-TIMEXes normalization task using two multi-label classifiers. Our system achieves anchor point classification, anchor relation classification, and rule-based parsing accuracy of 74.68%, 87.71%, and 57.2% (82.09% under relaxed matching criteria), respectively, on the held-out test set of the 2012 i2b2 temporal relation challenge. Experiments with feature sets reveal some interesting findings, such as: the verbal tense feature does not inform the anchor relation classification in clinical narratives as much as the tokens near the RI-TIMEX. Error analysis showed that underrepresented anchor point and anchor relation classes are difficult to detect. We formulate the RI-TIMEX normalization problem as a pair of multi-label classification problems. Considering only RI-TIMEX extraction and normalization, the system achieves statistically significant improvement over the RI-TIMEX results of the best systems in the 2012 i2b2 challenge. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Constraint and gauge shocks in one-dimensional numerical relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, B.; Alcubierre, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Nunez, D.

    2004-01-01

    We study how different types of blow-ups can occur in systems of hyperbolic evolution equations of the type found in general relativity. In particular, we discuss two independent criteria that can be used to determine when such blow-ups can be expected. One criteria is related with the so-called geometric blow-up leading to gradient catastrophes, while the other is based upon the ODE-mechanism leading to blow-ups within finite time. We show how both mechanisms work in the case of a simple one...

  14. Constraints on relativity violations from gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelecký, V Alan; Mewes, Matthew

    2013-05-17

    Tiny violations of the Lorentz symmetry of relativity and the associated discrete CPT symmetry could emerge in a consistent theory of quantum gravity such as string theory. Recent evidence for linear polarization in gamma-ray bursts improves existing sensitivities to Lorentz and CPT violation involving photons by factors ranging from ten to a million.

  15. Physical constraints on causality-violating spacetimes in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janca, Andrew Joseph

    The theoretical possibility of global causality violation has long been a problem within general relativity, for there exists a large number of model spacetimes known to admit closed time-like curves, trajectories allowing a timelike observer to return to some point in her own past. However, nearly all such known models have some unphysical feature. These physicality issues rendered causality-violation to the status of an interesting but safely theoretical problem until twenty years ago, when the appearance of a new type of causality-violating model spacetime and the subsequent proliferation of new models admitting closed timelike curves forced the attention of the community to the issue, and made causality violation and its possible physical consequences an active area of research within general relativity. This paper focuses on some of the older causality-violating spacetimes which model matter sources with cylindrical symmetry. By describing how cylindrically-symmetric solutions can be embedded within a spatially bounded and physically realistic body which outwardly has the symmetry of a torus or ring, it is shown that the chief problem of physical plausibility which these older solutions possess can be resolved. The intention is to make these models active candidates for consideration in future experiments to test general relativity's prediction that causality violation is a phenomenon that could be observed in the real world. Attending chapters describe physical systems other than rotating objects that can alter a local observer's experience of time to a substantial extent, including an electrically-charged massive shell slowing time in its interior (though not affecting causality) and a class of trajectories in the Reissner-Nordstrom background that could in principle allow a timelike observer to reverse her personal arrow of time relative to other observers in the spacetime as a whole. The paper concludes with a discussion of one of the plausibility problems

  16. Temporal and spatial organization of gait-related electrocortical potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-07-10

    To advance gait rehabilitation research it is of great importance to understand the supraspinal control of walking. In this study, the temporal and spatial characteristics of averaged electrocortical activity during treadmill walking in healthy subjects was assessed. Electroencephalography data were recorded from 32 scalp locations, averaged across trials, and related to phases of the gait cycle based on the detection of left heel strike. A characteristic temporal pattern of positive and negative potentials, similar to movement-related cortical potentials, and related to the gait cycle was observed over the cortical leg representation area. Source localization analysis revealed that mainly the primary somatosensory, somatosensory association, primary motor and cingulate cortex were activated during walking. The negative peaks of the gait-related cortical potential were associated with activity predominantly in the cingulate and prefrontal cortex, while the primary motor, primary somatosensory and somatosensory association cortex were mainly active during the positive peaks. This study identified gait-related cortical potentials during walking. The results indicate a widely distributed cortical network involved in gait control. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Cancer-related loneliness mediates the relationships between social constraints and symptoms among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca N; Mosher, Catherine E; Winger, Joseph G; Abonour, Rafat; Kroenke, Kurt

    2017-10-05

    Cancer patients have high rates of persistent and disabling symptoms. Evidence suggests that social constraints (e.g., avoidance and criticism) negatively impact symptoms, but pathways linking these variables have yet to be identified. This study examined whether cancer-related loneliness (i.e., feeling socially disconnected related to having cancer) mediated the relationships between social constraints and symptoms (i.e., pain interference, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and cognitive complaints) in patients with various cancers (N = 182). Patients (51% female, mean age = 59) were recruited from the Indiana Cancer Registry and completed questionnaires assessing social constraints, cancer-related loneliness, and symptoms. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the hypothesized relationships among variables. The model demonstrated good fit. Consistent with our hypothesis, cancer-related loneliness mediated the relationships between social constraints and each symptom. Findings suggest that addressing cancer-related loneliness in symptom management interventions may mitigate the negative impact of social constraints on outcomes.

  18. Relative Packing Groups in Template-Based Structure Prediction: Cooperative Effects of True Positive Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ryan; Qu, Xiaotao; Swanson, Rosemarie; Bohannan, Zach; Bliss, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Most current template-based structure prediction methods concentrate on finding the correct backbone conformation and then packing sidechains within that backbone. Our packing-based method derives distance constraints from conserved relative packing groups (RPGs). In our refinement approach, the RPGs provide a level of resolution that restrains global topology while allowing conformational sampling. In this study, we test our template-based structure prediction method using 51 prediction units from CASP7 experiments. RPG-based constraints are able to substantially improve approximately two-thirds of starting templates. Upon deeper investigation, we find that true positive spatial constraints, especially those non-local in sequence, derived from the RPGs were important to building nearer native models. Surprisingly, the fraction of incorrect or false positive constraints does not strongly influence the quality of the final candidate. This result indicates that our RPG-based true positive constraints sample the self-consistent, cooperative interactions of the native structure. The lack of such reinforcing cooperativity explains the weaker effect of false positive constraints. Generally, these findings are encouraging indications that RPGs will improve template-based structure prediction. PMID:21210729

  19. Transfer effects of manipulating temporal constraints on learning a two-choice reaction time task with low stimulus-response compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David D; Pei, Laura; Chan, John S Y; Yan, Jin H

    2012-10-01

    Recent research using deliberate amplification of spatial errors to increase motor learning leads to the question of whether amplifying temporal errors may also facilitate learning. We investigated transfer effects caused by manipulating temporal constraints on learning a two-choice reaction time (CRT) task with varying degrees of stimulus-response compatibility. Thirty-four participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups and completed 120 trials during acquisition. For every fourth trial, one group was instructed to decrease CRT by 50 msec. relative to the previous trial and a second group was instructed to increase CRT by 50 msec. The third group (the control) was told not to change their responses. After a 5-min. break, participants completed a 40-trial no-feedback transfer test. A 40-trial delayed transfer test was administered 24 hours later. During acquisition, the Decreased Reaction Time group responded faster than the two other groups, but this group also made more errors than the other two groups. In the 5-min. delayed test (immediate transfer), the Decreased Reaction Time group had faster reaction times than the other two groups, while for the 24-hr. delayed test (delayed transfer), both the Decreased Reaction Time group and Increased Reaction Time group had significantly faster reaction times than the control. For delayed transfer, both Decreased and Increased Reaction Time groups reacted significantly faster than the control group. Analyses of error scores in the transfer tests indicated revealed no significant group differences. Results were discussed with regard to the notion of practice variability and goal-setting benefits.

  20. Principals' Self-Efficacy: Relations with Job Autonomy, Job Satisfaction, and Contextual Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, perceived job autonomy, job satisfaction, and perceived contextual constraints to autonomy. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Job autonomy, job satisfaction, and contextual…

  1. Skill Acquisition in Music Performance: Relations between Planning and Temporal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carolyn; Palmer, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated acquisition of music performance skills over 11 practice trials in novice and expert pianists differing in age, training, and sight-reading ability. The finding of a strong positive relationship between the mastery of temporal constraints and planning abilities within performance suggested that these two cognitive…

  2. A Novel Spatial-Temporal Voronoi Diagram-Based Heuristic Approach for Large-Scale Vehicle Routing Optimization with Time Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle routing optimization (VRO designs the best routes to reduce travel cost, energy consumption, and carbon emission. Due to non-deterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard complexity, many VROs involved in real-world applications require too much computing effort. Shortening computing time for VRO is a great challenge for state-of-the-art spatial optimization algorithms. From a spatial-temporal perspective, this paper presents a spatial-temporal Voronoi diagram-based heuristic approach for large-scale vehicle routing problems with time windows (VRPTW. Considering time constraints, a spatial-temporal Voronoi distance is derived from the spatial-temporal Voronoi diagram to find near neighbors in the space-time searching context. A Voronoi distance decay strategy that integrates a time warp operation is proposed to accelerate local search procedures. A spatial-temporal feature-guided search is developed to improve unpromising micro route structures. Experiments on VRPTW benchmarks and real-world instances are conducted to verify performance. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach is competitive with state-of-the-art heuristics and achieves high-quality solutions for large-scale instances of VRPTWs in a short time. This novel approach will contribute to spatial decision support community by developing an effective vehicle routing optimization method for large transportation applications in both public and private sectors.

  3. Event-related potentials reflecting the processing of phonological constraint violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domahs, Ulrike; Kehrein, Wolfgang; Knaus, Johannes; Wiesel, Richard; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    How are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of an event-related potentials (ERP) study on a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within a syllable or word (CC(i)VC(i)). We examined three types of monosyllabic late positive CCVC words: (a) existing words [see text], (b) wellformed novel words [see text] and component (c) illformed novel words [see text] as instances of Obligatory Contour Principle non-word (OCP) violations. Wellformed and illformed novel words evoked an N400 effect processing in comparison to existing words. In addition, illformed words produced an enhanced late posterior positivity effect compared to wellformed novel words. obligatory contour Our findings support the well-known observation that novel words evoke principle higher costs in lexical integration (reflected by N400 effects). Crucially, modulations of a late positive component (LPC) show that violations of phonological phonotactic constraints influence later stages of cognitive processing even constraints when stimuli have already been detected as non-existing. Thus, the comparison of electrophysiological effects evoked by the two types of non-existing words reveals the stages at which phonologically based structural wellformedness comes into play during word processing.

  4. Rapid L2 Word Learning through High Constraint Sentence Context: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found quantity of exposure, i.e., frequency of exposure (Horst et al., 1998; Webb, 2008; Pellicer-Sánchez and Schmitt, 2010, is important for second language (L2 contextual word learning. Besides this factor, context constraint and L2 proficiency level have also been found to affect contextual word learning (Pulido, 2003; Tekmen and Daloglu, 2006; Elgort et al., 2015; Ma et al., 2015. In the present study, we adopted the event-related potential (ERP technique and chose high constraint sentences as reading materials to further explore the effects of quantity of exposure and proficiency on L2 contextual word learning. Participants were Chinese learners of English with different English proficiency levels. For each novel word, there were four high constraint sentences with the critical word at the end of the sentence. Learners read sentences and made semantic relatedness judgment afterwards, with ERPs recorded. Results showed that in the high constraint condition where each pseudoword was embedded in four sentences with consistent meaning, N400 amplitude upon this pseudoword decreased significantly as learners read the first two sentences. High proficiency learners responded faster in the semantic relatedness judgment task. These results suggest that in high quality sentence contexts, L2 learners could rapidly acquire word meaning without multiple exposures, and L2 proficiency facilitated this learning process.

  5. Adjustment of relative gravity measurements using weighted and datum-free constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheinway; Wang, Cheng-Gi; Lee, Li-Hua

    2002-11-01

    A program in FORTRAN 90 is developed which can adjust relative gravity measurements and solve for gravimeter parameters using the weighted constraint and datum-free constraint models. The weighted constraint model is chosen when there exist reliable a priori gravity values for use as supplementary data, or when it is required that a gravity network be attached to an existing gravity network of a higher order. The datum-free model uniquely determines relative gravity values among all stations without the need of a fixed gravity value, thus it is suitable for detecting relative gravity change. The optional solve-for gravimeter parameters include drift coefficients, and coefficients of the long wavelength and periodic components of calibration function. The program can also detect outliers in observations using the τ-test method. A set of relative gravity data in Taiwan was used to test this program using five different choices of command-line arguments. The results show that there are no outliers in these data and that the estimated reading accuracy of the LaCoste and Romberg G meter (serial number 838) is about 0.02 mgal and the gravimeter drift rate is 0.9 mgal/month. The coefficients of the long wavelength and periodic components of calibration function are statistically equal to zero. The result from the datum-free solution is used to detect gravity variation due to the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, concluding that only one station experiences a significant change.

  6. A strong astrophysical constraint on the violation of special relativity by quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, T; Liberati, S; Mattingly, D

    2003-08-28

    Special relativity asserts that physical phenomena appear the same to all unaccelerated observers. This is called Lorentz symmetry and relates long wavelengths to short ones: if the symmetry is exact it implies that space-time must look the same at all length scales. Several approaches to quantum gravity, however, suggest that there may be a microscopic structure of space-time that leads to a violation of Lorentz symmetry. This might arise because of the discreteness or non-commutivity of space-time, or through the action of extra dimensions. Here we determine a very strong constraint on a type of Lorentz violation that produces a maximum electron speed less than the speed of light. We use the observation of 100-MeV synchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula to improve the previous limit by a factor of 40 million, ruling out this type of Lorentz violation, and thereby providing an important constraint on theories of quantum gravity.

  7. Age-Related Changes in Sensorimotor Temporal Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Carrasco, Carlos; Jiang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The causal relationship between a voluntary movement and a sensory event is crucial for experiencing agency. Sensory events must occur within a certain delay from a voluntary movement to be perceived as self-generated. Therefore, temporal sensitivity, i.e., the ability to discriminate temporal asynchronies between motor and sensory events, is important for sensorimotor binding. Moreover, differences in the physical propagation of external stimuli can sometimes challenge sensorimotor binding, generating illusory asynchrony. To overcome this problem, the brain adjusts the perceptual timing of sensory and motor events. This mechanism, named sensorimotor recalibration, helps keeping causality judgments accurate. As humans age, the broad decline in sensory and motor processing may reduce temporal sensitivity, and compromise sensorimotor recalibration. In the current study, we investigated the effect of aging on sensorimotor temporal binding by measuring changes in both temporal sensitivity and recalibration. Young and elderly adults were exposed to a prolonged physical delay between a voluntary movement (a keypress) and its perceptual consequence (a visual stimulus). Before and after this exposure, participants performed a sensorimotor temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. As expected, elderly adults showed reduced sensorimotor recalibration and sensitivity as compared to young adults, suggesting that aging affects sensorimotor temporal binding.

  8. Hydrothermal titanite from the Chengchao iron skarn deposit: temporal constraints on iron mineralization, and its potential as a reference material for titanite U-Pb dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Li, Jian-Wei; McFarlane, Christopher R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Uranium-lead isotopes and trace elements of titanite from the Chengchao iron skarn deposit (Daye district, Eastern China), located along the contact zones between Triassic marine carbonates and an early Cretaceous intrusive complex consisting of granite and quartz diorite, were analyzed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to provide temporal constraints on iron mineralization and to evaluate its potential as a reference material for titanite U-Pb geochronology. Titanite grains from mineralized endoskarn have simple growth zoning patterns, exhibit intergrowth with magnetite, diopside, K-feldspar, albite and actinolite, and typically contain abundant primary two-phase fluid inclusions. These paragenetic and textural features suggest that these titanite grains are of hydrothermal origin. Hydrothermal titanite is distinct from the magmatic variety from the ore-related granitic intrusion in that it contains unusually high concentrations of U (up to 2995 ppm), low levels of Th (12.5-453 ppm), and virtually no common Pb. The REE concentrations are much lower, as are the Th/U and Lu/Hf ratios. The hydrothermal titanite grains yield reproducible uncorrected U-Pb ages ranging from 129.7 ± 0.7 to 132.1 ± 2.7 Ma (2σ), with a weighted mean of 131.2 ± 0.2 Ma [mean standard weighted deviation (MSWD) = 1.7] that is interpreted as the timing of iron skarn mineralization. This age closely corresponds to the zircon U-Pb age of 130.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.7) determined for the quartz diorite, and the U-Pb ages for zircon and titanite (130.1 ± 1.0 Ma and 131.3 ± 0.3 Ma) in the granite, confirming a close temporal and likely genetic relationship between granitic magmatism and iron mineralization. Different hydrothermal titanite grains have virtually identical uncorrected U-Pb ratios suggestive of negligible common Pb in the mineral. The homogeneous textures and U-Pb characteristics of Chengchao hydrothermal titanite suggest that the mineral might be a

  9. Absolute and relative temporal order memory for performed activities following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Linda A; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Reijmer, Yael D; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, L Jaap; Postma, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the temporal order of events is a crucial part of episodic memory. The temporal dimension, however, is often discarded in clinical settings, and measurements of true temporal aspects of episodic memory are scarce. The present study assessed temporal memory in stroke patients and in age- and education-matched healthy controls. Both groups underwent a standardized neuropsychological examination. We asked participants afterwards to reconstruct the order of tests they had performed, measured in absolute temporal order (event placed on correct moment in sequence) and relative temporal order (event placed correctly relative to directly preceding and following events). The aim of the study was to examine how serial-position curve effects (measuring absolute temporal order anchored in exact time) and how relative temporal order memory (anchored to other events) may differ in a group of cerebral stroke patients. Another aim was to link temporal order memory deficits with established neuropsychological measures of cognitive functioning. Although item identification was comparable in both groups, absolute temporal order memory was impaired in patients: A total of 43% of the patients lacked the expected primacy and recency effects (serial position effect). In addition, relative temporal order memory was affected in this group as well, F(1, 70) = 4.08, p < .05; 25% of the patients were impaired in reconstructing the relative temporal order (p = .019, Fisher's Exact Test). Both absolute and relative temporal order memory performance related to the domains of executive functioning and memory. Our results suggest that it is important to test both absolute and relative temporal order memory, especially because these types of memory depend on different anchors, either on time or on adjacent events.

  10. Surveying Medieval Archaeology: a New Form for Harris Paradigm Linking Photogrammetry and Temporal Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drap, P.; Papini, O.; Pruno, E.; Nucciotti, M.; Vannini, G.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents some reflexions concerning an interdisciplinary project between Medieval Archaeologists from the University of Florence (Italy) and ICT researchers from CNRS LSIS of Marseille (France), aiming towards a connection between 3D spatial representation and archaeological knowledge. It is well known that Laser Scanner, Photogrammetry and Computer Vision are very attractive tools for archaeologists, although the integration of representation of space and representation of archaeological time has not yet found a methodological standard of reference. We try to develop an integrated system for archaeological 3D survey and all other types of archaeological data and knowledge through integrating observable (material) and non-graphic (interpretive) data. Survey plays a central role, since it is both a metric representation of the archaeological site and, to a wider extent, an interpretation of it (being also a common basis for communication between the 2 teams). More specifically 3D survey is crucial, allowing archaeologists to connect actual spatial assets to the stratigraphic formation processes (i.e. to the archaeological time) and to translate spatial observations into historical interpretation of the site. We propose a common formalism for describing photogrammetrical survey and archaeological knowledge stemming from ontologies: Indeed, ontologies are fully used to model and store 3D data and archaeological knowledge. Xe equip this formalism with a qualitative representation of time. Stratigraphic analyses (both of excavated deposits and of upstanding structures) are closely related to E. C. Harris theory of "Stratigraphic Unit" ("US" from now on). Every US is connected to the others by geometric, topological and, eventually, temporal links, and are recorded by the 3D photogrammetric survey. However, the limitations of the Harris Matrix approach lead to use another representation formalism for stratigraphic relationships, namely Qualitative Constraints

  11. CNTRO: A Semantic Web Ontology for Temporal Relation Inferencing in Clinical Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Cui; Wei, Wei-Qi; Solbrig, Harold R; Savova, Guergana; Chute, Christopher G

    2010-11-13

    Using Semantic-Web specifications to represent temporal information in clinical narratives is an important step for temporal reasoning and answering time-oriented queries. Existing temporal models are either not compatible with the powerful reasoning tools developed for the Semantic Web, or designed only for structured clinical data and therefore are not ready to be applied on natural-language-based clinical narrative reports directly. We have developed a Semantic-Web ontology which is called Clinical Narrative Temporal Relation ontology. Using this ontology, temporal information in clinical narratives can be represented as RDF (Resource Description Framework) triples. More temporal information and relations can then be inferred by Semantic-Web based reasoning tools. Experimental results show that this ontology can represent temporal information in real clinical narratives successfully.

  12. spatio-temporal relativities in antonio tabucchi's urban space1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    He leaves Lisbon only twice, to go to the Buçaco Spa, near Coimbra, and to the clinic in. Parede. The protagonist's movements are carefully traced and the spatial and temporal sequence of events is always adhered to. For example, Pereira on a tram on his way home: Dal finestrino, guardava sfilare lentamente la sua.

  13. Formation and temporal evolution of the Kalahari sub-cratonic lithospheric mantle: Constraints from Venetia xenoliths, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hin, R.C.; Morel, M.L.A.; Nebel, O.; Mason, P.R.D.; van Westrenen, W.; Davies, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The ~533 Ma Venetia Diamond Mine is located between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons and the study of selected xenoliths provides the opportunity to investigate the temporal evolution of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) underneath southern Africa, as well as the extent and potentially

  14. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitude, Social Pressure, and Environmental Constraints among New Undergraduates in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China. PMID:25607600

  15. Smoking-related knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints among new undergraduates in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-19

    Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of "Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better", the social pressure "Smoking brings comfort during celebration", and the environmental constraints "How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?" are significantly associated with smoking. The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China.

  16. A Relational Encoding of a Conceptual Model with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubiani, Donatella; Montanari, Angelo

    The theoretical interest and the practical relevance of a systematic treatment of multiple temporal dimensions is widely recognized in the database and information system communities. Nevertheless, most relational databases have no temporal support at all. A few of them provide a limited support, in terms of temporal data types and predicates, constructors, and functions for the management of time values (borrowed from the SQL standard). One (resp., two) temporal dimensions are supported by historical and transaction-time (resp., bitemporal) databases only. In this paper, we provide a relational encoding of a conceptual model featuring four temporal dimensions, namely, the classical valid and transaction times, plus the event and availability times. We focus our attention on the distinctive technical features of the proposed temporal extension of the relation model. In the last part of the paper, we briefly show how to implement it in a standard DBMS.

  17. A Framework for Discovering Evolving Domain Related Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In massive Twitter datasets, tweets deriving from different domains, e.g., civil unrest, can be extracted to constitute spatio-temporal Twitter events for spatio-temporal distribution pattern detection. Existing algorithms generally employ scan statistics to detect spatio-temporal hotspots from Twitter events and do not consider the spatio-temporal evolving process of Twitter events. In this paper, a framework is proposed to discover evolving domain related spatio-temporal patterns from Twitter data. Given a target domain, a dynamic query expansion is employed to extract related tweets to form spatio-temporal Twitter events. The new spatial clustering approach proposed here is based on the use of multi-level constrained Delaunay triangulation to capture the spatial distribution patterns of Twitter events. An additional spatio-temporal clustering process is then performed to reveal spatio-temporal clusters and outliers that are evolving into spatial distribution patterns. Extensive experiments on Twitter datasets related to an outbreak of civil unrest in Mexico demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability of the new method. The proposed method will be helpful to accurately predict the spatio-temporal evolution process of Twitter events, which belongs to a deeper geographical analysis of spatio-temporal Big Data.

  18. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to infarct size and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); Scheijmans, F.E.V. (Féline E.V.); T. van Seeters (Tom); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos (Yvo); L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); Greve, D. (Droogh-de); H.P. Bienfait; M.A. van Walderveen (M.); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); Bot, J.; M.C. Visser (Marieke); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); van Seeters, T.; A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute

  19. Constraints on Dark Energy, Observable-mass Scaling Relations, Neutrino Properties and Gravity from Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    Using a data set of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and/or ROSAT for 94 of those clusters we obtain tight constraints on dark energy, both luminosity-mass and temperature-mass scaling relations, neutrino...... properties and gravity. I will present the novel statistical framework we employed to self-consistently and simultaneously constrain cosmology and observable-mass scaling relations accounting for survey biases, parameter covariances and systematic uncertainties. Allowing the dark energy equation of state...... and the linear growth index to take any constant values, we find no evidence for departures from the standard cosmological paradigm – General Relativity plus a cosmological constant and cold dark matter. I will review in detail our results and demonstrate the power of X-ray cluster studies to constrain both...

  20. VISUALIZATION OF SPATIO-TEMPORAL RELATIONS IN MOVEMENT EVENT USING MULTI-VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-temporal relations among movement events extracted from temporally varying trajectory data can provide useful information about the evolution of individual or collective movers, as well as their interactions with their spatial and temporal contexts. However, the pure statistical tools commonly used by analysts pose many difficulties, due to the large number of attributes embedded in multi-scale and multi-semantic trajectory data. The need for models that operate at multiple scales to search for relations at different locations within time and space, as well as intuitively interpret what these relations mean, also presents challenges. Since analysts do not know where or when these relevant spatio-temporal relations might emerge, these models must compute statistical summaries of multiple attributes at different granularities. In this paper, we propose a multi-view approach to visualize the spatio-temporal relations among movement events. We describe a method for visualizing movement events and spatio-temporal relations that uses multiple displays. A visual interface is presented, and the user can interactively select or filter spatial and temporal extents to guide the knowledge discovery process. We also demonstrate how this approach can help analysts to derive and explain the spatio-temporal relations of movement events from taxi trajectory data.

  1. Differential Privacy for Relational Algebra: Improving the Sensitivity Bounds via Constraint Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catuscia Palamidessi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Differential privacy is a modern approach in privacy-preserving data analysis to control the amount of information that can be inferred about an individual by querying a database. The most common techniques are based on the introduction of probabilistic noise, often defined as a Laplacian parametric on the sensitivity of the query. In order to maximize the utility of the query, it is crucial to estimate the sensitivity as precisely as possible. In this paper we consider relational algebra, the classical language for queries in relational databases, and we propose a method for computing a bound on the sensitivity of queries in an intuitive and compositional way. We use constraint-based techniques to accumulate the information on the possible values for attributes provided by the various components of the query, thus making it possible to compute tight bounds on the sensitivity.

  2. Deformations of the vacuum solutions of general relativity subjected to linear constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, C.

    2013-12-01

    The problem of deforming geometries is particularly important in the context of constructing new exact solutions of Einstein’s equation. This issue often appears when extensions of the general relativity are treated, for instance in brane world scenarios. In this paper we investigate spacetimes in which the energy-momentum tensor obeys a linear constraint. Extensions of the usual vacuum and electrovacuum solutions of general relativity are derived and an exact solution is presented. The classes of geometries obtained include a wide variety of compact objects, among them black holes and wormholes. The general metric derived in this work generalizes several solutions already published in the literature. Perturbations around the exact solution are also considered.

  3. An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyss Kaspar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in low-income countries. Methods and framework The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. Results and discussion At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling

  4. Brain activity related to working memory for temporal order and object information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brooke M; Libby, Laura A; Inhoff, Marika C; Ranganath, Charan

    2017-06-08

    Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail. To address these questions, participants were scanned while completing 3 working memory task conditions (Group, Position and Item) that were matched in terms of difficulty and the number of items to be actively maintained. Group and Position trials probed temporal working memory processes, requiring the maintenance of hierarchically organized coarse and fine temporal information, respectively. To isolate activation related to temporal working memory, Group and Position trials were contrasted against Item trials, which required detailed working memory maintenance of visual objects. Results revealed that working memory encoding and maintenance of temporal information relative to visual information was associated with increased activation in dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and perirhinal cortex (PRC). In contrast, maintenance of visual details relative to temporal information was characterized by greater activation of parahippocampal cortex (PHC), medial and anterior PFC, and retrosplenial cortex. In the hippocampus, a dissociation along the longitudinal axis was observed such that the anterior hippocampus was more active for working memory encoding and maintenance of visual detail information relative to temporal information, whereas the posterior hippocampus displayed the opposite effect. Posterior parietal cortex was the only region to show sensitivity to temporal

  5. Constraints on post-depositional isotope modifications in East Antarctic firn from analysing temporal changes of isotope profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Thomas; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Freitag, Johannes; Meyer, Hanno; Laepple, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The isotopic composition of water in ice sheets is extensively used to infer past climate changes. In low-accumulation regions their interpretation is, however, challenged by poorly constrained effects that may influence the initial isotope signal during and after deposition of the snow. This is reflected in snow-pit isotope data from Kohnen Station, Antarctica, which exhibit a seasonal cycle but also strong interannual variations that contradict local temperature observations. These inconsistencies persist even after averaging many profiles and are thus not explained by local stratigraphic noise. Previous studies have suggested that post-depositional processes may significantly influence the isotopic composition of East Antarctic firn. Here, we investigate the importance of post-depositional processes within the open-porous firn (≳ 10 cm depth) at Kohnen Station by separating spatial from temporal variability. To this end, we analyse 22 isotope profiles obtained from two snow trenches and examine the temporal isotope modifications by comparing the new data with published trench data extracted 2 years earlier. The initial isotope profiles undergo changes over time due to downward advection, firn diffusion and densification in magnitudes consistent with independent estimates. Beyond that, we find further modifications of the original isotope record to be unlikely or small in magnitude (≪ 1 ‰ RMSD). These results show that the discrepancy between local temperatures and isotopes most likely originates from spatially coherent processes prior to or during deposition, such as precipitation intermittency or systematic isotope modifications acting on drifting or loose surface snow.

  6. CNTRO 2.0: A Harmonized Semantic Web Ontology for Temporal Relation Inferencing in Clinical Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Cui; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2011-01-01

    The Clinical Narrative Temporal Relation Ontology (CNTRO) has been developed for the purpose of allowing temporal information of clinical data to be semantically annotated and queried, and using inference to expose new temporal features and relations based on the semantic assertions and definitions of the temporal aspects in the ontology. While CNTRO provides a formal semantic foundation to leverage the semantic-web techniques, it is still necessary to arrive at a shared set of semantics and operational rules with commonly used ontologies for the time domain. This paper introduces CNTRO 2.0, which tries to harmonize CNTRO 1.0 and a list of existing time ontologies or top-level ontologies into a unified model-an OWL based ontology of temporal relations for clinical research.

  7. Constraints on post-depositional isotope modifications in East Antarctic firn from analysing temporal changes of isotope profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Münch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of water in ice sheets is extensively used to infer past climate changes. In low-accumulation regions their interpretation is, however, challenged by poorly constrained effects that may influence the initial isotope signal during and after deposition of the snow. This is reflected in snow-pit isotope data from Kohnen Station, Antarctica, which exhibit a seasonal cycle but also strong interannual variations that contradict local temperature observations. These inconsistencies persist even after averaging many profiles and are thus not explained by local stratigraphic noise. Previous studies have suggested that post-depositional processes may significantly influence the isotopic composition of East Antarctic firn. Here, we investigate the importance of post-depositional processes within the open-porous firn (≳ 10 cm depth at Kohnen Station by separating spatial from temporal variability. To this end, we analyse 22 isotope profiles obtained from two snow trenches and examine the temporal isotope modifications by comparing the new data with published trench data extracted 2 years earlier. The initial isotope profiles undergo changes over time due to downward advection, firn diffusion and densification in magnitudes consistent with independent estimates. Beyond that, we find further modifications of the original isotope record to be unlikely or small in magnitude (≪ 1 ‰ RMSD. These results show that the discrepancy between local temperatures and isotopes most likely originates from spatially coherent processes prior to or during deposition, such as precipitation intermittency or systematic isotope modifications acting on drifting or loose surface snow.

  8. Temporal constraints on the potential role of fry odors as cues of past reproductive success for spawning lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Binder, Thomas R.; Huertas, Mar; Bussy, Ugo; Li, Ke; Hanson, James E.; Krueger, Charles C.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Deciding where to reproduce is a major challenge for most animals. Many select habitats based upon cues of successful reproduction by conspecifics, such as the presence of offspring from past reproductive events. For example, some fishes select spawning habitat following odors released by juveniles whose rearing habitat overlaps with spawning habitat. However, juveniles may emigrate before adults begin to search for spawning habitat; hence, the efficacy of juvenile cues could be constrained by degradation or dissipation rates. In lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), odors deposited by the previous year's offspring have been hypothesized to guide adults to spawning reefs. However, in most extant populations, lake trout fry emigrate from spawning reefs during the spring and adults spawn during the fall. Therefore, we postulated that the role of fry odors in guiding habitat selection might be constrained by the time between fry emigration and adult spawning. Time course chemical, physiological, and behavioral assays indicated that the odors deposited by fry likely degrade or dissipate before adults select spawning habitats. Furthermore, fry feces did not attract wild lake trout to constructed spawning reefs in Lake Huron. Taken together, our results indicate fry odors are unlikely to act as cues for lake trout searching for spawning reefs in populations whose juveniles emigrate before the spawning season, and underscore the importance of environmental constraints on social cues.

  9. Water-related constraints to the development of geothermal electric generating stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.C.; Shepherd, A.D.; Rosemarin, C.S.; Mayfield, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    The water-related constraints, which may be among the most complex and variable of the issues facing commercialization of geothermal energy, are discussed under three headings: (1) water requirements of geothermal power stations, (2) resource characteristics of the most promising hydrothermal areas and regional and local water supply situations, and (3) legal issues confronting potential users of water at geothermal power plants in the states in which the resource areas are located. A total of 25 geothermal resource areas in California, New Mexico, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Hawaii, and Alaska were studied. Each had a hydrothermal resource temperature in excess of 150/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/F) and an estimated 30-year potential of greater than 100-MW(e) capacity.

  10. Spatial-temporal constraints on decision-making during shooting performance in the team sport of futsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Correia, Vanda; Esteves, Pedro Tiago

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examined the influence of opposing players constraining the decision-making of an attacker during shooting performance in futsal. Performance during 10 competitive matches was recorded and examined from the moment a shot was taken until the ball was intercepted or entered the goal in sequences of play: ending in a goal, a goalkeeper's save, or an interception by the nearest defender. The variables under scrutiny in this study were (i) the distance of each player to the ball's trajectory, (ii) the time for the ball to arrive at that same point (i.e. the interception point), and (iii), the required movement velocity of the nearest defender and the goalkeeper to intercept the ball. Results showed that values of distance from a defender and goalkeeper to the interception points were significantly lower when they intercepted the ball. The time of ball arrival at the interception point of the defender was also lower when the ball was intercepted. The required velocities of the nearest outfield defender and the goalkeeper to intercept the ball were significantly lower during plays in which they intercepted the ball, than in plays in which the ball was not intercepted. Our results suggest that researchers and practitioners should consider simultaneously both space and time in analysis of interceptive actions in team sports. The required movement velocities of the opponents to intercept the ball are reliable spatial-temporal variables constraining decision-making during shooting performance in team sports like futsal.

  11. Temporal Lobe Structures and Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia Patients and Nonpsychotic Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal lobe abnormalities and emotion recognition deficits are prominent features of schizophrenia and appear related to the diathesis of the disorder. This study investigated whether temporal lobe structural abnormalities were associated with facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and related to genetic liability for the disorder. Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients, 23 biological family members, and 36 controls participated. Several temporal lobe regions (fusiform, superior temporal, middle temporal, amygdala, and hippocampus) previously associated with face recognition in normative samples and found to be abnormal in schizophrenia were evaluated using volumetric analyses. Participants completed a facial emotion recognition task and an age recognition control task under time-limited and self-paced conditions. Temporal lobe volumes were tested for associations with task performance. Group status explained 23% of the variance in temporal lobe volume. Left fusiform gray matter volume was decreased by 11% in patients and 7% in relatives compared with controls. Schizophrenia patients additionally exhibited smaller hippocampal and middle temporal volumes. Patients were unable to improve facial emotion recognition performance with unlimited time to make a judgment but were able to improve age recognition performance. Patients additionally showed a relationship between reduced temporal lobe gray matter and poor facial emotion recognition. For the middle temporal lobe region, the relationship between greater volume and better task performance was specific to facial emotion recognition and not age recognition. Because schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in emotion recognition not attributable to a generalized impairment in face perception, impaired emotion recognition may serve as a target for interventions. PMID:20484523

  12. Temporal phase relation of circadian neural oscillations as the basis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... to its known regulation of seasonal gonadal cycles, the relative position of two circadian neural oscillations may also affect the rate of gonadal development during the attainment of puberty in mice. Moreover, the present study provides an experimental paradigm to test the coincidence model of circadian oscillations.

  13. Temporal constraints on the tectonic evolution of Sierra De Famatina, northwestern Argentina, using the fission-track method to date tuffs interbedded in synorogenic clastic sedimentary strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabbutt, K.D. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Fission-track dates from seven volcaniclastic units allow time constraints to be placed on synorogenic clastic strata exposed along the flanks of Sierra de Famatina, northwest Argentina. Four formations are exposed along the western margin of Sierra de Famatina. The El Abra conglomerate is composed of clasts eroded from the basement exposed just to the west of Cadena de Paiman. The El Buey Formation contains sediments probably derived from the Precordillera fold and thrust belt to the west. Fission-track dates give a maximum age of 6 Ma for the deposition of both of these formations. The El Durazno Formation, deposited between 6 and 4 Ma, contains proximal volcaniclastic and other clastic rocks derived from the core of Sierra de Famatina. The Santa Florentina conglomerate was derived from the rising Sierra de Famatina and deposited in the past 4 m.y. Sierra de Famatima probably became a positive topographic feature approximately 6 Ma. Prior to that time this region was receiving fine-grained sediments from a distal fold and thrust belt and conglomerates from local basement uplifts. Minor extrusive events (Mogote Formation) coincide both spatially and temporally with deformation along the major reverse faults that control the uplift of Sierra de Famatina. Minimum mean uplift rates calculated for Sierra de Famatina are 0.8 {plus minus} 0.1 mm/yr over a 6.8 m.y. interval.

  14. Emplacement and temporal constraints of the Gondwanan intrusive complexes of northern Patagonia: La Esperanza plutono-volcanic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Dopico, Carmen I.; López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Wemmer, Klaus; Fanning, C. Mark; Basei, Miguel A. S.

    2017-08-01

    Two main lines of evidence disagree whether or not the Patagonian blocks collided with Gondwana. All models invoke the voluminous magmatism of the La Esperanza Complex as evidence for active subduction magmatic arc or to a postcollisional setting. The evolution of this bimodal igneous suite is reassessed with field, geochronological (SHRIMP U-Pb zircon and K-Ar mica) and petrophysical data. Emplacement of high-K calk-alkaline granitic magmas occurred at shallow crustal levels (2-8 ± 2 km depth) related to the development and collapse of a caldera associated with a regional NW-SE structural trend. Magmatism involved intermediate hybrid pulses at 273 ± 2 Ma and 255 ± 2 Ma (Prieto Granodiorite) that shifted like a yo-yo to acidic magmas at 260 ± 2 Ma and 250 ± 2 Ma (Donosa and Calvo granites). Absence of solid-state deformation features and the low anisotropy degrees in the granites indicate that its fabric is magmatic in origin. Magnetic fabric in granodiorites displays a concentrical pattern with subhorizontal foliations and lineations. Parallel to the volcanic axis, magnetic foliations and moderately plunging lineations indicate a common feeder system for plutonics and volcanics. Donosa Granite shows a discordant pattern with WNW-ESE ENE-WSW trending low plunging lineations and foliations. The plutono-volcanic system construction (273-255 Ma) followed NW-SE and NE-SW diamond shape faults trends and supracrustal discontinuities. Magmatic Climax is bracketed at 260 Ma. The collapse of the edifice is evidenced by the intrusion of acid magma plugs and dike swarms between 250 and 246 Ma. A similar age range was identified in other areas of Patagonia related to syn and postcollisional tectonic events. No evidence of tectonic activity such as major uplift, metamorphism or thrusting was found excepting regional strike-slip faulting and extension. Therefore, La Esperanza Complex is a high crustal level episode, and as such may not have structurally recorded an active

  15. Surface constraints on the temporal and spatial evolution of the Farallon-Pacific-North America plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, N.; Oskin, M.

    2009-05-01

    Extension and volcanism are two surface derived data sets used to infer mantle processes back in time. We integrate two new large GIS-based datasets to create palinspastic restorations of extension and volcanism allowing us to readdress the relationship between plate-boundary deformation, intra-plate extension and magmatism in western North America. Using ArcGIS and custom software, we retrodeformed the NAVDat (North American Volcanic Database, navdat.geongrid.org) using the western North America reconstruction of McQuarrie and Wernicke (2005). We compare this data to strain rates calculated over a 50 km-grid forward- deformed from 36 Ma to present. With the deformed grid and palinspastically restored volcanic dataset we quantitatively compare rates of magmatism and deformation and evaluate the age, location, and migration of Cenozoic volcanic arcs. A first order conclusion from this study is that magmatism, throughout the Basin and Range, is primarily driven by plate boundary effects. The plate boundary effects include subduction and rollback of the Farallon plate, creation and expansion of slab windows as the Pacific plate intercepts the North American plate and re-establishment of the ancestral Cascade arc along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada at ˜ 15 Ma. Notable exceptions include the Yellowstone hotspot system along the northern boarder of our study area and late-stage (<8 Ma) passive, extension related asthenospheric upwelling that accompanied a thinning lithosphere along the eastern and western margins of the Basin and Range. The palinspastic reconstructions presented here highlight that the classic, high-angle, Basin and Range faulting that comprises most of the physiographic Basin and Range province commenced during a remarkably amagmatic period. These observations largely contradicts the active rifting model where magmatism triggers Basin and Range extension

  16. Observational constraints on star cluster formation theory. I. The mass-radius relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfalzner, S.; Kirk, H.; Sills, A.; Urquhart, J. S.; Kauffmann, J.; Kuhn, M. A.; Bhandare, A.; Menten, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Stars form predominantly in groups usually denoted as clusters or associations. The observed stellar groups display a broad spectrum of masses, sizes, and other properties, so it is often assumed that there is no underlying structure in this diversity. Aims: Here we show that the assumption of an unstructured multitude of cluster or association types might be misleading. Current data compilations of clusters in the solar neighbourhood show correlations among cluster mass, size, age, maximum stellar mass, etc. In this first paper we take a closer look at the correlation of cluster mass and radius. Methods: We use literature data to explore relations in cluster and molecular core properties in the solar neighbourhood. Results: We show that for embedded clusters in the solar neighbourhood a clear correlation exists between cluster mass and half-mass radius of the form Mc = CRcγ with γ = 1.7 ± 0.2. This correlation holds for infrared K-band data, as well as for X-ray sources and clusters containing a hundred stars up to those consisting of a few tens of thousands of stars. The correlation is difficult to verify for clusters containing fewer than 30 stars owing to low-number statistics. Dense clumps of gas are the progenitors of the embedded clusters. We find almost the same slope for the mass-size relation of dense, massive clumps as for the embedded star clusters. This might point to a direct translation from gas to stellar mass: however, it is difficult to relate size measurements for clusters (stars) to those for gas profiles. Taking multiple paths for clump mass into cluster mass into account, we obtain an average star-formation efficiency of 18%+9.3-5.7 for the embedded clusters in the solar neighbourhood. Conclusions: The derived mass-radius relation gives constraints for the theory of clustered star formation. Analytical models and simulations of clustered star formation have to reproduce this relation in order to be realistic.

  17. Transition constraints for temporal attributes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ongoma, EAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available the statuses. Status models the normal behaviour of the life cycle in the real world, items are first scheduled, then become active, can be suspended and reactivated again and finally may become disabled, when they reached their expiry. These are the four... of the four status attributes, while scheduled, suspended and disabled classes can only have their corresponding attributes, i.e. scheduled, suspended or disabled only. Transition records migration of elements from source to target element, be they objects...

  18. Temporal constraints on visual perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon

    While the richness of our visual perceptions is nearly boundless, the rate with which we can perceive information is limited. For instance when we are required to perceive two consecutive target objects following briefly after each other, the accuracy with which we can report the second target...... effects and vary first target contrast while maintaining target difficulty constant. Again we find that the attention blink increases with first target contrast. Publication 2 describes findings using the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm (Potter & Levy, 1969), in which two targets are presented...... centrally in the same location embedded in a stream of distractor objects. These findings replicate those from Publication 1, and suggest that the effect is not entirely spatial, since the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm does not require a spatial shift of attention to a new location. In addition...

  19. Semantic and episodic memory in children with temporal lobe epilepsy: do they relate to literacy skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lah, Suncica; Smith, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Children with temporal lobe epilepsy are at risk for deficits in new learning (episodic memory) and literacy skills. Semantic memory deficits and double dissociations between episodic and semantic memory have recently been found in this patient population. In the current study we investigate whether impairments of these 2 distinct memory systems relate to literacy skills. 57 children with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy completed tests of verbal memory (episodic and semantic) and literacy skills (reading and spelling accuracy, and reading comprehension). For the entire group, semantic memory explained over 30% of variance in each of the literacy domains. Episodic memory explained a significant, but rather small proportion (memory impairments (intact semantic/impaired episodic, intact episodic/impaired semantic) were compared, significant reductions in literacy skills were evident only in children with semantic memory impairments, but not in children with episodic memory impairments relative to the norms and to children with temporal lobe epilepsy who had intact memory. Our study provides the first evidence for differential relations between episodic and semantic memory impairments and literacy skills in children with temporal lobe epilepsy. As such, it highlights the urgent need to consider semantic memory deficits in management of children with temporal lobe epilepsy and undertake further research into the nature of reading difficulties of children with semantic memory impairments.

  20. Temporal discounting rates and their relation to exercise behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Linda M; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Landes, Reid D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Lefler, Leanne L

    2015-12-01

    As our nation's population ages, the rates of chronic illness and disability are expected to increase significantly. Despite the knowledge that exercise may prevent chronic disease and promote health among older adults, many still are inactive. Factors related to exercise behaviors have been explored in recent years. However, temporal discounting is a motivational concept that has not been explored in regard to exercise in older adults. Temporal discounting is a decision making process by which an individual chooses a smaller more immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. The aim of this study was to determine if temporal discounting rates vary between exercising and non-exercising older adults. This study used cross-sectional survey of 137 older adults living in the community. Older adults were recruited from 11 rural Arkansas churches. The Kirby delay-discounting Monetary Choice Questionnaire was used to collect discounting rates and then bivariate analysis was performed to compare temporal discounting rate between the exercisers and non-exercisers. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to compare discounting rate controlling for other covariates. The results indicated that exercising older adults display lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercising older adults. After controlling for education, exercisers still have lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercisers (polder adults. This research suggests that if we can find appropriate incentives for discounting individuals, some type of immediate reward, then potentially we can design programs to engage and retain older adults in exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relating age and hearing loss to monaural, bilateral, and binaural temporal sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Gallun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Older listeners are more likely than younger listeners to have difficulties in making temporal discriminations among auditory stimuli presented to one or both ears. In addition, the performance of older listeners is often observed to be more variable than that of younger listeners. The aim of this work was to relate age and hearing loss to temporal processing ability in a group of younger and older listeners with a range of hearing thresholds. Seventy-eight listeners were tested on a set of three temporal discrimination tasks (monaural gap discrimination, bilateral gap discrimination, and binaural discrimination of interaural differences in time. To examine the role of temporal fine structure in these tasks, four types of brief stimuli were used: tone bursts, broad-frequency chirps with rising or falling frequency contours, and random-phase noise bursts. Between-subject group analyses conducted separately for each task revealed substantial increases in temporal thresholds for the older listeners across all three tasks, regardless of stimulus type, as well as significant correlations among the performance of individual listeners across most combinations of tasks and stimuli. Differences in performance were associated with the stimuli in the monaural and binaural tasks, but not the bilateral task. Temporal fine structure differences among the stimuli had the greatest impact on monaural thresholds. Threshold estimate values across all tasks and stimuli did not show any greater variability for the older listeners as compared to the younger listeners. A linear mixed model applied to the data suggested that age and hearing loss are independent factors responsible for temporal processing ability, thus supporting the increasingly accepted hypothesis that temporal processing can be impaired for older compared to younger listeners with similar hearing and/or amounts of hearing loss.

  2. Constraints and motivations related to fishing along the Lake Ontario coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Brincka; Diane M. Kuehn; Valerie. Luzadis

    2012-01-01

    The number of nonresident anglers along the Lake Ontario coast has decreased over the past 15 years. Therefore, in order to sustain a strong sport fishing industry, local businesses and tourism promoters might want to tap into the large resident angler market group. This study examines resident anglers' social, environmental, and economic constraints/facilitators...

  3. Perihelion Power Constraint and Wheel-Off-Loading Impact on BepiColombo's Relativity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Anja Katharina; Jehn, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the consequences of the Perihelion Power Constraint (PPC) are presented along with the impact of the Momentum Wheel-Off-loading (WOL) events on the estimation precision of the post-Newtonian parameters (PNP). This analysis will provide an estimate of the outcome of the relativity experiment in the framework of the joint mission between ESA and JAXA, named BepiColombo. The Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), one of the two scientific elements of the composite spacecraft, aims to verify Einstein's theory of General Relativity plus alternative theories of gravitation to an unprecedented degree of accuracy [1]. The PPC describes the switch-off of the Ka-transponder when Mercury is ±35° around perihelion [2]. This causes a decrease in the quality of radiometric measurements. The implemented PPC distinguishes between different geometries such as inferior and superior constellations. Moreover, it differentiates between the case in which Mercury is close to superior solar conjunction (SSC) while being around perihelion and the one of only being in SSC. Our treatment has the essential effect that the standard deviation of range and doppler measurements is increased in the perihelion region by up to 1.83 ṡ 10-5 km/s (doppler noise). There is no clear trend to be seen in the resulting PNP uncertainties. For instance, the value of the estimation bias of the PNP γ of 8.232 ṡ 10-6 is almost by factor two larger than in the case when the PPC is not activated (4.243 ṡ 10-6). But applying the PPC to the back-up trajectory this trend is not confirmed, since the reverse is true for the γ uncertainty σ(γPPC) comparable to the results obtained by Schettino [3], that is 1.04 ṡ 10-6. The influence of the WOL frequency of about 12 hours compared to about 24 hours is investigated. Wheel off-loadings are implemented in the software by increasing the diagonal values of the covariance matrix that correspond to the spacecraft velocity components at each event. In our

  4. Temporal characteristics of working memory for spatial relations: an ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, Ineke J.M.; van Strien, Jan W.; Oleksiak, Anna; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Postma, Albert

    Spatial relations can be represented categorically, by means of abstract labels, or coordinately, in metric, absolute measures. These representations have been associated to the left and the right hemispheres respectively (Kosslyn, 1987). Recent studies have focused on the temporal dynamics of

  5. Exploiting Temporal Context in High-Resolution Movement-Related EEG Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dolezal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents an application of a movement-related EEG temporal development classification which improves the classification score of voluntary movements controlled by closely localized regions of the brain. A dynamic Hidden Markov Model-based (HMM classifier specifically designed to capture EEG temporal behavior was used. Surprisingly, HMM classifiers are rarely used for BCI design despite of their advantages. Because of this we also experimented with Learning Vector Quantization, Perceptron, and Support Vector Machine classifiers using a feature space which captures the temporal dynamics of the data. The results presented in this work show that HMM achieves the best performance due to an a priori information on physiological behavior of EEG inserted to the HMM classifier. Feature extraction process and problems with classification were analyzed as well. Classification scores of 66.7% – 94.7% were achieved in our experiments.

  6. Automatic temporal expectancy: a high-density event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mento

    Full Text Available How we compute time is not fully understood. Questions include whether an automatic brain mechanism is engaged in temporally regular environmental structure in order to anticipate events, and whether this can be dissociated from task-related processes, including response preparation, selection and execution. To investigate these issues, a passive temporal oddball task requiring neither time-based motor response nor explicit decision was specifically designed and delivered to participants during high-density, event-related potentials recording. Participants were presented with pairs of audiovisual stimuli (S1 and S2 interspersed with an Inter-Stimulus Interval (ISI that was manipulated according to an oddball probabilistic distribution. In the standard condition (70% of trials, the ISI lasted 1,500 ms, while in the two alternative, deviant conditions (15% each, it lasted 2,500 and 3,000 ms. The passive over-exposition to the standard ISI drove participants to automatically and progressively create an implicit temporal expectation of S2 onset, reflected by the time course of the Contingent Negative Variation response, which always peaked in correspondence to the point of S2 maximum expectation and afterwards inverted in polarity towards the baseline. Brain source analysis of S1- and ISI-related ERP activity revealed activation of sensorial cortical areas and the supplementary motor area (SMA, respectively. In particular, since the SMA time course synchronised with standard ISI, we suggest that this area is the major cortical generator of the temporal CNV reflecting an automatic, action-independent mechanism underlying temporal expectancy.

  7. Temporally varying relative risks for infectious diseases: implications for infectious disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Edward; Pitzer, Virginia E.; O'Hagan, Justin J.; Lipsitch, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Risks for disease in some population groups relative to others (relative risks) are usually considered to be consistent over time, though they are often modified by other, non-temporal factors. For infectious diseases, in which overall incidence often varies substantially over time, the patterns of temporal changes in relative risks can inform our understanding of basic epidemiologic questions. For example, recent work suggests that temporal changes in relative risks of infection over the course of an epidemic cycle can both be used to identify population groups that drive infectious disease outbreaks, and help elucidate differences in the effect of vaccination against infection (that is relevant to transmission control) compared with its effect against disease episodes (that reflects individual protection). Patterns of change in the in age groups affected over the course of seasonal outbreaks can provide clues to the types of pathogens that could be responsible for diseases for which an infectious cause is suspected. Changing apparent efficacy of vaccines during trials may provide clues to the vaccine's mode of action and/or indicate risk heterogeneity in the trial population. Declining importance of unusual behavioral risk factors may be a signal of increased local transmission of an infection. We review these developments and the related public health implications. PMID:27748685

  8. Signaling coherence relations in text generation: A case study of German temporal discourse markers

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    This thesis addresses the question of discourse marker choice in automatic (multilingual) text generation (MLG), in particular the issue of signaling temporal coherence relations on the linguistic surface by means of discourse markers such as nachdem, als, bevor . Current text generation systems do not pay attention to the fine-grained differences in meaning (semantic and pragmatic) between similar discourse markers. Yet, choosing the appropriate marker in a given context requires detailed kn...

  9. New constraints on a light CP-odd Higgs boson and related NMSSM ideal Higgs scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermisek, Radovan; Gunion, John F.

    2010-04-01

    Recent BABAR limits on BR(Υ(3S)→γa→γτ+τ-) and BR(Υ(3S)→γa→γμ+μ-) provide increased constraints on the abb¯ coupling of a CP-odd Higgs boson, a, with mama1ma1ma1>7.5GeV scenarios, which are theoretically the most favored, survive. We also outline the impact of the new ALEPH LEP results in the e+e-→Z+4τ channel. For tan⁡β≥3, only NMSSM ideal Higgs scenarios with mh1≳98GeV and ma1 close to 2mB satisfy the ALEPH limits. For tan⁡β≲2, the ALEPH limits are easily satisfied for the most theoretically preferred NMSSM scenarios, which are those with ma1 close to 2mB and mh1˜90-100GeV.

  10. Spatial-Temporal Feature Analysis on Single-Trial Event Related Potential for Rapid Face Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Wang, Yun; Cai, Bangyu; Wang, Yueming; Wang, Yiwen

    2017-01-01

    The event-related potential (ERP) is the brain response measured in electroencephalography (EEG), which reflects the process of human cognitive activity. ERP has been introduced into brain computer interfaces (BCIs) to communicate the computer with the subject's intention. Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of EEG, most ERP studies are based on grand-averaging over many trials. Recently single-trial ERP detection attracts more attention, which enables real time processing tasks as rapid face identification. All the targets needed to be retrieved may appear only once, and there is no knowledge of target label for averaging. More interestingly, how the features contribute temporally and spatially to single-trial ERP detection has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we propose to implement a local-learning-based (LLB) feature extraction method to investigate the importance of spatial-temporal components of ERP in a task of rapid face identification using single-trial detection. Comparing to previous methods, LLB method preserves the nonlinear structure of EEG signal distribution, and analyze the importance of original spatial-temporal components via optimization in feature space. As a data-driven methods, the weighting of the spatial-temporal component does not depend on the ERP detection method. The importance weights are optimized by making the targets more different from non-targets in feature space, and regularization penalty is introduced in optimization for sparse weights. This spatial-temporal feature extraction method is evaluated on the EEG data of 15 participants in performing a face identification task using rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. Comparing with other methods, the proposed spatial-temporal analysis method uses sparser (only 10% of the total) features, and could achieve comparable performance (98%) of single-trial ERP detection as the whole features across different detection methods. The interesting finding is that the N250 is

  11. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling of tobacco-related cancer mortality in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Jürgens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a main cause of disease in Switzerland; lung cancer being the most common cancer mortality in men and the second most common in women. Although disease-specific mortality is decreasing in men, it is steadily increasing in women. The four language regions in this country might play a role in this context as they are influenced in different ways by the cultural and social behaviour of neighbouring countries. Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal, negative binomial models were fitted on subgroup-specific death rates indirectly standardized by national references to explore age- and gender-specific spatio-temporal patterns of mortality due to lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers in Switzerland for the time period 1969-2002. Differences influenced by linguistic region and life in rural or urban areas were also accounted for. Male lung cancer mortality was found to be rather homogeneous in space, whereas women were confirmed to be more affected in urban regions. Compared to the German-speaking part, female mortality was higher in the French-speaking part of the country, a result contradicting other reports of similar comparisons between France and Germany. The spatio-temporal patterns of mortality were similar for lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers. The estimated mortality maps can support the planning in health care services and evaluation of a national tobacco control programme. Better understanding of spatial and temporal variation of cancer of the lung and other tobacco-related cancers may help in allocating resources for more effective screening, diagnosis and therapy. The methodology can be applied to similar studies in other settings.

  12. The Relative Weight of Temporal Envelope Cues in Different Frequency Regions for Mandarin Sentence Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic temporal envelope (E cues containing speech information are distributed across the frequency spectrum. To investigate the relative weight of E cues in different frequency regions for Mandarin sentence recognition, E information was extracted from 30 contiguous bands across the range of 80–7,562 Hz using Hilbert decomposition and then allocated to five frequency regions. Recognition scores were obtained with acoustic E cues from 1 or 2 random regions from 40 normal-hearing listeners. While the recognition scores ranged from 8.2% to 16.3% when E information from only one region was available, the scores ranged from 57.9% to 87.7% when E information from two frequency regions was presented, suggesting a synergistic effect among the temporal E cues in different frequency regions. Next, the relative contributions of the E information from the five frequency regions to sentence perception were computed using a least-squares approach. The results demonstrated that, for Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, the temporal E cues of Frequency Region 1 (80–502 Hz and Region 3 (1,022–1,913 Hz contributed more to the intelligence of sentence recognition than other regions, particularly the region of 80–502 Hz, which contained fundamental frequency (F0 information.

  13. Age-related temporal and parietal cortical thinning in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L; Dankner, Nathan; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N; Martin, Alex

    2010-12-01

    age-related thinning in the autism spectrum disorders group but not in the typically developing group. Both thinner temporal and parietal cortices during adolescence and young adulthood and discrepantly accelerated age-related cortical thinning in autism spectrum disorders suggest that a second period of abnormal cortical growth (i.e. greater thinning) may be characteristic of these disorders.

  14. The relation between the statistics of open ocean currents and the temporal correlations of the wind

    CERN Document Server

    Bel, Golan

    2013-01-01

    We study the statistics of wind-driven open ocean currents. Using the Ekman layer model for the integrated currents, we investigate, analytically and numerically, the relation between the wind distribution and its temporal correlations and the statistics of the open ocean currents. We find that temporally long-range correlated wind results in currents whose statistics is proportional to the wind-stress statistics. On the other hand, short-range correlated wind leads to Gaussian distributions of the current components, regardless of the stationary distribution of the winds, and therefore, to a Rayleigh distribution of the current amplitude if the wind stress is isotropic. An interesting result is the existence of an optimum in the amplitude of the ocean currents as a function of the correlation time of the wind stress. The results were validated using an oceanic general circulation model.

  15. A Similarity-Based Approach for Audiovisual Document Classification Using Temporal Relation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrane Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a novel approach for video classification that bases on the analysis of the temporal relationships between the basic events in audiovisual documents. Starting from basic segmentation results, we define a new representation method that is called Temporal Relation Matrix (TRM. Each document is then described by a set of TRMs, the analysis of which makes events of a higher level stand out. This representation has been first designed to analyze any audiovisual document in order to find events that may well characterize its content and its structure. The aim of this work is to use this representation to compute a similarity measure between two documents. Approaches for audiovisual documents classification are presented and discussed. Experimentations are done on a set of 242 video documents and the results show the efficiency of our proposals.

  16. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...

  17. New constraints on a light CP-odd Higgs boson and related NMSSM Ideal Higgs Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Dermisek, Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Recent BaBar limits on $\\br(\\Upsilon(3S)\\to \\gam a\\to \\gam \\tau^+\\tau^-)$ and $\\br(\\Upsilon(3S)\\to \\gam a\\to \\gam \\mu^+\\mu^-)$ provide increased constraints on the $a b\\anti b$ coupling of a CP-odd Higgs boson, $a$, with $m_a7.5\\gev$ scenarios, which are theoretically the most favored, survive. We also outline the impact of preliminary ALEPH LEP results in the $e^+e^-\\to Z+4\\tau$ channel. For $\\tan\\beta\\geq 3$, only NMSSM ideal Higgs scenarios with $m_{h_1}\\sim 105\\gev$ (the upper limit of "ideal") and $m_{a_1}$ close to $2m_B $ satisfy the preliminary ALEPH limits. For $\\tan\\beta\\lsim 2$, the ALEPH results pick out the most theoretically preferred NMSSM scenarios which are those with $m_{a_1}$ close to $2m_B$ and $m_{h_1}\\sim 90\\gev-100\\gev$.

  18. Temporal relations between magnetic bright points and the solar sunspot cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Dominik; Muller, Richard; Van Doorsselaere, Tom

    2017-12-01

    The Sun shows a global magnetic field cycle traditionally best visible in the photosphere as a changing sunspot cycle featuring roughly an 11-year period. In addition we know that our host star also harbours small-scale magnetic fields often seen as strong concentrations of magnetic flux reaching kG field strengths. These features are situated in inter-granular lanes, where they show up bright as so-called magnetic bright points (MBPs). In this short paper we wish to analyse an homogenous, nearly 10-year-long synoptic Hinode image data set recorded from 2006 November up to 2016 February in the G-band to inspect the relationship between the number of MBPs at the solar disc centre and the relative sunspot number. Our findings suggest that the number of MBPs at the solar disc centre is indeed correlated to the relative sunspot number, but with the particular feature of showing two different temporal shifts between the decreasing phase of cycle 23 including the minimum and the increasing phase of cycle 24 including the maximum. While the former is shifted by about 22 months, the latter is only shifted by less than 12 months. Moreover, we introduce and discuss an analytical model to predict the number of MBPs at the solar disc centre purely depending on the evolution of the relative sunspot number as well as the temporal change of the relative sunspot number and two background parameters describing a possibly acting surface dynamo as well as the strength of the magnetic field diffusion. Finally, we are able to confirm the plausibility of the temporal shifts by a simplistic random walk model. The main conclusion to be drawn from this work is that the injection of magnetic flux, coming from active regions as represented by sunspots, happens on faster time scales than the removal of small-scale magnetic flux elements later on.

  19. A geomatic methodology for spatio-temporal analysis of climatologic variables and water related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, E.; Gómez Albores, M. A.; Díaz Delgado, C.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this research is to propose, by the way of geomatic developments, an integrated tool to analyze and model the spatio-temporal pattern of human diseases related to environmental conditions, in particular the ones that are linked to water resources. The geomatic developments follows four generic steps : requirement analysis, conceptual modeling, geomatic modeling and implementation (in Idrisi GIS software). A first development consists of the preprocessing of water, population and health data in order to facilitate the conversion and validation of tabular data into the required structure for spatio-temporal analysis. Three parallel developments follow : water balance, demographic state and evolution, epidemiological measures (morbidity and mortality rates, diseases burden). The new geomatic modules in their actual state have been tested on various regions of Mexico Republic (Lerma watershed, Chiapas state) focusing on diarrhea and vector borne diseases (dengue and malaria) and considering records over the last decade : a yearly as well as seasonal spreading trend can be observed in correlation with precipitation and temperature data. In an ecohealth perspective, the geomatic approach results particularly appropriate since one of its purposes is the integration of the various spatial themes implied in the study problem, environmental as anthropogenic. By the use of powerful spatial analysis functions, it permits the detection of spatial trends which, combined to the temporal evolution, can be of particularly use for example in climate change context, if sufficiently valid historical data can be obtain.

  20. Local Deep Hashing Matching of Aerial Images Based on Relative Distance and Absolute Distance Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suting Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerial images have features of high resolution, complex background, and usually require large amounts of calculation, however, most algorithms used in matching of aerial images adopt the shallow hand-crafted features expressed as floating-point descriptors (e.g., SIFT (Scale-invariant Feature Transform, SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features, which may suffer from poor matching speed and are not well represented in the literature. Here, we propose a novel Local Deep Hashing Matching (LDHM method for matching of aerial images with large size and with lower complexity or fast matching speed. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is to utilize the deep network model in the local area of the aerial images, and study the local features, as well as the hash function of the images. Firstly, according to the course overlap rate of aerial images, the algorithm extracts the local areas for matching to avoid the processing of redundant information. Secondly, a triplet network structure is proposed to mine the deep features of the patches of the local image, and the learned features are imported to the hash layer, thus obtaining the representation of a binary hash code. Thirdly, the constraints of the positive samples to the absolute distance are added on the basis of the triplet loss, a new objective function is constructed to optimize the parameters of the network and enhance the discriminating capabilities of image patch features. Finally, the obtained deep hash code of each image patch is used for the similarity comparison of the image patches in the Hamming space to complete the matching of aerial images. The proposed LDHM algorithm evaluates the UltraCam-D dataset and a set of actual aerial images, simulation result demonstrates that it may significantly outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm in terms of the efficiency and performance.

  1. Absolute and relative temporal order memory for performed activities following stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoo, Linda A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833215; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229475094; Reijmer, Yael D.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Postma, Albert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08621182X

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the temporal order of events is a crucial part of episodic memory. The temporal dimension, however, is often discarded in clinical settings, and measurements of true temporal aspects of episodic memory are scarce. The present study assessed temporal memory in stroke patients and in

  2. Inactivation of cerebellar cortical Crus II disrupts temporal processing of absolute timing but not relative timing in voluntary movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji eYamaguchi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have demonstrated that the cerebellum plays an important role in temporal processing at the scale of milliseconds. However, it is not clear whether intrinsic cerebellar function involves the temporal processing of discrete or continuous events. Temporal processing during discrete events functions by counting absolute time like a stopwatch, while during continuous events it measures events at intervals. During the temporal processing of continuous events, animals might respond to rhythmic timing of sequential responses rather than to the absolute durations of intervals. Here, we tested the contribution of the cerebellar cortex to temporal processing of absolute and relative timings in voluntary movements. We injected muscimol and baclofen to a part of the cerebellar cortex of rats. We then tested the accuracy of their absolute or relative timing prediction using two timing tasks requiring almost identical reaching movements. Inactivation of the cerebellar cortex disrupted accurate temporal prediction in the absolute timing task. The rats formed two groups based on the changes to their timing accuracy following one of two distinct patterns which can be described as longer or shorter declines in the accuracy of learned intervals. However, a part of the cerebellar cortical inactivation did not affect the rats’ performance of relative timing tasks. We concluded that a part of the cerebellar cortex, Crus II, contributes to the accurate temporal prediction of absolute timing and that the entire cerebellar cortex may be unnecessary in cases in which accurately knowing the absolute duration of an interval is not required for temporal prediction.

  3. Organizational Influences and Constraints on Community College Web-Based Media Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Sheila M.; Taylor, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Various organizational, departmental, and interdepartmental factors influence how an educational institution practices public relations. These factors may enable or hinder the ways in which communication practitioners build and maintain relationships with the media. Higher education institutions are especially in need of public relations efforts.…

  4. Temporal constraints on visual perception: A psychophysical investigation of the relation between attention capture and the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon

    is often reduced in the first half second. This phenomenon is known as the attentional blink (Raymond, Shapiro & Arnell, 1992) and as suggests by the name is assumed to pertain to how fast attention can be reallocated. Bottleneck models suggest that the attentional blink is caused by limited capacity...... in processing targets, which effectively causes a perceptual bottleneck (Chun & Potter, 1995). According to bottleneck models, making the first target easier to perceive should improve processing in the bottleneck and reduce the attentional blink. However, recent studies suggest that an attentional blink may...... be triggered by attention capture to the first object (Folk, Leber & Egeth, 2008) and that if making the first target easier to perceive increase its saliency this may increase the attentional blink (Chua, 2005). This thesis examines the attention capture hypothesis with focus on empirical investigations...

  5. The therapeutic alliance in a naturalistic psychiatric setting: temporal relations with depressive symptom change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christian A; Beard, Courtney; Auerbach, Randy P; Menninger, Eliza; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported associations between the therapeutic alliance and depressive symptom improvement in outpatient samples. However, little is known regarding the temporal relationship between the alliance and symptom change among relatively severely depressed patients receiving treatment in naturalistic, psychiatric hospital settings. Adult patients with major depression (n = 103) receiving combined cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment at a psychiatric hospital completed repeated assessments of the therapeutic alliance and depressive symptoms, as well as a pretreatment assessment of their expectation of symptom improvement. Results indicated that the alliance and treatment outcome expectancies significantly predicted subsequent depressive symptom change. However, in a model in which prior symptom change and treatment outcome expectancies were statistically controlled, the alliance-outcome association was rendered nonsignificant. The alliance was significantly associated with prior symptom improvement. Findings highlight the importance of controlling for plausible third variable and temporal confounds to minimize biased estimates of alliance-outcome associations in future studies. Overall, results were more consistent with the alliance being a consequence, rather than a cause, of symptom change. Finally, findings contribute to a growing body of evidence supporting the role of treatment outcome expectancies in predicting symptom improvement, even within our relatively severely depressed sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Young children’s learning of relational categories:multiple comparisons and their cognitive constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre eThibaut

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Relational categories are notoriously difficult to learn because they are not defined by intrinsic stable properties. We studied the impact of comparisons on relational concept learning with a novel word learning task in 42-month-old children. Capitalizing on Gentner et al. (2011, two, three or four pairs of stimuli were introduced with a novel relational word. In a given trial, the set of pairs was composed of either close or far pairs (e.g., close pair: knife1-watermelon, knife2-orange, knife3-slice of bread and knife4-meat; far pair: ax-evergreen tree, saw-log, cutter-cardboard and knife-slice of bread, for the cutter for relation. Close pairs (2 vs. 3 vs. 4 pairs led to random generalizations whereas comparisons with far pairs gave the expected relational generalization. The 3 pair case gave the best results. It is argued that far pairs promote deeper comparisons than close pairs. As shown by a control experiment, this was the case only when far pairs display well known associations.

  7. Resolving relative time expressions in Dutch text with Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Camp, Matje; Christiansen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    related to the development of the Dutch social movement between 1870 and 1940. It appears that CHR provides a modular language which is well-suited for tailoring a method optimized for the different linguistic constructs and the textual conventions applied in a specific corpus. We explain the principles...

  8. Temporal variability in macroinvertebrates diversity patterns and their relation with environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD HASAN GERAMI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Gerami MH, Patimar R, Negarestan H, Jafarian H, Mortazavi MS. 2015. Temporal variability in macroinvertebrates diversity patterns and their relation with environmental factors. Biodiversitas 17: 36-43. Seasonal changes are the most important factor in temporal variability of macroinvertebrates communities in marine benthic zone. Realizing the pattern of these changes are the key attributes to maintain benthic resources. For this purpose this study aimed to investigate temporal variability of macroinvertebrates diversity patterns in different seasons in Hormozgan province waters, Persian Gulf. Five sites were identified and sampling was carried out randomly at three places with three replicate in each site from autumn 2014 to spring 2015. Physiochemical properties of water were recorded in each sampling site. Total of 19 macroinvertebrate orders were identified form four seasons in all sites. Results showed that Polychaeta were dominant taxa in all seasons and maximum diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates exhibited in winter. According to evenness index (E1, abundances of species were most balanced in spring. Analysis of weight and density revealed that the species diversity and mean weight of macroinvertebrates had maximum in winter and minimum in summer. Macroinvertebrate community structure was similar in the spring and summer and partly discriminated from remaining two seasons. SIMPER analysis confirmed these dissimilarities and revealed that Foraminifera, Gastropoda and Polychaeta have three major contributions in dissimilarities between seasons. According to BIO-ENV analysis, oxygen and chlorophyll a were the best variables (r = 0.7143 explaining changes in the abundance over time of the benthic fauna under study. On the contrary, eight orders (Amphipoda, Secernentea, Cumacea, Euphausiacea, Gastropoda, Isopoda, Anthozoa and Sagittoidea did not show any convergence with environmental factors in this study.

  9. Exploiting Task Constraints for Self-Calibrated Brain-Machine Interface Control Using Error-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrate, Iñaki; Grizou, Jonathan; Omedes, Jason; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Lopes, Manuel; Montesano, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for self-calibration BCI for reaching tasks using error-related potentials. The proposed method exploits task constraints to simultaneously calibrate the decoder and control the device, by using a robust likelihood function and an ad-hoc planner to cope with the large uncertainty resulting from the unknown task and decoder. The method has been evaluated in closed-loop online experiments with 8 users using a previously proposed BCI protocol for reaching tasks over a grid. The results show that it is possible to have a usable BCI control from the beginning of the experiment without any prior calibration. Furthermore, comparisons with simulations and previous results obtained using standard calibration hint that both the quality of recorded signals and the performance of the system were comparable to those obtained with a standard calibration approach.

  10. Relative frequency, clinical, neuroimaging, and postsurgical features of pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Sales

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relative frequency, clinical features, neuroimaging and pathological results, and outcome after pharmacological or surgical intervention for a series of pediatric patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE from an epilepsy center in Brazil. The medical records of children younger than 12 years with features strongly suggestive of TLE were reviewed from January 1999 to June 1999. Selected children were evaluated regarding clinical, EEG, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI investigation and divided into three groups according to MRI: group 1 (G1, N = 9, patients with hippocampal atrophy; group 2 (G2, N = 10, patients with normal MRI, and group 3 (G3, N = 12, patients with other specific temporal lesions. A review of 1732 records of children with epilepsy revealed 31 cases with TLE (relative frequency of 1.79%. However, when the investigation was narrowed to cases with intractable seizures that needed video-EEG monitoring (N = 68 or epilepsy surgery (N = 32, the relative frequency of TLE increased to 19.11 (13/68 and 31.25% (10/32, respectively. At the beginning of the study, 25 of 31 patients had a high seizure frequency (80.6%, which declined to 11 of 31 (35.5% at the conclusion of the study, as a consequence of pharmacological and/or surgical therapy. This improvement in seizure control was significant in G1 (P 0.1, McNemar's test. These results indicate that the relative frequency of TLE in children was low, but increased considerably among cases with pharmacoresistant seizures. Patients with specific lesions were likely to undergo surgery, with good postoperative outcomes.

  11. Constraints on temporal velocity variations associated with an underground gas storage in the Gulf of Valencia using earthquake and seismic ambient noise data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Arantza; Gaite, Beatriz; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    During September 2013, the injection of the base gas in a depleted oil reservoir used as an underground natural gas storage (CASTOR) caused a sudden seismic activity increase in the eastern coast of Spain. As a result, a compact cluster of more than 550 earthquakes with magnitudes mbLg > 0.7 were located in the shallow offshore area of the Gulf of Valencia during two months. The strongest event, having a magnitude of Mw=4.2, was followed by two Mw=4.1 events the day after and took place once the gas injection activities had finished. Using the seismic data recorded by permanent stations at more than 25 km from the injection well, we applied coda wave interferometry to monitor changes in seismic velocity structure between similar earthquakes. Then we solved for a continuous function of velocity changes with time by combining observations from all the closely located earthquake sources. The rate of repeating events allowed measurements of relative velocity variations for about 30 days on a daily scale. To extend the analysis in time, we also processed the continuous data using the autocorrelation of band-pass filtered ambient seismic noise. A 10-day average was required to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio in the 0.2-0.5 Hz and 0.5-1 Hz frequency bands. We quantified the time lags between two traces in the frequency and time domains by means of the Moving Window Cross Spectral Analysis and a Dynamic Time Warping technique, respectively. Injection of fluids in geologic formations causes variations in seismic velocities associated to changes in fluid saturation, increase in pore pressure or opening or enlargement of cracks due to the injection process. Time delays associated with stress changes caused by moderate to large earthquakes have also been established. In this work, we found no velocity changes during the gas injection period nor on the occasion of the Mw 4.2 earthquake. The sensitivity of the method is dependent on the seismic network geometry and

  12. Stress magnitudes in the crust: constraints from stress orientation and relative magnitude data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M.L.; Magee, M.

    1991-01-01

    The World Stress Map Project is a global cooperative effort to compile and interpret data on the orientation and relative magnitudes of the contemporary in situ tectonic stress field in the Earth's lithosphere. The intraplate stress field in both the oceans and continents is largely compressional with one or both of the horizontal stresses greater than the vertical stress. The regionally uniform horizontal intraplate stress orientations are generally consistent with either relative or absolute plate motions indicating that plate-boundary forces dominate the stress distribution within the plates. Current models of stresses due to whole mantle flow inferred from seismic topography models predict a general compressional stress state within continents but do not match the broad-scale horizontal stress orientations. The broad regionally uniform intraplate stress orientations are best correlated with compressional plate-boundary forces and the geometry of the plate boundaries. -from Authors

  13. MESOZOIC MAGMATISM IN EAST URUGUAY: PETROLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS RELATED TO THE SIERRA SAN MIGUEL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Bruno

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents new results of a detailed geological and structural investigation focusing the easternmost Uruguayan Mesozoic magmatic occurrences related to the south Atlantic opening. Lithological descriptions, their stratigraphic relationships and complimentary lithochemical characterizations carried out in the San Miguel region (East Uruguay are presented. Three volcanic/sub-volcanic units have been recognized. The felsic volcanic association is composed by rhyolitic - dacitic flows, mainly with porphyritic textures and sub-alkalinenature and related pyroclastic rocks. The felsic sub-volcanic association is characterized by granophyres of about 25 km2 of exposed area, cross- cut by mafic and felsic dykes. Finally, a mafic association has been identified characterized by dykes and a small intrusion of gabbroic composition.All these units are Mesozoic in age (130 - 127 Ma and according to their chemical nature they correspond tosub-alkaline to weak peralkaline magmas.

  14. Temporal dominance of emotions: Measuring dynamics of food-related emotions during consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G.; Schlich, P.; Tijssen, I.O.J.M.; Yao, Y.J.; Visalli, M.; Graaf, de C.; Stieger, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mapping food-evoked emotions in addition to sensory profiling is topical. In sensory profiling, the Temporal Dominance of Sensation (TDS) method focuses on the assessment of the temporal evolution of dominant sensory attributes over time. We hypothesize that food-evoked emotions also show temporal

  15. Temporal trends in new exposure to antiepileptic drug monotherapy and suicide-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Mary Jo V; Hesdorffer, Dale; Wang, Chen-Pin; Amuan, Megan E; Tabares, Jeffrey V; Finley, Erin P; Cramer, Joyce A; Kanner, Andres M; Bryan, Craig J

    2013-11-26

    Because some recent studies suggest increased risk for suicide-related behavior (SRB; ideation, attempts) among those receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), we examined the temporal relationship between new AED exposure and SRB in a cohort of older veterans. We used national Veterans Health Administration databases to identify veterans aged ≥65 years who received a new AED prescription in 2004-2006. All instances of SRB were identified using ICD-9-CM codes 1 year before and after the AED exposure (index) date. We also identified comorbid conditions and medication associated with SRB in prior research. We used generalized estimating equations with a logit link to examine the association between new AED exposure and SRB during 30-day intervals during the year before and after the index date, controlling for potential confounders. In this cohort of 90,263 older veterans, the likelihood of SRB the month prior to AED exposure was significantly higher than in other time periods even after adjusting for potential confounders. Although there were 87 SRB events (74 individuals) the year before and 106 SRB events (92 individuals) after, approximately 22% (n = 16) of those also had SRB before the index date. Moreover, the rate of SRB after AED start was gradually reduced over time. The temporal pattern of AED exposure and SRB suggests that, in clinical practice, the peak in SRB is prior to exposure. While speculative, the rate of gradual reduction in SRB thereafter suggests that symptoms may prompt AED prescription.

  16. Long-range temporal correlations, multifractality, and the causal relation between neural inputs and movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eHu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the causal relation between neural inputs and movements is very important for the success of brain machine interfaces (BMIs. In this study, we analyze 104 neurons’ firings using statistical, information theoretic, and fractal analysis. The latter include Fano factor analysis, multifractal adaptive fractal analysis (MF-AFA, and wavelet multifractal analysis. We find neuronal firings are highly nonstationary, and Fano factor analysis always indicates long-range correlations in neuronal firings, irrespective of whether those firings are correlated with movement trajectory or not, and thus does not reveal any actual correlations between neural inputs and movements. On the other hand, MF-AFA and wavelet multifractal analysis clearly indicate that when neuronal firings are not well correlated with movement trajectory, they do not have or only have weak temporal correlations. When neuronal firings are well correlated with movements, they are characterized by very strong temporal correlations, up to a time scale comparable to the average time between two successive reaching tasks. This suggests that neurons well correlated with hand trajectory experienced a re-setting effect at the start of each reaching task, in the sense that within the movement correlated neurons the spike trains’ long range dependences persisted about the length of time the monkey used to switch between task executions. A new task execution re-sets their activity, making them only weakly correlated with their prior activities on longer time scales. We further discuss the significance of the coalition of those important neurons in executing cortical control of prostheses.

  17. High Resolution Spatial and Temporal Mapping of Traffic-Related Air Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Batterman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle traffic is one of the most significant emission sources of air pollutants in urban areas. While the influence of mobile source emissions is felt throughout an urban area, concentrations from mobile emissions can be highest near major roadways. At present, information regarding the spatial and temporal patterns and the share of pollution attributable to traffic-related air pollutants is limited, in part due to concentrations that fall sharply with distance from roadways, as well as the few monitoring sites available in cities. This study uses a newly developed dispersion model (RLINE and a spatially and temporally resolved emissions inventory to predict hourly PM2.5 and NOx concentrations across Detroit (MI, USA at very high spatial resolution. Results for annual averages and high pollution days show contrasting patterns, the need for spatially resolved analyses, and the limitations of surrogate metrics like proximity or distance to roads. Data requirements, computational and modeling issues are discussed. High resolution pollutant data enable the identification of pollutant “hotspots”, “project-level” analyses of transportation options, development of exposure measures for epidemiology studies, delineation of vulnerable and susceptible populations, policy analyses examining risks and benefits of mitigation options, and the development of sustainability indicators integrating environmental, social, economic and health information.

  18. New Constraints on a Complex Relation between Globular Cluster Colors and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powalka, Mathieu; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Peng, Eric W.; Schönebeck, Frederik; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Ángel, Simón; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Grebel, Eva K.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kuntschner, Harald; Lim, Sungsoon; Liu, Chengze; Lyubenova, Mariya; Mihos, J. Christopher; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Spengler, Chelsea; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hongxin

    2016-09-01

    We present an analysis of high-quality photometry for globular clusters (GCs) in the Virgo cluster core region, based on data from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) pilot field, and in the Milky Way (MW), based on Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter spectrophotometry. We find significant discrepancies in color-color diagrams between sub-samples from different environments, confirming that the environment has a strong influence on the integrated colors of GCs. GC color distributions along a single color are not sufficient to capture the differences we observe in color-color space. While the average photometric colors become bluer with increasing radial distance to the cD galaxy M87, we also find a relation between the environment and the slope and intercept of the color-color relations. A denser environment seems to produce a larger dynamic range in certain color indices. We argue that these results are not due solely to differential extinction, Initial Mass Function variations, calibration uncertainties, or overall age/metallicity variations. We therefore suggest that the relation between the environment and GC colors is, at least in part, due to chemical abundance variations, which affect stellar spectra and stellar evolution tracks. Our results demonstrate that stellar population diagnostics derived from model predictions which are calibrated on one particular sample of GCs may not be appropriate for all extragalactic GCs. These results advocate a more complex model of the assembly history of GC systems in massive galaxies that goes beyond the simple bimodality found in previous decades.

  19. Transmission and orbital constraints in space-related programs: Briefing summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    Research was initiated to develop a capability for predicting and analyzing the spectrum/orbital geometry requirements of current and projected U.S. and international space related systems. Essential components of the project include development of a comprehensive space environment data base and computer analysis programs. This capability will provide a resource for evaluating engineering and architectural designs, identifying and analyzing the impact of intentional and unintentional electromagnetic (EM) interference, and predicting probable saturation conditions in spectrum usage and satellite/orbital positions. Assessments of means for accommodating the anticipated growth are also an important part of the study project.

  20. Temporal dynamics of action perception: differences on ERP evoked by object-related and non-object-related actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamain, Yannick; Pluciennicka, Ewa; Kalénine, Solène

    2014-10-01

    While neuropsychological dissociations suggest that distinct processes are involved in execution or perception of transitive (object-related) and intransitive (non-object-related) actions, the few neuroimaging studies that directly contrasted the brain activations underlying transitive and intransitive gesture perception failed to find substantial differences between the two action types. However, the distinction could be visible on brain activity timing within the fronto-parietal network. In this study, we used Event-Related Potential (ERP) method to assess the temporal dynamics of object-related and non-object-related action processing. Although both meaningful, only object-related actions involve object motor features. Accordingly, perception of the two action types would show distinct neural correlates. Participants were presented with four movie types (ORA, Object-Related Action, NORA: Non-Object-Related Action and 2 control movies) and were instructed to perform tasks that required explicit or implicit action recognition (specific action recognition or color change detection). Movies were presented as Point-Light Display (PLD) and thus provided only information about gesture kinematics regardless of action type. ERP were computed during movie visual perception and analyzed as a function of movie type and task. The main result revealed a difference between ORA and NORA on the amplitude of the P3a component in the fronto-parietal region. The difference observed around 250 ms after movie onset do not likely origin from variation in low-level visual features or attention resource allocation. Instead, we suggest that it reflects incidental recruitment of object attributes during object-related action perception. The exact nature of these attributes is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Memory for relations in the short term and the long term after medial temporal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Larry R

    2017-05-01

    A central idea about the organization of declarative memory and the function of the hippocampus is that the hippocampus provides for the coding of relationships between items. A question arises whether this idea refers to the process of forming long-term memory or whether, as some studies have suggested, memory for relations might depend on the hippocampus even at short retention intervals and even when the task falls within the province of short-term (working) memory. The latter formulation appears to place the operation of relational memory into conflict with the idea that working memory is independent of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. In this report, the concepts of relational memory and working memory are discussed in the light of a simple demonstration experiment. Patients with MTL lesions successfully learned and recalled two word pairs when tested directly after learning but failed altogether when tested after a delay. The results do not contradict the idea that the hippocampus has a fundamental role in relational memory. However, there is a need for further elaboration and specification of the idea in order to explain why patients with MTL lesions can establish relational memory in the short term but not in long-term memory. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An Analysis of Multi-type Relational Interactions in FMA Using Graph Motifs with Disjointness Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guo Qiang; Luo, Lingyun; Ogbuji, Chime; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Mejino, Jose; Sahoo, Satya S.

    2012-11-24

    The interaction of multiple types of relationships among anatomical classes in the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) can provide inferred information valuable for quality assurance. This paper introduces a method called Motif Checking (MOCH) to study the effects of such multi-relation type interactions. MOCH represents patterns of multitype interaction as small labeled sub-graph motifs, whose nodes represent class variables, and labeled edges represent relational types. By representing FMA as an RDF graph and motifs as SPARQL queries, fragments of FMA are automatically obtained as auditing candidates. Leveraging the scalability and reconfigurability of Semantic Web Technology (OWL, RDF and SPARQL) and Virtuoso, we performed exhaustive analyses of three 2-node motifs, resulting in 638 matching FMA configurations; twelve 3-node motifs, resulting in 202,960 configurations. Using the Principal Ideal Explorer (PIE) methodology as an extension of MOCH, we were able to identify 755 root nodes with 4,100 respective descendants with opposing antonyms in their class names for arbitrary-length motifs. With possible disjointness implied by antonyms, we performed manual inspection of a subset of the resulting FMA fragments and tracked down a source of abnormal inferred conclusions (captured by the motifs), coming from a gender-neutral class being modeled as a part of gender-specific class, such as “Urinary system” is a part of “Female human body.” Our results demonstrate that MOCH and PIE provide a unique source of valuable information for quality assurance. Since our approach is general, it is applicable to any ontological system with an OWL representation.

  3. New constraints on Neogene counter-clockwise rotation of Adria relative to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Breton, Eline; Handy, Mark R.; Molli, Giancarlo; Ustaszewski, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    The Adriatic microplate (Adria) is a key player in the geodynamics of Alpine-Mediterranean belts because of its location between two converging plates, Europe and Africa. Most of Adria has been subducted and is presently surrounded by deformed margins comprising the Alps, Apennines, Dinarides and the Calabrian Arc. The Alps-Apennines and Alps-Dinarides junctions are marked by switches in subduction polarity, with Adria being the indenting upper plate in the Alps and the lower plate in the Apennines and Dinarides. Reconstructing Neogene motion and rotation of Adria is therefore key to understanding how such contrasting orogenic styles develop within a similar convergent tectonic regime. We propose a new kinematic reconstruction that balances shortening and extension in the northern Apennines; it reveals that Adria rotated counter-clockwise as it subducted beneath the European Plate to the west and to the east, while indenting the Alps to the north. Syn-collisional back-arc extension in the Liguro-Provençal and northern Tyrrhenian basins exceeds collisional shortening in the northern Apennines, indicating that after 20 Ma Adria and Europe diverged. When combined with existing estimates of Neogene shortening in the Western and Eastern Alps, this overall divergence in the Apennines constrains Adria to have moved to the NW while rotating counter-clockwise relative to Europe. We furthermore consider the length of the present Adriatic slab (135 km) imaged by P-wave tomography in the southern Dinarides to represent the maximum convergence since late Paleogene slab-breakoff, constraining Adria to have rotated 6.5˚ counter-clockwise about an axis in northwestern Italy. Thus, the best fit of available structural data from the Apennines, Alps and Dinarides constrains Adria to have moved 113 km to the NW (azimuth 325˚ ) while rotating 6.5˚ counter-clockwise relative to Europe since 20 Ma. Our model predicts some 80-100 km of Neogene extension between Adria and Africa, most

  4. Temporal similarity measures for querying clinical workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Gozzi, Matteo; Oliboni, Barbara; Juarez, Jose M; Marin, Roque

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we extend a preliminary proposal and discuss in a deeper and more formal way an approach to evaluate temporal similarity between clinical workflow cases (i.e., executions of clinical processes). More precisely, we focus on (i) the representation of clinical processes by using a temporal conceptual workflow model; (ii) the definition of ad hoc temporal constraint networks to formally represent clinical workflow cases; (iii) the definition of temporal similarity for clinical workflow cases based on the comparison of temporal constraint networks; (iv) the management of the similarity of clinical processes related to the Italian guideline for stroke prevention and management (SPREAD). Clinical processes are composed by clinical activities to be done by given actors in a given order satisfying given temporal constraints. This description means that clinical processes can be seen as organizational processes, and modeled by workflow schemata. When a workflow schema represents a clinical process, its cases represent different instances derived from dealing with different patients in different situations. With respect to all the cases related to a workflow schema, each clinical case can be different with respect to its structure and to its temporal aspects. Clinical cases can be stored in clinical databases and information retrieval can be done evaluating the similarity between workflow cases. We first describe a possible approach to the conceptual modeling of a clinical process, by using a temporally extended workflow model. Then, we define how a workflow case can be represented as a set of activities, and show how to express them through temporal constraint networks. Once we have built temporal constraint networks related to the cases to compare, we propose a similarity function able to evaluate the differences between the considered cases with respect to the order and duration of corresponding activities, and with respect to the presence/absence of some

  5. Using the relational event model (REM) to investigate the temporal dynamics of animal social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranmer, Mark; Marcum, Christopher Steven; Morton, F. Blake; Croft, Darren P.; de Kort, Selvino R.

    2015-01-01

    Social dynamics are of fundamental importance in animal societies. Studies on nonhuman animal social systems often aggregate social interaction event data into a single network within a particular time frame. Analysis of the resulting network can provide a useful insight into the overall extent of interaction. However, through aggregation, information is lost about the order in which interactions occurred, and hence the sequences of actions over time. Many research hypotheses relate directly to the sequence of actions, such as the recency or rate of action, rather than to their overall volume or presence. Here, we demonstrate how the temporal structure of social interaction sequences can be quantified from disaggregated event data using the relational event model (REM). We first outline the REM, explaining why it is different from other models for longitudinal data, and how it can be used to model sequences of events unfolding in a network. We then discuss a case study on the European jackdaw, Corvus monedula, in which temporal patterns of persistence and reciprocity of action are of interest, and present and discuss the results of a REM analysis of these data. One of the strengths of a REM analysis is its ability to take into account different ways in which data are collected. Having explained how to take into account the way in which the data were collected for the jackdaw study, we briefly discuss the application of the model to other studies. We provide details of how the models may be fitted in the R statistical software environment and outline some recent extensions to the REM framework. PMID:26190856

  6. Using the relational event model (REM) to investigate the temporal dynamics of animal social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranmer, Mark; Marcum, Christopher Steven; Morton, F Blake; Croft, Darren P; de Kort, Selvino R

    2015-03-01

    Social dynamics are of fundamental importance in animal societies. Studies on nonhuman animal social systems often aggregate social interaction event data into a single network within a particular time frame. Analysis of the resulting network can provide a useful insight into the overall extent of interaction. However, through aggregation, information is lost about the order in which interactions occurred, and hence the sequences of actions over time. Many research hypotheses relate directly to the sequence of actions, such as the recency or rate of action, rather than to their overall volume or presence. Here, we demonstrate how the temporal structure of social interaction sequences can be quantified from disaggregated event data using the relational event model (REM). We first outline the REM, explaining why it is different from other models for longitudinal data, and how it can be used to model sequences of events unfolding in a network. We then discuss a case study on the European jackdaw, Corvus monedula, in which temporal patterns of persistence and reciprocity of action are of interest, and present and discuss the results of a REM analysis of these data. One of the strengths of a REM analysis is its ability to take into account different ways in which data are collected. Having explained how to take into account the way in which the data were collected for the jackdaw study, we briefly discuss the application of the model to other studies. We provide details of how the models may be fitted in the R statistical software environment and outline some recent extensions to the REM framework.

  7. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nicolas

    Full Text Available The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L. stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  8. Time Matters: Framing Antismoking Messages Using Current Smokers' Preexisting Perceptions of Temporal Distance to Smoking-Related Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyongseok; Kim, Hyang-Sook

    2017-01-17

    This study examined the effects of temporal framing used in messages about the future likelihood of developing smoking-related diseases on intention to quit smoking. Based on construal level theory (CLT), a causal model delineating the relationships among four variables-perceived temporal distance, personal relevance, perceived susceptibility, and behavioral intention-was proposed. The model was validated by an online experiment with a sample of 222 current smokers, revealing the effects of perceived temporal distance on behavioral intention via personal relevance and perceived susceptibility. Following the CLT-grounded model, the effects of different temporal frames (near future vs. distant future) on the four variables were tested. The near-future frame featured a risk perceived to be more temporally proximal (i.e., heart attack), and the distant-future frame featured a risk perceived to be more temporally distant (i.e., larynx cancer) among current smokers. Participants exposed to the near-future frame reported significantly shorter perceived temporal distance, greater personal relevance and perceived susceptibility to the risk portrayed in the message, and greater intention to quit smoking than participants exposed to the distant-future frame. Implications for antismoking communications are discussed.

  9. Synonymous codon bias and functional constraint on GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics in the prokaryotic nucleoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Gregory A; Alawad, Mohammed A; Schulze, Katharina V; Hudson, André O

    2014-01-01

    While mRNA stability has been demonstrated to control rates of translation, generating both global and local synonymous codon biases in many unicellular organisms, this explanation cannot adequately explain why codon bias strongly tracks neighboring intergene GC content; suggesting that structural dynamics of DNA might also influence codon choice. Because minor groove width is highly governed by 3-base periodicity in GC, the existence of triplet-based codons might imply a functional role for the optimization of local DNA molecular dynamics via GC content at synonymous sites (≈GC3). We confirm a strong association between GC3-related intrinsic DNA flexibility and codon bias across 24 different prokaryotic multiple whole-genome alignments. We develop a novel test of natural selection targeting synonymous sites and demonstrate that GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics have been subject to moderate selective pressure, perhaps contributing to our observation that many genes possess extreme DNA backbone dynamics for their given protein space. This dual function of codons may impose universal functional constraints affecting the evolution of synonymous and non-synonymous sites. We propose that synonymous sites may have evolved as an 'accessory' during an early expansion of a primordial genetic code, allowing for multiplexed protein coding and structural dynamic information within the same molecular context. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Temporal Dynamics of Visual Attention Measured with Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwase, Yoshiyuki; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    How attentional modulation on brain activities determines behavioral performance has been one of the most important issues in cognitive neuroscience. This issue has been addressed by comparing the temporal relationship between attentional modulations on neural activities and behavior. Our previous study measured the time course of attention with amplitude and phase coherence of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and found that the modulation latency of phase coherence rather than that of amplitude was consistent with the latency of behavioral performance. In this study, as a complementary report, we compared the time course of visual attention shift measured by event-related potentials (ERPs) with that by target detection task. We developed a novel technique to compare ERPs with behavioral results and analyzed the EEG data in our previous study. Two sets of flickering stimulus at different frequencies were presented in the left and right visual hemifields, and a target or distracter pattern was presented randomly at various moments after an attention-cue presentation. The observers were asked to detect targets on the attended stimulus after the cue. We found that two ERP components, P300 and N2pc, were elicited by the target presented at the attended location. Time-course analyses revealed that attentional modulation of the P300 and N2pc amplitudes increased gradually until reaching a maximum and lasted at least 1.5 s after the cue onset, which is similar to the temporal dynamics of behavioral performance. However, attentional modulation of these ERP components started later than that of behavioral performance. Rather, the time course of attentional modulation of behavioral performance was more closely associated with that of the concurrently recorded SSVEPs analyzed. These results suggest that neural activities reflected not by either the P300 or N2pc, but by the SSVEPs, are the source of attentional modulation of behavioral performance. PMID:23976966

  11. Comorbidity and temporal relations of alcohol and cannabis use disorders from youth through adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan C; Gau, Jeff M; Farmer, Richard F; Seeley, John R; Kosty, Derek B; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol and cannabis are among the most widely used and abused drugs in industrialized societies. Investigations of patterns in comorbidity and temporal sequencing between alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) from childhood to adulthood are important for understanding the etiologies of these disorders. The sample comprised 816 individuals (59% male, 89% white). Dichotomous measures indicated whether or not a participant was in an AUD or CUD episode during three developmental periods-youth (childhood through adolescence), early adulthood, and adulthood. Structural equation modeling was used to determine relations between AUDs and CUDs across the three developmental periods, and to test for gender differences. Concurrent associations between AUD and CUD were significant. Both AUD and CUD in previous developmental periods significantly predicted the same substance disorders in subsequent periods. Cross-lagged paths from youth AUD to young adult CUD and youth CUD to young adult AUD were both significant. However, only the cross-lagged path from youth CUD to adult AUD was significant. The cross-lagged paths from young adult AUD to adult CUD and young adult CUD to adult AUD were both nonsignificant. Males and females were mostly similar with only three differences found between genders. Comorbidity of AUDs and CUDs was evident from youth through adulthood but the strength of the relationship lessened in adulthood. Temporal sequencing influences of AUDs and CUDs on each other were similar in youth and adulthood but not young adulthood. Same substance stability was greatest in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A spatio-temporal analysis of forest loss related to cocaine trafficking in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesnie, Steven E.; Tellman, Beth; Wrathall, David; McSweeney, Kendra; Nielsen, Erik; Benessaiah, Karina; Wang, Ophelia; Rey, Luis

    2017-05-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that criminal activities associated with drug trafficking networks are a progressively important driver of forest loss in Central America. However, the scale at which drug trafficking represents a driver of forest loss is not presently known. We estimated the degree to which narcotics trafficking may contribute to forest loss using an unsupervised spatial clustering of 15 spatial and temporal forest loss patch metrics developed from global forest change data. We distinguished anomalous forest loss from background loss patches for each country exhibiting potential ‘narco-capitalized’ signatures which showed a statistically significant dissimilarity from other patches in terms of size, timing, and rate of forest loss. We also compared annual anomalous forest loss with the number of cocaine shipments and volume of cocaine seized, lost, or delivered at country- and department-level. For Honduras, results from linear mixed effects models showed a highly significant relationship between anomalous forest loss and the timing of increased drug trafficking (F = 9.90, p = 0.009) that also differed significantly from temporal patterns of background forest loss (t-ratio = 2.98, p = 0.004). Other locations of high forest loss in Central America showed mixed results. The timing of increased trafficking was not significantly related to anomalous forest loss in Guatemala and Nicaragua, but significantly differed in patch size compared to background losses. We estimated that cocaine trafficking could account for between 15% and 30% of annual national forest loss in these three countries over the past decade, and 30% to 60% of loss occurred within nationally and internationally designated protected areas. Cocaine trafficking is likely to have severe and lasting consequences in terms of maintaining moist tropical forest cover in Central America. Addressing forest loss in these and other tropical locations will require a stronger

  13. Relation of Social Constraints on Disclosure to Adjustment among Chinese American Cancer Survivors: A Multi-Processes Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Celia C Y; Warmoth, Krystal; Ivy, Shelby; Cheung, Bernice; Lu, Qian

    2017-12-12

    The present study examines the association between social constraints and depressive symptoms among Chinese American breast cancer survivors, and the mechanism underling this association. A multi-processes model is tested to examine the mediating roles of ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE), avoidance, intrusive thoughts, and social support in the association between social constraints and depressive symptoms among Chinese American breast cancer survivors. Ninety-six Chinese American breast cancer survivors were recruited from Chinese community organizations. They were asked to complete a questionnaire package that assessed social constraints, AEE, avoidance, intrusive thoughts, social support, depressive symptoms, and demographic information. Path analysis was conducted to test the hypothesized model. The overall and specific indirect effects of social constraints on depressive symptoms through AEE, avoidance, intrusive thoughts, and social support are significant. When the mediators are controlled for, the direct effect of social constraints on depressive symptoms is no longer significant. A multi-processes model of social constraints and depressive symptoms is tested in a sample of Chinese American breast cancer survivors. The findings suggest that the existence of multiple pathways, through which social constraints may associate with depressive symptoms among Chinese American breast cancer survivors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Impairment of language is related to left parieto-temporal glucose metabolism in aphasic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbe, H; Szelies, B; Herholz, K; Heiss, W D

    1990-02-01

    Twenty-six aphasic patients who had an ischaemic infarct in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) were investigated. Cranial computed tomography (CT) showed various lesion sites: infarcts restricted to cortical structures in 12 patients, combined cortical and subcortical infarcts in 7 and isolated subcortical infarcts sparing the left cortex in another 7 cases. 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed remote hypometabolism of the left convexity cortex and of the left basal ganglia, which was extended further than the morphological infarct zone in all cases. Types and degrees of aphasia were classified using the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT): 10 patients had global aphasia, 2 Broca's, 5 Wernicke's, and 5 amnesic aphasia. Four patients suffered from minimal or residual aphasic symptoms. The AAT results were compared with the regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose of the left hemisphere. Irrespective of the infarct location all five AAT subtests (Token test, repetition, written language, confrontation naming, auditory and reading comprehension) were closely correlated among each other and with left parieto-temporal metabolic rates, whereas left frontal and left basal ganglia metabolism showed no significant correlation. The close relation between left temporo-parietal functional activity and all five AAT subtests suggests that the different aspects of aphasia tested by AAT can be related to a common disorder of language processing in those areas.

  15. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77–7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24–3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04–35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  16. Main constraints for siting monitoring networks devoted to the study of earthquake related hydrogeochemical phenomena in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Albarello

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Criteria and data useful to select test sites in Italy suitable for monitoring earthquake related fluctuations in geofluid natural emissions are given. For this purpose, a catalogue of thermically anomalous natural springs was compiled on the basis of recent and old documentary sources. This catalogue, reporting more than 1200 localities, can be used to identify those sites where gas-fluid emissions are presumably representative of deep water circulation. A catalogue of CO2 gas reservoirs exploited in the past and at present for industrial extraction was also compiled to identify all the areas where strong degassing activity may affect spring sources and generate enhanced water-rock interaction processes. To complete this review, data were also collected on natural springs characterized, on the basis of documentary sources, by "anomalous" behaviour during past earthquakes. An independent constraint to select the most interesting test sites was obtained by the analysis of seismic activity in this century. In this way, a number of sites were identified where it is likely to observe at least one significant earthquake (with magnitude ³ 3.5 within 20 km during a 3 year monitoring interval. These pieces of information were matched and three areas, respectively located in the Central Apennines, Southern Apennines and Sicily were identified as the most promising test sites for monitoring geofluid emissions as markers of active seismogenic processes.

  17. Relative roles of ecological and energetic constraints, diversification rates and region history on global species richness gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmaker, Jonathan; Jetz, Walter

    2015-06-01

    Regions worldwide differ markedly in species richness. Here, for birds and mammals worldwide, we directly compare four sets of hypotheses regarding geographical richness gradients: (1) evolutionary, emphasising heterogeneity in diversification rates, (2) historical, related to differences in region ages and sizes, (3) energetic, associated with variation in productive or ambient energy and (4) ecological, reflecting differences in ecological niche diversity. Among highly independent regions, or 'evolutionary arenas', we find that richness is weakly influenced by richness-standardised ecological niche diversity, questioning the significance of ecological constraints for producing large-scale diversity gradients. In contrast, we find strong evidence for the importance of region area and its changes over time, together with a role for temperature. These predictors affect richness predominately directly without concomitant positive effects on diversification rates. This suggests that regional richness is governed by historical and evolutionary processes, which promote region-specific accumulation of diversity through time or following asymmetrical dispersal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Seismicity of the East Pacific Rise: Constraints from Hydroacoustic Monitoring and Evidence for Triggering of Transform Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P. M.; Smith, D. K.; Lin, J.

    2003-12-01

    We utilize hydroacoustic data collected since May 1996 by NOAA's Equatorial Pacific autonomous hydrophone array to investigate the first order spatial and temporal variability of seismicity at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) within the array. We also investigate earthquake stress interaction and triggering at three sites: the Clipperton and Siqueirous transform faults, which are part of the Ridge2000 EPR Integrated Study Site (ISS), as well as a section of the ridge at 5.4° S near the Gofar transform fault. Our analyses reveal strong evidence of seismic clustering along the EPR. The majority of earthquakes (>90%) clustered in seismic swarms, in which individual events occurred within a few km and within minutes or hours of each other. Through correlating hydrophone data to teleseismically recorded events, we have located several moderate size earthquakes on the Siqueiros and Clipperton transforms. Some of these moderate size events occurred closely in space and time, suggesting the possibility of earthquake triggering. At 5.4° S we found evidence for possible interaction between two moderate size events, one of which occurred on the EPR axis and the other about 100 km northward on the Gofar transform fault. Stress calculations were carried out for several pairs of the moderate size events. The close correlation of the calculated Coulomb stress changes with the observed spatial and temporal variations in seismicity patterns provide strong evidence for possible earthquake triggering along the transform faults. This might have important implications for processes acting in the EPR ISS, including the relationship between seismicity and changes in hydrothermal circulation patterns.

  19. Detachment Faulting in the Western Basin and Range: New Geometric, Thermal, and Temporal Constraints From the Bare Mountain Region in Southwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrill, D. A.; Stamatakos, J. A.; Morris, A. P.; Donelick, R. A.; Blythe, A. E.

    2001-12-01

    Zircon and apatite fission-track cooling ages for 50 samples taken from Bare Mountain and surrounding areas of southern Nevada, analyzed in conjunction with structural and paleomagnetic data and calcite deformation geothermometry data, provide new constraints on the timing and distribution of detachment faulting in the western Basin and Range. Our results show that: (i) Bare Mountain was tilted to the east or northeast, probably during Middle Miocene extension, prior to development of the Bullfrog Hills detachment system. (ii) Bare Mountain cooled through the fission-track closure temperature for fluorine-rich apatite (115-125 C) more or less as a unit at 8 to 17 Ma. (iii) Northwest Bare Mountain cooled through the zircon closure temperature (250 C) at 8 to 17 Ma, whereas the rest of the mountain cooled through this temperature between the Late Paleozoic and the Eocene. The combination of tilting at Bare Mountain and the apatite and zircon fission-track cooling ages indicates the presence of a west-dipping breakaway fault at Bare Mountain at around 15 Ma. New apatite fission-track cooling ages from Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Mount Sterling, the Striped Hills, the Resting Springs Range, and the Funeral Mountains, when combined with published apatite ages, constrain the regional position of a west-dipping breakaway fault and exhumed footwall. The current position of the trailing edge of the hanging wall of this system is the Death Valley - Furnace Creek fault system. Migration rates of the cooling front in the footwall of this system range from 4.0 mm/yr at the latitude of Bare Mountain to 7.3 mm/yr at the latitude of central Death Valley. * Work performed at the CNWRA for the U.S. NRC under contract number NRC-02-97-009. This is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the views or regulatory position of the NRC.

  20. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL MEDIA DATA RELATED TO NEPAL EARTHQUAKE 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thapa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social Medias these days have become the instant communication platform to share anything; from personal feelings to the matter of public concern, these are the easiest and aphoristic way to deliver information among the mass. With the development of Web 2.0 technologies, more and more emphasis has been given to user input in the web; the concept of Geoweb is being visualized and in the recent years, social media like Twitter, Flicker are among the popular Location Based Social Medias with locational functionality enabled in them. Nepal faced devastating earthquake on 25 April, 2015 resulting in the loss of thousands of lives, destruction in the historical-archaeological sites and properties. Instant help was offered by many countries around the globe and even lots of NGOs, INGOs and people started the rescue operations immediately; concerned authorities and people used different communication medium like Frequency Modulation Stations, Television, and Social Medias over the World Wide Web to gather information associated with the Quake and to ease the rescue activities. They also initiated campaign in the Social Media to raise the funds and support the victims. Even the social medias like Facebook, Twitter, themselves announced the helping campaign to rebuild Nepal. In such scenario, this paper features the analysis of Twitter data containing hashtag related to Nepal Earthquake 2015 together with their temporal characteristics, when were the message generated, where were these from and how these spread spatially over the internet?

  1. Explore spatial-temporal relations: transient super-resolution with PMD sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chaosheng; Lin, Xing; Lin, Jingyu; Yan, Chenggang; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Transient imaging provides a direct view of how light travel in the scene, which leads to exciting applications such as looking around corners. Low-budget transient imagers, adapted from Time-of-Fight (ToF) cameras, reduce the barrier of entry for performing research of this new imaging modality. However, the image quality is far from satisfactory due to the limited resolution of PMD sensors. In this paper, we improve the resolution of transient images by modulating the illumination. We capture the scene under three linearly independent lighting conditions, and derive a theoretical model for the relationship between the time-profile and the corresponding 3D details of each pixel. Our key idea is that the light flight time in each pixel patch is proportional to the cross product of the illuminating direction and the surface normal. First we capture and reconstruct transient images by Fourier analysis at multiple illumination locations, and then fuse the data of acquired low-spatial resolution images to calculate the surface normal. Afterwards, we use an optimization procedure to split the pixels and finally enhance the image quality. We show that we can not only reveal the fine structure of the object but may also uncover the reflectance properties of different materials. We hope the idea of utilizing spatial-temporal relations will give new insights to the research and applications of transient imaging.

  2. Olfactory dysfunction in temporal lobe epilepsy: a case of ictus-related parosmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacek, Sarah; Stevenson, Richard J; Miller, Laurie A

    2007-11-01

    Olfactory abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) usually involve either brief hallucinations prior to seizures or chronic impairments in odor discrimination and identification. We describe the case of a man (B.C.) with TLE with an unusual presentation, an ictus-related parosmia. B.C. reported distorted perception of odor quality and hedonics that could provoke nausea and gagging, typically at its most extreme in the week or so following a seizure. Measures of B.C.'s olfactory functioning were obtained at stages of the ictal cycle when parosmia symptoms were severe and when they had decreased. Unlike other parosmics, B.C.'s detection thresholds were always normal, and unlike others with TLE, he evidenced little impairment in identification or discrimination. Testing during a period of more severe parosmia suggested that B.C.'s experiences might be the result of hedonic changes. We argue this may be the effect of seizure activity on the amygdala, which is known to be involved in mediating emotive reactions to odors.

  3. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Social Media Data Related to Nepal Earthquake 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, L.

    2016-06-01

    Social Medias these days have become the instant communication platform to share anything; from personal feelings to the matter of public concern, these are the easiest and aphoristic way to deliver information among the mass. With the development of Web 2.0 technologies, more and more emphasis has been given to user input in the web; the concept of Geoweb is being visualized and in the recent years, social media like Twitter, Flicker are among the popular Location Based Social Medias with locational functionality enabled in them. Nepal faced devastating earthquake on 25 April, 2015 resulting in the loss of thousands of lives, destruction in the historical-archaeological sites and properties. Instant help was offered by many countries around the globe and even lots of NGOs, INGOs and people started the rescue operations immediately; concerned authorities and people used different communication medium like Frequency Modulation Stations, Television, and Social Medias over the World Wide Web to gather information associated with the Quake and to ease the rescue activities. They also initiated campaign in the Social Media to raise the funds and support the victims. Even the social medias like Facebook, Twitter, themselves announced the helping campaign to rebuild Nepal. In such scenario, this paper features the analysis of Twitter data containing hashtag related to Nepal Earthquake 2015 together with their temporal characteristics, when were the message generated, where were these from and how these spread spatially over the internet?

  4. Rapid groundwater-related land subsidence in Yemen observed by multi-temporal InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullin, Ayrat; Xu, Wenbin; Kosmicki, Maximillian; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2015-04-01

    Several basins in Yemen are suffering from a rapid drawdown of groundwater, which is the most important water source for agricultural irrigation, industry and domestic use. However, detailed geodetic measurements in the region have been lacking and the extent and magnitude of groundwater-related land subsidence has been poorly known. We used 13 ascending ALOS and 15 descending Envisat images to study land subsidence of several basins in Yemen, with a special focus on the Sana'a and Mabar basins. From multitemporal synthetic aperture radar interferometric analysis (persistent scatterers (PS) and small baseline subsets (SBAS)) we examined the spatio-temporal behavior of the subsidence induced by depletion of groundwater aquifer systems from November 2003 to February 2011. In the interferometric data processing, we carefully chose interferogram pairs to minimize spatial and temporal decorrelation, because of high subsidence rates and the type of land cover. Our results show that the spatial pattern of subsidence remained quite stable during the observation period in both the Sana'a and Mabar basins. In the Sana'a basin, the maximum subsidence rate exceeded 14 cm/year in the radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction between 2003 and 2008 in an agricultural area just north of Sana'a city, where water wells have been drying up according to the well data. The subsidence rate was lower in the urban areas, or approximately 1 cm/year, exhibiting annual variations. The main subsidence was found in the center and southern parts of the city, while deformation in the northern part is less obvious. For the Mabar basin, the subsidence rate exceeded 30 cm/year in the agricultural area north of the town of Mabar during 2007 - 2011. The southern part of the Mabar basin also experienced high subsidence rates, although somewhat lower than to the north. Excessive water pumping is the main cause of the ground subsidence and it has already led to extensive ground fracturing at the edge of some

  5. Rapid groundwater-related land subsidence in Yemen observed by multi-temporal InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Abdullin, Ayrat

    2015-04-01

    Several basins in Yemen are suffering from a rapid drawdown of groundwater, which is the most important water source for agricultural irrigation, industry and domestic use. However, detailed geodetic measurements in the region have been lacking and the extent and magnitude of groundwater-related land subsidence has been poorly known. We used 13 ascending ALOS and 15 descending Envisat images to study land subsidence of several basins in Yemen, with a special focus on the Sana\\'a and Mabar basins. From multitemporal synthetic aperture radar interferometric analysis (persistent scatterers (PS) and small baseline subsets (SBAS)) we examined the spatio-temporal behavior of the subsidence induced by depletion of groundwater aquifer systems from November 2003 to February 2011. In the interferometric data processing, we carefully chose interferogram pairs to minimize spatial and temporal decorrelation, because of high subsidence rates and the type of land cover. Our results show that the spatial pattern of subsidence remained quite stable during the observation period in both the Sana\\'a and Mabar basins. In the Sana\\'a basin, the maximum subsidence rate exceeded 14 cm/year in the radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction between 2003 and 2008 in an agricultural area just north of Sana\\'a city, where water wells have been drying up according to the well data. The subsidence rate was lower in the urban areas, or approximately 1 cm/year, exhibiting annual variations. The main subsidence was found in the center and southern parts of the city, while deformation in the northern part is less obvious. For the Mabar basin, the subsidence rate exceeded 30 cm/year in the agricultural area north of the town of Mabar during 2007 - 2011. The southern part of the Mabar basin also experienced high subsidence rates, although somewhat lower than to the north. Excessive water pumping is the main cause of the ground subsidence and it has already led to extensive ground fracturing at the edge

  6. Process and output: relation between transactivity, temporal synchronicity, and quality of group work during CSCL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, V.; van Leeuwen, A.; Buis, S.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Do the simultaneous alignment of student activities (temporal synchronicity) and students successively building on each other's reasoning (transactivity) predict the quality of collaborative learning products ? A mixed method approach was used to study 74 first year university students who were

  7. Relation of callosal structure to cognitive abilities in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eSchneider

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE on the morphology of the corpus callosum (CC and its relation to cognitive abilities. More specifically, we investigated correlations between intellectual abilities and callosal morphology, while additionally exploring the modulating impact of (a side of seizure onset (b age of disease onset.For this reason a large representative sample of patients with hippocampal sclerosis (n=79; 35 males; 44 females; age: 18-63 years with disease onset ranging from 0 to 50 years of age, and consisting of 46 left and 33 right TLE patients was recruited. Intelligence was measured using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R.To get localizations of correlations with high anatomic precision, callosal morphology was examined using computational mesh-based modeling methods, applied to anatomical brain MRI scans.Intellectual performance was positively associated with callosal thickness in anterior and midcallosal callosal regions, with anterior parts being slightly more affected by age of disease onset and side of seizure onset than posterior parts. Earlier age at onset of epilepsy was associated with lower thickness in anterior and midcallosal regions. In addition, laterality of seizure onset had a significant influence on anterior CC morphology, with left hemispheric origin having stronger effects.We found that in TLE, anterior and midcallosal CC morphology are related to cognitive performance. The findings support recent findings of detrimental effects of early onset mTLE on anterior brain regions and of a distinct effect particularly of left TLE on frontal lobe functioning and structure. The causal nature of the relationship remains an open question, i.e., whether CC morphology impacts IQ development or whether IQ development impacts CC morphology, or both.

  8. Temporal variability of stemflow volume in a beech-yellow poplar forest in relation to tree species and size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, D. F.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Mage, S. M.; Kelley-Hauske, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    SummaryStemflow has distinguishable effects on the hydrology and biogeochemistry of wooded ecosystems. Nonetheless, it is a relatively poorly understood hydrologic process. No known studies have investigated the temporal variability of stemflow volume at 5-min intervals in a beech-yellow poplar forest of eastern North America. The aim of this research is to compare the temporal variability of stemflow generation by Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (American beech) and Liriodendron tulipifera L. (yellow poplar) in relation to tree species and size. Employing a dense network of tipping-bucket stemflow gages interfaced with a datalogger, a 5 min stemflow yield database was assembled and analyzed to better discern how stemflow production varies (temporally) with tree species and size. Results indicate that both tree species and size have detectable effects on the temporal variability of stemflow yield. Observational data, scientific analysis, and correspondence analysis reveals that stemflow yield: (1) is more similar within than between the two tree species with differences likely being attributable to differences in bark texture and water storage capacity; (2) tree size affects stemflow yield within species; (3) rain event characteristics affect stemflow yield; and (4) stemflow yield for particular trees and rain events is the result of a complex set of interactions among tree species, tree size, and meteorological conditions. These results suggest that the temporal variation in stemflow yield from co-occurring forest trees may play a significant role in subsurface drainage of wooded ecosystems during rain events.

  9. Network meta-analysis: development of a three-level hierarchical modeling approach incorporating dose-related constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Rhiannon K; Tincello, Douglas G; Keith, R Abrams

    2015-01-01

    Network meta-analysis (NMA) is commonly used in evidence synthesis; however, in situations in which there are a large number of treatment options, which may be subdivided into classes, and relatively few trials, NMAs produce considerable uncertainty in the estimated treatment effects, and consequently, identification of the most beneficial intervention remains inconclusive. To develop and demonstrate the use of evidence synthesis methods to evaluate extensive treatment networks with a limited number of trials, making use of classes. Using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, we build on the existing work of a random effects NMA to develop a three-level hierarchical NMA model that accounts for the exchangeability between treatments within the same class as well as for the residual between-study heterogeneity. We demonstrate the application of these methods to a continuous and binary outcome, using a motivating example of overactive bladder. We illustrate methods for incorporating ordering constraints in increasing doses, model selection, and assessing inconsistency between the direct and indirect evidence. The methods were applied to a data set obtained from a systematic literature review of trials for overactive bladder, evaluating the mean reduction in incontinence episodes from baseline and the number of patients reporting one or more adverse events. The data set involved 72 trials comparing 34 interventions that were categorized into nine classes of interventions, including placebo. Bayesian three-level hierarchical NMAs have the potential to increase the precision in the effect estimates while maintaining the interpretability of the individual interventions for decision making. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological distress and quality of life in lung cancer: the role of health-related stigma, illness appraisals and social constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Baade, Peter; Youl, Philippa; Aitken, Joanne; Occhipinti, Stefano; Vinod, Shalini; Valery, Patricia C; Garvey, Gail; Fong, Kwun M; Ball, David; Zorbas, Helen; Dunn, Jeff; O'Connell, Dianne L

    2015-11-01

    Health-related stigma is associated with negative psychological and quality of life outcomes in lung cancer patients. This study describes the impact of stigma on lung cancer patients' psychological distress and quality of life and explores the role of social constraints and illness appraisal as mediators of effect. A self-administered cross-sectional survey examined psychological distress and quality of life in 151 people (59% response rate) diagnosed with lung cancer from Queensland and New South Wales. Health-related stigma, social constraints and illness appraisals were assessed as predictors of adjustment outcomes. Forty-nine percent of patients reported elevated anxiety; 41% were depressed; and 51% had high global distress. Health-related stigma was significantly related to global psychological distress and quality of life with greater stigma and shame related to poorer outcomes. These effects were mediated by illness appraisals and social constraints. Health-related stigma appears to contribute to poorer adjustment by constraining interpersonal discussions about cancer and heightening feelings of threat. There is a need for the development and evaluation of interventions to ameliorate the negative effects of health-related stigma among lung cancer patients. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of transport-related carbon dioxide emissions in Bogota - Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. A.; Jimenez Pizarro, R.; Néstor Y. Rojas, N. Y.

    2011-12-01

    As a result of rapid urbanization during the last 60 years, 75% of the Colombian population now lives in cities. Urban areas are net sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and contribute significantly to national GHG emission inventories. The development of scientifically-sound GHG mitigation strategies require accurate GHG source and sink estimations. Disaggregated inventories are effective mitigation decision-making tools. The disaggregation process renders detailed information on the distribution of emissions by transport mode, and the resulting a priori emissions map allows for optimal definition of sites for GHG flux monitoring, either by eddy covariance or inverse modeling techniques. Fossil fuel use in transportation is a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Bogota. We present estimates of CO2 emissions from road traffic in Bogota using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reference method, and a spatial and temporal disaggregation method. Aggregated CO2 emissions from mobile sources were estimated from monthly and annual fossil fuel (gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas - CNG) consumption statistics, and estimations of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel use. Although bio-fuel CO2 emissions are considered balanced over annual (or multi-annual) agricultural cycles, we included them since CO2 generated by their combustion would be measurable by a net flux monitoring system. For the disaggregation methodology, we used information on Bogota's road network classification, mean travel speed and trip length for each vehicle category and road type. The CO2 emission factors were taken from recent in-road measurements for gasoline- and CNG-powered vehicles and also estimated from COPERT IV. We estimated emission factors for diesel from surveys on average trip length and fuel consumption. Using IPCC's reference method, we estimate Bogota's total transport-related CO2 emissions for 2008 (reference year) at 4.8 Tg CO2. The disaggregation method estimation is

  12. Temporal sodium release related to gel microstructural properties-implications for sodium reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wan-Yuan; Lee, Youngsoo

    2014-11-01

    The microstructure of food can be engineered to enhance sodium release during mastication, which may be used as a strategy to reduce sodium content in foods. This study aimed to relate sodium release to microstructural properties of solid lipoproteic colloid (SLC) foods. The SLC gels with 1.5% (w/w) NaCl were prepared by homogenization of whey protein isolate and anhydrous milk fat, followed by heat-induced gelation. The gels varied in protein content (8% or 16%), fat content (0%, 11%, 22%, or 33%), and homogenization pressures (14 or 55 MPa). The maximum rate of sodium release during the initial gel compression increased with increasing gel porosity and pore size. This was due to more releasable serum in the gels with larger pore volume and larger pores. The maximum concentration of sodium at the end of sodium release increased with reduced size of the fat particles in the gels. The smaller fat particles were dispersed more uniformly and interrupted the protein network more, and facilitated the gel breakdown. The above findings suggested that, during the breakdown of the SLC gels, the major mechanisms of sodium release are via serum release followed by sodium diffusion, which are governed by the gel porosity and the particle size of fat, respectively. This study demonstrated the dependence of temporal sodium release properties on the microstructural properties of an SLC food system. The findings from this study could lay the foundation for further investigation of the dependence of saltiness perception on SLC microstructure, which can provide insight for sodium reduction in SLC products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Understanding the low photosynthetic rates of sun and shade coffee leaves: bridging the gap on the relative roles of hydraulic, diffusive and biochemical constraints to photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C V Martins

    Full Text Available It has long been held that the low photosynthetic rates (A of coffee leaves are largely associated with diffusive constraints to photosynthesis. However, the relative limitations of the stomata and mesophyll to the overall diffusional constraints to photosynthesis, as well as the coordination of leaf hydraulics with photosynthetic limitations, remain to be fully elucidated in coffee. Whether the low actual A under ambient CO2 concentrations is associated with the kinetic properties of Rubisco and high (photorespiration rates also remains elusive. Here, we provide a holistic analysis to understand the causes associated with low A by measuring a variety of key anatomical/hydraulic and photosynthetic traits in sun- and shade-grown coffee plants. We demonstrate that leaf hydraulic architecture imposes a major constraint on the maximisation of the photosynthetic gas exchange of coffee leaves. Regardless of the light treatments, A was mainly limited by stomatal factors followed by similar limitations associated with the mesophyll and biochemical constraints. No evidence of an inefficient Rubisco was found; rather, we propose that coffee Rubisco is well tuned for operating at low chloroplastic CO2 concentrations. Finally, we contend that large diffusive resistance should lead to large CO2 drawdown from the intercellular airspaces to the sites of carboxylation, thus favouring the occurrence of relatively high photorespiration rates, which ultimately leads to further limitations to A.

  14. The time window of multisensory integration: relating reaction times and judgments of temporal order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Adele; Colonius, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Even though visual and auditory information of 1 and the same event often do not arrive at the sensory receptors at the same time, due to different physical transmission times of the modalities, the brain maintains a unitary perception of the event, at least within a certain range of sensory arrival time differences. The properties of this "temporal window of integration" (TWIN), its recalibration due to task requirements, attention, and other variables, have recently been investigated intensively. Up to now, however, there has been no consistent definition of "temporal window" across different paradigms for measuring its width. Here we propose such a definition based on our TWIN model (Colonius & Diederich, 2004). It applies to judgments of temporal order (or simultaneity) as well as to reaction time (RT) paradigms. Reanalyzing data from Mégevand, Molholm, Nayak, & Foxe (2013) by fitting the TWIN model to data from both paradigms, we confirmed the authors' hypothesis that the temporal window in an RT task tends to be wider than in a temporal-order judgment (TOJ) task. This first step toward a unified concept of TWIN should be a valuable tool in guiding investigations of the neural and cognitive bases of this so-far-somewhat elusive concept. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing, CSLP 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , constraint ranking, etc. The constraint programming paradigm, on the other hand, shows that constraints have to be taken as a systematic whole and can thus play a role in building the structures (or can even replace structures). Finally, psycholinguistics investigates the role of constraint systems...... linguistics, computer science, psycholinguistics and related areas are welcome, and an interdisciplinary perspective is of particular interest. The collocation with the Context07 conference underlines the application of constraints for context comprehension and discourse modelling. We are honoured to present...... our invited speaker, Annelies Braffort, who will talk on the modelling of spatio-temporal constraints in sign language processing. We will also express a special thanks to Barbara Hemforth who accepted to send us a late paper which emphasizes the importance of the psycholinguistic dimension...

  16. In search of methods enhancing fluency in reading: An examination of the relations between time constraints and processes of reading in readers of German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Kochva, Irit; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The attainment of fluency in reading is a major difficulty for reading-disabled people. Manipulations applied on the presentation of texts, leading to "on-line" effects on reading (i.e., while texts are manipulated), are one direction of examinations in search of methods affecting reading. The imposing of time constraints, by deleting one letter after the other from texts presented on a computer screen, has been established as such a method. In an attempt to further understand its nature, we tested the relations between time constraints and processes of reading: phonological decoding of small orthogrpahic units and the addressing of orthographic representations from the mental lexicon. We also examined whether the type of orthogrpahic unit deleted (lexical, sublexical, or nonlexical unit) has any additional effect. Participants were German fifth graders with (n = 29) or without (n = 34) reading disability. Time constraints enhanced fluency in reading in both groups, and to a similar extent, across conditions. Comprehension was unimpaired. These results place the very principle of time constraints, regardless of the orthographic unit manipulated, as a critical factor affecting fluency in reading. However, phonological decoding explained a significant amount of variance in fluency in reading across all conditions in reading-disabled children, whereas the addressing of orthographic representations was the consistent predictor of fluency in reading in regular readers. These results indicate a qualitative difference in the processes explaining the variance in fluency in reading in regular and reading-disabled readers and suggest that time constraints might not have an effect on the relations between these processes and reading performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring the relative resilience of subarctic lakes to global change: redundancies of functions within and across temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    1. Ecosystems at high altitudes and latitudes are expected to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of global change. We assessed the responses of littoral invertebrate communities to changing abiotic conditions in subarctic Swedish lakes with long-term data (1988–2010) and compared the responses of subarctic lakes with those of more southern, hemiboreal lakes. 2. We used a complex systems approach, based on multivariate time-series modelling, and identified dominant and distinct temporal frequencies in the data; that is, we tracked community change at distinct temporal scales. We determined the distribution of functional feeding groups of invertebrates within and across temporal scales. Within and cross-scale distributions of functions have been considered to confer resilience to ecosystems, despite changing environmental conditions. 3. Two patterns of temporal change within the invertebrate communities were identified that were consistent across the lakes. The first pattern was one of monotonic change associated with changing abiotic lake conditions. The second was one of showing fluctuation patterns largely unrelated to gradual environmental change. Thus, two dominant and distinct temporal frequencies (temporal scales) were present in all lakes analysed. 4. Although the contribution of individual feeding groups varied between subarctic and hemiboreal lakes, they shared overall similar functional attributes (richness, evenness, diversity) and redundancies of functions within and between the observed temporal scales. This highlights similar resilience characteristics in subarctic and hemiboreal lakes. 5. Synthesis and applications. The effects of global change can be particularly strong at a single scale in ecosystems. Over time, this can cause monotonic change in communities and eventually lead to a loss of important ecosystem services upon reaching a critical threshold. Dynamics at other spatial or temporal scales can be unrelated to environmental change

  18. Isla Guadalupe, Mexico (GUAX, SCIGN/PBO) a Relative Constraint for California Borderland and Northern Gulf of California Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    Using ITRF2000 as a common reference frame link, I analyzed survey mode and permanent GPS published results, together with SOPAC public data and results (http://sopac.ucsd.edu), in order to evaluate relative present day crustal deformation in California and northern Mexico. The crustal velocity field of Mexico (Marquez-Azua and DeMets, 2003) obtained from continuous GPS measurements conducted by Instituto Nacional de Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) for 1993-2001, was partially used. The preferred model for an instantaneous rigid motion between North-America and Pacific plates (NAPA), is obtained using results of Isla Guadalupe GPS surveys (1991-2002) giving a new constraint for Pacific plate (PA) motion (Gonzalez-Garcia et al., 2003). It produces an apparent reduction of 1 mm/yr in the absolute motion in the border zone between PA and North-America (NA) plates in this region, as compared with other GPS models (v.g. Prawirodirdjo and Bock, 2004); and it is 3 mm/yr higher than NNRNUVEL-1A. In the PA reference frame, westernmost islands from San Francisco (FARB), Los Angeles (MIG1), and Ensenada (GUAX); give current residuals of 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9 mm/yr and azimuths that are consistent with local tectonic setting, respectively. In the NA reference frame, besides the confirmation of 2 mm/yr E-W extension for the southern Basin and Range province in northern Mexico; a present day deformation rate of 40.5 mm/yr between San Felipe, Baja California (SFBC) and Hermosillo, Sonora, is obtained. This rate agrees with a 6.3 to 6.7 Ma for the "initiation of a full sea-floor spreading" in the northern Gulf of California. SFBC has a 7 mm/yr motion in the PA reference frame, giving then, a full NAPA theoretical absolute motion of 47.5 mm/yr. For Puerto Penasco, Sonora (PENA) there is a NAPA motion of 46.2 mm/yr and a residual of 1.2 mm/yr in the NA reference frame, this site is located only 75 km to the northeast from the Wagner basin center. For southern Isla Guadalupe (GUAX) there

  19. Spatio-Temporal Progression of Cortical Activity Related to Continuous Overt and Covert Speech Production in a Reading Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Brumberg

    Full Text Available How the human brain plans, executes, and monitors continuous and fluent speech has remained largely elusive. For example, previous research has defined the cortical locations most important for different aspects of speech function, but has not yet yielded a definition of the temporal progression of involvement of those locations as speech progresses either overtly or covertly. In this paper, we uncovered the spatio-temporal evolution of neuronal population-level activity related to continuous overt speech, and identified those locations that shared activity characteristics across overt and covert speech. Specifically, we asked subjects to repeat continuous sentences aloud or silently while we recorded electrical signals directly from the surface of the brain (electrocorticography (ECoG. We then determined the relationship between cortical activity and speech output across different areas of cortex and at sub-second timescales. The results highlight a spatio-temporal progression of cortical involvement in the continuous speech process that initiates utterances in frontal-motor areas and ends with the monitoring of auditory feedback in superior temporal gyrus. Direct comparison of cortical activity related to overt versus covert conditions revealed a common network of brain regions involved in speech that may implement orthographic and phonological processing. Our results provide one of the first characterizations of the spatiotemporal electrophysiological representations of the continuous speech process, and also highlight the common neural substrate of overt and covert speech. These results thereby contribute to a refined understanding of speech functions in the human brain.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Progression of Cortical Activity Related to Continuous Overt and Covert Speech Production in a Reading Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Jonathan S; Krusienski, Dean J; Chakrabarti, Shreya; Gunduz, Aysegul; Brunner, Peter; Ritaccio, Anthony L; Schalk, Gerwin

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain plans, executes, and monitors continuous and fluent speech has remained largely elusive. For example, previous research has defined the cortical locations most important for different aspects of speech function, but has not yet yielded a definition of the temporal progression of involvement of those locations as speech progresses either overtly or covertly. In this paper, we uncovered the spatio-temporal evolution of neuronal population-level activity related to continuous overt speech, and identified those locations that shared activity characteristics across overt and covert speech. Specifically, we asked subjects to repeat continuous sentences aloud or silently while we recorded electrical signals directly from the surface of the brain (electrocorticography (ECoG)). We then determined the relationship between cortical activity and speech output across different areas of cortex and at sub-second timescales. The results highlight a spatio-temporal progression of cortical involvement in the continuous speech process that initiates utterances in frontal-motor areas and ends with the monitoring of auditory feedback in superior temporal gyrus. Direct comparison of cortical activity related to overt versus covert conditions revealed a common network of brain regions involved in speech that may implement orthographic and phonological processing. Our results provide one of the first characterizations of the spatiotemporal electrophysiological representations of the continuous speech process, and also highlight the common neural substrate of overt and covert speech. These results thereby contribute to a refined understanding of speech functions in the human brain.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Progression of Cortical Activity Related to Continuous Overt and Covert Speech Production in a Reading Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Jonathan S.; Krusienski, Dean J.; Chakrabarti, Shreya; Gunduz, Aysegul; Brunner, Peter; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain plans, executes, and monitors continuous and fluent speech has remained largely elusive. For example, previous research has defined the cortical locations most important for different aspects of speech function, but has not yet yielded a definition of the temporal progression of involvement of those locations as speech progresses either overtly or covertly. In this paper, we uncovered the spatio-temporal evolution of neuronal population-level activity related to continuous overt speech, and identified those locations that shared activity characteristics across overt and covert speech. Specifically, we asked subjects to repeat continuous sentences aloud or silently while we recorded electrical signals directly from the surface of the brain (electrocorticography (ECoG)). We then determined the relationship between cortical activity and speech output across different areas of cortex and at sub-second timescales. The results highlight a spatio-temporal progression of cortical involvement in the continuous speech process that initiates utterances in frontal-motor areas and ends with the monitoring of auditory feedback in superior temporal gyrus. Direct comparison of cortical activity related to overt versus covert conditions revealed a common network of brain regions involved in speech that may implement orthographic and phonological processing. Our results provide one of the first characterizations of the spatiotemporal electrophysiological representations of the continuous speech process, and also highlight the common neural substrate of overt and covert speech. These results thereby contribute to a refined understanding of speech functions in the human brain. PMID:27875590

  2. Temporal discounting and environmental risks : The role of ethical and loss-related concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, L; Nicolaij, S

    2004-01-01

    The present research proposes and tests an explanation for the prior finding that temporal discounting is less pronounced for environmental risks than for other types of risk. According to Bohm and Pfister (Acta Psychol. 104 (2000) 317), risk evaluations contain two components: ethical concerns

  3. A Time Lag Analysis of Temporal Relations between Motivation, Academic Achievement, and Two Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Monica R.; Pasnak, Robert; Romero, Sandy L.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study employed a time lag design to assess temporal relationships between motivation, academic achievement, and cognitive development. Eighty-one children from 2 preschool programs were measured twice, with an 11-week time lag, on 2 measures of motivation (marble drop task, bean bag toss task), 2 measures of…

  4. The Temporal Relation Between Pain and Depression : Results From the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, Peter H.; Burger, Huibert; Deeg, Dorly J.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Pain and depression are both common in old age, but their (long-term) temporal relationship remains unknown. This study is designed to determine whether pain predicts the onset of depression and vice versa. Methods: This is a prospective, population-based cohort study with 12-year

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of ore deposits, in relation with thermal anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcouet, V.; Bonneville, A.; Guillou-Frottier, L.

    2003-04-01

    Ore deposits have formed over billion years of Earth's history with a discontinuous distribution in time and space.In time, their formation is episodical, and the data concerning the main deposit types show an alternation of periods with mineralisation followed by time gaps, with no large amount of ore generation. The "Snowball Earth" theory suggests that Banded Iron formations (BIF) are in relation with periods of intense global glaciations of Paleoproterozoic (2500-1600 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (1000-540 Ma) ages. During global glaciations, surface temperatures were of the order of -50°C and an ice layer of about 1km covered almost the entire Earth. We have performed analytical and numerical modelling of such events that shows the development of high thermal anomalies in the crust. These anomalies can reach several tens of degrees for a time lapse that depends on the duration of the glaciation. If the thermal impact is clear, the mechanical impact of the glaciations on the crustal rocks still needs to be evaluated to precisely assess the role of glaciations as a possible cause to some of the gaps in the temporal distribution of ore deposits.Ore deposits have also a heterogeneous spatial distribution: they are located in specific places of the Earth's crust, where thermo-mechanical and hydrothermal conditions have triggered their formation. The temperature pattern corresponding to these cases can prove to be particularly favourable to ore deposits. A good example of such deposits, is the Ashanti belt in Ghana of which we present a detailed study. It is the key district of gold mineralisation in the Paleoproterozoic terrane of West Africa. This is the second giant concentration of gold deposits after South Africa with a potential of about 2500 tons of gold. The Eburnean orogeny operated between 2.13 and 1.98 Ga. Two tectonic phases affected the area, a period of thrusting and a second one corresponding to transcurrent tectonism. A numerical modelling was performed

  6. Universal growth constraints of human systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Young, Jean-Gabriel; Dubé, Louis J

    2013-01-01

    Scale independence is a ubiquitous feature of complex systems which implies a highly skewed distribution of resources with no characteristic scale. Research has long focused on why systems as varied as protein networks, evolution and stock actions all feature scale independence. Assuming that they simply do, we focus here on describing exactly how this behavior emerges. We show that growing towards scale independence implies strict constraints: the first is the well-known preferential attachment principle and the second is a new form of temporal scaling. These constraints pave a precise evolution path, such that an instantaneous snapshot of a distribution is enough to reconstruct its past and to predict its future. We validate our approach on diverse spheres of human activities ranging from scientific and artistic productivity, to sexual relations and online traffic.

  7. Mapping the macaque superior temporal sulcus: functional delineation of vergence and version eye-movement-related activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Matthew K; Bolding, Mark S; Schultz, Kevin P; Gamlin, Paul D

    2015-05-13

    It is currently thought that the primate oculomotor system has evolved distinct but interrelated subsystems to generate different types of visually guided eye movements (e.g., saccades/smooth pursuit/vergence). Although progress has been made in elucidating the neural basis of these movement types, no study to date has investigated all three movement types on a large scale and within the same animals. Here, we used fMRI in rhesus macaque monkeys to map the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for BOLD modulation associated with visually guided eye movements. Further, we ascertained whether modulation in a given area was movement type specific and, if not, the modulation each movement type elicited relative to the others (i.e., dominance). Our results show that multiple areas within STS modulate during all movement types studied, including the middle temporal, medial superior temporal, fundus of the superior temporal, lower superior temporal, and dorsal posterior inferotemporal areas. Our results also reveal an area in dorsomedial STS that is modulated almost exclusively by vergence movements. In contrast, we found that ventrolateral STS is driven preferentially during versional movements. These results illuminate an STS network involved in processes associated with multiple eye movement types, illustrate unique patterns of modulation within said network as a function of movement type, and provide evidence for a vergence-specific area within dorsomedial STS. We conclude that producing categorically different eye movement types requires access to a common STS network and that individual network nodes are recruited differentially based upon the type of movement generated. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357428-15$15.00/0.

  8. Investigating temporal trends in the explanatory variables related to the severity of drivers' injuries in single-vehicle collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Dabbour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies and quantifies the effects of different explanatory variables that increase the severity of drivers' injuries related to single-vehicle collisions involving light-duty vehicles. The research is based on utilizing logistic regression to analyze records of all traffic collisions that occurred in North Carolina for the years from 2007 to 2013. The study also investigates temporal stability of the identified explanatory variables throughout the analysis period. The identified explanatory variables include those related to the roadway, vehicle, driver, and environmental conditions. The explanatory variables related to the roadway include whether the roadway is divided or undivided, and whether it is in an urban or rural area. The explanatory variables related to the vehicle include vehicle's age, travel speed, and the type of the light-duty vehicle. The explanatory variables related to the driver include driver's age, gender, influence by alcohol or illicit drugs, and the use of seatbelt. The explanatory variables related to the environmental conditions include weather, lighting, and road surface conditions. Three of the investigated explanatory variables were found to be temporally unstable with significantly varying effects on the severity of drivers' injuries. Those temporally unstable variables include the travel speed, the type of the light-duty vehicle, and the age of the driver. All other investigated variables were found to be consistently significant throughout the analysis period. The findings of this research have the potential to help decision makers develop policies and countermeasures that reduce the severity of drivers' injuries by focusing on explanatory variables that consistently exhibit significant effects on the severity of drivers' injuries. The findings of this research also provide quantitative measures that may be used to determine the feasibility of implementing those countermeasures in reducing the

  9. Genome-Wide Temporal Expression Profiling in Caenorhabditis elegans Identifies a Core Gene Set Related to Long-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Virginie; Probst, Sabine; Hadziselimovic, Nils; Boglari, Csaba; Hauser, Yannick; Peter, Fabian; Gabor Fenyves, Bank; Milnik, Annette; Demougin, Philippe; Vukojevic, Vanja; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2017-07-12

    The identification of genes related to encoding, storage, and retrieval of memories is a major interest in neuroscience. In the current study, we analyzed the temporal gene expression changes in a neuronal mRNA pool during an olfactory long-term associative memory (LTAM) in Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites. Here, we identified a core set of 712 (538 upregulated and 174 downregulated) genes that follows three distinct temporal peaks demonstrating multiple gene regulation waves in LTAM. Compared with the previously published positive LTAM gene set (Lakhina et al., 2015), 50% of the identified upregulated genes here overlap with the previous dataset, possibly representing stimulus-independent memory-related genes. On the other hand, the remaining genes were not previously identified in positive associative memory and may specifically regulate aversive LTAM. Our results suggest a multistep gene activation process during the formation and retrieval of long-term memory and define general memory-implicated genes as well as conditioning-type-dependent gene sets.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The identification of genes regulating different steps of memory is of major interest in neuroscience. Identification of common memory genes across different learning paradigms and the temporal activation of the genes are poorly studied. Here, we investigated the temporal aspects of Caenorhabditis elegans gene expression changes using aversive olfactory associative long-term memory (LTAM) and identified three major gene activation waves. Like in previous studies, aversive LTAM is also CREB dependent, and CREB activity is necessary immediately after training. Finally, we define a list of memory paradigm-independent core gene sets as well as conditioning-dependent genes. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376661-12$15.00/0.

  10. Relation between temporal envelope coding, pitch discrimination, and compression estimates in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Santurette, Sébastien; Fereczkowski, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Recent physiological studies in animals showed that noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) increased the amplitude of envelope coding in single auditory-nerve fibers. The present study investigated whether SNHL in human listeners was associated with enhanced temporal envelope coding...... resolvability. For the unresolved conditions, all five HI listeners performed as good as or better than NH listeners with matching musical experience. Two HI listeners showed lower amplitude-modulation detection thresholds than NH listeners for low modulation rates, and one of these listeners also showed a loss......, whether this enhancement affected pitch discrimination performance, and whether loss of compression following SNHL was a potential factor in envelope coding enhancement. Envelope processing was assessed in normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners in a behavioral amplitude...

  11. Unsteady flow field in a mini VAWT with relative rotation blades: analysis of temporal results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayeul-Lainé, A. C.; Simonet, S.; Bois, G.

    2013-12-01

    The present wind turbine is a small one which can be used on roofs or in gardens. This turbine has a vertical axis. Each turbine blade combines a rotating movement around its own axis and around the main rotor axis. Due to this combination of movements, flow around this turbine is highly unsteady and needs to be modelled by unsteady calculation. The present work is an extended study starting in 2009. The benefits of combined rotating blades have been shown. The performance coefficient of this kind of turbine is very good for some blade stagger angles. Spectral analysis of unsteady results on specific points in the domain and temporal forces on blades was already presented for elliptic blades. The main aim here is to compare two kinds of blades in case of the best performances.

  12. Identification of temporal factors related to shot performance for indoor recurve archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Andrew J; Wiedlack, Johanna; Heller, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal phases of the archery shot cycle that distinguish the arrows distance from centre, in an attempt to understand critical factors that affect performance. Fifteen archers of varying ability each performed 30 shots at 18 m. Fourteen potential predictor variables were measured for statistical modelling by stepwise multiple linear regression. The results show that pre-shot time (pre-performance routine), follow-through time (post-performance routine), aiming time, speed of the arrow and the %variation in clicker-release time, account for 7.7% of the variation in predicting shot performance. The results have implications for practice demonstrating factors that coaches should focus on to develop their athletes. Further work on pre-, but more importantly, post-performance routines are needed generally within sport research as they are lacking and have been shown to be important contributing factors in a number of sports.

  13. Temporal sequencing of lifetime mood disorders in relation to comorbid anxiety and substance use disorders - Findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, R. de; Bijl, R.V.; Spijker, J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the temporal sequencing of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to obtain insight into patterns of co-occurrence of DSM-III-R mood disorders in relation to anxiety and substance use disorders, their temporal sequencing and the sociodemographic and

  14. Constraint-Based Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, G; Bouma, Gosse; Noord, Gertjan van

    1994-01-01

    We propose a generalization of Categorial Grammar in which lexical categories are defined by means of recursive constraints. In particular, the introduction of relational constraints allows one to capture the effects of (recursive) lexical rules in a computationally attractive manner. We illustrate the linguistic merits of the new approach by showing how it accounts for the syntax of Dutch cross-serial dependencies and the position and scope of adjuncts in such constructions. Delayed evaluation is used to process grammars containing recursive constraints.

  15. Importance Modulates the Temporal Features of Self-Referential Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kepeng; Li, Shifeng; Ren, Deyun; Xia, Ruixue; Xue, Hong; Zhou, Aibao; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies have demonstrated preferential processing of self-related information. However, previous research has been limited in examining the distinction between processes related to the self and those related to the non-self, it remains unclear how self-related information with differing levels of importance is processed within the self. The present study examined how the importance of self-related content affects the neural activity involved in self-referential processing. The behavioral results showed that the participants had faster responses to more important self-related content. The event-related potential (ERP) results showed that early attention resources were diverted to the identification of highly important self-related content compared with minimally important self-related content, as reflected by the enhanced P200. Furthermore, the N200 amplitude for highly important self-related content was smaller than for moderately important self-related content which, in turn, were smaller than minimally important self-related content. Moreover, the P300 amplitudes were modulated by the degree of importance of self-related content, whereby a higher importance of self-related content led to larger P300 amplitudes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate an effect of the degree of importance of the self-related content at both behavioral and neurophysiological levels.

  16. Importance Modulates the Temporal Features of Self-Referential Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepeng Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies have demonstrated preferential processing of self-related information. However, previous research has been limited in examining the distinction between processes related to the self and those related to the non-self, it remains unclear how self-related information with differing levels of importance is processed within the self. The present study examined how the importance of self-related content affects the neural activity involved in self-referential processing. The behavioral results showed that the participants had faster responses to more important self-related content. The event-related potential (ERP results showed that early attention resources were diverted to the identification of highly important self-related content compared with minimally important self-related content, as reflected by the enhanced P200. Furthermore, the N200 amplitude for highly important self-related content was smaller than for moderately important self-related content which, in turn, were smaller than minimally important self-related content. Moreover, the P300 amplitudes were modulated by the degree of importance of self-related content, whereby a higher importance of self-related content led to larger P300 amplitudes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate an effect of the degree of importance of the self-related content at both behavioral and neurophysiological levels.

  17. Estimating uncertainty and its temporal variation related to global climate models in quantifying climate change impacts on hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingxi; Chen, Jie; Zhuan, Meijia; Chen, Hua; Xu, Chong-Yu; Xiong, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    Uncertainty estimation of climate change impacts on hydrology has received much attention in the research community. The choice of a global climate model (GCM) is usually considered as the largest contributor to the uncertainty of climate change impacts. The temporal variation of GCM uncertainty needs to be investigated for making long-term decisions to deal with climate change. Accordingly, this study investigated the temporal variation (mainly long-term) of uncertainty related to the choice of a GCM in predicting climate change impacts on hydrology by using multi-GCMs over multiple continuous future periods. Specifically, twenty CMIP5 GCMs under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios were adapted to adequately represent this uncertainty envelope, fifty-one 30-year future periods moving from 2021 to 2100 with 1-year interval were produced to express the temporal variation. Future climatic and hydrological regimes over all future periods were compared to those in the reference period (1971-2000) using a set of metrics, including mean and extremes. The periodicity of climatic and hydrological changes and their uncertainty were analyzed using wavelet analysis, while the trend was analyzed using Mann-Kendall trend test and regression analysis. The results showed that both future climate change (precipitation and temperature) and hydrological response predicted by the twenty GCMs were highly uncertain, and the uncertainty increased significantly over time. For example, the change of mean annual precipitation increased from 1.4% in 2021-2050 to 6.5% in 2071-2100 for RCP4.5 in terms of the median value of multi-models, but the projected uncertainty reached 21.7% in 2021-2050 and 25.1% in 2071-2100 for RCP4.5. The uncertainty under a high emission scenario (RCP8.5) was much larger than that under a relatively low emission scenario (RCP4.5). Almost all climatic and hydrological regimes and their uncertainty did not show significant periodicity at the P = .05 significance

  18. A multimedia constraint system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.A. van Hintum; G.J. Reynolds

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe MADE constraint system provides excellent opportunities to introduce constraints in a multimedia application. Multimedia applications are not only a good place to experiment with constraint systems; constraints in a multimedia environment are almost indispensable. Due to the

  19. Improving the Accuracy of Direct Geo-referencing of Smartphone-Based Mobile Mapping Systems Using Relative Orientation and Scene Geometric Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Naif M.; Youssef, Ahmed A.; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method which facilitate the use of smartphones as a handheld low-cost mobile mapping system (MMS). Smartphones are becoming more sophisticated and smarter and are quickly closing the gap between computers and portable tablet devices. The current generation of smartphones are equipped with low-cost GPS receivers, high-resolution digital cameras, and micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS)-based navigation sensors (e.g., accelerometers, gyroscopes, magnetic compasses, and barometers). These sensors are in fact the essential components for a MMS. However, smartphone navigation sensors suffer from the poor accuracy of global navigation satellite System (GNSS), accumulated drift, and high signal noise. These issues affect the accuracy of the initial Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOPs) that are inputted into the bundle adjustment algorithm, which then produces inaccurate 3D mapping solutions. This paper proposes new methodologies for increasing the accuracy of direct geo-referencing of smartphones using relative orientation and smartphone motion sensor measurements as well as integrating geometric scene constraints into free network bundle adjustment. The new methodologies incorporate fusing the relative orientations of the captured images and their corresponding motion sensor measurements to improve the initial EOPs. Then, the geometric features (e.g., horizontal and vertical linear lines) visible in each image are extracted and used as constraints in the bundle adjustment procedure which correct the relative position and orientation of the 3D mapping solution. PMID:28973958

  20. Improving the Accuracy of Direct Geo-referencing of Smartphone-Based Mobile Mapping Systems Using Relative Orientation and Scene Geometric Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif M. Alsubaie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new method which facilitate the use of smartphones as a handheld low-cost mobile mapping system (MMS. Smartphones are becoming more sophisticated and smarter and are quickly closing the gap between computers and portable tablet devices. The current generation of smartphones are equipped with low-cost GPS receivers, high-resolution digital cameras, and micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS-based navigation sensors (e.g., accelerometers, gyroscopes, magnetic compasses, and barometers. These sensors are in fact the essential components for a MMS. However, smartphone navigation sensors suffer from the poor accuracy of global navigation satellite System (GNSS, accumulated drift, and high signal noise. These issues affect the accuracy of the initial Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOPs that are inputted into the bundle adjustment algorithm, which then produces inaccurate 3D mapping solutions. This paper proposes new methodologies for increasing the accuracy of direct geo-referencing of smartphones using relative orientation and smartphone motion sensor measurements as well as integrating geometric scene constraints into free network bundle adjustment. The new methodologies incorporate fusing the relative orientations of the captured images and their corresponding motion sensor measurements to improve the initial EOPs. Then, the geometric features (e.g., horizontal and vertical linear lines visible in each image are extracted and used as constraints in the bundle adjustment procedure which correct the relative position and orientation of the 3D mapping solution.

  1. Variations in spatial and temporal distribution of Archaea in the North Sea in relation to environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfort, Lydie; Schouten, Stefan; Abbas, Ben; Veldhuis, Marcel J W; Coolen, Marco J L; Wuchter, Cornelia; Boon, Jan P; Herndl, Gerhard J; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2007-12-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of pelagic Archaea was studied in the southern North Sea by rRNA hybridization, sequencing and quantification of 16S rRNA gene and membrane lipid analyses and related to physical, chemical and biological parameters to determine the factors influencing archaeal biogeography. A clear temporal variability was observed, with marine Crenarchaeota (Group I.1a) being relatively more abundant in winter and Euryarchaeota dominating the archaeal assemblage in spring and summer. Spatial differences in the lateral distribution of Crenarchaeota were also evident. In fact, their abundance was positively correlated with the copy number of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of crenarchaeotal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) and with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphorus. This suggests that most Crenarchaeota in the North Sea are nitrifiers and that their distribution is determined by nutrient concentrations. However, Crenarchaeota were not abundant when larger phytoplankton (>3 microm) dominated the algal population. It is hypothesized that together with nutrient concentration, phytoplankton biomass and community structure can predict crenarchaeotal abundance in the southern North Sea. Euryarchaeotal abundance was positively correlated with chlorophyll a concentrations, but not with phytoplankton community structure. Whether this is related to the potential of Euryarchaeota to perform aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy remains to be shown, but the conspicuous seasonal distribution pattern of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota suggests that they occupy a different ecological niche.

  2. Relative light yield and temporal response of a stilbene-doped bibenzyl organic scintillator for neutron detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. A.; Goldblum, B. L., E-mail: bethany@nuc.berkeley.edu; Brickner, N. M.; Daub, B. H.; Kaufman, G. S.; Bibber, K. van; Vujic, J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Hatarik, R.; Phillips, T. W.; Zaitseva, N. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Wender, S. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    The neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) diagnostics used to characterize implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has necessitated the development of novel scintillators that exhibit a rapid temporal response and high light yield. One such material, a bibenzyl-stilbene mixed single-crystal organic scintillator grown in a 99.5:0.5 ratio in solution, has become the standard scintillator used for nTOF diagnostics at NIF. The prompt fluorescence lifetime and relative light yield as a function of proton energy were determined to calibrate this material as a neutron detector. The temporal evolution of the intensity of the prompt fluorescent response was modeled using first-order reaction kinetics and the prompt fluorescence decay constant was determined to be 2.46 ± 0.01 (fit) ± 0.13 (systematic) ns. The relative response of the bibenzyl-stilbene mixed crystal generated by recoiling protons was measured, and results were analyzed using Birks' relation to quantify the non-radiative quenching of excitation energy in the scintillator.

  3. Random Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Coja-Oghlan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Random instances of constraint satisfaction problems such as k-SAT provide challenging benchmarks. If there are m constraints over n variables there is typically a large range of densities r=m/n where solutions are known to exist with probability close to one due to non-constructive arguments. However, no algorithms are known to find solutions efficiently with a non-vanishing probability at even much lower densities. This fact appears to be related to a phase transition in the set of all solutions. The goal of this extended abstract is to provide a perspective on this phenomenon, and on the computational challenge that it poses.

  4. Monitoring studies should consider temporal variability to reveal relations between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA WOJCIECHOWSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of monitoring cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic environments is to reveal the relationship between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables. Studies typically correlate data that were simultaneously sampled. However, samplings occur sparsely over time and may not reveal the short-term responses of cyanobacterial abundance to environmental changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that stronger cyanobacteria x environment relationships in monitoring are found when the temporal variability of sampling points is incorporated in the statistical analyses. To this end, we investigated relationships between cyanobacteria and seven environmental variables that were sampled twice yearly for three years across 11 reservoirs, and data from an intensive monitoring in one of these reservoirs. Poor correlations were obtained when correlating data simultaneously sampled. In fact, the 'highly recurrent' role of phosphorus in cyanobacteria blooms is not properly observed in all sampling periods. On the other hand, the strongest correlation values for the total phosphorus x cyanobacteria relationship were observed when we used the variation of sampling points. We have also shown that environment variables better explain cyanobacteria when a time lag is considered. We conclude that, in cyanobacteria monitoring, the best approach to reveal determinants of cyanobacteria blooms is to consider environmental variability.

  5. Spatio-temporal distribution and emergence of beetles in arable fields in relation to soil moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J M; Thomas, C F G; Birkett, T; Southway, S

    2007-02-01

    Predatory beetles contribute to the control of crop pests and are an important food resource for farmland birds. Many of these beetle species overwinter as larvae within agricultural soils, however, their spatio-temporal emergence patterns are poorly understood, even though such knowledge can assist with their management for biocontrol. Soil moisture is considered to be a key factor influencing oviposition site selection and larval survival. The time, density and spatial pattern of Carabidae and Staphylidae emergence was therefore measured across two fields and compared to soil moisture levels in the previous winter and adult distribution in the previous July. The mean density of Carabidae and Staphylidae that emerged between April and harvest within each field was 157 and 86 m-2, indicating that soils are an important over-wintering habitat for beneficial invertebrates and should be managed sympathetically if numbers are to be increased. Of the species that were sufficiently numerous to allow their spatial pattern to be analysed, all showed a heterogeneous emergence pattern, although patches with high emergence were stable over the sampling period. The distribution of eight species was influenced by soil moisture levels in the previous winter and eight species, although not the same, were spatially associated with the distribution of adults in the previous summer suggesting that the females selected oviposition areas with the appropriate soil wetness.

  6. Temporal dynamics of the face familiarity effect: bootstrap analysis of single-subject event-related potential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Pancaroglu, Raika; Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason J S; Oruc, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Prior event-related potential studies using group statistics within a priori selected time windows have yielded conflicting results about familiarity effects in face processing. Our goal was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the familiarity effect at all time points at the single-subject level. Ten subjects were shown faces of anonymous people or celebrities. Individual results were analysed using a point-by-point bootstrap analysis. While familiarity effects were less consistent at later epochs, all subjects showed them between 130 and 195 ms in occipitotemporal electrodes. However, the relation between the time course of familiarity effects and the peak latency of the N170 was variable. We concluded that familiarity effects between 130 and 195 ms are robust and can be shown in single subjects. The variability of their relation to the timing of the N170 potential may lead to underestimation of familiarity effects in studies that use group-based statistics.

  7. High temporal discounters overvalue immediate rewards rather than undervalue future rewards: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniawsky, Avital S; Holroyd, Clay B

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity is characterized in part by heightened sensitivity to immediate relative to future rewards. Although previous research has suggested that "high discounters" in intertemporal choice tasks tend to prefer immediate over future rewards because they devalue the latter, it remains possible that they instead overvalue immediate rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded the reward positivity, a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) associated with reward processing, with participants engaged in a task in which they received both immediate and future rewards and nonrewards. The participants also completed a temporal discounting task without ERP recording. We found that immediate but not future rewards elicited the reward positivity. High discounters also produced larger reward positivities to immediate rewards than did low discounters, indicating that high discounters relatively overvalued immediate rewards. These findings suggest that high discounters may be more motivated than low discounters to work for monetary rewards, irrespective of the time of arrival of the incentives.

  8. TEMPTING system: a hybrid method of rule and machine learning for temporal relation extraction in patient discharge summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Chun; Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Chen, Jian-Ming; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2013-12-01

    Patient discharge summaries provide detailed medical information about individuals who have been hospitalized. To make a precise and legitimate assessment of the abundant data, a proper time layout of the sequence of relevant events should be compiled and used to drive a patient-specific timeline, which could further assist medical personnel in making clinical decisions. The process of identifying the chronological order of entities is called temporal relation extraction. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method to identify appropriate temporal links between a pair of entities. The method combines two approaches: one is rule-based and the other is based on the maximum entropy model. We develop an integration algorithm to fuse the results of the two approaches. All rules and the integration algorithm are formally stated so that one can easily reproduce the system and results. To optimize the system's configuration, we used the 2012 i2b2 challenge TLINK track dataset and applied threefold cross validation to the training set. Then, we evaluated its performance on the training and test datasets. The experiment results show that the proposed TEMPTING (TEMPoral relaTion extractING) system (ranked seventh) achieved an F-score of 0.563, which was at least 30% better than that of the baseline system, which randomly selects TLINK candidates from all pairs and assigns the TLINK types. The TEMPTING system using the hybrid method also outperformed the stage-based TEMPTING system. Its F-scores were 3.51% and 0.97% better than those of the stage-based system on the training set and test set, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatio-temporal variability of periphytic protozoa related to environment in the Niyang River, Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiping; Ye, Shaowen; Yang, Xuefeng; Guo, Chuanbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Fan, Liqing; Zhang, Liangsong; Sovan, Lek; Li, Zhongjie

    2017-05-01

    The Niyang River, a main tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo River, is an important and typical plateau river ecosystem in Tibet, China. At present, few studies have focused on its aquatic living resources and river ecology. In this study, the composition, abundance, and diversity of periphytic protozoa were investigated across four seasons from 2008 to 2009 to better understand their spatio-temporal patterns and relationship to the environment. Our investigation shows that periphytic protozoa in the Niyang River contained 15 genera, belonged to Tubulinea, Alveolata, Discosea and Rhizaria, Alveolata possessed most genera, up to nine, with highest share in abundance, exceeding 50%, Difflugia and Glaucoma were dominant genera. Moreover, four diversity indices of periphytic protozoa, including species richness, total abundance, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou's evenness index, displayed a significant descending trend as the seasons continued, in the order of winter, spring, summer and autumn; with a significant difference existing between winter and summer (or autumn) for Shannon-Wiener diversity index and species richness ( P0.05). In addition, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) shows that the densities of Difflugia, Glaucomais, Enchelydium, Cyphoderia, and Enchelys correlate with water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, pH, and dissolved oxygen, respectively. Lastly, the relationship between periphytic protozoa diversity and the environmental factors of the Niyang River can be predicted using classification and regression trees (CART) annalysis, which suggests that the total abundance and Shannon-Wiener diversity index would be higher when the elevation is above 3 308 m. On the other hand, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou's evenness index would be lower when pH and ammoniacal nitrogen have lower or higher values. Finally yet importantly, close attention should be paid to periphytic protozoa and its environment to ensure sustainable development

  10. Temporal VUV Emission Characteristics Related to Generations and Losses of Metastable Atoms in Xenon Pulsed Barrier Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Hideki; Loo, Ka Hong; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Jinno, Masafumi; Aono, Masaharu

    Although xenon pulsed dielectric barrier discharge is one of the most promising substitutes for mercury low-pressure discharge for fluorescent lamps, the efficacy of xenon fluorescent lamp is not enough for practical use for general lighting. To improve the efficacy it is indispensable to clarify mechanisms of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emissions, which excite phosphor, from xenon discharge related to plasma characteristics. In this paper emission waveforms and temporal change of metastable atom density are measured and temporal VUV emission characteristics related to generations and losses of metastable atoms in xenon pulsed barrier discharge is investigated. It is shown that the lamp efficacy is improved by about 10% with shorter pulse in which the two VUV emission peaks in a pulse are overlapped. It is also shown that at the lower pressure of 1.3 kPa metastable atoms generated during on-period of the voltage pulse are not efficiently consumed for VUV emissions in the off-period of the voltage pulse because of lower rate of three-body collision and quenching. This fact is thought to be one of the reasons why the lamp efficacy is low at lower pressure.

  11. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  12. Arousal modulates activity in the medial temporal lobe during a short-term relational memory task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eThoresen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of arousal on short-term relational memory and its underlying cortical network. Seventeen healthy participants performed a picture by location, short-term relational memory task using emotional pictures. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to measure the BOLD signal relative to task. Subjects’ own ratings of the pictures were used to obtain subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal was found to have a dose-dependent effect on activations in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and in higher order visual areas. Serial position analyses showed that high arousal trials produced a stronger primacy and recency effect than low arousal trials. The results indicate that short-term relational memory may be facilitated by arousal and that this may be modulated by a dose-response function in arousal-driven neuronal regions.

  13. Arousal Modulates Activity in the Medial Temporal Lobe during a Short-Term Relational Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Christian; Jensen, Jimmy; Sigvartsen, Niels Petter B; Bolstad, Ingeborg; Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H; Andreassen, Ole A; Endestad, Tor

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of arousal on short-term relational memory and its underlying cortical network. Seventeen healthy participants performed a picture by location, short-term relational memory task using emotional pictures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal relative to task. Subjects' own ratings of the pictures were used to obtain subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal was found to have a dose-dependent effect on activations in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and in higher order visual areas. Serial position analyses showed that high arousal trials produced a stronger primacy and recency effect than low arousal trials. The results indicate that short-term relational memory may be facilitated by arousal and that this may be modulated by a dose-response function in arousal-driven neuronal regions.

  14. A study of hippocampal structure-function relations along the septo-temporal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrard, Leonard E; Luu, Lisa P; Davidson, Terry L

    2012-04-01

    This study examined structural-functional differences along the septo-temporal axis of hippocampus using radial-maze tasks that involved two different memory processes [reference memory (RM) and working memory (WM)], and the use of two kinds of information (spatial vs. nonspatial cue learning). In addition, retention of the nonspatial cue task was tested nine weeks following completion of acquisition, and the rats then underwent discrimination reversal training. Ibotenic acid lesions limited to either the dorsal pole, intermediate area, or ventral pole had minimal effects on acquisition of the complex place and cue discrimination tasks. The one exception was that rats with lesions confined to the dorsal third of hippocampus made more WM errors on the spatial task (but not the cue task) early in training. Selective lesions of the three hippocampal regions had no effects on either long-term retention or reversal of the nonspatial cue discrimination task. In contrast, rats that had all of the hippocampus removed were severely impaired in learning the spatial task, making many RM and WM errors, whereas on the nonspatial cue task, the impairment was limited to WM errors. Further analysis of the WM errors made in acquisition showed that rats with complete lesions were significantly more likely on both the spatial and nonspatial cue tasks to reenter arms that had been baited and visited on that trial compared to arms that had not been baited. A similar pattern of errors emerged for complete hippocampal lesioned rats during reversal discrimination. This pattern of errors suggests that in addition to an impairment in handling spatial information, complete removal of hippocampus also interferes with the ability to inhibit responding to cues that signal reward under some conditions but not under others. The finding that selective lesions limited to the intermediate zone of the hippocampus produce no impairment in either WM ("rapid place learning") or RM in our radial maze

  15. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability, core microbiota and relation with intestinal symptoms. We carried out a longitudinal study by following a set of 15 healthy Finnish subjects for seven weeks and regularly assessed their intestinal bacteria and archaea with the Human Intestinal Tract (HIT Chip, a phylogenetic microarray, in conjunction with qPCR analyses. The health perception and occurrence of intestinal symptoms was recorded by questionnaire at each sampling point. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high overall temporal stability of the microbiota was observed. Five subjects showed transient microbiota destabilization, which correlated not only with the intake of antibiotics but also with overseas travelling and temporary illness, expanding the hitherto known factors affecting the intestinal microbiota. We identified significant correlations between the microbiota and common intestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain and bloating. The most striking finding was the inverse correlation between Bifidobacteria and abdominal pain: subjects who experienced pain had over five-fold less Bifidobacteria compared to those without pain. Finally, a novel computational approach was used to define the common core microbiota, highlighting the role of the analysis depth in finding the phylogenetic core and estimating its size. The in-depth analysis suggested that we share a substantial number of our intestinal phylotypes but as they represent highly variable proportions of the total community, many of them often remain undetected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A global and high-resolution microbiota analysis was carried out to determine the temporal stability, the associations with intestinal symptoms, and the

  16. Healthy aging attenuates task-related specialization in the human medial temporal lobe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Liptrot, Matthew George; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    2012-01-01

    of task related changes in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was performed in native space after correction for gender effects and individual differences in cerebral blood flow. The hippocampus, amygdala, and parahippocampal, perirhinal, entorhinal, and temporopolar cortices of right and left...... prominent in the recognition stage. During recognition, the larger response to objects gradually decreased with age in all ROIs apart from left temporopolar and entorhinal cortex. An age-related attenuation was also present during encoding, but only in right parahippocampus and amygdala. Our results suggest...

  17. Temporal Dynamics of Late Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, Karsten; White, Erin J.; Drury, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The ways in which age of acquisition (AoA) may affect (morpho)syntax in second language acquisition (SLA) are discussed. We suggest that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) provide an appropriate online measure to test some such effects. ERP findings of the past decade are reviewed with a focus on recent and ongoing research. It is concluded…

  18. Electrocorticographic Temporal Alteration Mapping: A Clinical Technique for Mapping the Motor Cortex with Movement-Related Cortical Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zehan; Xie, Tao; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Farina, Dario; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2017-01-01

    We propose electrocorticographic temporal alteration mapping (ETAM) for motor cortex mapping by utilizing movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) within the low-frequency band [0.05-3] Hz. This MRCP waveform-based temporal domain approach was compared with the state-of-the-art electrocorticographic frequency alteration mapping (EFAM), which is based on frequency spectrum dynamics. Five patients (two epilepsy cases and three tumor cases) were enrolled in the study. Each patient underwent intraoperative direct electrocortical stimulation (DECS) procedure for motor cortex localization. Moreover, the patients were required to perform simple brisk wrist extension task during awake craniotomy surgery. Cross-validation results showed that the proposed ETAM method had high sensitivity (81.8%) and specificity (94.3%) in identifying sites which exhibited positive DECS motor responses. Moreover, although the sensitivity of the ETAM and EFAM approaches was not significantly different, ETAM had greater specificity compared with EFAM (94.3 vs. 86.1%). These results indicate that for the intraoperative functional brain mapping, ETAM is a promising novel approach for motor cortex localization with the potential to reduce the need for cortical electrical stimulation.

  19. Electrocorticographic Temporal Alteration Mapping: A Clinical Technique for Mapping the Motor Cortex with Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehan Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose electrocorticographic temporal alteration mapping (ETAM for motor cortex mapping by utilizing movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs within the low-frequency band [0.05-3] Hz. This MRCP waveform-based temporal domain approach was compared with the state-of-the-art electrocorticographic frequency alteration mapping (EFAM, which is based on frequency spectrum dynamics. Five patients (two epilepsy cases and three tumor cases were enrolled in the study. Each patient underwent intraoperative direct electrocortical stimulation (DECS procedure for motor cortex localization. Moreover, the patients were required to perform simple brisk wrist extension task during awake craniotomy surgery. Cross-validation results showed that the proposed ETAM method had high sensitivity (81.8% and specificity (94.3% in identifying sites which exhibited positive DECS motor responses. Moreover, although the sensitivity of the ETAM and EFAM approaches was not significantly different, ETAM had greater specificity compared with EFAM (94.3 vs. 86.1%. These results indicate that for the intraoperative functional brain mapping, ETAM is a promising novel approach for motor cortex localization with the potential to reduce the need for cortical electrical stimulation.

  20. Age-related differences in the temporal dynamics of prospective memory retrieval: a lifespan approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattli, Florentina; Zöllig, Jacqueline; West, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The efficiency of prospective memory (PM) typically increases from childhood to young adulthood and then decreases in later adulthood. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the development of the neural correlates of processes associated with the detection of a PM cue, switching from the ongoing activity to the prospective task, retrieval of the intention from memory or task set configuration, and strategic monitoring of the environment. The study included 99 participants that were 7.5-83 years of age. Slow wave activity related to strategic monitoring was reliable across the lifespan suggesting that all ages were able to allocate attentional resources to facilitate PM. Additionally, components of the ERPs related to cue detection, switching, and task configuration were reliable across the lifespan, suggesting that similar processes contribute to PM at all ages. In children, PM errors may have resulted from a decoupling of processes supporting cue detection and switching from the ongoing activity to the prospective element of the task. In younger and older adults, PM errors appeared to result from the failure to detect PM cues in the environment. These findings lead to the conclusion that different processes may contribute to variation in PM across the lifespan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glyoxal yield from isoprene oxidation and relation to formaldehyde: chemical mechanism, constraints from SENEX aircraft observations, and interpretation of OMI satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chan Miller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Glyoxal (CHOCHO is produced in the atmosphere by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Like formaldehyde (HCHO, another VOC oxidation product, it is measurable from space by solar backscatter. Isoprene emitted by vegetation is the dominant source of CHOCHO and HCHO in most of the world. We use aircraft observations of CHOCHO and HCHO from the SENEX campaign over the southeast US in summer 2013 to better understand the CHOCHO time-dependent yield from isoprene oxidation, its dependence on nitrogen oxides (NOx  ≡  NO + NO2, the behavior of the CHOCHO–HCHO relationship, the quality of OMI CHOCHO satellite observations, and the implications for using CHOCHO observations from space as constraints on isoprene emissions. We simulate the SENEX and OMI observations with the Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem featuring a new chemical mechanism for CHOCHO formation from isoprene. The mechanism includes prompt CHOCHO formation under low-NOx conditions following the isomerization of the isoprene peroxy radical (ISOPO2. The SENEX observations provide support for this prompt CHOCHO formation pathway, and are generally consistent with the GEOS-Chem mechanism. Boundary layer CHOCHO and HCHO are strongly correlated in the observations and the model, with some departure under low-NOx conditions due to prompt CHOCHO formation. SENEX vertical profiles indicate a free-tropospheric CHOCHO background that is absent from the model. The OMI CHOCHO data provide some support for this free-tropospheric background and show southeast US enhancements consistent with the isoprene source but a factor of 2 too low. Part of this OMI bias is due to excessive surface reflectivities assumed in the retrieval. The OMI CHOCHO and HCHO seasonal data over the southeast US are tightly correlated and provide redundant proxies of isoprene emissions. Higher temporal resolution in future geostationary satellite observations may

  2. Glyoxal yield from isoprene oxidation and relation to formaldehyde: chemical mechanism, constraints from SENEX aircraft observations, and interpretation of OMI satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher Chan; Jacob, Daniel J.; Marais, Eloise A.; Yu, Karen; Travis, Katherine R.; Kim, Patrick S.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Zhu, Lei; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kaiser, Jennifer; Min, Kyung-Eun; Brown, Steven S.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; González Abad, Gonzalo; Chance, Kelly

    2017-07-01

    Glyoxal (CHOCHO) is produced in the atmosphere by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Like formaldehyde (HCHO), another VOC oxidation product, it is measurable from space by solar backscatter. Isoprene emitted by vegetation is the dominant source of CHOCHO and HCHO in most of the world. We use aircraft observations of CHOCHO and HCHO from the SENEX campaign over the southeast US in summer 2013 to better understand the CHOCHO time-dependent yield from isoprene oxidation, its dependence on nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2), the behavior of the CHOCHO-HCHO relationship, the quality of OMI CHOCHO satellite observations, and the implications for using CHOCHO observations from space as constraints on isoprene emissions. We simulate the SENEX and OMI observations with the Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) featuring a new chemical mechanism for CHOCHO formation from isoprene. The mechanism includes prompt CHOCHO formation under low-NOx conditions following the isomerization of the isoprene peroxy radical (ISOPO2). The SENEX observations provide support for this prompt CHOCHO formation pathway, and are generally consistent with the GEOS-Chem mechanism. Boundary layer CHOCHO and HCHO are strongly correlated in the observations and the model, with some departure under low-NOx conditions due to prompt CHOCHO formation. SENEX vertical profiles indicate a free-tropospheric CHOCHO background that is absent from the model. The OMI CHOCHO data provide some support for this free-tropospheric background and show southeast US enhancements consistent with the isoprene source but a factor of 2 too low. Part of this OMI bias is due to excessive surface reflectivities assumed in the retrieval. The OMI CHOCHO and HCHO seasonal data over the southeast US are tightly correlated and provide redundant proxies of isoprene emissions. Higher temporal resolution in future geostationary satellite observations may enable detection of the prompt

  3. The roles of gender and temporal distance in the recall of dissonant self-related memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel

    2014-10-01

    This study examined strategies employed to support a positive self-image in the face of dissonant self-related memories, especially focusing on the role of gender. Participants (N=498) were recruited online and identified a self-descriptive trait. They then reported a memory of a time when they did or did not act according to that trait. Participants distanced themselves from dissonant, self-related memories by downplaying the event's importance and relevance to identity and by emphasizing their lack of agency and the degree to which they had changed. Additionally, participants reported dissonant events from further in the past than consonant events, a tendency displayed more strongly amongst women than men. Women also rated events as more pertinent to the self on questionnaire measures. Findings demonstrate ways that autobiographical memories are reported and organized to support a positive self-image, and deepen an understanding of the role of gender in this process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Creativity from Constraints in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of constraints in limiting and enhancing creativity in engineering design. Based on a review of literature relating constraints to creativity, the paper presents a longitudinal participatory study from Coloplast A/S, a major international producer of disposable...... medical equipment. At Coloplast, constraints played a fundamental role and the observations show the important, dual role of constraints in terms of being a limitation and a prerequisite for creativity. Too few or too many constraints had a negative impact on creativity, whereas the formulation, rationale...... and ownership of formal constraints played a crucial role in defining their influence on creativity – along with the tacit constraints held by the designers. The designers were found to be highly constraint focused, and four main creative strategies for constraint manipulation were observed: blackboxing...

  5. ADAM23, a Gene Related to LGI1, Is Not Linked to Autosomal Dominant Lateral Temporal Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rigon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADTLE is an inherited epileptic syndrome characterized by ictal auditory symptoms or aphasia, negative MRI findings, and relatively benign evolution. Mutations responsible for ADLTE have been found in the LGI1 gene. The functions of the Lgi1 protein apparently are mediated by interactions with members of the ADAM protein family: it binds the postsynaptic receptor ADAM22 to regulate glutamate-AMPA currents at excitatory synapses and also the ADAM23 receptor to promote neurite outgrowth in vitro and dendritic arborization in vivo. Because alteration of each of these neuronal mechanisms may underlie ADLTE, ADAM22 and ADAM23 are candidate genes for this syndrome. In a previous work, we excluded a major role of ADAM22 in the aetiology of ADLTE. Here, we performed linkage analysis between microsatellite markers within or flanking the ADAM23 gene and ADLTE in 13 Italian families. The results exclude ADAM23 as major causative gene for ADLTE.

  6. Proper Motion and Core Stability Constraints in the Virgo Cluster: Relative Astrometry of M87 and M84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Craig; Davies, Fred; Wrobel, Joan; Junor, Bill; Ly, Chun; Hardee, Phil

    2009-07-01

    The relative positions of M87 and M84 were monitored at 43 GHz with the VLBA during a project whose primary goal was to make a properly sampled movie of the M87 jet collimation region. The RMS scatter of 12 observations constrains core wander to be less than about 3 by 10 times the Schwarzschild radius of M87. Comparison with reanalyzed 2001 phase referencing data suggests, barring long term systematic effects, a 5 sigma detection of a relative proper motion of about 800 km/s. This is consistent with the range of radial velocities seen in the Virgo Cluster.

  7. Alcohol self-administration in rats: Modulation by temporal parameters related to repeated mild social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Elizabeth E; Riccio, David C

    2010-05-01

    Clinical evidence often points to stress as a cause or an antecedent to the development of drinking problems. Yet, animal models of alcohol drinking have yielded inconsistent evidence for a direct contribution of stress, and many studies have shown that stress suppresses alcohol consumption. The aim of the present study was to examine alcohol reward in animals exposed to repeated, mild social stress, and to determine whether alcohol drinking changes as a function of the temporal parameters of alcohol access relative to the stressor. Male Long-Evans rats, trained to self-administer a 6% (wt/vol) alcohol solution using a sucrose-fading procedure, were exposed to five brief (5min) episodes of contact with an aggressive male. Full contact with the resident was limited to a single episode of defeat, whereas the following four encounters occurred with the subjects behind a protective wire mesh cage. Alcohol self-administration was measured 1 week prior to stress (baseline), on each day of stress exposure, and 1 week following stress. Separate groups of animals were randomly assigned to self-administer alcohol immediately prior, immediately following, or 2h following defeat stress. Stress preferentially increased alcohol drinking on stress-exposure days, and further elevated the amount consumed 1 week following stress. Temporal parameters of alcohol access relative to the stressor were found to be important. Average alcohol consumption was greatest for animals drinking 2h postdefeat, whereas animals drinking immediately prior to or following the stressor did not show a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Results suggest that mild social defeat stress is sufficient to elicit increases in alcohol consumption in nonpreferring strains of rodents, provided alcohol access occurs at an optimal time interval after the social defeat experience. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hospitalisations for pelvic inflammatory disease temporally related to a diagnosis of Chlamydia or gonorrhoea: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Reekie

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The presence and severity of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID symptoms are thought to vary by microbiological etiology but there is limited empirical evidence. We sought to estimate and compare the rates of hospitalisation for PID temporally related to diagnoses of gonorrhoea and chlamydia. METHODS: All women, aged 15-45 years in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW, with a diagnosis of chlamydia or gonorrhoea between 01/07/2000 and 31/12/2008 were followed by record linkage for up to one year after their chlamydia or gonorrhoea diagnosis for hospitalisations for PID. Standardised incidence ratios compared the incidence of PID hospitalisations to the age-equivalent NSW population. RESULTS: A total of 38,193 women had a chlamydia diagnosis, of which 483 were hospitalised for PID; incidence rate (IR 13.9 per 1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU (95%CI 12.6-15.1. In contrast, 1015 had a gonorrhoea diagnosis, of which 45 were hospitalised for PID (IR 50.8 per 1000 PYFU, 95%CI 36.0-65.6. The annual incidence of PID hospitalisation temporally related to a chlamydia or gonorrhoea diagnosis was 27.0 (95%CI 24.4-29.8 and 96.6 (95%CI 64.7-138.8 times greater, respectively, than the age-equivalent NSW female population. Younger age, socio-economic disadvantage, having a diagnosis prior to 2005 and having a prior birth were also associated with being hospitalised for PID. CONCLUSIONS: Chlamydia and gonorrhoea are both associated with large increases in the risk of PID hospitalisation. Our data suggest the risk of PID hospitalisation is much higher for gonorrhoea than chlamydia; however, further research is needed to confirm this finding.

  9. Gastroesophageal reflux episodes in asthmatic patients and their temporal relation with sleep architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mello-Fujita

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER is common in asthma patients and can contribute to sleep disruption. The aim of the present study was to determine the time-related distribution of GER events together with their impact on sleep in asthmatic subjects with GER disease symptoms. The inclusion criteria were: 18-65 years, controlled moderate to severe asthma and GER-compatible clinical evidence. The exclusion criteria were: chronic obstructive lung disease, smoking, infections of the upper airways, use of oral corticosteroids, other co-morbidities, pregnancy, sleep-related disorders, night-time shift work, and the use of substances with impact on sleep. Asthmatic patients with nocturnal symptoms were excluded. All-night polysomnography and esophageal pH monitoring were recorded simultaneously. Of the 147 subjects selected, 31 patients and 31 controls were included. Seventeen patients were classified as DeMeester positive and 14 as DeMeester negative. Both groups displayed similar outcomes when general variables were considered. Sleep stage modification one minute prior to GER was observed in the DeMeester-positive group. Awakening was the most frequent occurrence at GER onset and during the 1-min period preceding 38% of the nocturnal GER. Sleep stage 2 was also prevalent and preceded 36% of GER events. In the DeMeester-negative group, awakening was the most frequent response before and during GER. Modifications in sleep stages, arousals or awakenings were associated with 75% of the total GER events analyzed during the period of one minute before and after the fall of esophageal pH below 4 in the DeMeester-positive group. These data provide evidence that sleep modifications precede the GER events in asthmatic patients.

  10. Temporal and social dimension of accessibility for New York City residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    While serving as an important measure in the transportation planning process, the calculation of accessibility typically does not take into account the temporal constraints faced by individuals. When temporal constraints are considered, the resulting...

  11. Conservation constraints on random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Wen Jong; Hsieh, J

    2003-01-01

    We study the random matrices constrained by the summation rules that are present in the Hessian of the potential energy surface in the instantaneous normal mode calculations, as a result of momentum conservation. In this paper, we analyse the properties related to such conservation constraints in two classes of real symmetric matrices: one with purely row-wise summation rules and the other with the constraints on the blocks of each matrix, which underscores partially the spatial dimension. We show explicitly that the constraints are removable by separating the degrees of freedom of the zero-eigenvalue modes. The non-spectral degrees of freedom under the constraints can be realized in terms of the ordinary constraint-free orthogonal symmetry but with the rank deducted by the block dimension. We propose that the ensemble of real symmetric matrices with full randomness, constrained by the summation rules, is equivalent to the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) with lowered rank. Independent of the joint probabil...

  12. New constraints on relative motion between the Pacific Plate and Baja California microplate (Mexico) from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, C.; Malservisi, R.; Dixon, T. H.; LaFemina, P.; Sella, G. F.; Fletcher, J.; Suarez-Vidal, F.

    2007-09-01

    We present a new surface velocity field for Baja California using GPS data to test the rigidity of this microplate, calculate its motion in a global reference frame, determine its relative motion with respect to the North American and the Pacific plates, and compare those results to our estimate for Pacific-North America motion. Determination of Pacific Plate motion is improved by the inclusion of four sites from the South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project. These analyses reveal that Baja California moves as a quasi-rigid block but at a slower rate in the same direction, as the Pacific Plate relative to North America. This is consistent with seismic activity along the western edge of Baja California (the Baja California shear zone), and may reflect resistance to motion of the eastern edge of the Pacific Plate caused by the `big bend' of the San Andreas fault and the Transverse Ranges in southern California.

  13. Temporal characteristics of online syntactic sentence planning: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Inge; Gentile, Francesco; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2013-01-01

    During sentence production, linguistic information (semantics, syntax, phonology) of words is retrieved and assembled into a meaningful utterance. There is still debate on how we assemble single words into more complex syntactic structures such as noun phrases or sentences. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the time course of syntactic planning. Thirty-three volunteers described visually animated scenes using naming formats varying in syntactic complexity: from simple words ('W', e.g., "triangle", "red", "square", "green", "to fly towards"), to noun phrases ('NP', e.g., "the red triangle", "the green square", "to fly towards"), to a sentence ('S', e.g., "The red triangle flies towards the green square."). Behaviourally, we observed an increase in errors and corrections with increasing syntactic complexity, indicating a successful experimental manipulation. In the ERPs following scene onset, syntactic complexity variations were found in a P300-like component ('S'/'NP'>'W') and a fronto-central negativity (linear increase with syntactic complexity). In addition, the scene could display two actions - unpredictable for the participant, as the disambiguation occurred only later in the animation. Time-locked to the moment of visual disambiguation of the action and thus the verb, we observed another P300 component ('S'>'NP'/'W'). The data show for the first time evidence of sensitivity to syntactic planning within the P300 time window, time-locked to visual events critical of syntactic planning. We discuss the findings in the light of current syntactic planning views.

  14. Age-related differences in medial temporal lobe involvement during conceptual fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Dew, Ilana T. Z.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Not all memory processes are equally affected by aging. A widely accepted hypothesis is that older adults rely more on familiarity-based processing, typically linked with the perirhinal cortex (PRC), in the context of impaired recollection, linked with the hippocampus (HC). However, according to the dedifferentiation hypothesis, healthy aging reduces the specialization of MTL memory subregions so that they may mediate different memory processes than in young adults. Using fMRI, we tested this possibility using a conceptual fluency manipulation known to induce familiarity-related PRC activity. The study yielded two main findings. First, although fluency equivalently affected PRC in both young (18–28; N = 14) and older (62–80; N=15) adults, it also uniquely affected HC activity in older adults. Second, the fluency manipulation reduced functional connectivity between HC and PRC in young adults, but it increased it in older adults. Taken together, the results suggest that aging may result in reduced specialization of the HC for recollection, such that the HC may be recruited when fluency increases familiarity-based responding. PMID:25305568

  15. Temporal characteristics of online syntactic sentence planning: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Timmers

    Full Text Available During sentence production, linguistic information (semantics, syntax, phonology of words is retrieved and assembled into a meaningful utterance. There is still debate on how we assemble single words into more complex syntactic structures such as noun phrases or sentences. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs were used to investigate the time course of syntactic planning. Thirty-three volunteers described visually animated scenes using naming formats varying in syntactic complexity: from simple words ('W', e.g., "triangle", "red", "square", "green", "to fly towards", to noun phrases ('NP', e.g., "the red triangle", "the green square", "to fly towards", to a sentence ('S', e.g., "The red triangle flies towards the green square.". Behaviourally, we observed an increase in errors and corrections with increasing syntactic complexity, indicating a successful experimental manipulation. In the ERPs following scene onset, syntactic complexity variations were found in a P300-like component ('S'/'NP'>'W' and a fronto-central negativity (linear increase with syntactic complexity. In addition, the scene could display two actions - unpredictable for the participant, as the disambiguation occurred only later in the animation. Time-locked to the moment of visual disambiguation of the action and thus the verb, we observed another P300 component ('S'>'NP'/'W'. The data show for the first time evidence of sensitivity to syntactic planning within the P300 time window, time-locked to visual events critical of syntactic planning. We discuss the findings in the light of current syntactic planning views.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Environmental Variables in Relation to Phytoplankton Community Structure in a Eutrophic River-Type Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxi Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses spatial and temporal variation in environmental variables in relation to phytoplankton community size and composition in a typically eutrophic river reservoir (Hai River, northern China. The aim is to identify environmental parameters governing spatial and temporal differences in phytoplankton density and composition. Physicochemical parameters, including nutrient concentrations, were determined in monthly surface water samples from 2015. The average concentration of key eutrophication indexes (i.e., total phosphorous (TP: 0.24 ± 0.11 mg·L−1, total nitrogen (TN: 2.96 ± 1.60 mg·L−1, and Chlorophyll a (Chl a: 38.5 ± 11.5 mg·m−3 substantially exceeded threshold values for eutrophic streams. Moreover, the eutrophication increased significantly downstream along the river reservoir as a consequence of an increasing fraction of agricultural and industrial land-use in the watershed. 103 phytoplankton species were identified, of which Chlorophyta was the dominated phylum (47 species, followed by Bacillariophyta (23 species and Cyanophyta (18 species. No spatial difference in species distribution (ANOVA, p > 0.05 were found, while the temporal differences in species composition exhibited significant heterogeneity (ANOVA, p < 0.001. Phytoplankton abundance was highest in early summer (June and July, with maximum values increasing from 1.78 × 108 and 2.80 × 108 cells·L−1 in upstream and middle reaches, respectively, to 4.18 × 108 cells·L−1 furthest downstream. Cyanophyta, also known as Cyanobacteria and commonly referred to as blue-green algal, are known to constitute algae bloom in eutrophic systems. Common species are Microcystis marginata, Microcystis flos-aquae, and Oscillatoria sp. This was the dominant phyla during summer months, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the stream reservoir where it accounted for 88.9% of the phytoplankton community. Shannon weaver index (H’ and Pielous’s evenness

  17. Soft Concurrent Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Bistarelli, S.; Montanari, U.; Rossi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Soft constraints extend classical constraints to represent multiple consistency levels, and thus provide a way to express preferences, fuzziness, and uncertainty. While there are many soft constraint solving formalisms, even distributed ones, by now there seems to be no concurrent programming framework where soft constraints can be handled. In this paper we show how the classical concurrent constraint (cc) programming framework can work with soft constraints, and we also propose an extension ...

  18. Exploring the Spatial-Temporal Disparities of Urban Land Use Economic Efficiency in China and Its Influencing Factors under Environmental Constraints Based on a Sequential Slacks-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a sequential slack-based measure (SSBM model, this paper analyzes the spatiotemporal disparities of urban land use economic efficiency (ULUEE under environmental constraints, and its influencing factors in 270 cities across China from 2003–2012. The main results are as follows: (1 The average ULUEE for Chinese cities is only 0.411, and out of the 270 cities, only six cities are always efficient in urban land use in the study period. Most cities have a lot of room to improve the economic output of secondary and tertiary industries, as well as environmental protection work; (2 The eastern region of China enjoys the highest ULUEE, followed by the western and central regions. Super-scale cities show the best performance of all four city scales, followed by large-scale, small-scale and medium-scale cities. Cities with relatively developed economies and less pollutant discharge always have better ULUEE; (3 The results of slack variables analysis show that most cities have problems such as the labor surplus, over-development, excessive pollutant discharge, economic output shortage, and unreasonable use of funds is the most serious one; (4 The regression results of the influencing factors show that improvements of the per capita GDP and land use intensity are helpful to raise ULUEE. The urbanization rate and the proportion of foreign enterprises’ output account for the total output in the secondary and tertiary industries only have the same effect in some regions and city scales. The land management policy and land leasing policy have negative impact on the ULUEE in all the three regions and four city scales; (5 Some targeted policy goals are proposed, including the reduction of surplus labor, and pay more attention to environmental protection. Most importantly, effective implementation of land management policies from the central government, and stopping blind leasing of land to make up the local government’s financial deficit would be very

  19. A novel biological 'twin-father' temporal paradox of General Relativity in a Gödel universe - Where reproductive biology meets theoretical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2017-10-25

    Several temporal paradoxes exist in physics. These include General Relativity's grandfather and ontological paradoxes and Special Relativity's Langevin-Einstein twin-paradox. General relativity paradoxes can exist due to a Gödel universe that follows Gödel's closed timelike curves solution to Einstein's field equations. A novel biological temporal paradox of General Relativity is proposed based on reproductive biology's phenomenon of heteropaternal fecundation. Herein, dizygotic twins from two different fathers are the result of concomitant fertilization during one menstrual cycle. In this case an Oedipus-like individual exposed to a Gödel closed timelike curve would sire a child during his maternal fertilization cycle. As a consequence of heteropaternal superfecundation, he would father his own dizygotic twin and would therefore generate a new class of autofraternal superfecundation, and by doing so creating a 'twin-father' temporal paradox. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of emotionally-rated material on visual memory in Alzheimer's disease in relation to medial temporal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landré, Lionel; Sava, Alina-Alexandra; Krainik, Alexandre; Lamalle, Laurent; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Chainay, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Emotional material tends to be better retrieved in memory than neutral material. This emotional enhancement of memory may be related to the attentional effects of the amygdala's response to emotional stimuli. Because early neuropathological changes in Alzheimer's disease involve the amygdala and the hippocampus, it has been suggested that this effect is impaired in patients. However inconsistent results have been reported. The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of emotion on picture recognition in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease, and to explore the link between this effect and the degree of amygdalar and hippocampal atrophy. Mild Alzheimer's disease patients (n = 15) and control participants (n = 20) performed an Old/New recognition task using pictures of negative, neutral, and positive emotional valence. Automated segmentation of their high-resolution T1 MRI scans was performed in order to obtain amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Correlation analyses were then performed between volumetric data, memory, and the emotional effect on memory. An effect of emotion on memory was found for control participants (with positive items being better recognized than neutral and negative ones), with no correlation between this effect and medial temporal volumes, and a significant correlation between overall recognition scores and hippocampal volumes. Conversely, no emotional effect on memory was found across the group of patients; however, significant correlations were found between the loss of this effect and amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. These results tend to confirm a link between the loss of emotional effect on memory and neuropathological change in medial temporal structures during the course of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Testing multiple coordination constraints with a novel bimanual visuomotor task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene M Sisti

    Full Text Available The acquisition of a new bimanual skill depends on several motor coordination constraints. To date, coordination constraints have often been tested relatively independently of one another, particularly with respect to isofrequency and multifrequency rhythms. Here, we used a new paradigm to test the interaction of multiple coordination constraints. Coordination constraints that were tested included temporal complexity, directionality, muscle grouping, and hand dominance. Twenty-two healthy young adults performed a bimanual dial rotation task that required left and right hand coordination to track a moving target on a computer monitor. Two groups were compared, either with or without four days of practice with augmented visual feedback. Four directional patterns were tested such that both hands moved either rightward (clockwise, leftward (counterclockwise, inward or outward relative to each other. Seven frequency ratios (3∶1, 2∶1, 3∶2, 1∶1, 2∶3. 1∶2, 1∶3 between the left and right hand were introduced. As expected, isofrequency patterns (1∶1 were performed more successfully than multifrequency patterns (non 1∶1. In addition, performance was more accurate when participants were required to move faster with the dominant right hand (1∶3, 1∶2 and 2∶3 than with the non-dominant left hand (3∶1, 2∶1, 3∶2. Interestingly, performance deteriorated as the relative angular velocity between the two hands increased, regardless of whether the required frequency ratio was an integer or non-integer. This contrasted with previous finger tapping research where the integer ratios generally led to less error than the non-integer ratios. We suggest that this is due to the different movement topologies that are required of each paradigm. Overall, we found that this visuomotor task was useful for testing the interaction of multiple coordination constraints as well as the release from these constraints with practice in the presence of

  2. Fault-related dolomitization in the Orpesa Ranges (Iberian Chain, E Spain): reactive transport simulations and field data constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Rivas, E.; Martin-Martin, J. D.; Corbella, M.; Teixell, A.

    2009-04-01

    The relationships between hydrothermal fluid circulation and fracturing that lead to mineral dissolution and/or precipitation in carbonate rocks have direct impacts on the evolution and final distribution of hydrocarbon reservoir permeability. Understanding the coupling between these processes is important for predicting permeability and improving hydrocarbon recovery. We present a case study of dolomitization processes in Cretaceous limestone from the Orpesa Ranges (Iberian Chain, E Spain). Extending over part of the Maestrat Cretaceous Basin, the Orpesa area is deformed by extensional faults. These faults accommodated thick sequences of shallow marine limestone, mainly during Aptian times. The syn-rift carbonates are partially dolomitized due to the circulation and mixing of hydrothermal fluids along normal faults and bedding. Both Aptian and later Neogene extensional faults must have served as conduits for the circulation of fluids. MVT deposits of Paleocene age are well documented in the Maestrat basin and may also be related to dolomitization. Samples of host rocks and vein fillings have been collected along strike and analyzed in different fault sections to characterize fluid and rock composition, track flow pathways and map the relationships of fluid flow with respect to the main normal faults in the area. Using field and geochemical data from the Orpesa Ranges carbonates, we have developed reactive-transport models to study the influence of different parameters in the dolomitization of carbonates related to the circulation and mixing of hydrothermal fluids at the outcrop scale. We present results from models that were run with constant and non-constant permeability. The main parameters analyzed include: initial porosity and permeability of layers and fractures, composition of fluids, groundwater and brines flux, composition of layers, reactive surface of minerals, differences in vertical and horizontal permeability, and presence or absence of stratigraphic

  3. Understanding the temporal slope of the temperature-water isotope relation during the deglaciation using isoCAM3: The slope equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Liu, Zhengyu; Wen, Xinyu; Brady, Esther; Noone, David; Zhu, Jiang; Han, Jing

    2016-09-01

    The temporal and spatial slopes of water isotope-temperature relations are studied for the last 21,000 years over the middle and high latitudes using a series of snapshot simulations of global climate and water isotopes in the isotope-enabled atmospheric model isoCAM3. Our model simulation suggests that both the temporal slope and spatial slope remain largely stable throughout the last deglaciation. Furthermore, the temporal slope can vary substantially across regions. Nevertheless, on average, and most likely, the temporal slope is about 0.3‰ °C-1 and is about half of the spatial slope. Finally, the relation between temporal and spatial slopes is understood using a semiempirical equation that is derived based on both the Rayleigh distillation and a fixed spatial slope. The slope equation quantifies the Boyle's mechanism and suggests that the temporal slope is usually smaller than the spatial slope in the extratropics mainly because of the polar amplification feature in global climate change, such that the response in local temperature at middle and high latitudes is usually greater than that in the total equivalent source temperature.

  4. Constraints on the Richness-Mass Relation and the Optical-SZE Positional Offset Distribution for SZE-Selected Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Saro, A; Rozo, E; Benson, B A; Mohr, J; Rykoff, E S; Soares-Santos, M; Bleem, L; Dodelson, S; Melchior, P; Sobreira, F; Upadhyay, V; Weller, J; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Armstrong, R; Banerji, M; Bauer, A H; Bayliss, M; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Brodwin, M; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Carlstrom, J E; Capasso, R; Capozzi, D; Carnero Rosell, A; Carrasco Kind, M; Chiu, I; Covarrubias, R; Crawford, T M; Crocce, M; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; de Haan, T; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Cunha, C E; Eifler, T F; Evrard, A E; Fausti Neto, A; Fernandez, E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gangkofner, C; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gupta, N; Hennig, C; Holzapfel, W L; Honscheid, K; Jain, B; James, D; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Lin, H; Maia, M A G; March, M; Marshall, J L; Martini, Paul; McDonald, M; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Reichardt, C L; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Schubnell, M; Sevilla, I; Smith, R C; Stalder, B; Stark, A A; Strazzullo, V; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Tucker, D; Vikram, V; von der Linden, A; Walker, A R; Wechsler, R H; Wester, W; Zenteno, A; Ziegler, K E

    2015-01-01

    We cross-match galaxy cluster candidates selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures in 129.1 deg$^2$ of the South Pole Telescope 2500d SPT-SZ survey with optically identified clusters selected from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification data. We identify 25 clusters between $0.1\\lesssim z\\lesssim 0.8$ in the union of the SPT-SZ and redMaPPer (RM) samples. RM is an optical cluster finding algorithm that also returns a richness estimate for each cluster. We model the richness $\\lambda$-mass relation with the following function $\\langle\\ln\\lambda|M_{500}\\rangle\\propto B_\\lambda\\ln M_{500}+C_\\lambda\\ln E(z)$ and use SPT-SZ cluster masses and RM richnesses $\\lambda$ to constrain the parameters. We find $B_\\lambda= 1.14^{+0.21}_{-0.18}$ and $C_\\lambda=0.73^{+0.77}_{-0.75}$. The associated scatter in mass at fixed richness is $\\sigma_{\\ln M|\\lambda} = 0.18^{+0.08}_{-0.05}$ at a characteristic richness $\\lambda=70$. We demonstrate that our model provides an adequate description of the ma...

  5. Geochemical constraints on the genesis of the Scheelite dome intrusion-related gold deposit, Tombstone gold belt, Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, J.L.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Johnson, C.A.; Hart, C.J.R.; Marsh, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Scheelite dome intrusion-related gold deposit, western Selwyn basin, Yukon, is hosted in hornfelsed metasedimentary strata that lie adjacent to the exposed apices of a monzogranite to quartz monzonite plutonic complex of the mid-Cretaceous Tombstone-Tungsten magmatic belt, Tintina gold province, Alaska and Yukon. A variety of mineralization styles occur throughout a 10- ?? 3-km east-trending corridor and include reduced Au- and W-rich skarns, Au, W- and Ag-Pb-Zn-Sb-rich quartz tension-vein arrays, and multiphase fault veins and isolated zones of Au-rich sericite-carbonate altered rock. Integrated U-Pb SHRIMP data for magmatic zircon and Ar-Ar data for magmatic and hydrotbermal biotite indicate that gold mineralization occurred within 1 to 2 m.y. of magma emplacement. Fluid inclusion, oxygen isotope, and arsenopyrite geothermometry data indicate that hydrothermal minerals formed at depths of 6 to 9 km over a temperature range from 550??C. High-temperature Au-rich skarns formed at >400??C, whereas vein-hosted mineralization formed at 280?? to 380??C. In skarns, Au is strongly associated with enrichments of Bi, Te, W, and As, whereas a variety of Au-rich veins occur, with Asrich (type 1), and Te- and W-rich (type 2) end members. Silver-Pb-Zn-Sb veins are typically Au poor and represent the latest and lowest temperature phase in the hydrothermal paragenesis. The fluid inclusion data indicate that all mineralization styles were formed from low-salinity (???4 wt % NaCl equiv) aqueous-carbonic fluids, consistent with the composition of fluid inclusions within infilled miarolitic cavities in the intrusive rocks. However, the nonaqueous fluid was predominantly CH4 in skarn, CO2 in Au-Te and Au-W veins, and a fluid with roughly equal amounts Of CO2, CH4, and N2 in Au-As and Ag-Pb-Zn-Sb veins. Oxygen isotope data are consistent with a mineralizing fluid of predominantly magmatic origin that was variably modified to more positive ??18O values during interaction with 18O

  6. Late Triassic post-collisional granites related to Paleotethyan evolution in SE Thailand: Geochronological and geochemical constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Feng, Qinglai; Wang, Yuejun; Zhao, Tianyu; Zi, Jian-Wei; Udchachon, Mongkol; Wang, Yukun

    2017-08-01

    A set of new U-Pb geochronological, elemental and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data is presented to constrain the formation age and petrogenesis of granites in SE Thailand, which are significant for understanding eastern Paleotethyan tectonic evolution and regional correlation in SE Asia. Six granite samples from the Chonburi, Rayong-Bang Lamung and Chanthaburi plutons yielded similar crystallization ages of 222-218 Ma. These granites can be geochemically classified into S-type (Group 1) and I-type (Group 2) granites. Both groups have similar chondrite-normalized REE and primitive mantle-normalized multi-element patterns but distinctly different Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions. Group 1 is characterized by more enriched initial 87Sr/86Sr (i) ratios (0.7101-0.7272) and lower εNd (t) values (- 12.0 to - 13.2) compared with those of Group 2 with 87Sr/86Sr (i) of 0.7027-0.7053 and εNd (t) of - 0.6 to - 1.2. Consistently, zircons from Group 1 yield negative εHf (t) values of - 7.3 to - 27.4 and Mesoproterozoic or older Hf model ages (TDM = 1.53-2.63 Ga), distinct from those of Group 2 with positive εHf (t) values (+ 5.0-+11.3) and younger TDM (0.42-0.67 Ga). Group 1 granites mainly originated from ancient greywackes but Group 2 from juvenile mafic crust with the input of meta-sedimentary component. These data, along with available observations, synthetically indicate that these granites formed in the post-collisional gravitational collapse setting of the thickened crust in response to the assemblage of the Indochina with Sibumasu blocks. They linked northerly and easterly to the Late Triassic granitoids in NW Thailand and East Malay Peninsula related to the Paleotethyan tectonic regime, respectively.

  7. Temporal and depth-related differences in prokaryotic communities in abyssal sediments associated with particulate organic carbon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeseneder, M. M.; Smith, K. L.; Ruhl, H. A.; Jones, D. O. B.; Witte, U.; Prosser, J. I.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux is hypothesized to be the most important parameter influencing activity and biomass of prokaryotic and faunal communities in the abyssal seafloor, but there is little evidence of POC-related changes in community composition of prokaryotes. This hypothesis was tested by 16S rRNA-gene-based analysis of prokaryotic DNA and RNA extracted from abyssal seafloor sediments during periods of low and high POC flux. Fingerprint analysis of prokaryotic communities indicated that approximately 50% of the phylotypes were identical at each sediment horizon, regardless of the temporal variations in POC flux. However, phylotypes were also detected that represented a relatively dynamic component of these communities and were probably strongly influenced by the prevalent POC flux regime. These patterns were also detected in deeper sediment horizons. DNA- and RNA-based community profiles differed, although both approaches had similar community dynamics. Crenarchaeota showed the strongest shift in community composition in response to availability of labile POC, indicating that POC flux may have a more pronounced impact on crenarchaeal communities than on bacterial communities. The high number of phylotypes common to each sample time suggests that both standing stock and active prokaryotic communities are stable.

  8. Oxygen isotope constraints on the crustal contribution to the subduction-related magmatism of the Aeolian Islands, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, R. M.; Harmon, R. S.

    1990-12-01

    Oxygen isotope data are presented for 37 samples of subduction-related lavas from the Aeolian Islands, southern Italy, that were characterised for radiogenic isotopes (Sr, Nd, Pb) and major- and trace-element abundances in previous studies. The samples, which were all erupted within the past 500,000 years, span the full compositional range of Aeolian magmatism from the calc-alkaline basalt-dacite sequence of Salina to the shoshonites of Stromboli and the potassic leucite-bearing basalt to rhyolite series of Vulcano, Whole-rock δ 18O values range from +6.3‰ to +8.5‰, but in some cases (14 samples) 18O enrichment by post-crystallization hydration and low-temperature alteration is suspected, and an empirical correction for excess water yields a primary magmatic δ 18O range of +6.1‰ to +8.5‰ . Variations in δ 18O exhibit a compositional dependence, increased δ 18O values characterize the evolved samples of the various magmatic series, and δ 18O-SiO 2 trends are steeper than those predicted for closed system fractional crystallization. In general, O isotope variations are accompanied by only small shifts in radiogenic isotope ratios and, while weak correlations between δ 18O and 87Sr/ 86Sr etc., are observed within individual fractionation series, it is apparent that these radiogenic isotope variations are much smaller than the ranges for the whole data set. A two-stage model of magma genesis is proposed in which hybridization of the mantle by the introduction of subducted sediments gave rise to a range of radiogenic isotope ratios at fairly constant δ 18O. Subsequently, magmas derived from the heterogeneous mantle evolved within crustal magma chambers by AFC, involving assimilation of 18O-rich crust, and giving rise to evolved magmas with high δ 18O, decreased 206Pb/ 204Pb, but with only slightly higher 87Sr/ 86Sr and slightly lower 143Nd/ 144Nd.

  9. Geomorphometric reconstruction of post-eruptive surfaces of the Virunga Volcanic Province (East African Rift), constraint of erosion ratio and relative chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahitte, Pierre; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    Quaternary volcanic landforms result from a complex evolution, involving volcanic constructional events and destructive ones by collapses and long-term erosion. Quantification, by morphometric approaches, of the evolution through time of the volcano shape allows the estimation of relative ages between volcanoes sharing the same climate and eruptive conditions. We apply such method to six volcanoes of the Virunga Volcanic Province in the western branch of the East African Rift Valley that still has rare geochronological constraints. As they have comparable sizes, volcanic history and erupted products, these edifices may have undergone comparable conditions of erosion which justify the deduction of relative chronology from their erosion pattern. Our GIS-based geomorphometric approach, the SHAPEVOLC algorithm, quantifies erupted or dismantled volumes by numerically modeling topographies resulting from the eruptive construction of each volcano. Constraining points are selected by analyses of morphometric properties of each cell of the current DEM, as the loci where the altitude is still representative of the un-eroded volcanic surfaces. A primary elevation surface is firstly adjusted to these constraining points by modeling a first-order pseudo-radial surface defined by: 1. the curve best fitting the concave-upwards volcano profile; 2. the location and elevation of the volcano summit; and 3. the possible eccentricity and azimuth parameters that allow to stretch and contract contours to adjust the shape of the model to the elliptically-shaped surface of the volcano. A second-order surface is next computed by local adjustment of the first-order surface to the constraining points to obtain the definitive primary elevation surface of the considered volcanic construct. Amount of erosion is obtained by summing the difference in elevation between reconstructed surfaces and current ones that allows to establish relative ages of volcanoes. For the 6 studied Virunga volcanoes

  10. Glyoxal Yield from Isoprene Oxidation and Relation to Formaldehyde: Chemical Mechanism, Constraints from SENEX Aircraft Observations, and Interpretation of OMI Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher Chan; Jacob, Daniel J.; Marais, Eloise A.; Yu, Karen; Travis, Katherine R.; Kim, Patrick S.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Zhu, Lei; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Glyoxal (CHOCHO) is produced in the atmosphere by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds(VOCs). Like formaldehyde (HCHO), another VOC oxidation product, it is measurable from space by solar backscatter. Isoprene emitted by vegetation is the dominant source of CHOCHO and HCHO in most of the world. We use aircraft observations of CHOCHO and HCHO from the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) campaign over the southeast US in summer 2013 to better understand the CHOCHO time-dependent yield from isoprene oxidation, its dependence on nitrogen oxides (NO (sub x) triple bonded to NO plus NO2), the behavior of the CHOCHO-HCHO relationship, the quality of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) CHOCHO satellite observations, and the implications for using CHOCHO observations from space as constraints on isoprene emissions. We simulate the SENEX and OMI observations with the Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOSChem) featuring a new chemical mechanism for CHOCHO formation from isoprene. The mechanism includes prompt CHOCHO formation under low-NO (sub x) conditions following the isomerization of the isoprene peroxy radical (ISOPO2).The SENEX observations provide support for this prompt CHOCHO formation pathway, and are generally consistent with the GEOS-Chem mechanism. Boundary layer CHOCHO and HCHO are strongly correlated in the observations and the model, with some departure under low-NO (sub x) conditions due to prompt CHOCHO formation. SENEX vertical profiles indicate a free-tropospheric CHOCHO background that is absent from the model. The OMI CHOCHO data provide some support for this free-tropospheric background and show southeast US enhancements consistent with the isoprene source but a factor of 2 too low. Part of this OMI bias is due to excessive surface reflectivities assumed in the retrieval. The OMI CHOCHO and HCHO seasonal data over the southeast US are tightly correlated and provide redundant proxies of isoprene emissions. Higher temporal resolution in

  11. High-resolution InSAR constraints on flood-related subsidence and evaporite dissolution along the Dead Sea shores: Interplay between hydrology and rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shviro, Maayan; Haviv, Itai; Baer, Gidon

    2017-09-01

    Sinkhole generation and land subsidence are commonly attributed to dissolution of subsurface layers by under-saturated groundwater and formation of cavities. Along the Dead Sea (DS) shorelines, this process also involves seasonal flash floods that are drained into the subsurface by existing and newly formed sinkholes. We quantify the contribution of flash-floods to salt dissolution and land subsidence using high-resolution interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Subsidence rates during a 3-year period (2012-2015) were calculated from 57 COSMO SkyMed X-band interferograms bracketing major flood events and intra-flood periods in 21 sinkhole sites. The sites are located within channels and alluvial fans along the western shores of the Dead Sea, Israel. The observed subsidence reaches maximum rates of 2.5 mm/day, accumulating in specific sites to 500 mm/year. In most of the sinkhole sites a gradual increase in the annual subsidence rate is observed during the 3-year study period. Three different modes of response to floods were observed: (1) sites where floodwater is not directly channeled into sinkholes do not respond to floods; (2) sites adjacent to active channels with sinkholes are unaffected by specific floods but their subsidence rates increase gradually from early winter to mid-summer, and decay gradually until the following winter; and (3) sites in active channels with sinkholes are characterized by an abrupt increase in subsidence rates immediately after each flood (by a factor of up to 20) and by a subsequent quasi-exponential subsidence decay over periods of several months. In these latter sites, subsidence rates after each flood are temporally correlated with alternating groundwater levels in adjacent boreholes. The rapid rise in groundwater head following floods increases the hydraulic gradient of the under-saturated groundwater and hence also the groundwater discharge and the dissolution rate of the subsurface salt layer. A subsequent quasi

  12. Stochastic Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    To model combinatorial decision problems involving uncertainty and probability, we introduce stochastic constraint programming. Stochastic constraint programs contain both decision variables (which we can set) and stochastic variables (which follow a probability distribution). They combine together the best features of traditional constraint satisfaction, stochastic integer programming, and stochastic satisfiability. We give a semantics for stochastic constraint programs, and propose a number...

  13. Temporal sequence learning, prediction, and control: a review of different models and their relation to biological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Porr, Bernd

    2005-02-01

    In this review, we compare methods for temporal sequence learning (TSL) across the disciplines machine-control, classical conditioning, neuronal models for TSL as well as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). This review introduces the most influential models and focuses on two questions: To what degree are reward-based (e.g., TD learning) and correlation-based (Hebbian) learning related? and How do the different models correspond to possibly underlying biological mechanisms of synaptic plasticity? We first compare the different models in an open-loop condition, where behavioral feedback does not alter the learning. Here we observe that reward-based and correlation-based learning are indeed very similar. Machine control is then used to introduce the problem of closed-loop control (e.g., actor-critic architectures). Here the problem of evaluative (rewards) versus nonevaluative (correlations) feedback from the environment will be discussed, showing that both learning approaches are fundamentally different in the closed-loop condition. In trying to answer the second question, we compare neuronal versions of the different learning architectures to the anatomy of the involved brain structures (basal-ganglia, thalamus, and cortex) and the molecular biophysics of glutamatergic and dopaminergic synapses. Finally, we discuss the different algorithms used to model STDP and compare them to reward-based learning rules. Certain similarities are found in spite of the strongly different timescales. Here we focus on the biophysics of the different calcium-release mechanisms known to be involved in STDP.

  14. Using temporally aligned event-related potentials for the investigation of attention shifts prior to and during saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber-Huber, Christoph; Ditye, Thomas; Marchante Fernández, María; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    According to the pre-motor theory of attention, attention is shifted to a saccade's landing position before the saccade is executed. Such pre-saccadic attention shifts are usually studied in psychophysical dual-task conditions, with a target-discrimination task before saccade onset. Here, we present a novel approach to investigate pre-saccadic attention shifts with the help of event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants executed one or two saccades to color-defined targets while ERPs and eye-movements were recorded. In single-target blocks participants executed a single saccade. In two-targets blocks participants made either a single saccade to one of the targets, or two successive saccades to both targets. Importantly, in two-targets blocks, targets could appear on the same or on opposite sides of the vertical midline. This allowed us to study contra-to-ipsilateral ERP differences (such as the N2pc or PCN) that reflect attention shifts to the targets, prior to saccade onset and during saccades. If pre-saccadic attention shifts to saccade target locations are necessary for saccade execution and if searched-for saccade targets capture attention, there should be enhanced attentional competition (1) between two targets compared to single targets; (2) between two opposite-sides targets compared to two same-side targets; and (3) in two saccades rather than one saccade conditions: More attentional competition was expected to delay saccade latency and to weaken pre-saccadic laterality effects in ERPs. Hypotheses were tested by means of temporally aligned ERPs that were simultaneously time-locked to stimulus onsets, saccade onsets, and saccade offsets. Predictions (1) and (2) were partly and fully confirmed, respectively, but no evidence was found for (3). We explain the implications of our results for the role of attention during saccade preparation, and we point out how temporally aligned ERPs compare to ICA-based electroencephalogram (EEG) artifact correction

  15. The Pattern of Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in OPA1-Related Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy Inferred From Temporal, Spatial, and Chromatic Sensitivity Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majander, Anna; João, Catarina; Rider, Andrew T.; Henning, G. Bruce; Votruba, Marcela; Moore, Anthony T.; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Stockman, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss is the pathological hallmark of autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA) caused by pathogenic OPA1 mutations. The aim of this study was to conduct an in-depth psychophysical study of the visual losses in DOA and to infer any selective vulnerability of visual pathways subserved by different RGC subtypes. Methods We recruited 25 patients carrying pathogenic OPA1 mutations and age-matched healthy individuals. Spatial contrast sensitivity functions (SCSFs) and chromatic contrast sensitivity were quantified, the latter using the Cambridge Colour Test. In 11 patients, long (L) and short (S) wavelength–sensitive cone temporal acuities were measured as a function of target illuminance, and L-cone temporal contrast sensitivity (TCSF) as a function of temporal frequency. Results Spatial contrast sensitivity functions were abnormal, with the loss of sensitivity increasing with spatial frequency. Further, the highest L-cone temporal acuity fell on average by 10 Hz and the TCSFs by 0.66 log10 unit. Chromatic thresholds along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes were 8, 9, and 14 times higher than normal, respectively, with losses increasing with age and S-cone temporal acuity showing the most significant age-related decline. Conclusions Losses of midget parvocellular, parasol magnocellular, and bistratified koniocellular RGCs could account for the losses of high spatial frequency sensitivity and protan and deutan sensitivities, high temporal frequency sensitivity, and S-cone temporal and tritan sensitivities, respectively. The S-cone–related losses showed a significant deterioration with increasing patient age and could therefore prove useful biomarkers of disease progression in DOA. PMID:28125838

  16. THE EFFECT OF WARM DARK MATTER ON GALAXY PROPERTIES: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE STELLAR MASS FUNCTION AND THE TULLY-FISHER RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Xi [Purple Mountain Observatory, the Partner Group of MPI fuer Astronomie, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Maccio, Andrea V.; Dutton, Aaron A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-04-10

    In this paper, we combine high-resolution N-body simulations with a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation to study the effects of a possible warm dark matter (WDM) component on the observable properties of galaxies. We compare three WDM models with a dark matter (DM) mass of 0.5, 0.75, and 2.0 keV with the standard cold dark matter case. For a fixed set of parameters describing the baryonic physics, the WDM models predict fewer galaxies at low (stellar) masses, as expected due to the suppression of power on small scales, while no substantial difference is found at the high-mass end. However, these differences in the stellar mass function vanish when a different set of parameters is used to describe the (largely unknown) galaxy formation processes. We show that it is possible to break this degeneracy between DM properties and the parameterization of baryonic physics by combining observations on the stellar mass function with the Tully-Fisher relation (the relation between stellar mass and the rotation velocity at large galactic radii as probed by resolved H I rotation curves). WDM models with a too warm candidate (m{sub {nu}} < 0.75 keV) cannot simultaneously reproduce the stellar mass function and the Tully-Fisher relation. We conclude that accurate measurements of the galaxy stellar mass function and the link between galaxies and DM halos down to the very low mass end can give very tight constraints on the nature of DM candidates.

  17. Spatio-temporal relation between landslide occurrence and abandoned or not maintained agricultural terraces in the Moldavian Plateau, NE Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Santangelo, Michele; Niculita, Mihai; Bucci, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Terraced landscapes are one of the most obvious human-shaped landscapes, mainly used to reduce the negative impact of soil erosion due to uncontrolled runoff and shallow landslides occurrence. Nevertheless, as the recent literature emphasizes, these old best practices can transform into a potential hazard for soil degradation, if not appropriately maintained. In Moldavian Plateau (NE Romania), agricultural terraces were built after the 1960s for landslide, soil erosion and runoff control, mainly in connection with construction of reservoirs, for increasing their operation time. Usually, the slope reduction was obtained by construction of cut-off ditches, hillside ditches, intermittent terraces, bench terraces, broad-based terraces, vineyardand orchard terraces. Due to the dry climatic setting, to the lack of hard rocks for construction, and to the generally light earth moving machinery available for construction, terraces are generally characterized by a small escarpment (0.5m to 1m), and a relatively short lateral extension (5 to 40 m). When the terraces were maintained, the backslope was typically covered with grass. When, after the 1990s, the lands were returned to the initial owners, the vegetation cover of the terraces was no more maintained, and the terraces themselves were progressively abandoned, due to lack of funds. Accurate landslide mapping on high resolution LiDAR DEM derived images, allowed to produce geomorphological inventories in 5 test cases, representative of the whole study area. In each inventory, landslides were classified based on type and relative age based on published classification schemes. We investigate the spatial and temporal relation between landslides occurrence and terraces, based on the spatial interactions of landslides of different ages and terraces. Results reveal that terraces were built, both on landslide-free and landslide-bearing slopes, and that frequently landslides and gullies develop on terraced slopes. Reactivations of

  18. Experimental and Temporal Observations on the Occurrence and Abundance of Pyrogenic PAH Relative to Atmospheric Oxygen Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuneman, P. J.; Uhle, M. E.

    2004-12-01

    The Phanerozoic record of atmospheric O2 is based on a global mass balance of several dynamic geochemical cycles, with error margins reflecting such complexity. The potential for accurately determining the record of atmospheric O2 may significantly improve with the proposed method, which relies on a direct relationship between atmospheric oxygen, fuels, and fire products. The interaction between combustion and atmospheric-oxygen level during biomass burning events is investigated by comparing the occurrence and abundance of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from experimentally-produced, modern, Triassic, and Carboniferous chars. The combustion process consumes O2 directly from the atmosphere and thermally alters organic matter to produce chars. PAH that develop through combustion, and are preserved within chars, are expected to be more abundant at times of elevated atmospheric O2, which facilitates biomass burning efficiency. To investigate the hypothesized relationship in the geologic record, PAH have been extracted from chars of three periods - modern, Triassic, and Carboniferous - relating to 21%, 15%, and 35% atmospheric O2, respectively (Berner and Canfield, 1989). Surface samples of modern chars that developed in controlled burns set by National Park Service personnel in a mixed conifer-deciduous forest were collected at Zion National Park, Utah. Triassic fusain from Petrified Forest National Park, AZ, and Carboniferous fusain from Joggins Fossil Cliffs, Nova Scotia, were collected from floodplain- and coastal plain-deposited mudstone and sandstone. Target PAH shown to be uniquely pyrogenic include: phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, and benzo(ghi)perylene. The abundance of PAH from modern chars at Zion National Park, Triassic fusain from Petrified Forest National Park, and Carboniferous fusain from Joggins Fossil Cliffs

  19. Temporal Patterns in the Abundance of a Critically Endangered Marsupial Relates to Disturbance by Roads and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Georgina J; Wayne, Adrian F; Mills, Harriet R; Prince, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how landscape disturbance associated with roads, agriculture and forestry influenced temporal patterns in woylie (Bettongia penicillata) abundance before, during and after periods of rapid population change. Data were collected from an area of approximately 140,000 ha of forest within the Upper Warren region in south-western Australia. Woylie abundance was measured using cage trapping at 22 grid and five transect locations with varying degrees of landscape disturbance between 1994 and 2012. We found evidence that the distribution and abundance of woylies over time appears to be related to the degree of fragmentation by roads and proximity to agriculture. Sites furthest from agriculture supported a greater abundance of woylies and had slower rates of population decline. Sites with fewer roads had a greater abundance of woylies generally and a greater rate of increase in abundance after the implementation of invasive predator control. The results of this study suggest that landscape disturbance is less important at peak population densities, but during times of environmental and population change, sites less dissected by roads and agriculture better support woylie populations. This may be due to the role these factors play in increasing the vulnerability of woylies to introduced predators, population fragmentation, weed species invasion, mortality from road collisions or a reduction in available habitat. Strategies that reduce the impact of disturbance on woylie populations could include the rationalisation of forest tracks and consolidation of contiguous habitat through the acquisition of private property. Reducing the impact of disturbance in the Upper Warren region could improve the resilience of this critically important woylie population during future environmental change.

  20. Temporal and vertical variations in phythoplankton community structure and its relation to some morphometric parameters of four Colombian reservoirs Temporal and vertical variations in phythoplankton community structure and its relation to some morphometric parameters of four Colombian reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez R. John J.

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton samples were taken at three depths within the photie zone of eaeh of four reservoirs, Punehiná, Las Playas, El Peñol and San Lorenzo loeated in Antioquia department, Colombia. A total of 77 taxa were identified in the four reservoirs. Diatoms were not included. In all reservoirs, Chlorophyta was the dominant group. Botryococcus braunii was the dominant species at Punchiná, Las Playas and El Peñol reservoirs; Cosmarium sp. was the dominant at San Lorenzo. Temporal variation in phytoplankton showed two peaks of abundance, apparently related to precipitation. Taxonomic composition among samples from the same reservoir showed little variation. Community structure at different depths showed significant differences only at San Lorenzo reservoir. The inverse of β-diversity showed small values indicating high similarity among the reservoirs. Diversitv showed no significant assoeiation with any morphometric factor evaluated (area, retention time, altitude and age.Se efectuaron muestreos de fitoplaneton en tres profundidades de la zona fótica de los embalses Punchiná, Las Playas, El Peñol y San Lorenzo, localizados en el departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Se identificaron un total de 77 taxones en los cuatro embalses. Las diatomeas no fueron incluídas. En todos los casos las Cholorophyta fueron el grupo dominante. Botryococcus braunii fue el taxón de mayor densidad en los embalses Punchiná, Las Playas y El Peñol; y Cosmarium sp. en el embalse San Lorenzo. La comunidad fitoplanctónica mostró dos picos de abundancia aparentemente relacionados con la precipitación. En cada embalse, la composición de taxones entre muestreos varió poco. La estructura de la comunidad a diferentes profundidades mostró diferencias significativas únicamente en el embalse San Lorenzo. El inverso de la β-diversidad presentó valores bajos que muestran la alta similaridad entre embalses. La diversidad no mostró asociación significativa con

  1. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Thierry; Poder, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  2. Composing constraint solvers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Zoeteweij (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractComposing constraint solvers based on tree search and constraint propagation through generic iteration leads to efficient and flexible constraint solvers. This was demonstrated using OpenSolver, an abstract branch-and-propagate tree search engine that supports a wide range of relevant

  3. Does a future-oriented temporal perspective relate to body mass index, eating, and exercise? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Allison M; Culcea, Ileana

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the magnitude of the association between future temporal perspective and Body Mass Index (BMI), diet, and exercise, respectively, and to clarify whether subjective future-focus scales or delay-discounting tasks are a more robust predictor of health behaviors. A systematic search was conducted for studies that included a dispositional measure of future temporal perspective and a measure of BMI, eating, and/or exercise behavior. Effect sizes for BMI, eating, and exercise were calculated using a random-effects model. The aggregate effect sizes for BMI (r = 0.14, k = 36, 95% CI = 0.10 - 0.18, p perspective task (delay-discounting vs. subjective future-focus scale) nor the percentage of obese participants moderated the effect of temporal perspective on BMI, eating, or exercise. Although small in magnitude, the association between temporal perspective and health outcomes is comparable to other individual differences, such as personality and temperament. Future research is needed to examine how increasing the value placed on future outcomes can be integrated into long-term health behavior change interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relations between perceptual measures of temporal processing, auditory-evoked brainstem responses and speech intelligibility in noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papakonstantinou, Alexandra; Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    kHz) and steeply sloping hearing losses above 1 kHz. For comparison, data were also collected for five normalhearing listeners. Temporal processing was addressed at low frequencies by means of psychoacoustical frequency discrimination, binaural masked detection and amplitude modulation (AM...

  5. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalanka-Tuovinen, J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability,

  6. Temporal Ordering Effects of Adolescent Depression, Relational Aggression, and Victimization over Six Waves: Fully Latent Reciprocal Effects Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Parker, Philip D.; Parada, Roberto H.; Guo, Jiesi; Dicke, Theresa; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah

    2016-01-01

    The temporal ordering of depression, aggression, and victimization has important implications for theory, policy, and practice. For a representative sample of high school students (Grades 7-10; N = 3,793) who completed the same psychometrically strong, multiitem scales 6 times over a 2-year period, there were reciprocal effects between…

  7. Behavioural and psychological symptoms are not related to white matter hyperintensities and medial temporal lobe atrophy in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staekenborg, S.S.; Gillissen, F.; Romkes, R.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The neuropathology of behavioural and psychological symptoms is much less understood than the neuropathology of cognitive impairment in AD. On MRI, medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is presumed to reflect Alzheimer-type pathology. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are considered

  8. Temporal and spatial variation of terpenoids in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in relation to feeding by Adelges tsugae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony F. Lagalante; Nyssa Lewis; Michael E. Montgomery; Kathleen S. Shields

    2006-01-01

    The terpenoid content of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) foliage was measured over an annual cycle of development from bud opening, shoot elongation, shoot maturation, to bud-break at the start of the next growing season. The objective was to determine if variation in terpenoid composition is linked with spatial and temporal feeding preferences of...

  9. The quest for universals in temporal processing in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, C; Bertrand, D

    2001-06-01

    Music perception and performance rely heavily on temporal processing: for instance, each event must be situated in time in relation to surrounding events, and events must be grouped together in order to overcome memory constraints. The temporal structure of music varies considerably from one culture to another, and so it has often been supposed that the specific implementation of perceptual and cognitive temporal processes will differ as a function of an individual's cultural exposure and experience. In this paper we examine the alternative position that some temporal processes may be universal, in the sense that they function in a similar manner irrespective of an individual's cultural exposure and experience. We first review rhythm perception and production studies carried out with adult musicians, adult nonmusicians, children, and infants in order to identify temporal processes that appear to function in a similar fashion irrespective of age, acculturation, and musical training. This review leads to the identification of five temporal processes that we submit as candidates for the status of "temporal universals." For each process, we select the simplest and most representative experimental paradigm that has been used to date. This leads to a research proposal for future intercultural studies that could test the universal nature of these processes.

  10. Use of an in-house Monte Carlo platform to assess the clinical impact of algorithm-related dose differences on DVH constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A; Crop, F; Mirabel, X; Tailly, C; Reynaert, N

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate a semi-automatic prescription and validation system of treatment plans for complex delivery techniques, integrated in a Monte Carlo platform, and to investigate the clinical impact of dose differences due to the calculation algorithms, by assessing the changes in DVH constraints. A new prescription module was implemented into the Moderato system, an in-house Monte Carlo platform, with corresponding dose constraints generated depending on the anatomical region and fractionation scheme considered. The platform was tested on 83 cases treated with Cyberknife and Tomotherapy machines, to assess whether dose variations between the re-calculated dose and the Treatment Planning System might impact the dose constraints on the sensitive structures. Dose differences were small (within 3%) between calculation algorithms in most of the thoracic, pelvic and abdominal cases, both for the Cyberknife and Tomotherapy machines. On the other hand, spinal and head and neck treatments presented a few significant dose deviations for constraints on small volumes, such as the optic pathways and the spinal cord. These differences range from -11% to +6%, inducing constraint violations of up to 8% over the dose limit. The Moderato platform offers an interesting tool for plan quality validation, with a prescription module highlighting crucial features in the structures list, and a Monte Carlo dose re-calculation for complex modern techniques. Due to the high number of warnings appearing in some situations, display optimization is required in practice. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Indeterministic Temporal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.

  12. Influence of temporal changes in relative humidity on dry deposition velocities and fluxes of aerosol particles bearing trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T. L.; Ondov, J. M.

    To estimate the significance of temporal changes in RH on dry deposition to a water surface, size-segregated particulate aerosol samples were collected with nine-stage micro-orifice impactors at average RH ranging from mmad) were calculated from the resulting size spectra for each element and used to characterize particle growth as a function of RH. The spectra were used in an adaptation of the Williams (1982)' model along with half-hourly meteorological observations made over a nine-month period at a northern Bay Buoy station to investigate the effects of temporal variations in RH on the deposition fluxes of important elemental aerosol constituents. Additional modeling was done using the hygroscopic growth equation of Koutrakis et al. (1989) developed for atmospheric sulfate. At 60% RH, mmads for fine-particle components of As, Sb, Se, V, and Zn aerosols were: 0.29, 0.33, 0.30, 0.27, and 0.4 μm, i.e. comparable to those measured previously in College Park, MD Ondov and Divita, 1993. These increased from 50 to 300% at RH=95±4%. Modeling results suggest that temporal RH effects account for from 1.5- to>four-fold increase in the deposition of fine particle fractions which bear the bulk of many these elements.

  13. The Barrancas anticline in west-central Argentina: new geomorphic and geologic constraints on the geometry and activity of a fault-related fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, J. M.; Schoenbohm, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Barrancas anticline in Mendoza Province, west-central Argentina is a N-NW-oriented, east-vergent fault-bend fold located in the transition from the mainly east-vergent, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera to the mainly west-vergent, thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas — one of the most active thrust zones on Earth. Previous studies of the Barrancas anticline interpreted its structure from 2-D and 3-D seismic data. The anticline is a fault-bend fold with multiple segments with different uplift histories and which linked only after 2.3Ma. This study aims to establish the temporal persistence of segmentation and to describe the role, extent and rates of deformation processes involved in the development of the Barrancas anticline from morphometric analyses, geologic and geomorphic mapping, and accurate dating of relevant geomorphic features. Longitudinal profile analysis of streams on the anticline reveals marked differences in normalized steepness index (ksn) between the western and eastern limbs as well as variation along strike. This distribution of ksn values reveals patterns consistent with asymmetry and segmentation of the Barrancas anticline. Swath profiles parallel to the fold axis resemble fault slip distribution profiles which was a basis for segmentation from previous studies. Drainage basin morphometric indices such as hypsometry, drainage density, and basin elongation were also measured. Hypsometric integral values were particularly higher on the west than on the east, possibly indicating younger folding on the western limb. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the nature, extent, timing, and rate of folding at the transition from thin- to thick-skinned thrust deformation in west-central Argentina. Additionally, this study will contribute to assessment of seismic hazards associated with fault-related folds in Argentina and in similar tectonic settings worldwide.

  14. Comparison of even-skipped related gene expression pattern in vertebrates shows an association between expression domain loss and modification of selective constraints on sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaron, Fabien; Thaëron-Antono, Christelle; Beck, Caroline W; Borday-Birraux, Véronique; Géraudie, Jacqueline; Casane, Didier; Laurenti, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The even-skipped related genes (evx) encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors that play key roles in body patterning and neurogenesis in a wide array of Eumetazoa species. It is thought that the genome of the last common ancestor of Chordata contained a unique evx gene linked to a unique ancestral Hox complex. During subsequent evolution, two rounds of whole genome duplication followed by individual gene losses gave rise to three paralogs: evx1, evx2, and eve1. Then, eve1 was maintained in Actinopterygii lineage but not in Tetrapoda. To explain this discrepancy, we examined the expression patterns of the evx1 homologue, Xhox3, in Xenopus laevis and that of evx1 and eve1 in Danio rerio. We show here that Xhox3 is expressed in a manner that closely reflects the inferred expression pattern of the evx1 gene in the last common ancestor of Vertebrata (i.e., in gastrula, the central nervous system, the posterior gut, and the tip of the growing tail). Zebrafish evx1 and Xenopus Xhox3 are expressed in homologous cell lineages of the central nervous system and of the posterior gut, but evx1 was undetectable in the gastrula and the tail bud. Strikingly, eve1 is the only evx gene of zebrafish to be expressed in these two latter regions. Thus, the ancestral expression pattern of evx1 in vertebrates appears to have been distributed between evx1 and eve1 in zebrafish. We propose that evx1 and eve1 underwent a complementary loss of expression domain in zebrafish that allowed the maintenance of the two paralogs in accordance with the duplication-degeneration-complementation model. It is important to note that, in zebrafish, Evx1 and Eve1 have lost most of the protein domain upstream of the homeodomain. In addition, Eve1 has accumulated substitutions in positions that are highly conserved in all other Evx proteins. Thus, the reduction of the expression domain of both evx1 and eve1 in zebrafish appears to be associated with the modification of constraints on the protein

  15. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  16. The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to regional synoptic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shalev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning flashes over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to the regional synoptic systems has been studied, based on data obtained from the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS operated by the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC. The system detects cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in a range of ~500 km around central Israel (32.5° N, 35° E. The study period was defined for annual activity from August through July, for 5 seasons in the period 2004–2010.

    The spatial distribution of lightning flash density indicates the highest concentration over the Mediterranean Sea, attributed to the contribution of moisture as well as sensible and latent heat fluxes from the sea surface. Other centers of high density appear along the coastal plain, orographic barriers, especially in northern Israel, and downwind from the metropolitan area of Tel Aviv, Israel. The intra-annual distribution shows an absence of lightning during the summer months (JJA due to the persistent subsidence over the region. The vast majority of lightning activity occurs during 7 months, October to April. Although over 65 % of the rainfall in Israel is obtained during the winter months (DJF, only 35 % of lightning flashes occur in these months. October is the richest month, with 40 % of total annual flashes. This is attributed both to tropical intrusions, i.e., Red Sea Troughs (RST, which are characterized by intense static instability and convection, and to Cyprus Lows (CLs arriving from the west.

    Based on daily study of the spatial distribution of lightning, three patterns have been defined; "land", "maritime" and "hybrid". CLs cause high flash density over the Mediterranean Sea, whereas some of the RST days are typified by flashes over land. The pattern defined "hybrid" is a combination of the other 2 patterns. On CL days, only the maritime pattern was noted, whereas in RST days all 3 patterns were found

  17. Short-term temporal dynamics of algal species in a subtidal kelp bed in relation to changes in environmental conditions and canopy biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernberg, Thomas; Goldberg, Nisse

    2008-01-01

    Understanding temporal variation at the scale of weeks to months is critical to understanding broad temporal patterns in diversity in the same way as understanding diversity across landscapes relies on understanding variation at the scale of meters. However, whereas small-scale spatial variation in temperate reef algal assemblages has been extensively studied, fine-scale temporal changes have not been well addressed. By sampling the macroalgae of a subtidal reef near Perth (Australia), dominated by the small kelp Ecklonia radiata, every ˜40 days over a 2-year period, we were able to test whether temporal changes in species richness, assemblage structure and species turn-over were related to seasonal changes in surface temperature, solar radiation and wave height. A total of 93 macroalgal taxa were identified, and species richness per sampling time ranged from 25 to 64 taxa 1.25 m -2. Biomass of E. radiata was positively correlated with changes in sea surface temperature and light, and negatively correlated with wave height. Species richness, assemblage structure and turn-over of other macroalgae were more associated with seasonal changes in kelp biomass than environmental variables per se. We conclude that seasonal changes in environmental conditions drive changes in the kelp canopy, which in turn drive changes in species richness and assemblage structure. This suggests that habitat-formers such as kelps can exert a strong temporal influence on associated communities, analogous to well-described spatial influences. Thus, as kelp canopy biomass expands and retracts over time-scales of weeks to months, so does available space for colonization and growth, resulting in a high species turn-over. Species richness is therefore increased and maintained through time, in the same way as canopy-gap mosaics increase and maintain species richness across spatial landscapes.

  18. Constraints and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Biskjær, Michael Mose; Lundqvist, Caroline Emilie

    2017-01-01

    Developing creative abilities is an important part of 21st century skills, and yet remains challenging. In this paper we describe a study investigating small-scale creative strategies that groups of Scandinavian high school students use when collaboratively building LEGO models. We recorded thirty...... groups of students building three models each. We studied groups building with traditional plastic bricks and also using a digital environment. The building tasks students undertake, and our subsequent analysis, are informed by the role constraints and ambiguity play in creative processes. Based...... on the insights we gained, we present three strategies for designing tools and environments that support students as they develop creative skills. These strategies relate to: tools and materials, mutual learning, and reflection...

  19. Examining temporal alterations in Social Anxiety Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The relation between autobiographical memory, future goals, and current self-views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, Julie; Peeters, Manon; Näring, Gérard; Brown, Adam D; de Bree, June; van Minnen, Agnes

    2017-12-01

    The self is a multi-faceted and temporally dynamic construct reflecting representations and beliefs about identity in the past, present, and future. Clinical studies have shown that individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) exhibit alterations in self-related processing but these studies have focused primarily on memory. Few studies in PTSD and SAD have examined self-related processing for the present and future, and no studies have directly compared these processes across these two disorders. Individuals diagnosed with PTSD (n=21), SAD (n=21), and healthy controls (n=21) completed cognitive tasks related to the past, present, and future. Disorder congruent temporal alterations were found across both disorders. Further, regression analyses revealed that trauma-related memories were significantly predicted by future goals related to the trauma, whereas social anxiety-related recall was predicted by current socially anxious self-views. Thus, although self-related processing may be common in PTSD and SAD, those aspects of the self most strongly associated with disorder-congruent recall differ by disorder. Self-alterations may be modifiable and developing a better understanding of past, present, and future self-processing might aid in the development of interventions that target these process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying relative fishing impact on fish populations based on spatio-temporal overlap of fishing effort and stock density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of the effects of management measures on fish populations are usually based on the analyses of population dynamics and estimates of fishing mortality from stock assessments. However, this approach may not be applicable in all cases, in particular for data-limited stocks, which may...... GAM analyses to predict local cod densities and combine this with spatio-temporal data of fishing effort based on VMS (Vessel Monitoring System). To quantify local fishing impact on the stock, retention probability of the gears is taken into account. The results indicate a substantial decline...

  1. Bilateral inferior frontal language-related activation correlates with verbal recall in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy and typical language distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Ana; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; García-Porcar, María; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Forn, Cristina; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campos, Anabel; Palau, Juan; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Villanueva, Vicente; Avila, César

    2013-03-01

    Language fMRI has been used in the presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Previous studies have demonstrated that left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) patients with atypical language lateralization are at lower risk of postsurgical verbal memory decline, hypothesizing co-occurrence of verbal memory and language reorganization presurgically. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the recruitment of right frontal language-related areas is associated with the preservation of verbal memory performance in these patients. However, less is known about the correlation between these functions specifically in LTLE patients with left language dominance, although they are more prone to postsurgical verbal memory decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the relationship between verbal memory scores and frontal language activation is also observed in LTLE patients with typical language dominance. Eighteen healthy controls, 12 right temporal lobe epilepsy patients and 12 LTLE patients with typical language distribution as assessed by an fMRI verbal fluency task were selected. Verbal memory scores were obtained from the patients' neuropsychological presurgical evaluation. Our results showed a positive correlation between verbal recall and activation of bilateral inferior frontal areas in LTLE patients. These results support the hypothesis of a link between language representation in inferior frontal areas and hippocampal functioning, and indicate that both hemispheres are related to the preservation of verbal memory in patients with hippocampal damage and typical language dominance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal Lobe Reactions After Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy: Comparison of Relative Biological Effectiveness–Weighted Tolerance Doses Predicted by Local Effect Models I and IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillmann, Clarissa, E-mail: clarissa.gillmann@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Jäkel, Oliver [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Schlampp, Ingmar [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Karger, Christian P. [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)–weighted tolerance doses for temporal lobe reactions after carbon ion radiation therapy using 2 different versions of the local effect model (LEM I vs LEM IV) for the same patient collective under identical conditions. Methods and Materials: In a previous study, 59 patients were investigated, of whom 10 experienced temporal lobe reactions (TLR) after carbon ion radiation therapy for low-grade skull-base chordoma and chondrosarcoma at Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany in 2002 and 2003. TLR were detected as visible contrast enhancements on T1-weighted MRI images within a median follow-up time of 2.5 years. Although the derived RBE-weighted temporal lobe doses were based on the clinically applied LEM I, we have now recalculated the RBE-weighted dose distributions using LEM IV and derived dose-response curves with Dmax,V-1 cm³ (the RBE-weighted maximum dose in the remaining temporal lobe volume, excluding the volume of 1 cm³ with the highest dose) as an independent dosimetric variable. The resulting RBE-weighted tolerance doses were compared with those of the previous study to assess the clinical impact of LEM IV relative to LEM I. Results: The dose-response curve of LEM IV is shifted toward higher values compared to that of LEM I. The RBE-weighted tolerance dose for a 5% complication probability (TD{sub 5}) increases from 68.8 ± 3.3 to 78.3 ± 4.3 Gy (RBE) for LEM IV as compared to LEM I. Conclusions: LEM IV predicts a clinically significant increase of the RBE-weighted tolerance doses for the temporal lobe as compared to the currently applied LEM I. The limited available photon data do not allow a final conclusion as to whether RBE predictions of LEM I or LEM IV better fit better clinical experience in photon therapy. The decision about a future clinical application of LEM IV therefore requires additional analysis of temporal lobe reactions in a

  3. Temporal Changes in Mortality Related to Extreme Temperatures for 15 Cities in Northeast Asia: Adaptation to Heat and Maladaptation to Cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeonseung; Noh, Heesang; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro; Bell, Michelle L; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho

    2017-05-15

    Understanding how the temperature-mortality association worldwide changes over time is crucial to addressing questions of human adaptation under climate change. Previous studies investigated the temporal changes in the association over a few discrete time frames or assumed a linear change. Also, most studies focused on attenuation of heat-related mortality and studied the United States or Europe. This research examined continuous temporal changes (potentially nonlinear) in mortality related to extreme temperature (both heat and cold) for 15 cities in Northeast Asia (1972-2009). We used a generalized linear model with splines to simultaneously capture 2 types of nonlinearity: nonlinear association between temperature and mortality and nonlinear change over time in the association. We combined city-specific results to generate country-specific results using Bayesian hierarchical modeling. Cold-related mortality remained roughly constant over decades and slightly increased in the late 2000s, with a larger increase for cardiorespiratory deaths than for deaths from other causes. Heat-related mortality rates have decreased continuously over time, with more substantial decrease in earlier decades, for older populations and for cardiorespiratory deaths. Our findings suggest that future assessment of health effects of climate change should account for the continuous changes in temperature-related health risk and variations by factors such as age, cause of death, and location. © Crown copyright 2017.

  4. Symbolic Constraints in Constructive Geometric Constraint Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Christoph M.; Joan-Arinyo, Robert

    1997-01-01

    In design and manufacturing applications, users of computer aided design systems want to define relationships between dimension variables, since such relationships express design intent very flexibly. This work reports on a technique developed to enhance a class of constructive geometric constraint solvers with the capability of managing functional relationships between dimension variables. The method is shown to be correct.

  5. Credit Constraints in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…

  6. The Antigone Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggy, David

    This paper presents a class of sentences that certain syntactic rules of English would be expected to produce, but that are not grammatical. The sentences all involve the raising of a sentential Noun Phrase (NP) and the subsequent application of some syntactic rule to that senential NP. A constraint, referred to as the Antigone Constraint, is…

  7. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  8. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  9. Cadmium levels in kidneys from Swedish pigs in relation to environmental factors--temporal and spatial trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawé, K P; Thierfelder, T; Jorhem, L; Oskarsson, A

    1997-12-03

    The kidney cadmium level in pigs slaughtered at the age of 5-7 months was analysed with respect to geographical and temporal trends. During the period 1984-1992, a total of 1051 samples of porcine kidney from 31 abattoirs were analysed for cadmium at the National Food Administration within the control programme for livestock production. The mean kidney cadmium level was 0.11 +/- 0.07 mg/kg wet wt. (mean +/- S.D.). Regression analysis showed that the cadmium concentration in pig kidney has increased by 2% per year. By using Geographic Information System (GIS), geographical trends in cadmium concentration of porcine kidney were analysed and correlated to cadmium levels in moss and pH in the mor layer of podsolized soil. These two parameters explained 60% of the random variation in cadmium levels in porcine kidney. There were significant differences between individual abattoirs, but no significant longitudinal or latitudinal trend was found. Variation in kidney cadmium levels within breeding stocks was investigated. Kidneys from eight stocks, with five pigs from each, were analysed for cadmium concentration. In spite of the homogeneous treatment of the pig within the same stock, kidney cadmium levels varied on average by a factor of two between individuals. There was a significant correlation between cadmium in feed and cadmium levels in porcine kidney (P = 0.002). The temporal increase in cadmium levels in porcine kidney should be further investigated. An increase in cadmium body burden in pig may be an indicator of an increase in human cadmium exposure.

  10. Reading, listening and memory-related brain activity in children with early-stage temporal lobe epilepsy of unknown cause-an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Katariina; Ipatti, Pieta; Harila, Marika; Nikkinen, Juha; Paakki, Jyri-Johan; Rytky, Seppo; Starck, Tuomo; Remes, Jukka; Tokariev, Maksym; Carlson, Synnöve; Tervonen, Osmo; Rantala, Heikki; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2015-09-01

    The changes in functional brain organization associated with paediatric epilepsy are largely unknown. Since children with epilepsy are at risk of developing learning difficulties even before or shortly after the onset of epilepsy, we assessed the functional organization of memory and language in paediatric patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) at an early stage in epilepsy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response to four cognitive tasks measuring reading, story listening, memory encoding and retrieval in a population-based group of children with TLE of unknown cause (n = 21) and of normal intelligence and a healthy age and gender-matched control group (n = 21). Significant BOLD response differences were found only in one of the four tasks. In the story listening task, significant differences were found in the right hemispheric temporal structures, thalamus and basal ganglia. Both activation and deactivation differed significantly between the groups, activation being increased and deactivation decreased in the TLE group. Furthermore, the patients with abnormal electroencephalograms (EEGs) showed significantly increased activation bilaterally in the temporal structures, basal ganglia and thalamus relative to those with normal EEGs. The patients with normal interictal EEGs had a significantly stronger deactivation than those with abnormal EEGs or the controls, the differences being located outside the temporal structures. Our results suggest that TLE entails a widespread disruption of brain networks. This needs to be taken into consideration when evaluating learning abilities in patients with TLE. The thalamus seems to play an active role in TLE. The changes in deactivation may reflect neuronal inhibition. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extensive spatio-temporal analyses of surface ozone and related meteorological variables in South Korea for 1999-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, J.; Youn, D.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, H.

    2014-01-01

    Spatio-temporal characteristics of surface ozone (O3) variations over South Korea are investigated with consideration of meteorological factors and time-scales based on the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filter (KZ-filter), using measurement data at 124 air quality monitoring sites and 72 weather stations for the 12 yr period of 1999-2010. In general, O3 levels at coastal cities are high due to dynamic effects of the sea breeze while those at the inland and Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) cities are low due to the NOx titration by local precursor emissions. We examine the meteorological influences on the O3 using a combined analysis of the KZ-filter and linear regressions between O3 and meteorological variables. We decomposed O3 time-series at each site into short-term, seasonal, and long-term components by the KZ-filter and regressed them on meteorological variables. Impact of temperature on the O3 levels is significantly high in the highly populated SMA and inland region while that is low in the coastal region. In particular, the probability of high-O3 occurrence doubled with 4 °C of temperature increase in the SMA during high-O3 months (May to October). It implies that those regions will experience frequent high-O3 events in the future warming climate. In terms of short-term variation, distribution of high-O3 probability classified by wind direction shows the effect of both local precursor emissions and long-range transport from China. In terms of long-term variation, the O3 concentrations have increased by +0.26 ppbv yr-1 on nationwide average, but their trends show large spatial variability. Additional statistical analysis of the singular value decomposition further reveals that the long-term temporal evolution of O3 is similar to that of the nitrogen dioxide measurement although the spatial distributions of their trends are different. This study would be helpful as a reference for diagnostics and evaluation of regional- and local-scale O3 and climate simulations and a

  12. Constraint-based reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gotlieb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  13. Multilevel spatio-temporal dual changepoint models for relating alcohol outlet destruction and changes in neighbourhood rates of assaultive violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingzhao; Scribner, Richard; Carlin, Brad; Theall, Katherine; Simonsen, Neal; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Mason, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Many previous studies have suggested a link between alcohol outlets and assaultive violence. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of the “1992 Civil Unrest” in Los Angeles (which followed the “Rodney King incident”), in which many alcohol outlets were damaged leading to a decrease in alcohol outlet density, on crime. We leverage the natural experiment created by the closure of alcohol outlets in certain areas and not others to explore the effects of alcohol availability on assault crimes at the census tract level. We develop a hierarchical model that controls for important covariates (such as race and socio-economic status) and accounts for unexplained spatial and temporal variability. While our model is somewhat complex, its hierarchical Bayesian analysis is accessible via the WinBUGS software. Our results show that, keeping other effects fixed, the reduction in alcohol availability within a census tract was associated with a drop in the assaultive violence rate at the census tract level. Comparing several dual candidate changepoint models using the Deviance Information Criterion, the drop in assaultive violence rate is best seen as having occurred one year after the reduction in alcohol availability, with the effect lasting roughly five years. We also create maps of the fitted assault rates in Los Angeles, as well as spatial residual maps that suggest various spatially-varying covariates are still missing from our model. PMID:18686265

  14. Multilevel spatio-temporal dual changepoint models for relating alcohol outlet destruction and changes in neighbourhood rates of assaultive violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhao Yu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Many previous studies have suggested a link between alcohol outlets and assaultive violence. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of the “1992 Civil Unrest” in Los Angeles (which followed the “Rodney King incident”, in which many alcohol outlets were damaged leading to a decrease in alcohol outlet density, on crime. We leverage the natural experiment created by the closure of alcohol outlets in certain areas and not others to explore the effects of alcohol availability on assault crimes at the census tract level. We develop a hierarchical model that controls for important covariates (such as race and socio-economic status and accounts for unexplained spatial and temporal variability. While our model is somewhat complex, its hierarchical Bayesian analysis is accessible via the WinBUGS software. Our results show that, keeping other effects fixed, the reduction in alcohol availability within a census tract was associated with a drop in the assaultive violence rate at the census tract level. Comparing several dual candidate changepoint models using the Deviance Information Criterion, the drop in assaultive violence rate is best seen as having occurred one year after the reduction in alcohol availability, with the effect lasting roughly five years. We also create maps of the fitted assault rates in Los Angeles, as well as spatial residual maps that suggest various spatially-varying covariates are still missing from our model.

  15. Activity of pursuit-related neurons in medial superior temporal area (MST) during static roll-tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Keishi; Akao, Teppei; Kurkin, Sergei; Fukushima, Kikuro

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rhesus macaques can perceive visual motion direction in earth-centered coordinates as accurately as humans. We tested whether coordinate frames representing smooth pursuit and/or visual motion signals in medial superior temporal area (MST) are earth centered to better understand its role in coordinating smooth pursuit. In 2 Japanese macaques, we compared preferred directions (re monkeys' head-trunk axis) of pursuit and/or visual motion responses of MSTd neurons while upright and during static whole-body roll-tilt. In the majority (41/51 = 80%) of neurons tested, preferred directions of pursuit and/or visual motion responses were not significantly different while upright and during 40° static roll-tilt. Preferred directions of the remaining 20% of neurons (n = 10) were shifted beyond the range expected from ocular counter-rolling; the maximum shift was 14°, and the mean shift was 12°. These shifts, however, were still less than half of the expected shift if MST signals are coded in the earth-centered coordinates. Virtually, all tested neurons (44/46 = 96%) failed to exhibit a significant difference between resting discharge rate while upright and during static roll-tilt while fixating a stationary spot. These results suggest that smooth pursuit and/or visual motion signals of MST neurons are not coded in the earth-centered coordinates; our results favor the head- and/or trunk-centered coordinates.

  16. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  17. Temporal changes in abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and archaeal communities in a drained peat soil in relation to N{sub 2}O emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andert, Janet [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology; Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany); Wessen, Ella; Hallin, Sara [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology; Boerjesson, Gunnar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil and Environment

    2011-12-15

    Boreal peat soils comprise about 3% of the terrestrial environments, and when drained, they become sources of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Ammonia oxidation can result in N{sub 2}O emissions, either directly or by fuelling denitrification, but we know little about the ecology of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in peat soils. Our aim was to determine temporal alterations in abundance and composition of these communities in a drained and forested peat soil in relation to N{sub 2}O emissions and ammonia oxidation activity. Materials and methods The peat was sampled at three different depths in the upper 0.5 m over a period of 9 months covering two summer and two winter samplings. Community composition and abundance were determined by T-RFLP and quantitative real-time PCR of the bacterial and archaeal amoA genes. Potential ammonia oxidation rates were measured using the chlorate inhibition technique, and in situ N{sub 2}O emission was determined using chambers. Results and discussion The soil parameters displayed little spatial and temporal heterogeneity, which probably explained why there were no depth-related effects on the abundance, composition, or activity of the ammonia oxidizers. In contrast to most terrestrial environments, the AOB dominated numerically over the AOA. Both groups changed in community composition between sampling occasions, although the AOB showed more significant seasonal signatures than the AOA. Temporal changes in abundance were only observed for the AOB, with a decrease in numbers from May to March. Such differences were not reflected by the activity or N{sub 2}O emissions. Conclusions The high ammonium concentrations in the peat soil likely favored the AOB over the AOA, and we hypothesize that they were more active than the AOA and therefore responded to climatic and environmental changes. However, other processes rather than ammonia oxidation were likely responsible for N{sub 2}O emissions at the site.

  18. A comparison framework for temporal image reconstructions in electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Hervé; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2015-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) provides low-resolution images of internal conductivity distributions, but is able to achieve relatively high temporal resolutions. Most EIT image reconstruction algorithms do not explicitly account for the temporal constraints on the measurements or physiological processes under investigation. Instead, algorithms typically assume both that the conductivity distribution does not change during the acquisition of each EIT data frame, and that frames can be reconstructed independently, without consideration of the correlation between images. A failure to account for these temporal effects will result in aliasing-related artefacts in images. Several methods have been proposed to compensate for these effects, including interpolation of raw data, and reconstruction algorithms using Kalman and temporal filtering. However, no systematic work has been performed to understand the severity of the temporal artefacts nor the extent to which algorithms can account for them. We seek to address this need by developing a temporal comparison framework and figures of merit to assess the ability of reconstruction algorithms to account for temporal effects. Using this approach, we compare combinations of three reconstruction algorithms using three EIT data frame types: perfect, realistic and interpolated. The results show that, without accounting for temporal effects, artefacts are present in images for dynamic conductivity contrasts at frequencies 10-20 times slower than the frame rate. The proposed methods show some improvements in reducing these artefacts.

  19. Temporal Trends of NO2, CO and their Relation to the Fire Occurrences over the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A. K.; Kumar, K.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is an environmental issue that has a gigantic impact on human health, and it is a major problem in the densely populated regions throughout the world. Situated in the foothills of the great Himalayas Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) is among one of the most densely populated regions of the earth. NO2 and CO are among major air pollutants which affect the air quality of IGP predominantly. In the present study, we studied the temporal trends of NO2, CO and fire count over the IGP region. Further, we investigated the role of the fire occurrences in the ambient NO2 and CO levels. We used MODIS instrument (Aqua satellite), OMI sensor and AIRS instrument data for fire count, Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) tropospheric column and Carbon monoxide (CO) column study respectively. The IGP is divided into three part geographically i.e. Eastern (E-IGP), Central (C-IGP) and Western (W-IGP). A higher columnar CO concentration is observed in the E-IGP whereas NO2 concentration is highest in the W-IGP. A higher NO2 concentration is obtained in winter followed by summer and a minimum in monsoon months throughout the IGP. Columnar CO concentration is higher in the E-IGP and its concentration is maximum in pre-monsoon months and minimum in the monsoon months. Fire pixel count is highest in the W-IGP with peak twice every year i.e. in the April - May and October - November corresponding to the harvest period in the Rabi-Kharif cropping system. We also obtained a significant positive correlation between fire occurrences and columnar NO2 & CO levels over the IGP which shows the biomass burning practices associated with the agriculture influences the NO2 and CO concentration in the atmosphere.

  20. Breaking the news or fueling the epidemic? Temporal association between news media report volume and opioid-related mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabarun Dasgupta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of news media have suggested an association between reporting and increased drug abuse. Period effects for substance use have been documented for different classes of legal and illicit substances, with the suspicion that media publicity may have played major roles in their emergence. Previous analyses have drawn primarily from qualitative evidence; the temporal relationship between media reporting volume and adverse health consequences has not been quantified nationally. We set out to explore whether we could find a quantitative relationship between media reports about prescription opioid abuse and overdose mortality associated with these drugs. We assessed whether increases in news media reports occurred before or after increases in overdose deaths.Our ecological study compared a monthly time series of unintentional poisoning deaths involving short-acting prescription opioid substances, from 1999 to 2005 using multiple cause-of-death data published by the National Center for Health Statistics, to monthly counts of English-language news articles mentioning generic and branded names of prescription opioids obtained from Google News Archives from 1999 to 2005. We estimated the association between media volume and mortality rates by time-lagged regression analyses. There were 24,272 articles and 30,916 deaths involving prescription opioids during the seven-year study period. Nationally, the number of articles mentioning prescription opioids increased dramatically starting in early 2001, following prominent coverage about the nonmedical use of OxyContin. We found a significant association between news reports and deaths, with media reporting preceding fatal opioid poisonings by two to six months and explaining 88% (p<0.0001, df 78 of the variation in mortality.While availability, structural, and individual predispositions are key factors influencing substance use, news reporting may enhance the popularity of psychoactive

  1. How self-generated thought shapes mood--the relation between mind-wandering and mood depends on the socio-temporal content of thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Florence J M; Smallwood, Jonathan; Engen, Haakon; Singer, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted that the generation of thoughts unrelated to the current environment may be both a cause and a consequence of unhappiness. The current study used lag analysis to examine whether the relationship between self-generated thought and negative affect depends on the content of the thoughts themselves. We found that the emotional content could strongly predict subsequent mood (e.g. negative thoughts were associated with subsequent negative mood). However, this direct relationship was modulated by the socio-temporal content of the thoughts: thoughts that were past- and other-related were associated with subsequent negative mood, even if current thought content was positive. By contrast, future- and self-related thoughts preceded improvements of mood, even when current thought content was negative. These results highlight the important link between self-generated thought and mood and suggest that the socio-temporal content plays an important role in determining whether an individual's future affective state will be happy or sad.

  2. How Self-Generated Thought Shapes Mood—The Relation between Mind-Wandering and Mood Depends on the Socio-Temporal Content of Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Florence J. M.; Smallwood, Jonathan; Engen, Haakon; Singer, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted that the generation of thoughts unrelated to the current environment may be both a cause and a consequence of unhappiness. The current study used lag analysis to examine whether the relationship between self-generated thought and negative affect depends on the content of the thoughts themselves. We found that the emotional content could strongly predict subsequent mood (e.g. negative thoughts were associated with subsequent negative mood). However, this direct relationship was modulated by the socio-temporal content of the thoughts: thoughts that were past- and other-related were associated with subsequent negative mood, even if current thought content was positive. By contrast, future- and self-related thoughts preceded improvements of mood, even when current thought content was negative. These results highlight the important link between self-generated thought and mood and suggest that the socio-temporal content plays an important role in determining whether an individual's future affective state will be happy or sad. PMID:24194889

  3. A la Recherche du Temps Perdu: extracting temporal relations from medical text in the 2012 i2b2 NLP challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Colin; Zhu, Xiaodan; Martin, Joel; de Bruijn, Berry

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of the timing of events is critical for a deeper understanding of the course of events within a patient record. The 2012 i2b2 NLP challenge focused on the extraction of temporal relationships between concepts within textual hospital discharge summaries. The team from the National Research Council Canada (NRC) submitted three system runs to the second track of the challenge: typifying the time-relationship between pre-annotated entities. The NRC system was designed around four specialist modules containing statistical machine learning classifiers. Each specialist targeted distinct sets of relationships: local relationships, 'sectime'-type relationships, non-local overlap-type relationships, and non-local causal relationships. The best NRC submission achieved a precision of 0.7499, a recall of 0.6431, and an F1 score of 0.6924, resulting in a statistical tie for first place. Post hoc improvements led to a precision of 0.7537, a recall of 0.6455, and an F1 score of 0.6954, giving the highest scores reported on this task to date. Methods for general relation extraction extended well to temporal relations, and gave top-ranked state-of-the-art results. Careful ordering of predictions within result sets proved critical to this success.

  4. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, E.

    2005-03-01

    transient presentation of DRS. For both sustained and transient presentations of the stimuli, the results show that: (i) stereopsis has similar temporal properties at coarse and fine spatial scales; (ii) interaction between spatial scales depends on their relative sizes. The results indicate a strong inhibitory influence of rivalry at a coarse scale on stereopsis at a fine scale, and just a weak inhibitory influence of rivalry at a fine scale on stereopsis at a coarse scale. This study provides experimental evidence for a hierarchical organisation of spatial scales in stereoscopic vision based on neural interaction instead of vergence eye movements. In chapter 4 we examined how binocular visual system interprets the depth of monocular random-dots superimposed on stereoscopic surfaces, when disparity and monocular depth result from elements of different size. We also examine the perceptual effects of dot density. We found that depth of monocular surfaces was affected by the disparity-defined surfaces and it changed gradually with dot density. Strength of the effect depended on dot density and relative angular size of the dots. In chapter 5 we examined how visual perception changes over time in the presence or absence of perceived stereoscopic depth in rivalrous images. We found that the presence of disparity-defined depth did not influence significantly the perceptual dominance durations of binocular rivalry. This indicates that stereopsis and binocular rivalry at the level of textured surfaces follow from separate processes.

  5. Face inversion disrupts the perception of vertical relations between features in the right human occipito-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno; Sorger, Bettina; Schiltz, Christine; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-03-01

    The impact of inversion on the extraction of relational and featural face information was investigated in two fMRI experiments. Unlike previous studies, the contribution of horizontal and vertical spatial relations were considered separately since they have been shown to be differentially vulnerable to face inversion (Goffaux & Rossion, 2007). Hence, inversion largely affects the perception of vertical relations (e.g. eye or mouth height) while the processing of features (e.g. eye shape and surface) and of horizontal relations (e.g. inter-ocular distance) is affected to a far lesser extent. Participants viewed pairs of faces that differed either at the level of one local feature (i.e. the eyes) or of the spatial relations of this feature with adjacent features. Changes of spatial relations were divided into two conditions, depending on the vertical or horizontal axis of the modifications. These stimulus conditions were presented in separate blocks in the first (block) experiment while they were presented in a random order in the second event-related (ER) experiment. Face-preferring voxels located in the right-lateralized middle fusiform gyrus (rMFG) largely decreased their activity with inversion. Inversion-related decreases were more moderate in left-lateralized middle fusiform gyrus (lMFG). ER experiment revealed that inversion affected rMFG and lMFG activity in distinct stimulus conditions. Whereas inversion affected lMFG processing only in featural condition, inversion selectively affected the processing of vertical relations in rMFG. Correlation analyses further indicated that the inversion effect (IE) observed in rMFG and right inferior occipital gyrus (rIOG) reliably predicted the large behavioural IE observed for the processing of vertical relations. In contrast, lMFG IE correlated with the weak behavioural IE observed for the processing of horizontal relations. Our findings suggest that face configuration is mostly encoded in rMFG, whereas more local

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of Eh and pH over a rice field as related to lime addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the effect of lime additions on the spatial variability of pH and Eh in a typic Plintacualf cultivated with rice, in Corrientes, Argentina. The 5.1 ha field was divided in three sub plots at which dolomitic lime additions were made at the rates zero, 625 kg ha-1 and 1250 kg ha-1. The soil was sampled at three stages: before sowing thus in aerobic conditions, and then two more times in anaerobiosis. Ninety-six samples per sub plot were taken on each of the three sampling stages on a grid of 11.9 x 20 m. Soil pH and Eh were measured by routine methods. The pH values increased, whereas Eh values decreased, following flooding. The coefficients of variation for pH was rather low during all the three studied periods. Conversely, the CV values for Eh were initially low but with a sharp increased in the second sampling date. The spatial variability of the studied soil properties was assessed using semivariogram analysis and examination of the maps constructed with values interpolated with kriging. Soil pH exhibited a rather strong spatial dependence, whereas soil Eh had a strong to moderate spatial dependence all over the three studied periods and for the three lime rates. Spherical models reaching a stable sill with low to moderate nugget effect were fitted to the experimental semivariograms for the 18 data sets (3 subplots, 3 liming rates and 2 properties studied. Spatial variability of pH and Eh on rice fields was far from negligible both on aerobic and on anaerobic conditions. In general pH exhibited a stronger spatial dependence than Eh and also showed a tendency to present smaller ranges of spatial dependence. Contour maps clearly showed the presence of small scale variability for pH and Eh within each liming treatment and during each of the three sampling dates. Neither pH or Eh had temporal stability of the pattern of spatial distribution on field studied.

  7. Reasoning about Strategies under Partial Observability and Fairness Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Busard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of extensions exist for Alternating-time Temporal Logic; some of these mix strategies and partial observability but, to the best of our knowledge, no work provides a unified framework for strategies, partial observability and fairness constraints. In this paper we propose ATLK^F_po, a logic mixing strategies under partial observability and epistemic properties of agents in a system with fairness constraints on states, and we provide a model checking algorithm for it.

  8. Temporal and spatial climatic controls on Holocene fire-related erosion and sedimentation, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Erin P.; Meyer, Grant A.

    2016-01-01

    In the Jemez Mountains, tree-ring data indicate that low-severity fires characterized the 400 yr before Euro-American settlement, and that subsequent fire suppression promoted denser forests, recent severe fires, and erosion. Over longer timescales, climate change may alter fire regimes; thus, we used fire-related alluvial deposits to assess the timing of moderate- to high-severity fires, their geomorphic impact, and relation to climate over the last 4000 yr. Fire-related sedimentation does not clearly follow millennial-scale climatic changes, but probability peaks commonly correspond with severe drought, e.g., within the interval 1700-1400 cal yr BP, and ca. 650 and ca. 410 cal yr BP. The latter episodes were preceded by prolonged wet intervals that could promote dense stands. Estimated recurrence intervals for fire-related sedimentation are 250-400 yr. Climatic differences with aspect influenced Holocene post-fire response: fire-related deposits constitute 77% of fan sediments from north-facing basins but only 39% of deposits from drier southerly aspects. With sparser vegetation and exposed bedrock, south aspects can generate runoff and sediment when unburned, whereas soil-mantled north aspects produce minor sediment unless severely burned. Recent channel incision appears unprecedented over the last 2300 yr, suggesting that fuel loading and extreme drought produced an anomalously severe burn in 2002.

  9. Temporal relation of antigenaemia and loss of antibodies to core antigens to development of clinical disease in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Nielsen, C M; Vestergaard, B F

    1987-01-01

    count. Both antigenaemia and the disappearance of antibodies to the core protein were associated with development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related complex and depletion of CD4 cells. Thus AIDS or AIDS related complex developed in eight out of 16 patients...... and 16 months after the estimated time of seroconversion. These results show that the late stages of HIV infection are characterised by increased production of antigen and a decrease in antibodies directed against the core protein. Antigenaemia indicates a poor prognosis; and as the antigen test...... is simple to do and interpret, it may therefore be useful for selecting patients for antiviral treatment....

  10. Declarativity and efficiency in providing services of general economic interest. Empirical study regarding the relation between heating costs and budget constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Miron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Defined by each country separately, according to real options, circumstances and traditions, the services of general economic interest have an objective purpose in ensuring protection and security for population. The services of general economic interest involve both public and economic services and show characteristics of both fields, reflecting the capabilities of communities to organize, regulate and provide them. Considering the accessibility to the essential service of general economic interest of providing household heating, as an undeniable condition of consumer protection, an analysis has been made in this field, with reference to the concrete manner of providing these services. The goal of this endeavor was to emphasize the actual conditionalities induced by the budget constraints of households while ensuring the universality of the access to the essential heating service. The empirical study is based on a survey of 55 households in sector 2 of Bucharest that have access to gas heating systems, while they have different revenues and equipments. The processing of the gathered data allowed the procurement of certain indicators that explain how household revenues determine the access to the heating services and how the deficiencies of the insurance system of these services deepen the social polarization and increase the weightings of those living at the limit of subsistence.

  11. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words : temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, Hein T.; Wijers, Albertus A.; Mars, Rogier B.; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  12. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words: temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, H.T. van; Wijers, A.A.; Mars, R.B.; Benjamins, J.S.; Stowe, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  13. Modulation of spontaneous locomotor and respiratory drives to hindlimb motoneurons temporally related to sympathetic drives as revealed by Mayer waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Denton, Manuel Enríquez; Stecina, Katinka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the networks mediating respiratory and locomotor drives to lumbar motoneurons interact and how this interaction is modulated in relation to periodic variations in blood pressure (Mayer waves). Seven decerebrate cats, under neuromuscular blockade, were used to stu...

  14. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26350727

  15. Hippocampal serotonin depletion is related to the presence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, but not to psychiatric disorders in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Natascha C; Joaquim, Helena P G; Talib, Leda L; de Vincentiis, Silvia; Gattaz, Wagner F; Valente, Kette D

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that concentration of serotonin ([5-HT]) plays a pathogenic role in various types of epilepsy inhibiting seizures. However, most have not considered the clinical variables of epilepsy, and all of these studies included small and heterogeneous samples with refractory epilepsy, regardless of etiology. In this work, we measured [5-HT]s in hippocampal tissues from a large series of patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy caused by hippocampal sclerosis who underwent epilepsy surgery and evaluated the relationship between [5HT] and epilepsy-related clinical variables and psychiatric disorders. We included 44 patients with refractory unilateral TLE-HS who underwent surgical treatment for epilepsy. Hippocampal samples were collected, and serotonin concentrations were measured with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lower [5-HT]s were correlated with a history of GTC seizures (Student's t-test: p 0.041). There were no differences in [5-HT]s according to the other clinical variables and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Our findings demonstrated that serotonin depletion in the hippocampus play an important role in some aspects of the severity of epilepsy (i.e., the presence of GTC seizures) in a homogeneous sample of patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy determined by hippocampal sclerosis, but not with the presence of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relations of hydrogeologic factors, groundwater reduction-oxidation conditions, and temporal and spatial distributions of nitrate, Central-Eastside San Joaquin Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Green, Christopher T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Singleton, Michael J.; Esser, Bradley K.

    2011-01-01

    In a 2,700-km2 area in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California (USA), data from multiple sources were used to determine interrelations among hydrogeologic factors, reduction-oxidation (redox) conditions, and temporal and spatial distributions of nitrate (NO3), a widely detected groundwater contaminant. Groundwater is predominantly modern, or mixtures of modern water, with detectable NO3 and oxic redox conditions, but some zones have anoxic or mixed redox conditions. Anoxic conditions were associated with long residence times that occurred near the valley trough and in areas of historical groundwater discharge with shallow depth to water. Anoxic conditions also were associated with interactions of shallow, modern groundwater with soils. NO3 concentrations were significantly lower in anoxic than oxic or mixed redox groundwater, primarily because residence times of anoxic waters exceed the duration of increased pumping and fertilizer use associated with modern agriculture. Effects of redox reactions on NO3 concentrations were relatively minor. Dissolved N2 gas data indicated that denitrification has eliminated >5 mg/L NO3–N in about 10% of 39 wells. Increasing NO3 concentrations over time were slightly less prevalent in anoxic than oxic or mixed redox groundwater. Spatial and temporal trends of NO3 are primarily controlled by water and NO3 fluxes of modern land use.

  17. Age Effects and Temporal Trends in HPV-Related and HPV-Unrelated Oral Cancer in the United States: A Multistage Carcinogenesis Modeling Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Brouwer

    Full Text Available Differences in prognosis in HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral (oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs and increasing incidence of HPV-related cancers have spurred interest in demographic and temporal trends in OSCC incidence. We leverage multistage clonal expansion (MSCE models coupled with age-period-cohort (APC epidemiological models to analyze OSCC data in the SEER cancer registry (1973-2012. MSCE models are based on the initiation-promotion-malignant conversion paradigm in carcinogenesis and allow for interpretation of trends in terms of biological mechanisms. APC models seek to differentiate between the temporal effects of age, period, and birth cohort on cancer risk. Previous studies have looked at the effect of period and cohort on tumor initiation, and we extend this to compare model fits of period and cohort effects on each of tumor initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion rates. HPV-related, HPV-unrelated except oral tongue, and HPV-unrelated oral tongue sites are best described by placing period and cohort effects on the initiation rate. HPV-related and non-oral-tongue HPV-unrelated cancers have similar promotion rates, suggesting similar tumorigenesis dynamics once initiated. Estimates of promotion rates at oral tongue sites are lower, corresponding to a longer sojourn time; this finding is consistent with the hypothesis of an etiology distinct from HPV or alcohol and tobacco use. Finally, for the three subsite groups, men have higher initiation rates than women of the same race, and black people have higher promotion than white people of the same sex. These differences explain part of the racial and sex differences in OSCC incidence.

  18. Pregnancy-Related Group A Streptococcal Infections: Temporal Relationships Between Bacterial Acquisition, Infection Onset, Clinical Findings, and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephanie M.; Stevens, Dennis L.; Bryant, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Puerperal sepsis caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) remains an important cause of maternal and infant mortality worldwide, including countries with modern antibiotic regimens, intensive care measures and infection control practices. To provide insights into the genesis of modern GAS puerperal sepsis, we reviewed the published cases and case series from 1974 to 2009, specifically seeking relationships between the likely source of pathogen acquisition, clinical signs, and symptoms at infection onset and patient outcomes that could provide clues for early diagnosis. Results suggest that the pathogenesis of pregnancy-related GAS infections in modern times is complex and not simply the result of exposure to GAS in the hospital setting. Additional research is needed to further explore the source of GAS, the specific M types involved, and the pathogenesis of these pregnancy-related infections to generate novel preventative and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23645851

  19. Temporal relation of antigenaemia and loss of antibodies to core antigens to development of clinical disease in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Nielsen, C M; Vestergaard, B F

    1987-01-01

    A total of 276 sequential serum samples from 34 men with antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) followed up for two to seven years were analysed for HIV antigen and antibodies to the viral core and envelope proteins. Results were correlated with clinical outcome and CD4 T lymphocyte...... and 16 months after the estimated time of seroconversion. These results show that the late stages of HIV infection are characterised by increased production of antigen and a decrease in antibodies directed against the core protein. Antigenaemia indicates a poor prognosis; and as the antigen test...... count. Both antigenaemia and the disappearance of antibodies to the core protein were associated with development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related complex and depletion of CD4 cells. Thus AIDS or AIDS related complex developed in eight out of 16 patients...

  20. Constraints in Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikow, Cezary Z.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic programming refers to a class of genetic algorithms utilizing generic representation in the form of program trees. For a particular application, one needs to provide the set of functions, whose compositions determine the space of program structures being evolved, and the set of terminals, which determine the space of specific instances of those programs. The algorithm searches the space for the best program for a given problem, applying evolutionary mechanisms borrowed from nature. Genetic algorithms have shown great capabilities in approximately solving optimization problems which could not be approximated or solved with other methods. Genetic programming extends their capabilities to deal with a broader variety of problems. However, it also extends the size of the search space, which often becomes too large to be effectively searched even by evolutionary methods. Therefore, our objective is to utilize problem constraints, if such can be identified, to restrict this space. In this publication, we propose a generic constraint specification language, powerful enough for a broad class of problem constraints. This language has two elements -- one reduces only the number of program instances, the other reduces both the space of program structures as well as their instances. With this language, we define the minimal set of complete constraints, and a set of operators guaranteeing offspring validity from valid parents. We also show that these operators are not less efficient than the standard genetic programming operators if one preprocesses the constraints - the necessary mechanisms are identified.

  1. QPO Constraints on Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman

    2005-01-01

    The kilohertz frequencies of QPOs from accreting neutron star systems imply that they are generated in regions of strong gravity, close to the star. This suggests that observations of the QPOs can be used to constrain the properties of neutron stars themselves, and in particular to inform us about the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear densities. Here we discuss some relatively model-insensitive constraints that emerge from the kilohertz QPOs, as well as recent developments that may hint at phenomena related to unstable circular orbits outside neutron stars.

  2. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...

  3. Melatonin-Induced Temporal Up-Regulation of Gene Expression Related to Ubiquitin/Proteasome System (UPS in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Koyama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing understanding that melatonin and the ubiquitin/ proteasome system (UPS interact to regulate multiple cellular functions. Post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination are important modulators of signaling processes, cell cycle and many other cellular functions. Previously, we reported a melatonin-induced upregulation of gene expression related to ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS in Plasmodium falciparum, the human malaria parasite, and that P. falciparum protein kinase 7 influences this process. This implies a role of melatonin, an indolamine, in modulating intraerythrocytic development of the parasite. In this report we demonstrate by qPCR analysis, that melatonin induces gene upregulation in nine out of fourteen genes of the UPS, consisting of the same set of genes previously reported, between 4 to 5 h after melatonin treatment. We demonstrate that melatonin causes a temporally controlled gene expression of UPS members.

  4. Melatonin-induced temporal up-regulation of gene expression related to ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Fernanda C; Azevedo, Mauro F; Budu, Alexandre; Chakrabarti, Debopam; Garcia, Célia R S

    2014-12-03

    There is an increasing understanding that melatonin and the ubiquitin/ proteasome system (UPS) interact to regulate multiple cellular functions. Post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination are important modulators of signaling processes, cell cycle and many other cellular functions. Previously, we reported a melatonin-induced upregulation of gene expression related to ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in Plasmodium falciparum, the human malaria parasite, and that P. falciparum protein kinase 7 influences this process. This implies a role of melatonin, an indolamine, in modulating intraerythrocytic development of the parasite. In this report we demonstrate by qPCR analysis, that melatonin induces gene upregulation in nine out of fourteen genes of the UPS, consisting of the same set of genes previously reported, between 4 to 5 h after melatonin treatment. We demonstrate that melatonin causes a temporally controlled gene expression of UPS members.

  5. Analysis of Space Tourism Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnal, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Space tourism appears today as a new Eldorado in a relatively near future. Private operators are already proposing services for leisure trips in Low Earth Orbit, and some happy few even tested them. But are these exceptional events really marking the dawn of a new space age ? The constraints associated to the space tourism are severe : - the economical balance of space tourism is tricky; development costs of large manned - the technical definition of such large vehicles is challenging, mainly when considering - the physiological aptitude of passengers will have a major impact on the mission - the orbital environment will also lead to mission constraints on aspects such as radiation, However, these constraints never appear as show-stoppers and have to be dealt with pragmatically: - what are the recommendations one can make for future research in the field of space - which typical roadmap shall one consider to develop realistically this new market ? - what are the synergies with the conventional missions and with the existing infrastructure, - how can a phased development start soon ? The paper proposes hints aiming at improving the credibility of Space Tourism and describes the orientations to follow in order to solve the major hurdles found in such an exciting development.

  6. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yuhsin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2012-08-01

    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of oyster-related human noroviruses and their global genetic diversity and temporal-geographical distribution from 1983 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongxin; Cai, Hui; Hu, Linghao; Lei, Rongwei; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-11-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of epidemic and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Oysters are well recognized as the main vectors of environmentally transmitted NoVs, and disease outbreaks linked to oyster consumption have been commonly observed. Here, to quantify the genetic diversity, temporal distribution, and circulation of oyster-related NoVs on a global scale, 1,077 oyster-related NoV sequences deposited from 1983 to 2014 were downloaded from both NCBI GenBank and the NoroNet outbreak database and were then screened for quality control. A total of 665 sequences with reliable information were obtained and were subsequently subjected to genotyping and phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the majority of oyster-related NoV sequences were obtained from coastal countries and regions and that the numbers of sequences in these regions were unevenly distributed. Moreover, >80% of human NoV genotypes were detected in oyster samples or oyster-related outbreaks. A higher proportion of genogroup I (GI) (34%) was observed for oyster-related sequences than for non-oyster-related outbreaks, where GII strains dominated with an overwhelming majority of >90%, indicating that the prevalences of GI and GII are different in humans and oysters. In addition, a related convergence of the circulation trend was found between oyster-related NoV sequences and human pandemic outbreaks. This suggests that oysters not only act as a vector of NoV through environmental transmission but also serve as an important reservoir of human NoVs. These results highlight the importance of oysters in the persistence and transmission of human NoVs in the environment and have important implications for the surveillance of human NoVs in oyster samples. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Measurement of the influences relating to anthropization on the temporal evolution of the gravitational risks and the vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebourg, T.; Llop, R.; Provitolo, D.; Allignol, F.; Zerathe, S.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to show the impact of the instrumentation on an urban area on the principle of prevention of the landslides risk and thus to contribute to decrease the vulnerability for an urban long-term future development. We show that the analyze by instrumentation of triggered factors which characterize the risk (by the quantification of the evolution in time of the mechanical properties versus weathered processes) suggest that it exists a relation between "susceptibility of landslides" and urban development The evolution of the stakes during time is at the same time, factor of evolution of the susceptibility and triggered factor of the vulnerability evolution of urban areas. The scientific goal relates to the urban systems vulnerability and resilience modelling versus landslides processes for the assistance to the risks prevention. Indeed, the installation of an effective risks prevention policy is based on a good evaluation of the intensity, the period of return of the phenomena and their zone of expansion, but also on an identification of the sectors exposed to the risks, their vulnerability and their resilience. The strategy of prevention of the risks generally relates to the construction of fortifications to protect the society but it can also be founded on the resilience concept. This other approach is not opposed to the risk, but proposes to reduce the impacts. The anthroposysteme concept of makes it possible to take into accounts the determining role played by the human society in the space system evolution; natural and social systems associated on a given territory. The study of a space system passes then by the identification of components of the physical world (natural) and the living world (social), these two components forming integral part of the Society. To be concluded, this paper and study applies to the Mediterranean coastline anthroposystemes (northern bank) where urban growth, saturation of the littorals, constructions in

  9. Modulation of spontaneous locomotor and respiratory drives to hindlimb motoneurons temporally related to sympathetic drives as revealed by Mayer waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka eStecina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated how the networks mediating respiratory and locomotor drives to lumbar motoneurons interact and how this interaction is modulated in relation to periodic variations in blood pressure (Mayer waves. Seven decerebrate cats, under neuromuscular blockade, were used to study central respiratory drive potentials (CRDPs, usually enhanced by added CO2 and spontaneously occurring locomotor drive potentials (LDPs in hindlimb motoneurons, together with hindlimb and phrenic nerve discharges. In four of the cats both drives and their voltage-dependent amplification were absent or modest, but in the other three, one or other of these drives was common and the voltage-dependent amplification was frequently strong. Moreover, in these three cats the blood pressure showed marked periodic variation (Mayer waves, with a slow rate (periods 9 - 104 s, mean 39 ± 17 SD. Profound modulation, synchronized with the Mayer waves was seen in the occurrence and/or in the amplification of the CRDPs or LDPs. In one animal, where CRDPs were present in most cells and the amplification was strong, the CRDP consistently triggered sustained plateaux at one phase of the Mayer wave cycle. In the other two animals, LDPs were common, and the occurrence of the locomotor drive was gated by the Mayer wave cycle, sometimes in alternation with the respiratory drive. Other interactions between the two drives involved respiration providing leading events, including co-activation of flexors and extensors during post-inspiration or a locomotor drive gated or sometimes entrained by respiration. We conclude that the respiratory drive in hindlimb motoneurons is transmitted via elements of the locomotor central pattern generator. The rapid modulation related to Mayer waves suggests the existence of a more direct and specific descending modulatory control than has previously been demonstrated.

  10. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silva Dias

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. Objective: To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. Methods: An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0–4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma.

  11. Temporal constraints on hydrate-controlled methane seepage off Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, C; Feseker, T; Treude, T; Krastel, S; Liebetrau, V; Niemann, H; Bertics, V J; Dumke, I; Dünnbier, K; Ferré, B; Graves, C; Gross, F; Hissmann, K; Hühnerbach, V; Krause, S; Lieser, K; Schauer, J; Steinle, L

    2014-01-17

    Methane hydrate is an icelike substance that is stable at high pressure and low temperature in continental margin sediments. Since the discovery of a large number of gas flares at the landward termination of the gas hydrate stability zone off Svalbard, there has been concern that warming bottom waters have started to dissociate large amounts of gas hydrate and that the resulting methane release may possibly accelerate global warming. Here, we corroborate that hydrates play a role in the observed seepage of gas, but we present evidence that seepage off Svalbard has been ongoing for at least 3000 years and that seasonal fluctuations of 1° to 2°C in the bottom-water temperature cause periodic gas hydrate formation and dissociation, which focus seepage at the observed sites.

  12. Embedding Temporal Constraints for Coordinated Execution in Habitat Automation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA plans call for long-duration deep space missions with human crews. Because of light-time delay and other considerations, increased autonomy will be...

  13. Preference Propagation in Temporal/Capacity Constraint Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    posteriori start time densities for order 2 22 Figure 4-7: Illustration of Fubini’s Theorem in a TCG with 3 Time 25 Periods Figure 4-8: A TCG with 3...as an iterated integral. Notice that, according to Fubini’s theorem (see [Thomas 83] for instance), there are [2(n-l)]! correct ways to express a 2(n-l...illustrates that both forms (both iterated integrals) are equivalent. Besides its illustration of Fubini’s theorem , this example shows how to account for

  14. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P.; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2014-12-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in neighborhoods along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km2. Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Spearman correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient conditions in individual near

  15. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  16. Temporal patterns in work-related fatalities among foreign-born workers in the US, 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Cammie K Chaumont; Havea, Solomone A

    2011-10-01

    In the United States, approximately 20% of all workers who died on the job in 2007 were foreign-born. The objective of this study was to describe trends in occupational fatalities among foreign-born workers. An analysis of fatal injuries among foreign-born workers in the US occurring from 1992 through 2007 was conducted using the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Individual characteristics, employment characteristics, injury events and industry employment were summarized and evaluated for trends. Both the number and proportion of foreign-born workers who died from a traumatic work-related injury increased substantially over the time period studied. The proportion who were men, aged 25-44 years, Hispanic, non self-employed, employed by business establishments with 10 or fewer employees, working at private residences and working in Construction and Services consistently increased throughout the time period. While some trends among foreign-born decedents are improving, others are worsening. More comprehensive research efforts are needed to address the occupational injury and safety issues among foreign-born workers, with a focus on Hispanics.

  17. Steady-state visual evoked potentials can be explained by temporal superposition of transient event-related responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Capilla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One common criterion for classifying electrophysiological brain responses is based on the distinction between transient (i.e. event-related potentials, ERPs and steady-state responses (SSRs. The generation of SSRs is usually attributed to the entrainment of a neural rhythm driven by the stimulus train. However, a more parsimonious account suggests that SSRs might result from the linear addition of the transient responses elicited by each stimulus. This study aimed to investigate this possibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded brain potentials elicited by a checkerboard stimulus reversing at different rates. We modeled SSRs by sequentially shifting and linearly adding rate-specific ERPs. Our results show a strong resemblance between recorded and synthetic SSRs, supporting the superposition hypothesis. Furthermore, we did not find evidence of entrainment of a neural oscillation at the stimulation frequency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that visual SSRs can be explained as a superposition of transient ERPs. These findings have critical implications in our current understanding of brain oscillations. Contrary to the idea that neural networks can be tuned to a wide range of frequencies, our findings rather suggest that the oscillatory response of a given neural network is constrained within its natural frequency range.

  18. Temporal sensitivity. [time dependent human perception of visual stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1986-01-01

    Human visual temporal sensitivity is examined. The stimuli used to measure temporal sensitivity are described and the linear systems theory is reviewed in terms of temporal sensitivity. A working model which represents temporal sensitivity is proposed. The visibility of a number of temporal wave forms, sinusoids, rectangular pulses, and pulse pairs, is analyzed. The relation between spatial and temporal effects is studied. Temporal variations induced by image motion and the effects of light adaptation on temporal sensitivity are considered.

  19. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  20. The Ambiguous Role of Constraints in Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjær, Michael Mose; Onarheim, Balder; Wiltschnig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and constraints is often described in the literature either in rather imprecise, general concepts or in relation to very specific domains. Cross-domain and cross-disciplinary takes on how the handling of constraints influences creative activities are rare....... In this paper, we explore these particular issues in two creative domains: art and engineering design. These domains vary so greatly in terms of number and types of constraints in play that we argue for considering them as opposite extremes of a continuum of levels of creative freedom. By comparing two case...... studies of Danish cutting-edge proponents of creative expertise thus exemplifying each domain, this preliminary exploration mainly focuses on similarities in how such successful professionals work with constraints to frame their creative process and ensure its progression toward the final outcome. Our...

  1. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Tuttle, Steven C; Nelson, Morgan C; Bradshaw, Rebecca K; Hoybjerg, Taylor G; Johnson, Julene B; Kruman, Bryce A; Orton, Taylor S; Cook, Ryan B; Eggett, Dennis L; Weber, K Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr) and summer (July-Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction.

  2. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Johnston

    Full Text Available Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr and summer (July-Sept, 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction.

  3. Temporal changes in euphausiid distribution and abundance in North Atlantic cold-core rings in relation to the surrounding waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yoshinari; Wiebe, Peter H.

    2007-02-01

    The species composition of euphausiids was investigated in relationship to the hydrographic conditions in the North Atlantic cold-core rings (CCR) and adjacent waters to elucidate species succession in evolving water masses. Using data, dating back to the 1970s, from as many CCRs as possible and selecting typical cases where no major physical perturbations occurred, a general pattern of euphausiid succession and change in vertical distribution in rings with time was obtained. This pattern was related to the general distribution of euphausiids in the northwestern North Atlantic Ocean, aiming at providing basic information on probable response of North Atlantic marine ecosystem to global warming. Of the 34 euphausiid species identified, 5 were cold-water species, 17 were warm-water species, 6 were wide-ranging warm-water species, 1 was transitional, 4 were cosmopolitan and the remaining was Thysanoessa parva. Among cold-water species, Euphausia krohni and Nematoscelis megalops were dominant in CCRs. E. krohni became rare in rings older than 6 months, whereas N. megalops survived longer, being abundant in some rings of 9 months or older, by staying within its preferred temperature range as the CCR elevated isotherms sank to depths where they are normally found in the Sargasso Sea and because it is an omnivore-carnivore. Among warm-water species, epipelagic species appeared first in rings, corresponding to the physical change occurring most rapidly in the surface layers. Mesopelagic species appeared later. Cold-water species made up 65-85% of the total euphausiid population in number in younger rings (1-5 months old), while warm-water species contributed only 2-7%. Wide-ranging warm-water species made up about up to one fourth of the total in rings 5 and 7 months old. Warm-water species, mainly E. brevis, increased in older rings (9 months old or older) and made up 50% of the total in the oldest ring. The contribution of cold-water species decreased to 14% in older

  4. Relating modes of extension to the spatial and temporal distribution of major sediment unconformities at passive margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Martínez, Miguel; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; Armitage, John; Morgan, Jason P.

    2017-04-01

    Rifting is a regional process which results in thinning of the crust over hundreds of kilometres. However, basins where deposition takes place could have different subsidence histories due to local graben-bounding fault kinetics. A change in the rift dynamics often results in a displacement of the basin depocenters, with subsequent erosion of old sediments and later deposition, creating an unconformity. Unconformities of regional character are typically studied to unveil the overall rift deformation history, and major ones separating syn- and post-kinematic sediments are often associated with break-up of the continental crust. However, evolution of the basement deformation is typically challenging to study since reflection images are usually diffuse at these depths and boreholes are typically scarce, which complicates the dating of the sediments overlying the basement. Consequently, relating the deformation styles and rift evolution to unconformities is not straight forward. We use numerical models in order to approach the meaning of regional unconformities and to study the sedimentation patterns under different modes of extension. Our models solve 2D Stokes flow for rocks treated as non-Newtonian bodies, together with heat conservation equation. Viscosities and densities depend on temperatures. Elasticity and plasticity are plugged-in in the mechanical formulation. We also use strain softening to simulate faulting and shear zones. The top boundary is a free-surface so that tectonics result in topography. Additionally, we update this topography every time step using a sediment transport model, and we store information about depositional times, paleo-depths and erosional events. These models allow for the recovery of the basement deformation during rift evolution simultaneously to the recovery of sedimentation history. Here, we run models with different crustal rheologies to reproduce different extensional modes. This allows us to contrast sedimentation patterns and

  5. Partially clairvoyant scheduling for aggregate constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Subramani

    2005-01-01

    constraints. In this paper, we extend the class of constraints for which partially clairvoyant schedules can be determined efficiently, to include aggregate constraints. Aggregate constraints form a strict superset of standard constraints and can be used to model performance metrics.

  6. Solar System constraints on Renormalization Group extended General Relativity: The PPN and Laplace-Runge-Lenz analyses with the external potential effect

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Davi C; de Almeida, Álefe O F

    2016-01-01

    General Relativity extensions based on Renormalization Group effects are motivated by a known physical principle and constitute a class of extended gravity theories that have some unexplored unique aspects. In this work we develop in detail the Newtonian and post Newtonian limits of a realisation called Renormalization Group extended General Relativity (RGGR). Special attention is taken to the external potential effect, which constitutes a type of screening mechanism typical of RGGR. In the Solar System, RGGR depends on a single dimensionless parameter $\\bar \

  7. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  8. Impacts of industrial transition on water use intensity and energy-related carbon intensity in China: A spatio-temporal analysis during 2003-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J.; Yin, H.; Varis, O.

    2016-12-01

    China faces a complicated puzzle in balancing the country's trade-offs among water and energy security, economic competitiveness, and environmental sustainability. It is therefore of prime importance to comprehend China's water and energy security under the effect of its economic structural changes. Analyses on this entity still remain few and far between though, and a comprehensive picture has not been available that would help understand China's recent development in economic structure as well as its spatial features and links to water and energy security, and policy-making. Consequently, we addressed this information gap by performing an integrated and quantitative spatio-temporal analysis of the impacts of China's industrial transition on water use intensity (WUI) and energy-related carbon intensity (ERCI). Those two factors serve as the national targets of its water and energy security. Our results for the first time quantitatively demonstrated the following significant and novel information: 1) the primary industry (PI) appeared to dominate the WUI although its relative share decreased, and PI's WUI continued to be far higher than that of secondary and tertiary industries (SI and TI); 2) SI dominated in affecting the total ERCI at both national and provincial scales; 3) the total WUI and ERCI had a significant positive correlation.

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of ecosystem service values in relation to land use pattern in the Loess Plateau of China at town scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Fang

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between land use change and ecosystem service values (ESVs is the key for improving ecosystem health and sustainability. This study estimated the spatial and temporal variations of ESVs at town scale in relation to land use change in the Loess Plateau which is characterized by its environmental vulnerability, then analyzed and discussed the relationship between ESVs and land use pattern. The result showed that ESVs increased with land use change from 1982 to 2008. The total ESVs increased by 16.17% from US$ 6.315 million at 1982 to US$ 7.336 million at 2002 before the start of the Grain to Green project, while increased significantly thereafter by 67.61% to US$ 11.275 million at 2008 along with the project progressed. Areas with high ESVs appeared mainly in the center and the east where largely distributing orchard and forestland, while those with low ESVs occurred mainly in the north and the south where largely distributing cropland. Correlation and regression analysis showed that land use pattern was significantly positively related with ESVs. The proportion of forestland had a positive effect on ESVs, however, that of cropland had a negative effect. Diversification, fragmentation and interspersion of landscape positively affected ESVs, while land use intensity showed a negative effect. It is concluded that continuing the Grain to Green project and encouraging diversified agriculture benefit to improve the ecosystem service.

  10. Effects of Student Characteristics, Principal Qualifications, and Organizational Constraints for Assessing Student Achievement: A School Public Relations and Human Resources Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Vang, Maiyoua; Young, Karen Holsey

    2008-01-01

    Standards-based student achievement scores are used to assess the effectiveness of public education and to have important implications regarding school public relations and human resource practices. Often overlooked is that these scores may be moderated by the characteristics of students, the qualifications of principals, and the restraints…

  11. Experimental observations on the human arm motion planning under an elbow joint constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyosang; Robson, Nina P; Langari, Reza; Buchanan, John J

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to define the governing strategies by which the human central nervous system (CNS) finds optimal solutions for an arm reaching motion, when an elbow joint is constrained. The compensated arm reaching motion under the joint kinematic constraint is observed by human experiments. We present an experimental protocol, where subjects perform point-to-point reaching tasks with a lightweight elbow brace to restrict the elbow kinematics with minimal effect on the arm dynamics. The human compensatory strategy is analyzed in terms of hand path kinematics (i.e. spatial and temporal characteristics) and the arm postural configuration. The spatial and temporal characteristics of hand path are approximated by the Euclidean geodesic curves and the well known bell-shaped smooth profile, respectively. Furthermore, the contribution of each joint degree-of-freedom (DOF) motion is discussed and its relation to the arm posture selection is elaborated.

  12. [The Nature and Issues of Drug Addiction Treatment under Constraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirion, Bastien

    2014-01-01

    This article is exploring different forms of constraint that are exerted in the field of drug addiction treatment. The objective of this article is to establish benchmarks and to stimulate reflection about the ethical and clinical implications of those constraints in the field of drug addiction treatment. This article is presenting a critical review of different forms of constraint that can be exerted in Canada in regard to the treatment of drug addiction. In the first section of the article, a definition of therapeutic intervention is proposed, that includes the dimension of power, which justifies the importance of considering the coercive aspects of treatment. The second section, which represents the core section of the paper, is devoted to the presentation of different levels of constraint that can be distinguished in regard to drug addicts who are under treatment. Three levels of constraint are exposed: judicial constraint, institutional constraint and relational constraint. The coercive aspect of treatment can then be recognized as a combination of all tree levels of constraint. Judicial constraint refers to any form of constraint in which the court or the judge is imposing or recommending treatment. This particular level of constraint can take different forms, such as therapeutic remands, conditions of a probation order, conditions of a conditional sentence of imprisonment, and coercive treatment such as the ones provided through drug courts. Institutional constraint refers to any form of constraint exerted within any institutional setting, such as correctional facilities and programs offered in community. Correctional facilities being limited by their own specific mission, it might have a major impact on the way the objectives of treatment are defined. Those limitations can then be considered as a form of constraint, in which drug users don't have much space to express their personal needs. Finally, relational constraint refers to any form of constraint in

  13. Spatio-Temporal Patterns in the Coral Reef Communities of the Spermonde Archipelago, 2012–2014, II: Fish Assemblages Display Structured Variation Related to Benthic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah G. Plass-Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spermonde Archipelago is a complex of ~70 mostly populated islands off Southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia, in the center of the Coral Triangle. The reefs in this area are exposed to a high level of anthropogenic disturbances. Previous studies have shown that variation in the benthos is strongly linked to water quality and distance from the mainland. However, little is known about the fish assemblages of the region and if their community structure also follows a relationship with benthic structure and distance from shore. In this study, we used eight islands of the archipelago, varying in distance from 1 to 55 km relative to the mainland, and 3 years of surveys, to describe benthic and fish assemblages and to examine the spatial and temporal influence of benthic composition on the structure of the fish assemblages. Cluster analysis indicated that distinct groups of fish were associated with distance, while few species were present across the entire range of sites. Relating fish communities to benthic composition using a multivariate generalized linear model confirmed that fish groups relate to structural complexity (rugosity or differing benthic groups; either algae, reef builders (coral and crustose coralline algae or invertebrates and rubble. From these relationships we can identify sets of fish species that may be lost given continued degradation of the Spermonde reefs. Lastly, the incorporation of water quality, benthic and fish indices indicates that local coral reefs responded positively after an acute disturbance in 2013 with increases in reef builders and fish diversity over relatively short (1 year time frames. This study contributes an important, missing component (fish community structure to the growing literature on the Spermonde Archipelago, a system that features environmental pressures common in the greater Southeast Asian region.

  14. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  15. The NCL natural constraint language

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianyang

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the Natural Constraint Language (NCL) language, a description language in conventional mathematical logic for modeling and solving constraint satisfaction problems. It uses illustrations and tutorials to detail NCL and its applications.

  16. Russian converbs – temporal interpretation and information structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filiouchkina Krave

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of Russian converb constructions (non-finite verb forms used for adverbial subordination and their interpretations, addressing the question of whether their semantic diversity could be explained in terms of vagueness (i.e. converbs are assumed to have one basic (vague meaning, but may receive additional readings as a result of various linguistic as well as extra-linguistic factors or polysemy (i.e. converb meanings can only be analyzed by listing all the different interpretations as a disjunction. Using compositional semantics, I present a temporal calculus for Russian converb sentences, arguing for a unified account of the semantics of converbs (a temporal overlap relation attributed to the converb suffix ‘-(ja’ and the meaning of temporal anteriority encoded by the converb suffix ‘-v’. I conclude that these temporal meanings are the basic vague meanings of the two converb constructions, even though their realization is subject to constraints imposed by co-text or context.

  17. A temporal model for Clinical Data Analytics language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Leila; Patrick, Jon D

    2013-01-01

    The proposal of a special purpose language for Clinical Data Analytics (CliniDAL) is presented along with a general model for expressing temporal events in the language. The temporal dimension of clinical data needs to be addressed from at least five different points of view. Firstly, how to attach the knowledge of time based constraints to queries; secondly, how to mine temporal data in different CISs with various data models; thirdly, how to deal with both relative time and absolute time in the query language; fourthly, how to tackle internal time-event dependencies in queries, and finally, how to manage historical time events preserved in the patient's narrative. The temporal elements of the language are defined in Bachus Naur Form (BNF) along with a UML schema. Its use in a designed taxonomy of a five class hierarchy of data analytics tasks shows the solution to problems of time event dependencies in a highly complex cascade of queries needed to evaluate scientific experiments. The issues in using the model in a practical way are discussed as well.

  18. Dissipative Quasigeostrophic Motion under Temporally Almost Periodic Forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, J; Duan, Jinqiao; Kloeden, Peter E.

    1999-01-01

    The full nonlinear dissipative quasigeostrophic model is shown to have a unique temporally almost periodic solution when the wind forcing is temporally almost periodic under suitable constraints on the spatial square-integral of the wind forcing and the $\\beta$ parameter, Ekman number, viscosity and the domain size. The proof involves the pullback attractor for the associated nonautonomous dynamical system.

  19. Investigating the role of temporal lobe activation in speech perception accuracy with normal hearing adults: An event-related fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defenderfer, Jessica; Kerr-German, Anastasia; Hedrick, Mark; Buss, Aaron T

    2017-11-01

    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a safe, non-invasive, relatively quiet imaging technique that is tolerant of movement artifact making it uniquely ideal for the assessment of hearing mechanisms. Previous research demonstrates the capacity for fNIRS to detect cortical changes to varying speech intelligibility, revealing a positive relationship between cortical activation amplitude and speech perception score. In the present study, we use an event-related design to investigate the hemodynamic response in the temporal lobe across different listening conditions. We presented participants with a speech recognition task using sentences in quiet, sentences in noise, and vocoded sentences. Hemodynamic responses were examined across conditions and then compared when speech perception was accurate compared to when speech perception was inaccurate in the context of noisy speech. Repeated measures, two-way ANOVAs revealed that the speech in noise condition (-2.8dB signal-to-noise ratio/SNR) demonstrated significantly greater activation than the easier listening conditions on multiple channels bilaterally. Further analyses comparing correct recognition trials to incorrect recognition trials (during the presentation phase of the trial) revealed that activation was significantly greater during correct trials. Lastly, during the repetition phase of the trial, where participants correctly repeated the sentence, the hemodynamic response demonstrated significantly higher deoxyhemoglobin than oxyhemoglobin, indicating a difference between the effects of perception and production on the cortical response. Using fNIRS, the present study adds meaningful evidence to the body of knowledge that describes the brain/behavior relationship related to speech perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Volatile (Cl, F and S) and major element constraints on subduction-related mantle metasomatism along the alkaline basaltic backarc, Payenia, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frederik Ejvang; Holm, Paul Martin; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2017-01-01

    We present data on volatile (S, F and Cl) and major element contents in olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from alkaline basaltic tephras along the Quaternary Payenia backarc volcanic province (~34°S–38°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ). The composition of Cr-spinel inclusions...... Payenia require addition of subduction-related fluids to a mantle wedge, whereas volatile signatures in the southern Payenia are consistent with derivation from an enriched OIB source. Cl and Cl/K ratios define positive correlations with host olivine fosterite content (Fo80-90) that cannot be explained...... Mg# pyroxenite (from recycled eclogite) to a high Mg# fluid metasomatised peridotite. The Cl/K and S/K ratios in Payenia MIs extend from enriched OIB-like signatures (south) to Andean SVZ arc like signatures (north). We show that the northward increase in S, Cl and S/K is coupled to a northward...

  1. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ozone in the Houston Metropolitan Area during DISCOVER-AQ and its' Relation to Meteorological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefer, B. L.; Flynn, J. H., III; Judd, L.; Ren, X.; Estes, M. J.; Griffin, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    During the 2013 NASA DISCOVER-AQ in Texas, the atmospheric abundance of ozone and its precursor species (NOx and VOCs) were sampled throughout the Houston metropolitan area from a variety of observing platforms, including in situ sampling from the NASA P-3B aircraft, ozonesonde balloons, several mobile ground laboratories, and some 40 different ground-based monitoring sites. This unprecedented array of air quality measurement tools provides both high-temporal and high-spatial resolution sampling of both ozone and ozone production throughout a relatively small (100 km x 100 km) area during a 4-week period in the Fall of 2013. This study will examine the representativeness of this detailed "snapshot" of Houston air quality and how September 2013 fits into both the long-term trends in the local air quality and the current Houston conceptual model. The impact of meteorology as well as the year-to-year variability in meteorological conditions on ozone and ozone production determined from 0-D photochemical box modeling will also be examined.

  2. Candida vulturna pro tempore sp. nov., a dimorphic yeast species related to the Candida haemulonis species complex isolated from flowers and clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiczki, Matthias; Tap, Ratna Mohd

    2016-10-01

    In a taxonomic study of yeasts isolated from flowers in Cagayan de Oro, Mindenao Island, The Philippines, strains were identified as representing Kabatiella microsticta, Metschnikowia koreensis and a hitherto undescribed dimorphic species. Sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU 26S rRNA genes, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the SSU 18S rRNA genes were identical in the strains of the last-named group and differed from the corresponding sequences of the type strain of the closest related species, Candida duobushaemulonii, by 4 % (D1/D2), 7 % (ITS) and 1 % (SSU). In an independent study, a strain with D1/D2 and ITS sequences very similar to those of the Philippine strains was isolated in Malaysia from the blood of a patient dying of aspiration pneumonia. Both groups of isolates were moderately sensitive to anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole but resistant to amphotericin B. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the sequences placed the Philippine and Malaysian isolates close to the Candida haemulonis complex of Candida species. To reflect the geographical location of the sites of sample collection, the novel species name Candida vulturna pro tempore sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains. The type strain is 11-1170T (=CBS 14366T=CCY 094-001-001T=NCAIM-Y02177T) isolated in Cagayan de Oro, The Philippines. Mycobank: MB 817222.

  3. Meaning-Making Process Related to Temporality During Breast Cancer Traumatic Experience: The Clinical Use of Narrative to Promote a New Continuity of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Martino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has agreed that meaning-making is a key element in the promotion of patients’ well-being during and after a traumatic event such as cancer. In this paper, we focus on an underestimated key element related to the crisis/rupture of this meaning-making process with respect to the time perspective. We consider 40 narratives of breast cancer patients at different times of treatment, undergoing chemotherapy and biological therapy. We collected data through writing technique. We performed an interpretative thematic analysis of the data and highlighted specific ways to signify time during the different treatment phases. Our central aspect “the time of illness, the illness of time” demonstrates that the time consumed by illness has the risk of becoming an illness of time, which transcends the end of the illness and absorbs a patient’s past, present, and future, thus saturating all space for thought and meaning. The study suggests that narrative can become a therapeutic and preventive tool for women with breast cancer in a crisis of temporality, and enable the promotion of new semiotic connections and a specific functional resynchronization with the continuity/discontinuity of life. This is useful during the illness and medical treatment and also after the treatment.

  4. Meaning-Making Process Related to Temporality During Breast Cancer Traumatic Experience: The Clinical Use of Narrative to Promote a New Continuity of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Luisa; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has agreed that meaning-making is a key element in the promotion of patients’ well-being during and after a traumatic event such as cancer. In this paper, we focus on an underestimated key element related to the crisis/rupture of this meaning-making process with respect to the time perspective. We consider 40 narratives of breast cancer patients at different times of treatment, undergoing chemotherapy and biological therapy. We collected data through writing technique. We performed an interpretative thematic analysis of the data and highlighted specific ways to signify time during the different treatment phases. Our central aspect “the time of illness, the illness of time” demonstrates that the time consumed by illness has the risk of becoming an illness of time, which transcends the end of the illness and absorbs a patient’s past, present, and future, thus saturating all space for thought and meaning. The study suggests that narrative can become a therapeutic and preventive tool for women with breast cancer in a crisis of temporality, and enable the promotion of new semiotic connections and a specific functional resynchronization with the continuity/discontinuity of life. This is useful during the illness and medical treatment and also after the treatment. PMID:27872670

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variations of PM2.5 and Its Relation to Meteorological Factors in the Urban Area of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The serious air pollution problem has aroused widespread public concerns in China. Nanjing city, as one of the famous cities of China, is faced with the same situation. This research aims to investigate spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and the influence of weather factors on PM2.5 in Nanjing using Spearman-Rank analysis and the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN method. Hourly PM2.5 observation data and daily meteorological data were collected from 1 April 2013 to 31 December 2015. The spatial distribution result shows that the Maigaoqiao site suffered the most serious pollution. Daily PM2.5 concentrations in Nanjing varied from 7.3 μg/m3 to 336.4 μg/m3. The highest concentration was found in winter and the lowest in summer. The diurnal variation of PM2.5 increased greatly from 6 to 10 a.m. and after 6 p.m., while the concentration exhibited few variations in summer. In addition, the concentration was slightly higher on weekends compared to weekdays. PM2.5 was found to exhibit a reversed relation with wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation. Although temperature had a positive association with PM2.5 in most months, a negative correlation was observed during the whole period. Additionally, a high concentration was mainly brought with the wind with a southwest direction and several relevant factors are discussed to explain the difference of the impacts of diverse wind directions.

  6. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Vegetation Dynamics in Relation to Shifting Inundation and Fire Regimes: Disentangling Environmental Variability from Land Management Decisions in a Southern African Transboundary Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa G. Pricope

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing temperatures and wildfire incidence and decreasing precipitation and river runoff in southern Africa are predicted to have a variety of impacts on the ecology, structure, and function of semi-arid savannas, which provide innumerable livelihood resources for millions of people. This paper builds on previous research that documents change in inundation and fire regimes in the Chobe River Basin (CRB in Namibia and Botswana and proposes to demonstrate a methodology that can be applied to disentangle the effect of environmental variability from land management decisions on changing and ecologically sensitive savanna ecosystems in transboundary contexts. We characterized the temporal dynamics (1985–2010 of vegetation productivity for the CRB using proxies of vegetation productivity and examine the relative importance of shifts in flooding and fire patterns to vegetation dynamics and effects of the association of phases of the El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO on vegetation greenness. Our results indicate that vegetation in these semi-arid environments is highly responsive to climatic fluctuations and the long-term trend is one of increased but heterogeneous vegetation cover. The increased cover and heterogeneity during the growing season is especially noted in communally-managed areas of Botswana where long-term fire suppression has been instituted, in contrast to communal areas in Namibia where heterogeneity in vegetation cover is mostly increasing primarily outside of the growing season and may correspond to mosaic early dry season burns. Observed patterns of increased vegetation productivity and heterogeneity may relate to more frequent and intense burning and higher spatial variability in surface water availability from both precipitation and regional inundation patterns, with implications for global environmental change and adaptation in subsistence-based communities.

  7. New age constraints for the Saalian glaciation in northern central Europe: Implications for the extent of ice sheets and related proglacial lake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jörg; Lauer, Tobias; Winsemann, Jutta

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive palaeogeographic reconstruction of ice sheets and related proglacial lake systems for the older Saalian glaciation in northern central Europe is presented, which is based on the integration of palaeo-ice flow data, till provenance, facies analysis, geomorphology and new luminescence ages of ice-marginal deposits. Three major ice advances with different ice-advance directions and source areas are indicated by palaeo-ice flow directions and till provenance. The first ice advance was characterised by a southwards directed ice flow and a dominance of clasts derived from southern Sweden. The second ice advance was initially characterised by an ice flow towards the southwest. Clasts are mainly derived from southern and central Sweden. The latest stage in the study area (third ice advance) was characterised by ice streaming (Hondsrug ice stream) in the west and a re-advance in the east. Clasts of this stage are mainly derived from eastern Fennoscandia. Numerical ages for the first ice advance are sparse, but may indicate a correlation with MIS 8 or early MIS 6. New pIRIR290 luminescence ages of ice-marginal deposits attributed to the second ice advance range from 175 ± 10 to 156 ± 24 ka and correlate with MIS 6. The ice sheets repeatedly blocked the main river-drainage pathways and led to the formation of extensive ice-dammed lakes. The formation of proglacial lakes was mainly controlled by ice-damming of river valleys and major bedrock spillways; therefore the lake levels and extends were very similar throughout the repeated ice advances. During deglaciation the lakes commonly increased in size and eventually drained successively towards the west and northwest into the Lower Rhine Embayment and the North Sea. Catastrophic lake-drainage events occurred when large overspill channels were suddenly opened. Ice-streaming at the end of the older Saalian glaciation was probably triggered by major lake-drainage events.

  8. Temporal Planning for Compilation of Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Davide; Do, Minh Binh; Rieffel, Eleanor Gilbert; Frank, Jeremy David

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the application of temporal planners to the problem of compiling quantum circuits to newly emerging quantum hardware. While our approach is general, we focus our initial experiments on Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) circuits that have few ordering constraints and allow highly parallel plans. We report on experiments using several temporal planners to compile circuits of various sizes to a realistic hardware. This early empirical evaluation suggests that temporal planning is a viable approach to quantum circuit compilation.

  9. Metamorphic evolution of the Rechnitz metamorphic core complex in relation to the Neogene Pannonian basin, Eastern Alps: Constraints from Ar-Ar white mica ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Bernroider, Manfred; Friedl, Gertrude

    2015-04-01

    The exhumation of Cordilleran-type metamorphic core complexes (MCC) is generally related to largely contemporaneous collapse-type sedimentary basins (mainly halfgrabens). Here, we investigate the example of the Rechnitz MCC, which formed by Miocene orogen-parallel extension within the Neogene Pannonian basin. The Rechnitz MCC is located on the South Burgenland basement High within the western part of the Neogene Pannonian basin, with the Styrian basin in the west and the Danube basin in the east. The Rechnitz MCC is metamorphosed within greenschist facies conditions (maximum temperature of 430 °C) ideal for Ar-Ar white mica dating. For the first time, we undertook an extensive survey of 40Ar/39Ar white mica dating combined with microfabrics and electron microprobe compositional data and we compare the new data with major evolutionary stages of adjacent sedimentary basins, mainly based on re-evaluation of existing reflection seismic lines. The internal structure of the Rechnitz window is characterized by two tectonic cover nappes, a lower nappe with distal continental affinity, and an upper nappe representing the infilling of an oceanic basin. Both within greenschist facies metamorphic conditions and few blueschists were found in the northwestern part of the upper nappe. We found a number of distinct white mica age spectra: (1) A sample from the northwesternmost upper nappe yield a staircase pattern ranging from 14.8 ± 0.9 Ma to 41.5 ± 1.0 Ma. We interpret the older age is minimum age of high-pressure metamorphism and the younger age as age of overprint during extensional exhumation. (2) A number of samples from the western part, independent from positions within the nappes yield plateau ages between 20 and maximum 23 Ma and are variably affected by a younger thermal overprint between 13 and 15 Ma. (3) The eastern and lower units show plateau-like patterns with plateau ages of 17 - 19 Ma with a majority at ca. 18 Ma and a single younger outlier at ca. 16 Ma. Some

  10. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Martin S. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Fuglei, Eva; König, Max [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Lipasti, Inka [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pedersen, Åshild Ø. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Polder, Anuschka [Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås (Norway); Yoccoz, Nigel G. [Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ{sup 13}C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ{sup 13}C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ{sup 13}C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year.

  11. Alteration of functional connectivity within visuospatial working memory-related brain network in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zong-xia; Huang, Dong-Hong; Ye, Wei; Chen, Zi-rong; Huang, Wen-li; Zheng, Jin-ou

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the resting-state brain network related to visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE). The functional mechanism underlying the cognitive impairment in VSWM was also determined. Fifteen patients with rTLE and 16 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness underwent a 6-min resting-state functional MRI session and a neuropsychological test using VSWM_Nback. The VSWM-related brain network at rest was extracted using multiple independent component analysis; the spatial distribution and the functional connectivity (FC) parameters of the cerebral network were compared between groups. Behavioral data were subsequently correlated with the mean Z-value in voxels showing significant FC difference during intergroup comparison. The distribution of the VSWM-related resting-state network (RSN) in the group with rTLE was virtually consistent with that in the healthy controls. The distribution involved the dorsolateral prefrontal lobe and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere and the partial inferior parietal lobe and posterior lobe of the cerebellum in the left hemisphere (p<0.05, AlphaSim corrected). Between-group differences suggest that the group with rTLE had a decreased FC within the right superior frontal lobe (BA8), right middle frontal lobe, and right ventromedial prefrontal lobe compared with the controls (p<0.05, AlphaSim corrected). The regions of increased FC in rTLE were localized within the right superior frontal lobe (BA11), right superior parietal lobe, and left posterior lobe of the cerebellum (p<0.05, AlphaSim corrected). Moreover, patients with rTLE performed worse than controls in the VSWM_Nback test, and there were negative correlations between ACCmeanRT (2-back) and the mean Z-value in the voxels showing decreased or increased FC in rTLE (p<0.05). The results suggest that the alteration of the VSWM-related RSN might underpin the VSWM impairment in patients with rTLE and

  12. Evidence for localised HIV related micro–epidemics associated with the decentralised provision of antiretroviral treatment in rural South Africa: a spatio–temporal analysis of changing mortality patterns (2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analysed the spatial and temporal changes in patterns of mortality over a period when antiretroviral therapy (ART was rolled out in a rural region of north–eastern South Africa. Previous studies have identified localised concentrated HIV related sub–epidemics and recommended that micro–level analyses be carried out in order to direct focused interventions.

  13. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-12-10

    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  14. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Joins are arguably the most important relational operators. Poor implementations are tantamount to computing the Cartesian product of the input relations. In a temporal database, the problem is more acute for two reasons. First, conventional techniques are designed for the evaluation of joins wit...... to implementation, is on non-index-based join algorithms. Such algorithms do not rely on auxiliary access paths but may exploit sort orderings to achieve efficiency......., if any, comparison of the various operators. We then address evaluation algorithms, comparing the applicability of various algorithms to the temporal join operators and describing a performance study involving algorithms for one important operator, the temporal equijoin. Our focus, with respect...

  15. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified corre...

  16. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  17. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  18. Critical phenomena for systems under constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Izmailian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the imposition of a constraint can transform the properties of critical systems. Early work on this phemomenon by Essam and Garelick, Fisher, and others, focused on the effects of constraints on the leading critical exponents describing phase transitions. Recent work extended these considerations to critical amplitudes and to exponents governing logarithmic corrections in certain marginal scenarios. Here these old and new results are gathered and summarised. The involutory nature of transformations between the critical parameters describing ideal and constrained systems are also discussed, paying particular attention to matters relating to universality.

  19. Restricting query relaxation through user constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaasterland, T.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes techniques to restrict and to heuristically control relaxation of deductive database queries. The process of query relaxation provides a user with a means to automatically identify new queries that are related to the user`s original query. However, for large databases, many relaxations may be possible. The methods to control and restrict the relaxation process introduced in this paper focus the relaxation process and make it more efficient. User restrictions over the data base domain may be expressed as user constraints. This paper describes how user constraints can restrict relaxed queries. Also, a set of heuristics based on cooperative answering techniques are presented for controlling the relaxation process. Finally, the interaction of the methods for relaxing queries, processing user constraints, and applying the heuristic rules is described.

  20. Lorentz violation. Motivation and new constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberati, S. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    We review the main theoretical motivations and observational constraints on Planck scale sup-pressed violations of Lorentz invariance. After introducing the problems related to the phenomenological study of quantum gravitational effects, we discuss the main theoretical frameworks within which possible departures from Lorentz invariance can be described. In particular, we focus on the framework of Effective Field Theory, describing several possible ways of including Lorentz violation therein and discussing their theoretical viability. We review the main low energy effects that are expected in this framework. We discuss the current observational constraints on such a framework, focusing on those achievable through high-energy astrophysics observations. In this context we present a summary of the most recent and strongest constraints on QED with Lorentz violating non-renormalizable operators. Finally, we discuss the present status of the field and its future perspectives. (orig.)

  1. Coordination in Climbing: Effect of Skill, Practice and Constraints Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Dominic; Davids, Keith; Seifert, Ludovic

    2016-02-01

    Climbing is a physical activity and sport involving many subdisciplines. Minimization of prolonged pauses, use of a relatively simple path through a route and smooth transitions between movements broadly define skilled coordination in climbing. To provide an overview of the constraints on skilled coordination in climbing and to explore future directions in this emerging field. A systematic literature review was conducted in 2014 and retrieved studies reporting perceptual and movement data during climbing tasks. To be eligible for the qualitative synthesis, studies were required to report perceptual or movement data during climbing tasks graded for difficulty. Qualitative synthesis of 42 studies was carried out, showing that skilled coordination in climbing is underpinned by superior perception of climbing opportunities; optimization of spatial-temporal features pertaining to body-to-wall coordination, the climb trajectory and hand-to-hold surface contact; and minimization of exploratory behaviour. Improvements in skilled coordination due to practice are related to task novelty and the difficulty of the climbing route relative to the individual's ability level. Perceptual and motor adaptations that improve skilled coordination are highly significant for improving the climbing ability level. Elite climbers exhibit advantages in detection and use of climbing opportunities when visually inspecting a route from the ground and when physically moving though a route. However, the need to provide clear guidelines on how to improve climbing skill arises from uncertainties regarding the impacts of different practice interventions on learning and transfer.

  2. New constraints for canonical general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Reisenberger, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Ashtekar's canonical theory of classical complex Euclidean GR (no Lorentzian reality conditions) is found to be invariant under the full algebra of infinitesimal 4-diffeomorphisms, but non-invariant under some finite proper 4-diffeos when the densitized dreibein, $\\tilE^a_i$, is degenerate. The breakdown of 4-diffeo invariance appears to be due to the inability of the Ashtekar Hamiltonian to generate births and deaths of $\\tilE$ flux loops (leaving open the possibility that a new `causality c...

  3. The Department Chair during Fiscal Constraints: Visionary Shop Foreman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    Considers the role of the English department head in a time of fiscal constraint and retrenchment. Describes the special responsibilities necessitated by lean financial circumstances. Discusses department/administration relations and the public relations aspect of chairing a department. (HB)

  4. Temporal integration and instrumental conditioned reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcement for instrumental behavior are widely believed to acquire the capacity to function as conditioned reinforcers via Pavlovian conditioning. Some Pavlovian conditioning studies suggest that animals learn the important temporal relations between stimuli and integrate such temporal information over separate experiences to form a temporal map. The present experiment examined whether Pavlovian conditioning can establish a positive instrumental conditioned...

  5. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due to n...... and sub-concepts, including ‘late’, ‘self-imposed’, and ‘continua of creativity constraints’, to inform future cross-disciplinary work on creativity constraints....

  6. Solving Sudoku with Constraint Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Broderick; Castro, Carlos; Monfroy, Eric

    Constraint Programming (CP) is a powerful paradigm for modeling and solving Complex Combinatorial Problems (generally issued from Decision Making). In this work, we model the known Sudoku puzzle as a Constraint Satisfaction Problems and solve it with CP comparing the performance of different Variable and Value Selection Heuristics in its Enumeration phase. We encourage this kind of benchmark problem because it may suggest new techniques in constraint modeling and solving of complex systems, or aid the understanding of its main advantages and limits.

  7. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  8. Deepening Contractions and Collateral Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Ravn, Søren Hove; Santoro, Emiliano

    and occasionally non-binding credit constraints. Easier credit access increases the likelihood that constraints become slack in the face of expansionary shocks, while contractionary shocks are further amplified due to tighter constraints. As a result, busts gradually become deeper than booms. Based...... on the differential impact that occasionally non-binding constraints exert on the shape of expansions and contractions, we are also able to reconcile a more negatively skewed business cycle with a moderation in its volatility. Finally, our model can account for an intrinsic feature of economic downturns preceded...

  9. Modifier constraint in alkali borophosphate glasses using topological constraint theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zeng, Huidan, E-mail: hdzeng@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Jiang, Qi [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Donghui [Unifrax Corporation, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States); Chen, Guorong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Polymer Program, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Chen, Jianding [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, composition-dependent properties of glasses have been successfully predicted using the topological constraint theory. The constraints of the glass network are derived from two main parts: network formers and network modifiers. The constraints of the network formers can be calculated on the basis of the topological structure of the glass. However, the latter cannot be accurately calculated in this way, because of the existing of ionic bonds. In this paper, the constraints of the modifier ions in phosphate glasses were thoroughly investigated using the topological constraint theory. The results show that the constraints of the modifier ions are gradually increased with the addition of alkali oxides. Furthermore, an improved topological constraint theory for borophosphate glasses is proposed by taking the composition-dependent constraints of the network modifiers into consideration. The proposed theory is subsequently evaluated by analyzing the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature in alkali borophosphate glasses. This method is supposed to be extended to other similar glass systems containing alkali ions.

  10. Common pathway in the medial temporal lobe for storage and recovery of words as revealed by event-related functional MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daselaar, S.M.; Veltman, D.J.; Witter, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Lesion studies have provided compelling evidence that episodic memory is dependent on the integrity of the medial temporal lobe (MTL). This role of the MTL in episodic memory has been supported by several neuroimaging studies during both episodic encoding and retrieval. After two meta-analyses of

  11. Coverage-based constraints for IMRT optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, H; Ulrich, S; Bangert, M

    2017-09-05

    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires an incorporation of uncertainties in order to guarantee an adequate irradiation of the tumor volumes. In current clinical practice, uncertainties are accounted for implicitly with an expansion of the target volume according to generic margin recipes. Alternatively, it is possible to account for uncertainties by explicit minimization of objectives that describe worst-case treatment scenarios, the expectation value of the treatment or the coverage probability of the target volumes during treatment planning. In this note we show that approaches relying on objectives to induce a specific coverage of the clinical target volumes are inevitably sensitive to variation of the relative weighting of the objectives. To address this issue, we introduce coverage-based constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Our implementation follows the concept of coverage-optimized planning that considers explicit error scenarios to calculate and optimize patient-specific probabilities [Formula: see text] of covering a specific target volume fraction [Formula: see text] with a certain dose [Formula: see text]. Using a constraint-based reformulation of coverage-based objectives we eliminate the trade-off between coverage and competing objectives during treatment planning. In-depth convergence tests including 324 treatment plan optimizations demonstrate the reliability of coverage-based constraints for varying levels of probability, dose and volume. General clinical applicability of coverage-based constraints is demonstrated for two cases. A sensitivity analysis regarding penalty variations within this planing study based on IMRT treatment planning using (1) coverage-based constraints, (2) coverage-based objectives, (3) probabilistic optimization, (4) robust optimization and (5) conventional margins illustrates the potential benefit of coverage-based constraints that do not require tedious adjustment of target

  12. Temporal lobe epilepsy semiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert D G

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Diatoms from la Chaine des Lacs Urban Watershed, Nord-Pas France, in Relation to Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, P. J.; Van de Vijver, B.; Verleyen, E.; Prygiel, J.; Ivanovsky, A.; Lesven, L.; Billon, G.

    2016-12-01

    Diatom analysis was conducted on lake sediments in la Chaîne des Lacs (CDL), a shallow eutrophic urban park and storm control system in Villeneuve d'Ascq, France, to address both the present day water quality, and the evolution of this urban system over its 40 year history. The main lake, Lac du Héron (LDH), received recent attention because of water quality problems, including eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and invasion by the macrophyte Elodea in 2012. A total of 17 sites were collected in CDL, 11 of which were in LDH, to document spatial variability, and a 26cm long core addresses historical changes. The bulk of the diatom assemblage in LDH can be classified as both eutrophic and moderately metal tolerant, using modern national diatom indices developed and used by the French regional water agencies. Surface sediment samples within LDH show large spatial variations in %Cocconeis placentula whose habitat is epiphytic growth on Elodea. Other variation is reflected in the phytoplankton composition both spatially, and interannually. Aulacoseira muzzanensis and Cyclostephanos dubius showed greater abundance in the open water habitats in LDH, whereas sites in CDL outside of LDH had greater Cyclotella meneghiniana. Temporally, Stephanodicsus (largely S. hantzschii), the dominant diatom in early spring, were present in greater abundances in the 2016 surface sediment samples than in any of the 2015 samples. One possible explanation is that the 2016 samples, taken March 30th, preferentially preserved the early spring Stephanodiscus bloom, in contrast to the 2015 samples, which were taken in January. The sediment core provides an historical record, where the uppermost 4cm plot with the bulk of the LDH surface samples and contain abundant Cocconeis, 4 -14cm is phytoplankton-rich, largely Cyclostephanos dubius and Aulacoseira muzzanensis, and represents a less weed-choked environment prior to the 2012 Elodea invasion. The base of the core is dominated by Amphora and

  14. Constraints to leasing and development of federal resources: OCS oil and gas and geothermal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Chapter I identifies possible technological, economic, and environmental constraints to geothermal resource development. Chapter II discusses constraints relative to outer continental shelf and geothermal resources. General leasing information for each resource is detailed. Chapter III summarizes the major studies relating to development constraints. 37 refs. (PSB)

  15. Gender Effects on Sport Twitter Consumption: Differences in Motivations and Constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juha Yoon; Chase Smith; Amy Chan Hyung Kim; Galen Clavio; Chad Witkemper; Paul M Pedersen

    2014-01-01

    ...., accessibility, economic, skill, and social constraints). The current study utilized a one-way MANOVA in order to examine gender differences in relation to sport social media usage motivations and constraints...

  16. A multi-methodological approach to study the temporal and spatial distribution of air quality related to road transport emissions in Madrid, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Pedro; Miranda, Regina

    2013-04-01

    The traffic-related atmospheric emissions, composition and transport of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air toxic pollutants (ATPs), are an important environmental problem that affect climate change and air pollution in Madrid, Spain. Carbon dioxide (CO2) affects the regional weather and particularly fine particle matter (PM) translocate to the people resulting in local health problems. As the main source of emissions comes from road transport, and subsequent combustion of fossil fuels, air quality deterioration may be elevated during weekdays and peak hours. We postulate that traffic-related air quality (CO2, methane CH4, PM, volatile organic compounds VOCs, nitrogen oxides NOx and carbon monoxide CO contents) impairs epidemiology in part via effects on health and disease development, likely increasing the external costs of transport in terms of climate change and air pollution. First, the paper intends to estimate the local air quality related to the road transport emissions of weeks over a domain covering Madrid (used as a case study). The local air quality model (LAQM) is based on gridded and shaped emission fields. The European Environmental Agency (EEA) COPERT modeling system will provide GHGs and ATPs gridded and shaped emission data and mobile source parameters, available for Madrid from preliminary emission inventory records of the Municipality of Madrid and from disaggregated traffic counts of the Traffic Engineering Company and the Metropolitan Company of Metro (METRO-Madrid). The paper intends to obtain estimates of GHGs and ATPs concentrations commensurate with available ground measurements, 24-hour average values, from the Municipality of Madrid. The comparison between estimated concentrations and measurements must show small errors (e.g. fractional error, fractional bias and coefficient of determination). The paper's expected results must determine spatial and temporal patterns in Madrid. The estimates will be used to cross check the primary local

  17. Temporal trend of the snow-related variables in Sierra Nevada in the last years: An analysis combining Earth Observation and hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio J.; Herrero, Javier; Bonet, Francisco J.; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is causing declines in snow-cover extent and duration in European mountain ranges. This is especially important in Mediterranean mountain ranges where the observed trends towards precipitation and higher temperatures can provoke problems of water scarcity. In this work, we analyzed temporal trends (2000 to 2014) of snow-related variables obtained from satellite and modelling data in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high-mountain range located in Southern Spain, at 37°N. Snow cover indicators (snow-cover duration, snow-cover onset dates and snow-cover melting dates) were obtained by processing images of MOD10A2 MODIS product using an automated workflow. Precipitation data were obtained using WiMMed, a complete and fully distributed hydrological model that is used to map the annual rainfall and snowfall with a resolution of 30x30 m over the whole study area. It uses expert algorithms to interpolate precipitation and temperature at an hourly scale, and simulates partition of precipitation into snowfall with several methods. For each snow-related indicator (snow-covers and snowfall), a trend analysis was applied at the MODIS pixel scale during the study period (2000-2014). We applied Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation in each of the pixels comprising Sierra Nevada. The trend analysis assesses the intensity, magnitude and degree of statistical significance during the period analysed. The spatial pattern of these trends was explored according to elevation ranges. Finally, we explored the relationship between trends of snow-cover related indicators and precipitation trends. Our results show that snow-cover has undergone significant changes in the last 14 years. 80 % of the pixels covering Sierra Nevada showed a negative trend in the duration of snow-cover. We also observed a delay in the snow-cover onset date (68.03 % pixels showing a positive trend in the snow-cover onset date) and an advance in the melt date (80.72 % of pixels followed a

  18. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...

  19. Constraints in vector meson photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, F

    2000-01-31

    Constraints are discussed for spin observables extracted from photoproduction of vector mesons. These constraints originate from positivity of the spin density matrix and should be part of any future analysis of experimental data. Spin observables need to be defined in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame.

  20. Constraints in Vector Meson Photoproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, F.

    2000-01-01

    Constraints are discussed for spin observables extracted from photoproduction of vector mesons. These constraints originate from positivity of the spin density matrix and should be part of any future analysis of experimental data. Spin observables need to be defined in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame.

  1. Thermodynamic Constraints Improve Metabolic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Elias W; Libourel, Igor G L

    2017-08-08

    In pursuit of establishing a realistic metabolic phenotypic space, the reversibility of reactions is thermodynamically constrained in modern metabolic networks. The reversibility constraints follow from heuristic thermodynamic poise approximations that take anticipated cellular metabolite concentration ranges into account. Because constraints reduce the feasible space, draft metabolic network reconstructions may need more extensive reconciliation, and a larger number of genes may become essential. Notwithstanding ubiquitous application, the effect of reversibility constraints on the predictive capabilities of metabolic networks has not been investigated in detail. Instead, work has focused on the implementation and validation of the thermodynamic poise calculation itself. With the advance of fast linear programming-based network reconciliation, the effects of reversibility constraints on network reconciliation and gene essentiality predictions have become feasible and are the subject of this study. Networks with thermodynamically informed reversibility constraints outperformed gene essentiality predictions compared to networks that were constrained with randomly shuffled constraints. Unconstrained networks predicted gene essentiality as accurately as thermodynamically constrained networks, but predicted substantially fewer essential genes. Networks that were reconciled with sequence similarity data and strongly enforced reversibility constraints outperformed all other networks. We conclude that metabolic network analysis confirmed the validity of the thermodynamic constraints, and that thermodynamic poise information is actionable during network reconciliation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

    1998-12-17

    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  3. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  4. Weighted Constraints in Fuzzy Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Kaymak (Uzay); J.M. Sousa

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMany practical optimization problems are characterized by some flexibility in the problem constraints, where this flexibility can be exploited for additional trade-off between improving the objective function and satisfying the constraints. Especially in decision making, this type of

  5. Integrity Constraints in Trust Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Winsborough, William H.

    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust managementstyle authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then we address the fact that not all participants in a trust

  6. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint...... space and answers linear-constraint queries using an optimal number of I/Os in the worst case. For d=3, we present a near-linear-size data structure that answers queries using an optimal number of I/Os on the average. We present linear-size data structures that can answer d-dimensional linear-constraint...

  7. Resting state networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cataldi, Mauro; Avoli, Massimo; Villers‐Sidani, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy ( TLE ) is typically described as a neurologic disorder affecting a cerebral network comprising the hippocampus proper and several anatomically related extrahippocampal regions...

  8. White matter lesions and temporal lobe atrophy related to incidence of both dementia and major depression in 70-year-olds followed over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, P; Olesen, P J; Simoni, M; Pantoni, L; Östling, S; Kern, S; Guo, X; Skoog, I

    2015-05-01

    A number of studies have suggested associations between dementia and depression in older adults. One reason could be that these disorders share structural correlates, such as white matter lesions (WMLs) and cortical atrophy. No study has examined whether these lesions precede both dementia and depression independently of each other in the general population. Whether WMLs and cortical atrophy on computed tomography predict dementia and depression was investigated in a population-based sample of 70-year-olds (n = 380) followed over 10 years. Exclusion criteria were dementia, major depression, history of stroke and a Mini-Mental State Examination score below 26 at baseline in 2000-2001. Dementia was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised, and depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Primary outcomes included dementia and major depression at 10-year follow-up. Adjusted logistic regression models, including both WMLs and temporal lobe atrophy, showed that moderate to severe WMLs [odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-12.76] and temporal lobe atrophy (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.13-7.60) predicted dementia during a 10-year follow-up independently of major depression. Similarly, both moderate to severe WMLs (OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.25-11.76) and temporal lobe atrophy (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.06-5.96) predicted depression even after controlling for incident dementia. White matter lesions and temporal lobe atrophy preceded 10-year incidence of both dementia and depression in 70-year-olds. Shared structural correlates could explain the reported associations between dementia and depression. These brain changes may represent independent and complementary pathways to dementia and depression. Strategies to slow progression of vascular pathology and neurodegeneration could indirectly prevent both dementia and depression in older adults. © 2015 EAN.

  9. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  10. Quantum centipedes with strong global constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    A centipede made of N quantum walkers on a one-dimensional lattice is considered. The distance between two consecutive legs is either one or two lattice spacings, and a global constraint is imposed: the maximal distance between the first and last leg is N  +  1. This is the strongest global constraint compatible with walking. For an initial value of the wave function corresponding to a localized configuration at the origin, the probability law of the first leg of the centipede can be expressed in closed form in terms of Bessel functions. The dispersion relation and the group velocities are worked out exactly. Their maximal group velocity goes to zero when N goes to infinity, which is in contrast with the behaviour of group velocities of quantum centipedes without global constraint, which were recently shown by Krapivsky, Luck and Mallick to give rise to ballistic spreading of extremal wave-front at non-zero velocity in the large-N limit. The corresponding Hamiltonians are implemented numerically, based on a block structure of the space of configurations corresponding to compositions of the integer N. The growth of the maximal group velocity when the strong constraint is gradually relaxed is explored, and observed to be linear in the density of gaps allowed in the configurations. Heuristic arguments are presented to infer that the large-N limit of the globally constrained model can yield finite group velocities provided the allowed number of gaps is a finite fraction of N.

  11. OIB signatures in basin-related lithosphere-derived alkaline basalts from the Batain basin (Oman) - Constraints from 40Ar/39Ar ages and Nd-Sr-Pb-Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, M.; Jung, S.; Pfänder, J. A.; Romer, R. L.; Mayer, B.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.

    2017-08-01

    Tertiary rift-related intraplate basanites from the Batain basin of northeastern Oman have low SiO2 ( 9.73 wt.%) and moderate to high Cr and Ni contents (Cr > 261 ppm, Ni > 181 ppm), representing near primary magmas that have undergone fractionation of mainly olivine and magnetite. Rare earth element systematics and p-T estimates suggest that the alkaline rocks are generated by different degrees of partial melting (4-13%) of a spinel-peridotite lithospheric mantle containing residual amphibole. The alkaline rocks show restricted variations of 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ranging from 0.70340 to 0.70405 and 0.51275 to 0.51284, respectively. Variations in Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb: 18.59-18.82, 207Pb/204Pb: 15.54-15.56, 208Pb/204Pb: 38.65-38.98) of the alkaline rocks fall in the range of most OIB. Trace element constraints together with Sr-Nd-Pb isotope composition indicate that assimilation through crustal material did not affect the lavas. Instead, trace element variations can be explained by melting of a lithospheric mantle source that was metasomatized by an OIB-type magma that was accumulated at the base of the lithosphere sometimes in the past. Although only an area of less than 1000 km2 was sampled, magmatic activity lasted for about 5.5 Ma with a virtually continuous activity from 40.7 ± 0.7 to 35.3 ± 0.6 Ma. During this period magma composition was nearly constant, i.e. the degree of melting and the nature of the tapped source did not change significantly over time.

  12. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Most database applications manage time-referenced, or temporal, data. Temporal data management is difficult when using conventional database technology, and many contributions have been made for how to better model, store, and query temporal data. Temporal aggregation illustrates well the problem...

  13. CONSTRAINT PROGRAMMING AND UNIVERSITY TIMETABLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.W. Groves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The technology of Constraint Programming is rapidly becoming a popular alternative for solving large-scale industry problems. This paper provides an introduction to Constraint Programming and to Constraint Logic Programming (CLP, an enabler of constraint programming. The use of Constraint Logic Programming is demonstrated by describing a system developed for scheduling university timetables. Timetabling problems have a high degree of algorithmic complexity (they are usually NP-Complete, and share features with scheduling problems encountered in industry. The system allows the declaration of both hard requirements, which must always be satisfied, and soft constraints which need not be satisfied, though this would be an advantage.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel beskryf ’n familie van probleem-oplossingstegnieke bekend as “Constraint Programming”, wat al hoe meer gebruik word om groot-skaalse industriële probleme op te los. Die nut van hierdie tegnieke word gedemonstreer deur die beskrywing van ’n skeduleringsisteem om die roosters vir ’n universiteit te genereer. Roosterskeduleringsprobleme is in praktiese gevalle NP-volledig en deel baie eienskappe met industriële skeduleringsprobleme. Die sisteem wat hier beskryf word maak gebruik van beide harde beperkings (wat altyd bevredig moet word en sagte beperkings (bevrediging hiervan is wel voordelig maar dit is opsioneel.

  14. Formulation of detailed consumables management models for the development (preoperational) period of advanced space transportation system. Volume 3: Study of constraints/limitations for STS consumables management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, C. M.

    1976-01-01

    The constraints and limitations for STS Consumables Management are studied. Variables imposing constraints on the consumables related subsystems are identified, and a method determining constraint violations with the simplified consumables model in the Mission Planning Processor is presented.

  15. Dose–Volume Relationships Associated With Temporal Lobe Radiation Necrosis After Skull Base Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Mark W., E-mail: markmcdonaldmd@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, Indiana (United States); Linton, Okechukwu R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Calley, Cynthia S.J. [Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: We evaluated patient and treatment parameters correlated with development of temporal lobe radiation necrosis. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 66 patients treated for skull base chordoma, chondrosarcoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, or sinonasal malignancies between 2005 and 2012, who had at least 6 months of clinical and radiographic follow-up. The median radiation dose was 75.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]). Analyzed factors included gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, use of chemotherapy, and the absolute dose:volume data for both the right and left temporal lobes, considered separately. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis evaluated potential predictors of radiation necrosis, and the median effective concentration (EC50) model estimated dose–volume parameters associated with radiation necrosis. Results: Median follow-up time was 31 months (range 6-96 months) and was 34 months in patients who were alive. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at 3 years was 84.9%. The 3-year estimate of any grade temporal lobe radiation necrosis was 12.4%, and for grade 2 or higher radiation necrosis was 5.7%. On multivariate GEE, only dose–volume relationships were associated with the risk of radiation necrosis. In the EC50 model, all dose levels from 10 to 70 Gy (RBE) were highly correlated with radiation necrosis, with a 15% 3-year risk of any-grade temporal lobe radiation necrosis when the absolute volume of a temporal lobe receiving 60 Gy (RBE) (aV60) exceeded 5.5 cm{sup 3}, or aV70 > 1.7 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: Dose–volume parameters are highly correlated with the risk of developing temporal lobe radiation necrosis. In this study the risk of radiation necrosis increased sharply when the temporal lobe aV60 exceeded 5.5 cm{sup 3} or aV70 > 1.7 cm{sup 3}. Treatment planning goals should include constraints on the volume of temporal lobes receiving

  16. Changes in brain entropy are related to abstract temporal topology. Comment on "Topodynamics of metastable brains" by Arturo Tozzi et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çankaya, Mehmet Niyazi; Déli, Eva

    2017-07-01

    of the brain's electric activities that parallel changes in thoughts or evolution of concepts. Within the framework of operational architectonics, Tozzi et al. applied the methods of the Bursuk-Ulam theorem (BUT) to uncover the detailed dynamics of brain activities, such as dimensionality, entropy changes, and information accumulation. The authors find that ripples of rapid transitional periods, with sudden changes and reorganization of the information and entropy, parallels shifts both in dimensionality of temporal dynamics, as well as in cognitive processes. The method therefore can uncover how entropic and dimensionality changes are interconnected with emerging mental concepts. It also highlights the differences between lower conceptual processes, such as sensory processing, and higher cognitive synthesis, such as semantics, for example. In physical systems, information, dimensionality and entropy are related according to well-established formulas. In this direction, the entropy values of the volume and surface area are added into the evaluation of brain functionings [5-7]. If the same relationship is true in the wet and constantly changing biological complexity of the brain, then it would give us predictive capability toward the understanding of cognition, aid the treatment of mental problems and diseases in psychiatry and psychology, and facilitate the design of a new generation of artificial intelligent machines.

  17. Constraints and plasticity in genome and molecular-phenome evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V.; Wolf, Yuri I.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple constraints variously affect different parts of the genomes of diverse life forms. The selective pressures that shape the evolution of viral, archaeal, bacterial and eukaryotic genomes differ markedly, even among relatively closely related animal and bacterial lineages; by contrast, constraints affecting protein evolution seem to be more universal. The constraints that shape the evolution of genomes and phenomes are complemented by the plasticity and robustness of genome architecture, expression and regulation. Taken together, these findings are starting to reveal complex networks of evolutionary processes that must be integrated to attain a new synthesis of evolutionary biology. PMID:20548290

  18. Analysis of optical flow constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C

    1995-01-01

    Different constraint equations have been proposed in the literature for the derivation of optical flow. Despite of the large number of papers dealing with computational techniques to estimate optical flow, only a few authors have investigated conditions under which these constraints exactly model the velocity field, that is, the perspective projection on the image plane of the true 3-D velocity. These conditions are analyzed under different hypotheses, and the departures of the constraint equations in modeling the velocity field are derived for different motion conditions. Experiments are also presented giving measures of these departures and of the induced errors in the estimation of the velocity field.

  19. Remote temporal camouflage: contextual flicker disrupts perceived visual temporal order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, John; Van der Burg, Erik

    2014-10-01

    Correctly perceiving the temporal order of events is essential to many tasks. Despite this, the factors constraining our ability to make timing judgments remain largely unspecified. Here we present a new phenomenon demonstrating that perceived timing of visual events may be profoundly impaired by the mere presence of irrelevant events elsewhere in the visual field. Human observers saw two abrupt luminance events presented across a range of onset asynchronies. Temporal order judgment (TOJ) just noticeable differences (JNDs) provided a behavioural index of temporal precision. When target events were presented in isolation or in static distractor environments temporal resolution was very precise (JNDs ∼20ms). However, when surrounded by dynamic distractor events, performance deteriorated more than a factor of four. This contextual effect we refer to as Remote Temporal Camouflage (RTC) operates across large spatial and temporal distances and possesses a unique spatial distribution conforming to neither the predictions of attentional capture by transient events, nor by stimulus dependencies associated with other contextual phenomena such as surround suppression, crowding, object-substitution masking or motion-induced blindness. We propose that RTC is a consequence of motion-related masking whereby irrelevant motion signals evoked by dynamic distractors interfere with TOJ-relevant target-related apparent motion. Consistent with this we also show that dynamic visual distractors do not interfere with audio-visual TOJs. Not only is RTC the most spatially extensive contextual effect ever reported, it offers vision science a new technique with which to investigate temporal order performance, free of motion-related sensory contributions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Topology Optimization with Stress Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbart, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contains contributions to the development of topology optimization techniques capable of handling stress constraints. The research that led to these contributions was motivated by the need for topology optimization techniques more suitable for industrial applications. Currently, topology

  1. Decentralized systems with design constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides a rigorous examination of the analysis, stability and control of large-scale systems, and addresses the difficulties that arise because of dimensionality, information structure constraints, parametric uncertainty and time-delays.

  2. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due...... to no overall conceptual framing or shared terminology. This lack of unity hinders overt opportunities for cross-disciplinary interchange. We argue that an improved understanding of constraints in creativity holds a promising potential for advancements in creativity research across domains and disciplines. Here......, we give an overview of the growing, but incohesive body of research into creativity and constraints, which leads us to introduce ‘creativity constraints’ as a unifying concept to help bridge these disjoint contributions to facilitate crossdisciplinary interchange. Finally, we suggest key topics...

  3. Action Recognition by Joint Spatial-Temporal Motion Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a method for human action recognition based on optical flow motion features extraction. Automatic spatial and temporal alignments are combined together in order to encourage the temporal consistence on each action by an enhanced dynamic time warping (DTW algorithm. At the same time, a fast method based on coarse-to-fine DTW constraint to improve computational performance without reducing accuracy is induced. The main contributions of this study include (1 a joint spatial-temporal multiresolution optical flow computation method which can keep encoding more informative motion information than recent proposed methods, (2 an enhanced DTW method to improve temporal consistence of motion in action recognition, and (3 coarse-to-fine DTW constraint on motion features pyramids to speed up recognition performance. Using this method, high recognition accuracy is achieved on different action databases like Weizmann database and KTH database.

  4. Can Leverage Constraints Help Investors?

    OpenAIRE

    Heimer, Rawley

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides causal evidence that leverage constraints can reduce the underperformance of individual investors. In accordance with Dodd-Frank, the CFTC was given regulatory authority over the retail market for foreign exchange and capped the maximum permissible leverage available to U.S. traders. By comparing U.S. traders on the same brokerages with their unregulated European counterparts, I show that the leverage constraint reduces average per-trade losses even after adjusting for ris...

  5. Risk Sharing under Incentive Constraints.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    In addressing the matter, this thesis covers issues such as the welfare gains from international risk sharing, the impact of international risk sharing on national economic policies and production efficiency, the welfare effects of international risk sharing in the presence of tax competition, and risk sharing among entrepreneurs that face financing constraints. The thesis outlines the implications of incentive constraints for the efficiency of the actual extent and pattern of risk sharing am...

  6. Filtering effect of temporal niche fluctuation and amplitude of environmental variations on the trait-related flowering patterns: lesson from sub-Mediterranean grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catorci, Andrea; Piermarteri, Karina; Penksza, Károly; Házi, Judit; Tardella, Federico Maria

    2017-09-20

    Timing of flowering is a critical component of community assembly, but how plant traits respond to heterogeneity of resources has been identified mostly through observations of spatial variations. Thus, we performed a trait-based phenological study in sub-Mediterranean grasslands to assess the importance of temporal variation of resources in the species assemblage processes. We found that early flowering species have traits allowing for slow resource acquisition and storage but rapid growth rate. Instead, mid- and late-flowering species exhibited sets of strategies devoted to minimizing water loss by evapotranspiration or aimed at maximizing the species' competitive ability, thanks to slow growth rate and more efficient resource acquisition, conservation and use. Our findings were consistent with the fluctuation niche theory. We observed that the amplitude of the environmental fluctuations influences the type and number of strategies positively filtered by the system. In fact, in the most productive grasslands, we observed the highest number of indicator trait states reflecting strategies devoted to the storage of resources and competition for light. Results seem also indicate that temporal variation of resources plays a role in trait differentiation and richness within a plant community, filtering traits composition of grasslands in the same direction, as formerly proved for spatial heterogeneity of resources.

  7. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Content in an Organic Soil in Dartmoor National Park, UK and its Relation to Microtopography and Organic Soil Horizon Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J.; Miles, H.; Berg, A.

    2009-05-01

    The water content of organic and mineral soils is an important parameter which links energy and mass balances at the earth's surface and as such is essential to understanding the spatial and temporal organization of many biological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes. The characterization of surface water content in space and time is also important for the continued development of regional-scale and global circulation climate models and has large implications for agriculture and land-use planning. A field study was performed in Dartmoor National Park, Devon, UK in August 2008 for the purpose of exploring the predictive power of terrain indices on wetness patterns in an organic soil. Point samples were taken over the course of three days on two hill slopes of varying aspect in order to assess the influence of incident solar radiation on water storage. Additionally, the depth of the organic layer was estimated for each sample location and topographic information collected for the creation of a digital elevation model. A weak correlation between peat water content and organic soil layer depth was demonstrated and found to be strongest in shallow soils. Microtopography was found to influence the variability of soil moisture over the sampled area with surface roughness (measured by using residual elevation from the mean transect slope). Based on repeated observations over the sampling grids temporal persistence of water content patterns is evident and can be linked to terrain indices and depth of the organic layer.

  8. Exploiting Temporal Secondary Access Opportunities in Radar Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Tercero, Miurel; Sung, Ki Won; Zander, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the temporal opportunities for secondary access to radar spectrum. Secondary users are assumed to be WLANs which opportunistically share the radar frequency band under the constraint that the aggregate interference does not harm radar operation. Each WLAN device employs dynamic frequency selection (DFS) as a mechanism to protect the radar from the interference. We also consider an advanced interference protection mechanism, which is termed temporal DFS. It exploits ...

  9. Polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperly, T D; Moore, K E; Harrover, J D

    2000-08-15

    Polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arteritis are closely related inflammatory conditions that affect different cellular targets in genetically predisposed persons. Compared with temporal arteritis, polymyalgla rheumatica is much more common, affecting one in 200 persons older than 50 years. Temporal arteritis, however, is more dangerous and can lead to sudden blindness. The diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica is based on the presence of a clinical syndrome consisting of fever, nonspecific somatic complaints, pain and stiffness in the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Temporal arteritis typically presents with many of the same findings as polymyalgia rheumatica, but patients also have headaches and tenderness to palpation over the involved artery. Arterial biopsy usually confirms the diagnosis of temporal arteritis. Early diagnosis and treatment of polymyalgia rheumatica or temporal arteritis can dramatically improve patients' lives and return them to previous functional status. Corticosteroid therapy provides rapid and dramatic improvement of the clinical features of both conditions. Therapy is generally continued for six to 24 months. Throughout treatment, clinical condition is assessed periodically. Patients are instructed to see their physician immediately if symptoms recur or they develop new headache, jaw claudication or visual problems.

  10. Spatial-Temporal Hotspot Pattern Analysis of Provincial Environmental Pollution Incidents and Related Regional Sustainable Management in China in the Period 1995–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial-temporal hotspot pattern analysis of environmental pollution incidents provides an indispensable source of information for the further development of incident prevention measures. In this study, the spatial-temporal patterns of environmental pollution incidents in China in the period of 1995–2012 were analyzed, using the Spatial Getis-Ord statistic and an Improved Prediction Accuracy Index (IAPI. The results show that, in this period, the occurrence of environmental incidents exhibited a dynamic growth pattern but then dropped and continued to drop after the year 2006, which was considered a crucial turning point. Not coincidentally, this corresponds to the year when the State Council issued its National Environmental Emergency Plan, and following the examination of major incidents, special actions were taken to strengthen the control of incidents and emergency responses. The results from Getis-Ord General G statistical analysis show that the spatial agglomeration phenomenon was statistically significant after 1999 and that the level of spatial agglomeration was rising, while the Getis-Ord Gi* statistical analysis reveals that environmental pollution incidents were mainly agglomerated in the Pan Yangtze River Delta and Pan Pearl River Delta regions. Accordingly, the spatial-temporal hotspot pattern based on the IAPI values at the provincial scale could be categorized into: stable hotspots, unstable hotspots, and cold-spot areas. The stable hotspots category was further divided into three subtypes: industrial distribution type, industrial transfer type, and extensive economic growth type. Finally, the corresponding measures for sustainable management were proposed: stable hotspots were classified as essential regions requiring the immediate prevention and control of environmental pollution incidents; unstable hotspots were characterized by their need for ongoing and continual prevention measures, and cold-spots were those areas that

  11. Implicit Motives and Men’s Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ruppen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers’ perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers’ life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children (N = 276. They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction.

  12. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toemme eNoesselt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic imaging (fMRI. Subjects judged the temporal relation of (asynchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (asynchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects’ perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the ‘auditory’ and ‘visual leading areas’ lie closer to ‘synchrony areas’ than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects’ perception of (asynchrony.

  13. Dark matter constraints from stellar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, A.; Domínguez, I.; Straniero, O.

    2016-01-01

    The study of dark matter constraints from its effect on star evolution has been discussed in recent years. We propose a star evolution simulation approach to determine those costraints from properties related to star evolutionary stages and propose globular cluster observables in order to check those constraints. My work in progress (my PhD project research) employs FRANEC code to simulate complete star evolution from pre-main sequence to AGB phase, and regards several DM candidates like axions or WIMPs, motivated by different unsolved physical problems. Detailed energy production or energy loss due to DM particles are included, taking into account the expected interaction between dark matter particles and stellar plasma within different models.

  14. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    Semantics of temporal models with multi temporal dimensions are examined progressing from non-temporal models unto uni-temporal, and further unto bi- and tri-temporal models. An example of a uni-temporal model is the valid time model, an example of a bi-temporal model is the valid time/transactio...

  15. Observational constraints on f(T) gravity from varying fundamental constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Rafael C.; Bonilla, Alexander [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Pan, Supriya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Mohanpur, West Bengal (India); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [Pontificia Universidad de Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); National Technical University of Athens, Physics Division, Athens (Greece); Baylor University, CASPER, Physics Department, Waco, TX (United States)

    2017-04-15

    We use observations related to the variation of fundamental constants, in order to impose constraints on the viable and most used f(T) gravity models. In particular, for the fine-structure constant we use direct measurements obtained by different spectrographic methods, while for the effective Newton constant we use a model-dependent reconstruction, using direct observational Hubble parameter data, in order to investigate its temporal evolution. We consider two f(T) models and we quantify their deviation from Λ CDM cosmology through a sole parameter. Our analysis reveals that this parameter can be slightly different from its Λ CDM value, however, the best-fit value is very close to the Λ CDM one. Hence, f(T) gravity is consistent with observations, nevertheless, as every modified gravity, it may exhibit only small deviations from Λ CDM cosmology, a feature that must be taken into account in any f(T) model-building. (orig.)

  16. A working memory "theory of relativity": elasticity in temporal, spatial, and modality dimensions conserves item capacity in radial maze, verbal tasks, and other cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, R B

    1999-03-15

    It is remarkable that working memory (WM) capacity for numbers of items remains modest, at approximately 7+/-2 (the so-called "magical number"), across a wide variety of kinds of material. Indeed, consideration of radial maze studies together with more traditional memory research shows that WM capacity remains fairly constant whether the items are verbal or visuospatial, and that this same capacity is true of other species as of humans. In contrast to their limited numerousness, WM items are extremely flexible in ways that are here brought under the heading of "dimensionality." Therefore, the physical items represented in WM, can vary widely in any quantitative characteristic and in the temporal pace at which they are encountered. Combinatorial considerations suggest that WM numerousness results from evolution of a middle ground between a sterile parsimony and an overwhelming excess, for organizing neurocognitive associations. Such natural selection seems likely to have worked opportunistically to yield diverse characteristics of neuronal tissue, from subcellular components to properties of ensembles, which converge on the required cognitive properties of WM. Priming and implicit memory may play supporting roles with WM. These intermediate-term memory phenomena allow certain kinds of background information to be accumulated at higher volume than seems possible from the textbook, "modal model" of memory. By expediting attentional focus on subsets of information already in long-term memory, priming may help WM chunks to emerge in limited number as appropriately scaled "figures" from the primed "ground." The larger neuronal dynamic patterns that embody these cognitive phenomena must regulate their microscopic component systems, automatically selecting those having parameters of temporal persistence, rhythm, and connectivity patterns that are pertinent to the current task. Relevant neural phenomena may include "Hebbian" associativity and persistence of firing patterns

  17. Social Constraints are Associated with Negative Psychological and Physical Adjustment in Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P; Lepore, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Losing a loved one is a normative life event, yet there is great variability in subsequent interpersonal experiences and adjustment. The Social-Cognitive Processing (SCP) model suggests that social constraints (i.e. limited opportunities to disclose thoughts and feelings in a supportive context) impede emotional and cognitive processing of stressful life events, which may lead to maladjustment. This study investigates personal and loss-related correlates of social constraints during bereavement, the links between social constraints and post-loss adjustment, and whether social constraints moderate the relations between loss-related intrusive thoughts and adjustment. A community sample of bereaved individuals (n = 238) provided demographic and loss-related information and reported on their social constraints, loss-related intrusions, and psychological and physical adjustment. Women, younger people, and those with greater financial concerns reported more social constraints. Social constraints were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms, perceived stress, somatic symptoms, and worse global health. Individuals with high social constraints and high loss-related intrusions had the highest depressive symptoms and perceived life stress. Consistent with the SCP model, loss-related social constraints are associated with poorer adjustment, especially psychological adjustment. In particular, experiencing social constraints in conjunction with loss-related intrusions may heighten the risk for poor psychological health. © 2015 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  18. Constraint Optimization Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    approach is to produce an assignment that does not optimize for all objective functions but is instead Pareto optimal ( Pareto 1906). Definition 2-20... Pareto optimal (also called Pareto efficient): An assignment is Pareto optimal relative to a set of objective functions O if it is impossible to change...to another objective function . The Pareto frontier is the set of assignments that are Pareto optimal. By seeking a solution that is Pareto optimal

  19. Investigation into Crack-Tip Constraint of Curved Wide-Plate using Q-Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwee-Sueng; Huh, Nam-Su [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Seok; Shim, Sang-Hoon; Cho, Woo-Yeon [POSCO, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    In the present paper, the effects of the thickness and width of a curved wide-plate, the crack length, and the strain hardening exponent on the crack-tip constraint of the curved wide-plate were investigated. To accomplish this, detailed three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element (FE) analyses were performed considering various geometric and material variables. The material was characterized by the Ramberg-Osgood relationship, and the Q-stress was employed as a crack-tip constraint parameter. Based on the present FE results, the variations in the Q-stress of the curved wide-plate with the geometric variables and material properties were evaluated. This revealed that the effect of out-of-plane constraint conditions on the crack-tip constraint was closely related to the in-plane constraint conditions, and out-of-plane constraint conditions affected the crack-tip constraint more than in-plane constraint conditions.

  20. Holonomic constraints: an analytical result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazars, Martial [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Universite de Paris Sud XI, Batiment 210, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2007-02-23

    Systems subjected to holonomic constraints follow quite complicated dynamics that could not be described easily with Hamiltonian or Lagrangian dynamics. The influence of holonomic constraints in equations of motions is taken into account by using Lagrange multipliers. Finding the value of the Lagrange multipliers allows us to compute the forces induced by the constraints and therefore, to integrate the equations of motions of the system. Computing analytically the Lagrange multipliers for a constrained system may be a difficult task that depends on the complexity of systems. For complex systems it is, most of the time, impossible to achieve. In computer simulations, some algorithms using iterative procedures estimate numerically Lagrange multipliers or constraint forces by correcting the unconstrained trajectory. In this work, we provide an analytical computation of the Lagrange multipliers for a set of linear holonomic constraints with an arbitrary number of bonds of constant length. In the appendix explicit formulae are shown for Lagrange multipliers for systems having 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 bonds of constant length, linearly connected.

  1. Pattern Recognition by Hierarchical Temporal Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Maltoni, Prof. Davide

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) is still largely unknown by the pattern recognition community and only a few studies have been published in the scientific literature. This paper reviews HTM architecture and related learning algorithms by using formal notation and pseudocode description. Novel approaches are then proposed to encode coincidence-group membership (fuzzy grouping) and to derive temporal groups (maxstab temporal clustering). Systematic experiments on three line-drawing datasets ...

  2. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  3. Temporal and spatial variation in the status of acid rivers and potential prevention methods of AS soil-related leaching in peatland forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, T.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis examines temporal and spatial variations in the status of different rivers and streams of western Finland in terms of acidity and sources of acid load derived from the catchment area. It also examines the monitoring of acid runoff water derived from maintenance drainage in peatland forestry and suggests potential mitigation methods. A total of 17 river basins of different sizes in western Finland were selected for study, including rivers affected by both drainage of agricultural AS soils and forested peatlands. Old data from 1911-1931 were available, but most data were from the 1960s onwards and were taken from the HERTTA database. During 2009-2011, pH and conductivity measurements and water sampling were conducted. Biological monitoring for ecological classification was conducted in the Sanginjoki river system during 2008 and 2009. Three peatland forestry sites were selected to study acid leaching via pH and EC measurements and water sampling. Fluctuations in groundwater level in different drainage conditions were simulated and acid leaching was investigated in laboratory experiments in order to replicate a situation where the groundwater level drops and allows oxidation of sulphidic materials. It was found that river pH decreased and metal concentrations increased with runoff. The highest acidity observed coincided with periods of intense drainage in the 1970s and after dry summers in the past decade. Together with pH, electric conductivity and sulphate in river water were identified as suitable indicators of AS soils in a catchment, because they directly respond to acid leaching derived from AS soils. Acidity derived from organic acids was clearly observed in catchments dominated by forested peatlands and wetlands. Temporal and spatial variations in ecological status were observed, but monitoring at whole-catchment scale and during consecutive years is needed to increase the reliability of the results. Simulations on the potential effects of

  4. Predicting temporal development of discharge and nitrate in relation to dynamic changes of spatial crop distribution in three land use scenario runs with a catchment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guse, Björn; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Geertz, Jörn; Fohrer, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    In the past years, relevant changes in the use of agricultural areas were observed in German catchments. To achieve good ecological conditions in river basins as demanded by the European Water Framework Directive, the implications of land use change on water quantity and especially water quality needs to be quantified. Therefore, recent data of agricultural crops are prepared for the catchment scale. Based on this, simulations of future land use scenarios are carried out with a hydrological catchment model to analyse the linkage between dynamic changes of land use and modeled discharge and nutrients. Spatial and temporal variations of changes within agricultural areas lead to a dynamic change of pressures on the ecological status of rivers. While static land use distributions assume constant conditions for agricultural areas for the whole simulation period, dynamic changes of agricultural areas and their spatial patterns consider the varying land use conditions within the scenario simulation. In our study, a dynamic modeling of spatial distributions for agricultural crops and its impacts on discharge and nitrate is presented at the catchment scale. The area proportions of the crops are estimated in a data-based statistical approach and are implemented into the eco-hydrological model SWAT for recent and future conditions To obtain an accurate reproduction of the water cycle, the SWAT model is calibrated for discharge and nitrate time series for recent conditions. Three land use change scenarios are developed for the study catchment focusing on a dominance of food production, energy crops and on a best ecological practise. According to the scenarios, the spatial crop distribution is updated dynamically for each year, while non-agricultural land use types remain constant. The SWAT model provides satisfying results for discharge and nitrate. The evaluation of the three land use change scenarios for the period from 2021 to 2030 shows low differences in discharge, while

  5. Cosmological constraints on the Undulant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Gong, Yan; Wan, Hao-Yi; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2010-11-01

    We use the redshift Hubble parameter H(z) data derived from relative galaxy ages, distant type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) peak, and the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) shift parameter data, to constrain cosmological parameters in the Undulant Universe. We marginalize the likelihood functions over h by integrating the probability density P ∝ e-χ2/2 By using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, we obtain the best fitting results and give the confidence regions in the b - Ωm0 plane. Then we compare their constraints. Our results show that the H(z) data play a similar role with the SNe Ia data in cosmological study. By presenting the independent and joint constraints, we find that the BAO and CMB data play very important roles in breaking the degeneracy compared with the H(z) and SNe Ia data alone. Combined with the BAO or CMB data, one can remarkably improve the constraints. The SNe Ia data sets constrain Ωm0 much tighter than the H(z) data sets, but the H(z) data sets constrain b much tighter than the SNe Ia data sets. All these results show that the Undulant Universe approaches the ΛCDM model. We expect more H(z) data to constrain cosmological parameters in the future.

  6. Magnetotail dynamics under isobaric constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl; Janicke, Lutz; Hesse, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Using linear theory and nonlinear MHD simulations, we investigate the resistive and ideal MHD stability of two-dimensional plasma configurations under the isobaric constraint dP/dt = 0, which in ideal MHD is equivalent to conserving the pressure function P = P(A), where A denotes the magnetic flux. This constraint is satisfied for incompressible modes, such as Alfven waves, and for systems undergoing energy losses. The linear stability analysis leads to a Schroedinger equation, which can be investigated by standard quantum mechanics procedures. We present an application to a typical stretched magnetotail configuration. For a one-dimensional sheet equilibrium characteristic properties of tearing instability are rediscovered. However, the maximum growth rate scales with the 1/7 power of the resistivity, which implies much faster growth than for the standard tearing mode (assuming that the resistivity is small). The same basic eigen-mode is found also for weakly two-dimensional equilibria, even in the ideal MHD limit. In this case the growth rate scales with the 1/4 power of the normal magnetic field. The results of the linear stability analysis are confirmed qualitatively by nonlinear dynamic MHD simulations. These results suggest the interesting possibility that substorm onset, or the thinning in the late growth phase, is caused by the release of a thermodynamic constraint without the (immediate) necessity of releasing the ideal MHD constraint. In the nonlinear regime the resistive and ideal developments differ in that the ideal mode does not lead to neutral line formation without the further release of the ideal MHD constraint; instead a thin current sheet forms. The isobaric constraint is critically discussed. Under perhaps more realistic adiabatic conditions the ideal mode appears to be stable but could be driven by external perturbations and thus generate the thin current sheet in the late growth phase, before a nonideal instability sets in.

  7. New Constraints on Quantum Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical relationships between physical theories are discussed. It is explained how a lower rank theory imposes constraints on an acceptable structure of its higher rank theory. This principle is applied to the case of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory of massive particles. It is proved that the Dirac equation is consistent with these constraints whereas the Klein-Gordon equation, as well as all other second order quan- tum equations are inconsistent with the Schrödinger equation. This series of arguments undermines the theoretical structure of the Standard Model.

  8. Spatio-temporal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with glomalin-related soil protein and soil enzymes in different managed semiarid steppes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Bao, Yuying; Liu, Xiaowei; Du, Guoxin

    2014-10-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and glomalin and soil enzyme activities were investigated in different managed semiarid steppes located in Inner Mongolia, North China. Soils were sampled in a depth up to 30 cm from non-grazed, overgrazed, and naturally restored steppes from June to September. Roots of Leymus chinense (Trin.) Tzvel. and Stipagrandis P. Smirn. were also collected over the same period. Results showed that overgrazing significantly decreased the total mycorrhizal colonization of S. grandis; total colonization of L. chinensis roots was not significantly different in the three managed steppes. Nineteen AMF species belonging to six genera were isolated. Funneliformis and Glomus were dominant genera in all three steppes. Spore density and species richness were mainly influenced by an interaction between plant growth stage and management system (P soil depth. AMF species richness was significantly positively correlated with soil acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and two Bradford-reactive soil protein (BRSP) fractions (P soil glomalin and phosphatase activity in different managed semiarid steppes. Based on these observations, AMF communities could be useful indicators for evaluating soil quality and function of semiarid grassland ecosystems.

  9. Powered Descent Guidance with General Thrust-Pointing Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M., III; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) algorithm and software for generating Mars pinpoint or precision landing guidance profiles has been enhanced to incorporate thrust-pointing constraints. Pointing constraints would typically be needed for onboard sensor and navigation systems that have specific field-of-view requirements to generate valid ground proximity and terrain-relative state measurements. The original PDG algorithm was designed to enforce both control and state constraints, including maximum and minimum thrust bounds, avoidance of the ground or descent within a glide slope cone, and maximum speed limits. The thrust-bound and thrust-pointing constraints within PDG are non-convex, which in general requires nonlinear optimization methods to generate solutions. The short duration of Mars powered descent requires guaranteed PDG convergence to a solution within a finite time; however, nonlinear optimization methods have no guarantees of convergence to the global optimal or convergence within finite computation time. A lossless convexification developed for the original PDG algorithm relaxed the non-convex thrust bound constraints. This relaxation was theoretically proven to provide valid and optimal solutions for the original, non-convex problem within a convex framework. As with the thrust bound constraint, a relaxation of the thrust-pointing constraint also provides a lossless convexification that ensures the enhanced relaxed PDG algorithm remains convex and retains validity for the original nonconvex problem. The enhanced PDG algorithm provides guidance profiles for pinpoint and precision landing that minimize fuel usage, minimize landing error to the target, and ensure satisfaction of all position and control constraints, including thrust bounds and now thrust-pointing constraints.

  10. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2012-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  11. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Nickels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome.

  12. Temporal Ventriloquism in Sensorimotor Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melody Kay

    Perception of time is multisensory and therefore requires integration of the auditory and visual systems. Temporal ventriloquism is a phenomenon in which discrepant temporal aspects of multisensory stimuli are resolved through auditory dominance. Numerous prior experiments have demonstrated temporal ventriloquism using simple flash and click stimuli. The experiment presented herein employed a sensorimotor synchronization task to examine the effect of visual stimulus type across a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA). This study compared sensorimotor response to three visual stimuli: a flash, a baton swinging, and a mallet striking a block. The results of the experiment indicated that the influence of SOA was greatly dependent on stimulus type. In contrast with the transient flash stimulus, the oscillatory visual stimuli provided more spatiotemporal information. This could explain the significantly reduced effect of temporal ventriloquism observed in response to the baton and mallet relative to the flash. Multisensory integration did not absolutely bias the auditory system; predictive visual dynamics proved useful in the unified perception of temporal occurrence.

  13. Optimization of temporal networks under uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesemann, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Many decision problems in Operations Research are defined on temporal networks, that is, workflows of time-consuming tasks whose processing order is constrained by precedence relations. For example, temporal networks are used to model projects, computer applications, digital circuits and production processes. Optimization problems arise in temporal networks when a decision maker wishes to determine a temporal arrangement of the tasks and/or a resource assignment that optimizes some network characteristic (e.g. the time required to complete all tasks). The parameters of these optimization probl

  14. Technology for planning and scheduling under complex constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguire, Karen M.; Pedro Gomes, Carla O.

    1997-02-01

    Within the context of law enforcement, several problems fall into the category of planning and scheduling under constraints. Examples include resource and personnel scheduling, and court scheduling. In the case of court scheduling, a schedule must be generated considering available resources, e.g., court rooms and personnel. Additionally, there are constraints on individual court cases, e.g., temporal and spatial, and between different cases, e.g., precedence. Finally, there are overall objectives that the schedule should satisfy such as timely processing of cases and optimal use of court facilities. Manually generating a schedule that satisfies all of the constraints is a very time consuming task. As the number of court cases and constraints increases, this becomes increasingly harder to handle without the assistance of automatic scheduling techniques. This paper describes artificial intelligence (AI) technology that has been used to develop several high performance scheduling applications including a military transportation scheduler, a military in-theater airlift scheduler, and a nuclear power plant outage scheduler. We discuss possible law enforcement applications where we feel the same technology could provide long-term benefits to law enforcement agencies and their operations personnel.

  15. Transforming growth factor-β1 expression in endangered age-0 shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) from Upper Klamath Lake, OR relative to histopathology, meristic, spatial, and temporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Christopher A.; Densmore, Christine L.; Robertson, Laura S.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Vanderkooi, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    During July – September of 2008, 2009, and 2010 endangered age-0 juvenile shortnose suckers were sampled from Upper Klamath Lake, OR in a health evaluation that included the measurement of transforming growth factor – beta (TGF-β) expression in spleen in combination with a histopathology assessment. This analysis was performed to determine if the expression of this immuno-regulator could be used as a component of a larger health evaluation intended to identify potential risk-factors that may help to explain why very few of these fish survive to age-1. Potential associations between TGF-β1 expression, histopathological findings, meristic data as well as temporal and spatial data were evaluated using analysis-of-variance. In this analysis, the absence or presence of opercula deformity and hepatic cell necrosis were identified as significant factors in accounting for the variance in TGF-β1 expression observed in age-0 shortnose suckers (n = 122, squared multiple R = 0.989). Location of sample collection and the absence or presence of anchor worms (Lernaea spp.) were identified as significant cofactors. The actual mechanisms involved with these relationships have yet to be determined. The strength, however, of our findings support the concept of using TGF-β1 expression as part of a broader fish health assessment and suggests the potential for using additional immunologic measures in future studies. Specifically, our results indicate that the measure of TGF-β1 expression in age-0 shortnose sucker health assessments can facilitate the process of identifying disease risks that are associated with the documented lack of recruitment into the adult population.

  16. Is youth violence temporally related to alcohol? A time-series analysis of binge drinking, youth violence and total alcohol consumption in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Johan; Landberg, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the temporal association between violence and binge drinking among Swedish youth. Two time periods are analysed, the first one representing the full observation period 1971-2009 and the second one representing a confined period 1971-2000. Furthermore, the association between population drinking and binge drinking among youths is also investigated with regards to the two time periods. ARIMA modelling was applied in order to estimate these associations. Based on the confined time period (1971-2000), analyses revealed that four out of six estimates (two where borderline) of the association between binge drinking and violence (self-reported as well as convictions for assaults) were positive and statistically significant. However, most estimates became non-significant when the full study period (1971-2009) was analysed. The analyses of the relationship between total consumption and youth binge drinking revealed that binge drinking among military conscripts and boys was affected by changes in total consumption during the shorter confined study period. These associations became non-significant when the full study period was included in the models. (a) there was a positive relationship between violence and binge drinking among Swedish youth at the aggregated level, but mainly with regards to the shorter study period, (b) changes in per capita alcohol consumption were associated with binge drinking among young men and this was more evident for the shorter study period and (c) there was empirical evidence for the idea that these associations became weaker or non-existent after the year 2000.

  17. Temporal Variation of Wood Density and Carbon in Two Elevational Sites of Pinus cooperi in Relation to Climate Response in Northern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Pompa-García

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of carbon uptake in forest ecosystems is much needed. Pinus cooperi is a widely distributed species in the Sierra Madre Occidental in northern Mexico and future climatic variations could impact these ecosystems. Here, we analyze the variations of trunk carbon in two populations of P. cooperi situated at different elevational gradients, combining dendrochronological techniques and allometry. Carbon sequestration (50% biomass was estimated from a specific allometric equation for this species based on: (i variation of intra-annual wood density and (ii diameter reconstruction. The results show that the population at a higher elevation had greater wood density, basal area, and hence, carbon accumulation. This finding can be explained by an ecological response of trees to adverse weather conditions, which would cause a change in the cellular structure affecting the within-ring wood density profile. The influence of variations in climate on the maximum density of chronologies showed a positive correlation with precipitation and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index during the winter season, and a negative correlation with maximum temperature during the spring season. Monitoring previous conditions to growth is crucial due to the increased vulnerability to extreme climatic variations on higher elevational sites. We concluded that temporal variability of wood density contributes to a better understanding of environmental historical changes and forest carbon dynamics in Northern Mexico, representing a significant improvement over previous studies on carbon sequestration. Assuming a uniform density according to tree age is incorrect, so this method can be used for environmental mitigation strategies, such as for managing P. cooperi, a dominant species of great ecological amplitude and widely used in forest industries.

  18. Temporal Variation of Wood Density and Carbon in Two Elevational Sites of Pinus cooperi in Relation to Climate Response in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa-García, Marín; Venegas-González, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of carbon uptake in forest ecosystems is much needed. Pinus cooperi is a widely distributed species in the Sierra Madre Occidental in northern Mexico and future climatic variations could impact these ecosystems. Here, we analyze the variations of trunk carbon in two populations of P. cooperi situated at different elevational gradients, combining dendrochronological techniques and allometry. Carbon sequestration (50% biomass) was estimated from a specific allometric equation for this species based on: (i) variation of intra-annual wood density and (ii) diameter reconstruction. The results show that the population at a higher elevation had greater wood density, basal area, and hence, carbon accumulation. This finding can be explained by an ecological response of trees to adverse weather conditions, which would cause a change in the cellular structure affecting the within-ring wood density profile. The influence of variations in climate on the maximum density of chronologies showed a positive correlation with precipitation and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index during the winter season, and a negative correlation with maximum temperature during the spring season. Monitoring previous conditions to growth is crucial due to the increased vulnerability to extreme climatic variations on higher elevational sites. We concluded that temporal variability of wood density contributes to a better understanding of environmental historical changes and forest carbon dynamics in Northern Mexico, representing a significant improvement over previous studies on carbon sequestration. Assuming a uniform density according to tree age is incorrect, so this method can be used for environmental mitigation strategies, such as for managing P. cooperi, a dominant species of great ecological amplitude and widely used in forest industries.

  19. Biological Constraints on Literacy Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    Investigates some of the biological constraints that shape the process of literacy acquisition. Explores the possibility of isolating processing components of reading which correspond to computational units of equivalent size in the neural architecture. Suggests that the process of literacy acquisition is largely constrained by a specific…

  20. Intertemporal consumption and credit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    There is continuing controversy over the importance of credit constraints. This paper investigates whether total household expenditure and debt is affected by an exogenous increase in access to credit provided by a credit market reform that enabled Danish house owners to use housing equity...

  1. Conjoined Constraints and Phonological Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bonilha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993, research on phonological acquisition has explored the explanatory potential of constraint theories. This study, also based on Optimality Theory, attempts to analyze the acquisition of CVVC syllable structure by Brazilian Portuguese children and addresses the issue of Local Conjunction (Smolensky, 1995, 1997 in research that deals with problems of phonological acquisition.

  2. Continuous Optimization on Constraint Manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates continuous optimization on the differentiable manifold formed by continuous constraint functions. The first order tensor geodesic differential equation is solved on the manifold in both numerical and closed analytic form for simple nonlinear programs. Advantages and disadvantages with respect to conventional optimization techniques are discussed.

  3. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  4. Constraint-Based Scheduling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Monte; Eskey, Megan; Stock, Todd; Taylor, Will; Kanefsky, Bob; Drascher, Ellen; Deale, Michael; Daun, Brian; Davis, Gene

    1995-01-01

    Report describes continuing development of software for constraint-based scheduling system implemented eventually on massively parallel computer. Based on machine learning as means of improving scheduling. Designed to learn when to change search strategy by analyzing search progress and learning general conditions under which resource bottleneck occurs.

  5. Virasoro constraints and polynomial recursion for the linear Hodge integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuai; Wang, Gehao

    2017-04-01

    The Hodge tau-function is a generating function for the linear Hodge integrals. It is also a tau-function of the KP hierarchy. In this paper, we first present the Virasoro constraints for the Hodge tau-function in the explicit form of the Virasoro equations. The expression of our Virasoro constraints is simply a linear combination of the Virasoro operators, where the coefficients are restored from a power series for the Lambert W function. Then, using this result, we deduce a simple version of the Virasoro constraints for the linear Hodge partition function, where the coefficients are restored from the Gamma function. Finally, we establish the equivalence relation between the Virasoro constraints and polynomial recursion formula for the linear Hodge integrals.

  6. Microsurgical Anatomy of the Temporal Lobe and Its Implications on Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukyuruk, Baris; Richardson, R. Mark; Wen, Hung Tzu; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan Carlos; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We review the neuroanatomical aspects of the temporal lobe related to the temporal lobe epilepsy. The neuronal, the ventricular, and the vascular structures are demonstrated. Methods. The previous articles published from the laboratory of the senior author are reviewed. Results. The temporal lobe has four surfaces. The medial surface has a complicated microanatomy showing close relation to the intraventricular structures, such as the amygdala or the hippocampus. There are many white matter bundles in the temporal lobe showing relation to the extra- and intraventricular structures. The surgical approaches commonly performed to treat temporal lobe epilepsy are discussed under the light of these data. Conclusion. A thorough knowledge of the microanatomy is necessary in cortical, subcortical, and intraventricular structures of the temporal lobe to achieve better results. PMID:22957242

  7. Weather is not significantly correlated with destination-specific transport-related physical activity among adults: A large-scale temporally matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Casey P; Zhang, Kai; Salvo, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    Weather is an element of the natural environment that could have a significant effect on physical activity. Existing research, however, indicates only modest correlations between measures of weather and physical activity. This prior work has been limited by a failure to use time-matched weather and physical activity data, or has not adequately examined the different domains of physical activity (transport, leisure, occupational, etc.). Our objective was to identify the correlation between weather variables and destination-specific transport-related physical activity in adults. Data were sourced from the California Household Travel Survey, collected in 2012-3. Weather variables included: relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and precipitation. Transport-related physical activity (walking) was sourced from participant-recorded travel diaries. Three-part hurdle models were used to analyze the data. Results indicate statistically or substantively insignificant correlations between the weather variables and transport-related physical activity for all destination types. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that transport-related physical activity may occur relatively independently of weather conditions. The knowledge that weather conditions do not seem to be a significant barrier to this domain of activity may potentially expand the universe of geographic locations that are amenable to environmental and programmatic interventions to increase transport-related walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Constraints on the braneworld from compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe, R.G. [Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa, ISEL, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, CFTP, Lisboa (Portugal); Paret, D.M. [Universidad de la Habana, Departamento de Fisica General, Facultad de Fisica, La Habana (Cuba); Martinez, A.P. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    According to the braneworld idea, ordinary matter is confined on a three-dimensional space (brane) that is embedded in a higher-dimensional space-time where gravity propagates. In this work, after reviewing the limits coming from general relativity, finiteness of pressure and causality on the brane, we derive observational constraints on the braneworld parameters from the existence of stable compact stars. The analysis is carried out by solving numerically the brane-modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, using different representative equations of state to describe matter in the star interior. The cases of normal dense matter, pure quark matter and hybrid matter are considered. (orig.)

  9. Low energy constraints and scalar leptoquarks⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajfer Svjetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a colored weak doublet scalar state with mass below 1 TeV can provide an explanation of the observed branching ratios in B → D(∗τντ decays. Constraints coming from Z → bb̄, muon g − 2, lepton flavor violating decays are derived. The colored scalar is accommodated within 45 representation of SU(5 group of unification. We show that presence of color scalar can improve mass relations in the up-type quark sector mass. Impact of the colored scalar embedding in 45-dimensional representation of SU(5 on low-energy phenomenology is also presented.

  10. Parallel embryonic transcriptional programs evolve under distinct constraints and may enable morphological conservation amidst adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Assaf; Gildor, Tsvia; Sher, Noa; Layous, Majed; Ben-Tabou de-Leon, Smadar

    2017-10-01

    Embryonic development evolves by balancing stringent morphological constraints with genetic and environmental variation. The design principle that allows developmental transcriptional programs to conserve embryonic morphology while adapting to environmental changes is still not fully understood. To address this fundamental challenge, we compare developmental transcriptomes of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, that shared a common ancestor about 40 million years ago and are geographically distant yet show similar morphology. We find that both developmental and housekeeping genes show highly dynamic and strongly conserved temporal expression patterns. The expression of other gene sets, including homeostasis and response genes, show divergent expression which could result from either evolutionary drift or adaptation to local environmental conditions. The interspecies correlations of developmental gene expressions are highest between morphologically similar developmental time points whereas the interspecies correlations of housekeeping gene expression are high between all the late zygotic time points. Relatedly, the position of the phylotypic stage varies between these two groups of genes: developmental gene expression shows highest conservation at mid-developmental stage, in agreement with the hourglass model while the conservation of housekeeping genes keeps increasing with developmental time. When all genes are combined, the relationship between conservation of gene expression and morphological similarity is partially masked by housekeeping genes and genes with diverged expression. Our study illustrates various transcriptional programs that coexist in the developing embryo and evolve under different constraints. Apparently, morphological constraints underlie the conservation of developmental gene expression while embryonic fitness requires the conservation of housekeeping gene expression and the species

  11. Optimizing Computation of Repairs from Active Integrity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Filipe, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Active integrity constraints (AICs) are a form of integrity constraints for databases that not only identify inconsistencies, but also suggest how these can be overcome. The semantics for AICs defines different types of repairs, but deciding whether an inconsistent database can be repaired...... and finding possible repairs is a NP- or Σ2p-complete problem, depending on the type of repairs one has in mind. In this paper, we introduce two different relations on AICs: an equivalence relation of independence, allowing the search to be parallelized among the equivalence classes, and a precedence relation...

  12. Inductive Temporal Logic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Kolter, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We study the extension of techniques from Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) to temporal logic programming languages. Therefore we present two temporal logic programming languages and analyse the learnability of programs from these languages from finite sets of examples. In first order temporal logic the following topics are analysed: - How can we characterize the denotational semantics of programs? - Which proof techniques are best suited? - How complex is the learning task? In propositional ...

  13. Project Scheduling Under Resource Constraints: Application of the Cumulative Global Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Trojet, Mariem; H'Mida, Fehmi; Lopez, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper concerns project scheduling under resource constraints. The objective is to find a solution that minimizes the project makespan, while respecting the precedence constraints and the resource constraints. The problem under consideration is modelled as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP). It is implemented under the constraint programming language CHIP V5. For modelling the resource constraints, we are particularly interested in the application of the cumul...

  14. The trade-off between spatial and temporal variabilities in reciprocal upper-limb aiming movements of different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, Frederic; Bongers, Raoul M; Bootsma, Reinoud J

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and temporal aspects of movement variability have typically been studied separately. As a result the relationship between spatial and temporal variabilities remains largely unknown. In two experiments we examined the evolution and covariation of spatial and temporal variabilities over variations in the duration of reciprocal aiming movements. Experiments differed in settings: In Experiment 1 participants moved unperturbed whereas in Experiment 2 they were confronted with an elastic force field. Different movement durations-for a constant inter-target distance-were either evoked by imposing spatial accuracy constraints while requiring participants to move as fast as possible, or prescribed by means of an auditory metronome while requiring participants to maximize spatial accuracy. Analyses focused on absolute and relative variabilities, respectively captured by the standard deviation (SD) and the coefficient of variation (CV = SD/mean). Spatial variability (both SDspace and CVspace) decreased with movement duration, while temporal variability (both SDtime and CVtime) increased with movement duration. We found strong negative correlations between spatial and temporal variabilities over variations in movement duration, whether the variability examined was absolute or relative. These findings observed at the level of the full movement contrasted with the findings observed at the level of the separate acceleration and deceleration phases of movement. During the separate acceleration and deceleration phases both spatial and temporal variabilities (SD and CV) were found to increase with their respective durations, leading to positive correlations between them. Moreover, variability was generally larger at the level of the constituent movement phases than at the level of the full movement. The general pattern of results was robust, as it emerged in both tasks in each of the two experiments. We conclude that feedback mechanisms operating to maximize task

  15. Interpersonal variability in timing strategy and temporal accuracy in rapid interception task with variable time-to-contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Tetsuya; Shinya, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2015-01-01

    In rapid interceptive actions such as hitting a baseball, cricket ball or tennis ball, ball speed varies between trials, and players have to compensate the time lag by controlling the moment of movement onset and movement duration. Previous studies have found that these two variables can flexibly co-vary and are robustly influenced by target speed (i.e. velocity-coupling effect: faster movement for faster target). However, some studies reported an interpersonal variability in the timing control strategy and the relationship between the strategy and temporal accuracy in rapid interception is unclear. We used a baseball-simulated rapid interceptive task to assess this issue. Under relatively easy time constraints, there was a large interpersonal variability, and participants were distinctively divided into two groups: those who mainly modulated their movement duration and those who mainly controlled their movement onset. When the time constraint became severe, the second strategy shifted to the first strategy in most of the second group participants. In the both cases, being able to mainly control movement onset resulted in higher temporal accuracy. These results suggest that minimising the velocity-coupling effect is an important factor to achieve high temporal accuracy in rapid interception.

  16. Extracting temporal information from electronic patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Patrick, Jon

    2012-01-01

    A method for automatic extraction of clinical temporal information would be of significant practical importance for deep medical language understanding, and a key to creating many successful applications, such as medical decision making, medical question and answering, etc. This paper proposes a rich statistical model for extracting temporal information from an extremely noisy clinical corpus. Besides the common linguistic, contextual and semantic features, the highly restricted training sample expansion and the structure distance between the temporal expression & related event expressions are also integrated into a supervised machine-learning approach. The learning method produces almost 80% F- score in the extraction of five temporal classes, and nearly 75% F-score in identifying temporally related events. This process has been integrated into the document-processing component of an implemented clinical question answering system that focuses on answering patient-specific questions (See demonstration at http://hitrl.cs.usyd.edu.au/ICNS/).

  17. SCIAMACHY formaldehyde observations: constraint for isoprene emission estimates over Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dufour

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the troposphere. Sources of HCHO are largely dominated by its secondary production from VOC oxidation, methane and isoprene being the main precursors in unpolluted areas. As a result of the moderate lifetime of HCHO, its spatial distribution is determined by reactive hydrocarbon emissions. We focus here on Europe and investigate the influence of the different emissions on HCHO tropospheric columns with the CHIMERE chemical transport model in order to interpret the comparisons between SCIAMACHY and simulated HCHO columns. Europe was never specifically studied before for these purposes using satellite observations. The bias between measurements and model is less than 20% on average. The differences are discussed according to the errors on the model and the observations and remaining discrepancies are attributed to a misrepresentation of biogenic emissions. This study requires the characterisation of: (1 the model errors and performances concerning formaldehyde. The errors on the HCHO columns, mainly related to chemistry and mixed emission types, are evaluated to 2×1015 molecule/cm2 and the model performances evaluated using surface measurements are satisfactory (~13%; (2 the observation errors that define the needs in spatial and temporal averaging for meaningful comparisons. Using SCIAMACHY observations as constraint for biogenic isoprene emissions in an inverse modelling scheme reduces their uncertainties by about a factor of two in region of intense emissions. The retrieved correction factors for the isoprene emissions range from a factor of 0.15 (North Africa to a factor of 2 (Poland, the United Kingdom depending on the regions.

  18. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noesselt, Tömme; Bergmann, Daniel; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas; Spence, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects judged the temporal relation of (a)synchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c) and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (a)synchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects' perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the "auditory leading (A(L))" and "visual leading (V(L)) areas" lie closer to "synchrony areas" than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects' perception of (a)synchrony.

  19. Adjustment to Subtle Time Constraints and Power Law Learning in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jacqueline C; Chang, Seah; Cho, Yang Seok

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether attention could be modulated through the implicit learning of temporal information in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Participants identified two target letters among numeral distractors. The stimulus-onset asynchrony immediately following the first target (SOA1) varied at three levels (70, 98, and 126 ms) randomly between trials or fixed within blocks of trials. Practice over 3 consecutive days resulted in a continuous improvement in the identification rate for both targets and attenuation of the attentional blink (AB), a decrement in target (T2) identification when presented 200-400 ms after another target (T1). Blocked SOA1s led to a faster rate of improvement in RSVP performance and more target order reversals relative to random SOA1s, suggesting that the implicit learning of SOA1 positively affected performance. The results also reveal "power law" learning curves for individual target identification as well as the reduction in the AB decrement. These learning curves reflect the spontaneous emergence of skill through subtle attentional modulations rather than general attentional distribution. Together, the results indicate that implicit temporal learning could improve high level and rapid cognitive processing and highlights the sensitivity and adaptability of the attentional system to subtle constraints in stimulus timing.

  20. Adjustment to subtle time constraints and power law learning in rapid serial visual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Chakyung Shin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether attention could be modulated through the implicit learning of temporal information in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task. Participants identified two target letters among numeral distractors. The stimulus-onset asynchrony immediately following the first target (SOA1 varied at three levels (70, 98, and 126 ms randomly between trials or fixed within blocks of trials. Practice over three consecutive days resulted in a continuous improvement in the identification rate for both targets and attenuation of the attentional blink (AB, a decrement in target (T2 identification when presented 200-400 ms after another target (T1. Blocked SOA1s led to a faster rate of improvement in RSVP performance and more target order reversals relative to random SOA1s, suggesting that the implicit learning of SOA1 positively affected performance. The results also reveal power law learning curves for individual target identification as well as the reduction in the AB decrement. These learning curves reflect the spontaneous emergence of skill through subtle attentional modulations rather than general attentional distribution. Together, the results indicate that implicit temporal learning could improve high level and rapid cognitive processing and highlights the sensitivity and adaptability of the attentional system to subtle constraints in stimulus timing.

  1. A Novel Strategy for Very-Large-Scale Cash-Crop Mapping in the Context of Weather-Related Risk Assessment, Combining Global Satellite Multispectral Datasets, Environmental Constraints, and In Situ Acquisition of Geospatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Dell’Acqua

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies. Using locally generated data—such as municipality-level records of crop seeding—for mapping purposes implies facing a series of issues like data availability, quality, homogeneity, etc. We thus opted for a different approach relying on global datasets. Global datasets ensure homogeneity and availability of data, although sometimes at the expense of precision and accuracy. A typical global approach makes use of spaceborne remote sensing, for which different land cover classification strategies are available in literature at different levels of cost and accuracy. We selected the optimal strategy in the perspective of a global processing chain. Thanks to a specifically developed strategy for fusing unsupervised classification results with environmental constraints and other geospatial inputs including ground-based data, we managed to obtain good classification results despite the constraints placed. The overall production process was composed using “good-enough" algorithms at each step, ensuring that the precision, accuracy, and data-hunger of each algorithm was commensurate to the precision, accuracy, and amount of data available. This paper describes the tailored strategy developed on the occasion as a cooperation among different groups with diverse backgrounds, a strategy which is believed to be profitably reusable in other, similar contexts. The

  2. A Novel Strategy for Very-Large-Scale Cash-Crop Mapping in the Context of Weather-Related Risk Assessment, Combining Global Satellite Multispectral Datasets, Environmental Constraints, and In Situ Acquisition of Geospatial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Iannelli, Gianni Cristian; Torres, Marco A; Martina, Mario L V

    2018-02-14

    Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies. Using locally generated data-such as municipality-level records of crop seeding-for mapping purposes implies facing a series of issues like data availability, quality, homogeneity, etc. We thus opted for a different approach relying on global datasets. Global datasets ensure homogeneity and availability of data, although sometimes at the expense of precision and accuracy. A typical global approach makes use of spaceborne remote sensing, for which different land cover classification strategies are available in literature at different levels of cost and accuracy. We selected the optimal strategy in the perspective of a global processing chain. Thanks to a specifically developed strategy for fusing unsupervised classification results with environmental constraints and other geospatial inputs including ground-based data, we managed to obtain good classification results despite the constraints placed. The overall production process was composed using "good-enough" algorithms at each step, ensuring that the precision, accuracy, and data-hunger of each algorithm was commensurate to the precision, accuracy, and amount of data available. This paper describes the tailored strategy developed on the occasion as a cooperation among different groups with diverse backgrounds, a strategy which is believed to be profitably reusable in other, similar contexts. The paper presents the problem

  3. Path following control of planar snake robots using virtual holonomic constraints: theory and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour, Ehsan; Pettersen, Kristin Y; Liljebäck, Pål; Gravdahl, Jan T; Kelasidi, Eleni

    This paper considers path following control of planar snake robots using virtual holonomic constraints. In order to present a model-based path following control design for the snake robot, we first derive the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion of the system. Subsequently, we define geometric relations among the generalized coordinates of the system, using the method of virtual holonomic constraints. These appropriately defined constraints shape the geometry of a constraint manifold for the system, which is a submanifold of the configuration space of the robot. Furthermore, we show that the constraint manifold can be made invariant by a suitable choice of feedback. In particular, we analytically design a smooth feedback control law to exponentially stabilize the constraint manifold. We show that enforcing the appropriately defined virtual holonomic constraints for the configuration variables implies that the robot converges to and follows a desired geometric path. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical approach.

  4. Co-representation of others' task constraints in joint action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, Laura; Vesper, Cordula; Sebanz, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that humans tend to represent each other's tasks even if no interpersonal coordination is required. The present study asked whether coactors in a joint action rely on task co-representation to achieve temporal coordination even if this implies increased movement...... that the participant without obstacle moved as if an obstacle was obstructing her way. Further amplifying the demands on interpersonal coordination led to a significant increase of this effect, indicating that unconstrained actors represented their coactor's task constraint and adjusted their own actions accordingly......, particularly under high coordination demands. The findings also showed that unconstrained actors represented the object property constraining their coactor's movement rather than parameters of this movement. We conclude that joint action partners rely on task co-representation to achieve temporal coordination...

  5. Discrepancy in Expression of β-Secretase and Amyloid-β Protein Precursor in Alzheimer-Related Genes in the Rat Medial Temporal Lobe Cortex Following Transient Global Brain Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, Ryszard; Kocki, Janusz; Ułamek-Kozioł, Marzena; Petniak, Alicja; Gil-Kulik, Paulina; Januszewski, Sławomir; Bogucki, Jacek; Jabłoński, Mirosław; Brzozowska, Judyta; Furmaga-Jabłońska, Wanda; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2016-01-01

    Brain ischemia may be causally related with Alzheimer's disease. Presumably, β-secretase and amyloid-β protein precursor gene expression changes may be associated with Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. Consequently, we have examined quantitative changes in both β-secretase and amyloid-β protein precursor genes in the medial temporal lobe cortex with the use of quantitative rtPCR analysis following 10-min global brain ischemia in rats with survival of 2, 7, and 30 days. The greatest significant overexpression of β-secretase gene was noted on the 2nd day, while on days 7-30 the expression of this gene was only modestly downregulated. Amyloid-β protein precursor gene was downregulated on the 2nd day, but on days 7-30 postischemia, there was a significant reverse tendency. Thus, the demonstrated alterations indicate that the considerable changes of expression of β-secretase and amyloid-β protein precursor genes may be connected with a response of neurons in medial temporal lobe cortex to transient global brain ischemia. Finally, the ischemia-induced gene changes may play a key role in a late and slow onset of Alzheimer-type pathology.

  6. Self-Imposed Creativity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation epitomizes three years of research guided by the research question: how can we conceptualize creative self-binding as a resource in art and design processes? Concretely, the dissertation seeks to offer insight into the puzzling observation that highly skilled creative...... practitioners sometimes freely and intentionally impose rigid rules, peculiar principles, and other kinds of creative obstructions on themselves as a means to spur momentum in the process and reach a distinctly original outcome. To investigate this the dissertation is composed of four papers (Part II) framed...... of analysis. Informed by the insight that constraints both enable and restrain creative agency, the dissertation’s main contention is that creative self- binding may profitably be conceptualized as the exercise of self-imposed creativity constraints. Thus, the dissertation marks an analytical move from vague...

  7. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... the energy units. However, aggregated flexibility should support normal grid operation. In this paper, we build on the flex-offer (FO) concept to model the inherent flexibility of a prosumer (e.g., a single flexible consumption device such as a clothes washer). An FO captures flexibility in both time...... and amount dimensions. We define the problem of aggregating FOs taking into account grid power constraints. We also propose two constraint-based aggregation techniques that efficiently aggregate FOs while retaining flexibility. We show through a comprehensive evaluation that our techniques, in contrast...

  8. A compendium of chameleon constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2016-11-01

    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f(R) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  9. Tractable Pareto Optimization of Temporal Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert; Morris, Paul; Khatib, Lina; Venable, Brent

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on temporal constraint problems where the objective is to optimize a set of local preferences for when events occur. In previous work, a subclass of these problems has been formalized as a generalization of Temporal CSPs, and a tractable strategy for optimization has been proposed, where global optimality is defined as maximizing the minimum of the component preference values. This criterion for optimality, which we call 'Weakest Link Optimization' (WLO), is known to have limited practical usefulness because solutions are compared only on the basis of their worst value; thus, there is no requirement to improve the other values. To address this limitation, we introduce a new algorithm that re-applies WLO iteratively in a way that leads to improvement of all the values. We show the value of this strategy by proving that, with suitable preference functions, the resulting solutions are Pareto Optimal.

  10. Health care input constraints and cost effectiveness analysis decision rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Pieter; Morton, Alec; Severens, Johan L

    2018-01-27

    Results of cost effectiveness analyses (CEA) studies are most useful for decision makers if they face only one constraint: the health care budget. However, in practice, decision makers wishing to use the results of CEA studies may face multiple resource constraints relating to, for instance, constraints in health care inputs such as a shortage of skilled labour. The presence of multiple resource constraints influences the decision rules of CEA and limits the usefulness of traditional CEA studies for decision makers. The goal of this paper is to illustrate how results of CEA can be interpreted and used in case a decision maker faces a health care input constraint. We set up a theoretical model describing the optimal allocation of the health care budget in the presence of a health care input constraint. Insights derived from that model were used to analyse a stylized example based on a decision about a surgical robot as well as a published cost effectiveness study on eye care services in Zambia. Our theoretical model shows that applying default decision rules in the presence of a health care input constraint leads to suboptimal decisions but that there are ways of preserving the traditional decision rules of CEA by reweighing different cost categories. The examples illustrate how such adjustments can be made, and makes clear that optimal decisions depend crucially on such adjustments. We conclude that it is possible to use the results of cost effectiveness studies in the presence of health care input constraints if results are properly adjusted. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing Restaurant Tables using Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Alfio; Brown, Kenneth N.; Beck, J. Christopher

    Restaurant table management can have significant impact on both profitability and the customer experience. The core of the issue is a complex dynamic combinatorial problem. We show how to model the problem as constraint satisfaction, with extensions which generate flexible seating plans and which maintain stability when changes occur. We describe an implemented system which provides advice to users in real time. The system is currently being evaluated in a restaurant environment.

  12. Public investment under fiscal constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Missale; emanuele bacchiocchi; elisa borghi

    2009-01-01

    EU New Member States must comply with the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) and the investment requirements implied by the Lisbon Agenda. However, the SGP rules may result in underinvestment or distortions in the allocation of public expenditure. This paper provides new evidence on the effects of debt sustainability and SGP fiscal constraints on government expenditure in fixed capital, education and health in OECD countries by estimating government expenditure reaction functions to public debt ...

  13. Constraint-based feature validation

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, M.H.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The feature modeling paradigm combines geometric and functional product information in one model. In an ideal product development environment, multiple views of a product in terms of features coexist. Feature validation concerns the validity of the feature information in all these views, focusing on validity specification and maintenance. This thesis presents a feature validation scheme based on constraints. It enables flexible and expressive feature validity maintenance. The scheme ensures t...

  14. Memory Constraint Online Multitask Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallanti, Giovanni; Cesa-Bianchi, Nicolò

    2012-01-01

    We investigate online kernel algorithms which simultaneously process multiple classification tasks while a fixed constraint is imposed on the size of their active sets. We focus in particular on the design of algorithms that can efficiently deal with problems where the number of tasks is extremely high and the task data are large scale. Two new projection-based algorithms are introduced to efficiently tackle those issues while presenting different trade offs on how the available memory is man...

  15. Physicians' responses to resource constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia A; Hull, Sara Chandros; DuVal, Gordon; Danis, Marion

    2005-03-28

    A common dilemma that confronts physicians in clinical practice is the allocation of scarce resources. Yet the strategies used by physicians in actual situations of resource constraint have not been studied. This study explores the strategies and rationales reported by physicians in situations of resource constraints encountered in practice. A national survey of US internists, oncologists, and intensive care specialists was performed by computer-assisted telephone interviews. As part of this survey, we asked physicians to tell us about a recent ethical dilemma encountered in practice. A subset of respondents reported difficulties regarding resource allocation. Transcripts of open-ended responses were coded for content based on consensus. Of the 600 physicians originally identified, 537 were eligible and 344 participated (response rate, 64%). Internists do not make allocation decisions alone but rather engage in negotiation in their resolution. Furthermore, these decisions are not made as dichotomous choices. Rather they often involve alternative solutions in the face of complexities of both the health care system and situations where limited resources must be allocated. Justice is not commonly the justification for rationing. Physicians' experiences in situations of resource constraints appear to be more complex than the normative literature on health care rationing assumes. In addition, reasoning about justice in health care seems to play only a small part in clinical decision making. Bridging this gap could be an important step in fostering fair allocation of resources in difficult cases.

  16. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Cañas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs, discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1×10−11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1|≤5.6×10−11μB, |Λ2|≤4.0×10−11μB, and |Λ3|≤3.1×10−11μB (90% C.L., irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.

  17. Spatio-temporal patterns in the coral reef communities of the Spermonde Archipelago, 2012–2014, II: Fish assemblages display structured variation related to benthic condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plass-Johnson, Jeremiah Grahm; Teichberg, Mirta; Bednarz, Vanessa N.

    2018-01-01

    The Spermonde Archipelago is a complex of ~70 mostly populated islands off Southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia, in the center of the Coral Triangle. The reefs in this area are exposed to a high level of anthropogenic disturbances. Previous studies have shown that variation in the benthos is strongly...... with distance, while few species were present across the entire range of sites. Relating fish communities to benthic composition using a multivariate generalized linear model confirmed that fish groups relate to structural complexity (rugosity) or differing benthic groups; either algae, reef builders (coral...... and crustose coralline algae) or invertebrates and rubble. From these relationships we can identify sets of fish species that may be lost given continued degradation of the Spermonde reefs. Lastly, the incorporation of water quality, benthic and fish indices indicates that local coral reefs responded...

  18. UTP and Temporal Logic Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hugh; Ciobanu, Gabriel; Freitas, Leo

    In this paper we give an additional perspective to the formal verification of programs through temporal logic model checking, which uses Hoare and He Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP). Our perspective emphasizes the use of UTP designs, an alphabetised relational calculus expressed as a pre/post condition pair of relations, to verify state or temporal assertions about programs. The temporal model checking relation is derived from a satisfaction relation between the model and its properties. The contribution of this paper is that it shows a UTP perspective to temporal logic model checking. The approach includes the notion of efficiency found in traditional model checkers, which reduced a state explosion problem through the use of efficient data structures