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Sample records for temporal bone radiography

  1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE PYRAMIDS TEMPORAL BONE RADIOGRAPHY

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    Mirko Krstić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the possibilities and advantages of certain methods of temporal bone radiography in diagnosing pathological conditions and diseases of temporal bones, with description of basic techniques of radiological examinations: Mayer’s axial view of the pyramids, the Stenvers view of the pyramids, the Arcelini view of the pyramids, comparative pyramid radiography by Hass, comparative pyramid radiography by Gras-hey, comparative pyramid radiography in submentovertical projection and comparative pyramid radiography in verticosubmental projection.

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  8. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

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    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x- ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  14. Subtraction radiography of interradicular bone lesions

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    Kullendorf, B.; Groendahl, K.; Rohlin, M.; Nilsson, M. (Lund Univ., Malmoe (Sweden))

    1992-10-01

    Subtraction and conventional radiography were evaluated for their diagnostic potential to assess interradicular bone lesions in the mandibular premolar region. Both conventional radiographs and subtraction images were interpreted by 10 observers. The receiver-operating characteristic technique was used to compare the two techniques. The diagnostic validity was higher for the subtraction technique, both for lesions confined to cancellous bone and for lesions including the cortical bone, than for the conventional technique. For bone defects confined to cancellous bone the diagnostic accuracy was lower than those reported from periapical bone lesion irrespective of whether subtraction or conventional radiography was used. It is concluded that subtraction radiography improves the detectability of bone lesions, shallow ones in particular. Lesions in the interradicular bone are more difficult to detect than those in the periapical bone. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Subtraction radiography of interradicular bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullendorf, B.; Groendahl, K.; Rohlin, M.; Nilsson, M.

    1992-01-01

    Subtraction and conventional radiography were evaluated for their diagnostic potential to assess interradicular bone lesions in the mandibular premolar region. Both conventional radiographs and subtraction images were interpreted by 10 observers. The receiver-operating characteristic technique was used to compare the two techniques. The diagnostic validity was higher for the subtraction technique, both for lesions confined to cancellous bone and for lesions including the cortical bone, than for the conventional technique. For bone defects confined to cancellous bone the diagnostic accuracy was lower than those reported from periapical bone lesion irrespective of whether subtraction or conventional radiography was used. It is concluded that subtraction radiography improves the detectability of bone lesions, shallow ones in particular. Lesions in the interradicular bone are more difficult to detect than those in the periapical bone. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Temporal bone trauma and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turetschek, K.; Czerny, C.; Wunderbaldinger, P.; Steiner, E.

    1997-01-01

    Fractures of the temporal bone result from direct trauma to the temporal bone or occur as one component of a severe craniocerebral injury. Complications of temporal trauma are hemotympanon, facial nerve paralysis, conductive or sensorineur hearing loss, and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. Erly recognition and an appropiate therapy may improve or prevent permanent deficits related to such complications. Only 20-30% of temporal bone fractures can be visualized by plain films. CT has displaced plain radiography in the investigation of the otological trauma because subtle bony details are best evaluated by CT which even can be reformatted in multiple projections, regardless of the original plane of scanning. Associated epidural, subdural, and intracerebral hemorrhagic lesions are better defined by MRI. (orig.) [de

  17. Temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Although pluridirectional tomography had been the standard method to evaluate the temporal bone, computed tomography has replaced it for nearly all applications. Magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate nonosseous temporal bone structures as well

  18. Accuracy of digital panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of temporal bone pneumatization: a study in vivo using cone-beam-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende Barbosa, Gabriella Lopes; Nascimento, Monikelly do Carmo Chagas; Ladeira, Daniela Brait Silva; Bomtorim, Vitor Vieira; da Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Almeida, Solange Maria

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of panoramic radiographs in the evaluation of pneumatization of the temporal bone, with confirmation of the diagnosis by cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT) images. Images of 200 patients' digital panoramic radiographies and CBCT were examined by three evaluators regarding the presence or absence of pneumatization on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) fossa and/or articular eminence. When present, the defect was classified as uni- or multilocular, and as unilateral or bilateral. Areas under the ROC curve were compared to assess the accuracy of panoramic radiograph. The values obtained in the comparisons ranged from Az = 0.67 to 0.55 (Az = area under the ROC curve). The panoramic radiograph, is not the exam of choice for detecting the presence of these air cells based on its medium to low accuracy for diagnosis of pneumatized articular eminence and TMJ fossa when compared to CBCT. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ... bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require ... is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little ... stabilization of bony fragments following treatment of a fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... around joints, and in evaluating the hips of children with congenital problems. top of page This page ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x- ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. ... follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... may also be asked to remove jewelry, removable dental appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or ... for a physician to view and assess bone injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths ... the individual patient's condition. Ultrasound imaging, which uses sound waves instead of ionizing radiation to create diagnostic ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there ... prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You will be asked to remove some of ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the ... Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the ... From (your name): Your e-mail address: Personal message (optional): Bees: Wax: Notice: RadiologyInfo respects your privacy. ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, ... or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Please ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or ... Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x- ... examination itself is a painless procedure. You may experience discomfort from the cool temperature in the examination ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum ... dislocations. In elderly or patients with osteoporosis, a hip fracture may be clearly seen on a CT ...

  14. Temporal bone meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrionis, F D; Robertson, J H; Gardner, G; Heilman, C B

    1999-01-01

    Meningiomas involving the temporal bone may originate from arachnoid cell nests present within the temporal bone (intratemporal), but more frequently originate from arachnoid cell nests of the posterior or middle cranial fossa with secondary invasion of the TB (extratemporal). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of 13 patients with meningiomas involving the temporal bone who underwent surgery. Tumors of the posterior fossa with only temporal bone hyperostosis, but without invasion, were excluded. Patients presented primarily with otologic symptoms and signs. The tumors originated in the temporal bone (5/13), jugular foramen (4/13), petroclival region (2/13), the asterion (1/13) or the internal auditory meatus (1/13). All of the intratemporal meningiomas had the radiological appearance of en-plaque menigiomas. The tumor extended into the middle ear (11/13), eustachian tube (5/13), and/or the labyrinth (3/13). A gross total resection was achieved in 11 patients and a subtotal resection in 2 patients. The lower cranial nerves were infiltrated by tumor in 4 patients, and were sacrificed. At a mean follow-up of approximately 6 years, 12 patients are currently alive and doing well and 1 died from tumor progression. Six patients showed tumor recurrence and were reoperated on (5/6) or followed conservatively (1/6). Surgical treatment of temporal bone meningiomas is associated with high recurrence rate due to indiscreet tumor margins. Combined surgical approaches (temporal craniotomy and mastoidectomy) by neurosurgical and otological teams are recommended for meningiomas originating in the temporal bone.

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... used for bone x-rays consists of an x-ray tube suspended over a table on which the patient ... a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Bone X-ray ( ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x- ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest way for a ...

  2. Temporal bone imaging

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    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  3. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Eun Kyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  4. Application of direct digital radiography of nasal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dengfa; Wang Haijun; Zhang Ailian; Wang Yulin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To research the application value of direct digital radiograph (DDR ) in nasal bone imaging. Methods: One hundred cases were examined by DDR, 30 cases of them were examined by two methods both DDR and conventional radiography. All digital images were post-processed with 'MUSICA' (Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification), incision and largamente, analyzed and diagnosed by experienced two radiologists and two technicians. Results: One hundred cases of nasal bone, soft tissue of nose were showed excellent in DDR, and satisfactory cases were 95 and 92, respectively. Forty-six cases of nasal bone fractures were found. Thirty cases were examined by both DDR and conventional radiography, images of nasal bone, soft tissue of nose were showed, satisfactory cases were 28 in DDR; and satisfactory cases were 6 (χ 2 =20.05, P 2 =15.06, P 2 =5.14, P<0.05) in conventional and digital radiography, respectively. Conclusion: DDR images of nasal bone, soft tissue of nose was excellent, more fractures were discovered than conventional radiography. Image quality of DDR is better than conventional radiography in nasal bone imaging. (authors)

  5. Treatment of Temporal Bone Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rodney C.; Cervenka, Brian; Brodie, Hilary A.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the temporal bone can lead to significant morbidity or mortality and knowledge of the pertinent anatomy, pathophysiology of injury, and appropriate management strategies is critical for successful recovery and rehabilitation of such injured patients. Most temporal bone fractures are caused by motor vehicle accidents. Temporal bone fractures are best classified as either otic capsule sparing or otic capsule disrupting-type fractures, as such classification correlates well with risk of concomitant functional complications. The most common complications of temporal bone fractures are facial nerve injury, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and hearing loss. Assessment of facial nerve function as soon as possible following injury greatly facilitates clinical decision making. Use of prophylactic antibiotics in the setting of CSF leak is controversial; however, following critical analysis and interpretation of the existing classic and contemporary literature, we believe its use is absolutely warranted. PMID:27648399

  6. Observer performance based on marginal bone tissue visibility in Scanora panoramic radiography and posterior bitewing radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanauskaite, Deimante; Lindh, Christina; Rohlin, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate image quality for marginal bone tissue assessment on panoramic radiographs taken with the Scanora dental programme and on posterior bitewing radiographs. Panoramic and bitewing radiographs were taken of 96 patients. Six observers rated marginal bone level visibility as excellent, acceptable, or unacceptable. Five observers assessed image quality for detection of vertical bone defects and furcation involvements as acceptable or unacceptable. Observer agreement was calculated as overall agreement and kappa values. Image quality of 36% of the panoramic and 6% of the bitewing sites was rated unacceptable for marginal bone loss assessment in the maxillae while 8% of the panoramic and bitewing sites in the mandible were unacceptable. For detecting vertical bone defects, image quality was unacceptable at one-third of the maxillary sites and 5% of the mandibular sites on the panoramic radiographs. Detection of furcation involvement was acceptable at most sites on both types of radiographs. Kappa values for intra- and inter-observer agreement were higher for panoramic than for bitewing radiographs. The kappa value for marginal bone loss assessment by several observers was moderate (0.45) for panorama and fair (0.28) for bitewing radiography. Corresponding kappa values for detection of vertical bone defects were substantial (0.62) and fair (0.25). Image quality as evaluated by visual grading analysis is adequate for marginal bone tissue assessment in mandibular molar and premolar regions and unacceptable in maxillary molar and premolar regions on panoramic radiographs taken with the Scanora technique compared to bitewing radiography.

  7. Bone-suppressed radiography using machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Beom; Kim, Dae Cheon; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The single-shot dual-energy imaging suffers from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio performance due to poor spectral separation. Tomosynthesis requires more complex motion equipment and may require higher patient dose. An alternative tissue-specific imaging technique was introduced. This alternative technique usually possesses a filter to generate bone-only images for given digital radiographs. Therefore, it provides soft-tissue-enhanced images from the subtraction of given radiographs and filtered bone-only images. Only bone-suppressed imaging capability is a limitation of the method. The filter can be obtained from a machine-learning algorithm, e.g. artificial neural network (ANN), with the dual-energy bone-only images (called 'teaching' images). We suspect the robustness of the filter may be dependent upon the number of teaching images and the number of patients from whose radiographs we obtain the teaching images. In this study, we design an ANN to obtain a bone-extracting filter from a radiograph, and investigate the filter properties with respect to various ANN parameters. Preliminary results are summarized in Fig. 3. We extracted 5,000 subregions in a 21x21 pixel format from the lung region in the bone-enhanced dual-energy image and we used them for teaching images during training the ANN. The resultant bone-enhanced image from the ANN nonlinear filter is shown in Fig. 3 (a). From the weighted logarithmic subtraction between Fig. 2 (a) and Fig. 3 (a), we could obtain the bone-suppressed image as shown in Fig. 3 (b). The quality of the bone-suppressed image is comparable to the ground truth Fig. 2 (c).

  8. Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone

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    Fujimori, Masato; Koyama, Yukiko; Enomoto, Fuyuki; Ichikawa, Ginichiro [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    We report a case of temporal bone necrosis that emerged after radiotherapy for epipharyngeal carcinoma performed 13 years ago. The patient was a 51-year-old male. His major complaint was left facial swelling. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Co 60, 6120 rad), as the treatment of that period, for epipharyngeal carcinoma from September 30, 1986 to January 31, 1987. He also underwent lobectomy of the left temporal lobe in brain surgery for left temporal lobe necrosis in August, 1989. After that operation, we saw constriction in his left external acoustic meatus and continued the follow-up. On October 22, 1999 he felt a left facial swelling. We found skin defects and ulcer formation in the front part of his left ear. Although we administered an antiseptic and antibiotic to the diseased area, his condition did not improve. He was hospitalized for the purpose of undergoing medical treatment on January 6, 2000. We found extensive skin necrosis and defects in his left auricular area. The corrupted temporal bone reached the zygomatic, the bone department external acoustic meatus and the mastoid process was exposing. We performed debridement of the diseased area on January 19, 2000. On February 23, we performed reconstruction by left trapezius muscle flap after debridement once again. One year after the operation, the flap was completely incorporated. (author)

  9. Chondroblastoma of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuko; Murakami, Ryusuke; Toba, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Taro [Dept. of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa, Ryuzaburo; Sanno, Naoko; Shimura, Toshiro [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Namie; Hosone, Masaru [Dept. of Pathology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Dept. of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    A rare case of chondroblastoma arising from the temporal bone that occurred in a 60-year-old woman is reported. The tumor appeared well demarcated and osteolytic on the radiographs. CT scan clearly depicted marginal and central calcification in the tumor. MR imaging demonstrated two components in the tumor: a solid component with predominantly low signal intensities on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences, and a multilocular cystic component with T1- and T2-elongation and fluid-fluid levels on the T2-weighted images. Postcontrast MR imaging revealed marked enhancement in the solid component and the septa of the cystic component. (orig.)

  10. Bone subtraction radiography in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obmann, Verena C; Christe, Andreas; Ebner, Lukas; Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Ott, Sebastian R; Yarram, Sai; Stranzinger, Enno

    2017-08-01

    Background Bone subtraction radiography allows reading pulmonary changes of chest radiographs more accurately without superimposition of bones. Purpose To evaluate the value of bone subtraction chest radiography using dual energy (DE) bone subtracted lung images compared to conventional radiographs (CR) in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Material and Methods Forty-nine DE radiographs of 24 patients (16 men) with CF (mean age, 32 years; age range, 18-71 years) were included. Lung function tests were performed within 10 days of the radiographs. Two radiologists evaluated all CR, DE, and CR + DE radiographs using the modified Chrispin-Norman score (CNS) and a five-point score for the confidence. Findings were statistically evaluated by Friedman ANOVA and Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. Results There was significant difference of CNS between CR and DE ( P = 0.044) as well as CR and CR + DE ( P < 0.001). CNS of CR images showed moderate correlation with FEV1% (R = 0.287, P = 0.046) while DE and CR + DE correlated poorly with FEV1% (R = 0.023, P = 0.874 and R = 0.04, P = 0.785). A higher confidence was achieved with bone-subtracted radiographs compared to radiographs alone (median, CR 3.3, DE 3.9, CR + DE 4.1, for both P < 0.001). Conclusion DE radiographs are reliable for the evaluation of adult patients with CF in acute exacerbation. For yearly surveillance, CR and DE radiographs may play a limited role. However, in clinical routine, DE radiographs are useful for adult CF patients and may depict more accurately inflammatory changes than CR.

  11. Bone marrow scintigraphy vs bone scintigraphy and radiography in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feggi, M.; Prandini, N.; Orzincolo, C.; Bagni, B.; Scutellari, P.N.; Spanedda, R.; Gennari, M.; Scapoli, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The radiography patterns of the skeleton of 73 patients affected by multiple myeloma (MM) were compared to the correspondent scintigraphic findings. Whole body scans were performed using Tc-diphosphonates 99m (bone scintigraphy). And Tc-microcolloides 99m (bone marrow scintigraphy). The results indicate that: a) radiography is more sensitive and accurate than scintigraphy in detecting typical myeloma-related bone lesions; b) bone scintigraphy is useful in detecting alterations in particular locations-i.e. sternum, ribs, scapulae, etc.-which are difficult to demonstrate by plain X-rays; moreover, the recovery of the fractures can be visualized; c) bone marrow scintigraphy is employed to demonstrate the presence of marrow expasion, of cold/hot spots, and relative marrow uptake, related to phagocytic activity. Since in adult men red marrow is confined to the epiphysis of long bones and to the spine, all the diseases affecting bone marrow cause medullary expansion/reduction, which are both easily detected by specific radiopharmaceuticals. The peripheral expasions is clearly documented especially in distal humeri and femora since marrow uptake is included, in healthy adults, in the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton. In spite of its yielding unique informetion, bone marrow scintigraphy remains an additional technique of bone scan, because of its low diagnoditc accuracy

  12. Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radiography is discussed as a method for nondestructive evaluation of internal flaws of solids. Gamma ray and X-ray equipment are described along with radiographic film, radiograph interpretation, and neutron radiography.

  13. Schneiderian papilloma of the temporal bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, L.; Bloemena, E.; Merkus, P.; Hensen, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal bone Schneiderian papilloma may present as a primary tumour originating from the middle ear and mastoid process, or an extension from sinonasal disease. Both forms are rare, this being only the 18th case of primary temporal bone Schneiderian papilloma described to date. Although the current

  14. Diagnostic approach to reflex sympathetic dystrophy after fracture: radiography or bone scintigraphy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic-Tirnanic, M. [Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Obradovic, V. [Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Han, R. [Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Goldner, B. [Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Stankovic, D. [Medical Center, Smederevo (Yugoslavia); Sekulic, D. [Medical Center, Smederevo (Yugoslavia); Lazic, T. [Medical Center, Smederevo (Yugoslavia); Djordjevic, B.

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the value of bone scintigraphy and radiography in the early diagnosis of post-fracture reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). Thirty-seven adult patients with post-fracture RSD (28 in the first and nine in the second clinical stage of RSD), as well as seven patients with fracture but without RSD (control group), were investigated by radiography and bone scintigraphy. All of them were immobilized (duration of immobilization: 4-22 weeks). In 21 persons three phase bone scintigraphy was performed. The best distinction between the control group and the RSD patients was achieved by delayed bone scintigrams. The sensitivity (97%), positive predictive value (97%) and accuracy (95%) of delayed bone scintigraphy were very high compared to the values for radiography, which were 73%, 90% and 70% respectively. Bone scintigraphy also displayed higher specificity (86%) and negative predictive value (86%) than radiography (57% and 29% respectively). In the first clinical stage the difference between the accuracy of bone scintigraphy (97%) and radiography (63%) was greater than for the whole group. In the second stage of RSD the accuracy of bone scintigraphy (86%) and radiography (81%) was similar. Three-phase bone scintigraphy is not necessary for the diagnosis of post-fracture RSD: it is sufficient to perform delayed bone scintigraphy. It is concluded that bone scintigraphy is to be preferred to radiography for the early diagnosis of post-fracture RSD in the first clinical stage. In the second stage the diagnostic capabilities of bone scintigraphy and radiography are more comparable. (orig.)

  15. Methods: a comparative analysis of radiography, microcomputed tomography, and histology for bone tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedberg, E.L.; Kroese-Deutman, H.C.; Shih, C.K.; Lemoine, J.J.; Liebschner, M.A.; Miller, M.J.; Yasko, A.W.; Crowther, R.S.; Carney, D.H.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on the assessment of radiography, microcomputed tomography, and histology for the evaluation of bone formation in a 15.0-mm defect in the rabbit radius after the implantation of a tissue-engineered construct. Radiography was found to be useful as a noninvasive method for obtaining

  16. European status on temporal bone training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frithioff, Andreas; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2018-01-01

    laboratory facilities for training seems to be decreasing. Alternatives to traditional training can consist of drilling artificial models made of plaster or plastic but also virtual reality (VR) simulation. Nevertheless, the integration and availability of these alternatives into specialist training programs......PURPOSE: In otorhinolaryngology training, introduction to temporal bone surgery through hands-on practice on cadaveric human temporal bones is the gold-standard training method before commencing supervised surgery. During the recent decades, the availability of such specimens and the necessary...... remain unknown. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire study mapping current status on temporal bone training and included responses from 113 departments from 23 countries throughout Europe. RESULTS: In general, temporal bone training during residency in ORL is organized as in-house training...

  17. Giant osteoblastoma of temporal bone: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIGUEIREDO EBERVAL GADELHA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign osteoblastoma is an uncommon bone tumor accounting for approximately 1% of all bone tumors. There are only 35 cases of skull osteoblastoma reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 23 year old male with a giant osteoblastoma of temporal bone submitted to a total removal of the tumor after an effective embolization of all external carotid branches. The authors discuss diagnostic and management aspects of this uncommon skull tumor.

  18. Bone scintigraphy and panoramic radiography in deciding the extent of bone resection in benign jaw lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamdade, Anshuman; John, Ani

    2013-10-01

    To find out the value of correlating radiographic and scintigraphic imaging for defining the extent and nature of benign jaw lesions (BJL). Twenty patients with histologically proven benign lesions of the jaws were investigated pre-operatively by panoramic radiography (PR) and bone scintigraphy (BS). To test the efficacy of combination of these two imaging modalities, their results were compared with intra-operative and histopathological findings. Most of the benign lesions presented radiographically as well-defined bone destructions with fine sclerotic rims. Such lesions were found to be silent on scintigraphs and the extent of radionuclide uptake was same as radiographically visible extent of bone involvement. However, aggressive lesions showed ill-defined bone destructions without sclerotic rims on radiographs and their scintigraphic uptake correctly exceeded the radiographic extent of the bone involvement. The efficacy of combination of both complementary imagings is rewarding in defining the extent of the BJL, especially when radiographic margins are not so well defined. So, that surgical excisions will be complete and the possibility recurrences is reduced.

  19. COMPARSION BETWEEN PANORAMIC PERIAPICAL AND VERTICAL BITEWING RADIOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSIS OF PERIODONTAL BONE LOSS

    OpenAIRE

    M SHEIKHI; V DAVOODI; P ZIAIE MOGHADDAM

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. For diagnosis and treatment planing and detection the quality of remaining Alveolar bone the radiography is very useful so the type of radiography is very important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panoramic, periapical (bisecting technique) and vertical bitewing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods. Twelve patients (3 male and 9 female) with a mean age of 35, with a moderate to advanced periodontitis were evaluated. At the time of periodon...

  20. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Wilton Mitsunari Takeshita; Lilian Cristina Vessoni Iwaki; Mariliani Chicarelli Da Silva; Renata Hernandes Tonin

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL). Materials and Methods: ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth - directly on the mandibles (control), using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin), digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional...

  1. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Comparison of conventional radiography, MR imaging, bone scintigraphy and arthrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniklides, C; Lönnerholm, T; Moberg, A; Sahlstedt, B

    1995-07-01

    In a prospective study of 22 patients (24 hips) with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) the findings at conventional radiography, arthrography, bone scintigraphy and MR imaging, obtained at the time of diagnosis, were compared. MR was superior to conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in the detection of the extent of involvement in the femoral head. Arthrography was as good as or better than MR imaging in determining the shape of the articular surfaces and the occurrence of lateral subluxation. Conventional radiography was less sensitive in identifying the degree of lateral subluxation and the extent of the necrosis in the femoral head. MR imaging provided anatomical and pathophysiological information about the extent and location of head involvement as well as the degree of lateral subluxation. Revascularisation was more clearly demonstrated with MR than with bone scintigraphy, irrespective of symptom duration.

  2. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Comparison of conventional radiography, MR imaging, bone scintigraphy and arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniklides, C.; Loennerholm, T.; Moberg, A.; Sahlstedt, B.

    1995-01-01

    In a prospective study of 22 patients (24 hips) with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) the findings at conventional radiography, arthrography, bone scintigraphy and MR imaging, obtained at the time of diagnosis, were compared. MR was superior to conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in the detection of the extent of involvement in the femoral head. Arthrography was as good as or better than MR imaging in determining the shape of the articular surfaces and the occurrence of lateral subluxation. Conventional radiography was less sensitive in identifying the degree of lateral subluxation and the extent of the necrosis in the femoral head. MR imaging provided anatomical and pathophysiological information about the extent and location of head involvement as well as the degree of lateral subluxation. Revascularisation was more clearly demonstrated with MR than with bone scintigraphy, irrespective of symptom duration. (orig.)

  3. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Comparison of conventional radiography, MR imaging, bone scintigraphy and arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniklides, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Loennerholm, T. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Moberg, A. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Sahlstedt, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-07-01

    In a prospective study of 22 patients (24 hips) with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) the findings at conventional radiography, arthrography, bone scintigraphy and MR imaging, obtained at the time of diagnosis, were compared. MR was superior to conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in the detection of the extent of involvement in the femoral head. Arthrography was as good as or better than MR imaging in determining the shape of the articular surfaces and the occurrence of lateral subluxation. Conventional radiography was less sensitive in identifying the degree of lateral subluxation and the extent of the necrosis in the femoral head. MR imaging provided anatomical and pathophysiological information about the extent and location of head involvement as well as the degree of lateral subluxation. Revascularisation was more clearly demonstrated with MR than with bone scintigraphy, irrespective of symptom duration. (orig.).

  4. Searching early bone metastasis on plain radiography by using digital imaging processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo-Nunez, A.; Perez-Meza, M. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, Pue. (Mexico); Universidad de la Sierra Sur, C. P. 70800, Miahuatlan, Oax. (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Some authors mention that it is not possible to detect early bone metastasis on plain radiography. In this work we use digital imaging processing to analyze three radiographs taken from a patient with bone metastasis discomfort on the right shoulder. The time period among the first and second radiography was approximately one month and between the first and the third one year. This procedure is a first approach in order to know if in this particular case it was possible to detect an early bone metastasis. The obtained results suggest that by carrying out a digital processing is possible to detect the metastasis since the radiography contains the information although visually it is not possible to observe it.

  5. Comparison of temporal bone fractures in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Min; Kim, Myung Gu; Hong, Seok Min; Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Tae Hyun; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-05-01

    Contrary to our expectation, that the clinical characteristics of temporal bone fracture would differ in children and adults, we found that the two groups were similar. Most studies of temporal bone fractures have been performed in adults. To our knowledge, no study has investigated differences in temporal bone fractures in children and adults. We therefore investigated differences in temporal bone fractures in adults and children by examining the manifestations and clinical symptoms of temporal bone fractures in pediatric patients. The demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed in 32 children and 186 adults with temporal bone fractures. All patients underwent computed tomography of the temporal bone. Causes of fracture, gender distribution, manifestations of temporal bone fracture, and clinical symptoms were similar in adults and children (p > 0.05 each). Petrous fracture, ear fullness, dizziness, and tinnitus were significantly more frequent in adults than in children (p < 0.05 each).

  6. Bone height measurements of implant sites: Comparison of panoramic radiography and spiral computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae

    2002-01-01

    To compare the bone height of implant sites measured using panoramic radiography and spiral CT. The available bone height was determined for 263 maxillary and mandibular implant sites in 59 patients. Distortion was calculated using the metal bar for the panoramic radiographs. Significant differences in mean bone height between the two imaging modalities were found in maxillary and mandibular anterior regions (p<0.05). The mean difference in bone height recorded by the two techniques was smallest in the maxillary and mandibular molar areas (0.8 mm), and greatest in the mandibular anterior region (1.3 mm). With the exception of the mandibular anterior region, ninety percent of all the sites showed measurement differences within 2 mm. A safety margin of 2 to 3 mm is called for when utilizing panoramic radiography, otherwise additional imaging modality such as computed tomography is necessary to obtain accurate measurements.

  7. Establishing a temporal bone laboratory: considerations for ENT specialist training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fennessy, B G

    2012-02-01

    Cadaveric temporal bone dissection in a temporal bone laboratory is a vital component in training safe, competent otorhinolaryngologists. Recent controversies pertaining to organ retention have resulted in a more limited supply of temporal bones. Consequently, current trainees are dissecting far fewer bones than their consultants. We discuss the establishment of a temporal bone laboratory in the Department of Anatomy in the University College Cork, from the timely preparation and preservation of the tissue to its disposal. Comparisons are drawn between our experience and that of the United States training schemes. The temporal bone laboratory in Cork is the only one in existence in Ireland. The exposure and experience obtained by registrars rotating through Cork, has resulted in noticeable improvements in their operative abilities. The temporal bone laboratory remains a core component to training. It is hoped that this article may facilitate other units overcoming obstacles to establish a temporal bone laboratory.

  8. CT of temporal bone - IV. inner ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Yoon; Sung, Kyu Bo; Youn, Eun Kyoung; Park, Youn Kyeung; Lee, Young Uk [Koryo general Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Temporal bone CT was done in 697 patients from April 1985 to October 1989. The abnormal findings were seen in 453 patients, which were chronic otitis media in 355 patients, fracture in 49 patients and congenital anomaly in 44 patients, etc. The abnormal findings of inner ear were observed on 46 patients. The results were summarized as follows : 1. The incidence of inner ear involvement by chronic otitis media was 7.3% (26/355 : labyrinthine fistula in 17 patients, labyrinthitis ossificans in 9 patients). Labyrinthine fistula was most commonly located on lateral semicircular canal (15/17, 88.2%). 2. Fusion of vestibule with lateral semicircular canal and formation of common cavity was demonstrated incidentally in 5 patients (0.7% of total number of temporal bone CT), and bilateral in 3 patients. 3. The incidence of inner ear anomaly in congenital ear anomaly was 11.4% (5/44). All cases were bilateral and three patients showed associated middle ear anomaly. 4. The incidence of involvement of bony labyrinth in temporal bone fracture was 10.2% (5/49). Labyrinthine fracture was seen all patients of transverse(3) and mixed fracture(1). In longitudinal fracture, labyrinthine fracture was seen in 2.2% (1/45). 5. Others were traumatic labyrinthitis ossificans(1), intracanalicular acoustic neuroma(3) and facial nerve neuroma(1)

  9. Primary Ameloblastoma of the Temporal Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košec, Andro; Ajduk, Jakov; Ries, Mihael; Trotić, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive tumor derived from odontogenic epithelium. Although benign, its clinical behavior can often exhibit malignant characteristics. It is marked by slow and persistent growth with infiltration of adjacent tissues. Almost 70% occur in the mandible in patients older than 30 years. Recurrence of ameloblastoma from inadequate treatment is frequent. Because of its slow growth, recurrences can present decades after primary surgery. A primary ameloblastoma in an area outside the mandibular, maxillary, and infratemporal fossa regions has not been described in detail to date, with only 1 possible case mentioned in the literature. The authors present a case of primary temporal bone ameloblastoma in a 17-year-old boy. The tumor originated in the left mastoid, infiltrated the lateral semicircular canal, facial nerve, and cochlea, and adhered to the sigmoid sinus and posterior cranial fossa dura. Although invasion of multiple structures in the infratemporal fossa and temporal bone leads to variable disease presentation, this case is unique because the first symptom of disease was sudden and recurring unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Surgery required transection of the facial nerve. Histopathology confirmed primary temporal bone ameloblastoma. The difficulties in achieving wide surgical margins, diagnostics, and further management are addressed. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. COMPARSION BETWEEN PANORAMIC PERIAPICAL AND VERTICAL BITEWING RADIOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSIS OF PERIODONTAL BONE LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M SHEIKHI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For diagnosis and treatment planing and detection the quality of remaining Alveolar bone the radiography is very useful so the type of radiography is very important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panoramic, periapical (bisecting technique and vertical bitewing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods. Twelve patients (3 male and 9 female with a mean age of 35, with a moderate to advanced periodontitis were evaluated. At the time of periodontal surgery, in the posterior site of two jaws (in 6 and 7 teeth, the bone loss was measured from CEJ to the base of alveolar bone, and compared with the radiographic findings of proximal bone loss. Results. The average of distance between CEJ and alveolar bone in 48 surfaces were 4.27 in clinic, 4.80 in panoramic, 2.62 in periapical (bisecting technique, 2.98 in vertical bitewing and 4.05 in panoramic without magnification. Discussion. In this research we cancluded that both techniques (periapical and vertical bitewing are not accurate in detection of proximal bone loss and there was significant difference between quantity of proximal bone in clinical measurment than radiographic measurment and this study showed that the panoramic (specially panoramic without magnification is more careful than other radiographic techniques in detection of proximal bone loss.

  11. Tracking consolidant penetration into fossil bone using neutron radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, A. S.; Schouten, R.; Metten, L.; van de Sande, A.; Bontenbal, A.

    In the conservation of fragile fossil bone material impregnation by solvent-borne consolidant is often required. Understanding the mode of penetration of consolidants into fossil bone is of crucial importance. It is governed by a variety of factors; neutron imaging is a powerful tool to monitor and

  12. Detection of periapical bone defects in human jaws using cone beam computed tomography and intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Dawood, A; Mannocci, F; Wilson, R; Pitt Ford, T

    2009-06-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of intraoral digital periapical radiography with that of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for the detection of artificial periapical bone defects in dry human jaws. Small and large artificial periapical lesions were prepared in the periapical region of the distal root of six molar teeth in human mandibles. Scans and radiographs were taken with a charged couple device (CCD) digital radiography system and a CBCT scanner before and after each periapical lesion had been created. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, negative predictive values and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves as well as the reproducibility of each technique were determined. The overall sensitivity was 0.248 and 1.0 for intraoral radiography and CBCT respectively, i.e. these techniques correctly identified periapical lesions in 24.8% and 100% of cases, respectively. Both imaging techniques had specificity values of 1.0. The ROC Az values were 0.791 and 1.000 for intraoral radiography and CBCT, respectively. With intraoral radiography, external factors (i.e. anatomical noise and poor irradiation geometry), which are not in the clinician's control, hinder the detection of periapical lesions. CBCT removes these external factors. In addition, it allows the clinician to select the most relevant views of the area of interest resulting in improved detection of the presence and absence of artificial periapical lesions.

  13. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis bone erosions by two different dedicated extremity MRI units and conventional radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer-Jensen, A.; Vestergaard, A.; Dohn, U.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the ability of two different dedicated extremity MRI (E-MRI) units and conventional radiography (CR) for identifying bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints. Methods: CR and two MRI examinations (using 0.2 T Esaote Artoscan and 0.2...... T portable MagneVu MV1000 units) of 418 bones in the dominant wrist and second to fifth MCP joints of 15 patients with RA and 4 healthy controls were performed and evaluated blindly for bones being visible and for erosions. Results: In MCP joints, MagneVu visualised 18.5% of bones entirely and 71...... was particularly more sensitive than CR for metacarpal heads and carpal bones. MagneVu MRI and CR detected 100% and 89%, respectively, of large erosions (Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials-Rheumatoid Arthritis MRI Scoring System (OMERACT-RAMRIS) score >1 on Artoscan) in MCP joints and 69...

  14. Temporal bone anatomy in Panthera tigris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edward J.; Ketten, Darlene R.; Arruda, Julie; Armstrong, Douglas L.; Curro, Thomas; Simmons, Lee G.; Wang, Lily M.; McGee, Joann

    2004-05-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that members of Panthera tigris subspecies may rely on low-frequency acoustic cues when communicating with conspecifics either in the field or in captivity. This view is supported by the observation that individuals are sensitive to tone bursts in the 300-500-Hz range and produce significant acoustic energy in an overlapping frequency band in the case of close encounter roars. Other utterances within the vocal repertoire of tigers also contain, and are often dominated by, low frequency acoustic energy that can extend into the infrasonic range. Efforts to determine temporal bone correlates of P. tigris bioacoustical features were recently initiated using computerized tomography to assess key aspects of middle and inner ear morphology from a small set of adult Siberian tigers (P. tigris altaica) and one neonate. Obvious peripheral auditory specializations were not observed and structures comprising the auditory periphery were consistent with the anatomical character of felids generally. Although cochlear dimensions appeared to be adultlike, or nearly so, in the case of the neonate, other temporal bone features were grossly immature. The relationship between acoustic sensitivity, the spectral character of a subset of close encounter calls and cochlear dimensions will be considered.

  15. Imaging characteristics of a Stafne bone cavity--panoramic radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Florian Andreas; Probst, Monika; Maistreli, Ira-Zacharoula; Otto, Sven; Troeltzsch, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    A rare case of Stafne bone cavity (SBC) with salivary gland herniation confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. It was diagnosed in a 72-year-old male patient. Surgical intervention was avoided. The report highlights imaging findings of panoramic radiography, computed tomography, and especially magnetic resonance tomography. It is demonstrated that employment of MRI for further evaluation of suspicion of SBC on panoramic radiographs can be a helpful diagnostic tool.

  16. Conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in the prognostic evaluation of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniklides, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Sahlstedt, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Loennerholm, T. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Moberg, A. [Dept of Orthopedics, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-07-01

    Purpose: The role of conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in predicting the outcome of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease was investigated. Material and Methods: The 75 children reviewed (86 hips) were followed up to the primary healing of the disease. The findings at conventional radiography (obtained at presentation, at the time of maximum capital head involvement, and at the end of the healing process of the disease) were compared to early bone scintigraphy features. Results and Conclusion: Bone scintigraphy provided more accurate information concerning the extent of the necrotic process than initial radiographs. Moreover if could determine revascularization and consequently the stage of the disease. The method was, however, unable to predict the outcome of the disease in some of the cases, particularly if it was performed late after the onset of symptoms. Conventional radiography provided important information about other parameters such as `head-at`risk` signs which facilitated treatment selection. Of thse signs not only lateral subluxation but also metaphyseal changes strongly predispose to severe deformity of the hip joint. (orig.).

  17. The measurement of gonadal and bone-marrow doses from dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Morris, N.D.

    1980-06-01

    The method of calculation of the radiation doses to the gonads and to the active bone marrow arising from dental radiography is described. The bone-marrow doses have been calculated using a computer model of X-ray depth doses within the skull for typical dental radiographic examinations as performed in Australia. The ovarian and testicular doses, as a percentage of skin dose have been determined experimentally. The dependence of the gonadal doses on X-ray tube voltage, face to cone distance and direction of the X-ray beam relative to the face is detailed

  18. On the properties of artificial neural network filters for bone-suppressed digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunpyeong; Park, Junbeom; Kim, Daecheon; Youn, Hanbean; Jeon, Hosang; Kim, Jin Sung; Kang, Dong-Joong; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2016-04-01

    Dual-energy imaging can enhance lesion conspicuity. However, the conventional (fast kilovoltage switching) dual-shot dual-energy imaging is vulnerable to patient motion. The single-shot method requires a special design of detector system. Alternatively, single-shot bone-suppressed imaging is possible using post-image processing combined with a filter obtained from training an artificial neural network. In this study, the authors investigate the general properties of artificial neural network filters for bone-suppressed digital radiography. The filter properties are characterized in terms of various parameters such as the size of input vector, the number of hidden units, the learning rate, and so on. The preliminary result shows that the bone-suppressed image obtained from the filter, which is designed with 5,000 teaching images from a single radiograph, results in about 95% similarity with a commercial bone-enhanced image.

  19. Computed tomography of temporal bone fractures and temporal region anatomy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownder, S; Scrivani, P V; Bezuidenhout, A; Divers, T J; Ducharme, N G

    2010-01-01

    In people, specific classifications of temporal bone fractures are associated with clinical signs and prognosis. In horses, similar classifications have not been evaluated and might be useful establishing prognosis or understanding pathogenesis of certain types of trauma. We hypothesized associations between temporal bone fracture location and orientation in horses detected during computed tomography (CT) and frequency of facial nerve (CN7) deficit, vestibulocochlear nerve (CN8) deficit, or temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO). Complex temporal region anatomy may confound fracture identification, and consequently a description of normal anatomy was included. All horses undergoing temporal region CT at our hospital between July 1998 and May 2008. Data were collected retrospectively, examiners were blinded, and relationships were investigated among temporal bone fractures, ipsilateral THO, ipsilateral CN7, or ipsilateral CN8 deficits by Chi-square or Fischer's exact tests. Seventy-nine horses had CT examinations of the temporal region (158 temporal bones). Sixteen temporal bone fractures were detected in 14 horses. Cranial nerve deficits were seen with fractures in all parts of the temporal bone (petrosal, squamous, and temporal) and, temporal bone fractures were associated with CN7 and CN8 deficits and THO. No investigated fracture classification scheme, however, was associated with specific cranial nerve deficits. Without knowledge of the regional anatomy, normal structures may be mistaken for a temporal bone fracture or vice versa. Although no fracture classification scheme was associated with the assessed clinical signs, simple descriptive terminology (location and orientation) is recommended for reporting and facilitating future comparisons.

  20. Digital panoramic radiography as a useful tool for detection of bone loss: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher; Hesami, Samaneh; Hosseini, Pouran

    2013-03-16

    This study was aimed to investigate the use of panoramic radiography in patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) in order to diagnose and prevent osteoporotic fractures. Panoramic radiographs of 60 patients  (20 men and 40 women) aged from 40 to 70 years with cortical thicknesses of less than 3 mm in the mandibular angle were selected from patients referred to a dentomaxillofacial radiology clinic and were then examined for mandibular cortical angles. These were measured using Computed Radiography (CR) software. The bone densitometry was carried out using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Cortical thicknesses at the lower border of the mandibles were also measured by panoramic radiographs. Statistics analyses were then undertaken using Fisher's exact test, Chi-square, t-test, ANOVA and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In most cases, no significant difference in mandibular angle cortical thickness was found between those patients with a normal BMD and those patients with a lowered BMD (P=0.621). There was a relationship between the cortical thicknesses of the mandibular lower border, and vertebral and femoral BMD (P<0.0001), and there was a significant difference between the thickness of the mandibular lower border and BMD. The results of this study also revealed a new marker of osteoporosis on the mandibular lower border under the third molar. A thickness of 2.80 mm of the mandibular lower border was detected as a threshold for the measurement of bone densitometry in the chosen Iranian population. Panoramic radiography is effective for screening patients who are at risk of having decreased bone mineral density. Patients with a threshold of 2.80 mm thickness of the mandibular lower border should be considered as individuals likely to have osteoporosis associated low bone density.

  1. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, W.J.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.; Singleton, G.T.

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed

  2. Pulmonary complications after bone marrow transplantation in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, J.; Sailer, M.; Schmeiser, T.; Schumacher, K.A.; Heit, W.; Ulm Univ.

    1988-01-01

    In a retrospective study chest radiographs of 87 bone marrow transplant recipients were analysed. 36 patients had pulmonary complications with lung opacifications. Interstitial changes were more frequent than air-space pneumonias. The latter were caused by bacteria and fungi only. The most common cause of pulmonary complications was cytomegalovirus pneumonia. It was characterised uniformly by a bilateral diffuse interstitial pattern. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias were indistinguishable from CMV infection. Pneumonias caused by Epstein-Barr virus and protozoa, diffuse radiation pneumonitis and leukaemic infiltrates were rare and also associated with interstitial changes. (orig.) [de

  3. Radiation injury to the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, R.A.; Finn, D.G.; Buchalter, I.H.; Brookler, K.H.; Kimmelman, C.P. (New York Eye and Ear Infirmary/New York Medical College (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone is an unusual sequela of radiation therapy to the head and neck. Symptoms occur many years after the radiation is administered, and progression of the disease is insidious. Hearing loss (sensorineural, conductive, or mixed), otalgia, otorrhea, and even gross tissue extrusion herald this condition. Later, intracranial complications such as meningitis, temporal lobe or cerebellar abscess, and cranial neuropathies may occur. Reported here are five cases of this rare malady representing varying degrees of the disease process. They include a case of radiation-induced necrosis of the tympanic ring with persistent squamous debris in the external auditory canal and middle ear. Another case demonstrates the progression of radiation otitis media to mastoiditis with bony sequestration. Further progression of the disease process is seen in a third case that evolved into multiple cranial neuropathies from skull base destruction. Treatment includes systemic antibiotics, local wound care, and debridement in cases of localized tissue involvement. More extensive debridement with removal of sequestrations, abscess drainage, reconstruction with vascularized tissue from regional flaps, and mastoid obliteration may be warranted for severe cases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has provided limited benefit.

  4. Radiation injury to the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, R.A.; Finn, D.G.; Buchalter, I.H.; Brookler, K.H.; Kimmelman, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone is an unusual sequela of radiation therapy to the head and neck. Symptoms occur many years after the radiation is administered, and progression of the disease is insidious. Hearing loss (sensorineural, conductive, or mixed), otalgia, otorrhea, and even gross tissue extrusion herald this condition. Later, intracranial complications such as meningitis, temporal lobe or cerebellar abscess, and cranial neuropathies may occur. Reported here are five cases of this rare malady representing varying degrees of the disease process. They include a case of radiation-induced necrosis of the tympanic ring with persistent squamous debris in the external auditory canal and middle ear. Another case demonstrates the progression of radiation otitis media to mastoiditis with bony sequestration. Further progression of the disease process is seen in a third case that evolved into multiple cranial neuropathies from skull base destruction. Treatment includes systemic antibiotics, local wound care, and debridement in cases of localized tissue involvement. More extensive debridement with removal of sequestrations, abscess drainage, reconstruction with vascularized tissue from regional flaps, and mastoid obliteration may be warranted for severe cases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has provided limited benefit

  5. Primary temporal bone secretory meningioma presenting as chronic otitis media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelissen, T.A.; Bondt, R.B.J de; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Manni, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of a secretory meningioma primarily involving the temporal bone. A 56-year old female patient presented to us with a history of a chronic otitis media and unilateral hearing loss. Diagnostic investigations revealed a tumor arising from the temporal bone without signs

  6. Chondrosarcoma of the temporal bone: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Man Soo; Lee, Sang Youl; Chung, Jae Gul; Lee, Deok Hee; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Sik [Kang Nung Hospital, Ulsan Univ. Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Chondrosarcoma of the temporal bone is a rare lesion. Clinically it has been confused with chordoma, glomus jugulare tumor and meningioma, among other conditions, and due to its anatomic location, cranial nerve palsy is frequently observed. We report a case involving a 50-year-old woman with chondrosarcoma of the temporal bone.

  7. The base of the skull: Sella and temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, D.L.; Shaffer, K.A.; Haughton, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    The skull base consists of membranous bone and cartilage perforated by nerves, spinal cord, arteries and veins. The comlex anatomic relationships, especially within the sella and temporal bone, are effectively evaluated by CT or MR. CT is optimal for demonstrating the osseous structures and some veins and nerves, MR, the soft tissues, vessels and nerves. The multitude and complexity of the abnormalities at the base of the skull are presented in two parts: the sella and the temporal bones

  8. Bone density relationship of mandible and cervical vertebrae in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo

    2000-01-01

    Upper cervical vertebrae are commonly imaged together with the jaw bones in panoramic radiography. There have been many studies investigating the possible role of mandible as an indicator of osteoporosis. But the result doesn't show unanimity. This study measured bone densities of mandible and second and third cervical vertebrae to find out any relationship between these two areas. These results may contribute in panorama being used as a screening method in detecting possible osteoporotic patient. Randomly selected 226 digitized panoramic images with cervical vertebrae shadows from 156 dental patients between 5 to 80 years of age were used. And the bone densities of second and third cervical vertebrae, apical areas of first and second mandibular molars and interdental areas were measured. The bone density measurements were restricted to the cancellous bone and the average and standard deviations and paired t-tests were done to each measurements. All the measurements were statistically significantly related. The best relationship was found between the third cervical vertebrae and first and second mandibular apical areas. The average and standard deviations of the measured bone density ratios of these areas were 1.20 ± 0.45 and 1.34 ± 0.48 each. Patients whose panoramic bone density of the third cervical vertebrae are much below those of mandibular first or second molar apical areas may have osteoporosis.

  9. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  10. Cadaveric Temporal Bone Dissection: Is It Obsolete Today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik, Sulabha M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Traditionally, surgical training in otology, is imparted by dissecting harvested human cadaveric temporal bones. However, maintenance of a cadaveric temporal bone laboratory is expensive and carries risk of exposure to infection. In recent times, other modalities of training are gaining ground and are likely to eventually replace cadaveric temporal bone dissection altogether. Objectives Other alternative methods of training are emerging. New technology like simulation and virtual reality as high-fidelity, safer alternatives, are making rapid strides as teaching tools. Other options are the use of animal temporal bones as teaching tools. The advantages of these are compared. Data Synthesis None of these modalities can replicate the innumerable anatomical variations which are a characteristic feature of the human temporal bone. A novice surgeon not only needs exposure to surgical anatomy and it's variations but also needs to develop hand-eye coordination skills to gain expertise. Conclusion Deliberate practice on human cadaveric temporal bones only, will confer both mastery in anatomy and surgical technique. The human cadaveric temporal bone is ideal simulator for training in otology.

  11. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis bone erosions by 2 different dedicated extremity MRI units and conventional radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Anne; Vestergaard, Aage; Døhn, Uffe Møller

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ability of 2 different dedicated extremity magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI) units and conventional radiography (CR) for identifying bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints. METHODS: CR and 2 MRI-examinations (on 0.2T Esaote...... Artoscan and 0.2T portable MagneVu MV1000 units) of 418 bones in the dominant wrist and 2.-5. MCP-joints of 15 RA patients and 4 healthy controls were performed and blindedly evaluated for bones being visible and for erosions. RESULTS: In MCP-joints, MagneVu visualized 18.5% of bones entirely and 71....... With the previously validated Artoscan-unit as standard reference, MagneVu and CR had sensitivities of 0.82 and 0.55, respectively, in MCP-joint bones and 0.41 and 0.14 in wrist bones. Specificities of CR and MagneVu were comparable (0.82-0.99). MagneVu was particularly more sensitive than CR in metacarpal heads...

  12. CT features of fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrada-Ben Farhat, L.; Bourkhis, S.; Ben Yaacoub, I.; Dali, N.; Askri, A.; Hendaoui, L.

    2006-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is characterized by a progressive replacement of normal bone elements by fibrous tissue. The temporal bone is rarely involved. In this location, complications such as facial deformity, conductive hearing loss and facial peripheral neural involvement can occur. Positive diagnosis can be established with computerized tomography which also enables assessment of extension and detection of complications. We report a case of a 27-year-old man with extensive fibrous dysplasia of the right temporal bone presenting with conductive hearing loss secondary to progressive stenosis of the external auditory canal. Computerized tomography of the temporal region was performed. (authors)

  13. CT-scanning of ancient Greenlandic Inuit temporal bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, P; Lynnerup, N; Videbaek, H

    1992-01-01

    bones. The CT-scans showed sclerosing and obliteration of the air cells and even destruction of the cellular septae, and a high degree of irregularity of the cells. Sclerosing of the surrounding bone tissue was also found. The findings in one cranium were dubious and could both be regarded...... as a congenital malformation or an infection in infanthood. CT-scan confirms and even adds to the results of conventional X-ray of temporal bones making hypotheses of paleopathology more reliable. The findings also support the environmental theory of pneumatization of the air cell system in the temporal bones....

  14. Temporal response of bone to unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Globus, R.K.; Bikle, D.D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1986-02-01

    A model of weightlessness in which the hindlimbs of rats are elevated by their tails at a 40 degrees angle to unload the hindlimbs while maintaining normal weight bearing on the forelimbs has been used to simulate certain conditions of space flight. When we used this model in growing rats, we found that growth in bone weight ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae, whereas growth in bone weight in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. Within 2 weeks, however, the accretion of bone weight in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae returned to normal despite continued skeletal unloading. Since bone weight in the growing rat is primarily determined by bone formation (bone resorption is modest), we investigated the effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of hindlimb elevation using radioisotope incorporation (with /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The studies using radioisotope incorporation showed that bone formation was inhibited by the fifth day of skeletal unloading. By the 10th to 12th day, bone formation had returned toward normal. In comparison with cortical bone, cancellous bone (lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibiae) incorporated more /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline (indicating greater metabolic activity) and had a greater absolute response to skeletal unloading. The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. We conclude that this model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed by a cessation in the accretion of bone weight, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days despite continued skeletal unloading.

  15. TU-CD-BRA-11: Application of Bone Suppression Technique to Inspiratory/expiratory Chest Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, R; Sanada, S [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sakuta, K; Kawashima, H [Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Kishitani, Y [TOYO Corporation, Chuoh-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The bone suppression technique based on advanced image processing can suppress the conspicuity of bones on chest radiographs, creating soft tissue images normally obtained by the dual-energy subtraction technique. This study was performed to investigate the usefulness of bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of pulmonary function in inspiratory/expiratory chest radiography. Methods: Commercial bone suppression image processing software (ClearRead; Riverain Technologies) was applied to paired inspiratory/expiratory chest radiographs of 107 patients (normal, 33; abnormal, 74) to create corresponding bone suppression images. The abnormal subjects had been diagnosed with pulmonary diseases, such as pneumothorax, pneumonia, emphysema, asthma, and lung cancer. After recognition of the lung area, the vectors of respiratory displacement were measured in all local lung areas using a cross-correlation technique. The measured displacement in each area was visualized as displacement color maps. The distribution pattern of respiratory displacement was assessed by comparison with the findings of lung scintigraphy. Results: Respiratory displacement of pulmonary markings (soft tissues) was able to be quantified separately from the rib movements on bone suppression images. The resulting displacement map showed a left-right symmetric distribution increasing from the lung apex to the bottom region of the lung in many cases. However, patients with ventilatory impairments showed a nonuniform distribution caused by decreased displacement of pulmonary markings, which were confirmed to correspond to area with ventilatory impairments found on the lung scintigrams. Conclusion: The bone suppression technique was useful for quantitative analysis of respiratory displacement of pulmonary markings without any interruption of the rib shadows. Abnormal areas could be detected as decreased displacement of pulmonary markings. Inspiratory/expiratory chest radiography combined

  16. Comparing diagnostic accuracy of bedside ultrasound and radiography for bone fracture screening in multiple trauma patients at the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Moharamzadeh, Payman; Jamali, Kazem; Pouraghaei, Mahboob; Fadaie, Maryam; Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Shahsavari, Kavous

    2013-11-01

    Long bone fractures are currently diagnosed using radiography, but radiography has some disadvantages (radiation and being time consuming). The present study compared the diagnostic accuracy of bedside ultrasound and radiography in multiple trauma patients at the emergency department (ED). The study assessed 80 injured patients with multiple trauma from February 2011 to July 2012. The patients were older than 18 years and triaged to the cardiopulmonary resuscitation ward of the ED. Bedside ultrasound and radiography were conducted for them. The findings were separately and blindly assessed by 2 radiologists. Sensitivity, specificity, the positive and negative predictive value, and κ coefficient were measured to assess the accuracy and validity of ultrasound as compared with radiography. The sensitivity of ultrasound for diagnosis of limb bone fractures was not high enough and ranged between 55% and 75% depending on the fracture site. The specificity of this diagnostic method had an acceptable range of 62% to 84%. Ultrasound negative prediction value was higher than other indices under study and ranged between 73% and 83%, but its positive prediction value varied between 33.3% and 71%. The κ coefficient for diagnosis of long bone fractures of upper limb (κ = 0.58) and upper limb joints (κ = 0.47) and long bones of lower limb (κ = 0.52) was within the medium range. However, the value for diagnosing fractures of lower limb joints (κ = 0.47) was relatively low. Bedside ultrasound is not a reliable method for diagnosing fractures of upper and lower limb bones compared with radiography. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Surgical anatomy of the temporal bone: an atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, L.L.; Manolidis, S.; Taber, K.H.; Hayman, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    This atlas demonstrates the usefulness of reconstructed high-resolution CT for planning temporal bone surgery. The first part focuses on a sagittal plane, the second on a rotated longitudinal plane, and the third on a rotated transverse plane. We believe knowledge of temporal bone anatomy in these planes facilitates surgical planning by showing anatomic relationships and providing a customized map for each patient. This decreases the likelihood of surgical mishap and improves teaching. (orig.)

  18. Temporally resolved proton radiography of rapidly varying electric and magnetic fields in laser-driven capacitor coil targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, A.; Santos, J. J.; Bailly-Grandvaux, M.; Ehret, M.; Alpinaniz, J.; Brabetz, C.; Schaumann, G.; Volpe, L.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the dynamics of rapidly varying electromagnetic fields in intense short pulse laser plasma interactions is of key importance to understand the mechanisms at the basis of a wide variety of physical processes, from high energy density physics and fusion science to the development of ultrafast laser plasma devices to control laser-generated particle beams. Target normal sheath accelerated (TNSA) proton radiography represents an ideal tool to diagnose ultrafast electromagnetic phenomena, providing 2D spatially and temporally resolved radiographs with temporal resolution varying from 2-3 ps to few tens of ps. In this work we introduce the proton radiography technique and its application to diagnose the spatial and temporal evolution of electromagnetic fields in laser-driven capacitor coil targets.

  19. Digital subtraction radiography evaluation of longitudinal bone density changes around immediate loading implants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, L S; da Cunha, H A; Leles, C R; Mendonça, E F

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess longitudinal quantitative changes in bone density around different implant loading protocols and implant surfaces measured by digital subtraction radiography (DSR). 12 patients received bilateral homologous standard and TiUnite® (Nobel Biocare, Kloten, Switzerland) single-tooth implants under 2 implant-loading protocols: immediate loading (8 patients, 16 implants, 12 maxillary) and conventional loading (4 patients, 8 implants, 4 maxillary). Standardized periapical radiographs were taken immediately after implant placement (baseline image) and at the 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow ups. Radiographic images were digitized and submitted to digital subtraction using the DSR system® (Electro Medical System, Nyon, Switzerland), resulting in three subtracted images. Quantitative analysis of bone density was performed using Image Tool® software (University of Texas Health Science Centre, San Antonio, TX) to assess pixel value changes in five areas around the implants (crestal, subcrestal, medial third, apical-lateral and apical). Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that grey levels were significantly influenced by follow-up time and implant-loading protocol. A linear increase in grey levels was found for immediate loading (IML) implants and a significant decrease in grey levels was observed in the 12-month follow up for conventional loading implants. No effect of implant surface treatment was observed. In conclusion, IML protocol induced mineral bone gain around single-tooth implants after the first year under function for cases with favourable bone conditions.

  20. Diagnosis of simulated condylar bone defects using panoramic radiography, spiral tomography and cone-beam computed tomography: A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Fatemeh; Shokri, Abbas; Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam

    2015-02-01

    Radiographic examination is one of the most important parts of the clinical assessment routine for temporomandibular disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography(CBCT) with panoramic radiography and spiral computed tomography for the detection of the simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. The sample consisted of 10 TMJs from 5 dried human skulls. Simulated erosive and osteophytic lesions were created in 3 different sizes using round diamond bur and bone chips, respectively. Panoramic radiography, spiral tomography and cone-beam computed tomography were used in defect detection. Data were statistically analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. The reliability and degrees of agreement between two observers were also determined by the mean of Cohen's Kappa analysis. CBCT had a statistically significant superiority than other studied techniques in detection of both erosive and osteophytic lesions with different sizes. There were significant differences between tomography and panoramic in correct detection of both erosive and osteophytic lesions with 1mm and 1.5 mm in size. However, there were no significant differences between Tomography and Panoramic in correct detection of both erosive and osteophytic lesions with 0.5 mm in size. CBCT images provide a greater diagnostic accuracy than spiral tomography and panoramic radiography in the detection of condylar bone erosions and osteophytes. Key words:Bone defect, Condyle, CBCT, Panoramic, radiography.

  1. A Bone-Thickness Map as a Guide for Bone-Anchored Port Implantation Surgery in the Temporal Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Jérémie; Arnold, Andreas; Weisstanner, Christian; Caversaccio, Marco; Stieger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    The bone-anchored port (BAP) is an investigational implant, which is intended to be fixed on the temporal bone and provide vascular access. There are a number of implants taking advantage of the stability and available room in the temporal bone. These devices range from implantable hearing aids to percutaneous ports. During temporal bone surgery, injuring critical anatomical structures must be avoided. Several methods for computer-assisted temporal bone surgery are reported, which typically add an additional procedure for the patient. We propose a surgical guide in the form of a bone-thickness map displaying anatomical landmarks that can be used for planning of the surgery, and for the intra-operative decision of the implant’s location. The retro-auricular region of the temporal and parietal bone was marked on cone-beam computed tomography scans and tridimensional surfaces displaying the bone thickness were created from this space. We compared this method using a thickness map (n = 10) with conventional surgery without assistance (n = 5) in isolated human anatomical whole head specimens. The use of the thickness map reduced the rate of Dura Mater exposition from 100% to 20% and suppressed sigmoid sinus exposures. The study shows that a bone-thickness map can be used as a low-complexity method to improve patient’s safety during BAP surgery in the temporal bone. PMID:28788390

  2. Osteoblastoma of the temporal bone: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugcu, B; Gunaldi, O; Gunes, M; Tanriverdi, O; Bilgic, B

    2008-10-01

    Benign osteoblastoma is an unusual primary bone tumor. It affects usually long bones or the vertebral column. Osteoblastoma affecting the calvarium is extremely rare. A 23-year-old man presented with a two-month history of swelling and tenderness in the right temporal region. Computed tomography revealed an expansile, lytic lesion in the left temporal bone. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrated an isointense lesion in the temporal bone. After gadolinium DTPA injection, MR images revealed dense enhancement. The histopathological findings proved that the lesion was a benign osteoblastoma. To date, very few cases of the benign osteoblastoma arising in the calvarium have been reported in the literature. We discuss diagnostic and management aspects of this uncommon tumor.

  3. CT-scanning of ancient Greenlandic Inuit temporal bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homoe, P.; Videbaek, H.

    1992-01-01

    Additional morphological evidence of former infectious middle ear disease (IMED) was found by CT-scanning in 5 of 6 Greenlandic Inuit crania strongly suspected for former IMED due to earlier examination revealing either bilateral hypocellularity or asymmetry of the pneumatized area of the temporal bones. The CT-scans showed sclerosing and obliteration of the air cells and even destruction of the cellular septae, and a high degree of irregularity of the cells. Sclerosing of the surrounding bone tissue was also found. The findings in one cranium were dubious and could both be regarded as a congenital malformation or an infection in infanthood. CT-scan confirms and even adds to the results of conventional X-ray of temporal bones making hypotheses of paleopathology more reliable. The findings also support the environmental theory of pneumatization of the air cell system in the temporal bones. (13 refs., 10 figs.)

  4. Evaluation of a temporal bone prototype by experts in otology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenebaux, M; Lescanne, E; Robier, A; Kim, S; Bakhos, D

    2014-07-01

    Inexperienced otologists require training on the temporal bone drilling process, prior to any surgical activity. The shortage of cadaveric temporal bones exerts pressure to create realistic physical prototypes. This paper describes the evaluation by otology experts of a specially developed temporal bone resin model. Computed tomography images were transformed into digital files, and anatomically identical right temporal bone models were created using stereolithography. These hand-painted resin prototypes were sent to 25 otologists, accompanied by a 20-item questionnaire. Satisfaction rate was 92 per cent. The overall prototype score was 48.87 out of 60. Average scores were: 12.63 out of 15 for anatomy-morphology, 6.98 out of 9 for quality of drilling, 16.74 out of 21 for identification of anatomical elements and 7.41 out of 9 for stages of drilling. Limitations of the model included an excessively vivid facial nerve colour and difficulty in identifying the posterior semicircular canal. Disadvantages related to the thickness of the resin and its residues were identified. The prototype appears to provide an attractive solution to the shortage of cadaveric temporal bones. However, interest in the model for drilling technique training for inexperienced otologists has not yet been assessed.

  5. Massive Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak of the Temporal Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannicola Iannella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage of the temporal bone region is defined as abnormal communications between the subarachnoidal space and the air-containing spaces of the temporal bone. CSF leak remains one of the most frequent complications after VS surgery. Radiotherapy is considered a predisposing factor for development of temporal bone CSF leak because it may impair dural repair mechanisms, thus causing inadequate dural sealing. The authors describe the case of a 47-year-old man with a massive effusion of CSF which extended from the posterior and lateral skull base to the first cervical vertebrae; this complication appeared after a partial enucleation of a vestibular schwannoma (VS with subsequent radiation treatment and second operation with total VS resection.

  6. A case of osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hideji; Saito, Yozo; Katori, Kimiaki; Hata, Yuko

    1983-01-01

    A case of osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone was described. The patient had received radiotherapy for her nasopharyngeal cancer. Her symptoms of osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone, otorrhea and earache, first appeared 5 years after her radiotherapy. Since then, conservative therapy was continued for 5 years, but her symptoms were not controlled with it. Ten years after her radiotherapy, the symptoms worsened rapidly, and the pain became intolerable, which necessitated mastoidectomy. After this surgery, she was free of symptoms until now. Based on this case, we discussed the pathologic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone. Emphasis was placed on the possibility of the occurence of this pathologic condition among all the patients who have received radiotherapy for malignant tumors of the head and neck or brain. (author)

  7. Conventional diagnostic imaging of the temporal bone. A historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canigiani, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Viennese Medical School played an important role in the development of radiological examinations and signs of the temporal bone with conventional X-rays. Famous pioneers include E.G. Mayer (1893-1969) and L. Psenner (1910-1986). Nowadays conventional X-rays and tomography have lost their important role in diagnostic radiology of the temporal bone, but the basic principles established in those early years of radiology are still used now. This statement is correct not only for conventional X-rays, but particularly for 'poly'-tomography in comparison with CT. (orig.) [de

  8. Identification of Nasal Bone Fractures on Conventional Radiography and Facial CT: Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy in Different Imaging Modalities and Analysis of Interobserver Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hye Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Lee, Yoo Jin

    2013-09-01

    There has been no study to compare the diagnostic accuracy of an experienced radiologist with a trainee in nasal bone fracture. To compare the diagnostic accuracy between conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) for the identification of nasal bone fractures and to evaluate the interobserver reliability between a staff radiologist and a trainee. A total of 108 patients who underwent conventional radiography and CT after acute nasal trauma were included in this retrospective study. Two readers, a staff radiologist and a second-year resident, independently assessed the results of the imaging studies. Of the 108 patients, the presence of a nasal bone fracture was confirmed in 88 (81.5%) patients. The number of non-depressed fractures was higher than the number of depressed fractures. In nine (10.2%) patients, nasal bone fractures were only identified on conventional radiography, including three depressed and six non-depressed fractures. CT was more accurate as compared to conventional radiography for the identification of nasal bone fractures as determined by both readers (P fractures. For the identification of nasal bone fractures, CT was significantly superior to conventional radiography. Although a staff radiologist showed better values in the identification of nasal bone fracture and differentiation between depressed and non-depressed fractures than a trainee, there was no statistically significant difference in the interpretation of conventional radiography and CT between a radiologist and a trainee.

  9. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina; Da Silva, Mariliani Chicarelli; Tonin, Renata Hernandes

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL). ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth - directly on the mandibles (control), using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin), digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional panoramic, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Three programs were used to measure ABL on the images: Image tool 3.0 (University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA), Kodak Imaging 6.1 (Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1, Carestream Health(®), Rochester, NY, USA), and i-CAT vision 1.6.20. Statistical analysis used ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. The tomographic images showed the highest means, whereas the lowest were found for periapical with Han-Shin. Controls differed from periapical with Han-Shin (P periapical with Rinn XCP (P = 0.0066), periapical with Han-Shin (P periapical (P = 0.0027). Conventional periapicals with film holders differed from each other (P = 0.0007). Digital periapical differed from conventional periapical with Han-Shin (P = 0.0004). Conventional periapical with Han-Shin film holder was the only method that differed from the controls. CBCT had the closest means to the controls.

  10. Diagnostic Value of Panoramic Radiography, Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT and Clinical Measurement in Determining Bone Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Babaloo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calculation of the bone dimensions is of great importance for implant treatment. Several radiographic modalities have been used for this purpose. This study compared the accuracy of mesiodistal measurements of bone using panoramic radiography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, and the clinical methods. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, panoramic and CBCT images were obtained from 100 implant patients. Mesiodistal bone dimensions (distance between tooth CEJ in the mesial of edentulous region and CEJ of the tooth in distal of edentulous region were calculated using a scaled ruler on the orthopantomograms and the system software in the CBCT images. During the implant insertions, a mucoperiosteal flap was raised and clinical dimensions of the bone were measured by a periodontal probe and bone gauge. The differences of bone height and thickness measurements between gold standard and CBCT or panoramic modalities were analyzed using Student’s t- test. Results: The mean bone height was 10.64±1.55, 11.44±1.51, and 10.68±1.6 mm in the clinical, panoramic and CBCT modalities, respectively. Statistically significant difference was noted between the clinical and panoramic techniques (P0.05. During the bone height calculations, 79%, 62% and 78% of the images were ranked in the normal range using CBCT, panoramic and gold standard measurements, respectively. The mean areas under the ROC curve were 0.92 and 0.83 in CBCT and panoramic techniques, respectively. Conclusion: Accuracy of the CBCT images was higher than panoramic technique in measuring the bone dimensions and this technique can be confidently used to calculate the bone dimensions for the implant surgeries.   Keywords: Partially edentulous jaw; panoramic radiography; cone-beam computed tomography; bone dimensions

  11. Cost effective use of audiograms after pediatric temporal bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisenda, Julia L; Schroeder, James W; Ryan, Maura E; Valika, Taher S; Billings, Kathleen R

    2015-11-01

    To identify the relationship of pediatric temporal fractures to the incidence and type of hearing loss present. To analyze the timing and utility of audiometric testing in children with temporal bone fractures. Retrospective case series of 50 pediatric patients with temporal bone fractures who were treated at an urban, tertiary care children's hospital from 2008 to 2014. A statistical analysis of predictors of hearing loss after temporal bone fracture was performed. Fifty-three fractures (69.7%) in 50 patients involved the petrous portion of the temporal bone. The mean age of patients was 7.13 years, and 39 (73.6%) were male. A fall was the most common mechanism of injury in 28 (52.8%) patients, followed by crush injury (n=14, 26.2%), and vehicular trauma (n=10, 18.9%). All otic capsule violating fractures were associated with a sensorineural hearing loss (n=4, 7.5%, p=0.002). Three of four otic capsule sparing fractures were associated with ossicular dislocation, with a corresponding mixed or conductive hearing loss on follow up audiometric testing. The majority of otic capsule sparing fracture patients (n=19/43, 44.2%) who had follow up audiograms had normal hearing, and those with otic capsule violating fractures were statistically more likely to have persistent hearing loss than those with otic capsule sparing fractures (p=0.01). Patients with otic capsule violating fractures or those with ossicular disruption are at higher risk for persistent hearing loss. Cost-saving may be accrued by selecting only those patients at high risk for persistent hearing loss for audiometric testing after temporal bone fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Comparison of Panoramic, Periapical and Bite Wing Radiographies in Evaluation of Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodiontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haerian Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The height of the alveolar bone, is normally maintained by equilibrium between bone formation and bone resorption, but in periodontal disease more destruction or lack of bone formation will reduce the alveolar bone height. However the radiography is important in diagnosis, treatment plan and detection of quality and quantity of the alveolar bone; although the type of radiography is more important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panaromic, P.A (Parallel, Bite Wing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods: This study was descriptive cross-Sectional study Periapical (PA, Bitewing (B.W & Panoramic radiographic images in 32 pationent 13 male and 19 female with moderate to advanced periodontitis (mean age 38 year were taken before surgical treatment. Actual hight of defect were measured by a William's probe during surgery, the distance between cemento enamel junction (CEJ and alveolar crest were measured on radiographs using a digital vernie scale as will as. Actual measurements were compared with values taken from panoramic PA, B.W radiographs. For Data analysis Paired t test was used. Results: A total of 314 linear distances from the panoramic PA , B.W, and CEJ/BL were measured. The mean difference between panoramic and actual Measurements (0.115 and 0.28 P=(0.24-0.07, were not satistically significant (P> 0.05. The mean difference between P.A and actual measurements (0.279-0.498 P=(0.0001-0.004 showed a satistically significant difference (P< 0.05. The mean deference between BW and actual Measurements (0.576-0.613 P=(0.24-0.07 were satistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Although, all forms of radiographic images showed agreement in detection of periodontal bone loss, the accuracy of panoramic radiographs was more than PA & BW radiographs'. Specially when the magnification was adjusted in panoramic radiography.

  13. Detection of bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis wrist joints with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døhn, Uffe Møller; Ejbjerg, Bo J; Hasselquist, Maria

    2008-01-01

    on the same day. CT was performed on a Philips Mx8000IDT unit (voxel size 0.4 mm x 0.4 mm x 1 mm) and MRI was performed on a Philips Panorama 0.6T unit (voxel size 0.4 mm x 0.4 mm x 0.4 mm). Images were evaluated separately for erosions in all wrist bones and were scored according to the principles......, specificity and accuracy (concordance) of MRI for detecting erosions were 61%, 93% and 77%, respectively, while the respective values were 24%, 99% and 63% for radiography. The intramodality agreements when measuring erosion volumes were high for both CT and MRI (Spearman correlation coefficients 0.92 and 0...... sensitivity and good specificity and accuracy for detection of erosions in rheumatoid arthritis and healthy wrist bones, while radiography showed very low sensitivity. The tested volumetric method was highly reproducible and correlated to scores of erosions....

  14. A study of old lesions of caisson disease of bone by radiography and bone scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1981-02-01

    A group of patients were studied 10 years after stopping work in a high-pressure environment. Radiographs of their long bones showed little change during the period, but only two of 12 scintigrams were normal. The 10 abnormal scintigrams contained 18 "hot-spots" which were not always associated with an abnormal radiographic appearance; the findings suggest that some lesions may never become visible on a radiograph. A reactive or repair process associated with these lesions may be prolonged and may not be beneficial, as structural failure of the joint may subsequently occur. Prognosis should therefore be guarded.

  15. Papercraft temporal bone in the first step of anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraumi, Harukazu; Sato, Hiroaki; Ito, Juichi

    2017-06-01

    (1) To compare temporal bone anatomy comprehension taught to speech therapy students with or without a papercraft model. (2) To explore the effect of papercraft simulation on the understanding of surgical approaches in first-year residents. (1) One-hundred and ten speech therapy students were divided into three classes. The first class was taught with a lecture only. The students in the second class were given a lecture and a papercraft modeling task without instruction. The third class modeled a papercraft with instruction after the lecture. The students were tested on their understanding of temporal bone anatomy. (2) A questionnaire on the understanding of surgical approaches was completed by 10 residents before and after the papercraft modeling. The papercraft models were cut with scissors to simulate surgical approaches. (1) The average scores were 4.4/8 for the first class, 4.3/8 for the second class, and 6.3/8 for the third class. The third class had significantly better results than the other classes (panatomy using a papercraft temporal bone model is effective in the first step of learning temporal bone anatomy and surgical approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Craniofacial and temporal bone CT findings in cleidocranial dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Guido E.; Caruso, Paul A.; Curtin, Hugh D.; Small, Juan E.; Jyung, Robert W.; Troulis, Maria J.

    2008-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a multistructural polyostotic genetic disorder that results from mutation of the CBFA1 gene. Hearing loss is a frequent finding in CCD. We describe the CT craniofacial findings in CCD and provide a comprehensive discussion of the CT temporal bone findings in these patients. (orig.)

  17. Craniofacial and temporal bone CT findings in cleidocranial dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Guido E. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Departamento de Imagenes, Santiago (Chile); Caruso, Paul A.; Curtin, Hugh D. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Small, Juan E. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Jyung, Robert W. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Otology, Boston, MA (United States); Troulis, Maria J. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a multistructural polyostotic genetic disorder that results from mutation of the CBFA1 gene. Hearing loss is a frequent finding in CCD. We describe the CT craniofacial findings in CCD and provide a comprehensive discussion of the CT temporal bone findings in these patients. (orig.)

  18. Diagnosis of simulated condylar bone defects using panoramic radiography, spiral tomography and cone-beam computed tomography: A comparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Salemi, Fatemeh; Shokri, Abbas; Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Radiographic examination is one of the most important parts of the clinical assessment routine for temporomandibular disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography(CBCT) with panoramic radiography and spiral computed tomography for the detection of the simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Study Design: The sample consisted of 10 TMJs from 5 dried human skulls. Simulated erosive and osteophytic lesions were created in ...

  19. Accuracy of Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Photostimulable Phosphor Plate Digital Radiography and Conventional Radiography for Detection of Artificial Cancellous Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghieh Bardal Bardal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The optimal goal of radiography is to provide high-quality diagnostic images with the least patient radiation dose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT and intraoral photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP digital and film-based conventional radiography for detection of artificial cancellous bone defects.Materials and Methods: Five dry human mandibles were used in this study. The mandibles were placed inside a water bath made of plexiglass plates; then PSP and CBCT scans were obtained. The mandibles were cut by a coping saw in buccolingual dimension and oval defects measuring 6.1×6.1 mm, 3×6.1 mm and 4×4 mm were created by a milling machine in the spongy bone. After fixing the two parts together (buccal and lingual, radiographs were repeated. Presence or absence of defects on images was evaluated and recorded by the two observers. Using SPSS 16, compatibility level, sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating curve (ROC analysis were determined for each observer.Results: The intraobserver agreement in all three imaging modalities was low to moderate (kappa≤0.613. The inter-observer agreement in all the three imaging modalities was moderate (kappa=0.406. The area under the curve (AUC of the imaging modalities in each observation was not significantly different. The area under the curve based on defect size for the two observers was not significantly different either.Conclusion: Defects confined to spongy bone can be identified on film and PSP radiographs and CBCT scans. However, interpretation of PSP images and CBCT scans needs greater expertise and skills.

  20. Accuracy of Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Photostimulable Phosphor Plate Digital Radiography and Conventional Radiography for Detection of Artificial Cancellous Bone Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardal, Roghieh; Jahanihashemi, Hassan; Mostafavi, Maryam; Kalhor, Esmaeil; Tofangchiha, Maryam; Dehghani, Mahdieh

    2015-11-01

    The optimal goal of radiography is to provide high-quality diagnostic images with the least patient radiation dose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and intraoral photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) digital and film-based conventional radiography for detection of artificial cancellous bone defects. Five dry human mandibles were used in this study. The mandibles were placed inside a water bath made of plexiglass plates; then PSP and CBCT scans were obtained. The mandibles were cut by a coping saw in buccolingual dimension and oval defects measuring 6.1×6.1 mm, 3×6.1 mm and 4×4 mm were created by a milling machine in the spongy bone. After fixing the two parts together (buccal and lingual), radiographs were repeated. Presence or absence of defects on images was evaluated and recorded by the two observers. Using SPSS 16, compatibility level, sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis were determined for each observer. The intraobserver agreement in all three imaging modalities was low to moderate (kappa≤0.613). The inter-observer agreement in all the three imaging modalities was moderate (kappa=0.406). The area under the curve (AUC) of the imaging modalities in each observation was not significantly different. The area under the curve based on defect size for the two observers was not significantly different either. Defects confined to spongy bone can be identified on film and PSP radiographs and CBCT scans. However, interpretation of PSP images and CBCT scans needs greater expertise and skills.

  1. A comparative diagnostic assessment of anterior tooth and bone status using panoramic and periapical radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tina; Nassery, Khash; Kahlert, Bill; Heithersay, Geoffrey

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare diagnostic assessments of anterior tooth and bone status in a randomised cohort of pre-orthodontic patients using panoramic and periapical radiographs. Four hundred and forty-four cases with matched periapical and panoramic radiographs were examined by three observers. Two were final-year postgraduate endodontic students and the other, a final-year Honours degree dental student. Multi-rater Kappa values were used to assess the reliability of the observers, with a value of 1 equating to complete agreement. With the exception of endodontic Class 1 and 2 palatal invaginations, reliability exceeded 0.95 for all three observers. An assessment of the graduate endodontic students revealed only a marginal increase in the kappa values. Statistical analysis (p periapical radiographs compared with panoramic films. This finding has relevance given the likelihood of anterior dental trauma among young children. While there have been considerable improvements in the quality of dental panoramic radiography, the present study indicated that a reliable pre-orthodontic or post-trauma diagnostic assessment should include both panoramic and intra-oral radiographs.

  2. Temporal bone dissection simulator for training pediatric otolaryngology surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Pooneh R.; Sang, Hongqiang; Talari, Hadi F.; Preciado, Diego; Monfaredi, Reza; Reilly, Brian; Arikatla, Sreekanth; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Cleary, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    Cochlear implantation is the standard of care for infants born with severe hearing loss. Current guidelines approve the surgical placement of implants as early as 12 months of age. Implantation at a younger age poses a greater surgical challenge since the underdeveloped mastoid tip, along with thin calvarial bone, creates less room for surgical navigation and can result in increased surgical risk. We have been developing a temporal bone dissection simulator based on actual clinical cases for training otolaryngology fellows in this delicate procedure. The simulator system is based on pre-procedure CT (Computed Tomography) images from pediatric infant cases (<12 months old) at our hospital. The simulator includes: (1) simulation engine to provide the virtual reality of the temporal bone surgery environment, (2) a newly developed haptic interface for holding the surgical drill, (3) an Oculus Rift to provide a microscopic-like view of the temporal bone surgery, and (4) user interface to interact with the simulator through the Oculus Rift and the haptic device. To evaluate the system, we have collected 10 representative CT data sets and segmented the key structures: cochlea, round window, facial nerve, and ossicles. The simulator will present these key structures to the user and warn the user if needed by continuously calculating the distances between the tip of surgical drill and the key structures.

  3. Hearing and Mortality Outcomes following Temporal Bone Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeybrook, Adam; Patki, Aniruddha; Chapurin, Nikita; Woodard, Charles

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this article is to determine hearing and mortality outcomes following temporal bone fractures. Retrospective chart review was performed of 152 patients diagnosed with a temporal bone fracture presenting to the emergency room at a tertiary care referral center over a 10-year period. Utilizing Patients' previously obtained temporal bone computed tomographic scans and audiograms, fractures were classified based on several classification schemes. Correlations between fracture patterns, mortality, and hearing outcomes were analyzed using χ 2 tests. Ossicular chain disruption was seen in 11.8% of patients, and otic capsule violation was seen in 5.9%; 22.7% of patients presented for audiologic follow-up. Seventeen patients with conductive hearing loss had air-bone gaps of 26 ± 7.5 dB (500 Hz), 27 ± 6.8 dB (1,000 Hz), 18 ± 6.2 dB (2,000 Hz), and 32 ± 7.7 dB (4,000 Hz). Two cases of profound sensorineural hearing loss were associated with otic capsule violation. No fracture classification scheme was predictive of hearing loss, although longitudinal fractures were statistically associated with ossicular chain disruption ( p  fractures in patients older than 60 years carried a relative risk of death of 3.15 compared with those younger than 60 years. The average magnitude of conductive hearing loss resulting from temporal bone fracture ranged from 18 to 32 dB in this cohort. Classification of fracture type was not predictive of hearing loss, despite the statistical association between ossicular chain disruption and longitudinal fractures. This finding may be due to the low follow-up rates of this patient population. Physicians should make a concerted effort to ensure that audiological monitoring is executed to prevent and manage long-term hearing impairment.

  4. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Mitsunari Takeshita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL. Materials and Methods: ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth - directly on the mandibles (control, using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin, digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional panoramic, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Three programs were used to measure ABL on the images: Image tool 3.0 (University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA, Kodak Imaging 6.1 (Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1, Carestream Health ® , Rochester, NY, USA, and i-CAT vision 1.6.20. Statistical analysis used ANOVA and Tukey′s test at 5% significance level. Results: The tomographic images showed the highest means, whereas the lowest were found for periapical with Han-Shin. Controls differed from periapical with Han-Shin (P < 0.0001. CBCT differed from panoramic (P = 0.0130, periapical with Rinn XCP (P = 0.0066, periapical with Han-Shin (P < 0.0001, and digital periapical (P = 0.0027. Conventional periapicals with film holders differed from each other (P = 0.0007. Digital periapical differed from conventional periapical with Han-Shin (P = 0.0004. Conclusions: Conventional periapical with Han-Shin film holder was the only method that differed from the controls. CBCT had the closest means to the controls.

  5. Temporal bone trauma and complications: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Couto, Caroline Laurita Batista; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho, E-mail: anadoffemond@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unit of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis

    2013-03-15

    Most temporal bone fractures result from high-energy blunt head trauma, and are frequently related to other skull fractures or to polytrauma. Fractures and displacements of ossicular chain in the middle ear represent some of the main complications of temporal bone injury, and hence they will be more deeply approached in the present article. Other types of injuries include labyrinthine fractures, dural fistula, facial nerve paralysis and extension into the carotid canal. Computed tomography plays a fundamental role in the initial evaluation of polytrauma patients, as it can help to identify important structural injuries that may lead to severe complications such as sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, dizziness and balance dysfunction, perilymphatic fistulas, facial nerve paralysis, vascular injury and others. (author)

  6. X-ray diagnosis in temporal bone anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schratter, M.; Canigiani, G.; Swoboda, H.; Brunner, E.

    1988-01-01

    The X-ray findings in temporal bone anomalies are reviewed. Radiological procedure and examination technique are presented, as are symptoms of important anomalies. The methods available are plain film X-ray of temporal bone, multi-directional tomography, and high-resolution CT. Although some of the abnormalities are visible even in plain films, consistent use of conventional tomography or CT is necessary for correct diagnosis. This procedure is indicated not only when an abnormality is clinically obvious, but also in all cases of unexplained hearing loss without evidence of acquired disease. The advantage of CT over conventional tomography is that soft tissue anomalies, such as primary cholesteatoma or tumor simulating vascular abnormalities, can be demonstrated. In these cases CT is obligatory. (orig.) [de

  7. Temporal bone trauma and complications: computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Couto, Caroline Laurita Batista; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Most temporal bone fractures result from high-energy blunt head trauma, and are frequently related to other skull fractures or to polytrauma. Fractures and displacements of ossicular chain in the middle ear represent some of the main complications of temporal bone injury, and hence they will be more deeply approached in the present article. Other types of injuries include labyrinthine fractures, dural fistula, facial nerve paralysis and extension into the carotid canal. Computed tomography plays a fundamental role in the initial evaluation of polytrauma patients, as it can help to identify important structural injuries that may lead to severe complications such as sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, dizziness and balance dysfunction, perilymphatic fistulas, facial nerve paralysis, vascular injury and others. (author)

  8. A metastatic glomus jugulare tumor. A temporal bone report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fiky, F.M.; Paparella, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The clinicopathologic findings in the temporal bone of a patient with a highly malignant metastasizing glomus jugulare tumor are reported. The patient exhibited all the symptoms of primary malignant tumors of the ear, including facial paralysis, otorrhea, pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo. He was treated with cobalt irradiation followed by radium implant in the ear canal for a residual tumor; then a left-sided radical mastoidectomy was performed

  9. Radiography of the mandible prior to endosseous implant treatment. Localization of the mandibular canal and assessment of trabecular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindh, C.

    1996-03-01

    Mandibular autopsy specimens were examined with different radiographic techniques in order to evaluate the visibility of the mandibular canal and the measurement accuracy of distances related to the mandibular canal. Hypocycloidal, spiral and computed tomography (CT) were superior to periapical and panoramic radiography in visualizing the mandibular canal. The tomographic techniques were more accurate when measurements of distances related to the mandibular canal were performed. No difference in measurement accuracy was found between the tomographic techniques. Concerning visibility of the mandibular canal, interobserver agreement was lowest for periapical radiography and highest for CT. Intraobserver agreement was moderate or good for all techniques. A high interobserver variation was found for measurability of distances related to the mandibular canal. The trabecular bone tissue in mandibular autopsy specimens was studied concerning different characteristics. A classification system to be used prior to implant treatment, based on the trabecular pattern in periapical radiographs, was proposed. 74 refs

  10. Radiography of the mandible prior to endosseous implant treatment. Localization of the mandibular canal and assessment of trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindh, C.

    1996-03-01

    Mandibular autopsy specimens were examined with different radiographic techniques in order to evaluate the visibility of the mandibular canal and the measurement accuracy of distances related to the mandibular canal. Hypocycloidal, spiral and computed tomography (CT) were superior to periapical and panoramic radiography in visualizing the mandibular canal. The tomographic techniques were more accurate when measurements of distances related to the mandibular canal were performed. No difference in measurement accuracy was found between the tomographic techniques. Concerning visibility of the mandibular canal, interobserver agreement was lowest for periapical radiography and highest for CT. Intraobserver agreement was moderate or good for all techniques. A high interobserver variation was found for measurability of distances related to the mandibular canal. The trabecular bone tissue in mandibular autopsy specimens was studied concerning different characteristics. A classification system to be used prior to implant treatment, based on the trabecular pattern in periapical radiographs, was proposed. 74 refs.

  11. Identification of Nasal Bone Fractures on Conventional Radiography and Facial CT: Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy in Different Imaging Modalities and Analysis of Interobserver Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Hye Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Lee, Yoo Jin

    2013-01-01

    There has been no study to compare the diagnostic accuracy of an experienced radiologist with a trainee in nasal bone fracture. To compare the diagnostic accuracy between conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) for the identification of nasal bone fractures and to evaluate the interobserver reliability between a staff radiologist and a trainee. A total of 108 patients who underwent conventional radiography and CT after acute nasal trauma were included in this retrospective study. Two readers, a staff radiologist and a second-year resident, independently assessed the results of the imaging studies. Of the 108 patients, the presence of a nasal bone fracture was confirmed in 88 (81.5%) patients. The number of non-depressed fractures was higher than the number of depressed fractures. In nine (10.2%) patients, nasal bone fractures were only identified on conventional radiography, including three depressed and six non-depressed fractures. CT was more accurate as compared to conventional radiography for the identification of nasal bone fractures as determined by both readers (P <0.05), all diagnostic indices of an experienced radiologist were similar to or higher than those of a trainee, and κ statistics showed moderate agreement between the two diagnostic tools for both readers. There was no statistical difference in the assessment of interobserver reliability for both imaging modalities in the identification of nasal bone fractures. For the identification of nasal bone fractures, CT was significantly superior to conventional radiography. Although a staff radiologist showed better values in the identification of nasal bone fracture and differentiation between depressed and non-depressed fractures than a trainee, there was no statistically significant difference in the interpretation of conventional radiography and CT between a radiologist and a trainee

  12. Classification of temporal bone pneumatization based on sigmoid sinus using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.-J. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, M.H. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Kang-nam Gu, Do-gok Dong, 146-92, Seoul, Republic of Korea 135-720 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.-S. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Kang-nam Gu, Do-gok Dong, 146-92, Seoul, Republic of Korea 135-720 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.-K. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Kang-nam Gu, Do-gok Dong, 146-92, Seoul, Republic of Korea 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hoki@yuhs.ac

    2007-11-15

    Aim: To analyse several reference structures using axial computed tomography (CT) imaging of the temporal bone, which may reflect pneumatization of the entire temporal bone by statistical correlation to the actual volume of the temporal bone measured using three-dimensional reconstruction. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixteen temporal bones were studied, comprising 48 with normal findings and 68 sides showing chronic otitis media or temporal bone fracture. After measuring the volume of temporal bone air cells by the volume rendering technique using three-dimensional reconstruction images, classification of temporal bone pneumatization was performed using various reference structures on axial images to determine whether significant differences in the volume of temporal bone air cells could be found between the groups. Results: When the sigmoid sinus at the level of the malleoincudal complex was used in the classification, there were statistically significant differences between the groups that correlated with the entire volume of the temporal bone. Grouping based on the labyrinth and the ascending carotid artery showed insignificant differences in volume. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between the cross-sectional area of the antrum and the entire volume of the temporal bone. Conclusion: The degree of pneumatization of temporal bone can be estimated easily by the evaluation of the air cells around the sigmoid sinus on axial CT images.

  13. Digital subtraction radiography evaluation of the bone repair process of chronic apical periodontitis after root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfica e Silva, J; Leles, C R; Alencar, A H G; Nunes, C A B C M; Mendonça, E F

    2010-08-01

    To monitor radiographically the progress of bone repair within chronic periapical lesions after root canal treatment using digital subtraction radiography (DSR). Twelve patients with 17 single-rooted teeth with chronic apical periodontitis associated with an infected necrotic pulp were selected for root canal treatment. Periapical radiographs were taken before treatment (baseline) and immediately post-treatment, 45, 90, 135 and 180 days after treatment. The radiographic protocol included the use of individualized film holders with silicone bite blocks. The six radiographic images were digitized and submitted to digital subtraction using DSR software, resulting in five subtracted images (SI). Quantitative analysis of these SI was performed using Image Tool software to assess pixel value changes, considering a step-wedge as the gold standard and a cut-off value of 128 pixels. The aim was to identify any increase or decrease in mineral density in the region of the periapical lesion. A minor decrease in mineral density at the canal filling session and a significant progressive mineral gain in the following evaluations (P < 0.001) occurred. Pairwise comparison of pixel grey values revealed that only the 180-day follow-up differed significantly from the previous SI. Digital subtraction radiography is a useful method for evaluating the progress of bone repair after root canal treatment. Noticeable mineral gain was observed approximately 90 days after root canal filling and definite bone repair after 180 days.

  14. Pediatric Temporal Bone Fractures: A 10-Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Sonya; Poletto, Erica; Chennupati, Sri Kiran

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the traditional and newer temporal bone fracture classification systems and their reliability in predicting serious outcomes of hearing loss and facial nerve (FN) injury. We queried the medical record database for hospital visits from 2002 to 2013 related to the search term temporal. A total of 1144 records were identified, and of these, 46 records with documented temporal bone fractures were reviewed for patient age, etiology and classification of the temporal bone fracture, FN examination, and hearing status. Of these records, radiology images were available for 38 patients and 40 fractures. Thirty-eight patients with accessible radiologic studies, aged 10 months to 16 years, were identified as having 40 temporal bone fractures for which the otolaryngology service was consulted. Twenty fractures (50.0%) were classified as longitudinal, 5 (12.5%) as transverse, and 15 (37.5%) as mixed. Using the otic capsule sparing (OCS)/violating nomenclature, 32 (80.0%) of fractures were classified as OCS, 2 (5.0%) otic capsule violating (OCV), and 6 (15.0%) could not be classified using this system. The otic capsule was involved in 1 (5%) of the longitudinal fractures, none of the transverse fractures, and 1 (6.7%) of the mixed fractures. Sensorineural hearing loss was found in only 2 fractures (5.0%) and conductive hearing loss (CHL) in 6 fractures (15.0%). Two fractures (5.0%) had ipsilateral facial palsy but no visualized fracture through the course of the FN canal. Neither the longitudinal/transverse/mixed nor OCS/OCV classifications were predictors of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), CHL, or FN involvement by Fisher exact statistical analysis (for SNHL: P = 0.37 vs 0.16; for CHL: P = 0.71 vs 0.33; for FN: P = 0.62 vs 0.94, respectively). In this large pediatric series, neither classification system of longitudinal/transverse/mixed nor OCS/OCV was predictive of SNHL, CHL, or FN palsy. A more robust database of audiologic results would

  15. A Retrospective Review of Temporal Bone Imaging With Respect to Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Aaron R; Fanelli, David G; Kanekar, Sangam; Isildak, Huseyin

    2017-01-01

    Current bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) guidelines recommend placement of the titanium implant 5 to 7 cm posterior to the ear canal. Previous studies show that bone conducted hearing is maximized the closer the transducer is to the cochlea. We aim to investigate the position of the sigmoid sinus with respect to BAHA implants to determine whether they may be safely placed closer to the ear canal in patients with chronic ear disease, enhancing the amplification available to the patient. We performed a retrospective review of high-resolution temporal bone computed tomographies (CTs), comparing multiple measurements between ears with chronic ear disease and normal controls. Images were obtained at a single academic medical center. Eighty patients (160 ears) with temporal bone CTs performed between 2006 and 2009 were measured. Patients with chronic ear disease were identified by international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, revision 9 code and confirmation by review of the imaging. Measurements were made on axial CT slices from a point 1 cm posterior to the sigmoid sinus to the posterior margin of the external canal. The squamous temporal bone thickness was also measured at this point. Forty-seven patients (55 ears) had chronic ear disease. Distance from the posterior canal was significantly different between normal and diseased ears (36.3 mm versus 33.5 mm, p bone thickness varied widely, and was similar between groups (6.9 mm versus 6.8 mm, p = 0.76). According to our data, titanium implants for bone-anchored hearing aids may be safely placed closer to the external canal than the current recommendations. This could allow for better transduction as well as sound localization in BAHA patients.

  16. Influence of estrogen deficiency and tibolone therapy on trabecular and cortical bone evaluated by computed radiography system in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ana Carolina Bergmann de; Henriques, Helene Nara [Postgraduate Program in Pathology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Gustavo Vieira Oliveira [Postgraduate Program in Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Inaya; Oliveira, Davi Ferreira de; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Pantaleao, Jose Augusto Soares [Maternal and Child Department, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Granjeiro, Jose Mauro [Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Maria Angelica Guzman [Department of Pathology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To verify the effects of tibolone administration on trabecular and cortical bone of ovariectomized female rats by computed radiography system (CRS). Methods: The experiment was performed on two groups of rats previously ovariectomized, one received tibolone (OVX+T) while the other did not (OVX), those groups were compared to a control group (C) not ovariectomized. Tibolone administration (1 mg/day) began thirty days after the ovariectomy and the treatment remained for five months. At last, the animals were euthanized and femurs and tibias collected. Computed radiographs of the bones were obtained and the digital images were used to determine the bone optical density and cortical thickness on every group. All results were statistically evaluated with significance set at P<0.05%. Results: Tibolone administration was shown to be beneficial only in the densitometric analysis of the femoral head, performing higher optical density compared to OVX. No difference was found in cortical bone thickness. Conclusion: Ovariectomy caused bone loss in the analyzed regions and tibolone administered in high doses over a long period showed not to be fully beneficial, but preserved bone mass in the femoral head. (author)

  17. Relationship among panoramic radiography findings, biochemical markers of bone turnover and hip bone mineral density in the diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johari Khatoonabad, M.; Aghamohammadzade, N.; Taghilu, H.; Esmaeili, F.; Jabbari Khamnei, H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that panoramic radiography might be a useful tool in the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. In addition, bone turnover biochemical marker might be valuable in predicting osteoporosis and fracture risks in the elderly, especially in post-menopausal women. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship among the radio morphometric indices of the mandible, biochemical markers of the bone turnover and hip bone mineral density in a group of post-menopausal women. Patients and Methods: Evaluations of mandibular cortical width, mandibular cortical index, panoramic index and alveolar crest resorption ration (M/M ration) were carried out on panoramic radiographs of 140 post-menopausal women with an age range of 44-82 years. Hip bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Bone mineral density values were divided into three groups of normal (T score>-1.0), Osteopenic (T score, -2.5 to -1.0) and Osteoporotic (T score<-2.5). Serum alkaline phosphatase and 25(OH) D3 were measured. Results: A decrease in mandibular cortical width by 1 mm increases the likelihood of osteopenia or osteoporosis up to 40%, having taken into consideration the effect of menopause duration. A 1 mm decrease in mandibular cortical width increased the likelihood of moderate or severe erosion of the lower cortex of the mandible up to 28% by taking age into consideration. The results did not demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between bone turnover markers and mandibular radio morphometric indices. Conclusion: Panoramic radiography gives sufficient information to make an early diagnosis regarding osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. Panoramic radiographs may be valuable in the prevention of osteoporotic fractures in elderly women.

  18. Mixed reality temporal bone surgical dissector: mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Jordan Brent; Sepehri, Nariman; Rampersad, Vivek; Kraut, Jay; Khazraee, Milad; Pisa, Justyn; Unger, Bertram

    2014-08-08

    The Development of a Novel Mixed Reality (MR) Simulation. An evolving training environment emphasizes the importance of simulation. Current haptic temporal bone simulators have difficulty representing realistic contact forces and while 3D printed models convincingly represent vibrational properties of bone, they cannot reproduce soft tissue. This paper introduces a mixed reality model, where the effective elements of both simulations are combined; haptic rendering of soft tissue directly interacts with a printed bone model. This paper addresses one aspect in a series of challenges, specifically the mechanical merger of a haptic device with an otic drill. This further necessitates gravity cancelation of the work assembly gripper mechanism. In this system, the haptic end-effector is replaced by a high-speed drill and the virtual contact forces need to be repositioned to the drill tip from the mid wand. Previous publications detail generation of both the requisite printed and haptic simulations. Custom software was developed to reposition the haptic interaction point to the drill tip. A custom fitting, to hold the otic drill, was developed and its weight was offset using the haptic device. The robustness of the system to disturbances and its stable performance during drilling were tested. The experiments were performed on a mixed reality model consisting of two drillable rapid-prototyped layers separated by a free-space. Within the free-space, a linear virtual force model is applied to simulate drill contact with soft tissue. Testing illustrated the effectiveness of gravity cancellation. Additionally, the system exhibited excellent performance given random inputs and during the drill's passage between real and virtual components of the model. No issues with registration at model boundaries were encountered. These tests provide a proof of concept for the initial stages in the development of a novel mixed-reality temporal bone simulator.

  19. Repair of Temporal Bone Encephalocele following Canal Wall Down Mastoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarantis Blioskas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a temporal bone encephalocele after a canal wall down mastoidectomy performed to treat chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma. The patient was treated successfully via an intracranial approach. An enhanced layer-by-layer repair of the encephalocele and skull base deficit was achieved from intradurally to extradurally, using temporalis fascia, nasal septum cartilage, and artificial dural graft. After a 22-month follow-up period the patient remains symptom free and no recurrence is noted.

  20. Clinical evaluation of multislice CT scan for the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ohtani, Iwao; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Baba, Yoko; Kano, Makoto; Sagawa, Yuichi [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Rapid progress of medical technology has contributed greatly to improve imaging of the temporal bone. The ability of high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) provided exquisite contrast and spatial resolution. As a result, HRCT has been the current method of choice for the delineation of fine structures of the temporal born. Helical scanning is one of the techniques in HRCT, and it has attracted a great deal of attention as an innovative diagnostic imaging technique for X-ray CT. The helical CT system is superior to conventional CT system in requiring a much shorter examination time, and enables us to get many more continuous images. We have been using this system since 1992. Since 1999 we have been able to use the new helical CT system. This system is able to perform the multislice scanning, and to obtain the thin slice thickness images as compared with the conventional helical CT system. (author)

  1. Bone and gallium scans in mastocytosis: correlation with count rates, radiography, and microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensslen, R.D. (Cross Cancer Inst., Edmonton, Alberta); Jackson, F.I.; Reid, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    Mastocytosis (urticaria pigmentosa) was proven in a patient suffering from severe back pain. A bone scan showed diffusely increased bone activity. Count rates were also abnormally elevated over several areas of the skeleton. Radiographs were consistent with mastocytosis in bone.

  2. Temporal bone histopathology in deafness due to cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, T; Sando, I; Myers, E N

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on a patient who survived an attack of cryptococcal meningitis eight years prior to his death. A bilateral sensorineural hearing loss had been noted a short time before the patient was admitted to the hospital, and was the only complication after he recovered from the disease. Histopathologic study of the temporal bones showed a similar pattern of pathology in both ears, the most striking finding being a severe loss of spiral ganglion cells in Rosenthal's canal, and of cochlear nerve fibers in the osseous spiral lamina and internal auditory meatus. The vestibular nerve was mostly free from pathology. The organ of Corti was atrophic but the hair cell population appeared to be almost normal. A slight number of cryptococci were observed in limited areas of the cochlear and the saccular nerves in the internal auditory meatus. The severe pathology of the cochlear nerve was compatible with audiologic evaluations, which pointed to a retrocochlear lesion. Thus, this case demonstrates some characteristic aspects of cryptococcal infection of the temporal bone: The primary site of invasion was the cochlear nerve in the internal auditory meatus and the modiolus, leading to the loss of ganglion cells and nerve fibers, while the vestibular nerve appears to have been resistant to infection.

  3. [Metastasis to the temporal bone may cause acute peripheral vestibular syndrome and impaired hearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbe Gregersen, Kristine; Hansen, Søren

    2013-05-27

    Metastasis to the petrous apex of the temporal bone may cause acute peripheral vestibular syndrome and impaired hearing or be asymptomatic. Contrast computed tomography should be performed to exclude pathology in the temporal bone in patients with vestibulocochlear deficit, a history of cancer and no findings on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. We describe a case of a 61-year-old man with metastatic prostatic carcinoma to the temporal bone.

  4. [Computed tomography of the temporal bone in diagnosis of chronic exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikovich, E I

    2005-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone was made in 37 patients aged 2 to 55 years with chronic exudative otitis media (CEOM). In 21 of them the pathology was bilateral. The analysis of 58 CT images has identified CT signs of chronic exudative otitis media. They include partial (17 temporary bones) or complete (38 temporal bones) block of the bone opening of the auditory tube, pneumatic defects of the tympanic cavity (58 temporal bones), pneumatic defects of the mastoid process and antrum (47 temporal bones), pathologic retraction of the tympanic membrane. The examination of the temporal bone detected both CT-signs of CEOM and other causes of hearing disorders in 14 patients (26 temporal bones) with CEOM symptoms and inadequately high hypoacusis. Among these causes were malformation of the auditory ossicula (n=5), malformation of the labynthine window (n=2), malformation of the middle and internal ear (n=4), a wide aqueduct of the vestibule, labyrinthine anomaly of Mondini's type (n=1), cochlear hypoplasia (n=4), stenosis of the internal acoustic meatuses (n=2). Sclerotic fibrous dysplasia was suggested in 2 temporal bones (by CT data). CT was repeated after surgical treatment of 10 patients (14 temporal bones) and visual assessment of tympanostomy results was made.

  5. Post-irradiation liposarcoma of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coatesworth, A.P.; Martin-Hirsch, D.P. [Hull Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Otolaryngology; MacDonald, A. [Hull Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pathology

    1996-08-01

    Liposarcoma is the second commonest soft tissue sarcoma found in adults next to fibrous histiocytoma. The head and neck region accounts for around five per cent of all sites affected. Reviews of the English language literature show that there have only been 86 reported cases of liposarcoma in the head and neck region. Wenig and Heffner, 1995 reviewed the literature for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal liposarcoma finding 22 acceptable cases and adding a further eight to the series. The most common intraoral sites of liposarcoma are the cheek and floor of mouth. In total, 35 cases arising elsewhere in the soft tissues of the head and neck have been described. We describe the first case of liposarcoma of the temporal bone and discuss its association with previous irradiation for benign parotid disease. (author).

  6. Evaluation on temporal bone CT findings of cholesteatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kun Won; Lee, Nam Joon; Kang, Eun Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1989-01-01

    Cholesteatomas are thought to result from ingrowth of keratinizing squamous epithelium from external ear to middle ear. The cholesteatomas are usually diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs, otoscopy, and plain radiograms. But various view points are emphasized radiologically before operation, leading to examine by computed tomography (CT), especially in complicated cases. We retrospectively reviewed the CT findings of cholesteatomas in 25 surgically proven cases during the period from May, 1983 to Aug, 1988. The results were as follows: 1. Most cholesteatomas showed soft tissue mass and bony erosion of ossicles (88%), attic wall and mastoid antrum (84%) on temporal bone CT scan. 2. The CT members of cholesteatomas ranged from 25 to 50 HU (avg. 33 HU). 3. Involved sites were attic (16%), antrum (28%), and both attic and antrum (56%). Other sites were middle ear cavity and external auditory canal. 4. Extra-tympanomastoid extension of cholesteatoma was intracranial abscess (8%), exposure of dural sinus (8%), and extension along with neck (4%)

  7. A case of mushroom shape temporal bone osteoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Tadashi; Tanaka, Rica; Fukui, Tsuyoshi; Miyasaka, Muneo; Yamada, Shinya

    2009-09-20

    A cranial vault Osteoma is relatively common benign tumor. Mushroom shaped skull osteoma is, however, extremely rare. Twenty seven years old female developed slow growing hard mass posterior to the ear. CT scan revealed a mushroom shaped osseous mass approximately 2.5 cm in diameter protruding from the temporal bone at the site of asterion. And the tumor was located over the right sigmoid sinus. The sigmoid sinus engraved approximately 4mm to the tumor and had a branching to one emissaries' vein. Operation was performed under general anesthesia. The tumor was excised first by cutting the base of the tumor, and then residual tumor was grinded using a round head cutting bar. A chisel dissection was not recommended because of underlining sinus. Histological findings were consistent with a benign osteoma. The postoperative course was uneventful. CT examination immediately done after operation revealed no evidence of intracranial hemorrhage, or injury of vessels. Osetoma was excised, and the surface of cranial bone at the operation site was smooth and cosmetically acceptable. At 6-months follow up, patient remains asymptomatic and recurrence free. CT examination with Multi Planer Reconstruction imaging or 3D reconstruction is highly recommended for the operational planning of cranial osteoma.

  8. Histology of sheep temporal bone A histologia do osso temporal do ovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hormy Biavatti Soares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that there is an excellent correlation between the morphology and dimensions of ear structures in sheep and human beings. AIM: To analyze and describe the histology of structures inside the temporal bone in sheep. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 307 slides obtained from vertical and horizontal sections of the temporal bone of eight sheep were analyzed. Structures were classified as similar or not similar to human structures, based on cellularity and histological architecture parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. RESULTS: The study revealed similarities between sheep and humans in terms of type of epithelium, bone component, spaces in the auditory meatus, in addition to a marked histological resemblance of cellularity and that of the structures surrounding the ear. The main differences observed were the presence of an anatomic bulla, the absence of aeration in the mastoid and the inferior opening of the hypotympanum into the bulla in sheep. CONCLUSION: Based on these observations, it is possible to conclude that sheep represent an adequate option for training and research in otologic surgery.Resultados prévios apontam para uma ótima correlação entre a morfologia e as dimensões das estruturas anatômicas de ovelhas e seres humanos. OBJETIVO: Analisar e descrever a histologia das estruturas que compõem o osso temporal do ovino. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Um total de 307 lâminas obtidas a partir de secções verticais e horizontais do osso temporal de oito ovelhas foi analisado. As estruturas foram caracterizadas como semelhantes ou não semelhantes às do ser humano, com base na celularidade e na arquitetura histológica das estruturas. DESENHO CIENTÍFICO: Experimental. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se semelhança quanto ao tipo de epitélio, componente ósseo, espaços da fenda auditiva e arquitetura, além da semelhança, em nível histológico, tanto dos componentes celulares como das estruturas contíguas ao ouvido. As

  9. Three-dimensional measurement of temporal bone by using personal computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hiroki; Murata, Kiyotaka; Isono, Michio; Azuma, Hiroji; Itou, Akihiko [Kinki Univ., Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-07-01

    Measurement of anatomical indices in human temporal bone has been reported only sporadically using high resolution CT. We developed a method for measuring such indices by computer assisted processing of images obtained by high resolusion CT. Intensive measurement of distances between all anatomical points in the entire temporal bone structure became possible with this method. (author)

  10. Radio-necrosis of the temporal bone presenting as cerebello-pontine angle lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, M.; Hariri, M.A. (Royal Preston Hospital (UK))

    1990-05-01

    We report a case of osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone which presented with symptoms and signs of cerebellopontine angle lesion. The clinical, radiological, histological and bacteriological findings are reported. The occurrence of osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone and the factors which predispose to it are discussed with particular emphasis on the time lapse between radiotherapy and its development. (author).

  11. Classification and volumetric analysis of temporal bone pneumatization using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Aniket B; Fellows, Douglas; Hand, Arthur R; Tadinada, Aditya; Lurie, Alan G

    2014-03-01

    This study performed volumetric analysis and classified different repeated patterns of temporal bone pneumatization in adults using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. A total of 155 temporal bones were retrospectively evaluated from 78 patients with no radiographic evidence of pathology. Two reference structures were used to classify temporal bone pneumatization into 3 groups. Volumetric analysis of the pneumatization was performed using a window thresholding procedure on multiplanar CBCT images. Correlation between direct communication of peritubal cells with the eustachian tube and the degree of pneumatization was also assessed. Using 2 reference structures, pneumatization pattern in the temporal bone can be classified into 3 groups. Statistically significant differences were present in their mean volumes between 3 groups. Statistically significant correlation was found between degree of pneumatization and presence of peritubal cells associated with ET. This study showed that CBCT can be effectively used for imaging temporal bone air cavities and for volumetric assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Myeloma: A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density with Plain Radiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Clinical Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Na; Kwon, Soon Tae; Song, Ik Chan [Dept. of Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    To analyze the bone mineral density (BMD) in multiple myeloma (MM) and to compare BMD with plain radiography, MRI and clinical stage. We reviewed 59 patients with MM and an age- and sex-matched control group, with measured BMD. The L-spine and femoral neck (FN) BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral plain radiographs of the L-spine were graded as 3 stages using the modified Saville index. Four bone marrow patterns were classified on sagittal T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the L-spine. BMD in the MM and control group were analyzed. BMD in MM was compared with the modified Saville index, bone marrow patterns on MRI, and clinical stages. In MM, spine BMD was reduced and the difference between spine and FN BMD was larger than the control group (p < 0.001). The modified Saville index was negatively correlated with spine T scores (p < 0.01). The spine BMD in normal marrow pattern on the MRI was the most reduced. There was no statistical correlation between BMD and clinical stage. In MM, spine BMD was significantly reduced and the difference between spine and FN BMD was larger than the control group. The modified Saville index was significantly correlated with spine BMD in MM.

  13. Long-term results of secondary alveolar bone grafting using a technique to harvest pure calvarial cancellous bone: Evaluation based on plain radiography and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihwan; Jeong, Woonhyeok; Yeo, Hyeonjung; Choi, Jaehoon; Kim, Junhyung; Son, Daegu; Oh, Sangho; Kim, Changhyun

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a method to extract the maximum amount of cancellous bone from the calvarium and analyze the outcomes using plain radiography and computed tomography. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafts using a maximal harvesting technique for calvarial cancellous bone. Bone survival was determined based on Enemark's grading system using plain radiographs. Alveolar thickness and height were analyzed by computed tomography and compared with radiographic measurements. Our study enrolled 27 patients, 22 unilateral and 5 bilateral, for a total of 32 alveolar clefts. The mean age at surgery was 9.04 ± 0.41 years (range: 6-12 years). Donor sites were successfully recovered without complications, such as hematomas, seromas, infections, or tears in the dura mater. The mean follow-up duration for obtaining plain radiographs was 6.90 ± 0.61 years (range: 2.0-18.50 years). The mean follow-up duration for computed tomography was 6.51 ± 0.99 years (range: 2.0-14.83 years). A canine tooth erupted in 30 cases. Success (Enemark's grades I or II) was achieved in 26 cases. Alveolar height was strongly correlated with the Enemark scale results (γ = 0.878, p technique resulted in successful graft survival without serious complications, including dural or brain injuries. Although the ilium is widely accepted as the optimal donor site for secondary alveolar bone grafting, the calvarium could be an alternative donor site that results in equivalent outcomes. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of digital panoramic radiography as an auxiliary means of low bone mineral density detection in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, C S; Trindade, A M; Mazzieiro, E T; Amaral, T P; Manzi, F R

    2013-01-01

    To correlate the radiomorphometric indices obtained using digital panoramic radiography (DPR) with bone mineral densities, evaluated by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test, in a population of post-menopausal females to identify patients with asymptomatic low bone mineral densities. The morphology of the mandibular cortex was evaluated using the mandibular cortical index (MCI) and the inferior mandibular cortex width was evaluated using the mental index (MI) in 64 female patients who had undergone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment. Of these patients, 21 were diagnosed with osteopaenia and 20 with osteoporosis, and 23 were normal. Three new indices for evaluating the inferior mandibular cortex width were designed: the mental posterior index 1 (MPI1), MPI2 and MPI3. Statistical analyses were performed using the χ(2) and Kruskal-Wallis tests and the receiver operating characteristic curve. There were significant differences between the normal and lower bone mineral density groups (osteopaenia and osteoporosis) for MCI (p < 0.01). In the osteoporosis group, the MI, MPI1, MPI2 and MPI3 were significantly different from the normal and osteopaenia groups (p < 0.05). The MI, MPI1, MPI2 and MPI3 showed that there is an area in the mandibular cortex, located between the mental foramen and the antegonial region, which is valid for identifying females at high risk for osteoporosis. The MCI, MI, MPI1, MPI2, and MPI3 radiomorphometric indices evaluated using DPR can be used to identify post-menopausal females with low bone densities and to provide adequate medical treatment for them.

  15. An evaluation of image quality for the assessment of the marginal bone level in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakesson, L.; Rohlin, M.

    1993-01-01

    A diagnostic image quality of panoramic radiographs originating from different clinics was examined. Two samples of 98 and 100 radiographs, respectively, were from a department of oral radiology. The radiographs of one of these samples were checked using immediate subjective analysis of the image quality before inclusion in the study whereas the radiographs of the other sample were randomly selected. A third sample consisted of radiographs from 20 randomly selected dental clinics. The subjective overall image quality of the whole panoramic radiograph was classified as adequate, marginal or inadequate. The three observers also assessed the reason for inferior image quality. The overall image quality of the radiographs was better for the checked sample from the department of oral radiology compared to the sample from the 20 dental clinics. The main reason for unacceptable image quality of the radiographs was too low density and/or contrast irrespective of sample. Other faults were incorrect positioning of the patient but in the sample from the 20 clinics improper film handling was also frequent. We conclude that image quality in panoramic radiography can be improved. Improvement of the image quality is a prerequisite if panoramic radiography in the future is to replace the full-mouth examination. 22 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  16. Scintigraphy versus radiography in the early diagnosis of experimental bone necrosis with special reference to caisson disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, P.J.; Walder, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    The early diagnosis of caisson disease of bone is hindered by the long delay which must elapse before an abnormality becomes apparent on a radiograph. The possible use of bone scintigraphy for this purpose was investigated. Necrosis of the bone and marrow was produced in rabbits by glass microspheres to simulate persistent gas-bubble emboli and then serial radiographs and scintigrams using sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate were obtained. Regions of necrosis could be detected as 'hot spots' on the scintigrams as early as three weeks after the causative insult, which was many weeks before any abnormality could be detected on the radiographs. Histological examination of excised femora suggested that the scintigraphic abnormality might depend on the new bone formation established during a reactive or repair process. It is suggested that scintigraphy may have clinical value in caisson disease. (author)

  17. Scintigraphy versus radiography in the early diagnosis of experimental bone necrosis, with special reference to caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1980-05-01

    The early diagnosis of caisson disease of bone is hindered by the long delay which must elapse before an abnormality becomes apparent on a radiograph. The possible use of bone scintigraphy for this purpose was investigated. Necrosis of the bone and marrow was produced in rabbits by glass microspheres to simulate persistent gas-bubble emboli and then serial radiographs and scintigrams using 99mTc-diphosphonate were obtained. Regions of necrosis could be detected as "hot-spots" on the scintigrams as early as three weeks after the causative insult, which was many weeks before any abnormality could be detected on the radiographs. Histological examination of excised femora suggested that the scintigraphic abnormality might depend on the new bone formation during a reactive or repair process. It is suggested that scintigraphy may have clinical value in caisson disease.

  18. Improved RNA analysis for immediate autopsy of temporal bone soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J; Kawano, H; Paparella, M M; Ho, S B

    1999-01-01

    RNA analysis is essential for understanding biological activities of a cell or tissue. Unfortunately, retrieval of RNA from existing archives of human temporal bones has proven extremely difficult due to degradation of RNA molecules. The major factors that contribute to degradation of RNA in specimens from autopsied temporal bones are tissue autolysis due to time elapsed before autopsy, and technical problems in processing the bones after harvest. We therefore focused on improving the survival of RNA in human temporal bones by shortening the time to autopsy and through modification of the processing technique by removing targeted tissues directly from the temporal bones and by avoiding time-consuming decalcification and celloidin-embedding. Eight temporal bones collected at immediate autopsies were used in this study. Representative mRNAs, ranging from high (MUC5B, physically unstable) to low (beta-actin, physically stable) molecular weights, and from abundant (MUC5B) to non-abundant (MUC1) RNA, were studied by in situ hybridization, Northern blot technique, or both. Using this modified protocol in autopsies performed up to 6 h after death, the existence of mRNAs was demonstrated in all bones studied. This improved method demonstrates the feasibility of the use of autopsied temporal bone tissues for RNA analysis.

  19. Assessment of skills using a virtual reality temporal bone surgery simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, R; Leichtle, A; Sheikh, F; Schmidt, C; Frenzel, H; Graefe, H; Wollenberg, B; Meyer, J E

    2013-08-01

    Surgery on the temporal bone is technically challenging due to its complex anatomy. Precise anatomical dissection of the human temporal bone is essential and is fundamental for middle ear surgery. We assessed the possible application of a virtual reality temporal bone surgery simulator to the education of ear surgeons. Seventeen ENT physicians with different levels of surgical training and 20 medical students performed an antrotomy with a computer-based virtual temporal bone surgery simulator. The ease, accuracy and timing of the simulated temporal bone surgery were assessed using the automatic assessment software provided by the simulator device and additionally with a modified Final Product Analysis Scale. Trained ENT surgeons, physicians without temporal bone surgical training and medical students were all able to perform the antrotomy. However, the highly trained ENT surgeons were able to complete the surgery in approximately half the time, with better handling and accuracy as assessed by the significant reduction in injury to important middle ear structures. Trained ENT surgeons achieved significantly higher scores using both dissection analysis methods. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in the results between medical students and physicians without experience in ear surgery. The virtual temporal bone training system can stratify users of known levels of experience. This system can be used not only to improve the surgical skills of trained ENT surgeons for more successful and injury-free surgeries, but also to train inexperienced physicians/medical students in developing their surgical skills for the ear.

  20. Prevalence of Temporal Bone Fractures in Patients with Mandibular Fractures Using Multidetector-Row CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, I; Kaneda, T; Sasaki, Y; Buch, K; Sakai, O

    2015-06-01

    Temporal bone fracture after mandibular trauma is thought to be rare, and its prevalence has not been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of temporal bone fractures in patients with mandibular fractures and the relationship between temporal bone fractures and the mandibular fracture location using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). A prospective study was performed in 201 patients with mandibular fractures who underwent 64-MDCT scans. The mandibular fracture locations were classified as median, paramedian, angle, and condylar types. Statistical analysis for the relationship between prevalence of temporal bone fractures and mandibular fracture locations was performed using χ(2) test with Fisher's exact test. A P-value fracture was 3.0 % of all patients with mandibular fractures and 19.0 % of those with multiple mandibular fractures of paramedian and condylar type. There was a significant relationship between the incidence of temporal bone fracture and the paramedian- and condylar-type mandibular fracture (P = 0.001). Multiple mandibular fractures of paramedian and condylar type may be a stronger indicator for temporal bone fractures. This study suggests that patients with mandibular fracture, especially the paramedian and condylar type, should be examined for coexisting temporal bone fracture using MDCT.

  1. Facial nerve paralysis associated with temporal bone masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Hironobu; Kondo, Kenji; Kagoya, Ryoji; Iwamura, Hitoshi; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the clinical and electrophysiological features of facial nerve paralysis (FNP) due to benign temporal bone masses (TBMs) and elucidate its differences as compared with Bell's palsy. FNP assessed by the House-Brackmann (HB) grading system and by electroneurography (ENoG) were compared retrospectively. We reviewed 914 patient records and identified 31 patients with FNP due to benign TBMs. Moderate FNP (HB Grades II-IV) was dominant for facial nerve schwannoma (FNS) (n=15), whereas severe FNP (Grades V and VI) was dominant for cholesteatomas (n=8) and hemangiomas (n=3). The average ENoG value was 19.8% for FNS, 15.6% for cholesteatoma, and 0% for hemangioma. Analysis of the correlation between HB grade and ENoG value for FNP due to TBMs and Bell's palsy revealed that given the same ENoG value, the corresponding HB grade was better for FNS, followed by cholesteatoma, and worst in Bell's palsy. Facial nerve damage caused by benign TBMs could depend on the underlying pathology. Facial movement and ENoG values did not correlate when comparing TBMs and Bell's palsy. When the HB grade is found to be unexpectedly better than the ENoG value, TBMs should be included in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Computed tomography of the temporal bone and orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonneveld, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The basis for this dissertation is the combination of the best set of high-resolution CT scanning parameters, on the one hand, and the technique of scanning perpendicular to the tissue interface, or parallel to an elongated anatomical structure (direct multiplanar CT technique) on the other. Although this technique yields better visualization of a number of anatomical details, the problem remains that the radiologist is as yet unfamiliar with these alternative cross-sectional planes. For this reason, a technique for cryosectioning fresh frozen specimens was selected and improved to create cross-sectional images that can be correlated with the direct multiplanar CT scans. The selection of special scan planes, the positioning, preparation and examination of the patient, and the CT and correlative anatomy are discussed separately for the temporal bone and the orbit. A few clinical applications are discussed. In the orbit, the value of high-resolution CT is demonstrated in the establishment of the relationship between space-occupying lesions and the optic nerve, and in the management of fractures of the orbital floor. 548 refs.; 253 figs.; 24 tabs

  3. Developing effective automated feedback in temporal bone surgery simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewickrema, Sudanthi; Piromchai, Patorn; Zhou, Yun; Ioannou, Ioanna; Bailey, James; Kennedy, Gregor; O'Leary, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    We aim to test the effectiveness, accuracy, and usefulness of an automated feedback system in facilitating skill acquisition in virtual reality surgery. We evaluate the performance of the feedback system through a randomized controlled trial of 24 students allocated to feedback and nonfeedback groups. The feedback system was based on the Melbourne University temporal bone surgery simulator. The study was conducted at the simulation laboratory of the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne. The study participants were medical students from the University of Melbourne, who were asked to perform virtual cortical mastoidectomy on the simulator. The extent to which the drilling behavior of the feedback and nonfeedback groups differed was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Its accuracy was determined through a postexperiment observational assessment of recordings made during the experiment by an expert surgeon. Its usability was evaluated using students' self-reports of their impressions of the system. A Friedman's test showed that there was a significant improvement in the drilling performance of the feedback group, χ(2)(1) = 14.450, P feedback (when trainee behavior was detected) 88.6% of the time and appropriate feedback (accurate advice) 84.2% of the time. Participants' opinions about the usefulness of the system were highly positive. The automated feedback system was observed to be effective in improving surgical technique, and the provided feedback was found to be accurate and useful. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  4. A Review of Temporal Bone CT Imaging With Respect to Pediatric Bone-anchored Hearing Aid Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Aaron; Fanelli, David; Kanekar, Sangam; Isildak, Huseyin

    2016-10-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aid has been shown to be effective in hearing rehabilitation for conductive loss or single-sided deafness. Current FDA guidelines allow implantation in patients over 5 years old. This guideline is at least partially due to concern for thickness of bone stock at the implant site. We aim to investigate whether temporal bone thickness should be a deterrent to implantation in those younger than five. A retrospective review of high-resolution temporal bone computed tomographies (CTs) comparing measurements between ears with chronic disease and controls. Single institution tertiary care center. One hundred patients between 1 and 5.99 years had temporal bone CTs performed between 2000 and 2009. Patients with chronic ear disease were identified by ICD-9 code, as well as confirmation by review of the imaging. None. Temporal bone thickness was measured on axial CT slices at a point 1 cm posterior to the sigmoid sinus, at the superior margin of the bony canal. Average thickness was greater than 3 mm in all age groups. No significant difference was found between age groups, or between normal ears and ears with chronic disease (3.5 mm versus 3.3 mm, p = 0.21) when compared individually. This data shows pediatric temporal bone thickness is frequently greater than the recommended 3 mm, even in patients as young as one. Anatomically, concerns regarding temporal bone thickness in patients younger than five could be reliably addressed with imaging typically obtained in workup of hearing loss.

  5. Development of a prediction tool for low bone mass based on clinical data and periapical radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Licks, Renata; Licks, V.; Ourique, F.; Bittencourt, Helio Radke; Fontanella, Vania Regina Camargo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to develop and test a tool for low bone mass pre-screening by combining periapical radiographs with clinical risk factors. Methods: The study sample consisted of 60 post-menopausal women over 40 years of age who were referred for dental radiographs. These patients also had their bone mineral density measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Radiographic density measurements and 14 morphological features were obtained f...

  6. Utility of 3D printed temporal bones in pre-surgical planning for complex BoneBridge cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Payal; Cheng, Kai; Flanagan, Sean; Greenberg, Simon

    2017-08-01

    With the advent of single-sided hearing loss increasingly being treated with cochlear implantation, bone conduction implants are reserved for cases of conductive and mixed hearing loss with greater complexity. The BoneBridge (BB, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) is an active fully implantable device with no attenuation of sound energy through soft tissue. However, the floating mass transducer (FMT) part of the device is very bulky, which limits insertion in complicated ears. In this study, 3D printed temporal bones of patients were used to study its utility in preoperative planning on complicated cases. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 16 ears were used to 3D print their temporal bones. Three otologists graded the use of routine preoperative planning provided by MED-EL and that of operating on the 3D printed bone of the patient. Data were collated to assess the advantage and disadvantage of the technology. There was a statistically significant benefit in using 3D printed temporal bones to plan surgery for difficult cases of BoneBridge surgery compared to the current standard. Surgeons preferred to have the printed bones in theatre to plan their drill sites and make the transition of the planning to the patient's operation more precise. 3D printing is an innovative use of technology in the use of preoperative planning for complex ear surgery. Surgical planning can be done on the patient's own anatomy which may help to decrease operating time, reduce cost, increase surgical precision and thus reduce complications.

  7. Improved detection of focal pneumonia by chest radiography with bone suppression imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Feng; Engelmann, Roger; Pesce, Lorenzo; Armato, Samuel G.; MacMahon, Heber

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate radiologists' ability to detect focal pneumonia by use of standard chest radiographs alone compared with standard plus bone-suppressed chest radiographs. Standard chest radiographs in 36 patients with 46 focal airspace opacities due to pneumonia (10 patients had bilateral opacities) and 20 patients without focal opacities were included in an observer study. A bone suppression image processing system was applied to the 56 radiographs to create corresponding bone suppression images. In the observer study, eight observers, including six attending radiologists and two radiology residents, indicated their confidence level regarding the presence of a focal opacity compatible with pneumonia for each lung, first by use of standard images, then with the addition of bone suppression images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the observers' performance. The mean value of the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for eight observers was significantly improved from 0.844 with use of standard images alone to 0.880 with standard plus bone suppression images (P < 0.001) based on 46 positive lungs and 66 negative lungs. Use of bone suppression images improved radiologists' performance for detection of focal pneumonia on chest radiographs. (orig.)

  8. Aggressive osteoblastoma of the temporal bone: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhi-hua; Cao, Wen-hong; Qian, Wei-xin

    2013-01-01

    Osteoblastoma can take place in any part of the skeleton. Its occurrence in the calvarium is extremely rare. The aggressive form of osteoblastoma is a rare variant. To our knowledge, this is the second case of aggressive osteoblastoma arising in the temporal bone. We report an 18-year-old patient with aggressive osteoblastoma involving the left temporal bone. Computed tomography of temporal bone showed an osteolytic lesion with granular mineralization and mottled ossified density. Permanent histopathologic sections and immunohistochemical stains revealed an aggressive osteoblastoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparison of cone beam computed tomography and conventional periapical radiography at detecting peri-implant bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Meetal; Davies, Jonathan; Wilson, Ron; Palmer, Richard

    2013-06-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) at detecting peri-implant bone defects. Implants were placed in fresh bovine ribs in osteotomy sites of varying diameter (five with no peri-implant space, five with a 0.35 mm space, five with a 0.675 mm space) and imaged using (i) digital long cone periapical radiographs (LCPAs), (ii) limited volume CBCT using 3D Accuitomo 80(®) and (iii) large volume CBCT using i-CAT Next Generation(®). Images from each were randomly presented to nine examiners on two occasions. Confidence in diagnosing the presence or absence of a peri-implant radiolucency was recorded on a five-point scale. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and Kappa tests were performed. Digital LCPAs were better at diagnosing a peri-implant bone defect when the peri-implant space was 0.35 mm (P < 0.02). As the peri-implant space increased to 0.675 mm, there was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between the three imaging methods. Sensitivity of LCPAs (100) and Accuitomo (97.8) was better than i-CAT (64.4) (P < 0.02). LCPAs and i-CAT had significantly better specificity and positive predictive value than Accuitomo. The negative predictive value of LCPA was significantly better than i-CAT. LCPAs showed better intra-examiner and inter-examiner agreement than CBCT. Within the limitations of this study, LCPAs are a reliable and valid method of detecting circumferential peri-implant bone defects and performed significantly better than CBCT. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Development of a prediction tool for low bone mass based on clinical data and periapical radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licks, R; Licks, V; Ourique, F; Radke Bittencourt, H; Fontanella, V

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to develop and test a tool for low bone mass pre-screening by combining periapical radiographs with clinical risk factors. The study sample consisted of 60 post-menopausal women over 40 years of age who were referred for dental radiographs. These patients also had their bone mineral density measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Radiographic density measurements and 14 morphological features were obtained from each dental radiograph using digital image processing software. The clinical variables considered were age and bone mass index. Classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was used to test the predictive power of clinical and radiographic risk factors for classifying individuals. CART indicated that the most important variables for classifying patients were age, number of terminal points/periphery, periphery/trabecular area, radiographic density and bone mass index. A combination of clinical and radiographic factors can be used to identify individuals with low bone mineral density, with higher accuracy than any one of these factors taken individually.

  11. [Improvement of the ear-surgery technique applying artificial temporal bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freigang, B; Motsch, Ch; Khvadagiani, M; Khvadagiani, E

    2007-03-01

    Study exercises on the temporal bones are a prerequisite for the knowledge of the anatomical features of the respective region and for the precise learning ot fundamentals of the tympanic cavity surgery. Natural human temporal bones however are not available in most countries. The search for artificial back-up temporal models are in a wide use therefore in last years. Basing upon the experiences of the handling and visualization of CT data for the three dimensional implant construction, a temporal bone model was developed in the Otorhinolaryngological Clinic of the University of Jena. The model has been distributed to surgeons for training. Classical procedures in mastoid surgery have been performed, exposing sigmoid sinus, facial nerve, labyrinth, dura mater, jugular bulb, and internal carotid artery. The Jena temporal-bone model is highly suitable for preparing exercises, particularly for beginners. The handling with drill and chisel can be learned easily. The calcium sulfate based temporal bone is an alternative training model for mastoid and middle-ear surgery, especially for beginners or in countries where human temporal bones are not available.

  12. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 2.: pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M.

    1995-01-01

    Selected cases of the temporal bone pathology on high resolution CT were demonstrated. Transverse and coronal sections of the cases were selected from 68 patients with various otological diseases. (author)

  13. Three-dimensional CT imaging with a helical scan on temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Honghan; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Uesugi, Yasuo; Sakakura, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Shuji; Shimizu, Takaya; Sueyoshi, Kozo; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) CT on the lesions of temporal bone, we studied 19 patients with disorders on the region of temporal bone by high speed helical CT. The results showed that 8 patients with congenital hearing disorder had deficiency of the auditory ossicles, 2 patients with chronic otitis media had deformity and shortness of the auditory ossicles, 4 patients with trauma had fracture of the temporal bone (1 patient was complicated by doubtful fracture of the incus), 5 patients (4 patients with acquired hearing disorder and 1 patient with otorrhea) had space-occupying lesions. 3-D helical CT could detect abnormal findings on all the patients and it was an important examination for the temporal bone. (author)

  14. Pneumolabyrinth secondary to temporal bone fracture: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacciu A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Bacciu,1 Vincenzo Vincenti,1 Sampath Chandra Prasad,1 Daniela Tonni,1 Elisa Ventura,2 Salvatore Bacciu,1 Enrico Pasanisi1 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit of Audiology and Paediatric Otolaryngology, 2Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Parma, Parma, Italy Abstract: Pneumolabyrinth following temporal bone fracture is an extremely rare condition. It results from air entering the inner ear when a communication between the air-filled middle ear spaces and inner ear is established. The imaging modality of choice for pneumolabyrinth is high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Treatment options include conservative management (bed rest, antibiotics, corticosteroids or surgery (exploratory tympanotomy. We present the case of a 31-year-old female who had pneumolabyrinth secondary to a temporal bone fracture. The patient was treated surgically and made a full clinical recovery. Keywords: pneumolabyrinth, temporal bone fractures, head trauma

  15. A quantitative study of bone repair after endodontic therapy on digital subtraction radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk

    1997-01-01

    This study was performed to prepare the quantitative method of judging the sensitive prognosis of chronic apical periodontitis as early as possible. The subjects were 25 cases with periapical radiolucencies of which were treated with endodontic treatment. Serial radiographs were taken by standardized method longitudinally. The density slice function of digital radiographic system were employed for quantitative and longitudinal assessment of the radiolucent area and the condensing osteitis simultaneously. Obtained results were as follows: 1. The amount of bone repair after endodontic treatment could be detected quantitatively by the density slice function of digital radiographic system. 2. Within the 6-week period after root canal filling, the prognosis could be evaluated by assessment both radiolucent area and condensing osteitis on digital radiographic system. 3. The pattern of bone repair showed peripheral type in most cases from the 6th week after root canal filling. 4. In longitudinal change, bone repair showed two patterns; the succeeding reduction of radiolucent area showing the increase of condensing osteitis in size till 6th week and following by static state or reduction tendency and the reduction following the initial increase of both areas. 5. Cases with pulpitis by trauma showed initial increase of condensing osteitis at 2nd week, marked reduction of radiolucent area and condensing osteitis at 6th week, and approximately normal bone state at 8th week after root canal filling.

  16. A quantitative study of bone repair after endodontic therapy on digital subtraction radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-15

    This study was performed to prepare the quantitative method of judging the sensitive prognosis of chronic apical periodontitis as early as possible. The subjects were 25 cases with periapical radiolucencies of which were treated with endodontic treatment. Serial radiographs were taken by standardized method longitudinally. The density slice function of digital radiographic system were employed for quantitative and longitudinal assessment of the radiolucent area and the condensing osteitis simultaneously. Obtained results were as follows: 1. The amount of bone repair after endodontic treatment could be detected quantitatively by the density slice function of digital radiographic system. 2. Within the 6-week period after root canal filling, the prognosis could be evaluated by assessment both radiolucent area and condensing osteitis on digital radiographic system. 3. The pattern of bone repair showed peripheral type in most cases from the 6th week after root canal filling. 4. In longitudinal change, bone repair showed two patterns; the succeeding reduction of radiolucent area showing the increase of condensing osteitis in size till 6th week and following by static state or reduction tendency and the reduction following the initial increase of both areas. 5. Cases with pulpitis by trauma showed initial increase of condensing osteitis at 2nd week, marked reduction of radiolucent area and condensing osteitis at 6th week, and approximately normal bone state at 8th week after root canal filling.

  17. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Temporal Bone: Three Cases and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqin Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory pseudotumor (IP is a clinically aggressive but histologically benign condition of unknown cause. Its appearance in the temporal bone is uncommon. We present clinical, radiological, and histopathologic findings of three cases originating in the temporal bone. In the first case, a simultaneous IP of the temporal bone and parotid gland was found with histopathologic confirmation. In the second case, an enlarged cervical node, which was also believed to be related to IP, was observed accompanied with the temporal lesion. While the third case presented with chronic suppurative otitis media. Two of them were treated by surgery alone with complete resolve of the diseases. Another one underwent tympanomastoidectomy in combination with oral steroids, radiation, and chemotherapy, but the IP still recurred. A comprehensive review of the literature on clinical features of the temporal pseudotumor was conducted.

  18. Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of postoperative temporal bone defect: an animal model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Školoudík, L.; Chrobok, V.; Kalfert, D.; Kočí, Zuzana; Syková, Eva; Chumak, Tetyana; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef; Laco, J.; Dědková, J.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Filip, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 7 (2016), s. 1405-1414 ISSN 0963-6897 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Human bone marrow * Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) * Middle ear surgery * Temporal bone Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 3.006, year: 2016

  19. Abnormal bone scintigraphy and silent radiography in localized reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuertero-Plaza, A.; Martinez-Miralles, E.; Sanz Marin, M.P. (Hospital Universitari del Mar, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine); Benito-Ruiz, P.; Martinez-Pardo, S. (Hospital Universitari del Mar, Barcelona (Spain). Div. of Rheumatology)

    1992-05-01

    Typical, definite forms of the reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome present no diagnostic problems, but the diagnosis of localized or very localized forms is very difficult. In the absence of characteristic roentgenographic evidence of acute, patchy, bony demineralization in the affected extremity, scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable examination. A retrospective analysis of 6 patients with a partial form of reflex sympathetic dystrophy with negative roentgenogram results who were evaluated by bone scintigraphy is presented. In the initial clinical stages, the predominant scintigraphic pattern was a very localized and intense hyperactivity in the internal femoral condyle and/or tibial plate of the affected joint on both blood pool and static images. The increased periarticular activity showed a marked decrease in association with remission of the clinical symptoms. In conclusion, bone scintigraphy was found to be a useful tool in the diagnosis and assessment of the therapeutic response. (orig.).

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of CBCT with Different Voxel Sizes and Intraoral Digital Radiography for Detection of Periapical Bone Lesions: An Ex-Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Sakhdari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT with different voxel sizes and intraoral digital radiography with photostimulable phosphor (PSP plate for detection of periapical (PA bone lesions.Materials and Methods: In this ex vivo diagnostic study, one-millimeter defects were created in the alveolar sockets of 15 bone blocks, each with two posterior teeth. A no-defect control group was also included. Digital PA radiographs with PSP plates and CBCT scans with 200, 250 and 300μ voxel sizes were obtained. Four observers evaluated the possibility of lesion detection using a 5-point scale. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predicative value (NPV were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane’s post hoc test. Kappa and weighted kappa statistics were applied to assess intraobserver and interobserver agreements.Results: Cochrane Q test showed no significant difference between PSP and CBCT imaging modalities in terms of kappa and weighted kappa statistics (P=0.675. The complete sensitivity and complete NPV for 200 and 250 μ voxel sizes were higher than those of 300 μ voxel size and digital radiography (P<0.001. No significant difference was noted in other parameters among other imaging modalities (P=0.403.Conclusions: The results showed that high-resolution CBCT scans had higher diagnostic accuracy than PSP digital radiography for detection of artificially created PA bone lesions. Voxel size (field of view must be taken into account to minimize patient radiation dose.Keywords: Diagnosis; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Radiography, Dental, Digital; Periapical Periodontitis

  1. Evaluation of Bone Change by Digital Subtraction Radiography After Implantation of Tooth ash-plaster Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Kwang Won; Cho, Young Gon; Kim, Dong Kie; Choi, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University and Oral Biology Research Center, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    To assess the methods for the clinical evaluation of the longitudinal bone changes after implantation of tooth ash-plaster mixture into the defect area of human jaws. Tooth ash-plaster mixtures were implanted into the defects of 8 human jaws. 48 intraoral radiograms taken with copper step wedge as reference at soon, 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 6th week after implantation of mixture were used. X-ray taking was standardized by using Rinn XCP device customized directly to the individual dentition with resin bite block. The images inputted by Quick scanner were digitized and analyzed by NIH image program. Cu-equivalent values were measured at the implanted sites from the periodic digital images. Analysis was performed by the bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement and the surface plot of resliced contiguous image. The obtained results by the two methods were compared with Cu-equivalent value changes. The average determination coefficient of Cu-equivalent equations was 0.9988 and the coefficient of variation of measured Cu values ranged from 0.08-0.10. The coefficient of variation of Cu-equivalent values measured at the areas of the mixture and the bone by the conversion equation ranged from 0.06-0.09. The analyzed results by the bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement were coincident with the changes of Cu-equivalent values. The surface plot of the resliced contiguous image showed the three dimensional view of the longitudinal bone changes on one image and also coincident with Cu-equivalent value changes after implantation. The bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement and the surface plot of the resliced contiguous image was very effective and reasonable to analyze clinically and qualitatively the longitudinal bone change. These methods are expected to be applicable to the non-destructive test in other fields.

  2. Anatomia do osso temporal de ovelhas sob aspectos didáticos Lambs' temporal bone anatomy under didactic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gurr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available É difícil encontrar ossos temporais humanos para o ensino de cirurgia otológica. Ossos temporais de ovelhas podem representar uma possível alternativa. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Os ossos temporais de ovelhas foram dissecados em um programa convencional de dissecação de osso temporal no laboratório. Incluímos mastoidectomia, abordagens endaurais, mas também analisamos a aparência externa, o meato acústico externo e o hipotímpano. Algumas etapas são diferentes das preparações de ossos humanos. Os resultados morfométricos foram comparados à anatomia conhecida de humanos para verificar se o osso temporal de ovelhas seria utilizável para o ensino de cirurgia otológica. RESULTADOS: O osso temporal de ovelhas parece menor do que o humano. Encontramos uma área bolhosa se estendendo ao hipotímpano abaixo do meato acústico externo. A membrana timpânica é muito semelhante à humana. O meato acústico externo é menor e mais curto. A cadeia ossicular exibe analogias para com a humana. DISCUSSÃO: Esse estudo mostra que especificamente o ouvido médio, a membrana timpânica e o conduto auditivo externo são morfologicamente semelhantes às suas contrapartidas encontradas nos ossos temporais humanos. A ovelha parece ser um modelo viável para o ensino da anatomia do ouvido. A menor escala de algumas estruturas, especialmente dos componentes externos do osso temporal representa uma desvantagem. CONCLUSÕES: A ovelha parece representar uma alternativa viável no ensino de cirurgia otológica.Human temporal bones in teaching ear surgery are rare. The lamb's temporal bone might be a possible alternative. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Temporal bones of the lamb were dissected with a typical temporal bone lab drilling program. We included a mastoidectomy, endaural approaches, but also analyzed the outer appearance, the external ear canal and the hypotympanon. Some steps differed from preparation done in humans. The morphometric results were compared to

  3. Aggressive osteoblastoma in mastoid process of temporal bone with facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Manoj; Rana, Chanchal

    2013-01-01

    Osteoblastoma is an uncommon primary bone tumor with a predilection for posterior elements of spine. Its occurrence in temporal bone and middle ear is extremely rare. Clinical symptoms are non-specific and cranial nerve involvement is uncommon. The cytomorphological features of osteoblastoma are not very well defined and the experience is limited to only few reports. We report an interesting and rare case of aggressive osteoblastoma, with progressive hearing loss and facial palsy, involving the mastoid process of temporal bone and middle ear along with the description of cyto-morphological features.

  4. Aggressive osteoblastoma in mastoid process of temporal bone with facial palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoblastoma is an uncommon primary bone tumor with a predilection for posterior elements of spine. Its occurrence in temporal bone and middle ear is extremely rare. Clinical symptoms are non-specific and cranial nerve involvement is uncommon. The cytomorphological features of osteoblastoma are not very well defined and the experience is limited to only few reports. We report an interesting and rare case of aggressive osteoblastoma, with progressive hearing loss and facial palsy, involving the mastoid process of temporal bone and middle ear along with the description of cyto-morphological features.

  5. Dual-energy radiography of bone tissues using ZnSe-based scintielectronic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinyov, B.; Ryzhikov, V.; Lecoq, P.; Naydenov, S.; Opolonin, A.; Lisetskaya, E.; Galkin, S.; Shumeiko, N.

    2007-01-01

    Detectors of the scintillator-photodiode type were obtained on the basis of CsI(Tl), CdWO 4 and ZnSe(Te) crystals, and their comparative study was carried out, aiming at their use in X-ray computer tomography (CT). Because of their low afterglow level (10 ppm after 10 ms), CWO and ZnSe crystals are preferable for this application. A drawback of CWO is its lower (by 3 times) light output as compared with CsI(Tl). ZnSe has low transparence to intrinsic radiation; however, up to energies of 60-70 keV it is superior, as for the whole complex of its parameter, to materials traditionally used for CT detectors. The use of a dual-energy receiving-detecting circuit with a detector pair ZnSe/CsI or ZnSe/CdWO allows efficient distinction between muscular and bone tissues, which supports our earlier theoretical assumptions that this method could be successfully used for separate detection of materials differing in their effective atomic number Z eff and local density (e.g., calcium contents in bone densitometry)

  6. TEMPORAL MODELING OF DNA DEGRADATION IN BONE REMAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to follow the changes that occur, in time, at DNA level and to establish an efficient and reliable protocol for ancestral DNA extraction from bones found in archaeological sites. To test whether the protocol is efficient and capable of yielding good quality DNA, extraction was first performed on fresh bones. The material consists of fresh pig (Sus scrofa and cow (Bos taurus bones that were grounded by using a drill operating at low speed. The bone powder was then incubated in lysis buffer in the presence of proteinase K. DNA isolation and purification were done by using the phenol:chloroform protocol and DNA was precipitated with absolute ethanol stored at -20oC. The extractions were carried out once every month for a total of four extractions

  7. Temporal subtraction technique for detection of subtle anomalies on temporally sequential bone-subtracted chest radiographs by energy subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yoshida, Megumi; Takashima, Tsutomu; Matsui, Takeshi

    2000-01-01

    We developed a temporal subtraction technique for the detection of subtle anomalies on temporally sequential bone-subtracted chest radiographs (soft tissue images) by energy subtraction. To recognize the temporal changes in a current soft tissue image in comparison with those in a previous soft tissue image, we attempted to enhance the changes by a difference image processing technique. The lung markings were enhanced by the first derivative filter. The image registration for the lung markings on both images by the sequential similarity detection algorithm (SSDA) method was then employed. The soft tissue image provided by the energy subtraction technique was excellent in its detection of subtle abnormalities in the lung, and this method was able to detect subtle abnormalities such as infiltrates and nodules missed in screening. It was suggested that this temporal subtraction technique improves accuracy when radiologists diagnose soft tissue chest images by x-ray energy subtraction. (author)

  8. Evaluation of a haptics-based virtual reality temporal bone simulator for anatomy and surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Te-Yung; Wang, Pa-Chun; Liu, Chih-Hsien; Su, Mu-Chun; Yeh, Shih-Ching

    2014-02-01

    Virtual reality simulation training may improve knowledge of anatomy and surgical skills. We evaluated a 3-dimensional, haptic, virtual reality temporal bone simulator for dissection training. The subjects were 7 otolaryngology residents (3 training sessions each) and 7 medical students (1 training session each). The virtual reality temporal bone simulation station included a computer with software that was linked to a force-feedback hand stylus, and the system recorded performance and collisions with vital anatomic structures. Subjects performed virtual reality dissections and completed questionnaires after the training sessions. Residents and students had favorable responses to most questions of the technology acceptance model (TAM) questionnaire. The average TAM scores were above neutral for residents and medical students in all domains, and the average TAM score for residents was significantly higher for the usefulness domain and lower for the playful domain than students. The average satisfaction questionnaire for residents showed that residents had greater overall satisfaction with cadaver temporal bone dissection training than training with the virtual reality simulator or plastic temporal bone. For medical students, the average comprehension score was significantly increased from before to after training for all anatomic structures. Medical students had significantly more collisions with the dura than residents. The residents had similar mean performance scores after the first and third training sessions for all dissection procedures. The virtual reality temporal bone simulator provided satisfactory training for otolaryngology residents and medical students. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Temporal Bone Osteomyelitis: The Relationship with Malignant Otitis Externa, the Diagnostic Dilemma, and Changing Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five patients hospitalized for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone between 1990 and 2011 were divided into two study groups: group 1 was patients collected from 1990 to 2001 and group 2 was composed of patients between 2002 and 2011. Clinical diagnostic criteria and epidemiologic data were analyzed to illustrate the altering features of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. Group 1 patients were characterized by high prevalence of diabetes and more commonly suffered from otalgia, otitis externa and granulation tissue in the external auditory canal and higher positive culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Noticeable changing trends were found between both groups, including declining prevalence of diabetes, fewer patients complaining of pain or presenting with otitis externa, and canal granulation, and increased variety of pathogens in group 2. We should highlight the index of clinical suspicion for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, even in nondiabetic or immunocompetent patients. Painless otorrhea patients were also at risk of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, especially patients with previous otologic operation. Increased multiplicity of pathogens amplified the difficulty of diagnosis for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone.

  10. A digital subtraction radiography based tool for periodontal bone resorption analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiabel, Homero; Rodrigues, Eveline B., E-mail: homero@sc.usp.br [University of Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel R.F. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Bauru Dentistry School

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe an aided diagnosis scheme for periodontal bone resorption so that the dentist can make an early diagnosis of the periodontal disease and establish the best treatment plan to increase the success of healing. Three ways of displaying the results are provided: qualitative, simple quantitative and colored-percentage quantitative views. A total of 72 pairs of in vitro radiographic images were used. The main procedure registers the images perspective projection aimed to align them in rotation and translation, and is followed by the application of a contrast correction technique. The results from the subtraction were evaluated firstly by the comparison between the actual and the digital sizes corresponding to the holes made by drills in phantoms. The mean error was 4.2%. The method was also applied to actual tooth radiographic images and could detect clearly the effect of treatment of periodontal diseases. It is dependent on the reproducibility of the process of radiographs acquisition and digitization, but the calculated mean error allows to conclude its better efficacy compared to usual procedures in this field. (author)

  11. Pulmonary infections in the late period after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: chest radiography versus computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, Gerd; Matzek, Wolfgang; Kalhs, Peter; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the capabilities of chest roentgenogram (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of pulmonary infectious disease in the late period (>100 days) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Methods: Ninety-four matched CXR and CT examinations were performed for clinical suspicion of infectious lung disease. The time gap between CXR and CT was 48 h at maximum. The image pairs were correlated with the patients' clinical course and with the results of diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). An unremarkable clinical course over the subsequent seven days after imaging and/or negative microbiological culture served as the basis for excluding infectious lung disease. Positive microbiological culture and/or improvement of symptoms after antibiotic therapy were considered as evidence of infectious disease. Results: The correlation with the clinical course and/or BAL revealed a significantly higher sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy for CT than for CXR (89% versus 58%, P < 0.0001; 78% versus 47%, P < 0.0001; 90% versus 68%, P < 0.0001, respectively). CT was significantly more diagnostic in BAL verified fungal and bacterial infections (P < 0.05). Conclusion: CT is significantly superior to CXR in the evaluation of infectious pulmonary disease in the late phase after BMT. Therefore, an unremarkable CXR should be followed by a CT scan to reliably detect or to accurately exclude early pulmonary infection in these patients

  12. A digital subtraction radiography based tool for periodontal bone resorption analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiabel, Homero; Rodrigues, Eveline B.; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel R.F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe an aided diagnosis scheme for periodontal bone resorption so that the dentist can make an early diagnosis of the periodontal disease and establish the best treatment plan to increase the success of healing. Three ways of displaying the results are provided: qualitative, simple quantitative and colored-percentage quantitative views. A total of 72 pairs of in vitro radiographic images were used. The main procedure registers the images perspective projection aimed to align them in rotation and translation, and is followed by the application of a contrast correction technique. The results from the subtraction were evaluated firstly by the comparison between the actual and the digital sizes corresponding to the holes made by drills in phantoms. The mean error was 4.2%. The method was also applied to actual tooth radiographic images and could detect clearly the effect of treatment of periodontal diseases. It is dependent on the reproducibility of the process of radiographs acquisition and digitization, but the calculated mean error allows to conclude its better efficacy compared to usual procedures in this field. (author)

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of CBCT with Different Voxel Sizes and Intraoral Digital Radiography for Detection of Periapical Bone Lesions: An Ex-Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhdari, Shirin; Talaeipour, Ahmad Reza; Talaeipour, Maziar; Pazhutan, Maryam; Tehrani, Sanaz Heidarkhan; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with different voxel sizes and intraoral digital radiography with photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate for detection of periapical (PA) bone lesions. In this ex vivo diagnostic study, one-millimeter defects were created in the alveolar sockets of 15 bone blocks, each with two posterior teeth. A no-defect control group was also included. Digital PA radiographs with PSP plates and CBCT scans with 200, 250 and 300μ voxel sizes were obtained. Four observers evaluated the possibility of lesion detection using a 5-point scale. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predicative value (NPV) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane's post hoc test. Kappa and weighted kappa statistics were applied to assess intraobserver and interobserver agreements. Cochrane Q test showed no significant difference between PSP and CBCT imaging modalities in terms of kappa and weighted kappa statistics (P=0.675). The complete sensitivity and complete NPV for 200 and 250 μ voxel sizes were higher than those of 300 μ voxel size and digital radiography (Pradiography for detection of artificially created PA bone lesions. Voxel size (field of view) must be taken into account to minimize patient radiation dose.

  14. Unbiased Stereologic Estimation of the Spatial Distribution of Paget’s Disease in the Human Temporal Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sune Land; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2014-01-01

    remodeling around the inner ear space and to compare it with that of otosclerosis in a contemporary context of temporal bone dynamics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the temporal bone collection of Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 15 of 29 temporal bones with Paget's disease were selected to obtain...... an independent sample. All volume distributions were obtained along the normal axis of capsular bone remodeling activity by the use of vector-based stereology. RESULTS: Pagetic bone remodeling was distributed centrifugally around the inner ear space at the individual and the general level. This pattern...

  15. Temporal bone imaging in osteogenesis imperfecta patients with hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinnen, F.K.R.; Casselman, J.W.; Leenheer, E.M. De; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Dhooge, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an autosomal-dominant connective-tissue disorder, predominantly characterized by bone fragility. Conductive hearing loss develops in half of the OI patients and often progresses to mixed loss. Findings of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic

  16. Bilateral Facial Paralysis Caused by Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture: A Case Report and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Şevik Eliçora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral facial paralysis caused by bilateral temporal bone fracture is a rare clinical entity, with seven cases reported in the literature to date. In this paper, we describe a 40-year-old male patient with bilateral facial paralysis and hearing loss that developed after an occupational accident. On physical examination, House-Brackmann (HB facial paralysis of grade 6 was observed on the right side and HB grade 5 paralysis on the left. Upon temporal bone computed tomography (CT examination, a fracture line exhibiting transverse progression was observed in both petrous temporal bones. Our patient underwent transmastoid facial decompression surgery of the right ear. The patient refused a left-side operation. Such patients require extensive monitoring in intensive care units because the presence of multiple injuries means that facial functions are often very difficult to evaluate. Therefore, delays may ensue in both diagnosis and treatment of bilateral facial paralysis.

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of the callus mechanical properties during bone transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Macias, J.; Reina-Romo, E.; Pajares, A.; Miranda, P.; Dominguez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Nanoindentation allows obtaining the elastic modulus and the hardness of materials point by point. This technique has been used to assess the mechanical propeties of the callus during fracture healing. However, as fas as the authors know, the evaluation of mechanical properties by this technique of the distraction and the docking-site calluses generated during bone transport have not been reported yet. Therefore, the aim of this work is using nanoindentation to assess the spatial and temporal variation of the elastic modulus of the woven bone generated during bone transport. Nanoindentation measurements were carried out using 6 samples from sheep sacrificed at different stages of the bone transport experiments. The results obtained show an important heterogeneity of the elastic modulus of the woven bone without spatial trends. In the case of temporal variation, a clear increase of the mean elastic modulus with time after surgery was observed (from 7±2GPa 35 days after surgery to 14±2GPa 525 days after surgery in the distraction callus and a similar increase in the docking site callus). Comparison with the evolution of the elastic modulus in the woven bone generated during fracture healing shows that mechanical properties increase slower in the case of the woven bone generated during bone transport. (Author)

  18. Temporal Changes of Microarchitectural and Mechanical Parameters of Cancellous Bone in the Osteoporotic Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xin Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at elucidating the temporal changes of microarchitectural and mechanical parameters of cancellous bone in the osteoporotic rabbit model induced by ovariectomy (OVX combined with glucocorticoid (GC administration. Osteoporotic (OP group received bilateral OVX combined with injections of GC, while sham group only received sham operation. Cancellous bone quality in vertebrae and femoral condyles in each group was assessed by DXA, μCT, nanoindentation, and biomechanical tests at pre-OVX and 4, 6, and 8 weeks after injection. With regard to femoral condyles, nanoindentation test could detect significant decline in tissue modulus and hardness at 4 weeks. However, BMD and microarchitecture of femoral condylar cancellous bone changed significantly at 6 weeks. In vertebrae, BMD, microarchitecture, nanoindentation, and biomechanical tests changed significantly at 4 weeks. Our data demonstrated that temporal changes of microarchitectural and mechanical parameters of cancellous bone in the osteoporotic rabbit were significant. The temporal changes of cancellous bone in different anatomical sites might be different. The nanoindentation method could detect the changes of bone quality at an earlier stage at both femoral condyle and vertebra in the osteoporotic rabbit model than other methods (μCT, BMD.

  19. Monitoring temporal opacity fluctuations of large structures with muon radiography: a calibration experiment using a water tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourde, Kevin; Gibert, Dominique; Marteau, Jacques; de Bremond d'Ars, Jean; Gardien, Serge; Girerd, Claude; Ianigro, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-14

    Usage of secondary cosmic muons to image the geological structures density distribution significantly developed during the past ten years. Recent applications demonstrate the method interest to monitor magma ascent and volcanic gas movements inside volcanoes. Muon radiography could be used to monitor density variations in aquifers and the critical zone in the near surface. However, the time resolution achievable by muon radiography monitoring remains poorly studied. It is biased by fluctuation sources exterior to the target, and statistically affected by the limited number of particles detected during the experiment. The present study documents these two issues within a simple and well constrained experimental context: a water tower. We use the data to discuss the influence of atmospheric variability that perturbs the signal, and propose correction formulas to extract the muon flux variations related to the water level changes. Statistical developments establish the feasibility domain of muon radiography monitoring as a function of target thickness (i.e. opacity). Objects with a thickness comprised between ≈50 ± 30 m water equivalent correspond to the best time resolution. Thinner objects have a degraded time resolution that strongly depends on the zenith angle, whereas thicker objects (like volcanoes) time resolution does not.

  20. Displasia fibrosa do osso temporal: relato de dois casos Fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Claudio B. Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A displasia fibrosa do osso temporal é uma doença de etiologia ainda controversa, manifestando-se principalmente por estenose progressiva do conduto auditivo externo e pela perda condutiva da audição. Outras manifestações incluem abaulamento na região temporal ou retroauricular, otorréia, otalgia e disacusia sensório-neural. A incidência é maior no sexo masculino e acomete principalmente a raça branca. O exame radiológico característico demonstra um aspecto de "vidro-fosco" homogêneo envolvido por uma concha de tecido cortical denso, embora existam outros padrões radiológicos desta enfermidade. O exame microscópico demonstra um trabeculado ósseo semelhante aos caracteres chineses. Este estudo relata dois casos de displasia fibrosa do osso temporal que se destacam, pois ultrapassaram o osso temporal, acometendo a região zigomática, sendo que no segundo caso houve também comprometimento do osso esfenóide e o pterigóide. Os pacientes foram submetidos à mastoidectomia radical modificada e tiveram boa evolução.Fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone (FDTB is a disorder which etiology is still controversial. Its main clinical feature is a progressive narrowing of the external auditory canal following by conductive hearing loss. Temporal or retroauricular enlargement, ear discharge, otalgia, and sensorineural hearing loss are additional findings. Women and Caucasians are more affected. The prominent finding is a homogeneous radiodense "grounded glass" like image shell surrounded by dense cortical tissue. However, other radiological patterns of this disease may be displayed. Microscopically, a trabecular of bone in "Chinese letter" configuration is found. The two cases of FDTB herein reported are particularly special for a far beyond temporal commitment reaching the zygomatic area in the first case and sphenoid and pterygoid bones in the second one. This infrequent clinical feature with unusual radiological findings made these

  1. Removal of hydroxyapatite cement from cadaveric temporal bones after transtemporal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Lan Mary; Durel, Jason; Arriaga, Moises A

    2013-10-01

    To determine the best method of removing hydroxyapatite cement from the temporal bone in the postoperative period. The advent of hydroxyapatite cement in neurotologic surgery of the temporal bone has dramatically decreased the rate of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks. However, there is no literature currently available on how to manage these patients in the setting of postoperative hematomas of the cerebellopontine angle. Nine cadaveric temporal bones were obtained that had previously undergone translabyrinthine approach drilling in an academic temporal bone lab. Fascia and adipose tissue were placed medial to the facial nerve and the temporal bone was then filled with hydroxyapatite cement to the level of the cortex. Removal of hydroxyapatite cement was undertaken using a Freer elevator, mastoid bone curette, and finally, a drill in sequential fashion. This occurred at 9 predetermined time intervals from 1 to 30 hours and was timed in each case. Removal using the freer and curette failed in each case, and the drill was ultimately used to remove the hydroxyapatite cement in all cases. The time to reach the packed fascia and adipose tissue varied from 3 to 6 minutes, average time is 4.27 ± 0.84 minutes. Although hydroxyapatite cement has dramatically decreased the rate of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak in translabyrinthine surgery, its use has also brought a new set of considerations. This study suggests that hydroxyapatite cement removal in the setting of postoperative hematoma after translabyrinthine surgery would require drilling rather than bedside incisional opening alone. Like standard craniotomy approaches, postoperative hemorrhage management requires intraoperative drainage.

  2. Computer radiography - indirect digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezierski, G.

    2008-01-01

    Implementation of the new European standards for industrial radiography with the use of storage phosphor imaging plates will result in the arousing of interest among numerous laboratories in non-destructive testing with application of the new method of testing to replace conventional radiography used so far, i.e. film radiography. Computer radiography is quite commonly used for medical radiography, where the fundamental problem consists in reduction of the radiation dose during the examination of a patient. However, it must be kept in mind that industrial applications have a little bit different requirements when compared with medical radiography. The article describes only new method for radiographic testing. (author)

  3. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise; Blackham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  4. Pneumatization of the Temporal Bones in a Greenlandic Inuit Anthropological Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, P; Lynnerup, N

    1991-01-01

    The degree of pneumatization of the temporal bones correlates with exposure during childhood and adolescence to infectious middle ear diseases (IMED), both acute and chronic. The pneumatized area as seen on cranial X-rays can be measured. This was applied to an anthropological material in order...

  5. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Blackham, Aaron [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  6. Interactive atlas using web browser: CT and MRI of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Chul; Youn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Young Uk

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to construct an interactive atlas of the temporal bone using a web-browser and to provide a template for web-based teaching files, using free and shared applets and scripts on the internet. HRCT and MR images of the temporal bone including its normal anatomy, tumors, trauma, inflammation, anomalies and vascular diseases were used in this study. Acquired radiologic images were transformed to GIF/JPG formats and to achieve appropriate image quality, were retouched. Text and image files of normal anatomy and diseases were written by HTML. JavaScript and applets were inserted in the HTML files for the interactive display of images and texts. In order to review anatomic features and diseases, a search index was also attached to the last part of the file. Using interactive images and text, temporal bone anatomy and disorders were displayed. Scripts and applets were also useful for indicating specific points of interest when a mouse was placed over the anatomic sites. The atlas may be viewed in the form of a CD-ROM, or via the internet using any computer platform or web-browser. This web-based teaching file of the temporal bone offers dynamic and interactive education. It can be usefully employed as a template for the production of interactive educational materials, offering JavaScript and providing suitable input for classes. It can replace texts and imaging contents. (author)

  7. High-resolution CT of temporal bone trauma: review of 38 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroual, M.R.; Zougarhi, A.; Cherif Idrissi El Ganouni, N.; Essadki, O.; Ousehal, A.; Tijani Adil, O.; Maliki, O.; Aderdour, L.; Raji, A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Temporal bone trauma is frequent but difficult to assess due to the diversity of clinical presentations and complex anatomy. We have sought to assess the different types of fractures and complications on high-resolution CT. Materials and methods Descriptive retrospective study over a 24 month period performed in the ENT radiology section of the Mohammed 6 university medical center in Marrakech. A total of 38 cases of temporal bone trauma were reviewed. All patients underwent ENT evaluation and high-resolution CT of the temporal bone using 1 mm axial and coronal sections. Results Mean patient age was 33 years (range: 14-55 years) with male predominance (sex ratio: 36/2). Clinical symptoms were mainly otorrhagia and conductive hearing loss. Oblique extra-labyrinthine fractures were most frequent. Two cases of pneumo-labyrinth were noted. Management was conservative in most cases with deafness in 3 cases. Conclusion High-resolution CT of the temporal bone provides accurate depiction of lesions explaining the clinical symptoms and helps guide management. MRI is complimentary to further assess the labyrinth and VII-VIII nerve complex. (author)

  8. Transverse axial plane anatomy of the temporal bone employing high spatial resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.J.; Koslow, M.; Lasjaunias, P.; Bergeron, R.T.; Chase, N.

    1982-01-01

    Anatomical relationships of temporal bone structures are demonstrated by thin section edge detection computed tomography. Many otic structures are best appreciated in axial view, but reorientation to anatomy as seen in this plane is needed for optimal diagnosis. A level by level review of key structure is presented toward this end. The limitations and advantages of computed tomography are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Benign osteoblastoma of the temporal bone: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo, Hea Jung

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoblastoma is defined as a lesion of bone, which is rich in osteoblasts, well-vascularized, and affects mainly the spinal cord. Although it is benign, it presents malignant features and simulates osteosarcoma. It affects mainly young adults between 20 and 40 years old. It rarely compromises the temporal bone. Objective: To present a rare case in the temporal bone with clinical malignant features whose the anatomopathological study has revealed to be a benign tumor. Method: The patient presented a tumor which affected the middle ear cleft, the mastoid, and the right middle fossa. The patient underwent a surgery and, in association with otorhinolaryngology, the tumor was completely dried out from the middle fossa and the middle ear. Fascia lata was used to repair the dural impairment and an acrylic plate was used to cover the bone impairment. Result: Post-surgery evolved positively, however the acrylic plate has moved itself and has stenosed the right external acoustic meato, which had to be removed 3 years later. The patient has had a good followup, which is still being carried through. Conclusion: Osteoblastoma is a multiform tumor that might affect the temporal bone with malignant features, which simulates osteosarcoma, but, in histological terms, it does not present any malignant signals. However, there is a need for a long post-surgery follow-up.

  10. Creation of a 3D printed temporal bone model from clinical CT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joss; Reyes, Samuel A

    2015-01-01

    Generate and describe the process of creating a 3D printed, rapid prototype temporal bone model from clinical quality CT images. We describe a technique to create an accurate, alterable, and reproducible rapid prototype temporal bone model using freely available software to segment clinical CT data and generate three different 3D models composed of ABS plastic. Each model was evaluated based on the appearance and size of anatomical structures and response to surgical drilling. Mastoid air cells had retained scaffolding material in the initial versions. This required modifying the model to allow drainage of the scaffolding material. External auditory canal dimensions were similar to those measured from the clinical data. Malleus, incus, oval window, round window, promontory, horizontal semicircular canal, and mastoid segment of the facial nerve canal were identified in all models. The stapes was only partially formed in two models and absent in the third. Qualitative feel of the ABS plastic was softer than bone. The pate produced by drilling was similar to bone dust when appropriate irrigation was used. We present a rapid prototype temporal bone model made based on clinical CT data using 3D printing technology. The model can be made quickly and inexpensively enough to have potential applications for educational training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High grade hemangioendothelioma of the temporal bone in a child: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Lim; Im, Soo Ah; Lim, Gye Yeon; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Hee Jeong; Park, Hyun Jin; Byun, Jae Young [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    Hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor characterized by endothelial tumor cells and variable malignant behavior, and it's not common for this lesion to involve the bone. Although there are a few reports of cranial involvement by hemangioendothelioma, only rare cases arising in temporal bone have been published. We present the radiologic findings of a 7-year-old boy who had a high grade hemangioendothelioma involving the temporal bone with intracranial extension. Evidence of flow voids on MR images suggested a tumor of vascular origin, and the ill-defined margins, cortical destruction and intracranial extension on the CT and MR images were correlated with the tumor's high histologic grade.

  12. Theoretical analysis of the spatio-temporal structure of bone multicellular units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenzli, P R; Pivonka, P; Gardiner, B S; Smith, D W; Dunstan, C R; Mundy, G R

    2010-01-01

    Bone multicellular units (BMUs) maintain the viability of the skeletal tissue by coordinating locally the sequence of bone resorption and bone formation performed by cells of the osteoclastic and osteoblastic lineage. Understanding the emergence and the net bone balance of such structured microsystems out of the complex network of biochemical interactions between bone cells is fundamental for many bone-related diseases and the evaluation of fracture risk. Based on current experimental knowledge, we propose a spatio-temporal continuum model describing the interactions of osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. We show that this model admits travelling-wave-like solutions with well-confined cell profiles upon specifying external conditions mimicking the environment encountered in cortical bone remodelling. The shapes of the various cell concentration profiles within this travelling structure are intrinsically linked to the parameters of the model such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis rates of bone cells. The internal structure of BMUs is reproduced, allowing for experimental calibration. The spatial distribution of the key regulatory factors can also be exhibited, which in diseased states could give hints as to the biochemical agent most accountable for the disorder.

  13. Successful Function-Preserving Therapy for Chondroblastoma of the Temporal Bone Involving the Temporomandibular Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junkichi Yokoyama

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a case involving a late diagnosis of chondroblastoma of the temporal skull base involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ. Following an initial misdiagnosis and unsuccessful treatment over a period of 5 years, the patient was referred to our department for further evaluation and possible surgical intervention for occlusal abnormalities, trismus, clicking of the TMJ, and hearing impairment. Based on preoperative immunochemical studies showing positive reaction of multinucleated giant cells for S-100 protein, the final diagnosis was chondroblastoma. The surgical approach – postauricular incision and total parotidectomy, with complete removal of the temporal bone, including the TMJ via the extended middle fossa – was successful in preserving facial nerves and diminishing clinical manifestations. This study highlights a misdiagnosed case in an effort to underline the importance of medical examinations and accurate differential diagnosis in cases involving any tumor mass in the temporal bone.

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis bone erosion volumes on CT and MRI: reliability and correlations with erosion scores on CT, MRI and radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Døhn, Uffe; Ejbjerg, Bo J; Hasselquist, Maria

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate intramodality and intermodality agreements of CT and MRI erosion volumes in metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to compare the volumes with erosion scores for CT, MRI and radiography. METHODS: In total, 17 patients with RA and four healthy...... controls underwent unilateral CT, MRI and radiography of second to fifth MCP joints in one hand. Erosion volumes (using OSIRIS software) and scores were determined from CT, MRI and radiography (scores only). RESULTS: CT, MRI and radiography detected 77, 62 and 12 erosions, respectively. On CT, the mean...... erosion volume was 26 mm(3) (median 10; range 0 to 248) and 30 mm(3) (18; 1 to 163) on MRI. Total erosion volumes (per patient/control) were 97 mm(3) (29; 0 to 485) on CT and 90 mm(3) (46; 0 to 389) on MRI. For volumes, Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.96 to 0.99 (CT vs CT), 0.95 to 0.98 (MRI vs...

  15. Does low-field dedicated extremity MRI (E-MRI) reliably detect bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis? A comparison of two different E-MRI units and conventional radiography with high-resolution CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer-Jensen, A; Ejbjerg, B; Albrecht-Beste, E

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ability of two different E-MRI units and conventional radiography (CR) to identify bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints with CT scanning as the standard reference method. METHODS: 20 patients with RA and 5 controls...

  16. Does low-field dedicated extremity MRI (E-MRI) reliably detect RA bone erosions? A comparison of two different E-MRI units and conventional radiography with high resolution CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Anne; Ejbjerg, Bo; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ability of 2 different E-MRI units and conventional radiography (CR) to identify bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints, with computed tomography (CT) as standard reference method. METHODS: 20 RA patients and 5 controls...

  17. Large capillary hemangioma of the temporal bone with a dural tail sign: A case report

    KAUST Repository

    YANG, GUANG

    2014-05-13

    The present study reports a rare case of large capillary hemangioma of the temporal bone with a dural tail sign. A 57-year-old female presented with pulsatile tinnitus and episodic vertigo associated with a ten-year history of an intermittent faint headache. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the right petrous bone, which was hypointense on T1-weighted images and heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and showed a dural tail sign following gadolinium administration. Pre-operatively, this tumor was believed to be a meningioma. During surgery, the vascular tumor was removed by a modified pterional approach. A histopathological examination indicated that the tumor was a capillary hemangioma. Although intraosseous capillary hemangiomas are rare, they most frequently affect the temporal bone. Hemangiomas of the temporal bone may mimic other more common basal tumors. The diagnosis is most often made during surgical resection. The dural tail sign is not specific for meningioma, as it also occurs in other intracranial or extracranial tumors. The treatment of intratemporal hemangiomas is complete surgical excision, with radiotherapy used for unresectable lesions. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the fourth case of intraosseous intracranial capillary hemangioma, but the largest intratemporal hemangioma to be reported in the literature to date.

  18. Fracture of the temporal bone in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secchi, Myrian Marajó Dal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The fractures in the temporal bone are lesions that are observed in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. The computed tomography of high-resolution (CT allows evaluating the fracture and the complications. Objective: Evaluate patients with TBI and temporal bone fracture. Way of study: Retrospective study. Method: Were evaluated 28 patients interned by TBI with clinical evidence and/or radiologic from temporal bone fractures. Results: The age ranged from 3 to 75 years. The most affected side was the right side 50% (n=14, left side 36% (n=10 and both sides 14% (n=4. The etiology of the trauma was the falling 25% (n=7, accidents with motorcycles and bicycles 21% (n=6, physical aggression 14% (n=4, running over 11% (n=3, fall of object 4% (n=1 and other causes 25% (n=7. The clinical signs were: Otorrhagia 78%, otalgia 11% (n=3, otorrhea 7% (n=2, facial paralysis 7% (n=2 and hearing loss 7% (n=2. The otoscopic findings: otorrhagia 57% (n=16, laceration of external auditory canal 36% (n=10, hemotympanum 11% (n=3, normal 7% (n=2 and Battle signal 7% (n=2. The findings for CT of skull were: with no alterations 54% (n=15 and temporal fracture 7% (n=2 and the CT of temporal bones were: line of fracture 71% (n=20, opacification of the mastoid 25% (n=7, glenoid cavity air 14% (n=1, dislocation of the ossicular chain 7% (n=2 and veiling of the middle ear 4% (n=1. Conclusion: Patients with TBI must be submitted to the otorhinolaryngological evaluation and imaging, for the early diagnosis of the complications and treatment.

  19. CT-MR image data fusion for computer assisted navigated neurosurgery of temporal bone tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Stefan Franz [Department of Radiology/Osteology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at; Donat, Markus Alexander [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mehrain, Sheida [Department of Radiology/Osteology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Friedrich, Klaus [Department of Radiology/Osteology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Krestan, Christian [Department of Radiology/Osteology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Matula, Christian [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Imhof, Herwig [Department of Radiology/Osteology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Czerny, Christian [Department of Radiology/Osteology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the value of multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative work up of temporal bone tumors and to present, especially, CT and MR image fusion for surgical planning and performance in computer assisted navigated neurosurgery of temporal bone tumors. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with temporal bone tumors underwent MDCT and MRI. MDCT was performed in high-resolution bone window level setting in axial plane. The reconstructed MDCT slice thickness was 0.8 mm. MRI was performed in axial and coronal plane with T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences, un-enhanced and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequences, and coronal T1-weighted SE sequences with fat suppression and with 3D T1-weighted gradient-echo (GE) contrast-enhanced sequences in axial plane. The 3D T1-weighted GE sequence had a slice thickness of 1 mm. Image data sets of CT and 3D T1-weighted GE sequences were merged utilizing a workstation to create CT-MR fusion images. MDCT and MR images were separately used to depict and characterize lesions. The fusion images were utilized for interventional planning and intraoperative image guidance. The intraoperative accuracy of the navigation unit was measured, defined as the deviation between the same landmark in the navigation image and the patient. Results: Tumorous lesions of bone and soft tissue were well delineated and characterized by CT and MR images. The images played a crucial role in the differentiation of benign and malignant pathologies, which consisted of 13 benign and 2 malignant tumors. The CT-MR fusion images supported the surgeon in preoperative planning and improved surgical performance. The mean intraoperative accuracy of the navigation system was 1.25 mm. Conclusion: CT and MRI are essential in the preoperative work up of temporal bone tumors. CT-MR image data fusion presents an accurate tool for planning the correct surgical procedure and is a

  20. CT-MR image data fusion for computer assisted navigated neurosurgery of temporal bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, Stefan Franz; Donat, Markus Alexander; Mehrain, Sheida; Friedrich, Klaus; Krestan, Christian; Matula, Christian; Imhof, Herwig; Czerny, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the value of multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative work up of temporal bone tumors and to present, especially, CT and MR image fusion for surgical planning and performance in computer assisted navigated neurosurgery of temporal bone tumors. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with temporal bone tumors underwent MDCT and MRI. MDCT was performed in high-resolution bone window level setting in axial plane. The reconstructed MDCT slice thickness was 0.8 mm. MRI was performed in axial and coronal plane with T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences, un-enhanced and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequences, and coronal T1-weighted SE sequences with fat suppression and with 3D T1-weighted gradient-echo (GE) contrast-enhanced sequences in axial plane. The 3D T1-weighted GE sequence had a slice thickness of 1 mm. Image data sets of CT and 3D T1-weighted GE sequences were merged utilizing a workstation to create CT-MR fusion images. MDCT and MR images were separately used to depict and characterize lesions. The fusion images were utilized for interventional planning and intraoperative image guidance. The intraoperative accuracy of the navigation unit was measured, defined as the deviation between the same landmark in the navigation image and the patient. Results: Tumorous lesions of bone and soft tissue were well delineated and characterized by CT and MR images. The images played a crucial role in the differentiation of benign and malignant pathologies, which consisted of 13 benign and 2 malignant tumors. The CT-MR fusion images supported the surgeon in preoperative planning and improved surgical performance. The mean intraoperative accuracy of the navigation system was 1.25 mm. Conclusion: CT and MRI are essential in the preoperative work up of temporal bone tumors. CT-MR image data fusion presents an accurate tool for planning the correct surgical procedure and is a

  1. Semicircular canal dehiscence: Frequency and distribution on temporal bone CT and its relationship with the clinical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmali, Muzaffer; Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Kucuk, Harun; Atmaca, Sinan; Aksoy, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of SCD and its distribution and relationship with clinical outcomes on thin-section CT of the temporal bone. Materials and methods: Digital temporal bone CT images of 850 consecutive patients (1700 temporal bone CTs, 5100 SCs) who presented with a range of complaints such as vertigo, deafness, ear pain, fullness, and discharge between January 2008 and December 2011 were re-evaluated. Axial and oblique coronal reconstruction images of the temporal bone were made with a reconstruction thickness of 0.5 mm. Additionally, superior SC was evaluated in two perpendicular planes. Results: Out of 850 patients, 70 had completely normal temporal bone CT. Ninety-three patients had at least one SCD. In the temporal bone-based evaluation, 119 (26 bilateral, 67 unilateral) of 1700 temporal bones (7%) showed dehiscence. The SC-based evaluation revealed 125 SCD (2.5%) in 5100 SCs. The total number and rates of SCD were as follows: superior 103 (82.4%), posterior 13 (10.4%), and lateral nine (7.2%). Twenty of the 93 patients with SCD (21.5%) revealed no other findings on their temporal bone CTs. We determined a significant correlation between vestibular complaints, conductive hearing loss and SCD but there was no correlation between mixed, sensorineural hearing loss and SCD. Conclusion: We determined the frequency of SCD in 11% of patients and 7% of temporal bones. With regards to the distribution, the superior SC showed the highest dehiscence rate (82.4%). We found a significant correlation between vestibular symptoms, conductive hearing loss and SCD

  2. Semicircular canal dehiscence: Frequency and distribution on temporal bone CT and its relationship with the clinical outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmali, Muzaffer, E-mail: muzafel@yahoo.com.tr [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Polat, Ahmet Veysel, E-mail: veyselp@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Kucuk, Harun, E-mail: hardrmd@yahoo.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Atmaca, Sinan, E-mail: sinanatmaca@yahoo.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Aksoy, Ahmet, E-mail: toxocara47@hotmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of SCD and its distribution and relationship with clinical outcomes on thin-section CT of the temporal bone. Materials and methods: Digital temporal bone CT images of 850 consecutive patients (1700 temporal bone CTs, 5100 SCs) who presented with a range of complaints such as vertigo, deafness, ear pain, fullness, and discharge between January 2008 and December 2011 were re-evaluated. Axial and oblique coronal reconstruction images of the temporal bone were made with a reconstruction thickness of 0.5 mm. Additionally, superior SC was evaluated in two perpendicular planes. Results: Out of 850 patients, 70 had completely normal temporal bone CT. Ninety-three patients had at least one SCD. In the temporal bone-based evaluation, 119 (26 bilateral, 67 unilateral) of 1700 temporal bones (7%) showed dehiscence. The SC-based evaluation revealed 125 SCD (2.5%) in 5100 SCs. The total number and rates of SCD were as follows: superior 103 (82.4%), posterior 13 (10.4%), and lateral nine (7.2%). Twenty of the 93 patients with SCD (21.5%) revealed no other findings on their temporal bone CTs. We determined a significant correlation between vestibular complaints, conductive hearing loss and SCD but there was no correlation between mixed, sensorineural hearing loss and SCD. Conclusion: We determined the frequency of SCD in 11% of patients and 7% of temporal bones. With regards to the distribution, the superior SC showed the highest dehiscence rate (82.4%). We found a significant correlation between vestibular symptoms, conductive hearing loss and SCD.

  3. Added Value of Bone Subtraction in Dual-energy Digital Radiography in the Detection of Pneumothorax: Impact of Reader Expertise and Medical Specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaneja, Ayla; Dodin, Gauthier; Hossu, Gabriela; Bakour, Omar; Kechidi, Rachid; Gondim Teixeira, Pedro; Blum, Alain

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the value of dual-energy thoracic radiography in the diagnosis of pneumothorax considering the reader's experience. Forty patients with a suspected pneumothorax, imaged with dual-energy chest radiographs, were divided into two groups: those with pneumothorax as the final diagnosis (n = 19) and those without (n = 21). The images were analyzed by 36 readers (5 interns, 16 residents, 15 senior physicians) for the presence or absence of pneumothorax during three readout sessions at 2-week intervals: standard images alone (session 1), dual-energy images with bone subtraction alone (session 2), and a combination of the two (session 3). The number of correct responses increased 13.3% between sessions 1 and 2 (P expertise. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 99mTc-HDP Pinhole Bone Scan Features of Undetached Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Femoral Condyle: Report of a Case with Radiography, CT, and MRI Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Choi, Woo Hee

    2009-01-01

    OCD may be initiated by arrest of bone growth and subchondral osteosclerosis followed by either cartilage hypertrophy with calcification or enfolding with osteochondral bridging. Diagnosis can be made in most instances using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) or invasive arthroscopy. As to usefulness of conventional radiography (CR) opinions diverge as some held it to be of limited value while others valuable. The controversy seems to be due to semantic confusion of OCD from osteonecrosis (ON) which are different entities. This report will describe a case of undetached OCD occurred in the medial femoral condyle in a middle-aged female. It was free of symptom and incidentally discovered on 99m Tc-HDP pinhole scan performed for patellar injury. Pinhole scan findings of OCD are correlated to those of CR, CT, and MRI. An electronic search of literature failed to reveal earlier publication of bone scan features of undetached OCD. Pathologically, OCD differs from ON in that the fragment in the former condition comes off from a normal vascular bony bed while that in the latter separates from an avascular bony bed. Indeed, bone fragment in ON is devascularized but that in OCD maintains vascularity until weighted images, respectively and the halo showed low signal intensity on both T1 and T2 images

  5. Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stjernholm, Christina [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Soedersjukhuset

    2003-07-01

    Cochlear implantation is a treatment for patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss/deafness, who get no help from ordinary hearing aids. The cochlear implant is surgically placed under the skin near the ear and a very thin electrode array is introduced into the cochlea of the inner ear, where it stimulates the remaining nerve fibers. The operation is complicated; it is performed with the aid of a microscope, and involves drilling very close to vital vessels and important nerves. High resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone is a part of the preoperative evaluation preceding cochlear implantation. It is a method for visualizing the bony structures of the middle and inner ear - to diagnose pathology and to describe the anatomy. The first work concerns CT of the temporal bone and cochlear implant surgery in children with CHARGE association. This is a rare condition with multiple congenital abnormalities, sometimes lethal. Children with CHARGE have different combinations of disabilities, of which impairments of vision and hearing, as well as balance problems and facial palsy can lead to developmental delay. There have been few reports of radiological temporal bone changes and none of cochlear implant surgery for this group. The work includes a report of the findings on preoperative CT and at surgery, as well as postimplant results in two children. A review of the latest diagnostic criteria of CHARGE and the temporal bone changes found in international literature is also included. The conclusion was that certain combinations of temporal bone changes in CHARGE are, if not specific, at least extremely rare in other materials. CT can visualize these changes and be used as a diagnostic tool. This is important, since some of the associated disabilities are not so obvious from the start. Early treatment is vital for the child's development. This work also shows that cochlear implantation may help some of these often very isolated children to

  6. A systematic technique for comprehensive evaluation of the temporal bone by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakeres, D.W.; Spiegel, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic method for comprehensive visualization of the temporal bone structures using thin-section, high-resolution computed tomography (CT) was developed. In relation to the anthropologic baseline (0 degrees), four separate tomographic planes of 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 70 degrees, and 105 degrees were each found to optimize different aspects of temporal bone evaluation with significant reduction in the radiation dose to the lens. Virtually all patients were able to maintain the necessary head positioning that allows for both direct coronal and axial sections. It is concluded that in the majority of cases, thin-section, high-resolution CT can replace polytomography, although the examinations may be complementary in the evaluation of certain abnormalities.

  7. A systematic technique for comprehensive evaluation of the temporal bone by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakeres, D.W.; Spiegel, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic method for comprehensive visualization of the temporal bone structures using thin-section, high-resolution computed tomography (CT) was developed. In relation to the anthropologic baseline(0/sup 0/), four separate tomographic planes of 0/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, 70/sup 0/, and 105/sup 0/ were each found to optimize different aspects of temporal bone evaluation with significant reduction in the radiation dose to the lens. Virtually all patients were able to maintain the necessary head positioning that allows for both direct coronal and axial sections. It is concluded that in the majority of cases, thin-section, high-resolution CT can replace polytomography, although the examinations may be complementary in the evaluation of certain abnormalities.

  8. Temporal bone metastasis as a sign of relapsing chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel M. Aljafar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Otologic manifestations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL are common presentations. However, temporal bone metastasis is rarely described as a sign of relapsing CLL. A 65-year-old male diabetic patient known to have CLL on remission presented to the outpatient otolaryngology clinic with a one month history of progressive bilateral otalgia and right otorrhea, despite multiple courses of antibiotics. He was admitted with suspicion of malignant otitis externa. Left ear showed large hemorrhagic bullae on the posterior segment of tympanic membrane. Left sided facial paralysis developed on the third day of admission. Full recovery of facial paralysis is achieved by 10 days course of corticotherapy. Histological examination of middle ear tissue biopsy showed infiltration by monotonous small lymphoid cells, showing round nuclei, condensed chromatin suggestive of CLL. Although rare, unusual otologic manifestations should raise the suspicion of a temporal bone metastasis as a sign of relapsing CLL.

  9. Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stjernholm, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is a treatment for patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss/deafness, who get no help from ordinary hearing aids. The cochlear implant is surgically placed under the skin near the ear and a very thin electrode array is introduced into the cochlea of the inner ear, where it stimulates the remaining nerve fibers. The operation is complicated; it is performed with the aid of a microscope, and involves drilling very close to vital vessels and important nerves. High resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone is a part of the preoperative evaluation preceding cochlear implantation. It is a method for visualizing the bony structures of the middle and inner ear - to diagnose pathology and to describe the anatomy. The first work concerns CT of the temporal bone and cochlear implant surgery in children with CHARGE association. This is a rare condition with multiple congenital abnormalities, sometimes lethal. Children with CHARGE have different combinations of disabilities, of which impairments of vision and hearing, as well as balance problems and facial palsy can lead to developmental delay. There have been few reports of radiological temporal bone changes and none of cochlear implant surgery for this group. The work includes a report of the findings on preoperative CT and at surgery, as well as postimplant results in two children. A review of the latest diagnostic criteria of CHARGE and the temporal bone changes found in international literature is also included. The conclusion was that certain combinations of temporal bone changes in CHARGE are, if not specific, at least extremely rare in other materials. CT can visualize these changes and be used as a diagnostic tool. This is important, since some of the associated disabilities are not so obvious from the start. Early treatment is vital for the child's development. This work also shows that cochlear implantation may help some of these often very isolated children to communicate

  10. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray radiography is a very common technique used to check the homogeneity of a material or the inside of a mechanical part. Generally the radiation that goes through the material to check, produced an image on a sensitized film. This method requires time because the film needs to be developed, digital radiography has no longer this inconvenient. In digital radiography the film is replaced by digital data and can be processed as any computer file. This new technique is promising but its main inconvenient is that today its resolution is not so good as that of film radiography. (A.C.)

  11. Comparative study of positron emission tomography and quantitative digital radiography (QDR) in detecting effects of aging and diet on bone metabolism of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Inoue, Tomio; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi; Sarwar, M.; Oriuchi, Noboru; Mizunuma, Hideki; Endo, Keigo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare positron emission tomography and quantitative digital radiography (QDR) in detecting the effects of aging and diet on bone metabolism. Bone imaging of guinea pigs was performed with fluorine-18 fluoride ions using a high-resolution animal PET system to analyze bone metabolism quantitatively in different age groups of guinea pigs, young (8 weeks), adult (36 weeks), and aged groups (96 weeks), and also in a dietary manipulation group (low calcium and low vitamin D 3 diet for 1, 2, and 3 weeks). A three-compartment kinetic model was applied for the analysis of bone metabolism to evaluate the rate constant (K, K1-K4). There was a significant difference in K-constant between the young and other groups. The K-constant was higher (0.100±0.005 ml/min/ml) in the young group than in adults (0.028±0.001 ml/min/ml) (p 2 ) than in the adult (0.230±0.021 g/cm 2 ) (p 2 ). There was no significant difference in BMD between the adult and aged groups. Although there was no difference in BMD between the control and dietary manipulation groups, PET study revealed a significant difference in K-constant between them (0.028±0.001 vs. 0.090±0.009 ml/min/ml) (p 18 F fluoride ions was more sensitive and superior in the early detection of metabolic disorders in bone disease than QDR. (author)

  12. [Prediction of round window visibility in cochlear implantation with temporal bone high resolution computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S P; Lu, W; Lei, Y B; Men, X M; Zuo, B; Ding, S G

    2017-08-07

    Objective: To discuss the prediction of round window(RW) visibility in cochlear implantation(CI) with temporal bone high resolution computed tomography(HRCT). Methods: From January 2013 to January 2017, 130 cases underwent both HRCT and CI in our hospital were analyzed. The distance from facial nerve to posterior canal wall(FWD), the angle between facial nerve and inner margin of round window(FRA), and the angle between facial nerve and tympanic anulus to inner margin of round window(FRAA) were detected at the level of round window on axial temporal bone HRCT. A line parallel to the posterior wall of ear canal was drawn from the anterior wall of facial nerve at the level of round window on axial temporal bone HRCT and its relationship with round window was detected (facial-round window line, FRL): type0-posterior to the round window, type1-between the round window, type2-anterior to the round window. Their(FWD, FRA, FRAA, FRL) relationships with intra-operative round window visibility were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. Results: FWD( F =18.76, P =0.00), FRA( F =34.57, P =0.00), FRAA ( F =14.24, P =0.00) could affect the intra-operative RW visibility significantly. RW could be exposed completely during CI when preoperative HRCT showing type0 FRL. RW might be partly exposed and not exposed when preoperative HRCT showing type1 and type2 FRL respectively. Conclusion: FWD, FRA, FRAA and FRL of temporal bone HRCT can predict intra-operative round window visibility effectively in CI surgery.

  13. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Fibrin in Otitis Media: Analysis of Human and Chinchilla Temporal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachern, Patricia A; Kwon, Geeyoun; Briles, David E; Ferrieri, Patricia; Juhn, Steven; Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Paparella, Michael M; Tsuprun, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial resistance in acute otitis can result in bacterial persistence and biofilm formation, triggering chronic and recurrent infections. To investigate the middle ear inflammatory response to bacterial infection in human and chinchilla temporal bones. Six chinchillas underwent intrabullar inoculations with 0.5 mL of 106 colony-forming units (CFUs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotype 2. Two days later, we counted bacteria in middle ear effusions postmortem. One ear from each chinchilla was processed in paraffin and sectioned at 5 µm. The opposite ear was embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned at a thickness of 1 µm, and stained with toluidine blue. In addition, we examined human temporal bones from 2 deceased donors with clinical histories of otitis media (1 with acute onset otitis media, 1 with recurrent infection). Temporal bones had been previously removed at autopsy, processed, embedded in celloidin, and cut at a thickness of 20 µm. Sections of temporal bones from both chinchillas and humans were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunolabeled with antifibrin and antihistone H4 antibodies. Histopatological and imminohistochemical changes owing to otitis media. Bacterial counts in chinchilla middle ear effusions 2 days after inoculation were approximately 2 logs above initial inoculum counts. Both human and chinchilla middle ear effusions contained bacteria embedded in a fibrous matrix. Some fibers in the matrix showed positive staining with antifibrin antibody, others with antihistone H4 antibody. In acute and recurrent otitis media, fibrin and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are part of the host inflammatory response to bacterial infection. In the early stages of otitis media the host defense system uses fibrin to entrap bacteria, and NETs function to eliminate bacteria. In chronic otitis media, fibrin and NETs appear to persist.

  14. Diagnosis of temporal bone diseases using three-dimensional images with multislice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Yoshihiro; Togami, Taro; Murota, Makiko; Fukunaga, Kotaro; Hino, Ichiro; Sato, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of three-dimensional images with multislice CT in the temporal bone diseases. Fifty-nine cases (26 with medial otitis, 8 choresteatoma, 10 congenital malformation, 3 high jugular bulb, 2 otosclerosis, and 10 others) were included in this study. In the ossicular and inner ear lesions, oblique multiplanar images of the long axis of each ossicle was useful the detection of abnormality. Structural deformity of ossicles and bony labyrinth were clearly delineated by surface rendering images. (author)

  15. Does microtia predict severity of temporal bone CT abnormalities in children with persistent conductive hearing loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, Aylin; Ishman, Stacey L; Baugher, Katherine M; Brown, David J; Lin, Sandra Y; Tunkel, David E; Unalp-Arida, Aynur; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the spectrum of temporal bone computed tomography (CT) abnormalities in children with conductive hearing loss (CHL) with and without microtia. From 1993 to 2008, a total of 3396 pediatric records including CHL were reviewed at our institution and revealed 180 cases of persistent CHL, 46 of whom had diagnostic temporal bone CT examinations. All of these examinations were systematically reviewed by two pediatric neuroradiologists, working in consensus, who had 5 and 18 years, respectively, of dedicated pediatric neuroradiology experience. Of the 46 children, 16 were boys and 30 were girls (age: 0.2-16 years; mean: 5 years). Also, 21 (46%) children had microtia and 25 (54%) children did not, as determined by clinical evaluation. External auditory canal atresia/stenosis (EAC-A/S) was the most common anomaly in both microtia and non-microtia groups. Two or more anomalies were observed in 18/21 children with microtia. The frequency of EAC-A/S was greater in children with microtia versus those without it (86% versus 32%, respectively; P = 0.0003). Syndromic diagnoses were also significantly more frequently made in children with microtia versus those without microtia (76% versus 20%, respectively; P = 0.0001). Temporal bone CT scans were normal in 10 children (22%) with persistent CHL. Microtia is an important finding in children with CHL. EAC and middle ear/ossicle anomalies were significantly more frequently seen in children with microtia, and multiple anomalies and bilateral microtia were more common in children with syndromic associations. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the embryological development of the temporal bone. The presence of one anomaly should raise suspicion of the possibility of other anomalies, especially in the setting of microtia. Bilateral microtia and multiple anomalies should also raise suspicion of genetic syndromes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Variability of the temporal bone surface's topography: implications for otologic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoeur, Jérémy; Noble, Jack H.; Balachandran, Ramya; Labadie, Robert F.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2012-02-01

    Otologic surgery is performed for a variety of reasons including treatment of recurrent ear infections, alleviation of dizziness, and restoration of hearing loss. A typical ear surgery consists of a tympanomastoidectomy in which both the middle ear is explored via a tympanic membrane flap and the bone behind the ear is removed via mastoidectomy to treat disease and/or provide additional access. The mastoid dissection is performed using a high-speed drill to excavate bone based on a pre-operative CT scan. Intraoperatively, the surface of the mastoid component of the temporal bone provides visual feedback allowing the surgeon to guide their dissection. Dissection begins in "safe areas" which, based on surface topography, are believed to be correlated with greatest distance from surface to vital anatomy thus decreasing the chance of injury to the brain, large blood vessels (e.g. the internal jugular vein and internal carotid artery), the inner ear, and the facial nerve. "Safe areas" have been identified based on surgical experience with no identifiable studies showing correlation of the surface with subsurface anatomy. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether such a correlation exists. Through a three-step registration process, we defined a correspondence between each of twenty five clinically-applicable temporal bone CT scans of patients and an atlas and explored displacement and angular differences of surface topography and depth of critical structures from the surface of the skull. The results of this study reflect current knowledge of osteogenesis and anatomy. Based on two features (distance and angular difference), two regions (suprahelical and posterior) of the temporal bone show the least variability between surface and subsurface anatomy.

  17. Suture restriction of the temporal bone as a risk factor for acute otitis media in children: cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morin Chantal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eustachian tube (ET dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media (AOM. Unfortunately, there is a lack of knowledge about the exact role of the ET’s bony support, the temporal bone, on occurrence of AOM. This study investigates whether severe suture restriction of the temporal bone is a risk factor for development of AOM in young children. Methods Using a prospective cohort design, 64 children aged 6 to 18 months without prior history of AOM were followed during the cold season (September 2009 to April 2010. Temporal bone status (categorized as with or without severe suture restriction was evaluated using palpation and a cranial bone mobility test. Information about potential baseline confounders and risk factors for AOM (gender, age, birth weight, gestational age, use of pacifier, daycare attendance, presence of siblings, low socioeconomic status, breastfeeding ≥ 6 months, parental smoking and history of upper respiratory tract infection were also collected. Occurrence of AOM diagnosed by physicians blinded to temporal bone status was the main outcome. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear and nonlinear (multilevel models. Results Severe suture restriction of the temporal bone was identified in 23 children (35.9%. At least one AOM episode was diagnosed in 14 (48.3% of the ears associated with temporal bones previously identified as having severe suture restriction and in 28 (28.3% of those without severe suture restriction. Higher risk for AOM was explained by severe suture restriction of the temporal bone (adjusted relative risk (RR, 2.26, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.91, p Conclusions The study results indicate that severe suture restriction of the temporal bone is a risk factor for AOM in young children. Subsequent intervention studies are needed to determine if this mechanical risk factor can be modified in young children.

  18. Inflammation and tumors of the temporal bone; Entzuendungen und Tumoren des Schlaefenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burian, M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkrankheiten, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wien (Austria)

    1997-12-01

    The term `inflammation of the middle ear` covers a couple of deseases which range from the acute otitis media to the middle ear cholesteatoma. However, a clear characterization of a certain pathology is essential for any further treatment. Therefore this article presents a short overview about the different types of infections and their clinical manifestation. The tumors of the temporal bone show a great variety in their incidence. Even if tumors like the acoustic neurinoma or the paraganglioma are compareable common, the chondroblastoma of the temporal bone is absolutely rare. In spite of these differences the individual temporal bone neoplasias are shortly mentioned herein. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Begriff Mittelohrentzuendung umfasst ein weites Spektrum von Krankheiten welches von der akuten Mittelohrentzuendung bis hin zum Cholesteatom reicht. Es soll in diesem Artikel eine kurze Uebersicht ueber die verschiedenen Entzuendungen gegeben werden, wobei vor allem auf eine klare Begriffsdefinition der einzelnen Entzuendungsformen und deren klinisches Erscheinungsbild geachtet wurde. Bei den Tumoren des Schlaefenbeins ist ein grosser Unterschied in der Inzidenz der einzelnen Tumoren gegeben. Waehrend Neubildungen wie das Akustikusneurinom oder das Paragangliom vergleichsweise haeufig im klinischen Alltag zu sehen sind, stellen Veraenderungen wie das Chondroblastom eine Raritaet dar. Trotz dieses Unterschieds im Vorkommen der verschiedenen Tumoren, wurde versucht, einen kurzen Gesamtueberblick ueber die Tumore des Mittel- und Innenohres zu geben. (orig.)

  19. Advanced bionics thin lateral and Helix II electrodes: a temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Charles G; Roland, Peter S; Kuzma, Janusz

    2005-11-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the insertional properties of two cochlear implant electrodes recently developed by Advanced Bionics Corporation. Anatomic study using human cadaveric temporal bones. The electrode prototypes we tested are the Thin Lateral and Helix II arrays, which incorporate features designed to minimize insertional trauma. A total of eight electrodes (4 of each prototype) were evaluated after insertion into freshly fixed temporal bones. The electrodes were inserted by way of standard cochleostomies, and the specimens were subsequently dissected to assess electrode position, insertion depth, and intracochlear trauma. Quantitative data regarding insertion depths and contact distances from the modiolus are presented for all electrodes tested. The mean insertion depths were 368 degrees for the Thin Lateral electrodes, which are designed to approximate the lateral cochlear wall, and 436 degrees for the Helix II electrodes, which occupy a more medial position in the scala tympani. No evidence of insertional trauma was observed with either electrode. The ease of insertion and absence of trauma were confirmed during additional trials in which electrode behavior was directly observed during insertion into previously opened cochleas. Both electrodes performed favorably in our human temporal bone trials, and both arrays appear promising for clinical use, especially in patients with residual hearing in whom atraumatic insertion is an important objective.

  20. CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of otodystrophic lesions of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Archambeau, O.; Parizel, P.M.; Schepper, A.M. De (Antwerp University Hospital (Belgium). Department of Radiology); Koekelkoren, E.; Van De Heyning, P. (Antwerp University Hospital (Belgium). Department of E.N.T.)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic and differential diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography in the evaluation of temporal-bone dystrophies. The study group included 55 patients with osseous abnormalities of the temporal bone in general, and the labyrinthine capsule in particular. In 27 patients the CT scan revealed evidence of otodystrophic lesions. The CT findings in patients with otosclerosis (21 patients), osteogenesis imperfecta (two patients), fibrous dysplasia (one patient). Paget's disease (one patient) and osteoporosis (two patients) are described. The CT scans of 17 patients revealed secondary osseous lesions due to metastasis (five patients), post-inflammatory changes (10 patients) or labyrinthitis ossificans (two patients). Normal variants and congenital mineralization defects were diagnosed in nine patients, Down's syndrome in two. Our results indicate the importance of high-resolution computed tomography as the primary imaging modality in evaluating osseous lesions of the temporal bone and labyrinth. (author). 14 refs.; 13 figs; 2 tabs.

  1. Fast neutron radiography in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duehmke, E.; Greim, L.

    1983-01-01

    Fast neutrons are necessary for neutron radiography of extended biological objects. Applying cellulose nitrate foils to assure specific neutrograms undisturbed by X- and γ-ray effects, a multifoil stack can be used as detector in order to improve image quality and to reduce neutron dose down to less than 10 rem. Neutron radiography enables to observe the exsiccation process in biological materials, e.g. wood, which could not be achieved by X-ray radiography. In medicine neutron radiography could be of value for detecting pathological changes within bone such as replacement of bone marrow by fat or tumor, as shown in human vertebral columns. (Auth.)

  2. Periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography for assessment of the periapical bone defect 1 week and 12 months after root-end resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, R; Kirkevang, L-L; Gotfredsen, E; Wenzel, A

    2009-12-01

    Our aim was to compare periapical radiography and cone beam CT (CBCT) for assessment of the periapical bone defect 1 week and 12 months after root-end resection. 50 patients (58 teeth) with a persisting apical periodontitis in a root-filled tooth (incisor, canine or premolar) were treated with root-end resection. 1 week and 12 months post-operatively, a CBCT scan (NewTom 3G) and a periapical radiograph (Digora) were obtained. Three observers detected and measured the periapical bone defects on periapical radiographs and CBCT images (coronal and sagittal sections). 1 week post-operatively, a periapical bone defect area was measured in all teeth by all observers. The defect was 10% smaller on periapical radiographs (mean = 12.4 mm2, SD = 8.2) than on the CBCT images measured in the coronal plane (mean = 13.0 mm2, SD = 7.8), a difference which was not statistically significant (P = 0.58). 12 months post-operatively (n = 52), there was considerable variation between the observers' detection of a remaining defect on the periapical radiographs and the CBCT images. The average agreement between the periapical radiograph and the CBCT images in the coronal sections was 67%, and more defects were detected on CBCT than on periapical radiographs. On average, the periapical bone defect measured on periapical radiographs was approximately 10% smaller than on coronally sectioned CBCT images 1 week post-operatively. More remaining defects were detected 1 year after periapical surgery on CBCT images than on periapical radiographs, but it is uncertain how this information is related to success or failure after root-end resection.

  3. Standard bone healing stages occur during delayed bone healing, albeit with a different temporal onset and spatial distribution of callus tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Anja; Schell, Hanna; Bail, Hermann J; Hannemann, Marion; Schumann, Tanja; Duda, Georg N; Lienau, Jasmin

    2010-09-01

    Bone healing is considered as a recapitulation of a developmental program initiated at the time of injury. This study tested the hypothesis that in delayed bone healing the regular cascade of healing events, including remodeling of woven to lamellar bone, would be similar compared to standard healing, although the temporal onset would be delayed. A tibial osteotomy was performed in sheep and stabilized with a rotationally unstable fixator leading to delayed healing. The sheep were sacrificed at 2, 3, 6, 9 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. The temporal and spatial tissue distributions in the calluses and the bone microstructure were examined by histology. Although histological analysis demonstrated temporal and spatial callus tissue distribution differences, delayed healing exhibited the same characteristic stages as those seen during uneventful standard healing. The delayed healing process was characterized by a prolonged presence of hematoma, a different spatial distribution of new bone and delayed and prolonged endochondral bone formation. A change in the spatial distribution of callus formation was seen by week 6 leading to bone formation and resorption of the cortical bone fragments, dependent on the degree to which the cortical bone fragments were dislocated. At 6 months, only 5 out of 8 animals showed complete bony bridging with a continuous periosteum, although lamellar bone and newly formed woven bone were present in the other 3 animals. This study demonstrates that during delayed bone healing all stages of the healing cascade likely take place, even if bony consolidation does not occur. Furthermore, the healing outcome might be related to the periosteum's regenerative capacity leading to bony union or absence of bony bridging.

  4. Use of cranial surface anatomic fiducials for interactive image-guided navigation in the temporal bone: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrionis, F D; Foley, K T; Robertson, J H; Shea, J J

    1997-04-01

    Because of the intricate anatomy of the temporal bone, we examined the feasibility and reliability of cranial surface anatomic fiducials to register computed tomographic images of the temporal bone by using a frameless image-guided system. One-millimeter thick computed tomographic slices and the smallest possible field of view were used to register 10 dry and 10 fresh temporal bones from cadavers. The fiducials used for registration included the umbo of the tympanic membrane, emissary foramina, the asterion, various sutures, the tip of the mastoid process, and Henle's spine. Mean initial fiducial registration error ranged from 0.6 to 0.7 mm, and was reduced to 0.5 and 0.4 mm for the dry cranial and cadaveric studies, respectively, by eliminating or reregistering inexact fiducials. Mean target localization error ranged from 0.91 to 2.44 mm for superficial structures of the temporal bone in the dry cranial specimens and from 0.71 to 1.52 mm for deep structures such as the facial nerve, semicircular canals and ossicles in the cadaveric study. Interactive image-guided navigation in the temporal bone is possible with registration of cranial surface anatomic fiducials. It may be useful to the neurosurgeon and otologist in identifying critical anatomic structures of the temporal bone encountered during the translabyrinthine, retrolabyrinthine presigmoid, and suboccipital approaches.

  5. Follow-up study of dental implants with bioactive oxide films on bone tissue healing and osseointegration: clinical radiography and bone quality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsi-Jen; Cheng, Han-Yi; Ou, Keng-Liang; Sinrang, Andi Wardihan; Huang, Mao-Suan; Lin, Li Hsiang

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate osseointegration and bone stress resulted during the first 3 months after the installation of functional implants modified with bioactive oxide. Several studies have investigated finite element models for dental implants; however, only a few have examined a model for the implants during different stages of osseointegration. In this study, mandible models were reconstructed using computer tomographic data, and bone qualities and stress distributions were investigated as well. Bone quality increased rapidly within the 3-month bone healing time. Data analysis indicated that the bone stresses increased with the progress of osseointegration, and the maximum stresses were obtained at the position around the first screw. The results confirmed that functional films could improve the biomechanical properties of the implants and promote the initial bone stability. Furthermore, potential clinical benefit can be obtained due to the inducing superior biomechanical behavior in dental implants.

  6. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shoichi

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, from an historic point of view, fundamental concepts on digital imaging were reviewed to provide a foundation for discussion of digital radiography. Secondly, this review summarized the results of ongoing research in computed radiography that replaces the conventional film-screen system with a photo-stimulable phosphor plate; and thirdly, image quality, radiation protection, and image processing techniques were discussed with emphasis on picture archiving and communication system environment as our final goal. Finally, future expansion of digital radiography was described based on the present utilization of computed tomography at the National Defense Medical College Hospital. (author) 60 refs

  7. Evaluation of the relationship of mandibular cortical index and panoramic mandibular index with bone mineral density using panoramic radiography in postmenopausal women: A short study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargi Saran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The problems associated with age-related skeletal osteopenia have received attention since the human skeleton undergoes a continuous physiologic decrease in bone mass with advancing age. Bone status at various sites can be assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA or quantitative computed tomography. It would be useful to answer whether radiographic changes in the mandible indicate skeletal osteopenia. Aims and Objectives: The aim and objective of the study was to examine the mandibular cortical index (MCI and panoramic mandibular index (PMI on panoramic radiograph and to establish a relationship between the two indices (MCI and PMI with the bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 15 postmenopausal women within the age group of 45-75 years. BMD was performed by DXA and measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck and values were recorded. Panoramic radiographs of the same women were obtained for measuring MCI and PMI. There were two groups taken as C1 and C2 for determination of MCI and PMI. Results: The Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between age and T-score (r = −0.59, P < 0.05, i.e., as age increased the T-score decreased. Comparing the T-score of two MCI groups, t-test revealed MCI was 69.1% lower in C2 as compared to C1. The value of P < 0.001 and t-test revealed significantly different and lowered (32.4% inferior cortex level in C2 as compared to C1 (t = 4.76, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Results suggest that in this study panoramic radiography could be a reliable tool in screening for BMD.

  8. The temporal bones from Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). A phylogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    Three well-preserved crania and 22 temporal bones were recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site up to and including the 1994 field season. This is the largest sample of hominid temporal bones known from a single Middle Pleistocene site and it offers the chance to characterize the temporal bone morphology of an European Middle Pleistocene population and to study the phylogenetic relationships of the SH sample with other Upper and Middle Pleistocene hominids. We have carried out a cladistic analysis based on nine traits commonly used in phylogenetic analysis of Middle and Late Pleistocene hominids: shape of the temporal squama superior border, articular eminence morphology, contribution of the sphenoid bone to the median glenoid wall, postglenoid process projection, tympanic plate orientation, presence of the styloid process, mastoid process projection, digastric groove morphology and anterior mastoid tubercle. We have found two autapomorphies on the Home erectus temporal bone: strong reduction of the postglenoid process and absence of the styloid process. Modern humans, Neandertals and the Middle Pleistocene fossils from Europe and Africa constitute a clade characterized by a convex superior border of the temporal squama. The European Middle Pleistocene fossils from Sima de los Huesos, Petralona, Steinheim, Bilzingsleben and Castel di Guido share a Neandertal apomorphy: a relatively flat articular eminence. The fossils from Ehringsdorf, La Chaise Suardi and Biache-Saint-Vaast also display another Neandertal derived trait: an anteriorly obliterated digastric groove. Modern humans and the African Middle Pleistocene fossils share a synapomorphy: a sagittally orientated tympanic plate.

  9. Three dimensional CT of stapes. Stapedial imagings in dry temporal bone and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edamatsu, Hideo; Kubota, Osamu; Yamashita, Koichi [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of three dimensional (3-D) imagings of stapes in the middle ear by high speed helical CT. One dissected human temporal bone, ten normal and diseased ears were scanned with a slice of 1.0 mm and reconstructed in a thickness of 0.2-0.5 mm. Every specimen of 3-D can be observed in any plane and from any direction. Ossicular imagings of the temporal bone in 3-D were reconstructed as if the malleus, incus and stapes were observed under microscope. The whole structure of stapes was impossible to be represented by two dimensional CT heretofore in use, but 3-D in our study showed the head, crus and foot plate of the stapes in detail. Stapedial imagings of 3-D CT in normal ears showed the same findings as those recorded in temporal bone. Preoperative diagnostic findings of ossicles in the affected ears were very useful. Especially in ossicular anomalies, 3-D CT was positive in diagnosis and its accuracies were confirmed with operative observation. For the postoperative evaluation concerning the ossicular reconstruction, i.e. TORP and PORP, 3-D CT was also important method. It could present an anatomical relation between those prosthesis and the oval window. High speed helical CT can scan an object more quickly and clearly than formerly used CT, and its biological damage for human is less than that of the others. 3-D CT can be more clearly reconstructed with helical CT than former CT. (author).

  10. Surgical management of spontaneous cerebrospinal fistulas and encephaloceles of the temporal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Joe Walter; Johnson, Andrew K; Wick, Cameron C

    2018-04-18

    To describe the presentation, surgical findings, and outcomes in patients with spontaneous temporal bone cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas and encephaloceles. Retrospective chart review. A retrospective chart review of patients treated for a spontaneous temporal bone CSF fistula and/or encephalocele over a 10-year period was performed. Data recorded included demographic information, presenting signs and symptoms, radiographic and laboratory studies, surgical approach, materials used for repair, surgical complications, and successful closure of the CSF fistula. Fifty patients were identified. Five patients underwent bilateral procedures, for a total of 55 surgical repairs. Thirty-seven of the patients were female, with a mean age of 57.2 years. Seventy percent of patients were obese, with a mean body mass index of 35.0 kg/m 2 . The most common presentation was tympanostomy tube otorrhea (68%). Seven patients (14%) presented with meningitis. The middle fossa craniotomy approach was used in 87.3% of cases. Hydroxyapatite bone cement was used in 82.4% of cases. There were four surgical complications: seizure, mastoid infection, tympanic membrane retraction, and a delayed subdural hematoma. There were five persistent or recurrent CSF fistulas that underwent successful revision surgery. Spontaneous CSF fistulas are most common in obese females and should be suspected with a chronic middle ear effusion, persistent otorrhea after tympanostomy tube placement, or in patients with a history of meningitis. The middle fossa craniotomy approach with the use of hydroxyapatite bone cement has a high success rate with a low incidence of postoperative complications. 4 Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Destructive, granulating lesion in the temporal bone after elevated plasma homocysteine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonding, Per; Skriver, Elisabeth; Helin, Pekka

    2004-01-01

    lesion in the left temporal bone was discovered; repeated histologic examination only showed simple granulation tissue. After 6 months, a part of the bony cochlea was extruded. With approximately 8 months' delay and after the patient had had postoperative lung embolism, plasma homocysteine was found...... to be significantly elevated, a condition known as an independent risk factor for thromboembolic lesions. In the acquired form, it is most often caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin B cofactors. Accordingly, the patient was treated with folic acid, which rapidly normalized plasma homocysteine. Subsequently...

  12. Petrified ears in a patient with Keutel syndrome: temporal bone CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Hemant; Blaser, Susan; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Unger, Sheila; Papsin, Blake

    2006-01-01

    We present unusual imaging findings of petrified ears in a 9-year-old girl with Keutel syndrome. The patient presented for a temporal bone study for hearing loss. CT scan showed middle and inner ear abnormalities along with extensive and unsuspected calcification of the external ears and ossicular ligaments. On further investigation, the patient was found to have diffuse cartilage calcification in the larynx and tracheobronchial tree, brachytelephalangism and peripheral pulmonary stenosis suggestive of Keutel syndrome. Confirmation was obtained by mutation analysis. (orig.)

  13. Modifications to a 3D-printed temporal bone model for augmented stapes fixation surgery teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Yann; Mamelle, Elisabeth; De Seta, Daniele; Sterkers, Olivier; Bernardeschi, Daniele; Torres, Renato

    2017-07-01

    Functional outcomes and complications in otosclerosis surgery are governed by the surgeon's experience. Thus, teaching the procedure to residents to guide them through the learning process as quickly as possible is challenging. Artificial 3D-printed temporal bones are replacing cadaver specimens in many institutions to learn mastoidectomy, but these are not suitable for middle ear surgery training. The goal of this work was to adapt such an artificial temporal bone to aid the teaching of otosclerosis surgery and to evaluate this tool. We have modified a commercially available 3D-printed temporal bone by replacing the incus and stapes of the model with in-house 3D-printed ossicles. The incus could be attached to a 6-axis force sensor. The stapes footplate was fenestrated and attached to a 1-axis force sensor. Six junior surgeons (residents) and seven senior surgeons (fellows or consultants) were enrolled to perform piston prosthesis placement and crimping as performed during otosclerosis surgery. The time required to perform the tasks and the forces applied to the incus and stapes were collected and analyzed. No statistically significant differences were observed between the junior and senior groups for time taken to perform the tasks and the forces applied to the incus during crimping and placement of the prosthesis. However, significantly lower forces were applied to the stapes by the senior surgeons in comparison with the junior surgeons during prosthesis placement (junior vs senior group, 328 ± 202.9 vs 80 ± 99.6 mN, p = 0.008) and during prosthesis crimping (junior vs senior group, 565 ± 233 vs 66 ± 48.6 mN, p = 0.02). We have described a new teaching tool for otosclerosis surgery based on the modification of a 3D-printed temporal bone to implement force sensors on the incus and stapes. This tool could be used as a training tool to help the residents to self-evaluate their progress with recording of objective measurements.

  14. [Glomus tumors of the temporal bone: a report of 6 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, W O; Teive, H A; Torres, L F; Ramina, R; Parolim, M K; Maniglia, J J; Barrionuevo, C E

    1989-03-01

    The authors review the clinical, radiological and pathological features of 6 cases of glomus tumors of the temporal bone. Out of the 6 patients, 5 were female; age was distributed between 22 and 76 years (mean 48 years). The main clinical features were hypoacusia, tinnitus and otoscopic findings suggestive of the diagnosis. In one case was noted the concomitant presence of a neurinoma of the VIII cranial nerve with a ipsilateral glomus tumor, and in another case there was a concomitancy of carotid body tumor with temporal glomus jugularis tumor. Metastases were not observed in any case. Tumoral lesions were successfully ressected employing microsurgical techniques and a multidisciplinary staff involving neurosurgeons, head and neck surgeons and otolaryngologists. Radioteraphy was not employed, neither pre-operative embolization. Some aspects related to the nosology, embriology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this interesting type of neoplasms are discussed.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on enhancement of bone healing in diaphyseal bone defects by radiography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özak, Ahmet; Yardimci, Cenk; Nİsbet, Özlem H.; Bayrak, İlkay Koray; Nİsbet, Cevat

    2010-01-01

    The effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with autogenous cancellous bone graft on enhancement of bone healing in diaphyseal bone defects was evaluated. A 4-mm defect was created in the middiaphysis of the tibias of 20 rabbits. Rabbits were divided into two groups of ten animals each: only autogenous cancellous graft, PRP and autogenous cancellous graft. In animals of group 1, only autogenous cancellous grafts, and to those in group 2, PRP and autogenous cancellous grafts, were applied to the defect. Radiographical and computed tomography (CT) views were taken and evaluated on postoperative days 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90. According to the bone formation, union, and remodeling scores, group 1 had better scores than group 2 on days 30, 60, and 90. The density was significantly increased on day 60 than on days 0, 15, and 30 in group 1. In conclusion, it was evaluated that PRP could not enhance the bone regeneration in diaphyseal defects when used with autogenous cancellous bone graft

  16. Differential diagnosis between chronic otitis media with and without cholesteatoma by temporal bone CT: focus on bone change and mass effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Cheol Kyu; Park, Dong Woo; Seong, Jin Yong; Lee, Kak Soo; Park Choong Ki; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine specific differences, we compared the temporal bone CT findings of chronic otitis media (COM) with and without cholesteatoma, focusing on bone change. Between 1997 and 1998, 82 patients (84 cases) underwent temporal bone CT and were shown to have COM, with or without cholesteatoma after mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty. There were 36 cases of COM with cholesteatoma (26 patients, M:F =3D 11:15; age range, 16-61 (mean, 36,2) years), and 58 cases without chlesteatoma (56 patients, M:F =3D 25:31, age range, 15-61 (mean, 36.2) years). The findings of temporal bone CT were analysed at the point of bony changes including erosion and medial displacement of ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes), erosion or destruction of the scutum, tegmen, facial canal, and lateral semicircular canal, and ballooning of the tympanic cavity and mastoid antrum. In addition, the soft tissue changes seen on temporal bone CT were analyzed at the site of lateral bulging of soft tissue in Prussak's space, perforation of the pars flaccida, tympanic membrane retraction, and tympanosclerosis. We retrospectively compared the findings of temporal bone CT with the surgical findings, and to assess statistical significance, the Chi-square test was used. Bone erosion or destruction was seen in 36.2% of COM cases without cholesteatoma, and in 96.2% of cases with cholesteatoma. Comparing COM with and without cholesteatoma, the erosion of ossicles including the malleus (81%, 24%), incus (88%, 14%), stapes (58%, 10%), scutum (88%, 10%), facial canal (8%, 0%), and lateral semicircular canal (8%, 0%), was more common in COM with cholesteatoma (p-value less than 0.05), with the exception of erosion of the tegmen (8%, 3%). Other bony changes including medial displacement of ossicles (27%, 3%), ballooning of tympanic cavity and mastoid antrum (96%, 16%), and the soft tissue changes including lateral bulging of soft tissue in Prussak's space (58%, 14%) and perforation of the pars

  17. Three-dimensional assessment of the temporal bone and mandible deformations in patients with congenital aural atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yaoyao; Li, Chenlong; Dai, Peidong; Zhang, Tianyu

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the deformations of temporal bone and mandible combined with congenital aural atresia. A total of 158 patients with congenital aural atresia were included in the study. The raw CT data of the temporal bone was imported into MIMICS v 12 and threshold dissection, region growing and three-dimensional (3D) calculation were used to calculate 3D models. The 3D characteristics of the temporal bone and upper part of mandible were assessed. The tympanic part of the temporal bone was all undeveloped. Of all the patients included, 14 patients were found to have severe maxillofacial malformations. Among them, 2 cases have floating arch, 4 cases have interrupted arch, 5 cases have mandibular processes hypoplasia and 3 cases have interrupted arch combined with severe maxillary malformation. Ten of the 14 patients were suffered from dysplasia of the mastoid part of the temporal bone as well. Maxillofacial malformations may sometimes coexist with congenital aural atresia. Otolaryngologists should not neglect the coexisted maxillofacial malformations and give timely referral to maxillofacial surgeons. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Diagnostic efficacy of panoramic radiography in detection of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Sunanda; Krishnamurthy, Vasavi; Pagare, Sandeep S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate panoramic radiograph, a commonly taken dental radiograph as a screening tool to detect early osseous changes (normal, mildly or severely eroded) of the mandibular inferior cortex and measure the mandibular cortical width (CW) in post-menopausal women and correlate it with the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by the ultrasound bone sonometer at the mid-shaft tibia region. The study included females between 45 years and 65 years of age in their post-menopausal stage (no menstruation for at least 6-12 months). Mandibular indices (mandibular CW and mandibular cortical shape) were evaluated from panoramic radiographs. The BMD assessment was carried out at the mid-shaft tibia region, exactly half-way between the heel and the knee joint perpendicular to the direction of the bone, using an ultrasound bone sonometer. It is a non-invasive device designed for quantitative measurement of the velocity of ultrasound waves as speed of sound in m/s, capable of measuring bone density at one or more skeletal sites. Using 1994 WHO criteria the study subjects were categorized as Group 1: Normal, Group 2: Osteopenia, Group 3: Osteoporosis. (WHO T score for tibia BMD can be used as a standard). The diagnostic efficacy of the panoramic radiograph in detecting osseous changes in post-menopausal women with low BMD was shown to have 96% specificity and 60% sensitivity with mandibular cortical shape and 58% specificity and 73% sensitivity with mandibular CW measurement. Factorial ANOVA analysis carried out indicated a significant correlation of BMD classification with mandibular cortical shape (F = 29.0, P panoramic radiograph are effective indicators of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women.

  19. Influence of homeopathic treatment with comfrey on bone density around titanium implants: a digital subtraction radiography study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Celso Eduardo; Neto, Rubens Spin; Bellucci, Marina; Wenzel, Ann; Scaf, Gulnara; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of homeopathic treatment with comfrey (Shymphytum officinalis 6CH) on radiographic bone density and area around titanium implants. Forty-eight rats were divided into two groups of 24 animals each: a control group (C) and a test group (SO). Each animal received one titanium micro-implant placed in the tibia. The animals in Group SO were subjected to 10 drops of comfrey 6CH per day mixed into their drinking water until the day of sacrifice. Eight animals of each group were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 28 days post-surgery, respectively. Standardized digital radiographs were obtained on the day of implant installation (baseline images) and on the day of sacrifice (final images). Digital subtraction of the two corresponding images was performed to evaluate changes in bone density and the area related to change around the implant between baseline and final images. Subtraction images demonstrated that a significant difference existed in mean shade of gray at 14 days post-surgery between Group SO (mean 175.3+/-14.4) and Group C (mean 146.2+/-5.2). Regarding the area in pixels corresponding to the bone gain in Group SO, the differences observed between the sacrifice periods and groups were only significant at 7 days sacrifice between Group SO (mean 171.2+/-21.9) and Group C (mean 64.5+/-60.4). Within the limits of this study, comfrey administration promotes an increase in radiographic bone density around titanium implants in the initial period of bone healing.

  20. Intraoperative cone-beam CT for guidance of temporal bone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Mark A; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Chan, Yvonne; Daly, Michael J; Moseley, Douglas J; Jaffray, David A; Irish, Jonathan C

    2006-05-01

    To describe our preclinical experience with Cone Beam CT (CBCT) in image-guided surgery of the temporal bone. A mobile isocentric C-arm (PowerMobil, Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen, Germany) modified to include a flat-panel detector (Varian Imaging Products, Palo Alto, CA) and a motorized orbit was developed to acquire multiple projections in rotation about a subject. Initial experiments imaging steel wire in air were used to investigate the system's spatial resolution in 3D image reconstruction. Subsequently temporal bone dissection was performed on five cadaver heads using the modified C-arm as an image guidance system. We obtained a spatial resolution of 0.85 mm. The image acquisition time was 120 seconds and the radiation dose approximately one-tenth of a conventional CT scan. CBCT provided submillimeter accuracy at high speed with low radiation dosage to offer utility as an intraoperative imaging system. CBCT offers technology that approximates "near-real-time" image guidance. C-4.

  1. Creating an Optimal 3D Printed Model for Temporal Bone Dissection Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Morita, Yuka; Ohshima, Shinsuke; Izumi, Shuji; Kubota, Yamato; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Takahashi, Sugata; Horii, Arata

    2017-07-01

    Making a 3-dimensional (3D) temporal bone model is simple using a plaster powder bed and an inkjet printer. However, it is difficult to reproduce air-containing spaces and precise middle ear structures. The objective of this study was to overcome these problems and create a temporal bone model that would be useful both as a training tool and for preoperative simulation. Drainage holes were made to remove excess materials from air-containing spaces, ossicle ligaments were manually changed to bony structures, and small and/or soft tissue structures were colored differently while designing the 3D models. The outcomes were evaluated by 3 procedures: macroscopic and endoscopic inspection of the model, comparison of computed tomography (CT) images of the model to the original CT, and assessment of tactile sensation and reproducibility by 20 surgeons performing surgery on the model. Macroscopic and endoscopic inspection, CT images, and assessment by surgeons were in agreement in terms of reproducibility of model structures. Most structures could be reproduced, but the stapes, tympanic sinus, and mastoid air cells were unsatisfactory. Perioperative tactile sensation of the model was excellent. Although this model still does not embody perfect reproducibility, it proved sufficiently practical for use in surgical training.

  2. Effects of radiation on the temporal bone in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Elton M; Gunn, G Brandon; Gidley, Paul W

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a key component in the treatment of many head and neck cancers, and its potential to cause long-term adverse effects has become increasingly recognized. In this review, we describe the short-term and long-term sequelae of radiation-associated changes in and injury to the temporal bone and its related structures. The pathophysiology of radiation-induced injury and its clinical entities, including sensorineural hearing loss, chronic otitis media, osteoradionecrosis, and radiation-associated malignancies, are described. We also discuss radiation dose to the head and neck as it relates to these conditions. An improved understanding of radiation's effects on the temporal bone will enable physicians and researchers to continue efforts to reduce radiotherapy-related sequelae and guide clinicians in diagnosing and treating the various otologic conditions that can arise in patients with head and neck cancer who have received radiotherapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1428-1435, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Insertion forces and intracochlear trauma in temporal bone specimens implanted with a straight atraumatic electrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsalehi, Marjan; Rau, Thomas S; Harbach, Lenka; Hügl, Silke; Mohebbi, Saleh; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate insertion forces during manual insertion of a straight atraumatic electrode in human temporal bones, and post-implantation histologic evaluation of the samples to determine whether violation of intracochlear structures is related to insertion forces. In order to minimize intracochlear trauma and preserve residual hearing during cochlear implantation, knowledge of the insertion forces is necessary. Ten fresh frozen human temporal bones were prepared with canal wall down mastoidectomy. All samples were mounted on a one-axis force sensor. Insertion of a 16-mm straight atraumatic electrode was performed from different angles to induce "traumatic" insertion. Histologic evaluation was performed in order to evaluate intracochlear trauma. In 4 of 10 samples, dislocation of the electrode into scala vestibuli was observed. The mean insertion force for all 10 procedures was 0.003 ± 0.005 N. Insertion forces measured around the site of dislocation to scala vestibuli in 3 of 4 samples were significantly higher than insertion forces at the same location of the cochleae measured in samples without trauma (p straight atraumatic electrode is lower than reported by other studies using longer electrodes. Based on our study, insertion forces leading to basilar membrane trauma may be lower than the previously reported direct rupture forces.

  4. Intracochlear Drug Delivery Through the Oval Window in Fresh Cadaveric Human Temporal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo Seok; Nguyen, Kim; McKenna, Charles E; Sewell, William F; McKenna, Michael J; Jung, David H

    2016-03-01

    Drug delivered to the oval window can diffuse to the apex of the human cochlea. We have previously demonstrated that zoledronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, can arrest the sensorineural hearing loss in cochlear otosclerosis. We have also shown that, in animals, delivery of bisphosphonate into the cochlea can dramatically increase delivery efficiency. Intracochlear drug delivery has the potential to increase local concentration of drug while decreasing the risk of systemic toxicity. In the present study, a fluorescently labeled bisphosphonate compound (6-FAM-ZOL) was introduced into the human cochlea through the oval window and its distribution within the temporal bone was quantified. In three fresh human temporal bones, we introduced 6-FAM-ZOL via the oval window. We compared these specimens to control specimens treated with artificial perilymph alone. Specimens were then processed, embedded into methyl methacrylate, and ground to the mid-modiolar axis. We quantified the fluorescence in confocal images. We found 6-FAM-ZOL to be distributed up to the apical cochlear turn. In specimens treated with 6-FAM-ZOL, we identified a strong baso-apical gradient of fluorescent signal along the lateral cochlear wall and the modiolus both in the scala vestibuli and in the scala tympani. Bisphosphonate introduced via the oval window in the human cochlea can be delivered up to the apical cochlear turn. Interscalar communication is likely to play an important role in determining patterns of drug delivery in the inner ear.

  5. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Industrial radiography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method which allows components to be examined for flaws without interfering with their usefulness. It is one of a number of inspection methods which are commonly used in industry to control the quality of manufactured products and to monitor their performance in service. Because of its involvement in organizing training courses in all the common NDT methods in regional projects in Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean and in many country programmes, the Agency is aware of the importance of standardizing as far as possible the syllabi and training course notes used by the many experts who are involved in presenting the training courses. IAEA-TECDOC-628 ''Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing'' presents syllabi which were developed by an Agency executed UNDP project in Latin America and the Caribbean taking into account the developmental work done by the International Committee for Non-destructive Testing. Experience gained from using the radiography syllabi from TECDOC-628 at national and regional radiography training courses in the Agency executed UNDP project in Asia and the Pacific (RAS/86/073) showed that some guidance needed to be given to radiography experts engaged in teaching at these courses on the material which should be covered. The IAEA/UNDP Asia and Pacific Project National NDT Coordinators therefore undertook to prepare Radiography Training Course Notes which could be used by experts to prepare lectures for Level 1,2 and 3 radiography personnel. The notes have been expanded to cover most topics in a more complete manner than that possible at a Level 1, 2 or 3 training course and can now be used as source material for NDT personnel interested in expanding their knowledge of radiography. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. The usefulness of whole body bone mineral densitometry in the osteopenia of preterm infants: comparison with the wrist radiography and biochemical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Bong Jin; Huh, Jin Do; Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Joh, Young Duk; Kwon, Jeong Mi; Jeon, Seong Sook

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of whole body bone mineral densitometry in the diagnosis of frequent osteopenia of preterm infants by comparison with the wrist radiographs and biochemical parameters. From January 1995 to January 1996, we obtained whole body bone mineral density(BMD) studies using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) and wrist radiographs of 39 preterm infants. They were divided into three groups according to birth weight, under 1500g, 1501g to 2000g and above 2000g, and four grades of skeletal change, as seen on wrist radiography, according to the scoring method of Koo et al. Groups of birth weight and grades of skeletal change were then correlated with whole body BMD and biochemical parameters. For comparison, normal data were obtained from 13 infants born at full term. Data were analyzed by one way analysis of variation(ANOVA) and correlation and regression analysis. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Whole body BMDs were significantly lower in the more premature and smaller birth weight infants(r=0.77, p=0.0000), and in the higher grade of skeletal change(r-0.5276, p=0.0000). Aggravated skeletal changes were found in infants with lower birth weight(r= -0.3822, p=0.01). Interobserver variation in grading skeletal change was 42.9%, and intraobserver variation was 18.4%. Biochemical parameters such as serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, calcitonin and 25-hydroxy-vitamine D did not vary significantly according to either birth weight or skeletal change(p > 0.05). Premature osteopenia is more effectively diagnosed by measuring whole body BMD using DXA than by grading radiographical skeletal change or by biochemical parameters

  7. CT and MRI findings of temporal bone anomaly in patients with tinnitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Xian Junfang; Wang Zhenchang; Liu Zhaohui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study high resolution CT (HRCT) and MRI findings of temporal hone anomaly in patients with tinnitus and identify the optimal examination method in the detection of the anomaly. Methods: The HRCT and MRI data were analyzed retrospectively in 1015 patients including 145 patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT) and 870 patients with nonpulsatile tinnitus (NPT). The positive rates of HRCT and MRI in the identification of temporal bone anomaly were analyzed and the efficiency of various examination methods was compared in revealing the anomaly. Data were tested by Chi-square test analysis. Results: Among 1015 patients, anomaly was seen in 767 cases (75.57%). High jugular bulb was found in 414 patients, accounting for 40.79%. Sigmoid sinus anomaly was detected in 387 patients (38.13%), while otitis media was found in 148 cases (14.58%), and low middle cranial fossa in 70 cases (6.90%). The positive rate of HRCT in the detection of high jugular bulb was 54.89% (365/665), which was significantly higher than those of other methods (P 2 =56.537, P<0.01). The fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequence was the best examination method in displaying the vessel within the internal auditory canal (42/42,100%). Conclusions: High jugular bulb and sigmoid sinus anomaly were the most frequent abnormal findings of temporal bone in patients with tinnitus. Enhanced HRCT was the choice of modality in patients with PT. Plain HRCT was recommended for NPT. FIESTA sequence was the best in the evaluation of the vessel within the internal auditory canal. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-07-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone.

  9. Diagnostic Efficacy of Panoramic Radiography in Detection of Osteoporosis in Post-Menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Bhatnagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate panoramic radiograph, a commonly taken dental radiograph as a screening tool to detect early osseous changes (normal, mildly or severely eroded of the mandibular inferior cortex and measure the mandibular cortical width (CW in post-menopausal women and correlate it with the bone mineral density (BMD measured by the ultrasound bone sonometer at the mid-shaft tibia region. Materials and Methods: The study included females between 45 years and 65 years of age in their post-menopausal stage (no menstruation for at least 6-12 months. Mandibular indices (mandibular CW and mandibular cortical shape were evaluated from panoramic radiographs. The BMD assessment was carried out at the mid-shaft tibia region, exactly half-way between the heel and the knee joint perpendicular to the direction of the bone, using an ultrasound bone sonometer. It is a non-invasive device designed for quantitative measurement of the velocity of ultrasound waves as "speed of sound" in m/s, capable of measuring bone density at one or more skeletal sites. Using 1994 WHO criteria the study subjects were categorized as Group 1: Normal, Group 2: Osteopenia, Group 3: Osteoporosis. (WHO T score for tibia BMD can be used as a standard. Results: The diagnostic efficacy of the panoramic radiograph in detecting osseous changes in post-menopausal women with low BMD was shown to have 96% specificity and 60% sensitivity with mandibular cortical shape and 58% specificity and 73% sensitivity with mandibular CW measurement. Factorial ANOVA analysis carried out indicated a significant correlation of BMD classification with mandibular cortical shape (F = 29.0, P < 0.001, partial eta squared [η2 ] =0.85, a non-significant correlation with mandibular CW, (F = 1.6, P = 0.23, η2 = 0.86, and a more significant correlation with combined cortical shape and width (F = 3.3, P < 0.05, η2 = 0.70. Conclusion: The study concludes that the combined mandibular

  10. Sensing and three-dimensional OCT imaging of the cochlea and temporal bone: image-guided cochlear implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingtao; Chien, Wade W.; Iordachita, Iulian; Huang, Yong; Taylor, Russ; Niparko, John; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-03-01

    We describe a novel dual-functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with both a 3-D OCT real time scanner and a fiber probe using a sapphire ball lens for imaging and sensing the critical structures of the temporal bone. To prevent injury to facial nerve, 3-D visualization links anatomic landmarks to 3-D map of critical intracochlear structures. We used a graphics processing unit to boost the computing and 3-D rendering performance of swept source OCT. Both the intracochlear structures and facial nerve trunk of cadaveric human temporal bones are clearly identified with 3-D OCT volumetric rendering.

  11. Decolonizing Straight Temporality Through Genre Trouble in Edwidge Danticat's The Farming of Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Souza Ávila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2014n67p21 Framing genre trouble (McKenzie 2006 as a decolonial methodology, this paper considers the relevance of Edwidge Danticat’s The Farming of Bones (1998 for reading migrant texts against the grain of straight temporality which sustains the coloniality of power (Lugones 2007. Scrutinizing historiographic suppression, Danticat’s migrant text interrupts the chrononormative portrayal of the Trujillo genocide of Haitian workers in the Dominican Republic as a reality pertaining to an obsolete past and to the geocultural margins alone. Read in the aftermath of the testimonio controversy, it may thus decenter the ongoing deflection of attention from Rigoberta Menchú’s impact on the geocultural structures that sanction ongoing military intervention and genocide by refocusing on historiography as a terrain of relentless decolonial contestation rather than prescriptive narrative closure.

  12. 3D-CT of the temporal bone area with high-speed processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Taku [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Branch Hospital

    1994-12-01

    Three-dimentional (3D)-CT was introduced to represent abnormal findings in the temporal bone area utilizing a SOMATOM DRH CT scanner with accessory 3D reconstruction software and an exclusive high-speed 3D processing system, VOXEL FLINGER. In a patient with eosinophilic granuloma, a defect in the squamous part of the temporal bone was demonstrated suggesting exposure of the dura mater during surgery. In a patient with a normal ear, well-developed mastoid cavity, a part of the handle and the head of the malleus, the incudomalleal joint, the short limb, body and a part of the long limb of the incus and the round window niche were demonstrated. In a case of chronic otitis media, poorly developed mastoid cavity and a possible defect of the tip of the long limb of the incus were demonstrated, in contrast to the patient with the normal ear. 3D-CT yields objective and solid images which are useful for diagnosis, treatment planning and explanation of the pathology to patients and their family. To obtain convincing 3D images, physicians themselves have to choose exact rotation angles. It is not adequate to reconstruct original CT data using a CT computer with accessory 3D software whose processing capability is not good enough for this purpose. The conclusion is as follows: (1) it is necessary and effective to transfer original CT data into the memory of the exclusive high-speed 3D processing system and (2) process the data by the voxel memory method to establish a clinically valuable 3D-CT imaging system. (author).

  13. CT and MRI diagnosis of osteoblastoma in paranasal sinus and temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bentao; Wang Zhenchang; Xian Junfang; Liu Zhonglin; Lan Baosen; Liu Sha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT and MRI findings of osteoblastoma in paranasal sinus and temporal bone so as to promote the diagnostic accuracy. Methods: All 8 patients with osteoblastoma were verified by pathology. CT and MRI findings were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six cases were benign and 2 invasive. In 6 cases the lesion occurred in paranasal sinus and 2 in temporal bone. On CT scans, benign osteoblastoma revealed well-defined margin, round-shape showing in 2 cases and oval-shape in 4 cases with compression of the adjacent structure. The lesion showed stippled, nodular or linear calcification or ossification with intact bony shell in the periphery. Aggressive osteoblastoma demonstrated partial hazy margin and irregular shape with invasion of the adjacent structure. The lesion had incomplete bony shell with soft tissue element in the periphery. More irregular shapes of calcification or ossification may be found within the focus in aggressive osteoblastoma. On MR T 1 WI, the lesions showed isointense signal compared to brain in 4 cases and hypointense signal in 2 cases. On T 2 WI, the lesions showed heterogeneous signal with marked hypointense foci of calcification or ossification which were showed more clearly on CT. Postcontrast MR imaging scans demonstrated moderate to marked enhancement in these cases. Enhancement in benign lesions were relatively homogeneous and inhomogeneous in aggressive lesions. Bony shell showed hypointense signal on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI in 4 cases, thin hypointense signal rim only on T 2 WI in 1 case and no signal on T 1 WI and T 2 WI in 1 case. Adjacent meninges showed uniform thickening and enhancement in benign osteoblastoma, more irregular and extensive in aggressive lesions. Conclusion: CT is the modality of first choice in diagnosis of osteoblastoma. MRI can demonstrate optimally the invading extent and provide more accurate information for therapy as a complemental imaging method. (authors)

  14. 3D-CT of the temporal bone area with high-speed processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Taku

    1994-01-01

    Three-dimentional (3D)-CT was introduced to represent abnormal findings in the temporal bone area utilizing a SOMATOM DRH CT scanner with accessory 3D reconstruction software and an exclusive high-speed 3D processing system, VOXEL FLINGER. In a patient with eosinophilic granuloma, a defect in the squamous part of the temporal bone was demonstrated suggesting exposure of the dura mater during surgery. In a patient with a normal ear, well-developed mastoid cavity, a part of the handle and the head of the malleus, the incudomalleal joint, the short limb, body and a part of the long limb of the incus and the round window niche were demonstrated. In a case of chronic otitis media, poorly developed mastoid cavity and a possible defect of the tip of the long limb of the incus were demonstrated, in contrast to the patient with the normal ear. 3D-CT yields objective and solid images which are useful for diagnosis, treatment planning and explanation of the pathology to patients and their family. To obtain convincing 3D images, physicians themselves have to choose exact rotation angles. It is not adequate to reconstruct original CT data using a CT computer with accessory 3D software whose processing capability is not good enough for this purpose. The conclusion is as follows: 1) it is necessary and effective to transfer original CT data into the memory of the exclusive high-speed 3D processing system and 2) process the data by the voxel memory method to establish a clinically valuable 3D-CT imaging system. (author)

  15. Temporal bone trauma: correlative study between CT findings and clinical manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung

    1994-01-01

    To assess how accurately computed tomography (CT) can demonstrate the abnormal findings which are believed to cause the clinical signs and symptoms of hearing loss (HL), vertigo and facial paralysis (FP) in patients with temporal bone trauma. The authors studied CT scans of 39 ears in 35 patients with temporal bone trauma. CT scans were performed with 1-1.5 mm slice thickness and table incrementation. Both axial and coronal scans were obtained in 32 patients and in three patients only axial scans were obtained. We analyzed CT with special reference to the structural abnormalities of the external auditory canal, middle ear cavity, bony labyrinth, and facial nerve canal, and correlated these findings with the actual clinical signs and symptoms. As to hearing loss, we evaluated 32 ears in which pure tone audiometry or brainstem evoked response audiometry had been performed. With respect to the specific types of HL, CT accurately showed the abnormalities in 84% (16/19) in conductive HL, 100% (2/2) in sensorineural HL, and 25% (2/8) for mixed HL. When we categorized HL simply as conductive and sensorineural, assuming that mixed be the result of combined conductive and sensorineural HL, CT demonstrated the abnormalities in 89% (24/27) for conductive HL and 50% (5/10) for sensorineural HL. Concerning vertigo and FP, CT demonstrated abnormalities in 67%(4/6), and 29% (4/14), respectively. Except for conductive HL, CT seems to have a variable degree of limitation for the demonstration of the structural abnormalities resulting sensorineural HL, vertigo or facial paralysis. It is imperative to correlate the CT findings with the signs and symptoms in those clinical settings

  16. Analysis of Vibrant Soundbridge placement against the round window membrane in a human cadaveric temporal bone model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Ho, A.; Brown, J.; Wijhe, R.G. van; Bance, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate optimal placement of the Floating Mass Transducer of the Vibrant Soundbridge (Med-El, Innsbruck, Austria) against the round window membrane, particularly the impact of interposed coupling fascia and of covering materials. METHOD: : Six fresh human cadaveric temporal bones were

  17. Osteoid osteoma of the temporal bone manifesting as first bite syndrome and a meta-analysis combined with osteoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Watanabe, Mika; Kato, Yumiko; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Katori, Yukio

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe a case of osteoid osteoma arising from the temporal bone manifesting only as first bite syndrome as the sole clinical symptom, to perform a meta-analysis of previously reported cases, and to differentiate the clinical characteristics of osteoid osteoma from those of osteoblastoma arising from the temporal bone. In addition to our case, articles addressing osteoid osteoma or osteoblastoma arising from the temporal bone were selected using PubMed, Embase, and the Japan Medical Abstracts Society database (1954 through 2014), with no language preference. The database was searched using the keywords ["osteoid osteoma" OR "osteoblastoma" AND "temporal bone"]. After critical review of 88 studies, 10 cases of osteoid osteoma and 29 cases of osteoblastoma were selected; therefore, including the present case, a total of 40 cases were eligible for qualitative analyses. The mean size of osteoid osteoma was 1.2 cm, which was significantly smaller than that of osteoblastoma (5.1 cm). Radiologically, osteoid osteoma was associated with a lower prevalence of extension into more than two anatomically categorized spaces in comparison with osteoblastoma (P osteoblastoma are clinically uniform other than their size or extension.

  18. Dual-time-point FDG-PET/CT Imaging of Temporal Bone Chondroblastoma: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Toriihara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal bone chondroblastoma is an extremely rare benign bone tumor. We encountered two cases showing similar imaging findings on computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/CT. In both cases, CT images revealed temporal bone defects and sclerotic changes around the tumor. Most parts of the tumor showed low signal intensity on T2- weighted MRI images and non-uniform enhancement on gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. No increase in signal intensity was noted in diffusion-weighted images. Dual-time-point PET/CT showed markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increased from the early to delayed phase. Nevertheless, immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tumor tissue revealed weak expression of glucose transporter-1 and hexokinase II in both tumors. Temporal bone tumors, showing markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increases from the early to delayed phase on PET/CT images, may be diagnosed as malignant bone tumors. Therefore, the differential diagnosis should include chondroblastoma in combination with its characteristic findings on CT and MRI.

  19. Variation and diversity in Homo erectus: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis of the temporal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Claire E; Kimbel, William H; Lockwood, Charles A

    2007-07-01

    Although the level of taxonomic diversity within the fossil hominin species Homo erectus (sensu lato) is continually debated, there have been relatively few studies aiming to quantify the morphology of this species. Instead, most researchers have relied on qualitative descriptions or the evaluation of nonmetric characters, which in many cases display continuous variation. Also, only a few studies have used quantitative data to formally test hypotheses regarding the taxonomic composition of the "erectus" hypodigm. Despite these previous analyses, however, and perhaps in part due to these varied approaches for assessing variation within specimens typically referred to H. erectus (sensu lato) and the general lack of rigorous statistical testing of how variation within this taxon is partitioned, there is currently little consensus regarding whether this group is a single species, or whether it should instead be split into separate temporal or geographically delimited taxa. In order to evaluate possible explanations for variation within H. erectus, we tested the general hypothesis that variation within the temporal bone morphology of H. erectus is consistent with that of a single species, using great apes and humans as comparative taxa. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) landmarks of the temporal bone were digitized on a total of 520 extant and fossil hominid crania. Landmarks were registered by Generalized Procrustes Analysis, and Procrustes distances were calculated for comparisons of individuals within and between the extant taxa. Distances between fossil specimens and between a priori groupings of fossils were then compared to the distances calculated within the extant taxa to assess the variation within the H. erectus sample relative to that of known species, subspecies, and populations. Results of these analyses indicate that shape variation within the entire H. erectus sample is generally higher than extant hominid intraspecific variation, and putative H. ergaster

  20. [The potential of cone beam computed tomography of the temporal bones in the patients presenting with otosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpishchenko, S A; Zubareva, A A; Filimonov, V N; Shavgulidze, M A; Azovtseva, E A

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the potential of cone beam computed tomography of the temporal bones in the patients presenting with otosclerosis for the detection of surgically significant specific structural features of the labyrinth wall of the tympanic cavity. More than 400 tomograms of the temporal bones were obtained with the use of a cone beam tomographwere available for the investigation during the period from 2012 till 2016. The study was carried out in several steps, viz. the search for the optimal (for the given instrument) position of the patient, the experimental stage, the retrospective analysis of the tomograms and the comparison of the temporal bones of different types (pneumatic, mixed, and sclerotic) in individual patients, the comparison of the results of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with the intraoperative observations, and the modification of the algorithm for the analysis of temporal bone cone beam tomograms. The study included a total of 16 patients (15 women at the age from 32 to 56 years and one managed 58 years) presenting with the clinical diagnosis of otosclerosis. The results of the study were used to elaborate the algorithm for the analysis of cone beam tomograms of the temporal bones to be performed inthe stage by stage manner including the qualitative analysis of tomograms, evaluation of their quantitative parameters and additional characteristics to be taken into consideration when planning the surgical interventions on the labyrinth wall and the tympanic cavity as a preparation for the stapedoplastic treatment. The results of CBCT obtained in the present study were compared with the surgical observations. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the method were estimated to be 100% and 83% respectively. It is concluded that cone beam computed tomography can be employed as a component of the diagnostic algorithm prior to the planning of surgical interventions onthe medial wall of the tympanic cavity

  1. Ambulating radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, K.

    1989-01-01

    Strong gamme or X-ray sources are utilized for non-destructive testing of i.e. bridges. The activities involve certain risks of accident that might lead to serious injuries caused by radiation. The National Institute of Radiation Protection has during the laste decade greatly yhe inspection rate in this area. It has today made controls of most enterprieses running ambulating radiography. (O.S.)

  2. Computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupchek, G.

    2004-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is an image acquisition process that is used to create digital, 2-dimensional radiographs. CR employs a photostimulable phosphor-based imaging plate, replacing the standard x-ray film and intensifying screen combination. Conventional radiographic exposure equipment is used with no modification required to the existing system. CR can transform an analog x-ray department into a digital one and eliminates the need for chemicals, water, darkrooms and film processor headaches. (author)

  3. Computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    In an effort to evaluate the feasibility of introducing computed radiography (FCR) into mass screening for lung cancer, the ability of FCR to detect nodules one cm in diameter was examined using a humanoid chest phantom. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the detectability of FCR was compared with that of conventional radiography and photofluorography. The values of area under ROC curves were higher for FCR (0.963 for image similar to that with conventional film-intensifying screen system, image A; and 0.952 for processed image, image B) than the other two methods (0.774 for radiography and 0.789 for photofluorography). Degradation of image quality in FCR could be avoided by a wide latitude even if proper exposure techniques might not be employed. Images A and B in FCR yielded excellent delineation for nodules in the lung field and in the retrocardiac and subdiaphragmatic regions, respectively. This may have implications for the value of simultaneous interpretation of both images in increasing diagnostic accuracy. Structured noise of the ribs and blood vessels had scarcely an effect on nodule detectability in FCR. Radiation dose could be reduced to one third of the standard dose. It can thus be concluded that FCR is feasible in mass screening for lung cancer in terms of increased diagnostic ability and low radiation doses. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Identification of photoacoustic transients during pulsed laser ablation of the human temporal bone: an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, B J; Dickinson, M R; Berns, M W; Neev, J

    1996-12-01

    Laser ablation of hard tissues during neurotologic operations has been accomplished with continuous-wave (CW) lasers in the visible and midinfrared spectrum. The mechanism of ablation at these wavelengths is secondary to photothermal-induced tissue destruction. As a result, significant thermal damage to surrounding tissue may occur. Pulsed ultraviolet (UV) lasers have been suggested as an alternative to the argon, KTP-532, and CO2 lasers currently used in clinical practice. The pulse length of Excimer lasers are considerably shorter than the thermal diffusion time of bone tissue, and as a consequence thermal injury is minimal. This makes pulsed lasers an attractive tool for tissue ablation in the ear: in essence a "cold knife." However, the short pulse width of Excimer lasers (typically 10-150 ns) can create large thermoelastic stresses in the ablation specimen. This study identifies the presence of these photoacoustic waves during the Excimer laser treatment of the cadaveric human temporal bone. A XeCl (lambda = 308 nm, tau p = 12 ns) excimer laser was used to ablate hard tissue surrounding the oval window and facial ridge with energies of 75, 45, 25, and 12 mJ/pulse. Spot size was estimated to be 0.5 mm2. Custom high-frequency polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film transducers were fabricated and attached to the promontory, round window niche, and facial ridges. The signals were amplified using a low-noise preamplifier and recorded on a digitizing oscilloscope. Photoacoustic waves were clearly identified. Notably, large acoustic waves were measured on the promontory and on both sides of the facial ridge. The implications and clinical relevance of these findings is discussed and compared to findings obtained from a model system.

  5. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, M.; Dal Soglio, S.; Pittet-Barbier, L.; Ranchoup, Y.; Thony, F.; Ferretti, G.; Robert, F.

    1992-01-01

    Digital projection radiography may replace conventional radiography some day, provided it can meet several requirements: equal or better diagnostic effectiveness of the screen-film systems; reasonable image cost; real improvement in the productivity of the Departments of Imaging. All digital radiographic systems include an X-ray source, an image acquisition and formatting sub-system, a display and manipulation sub-system, and archiving subsystem and a laser editing system, preferably shared by other sources of digital images. Three digitization processes are available: digitization of the radiographic film, digital fluorography and phospholuminescent detectors with memory. The advantages of digital fluoroscopy are appealing: real-time image acquisition, suppression of cassettes; but its disadvantages are far from negligible: it cannot be applied to bedside radiography, the field of examination is limited, and the wide-field spatial resolution is poor. Phospholuminescent detectors with memory have great advantages: they can be used for bedside radiographs and on all the common radiographic systems; spatial resolution is satisfactory; its current disadvantages are considerable. These two systems, have common properties making up the entire philosophy of digital radiology and specific features that must guide our choice according to the application. Digital fluorography is best applied in pediatric radiology. However, evaluation works have showed that it was applicable with sufficient quality to many indications of general radiology in which a fluoroscopic control and fast acquisition of the images are essential; the time gained on the examination may be considerable, as well as the savings on film. Detectors with memory are required for bedside radiographs, in osteoarticular and thoracic radiology, in all cases of traumatic emergency and in the resuscitation and intensive care departments

  6. Stria vascularis and cochlear hair cell changes in syphilis: A human temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızlı, Ömer; Kaya, Serdar; Hızlı, Pelin; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-12-01

    To observe any changes in stria vascularis and cochlear hair cells in patients with syphilis. We examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with syphilis (our syphilis group), as well as 12 histopathologically normal samples from 9 age-matched patients without syphilis (our control group). We compared, between the two groups, the mean area of the stria vascularis (measured with conventional light microscopy connected to a personal computer) and the mean percentage of cochlear hair cell loss (obtained from cytocochleograms). In our syphilis group, only 1 (7.7%) of the 13 samples had precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces; 8 (61.5%) of the samples revealed the presence of endolymphatic hydrops (4 cochlear, 4 saccular). The mean area of the stria vascularis did not significantly differ, in any turn of the cochlea, between the 2 groups (P>0.1). However, we did find significant differences between the 2 groups in the mean percentage of outer hair cells in the apical turn (Psyphilis group, we observed either complete loss of the organ of Corti or a flattened organ of Corti without any cells in addition to the absence of both outer and inner hair cells. In this study, syphilis led either to complete loss of the organ of Corti or to significant loss of cochlear hair cells, in addition to cochleosaccular hydrops. But the area of the stria vascularis did not change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grossöhmichen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV and scala tympani (ST is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures.

  8. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcher, Rolf; Püschel, Klaus; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs) by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors) was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures. PMID:27610377

  9. Spectrum of temporal bone abnormalities in patients with Waardenburg syndrome and SOX10 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaleh-Bergès, M; Baumann, C; Noël-Pétroff, N; Sekkal, A; Couloigner, V; Devriendt, K; Wilson, M; Marlin, S; Sebag, G; Pingault, V

    2013-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome, characterized by deafness and pigmentation abnormalities, is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, consisting of 4 distinct subtypes and involving several genes. SOX10 mutations have been found both in types 2 and 4 Waardenburg syndrome and neurologic variants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the full spectrum and relative frequencies of inner ear malformations in these patients. Fifteen patients with Waardenburg syndrome and different SOX10 mutations were studied retrospectively. Imaging was performed between February 2000 and March 2010 for cochlear implant work-up, diagnosis of hearing loss, and/or evaluation of neurologic impairment. Eleven patients had both CT and MR imaging examinations, 3 had MR imaging only, and 1 had CT only. Temporal bone abnormalities were bilateral. The most frequent pattern associated agenesis or hypoplasia of ≥1 semicircular canal, an enlarged vestibule, and a cochlea with a reduced size and occasionally an abnormal shape, but with normal partition in the 13/15 cases that could be analyzed. Three patients lacked a cochlear nerve, bilaterally in 2 patients. In addition, associated abnormalities were found when adequate MR imaging sequences were available: agenesis of the olfactory bulbs (7/8), hypoplastic or absent lacrimal glands (11/14), hypoplastic parotid glands (12/14), and white matter signal anomalies (7/13). In the appropriate clinical context, bilateral agenesis or hypoplasia of the semicircular canals or both, associated with an enlarged vestibule and a cochlear deformity, strongly suggests a diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome linked to a SOX10 mutation.

  10. Usefulness of temporal bone prototype for drilling training: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussedat, C; Venail, F; Nguyen, Y; Lescanne, E; Marx, M; Bakhos, D

    2017-12-01

    Dissection of cadaveric temporal bones (TBs) is considered the gold standard for surgical training in otology. For many reasons, access to the anatomical laboratory and cadaveric TBs is difficult for some facilities. The aim of this prospective and comparative study was to evaluate the usefulness of a physical TB prototype for drilling training in residency. Prospective study. Tertiary referral centre. Thirty-four residents were included. Seventeen residents (mean age 26.7±1.6) drilled on only cadaveric TBs ("traditional" group), in the traditional training method, while seventeen residents (mean age 26.5±1.7) drilled first on a prototype and then on a cadaveric TB ("prototype" group). Drilling performance was assessed using a validated scale. Residents completed a mastoid image before and after each drilling to enable evaluation of mental representations of the mastoidectomy. No differences were observed between the groups with respect to age, drilling experience and level of residency. Regarding drilling performance, we found a significant difference across the groups, with a better score in the prototype group (P=.0007). For mental representation, the score was statistically improved (P=.0003) after drilling in both groups, suggesting that TB drilling improves the mental representation of the mastoidectomy whether prototype or cadaveric TB is used. The TB prototype improves the drilling performance and mental representation of the mastoidectomy in the young resident population. A drilling simulation with virtual or physical systems seems to be a beneficial tool to improve TB drilling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Operative findings of conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane and normal temporal bone computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Despite recent technological advances in diagnostic methods including imaging technology, it is often difficult to establish a preoperative diagnosis of conductive hearing loss (CHL) in patients with an intact tympanic membrane (TM). Especially, in patients with a normal temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT), preoperative diagnosis is more difficult. We investigated middle ear disorders encountered in patients with CHL involving an intact TM and normal TBCT. We also analyzed the surgical results with special reference to the pathology. We reviewed the medical records of 365 patients with intact TM, who underwent exploratory tympanotomy for CHL. Fifty nine patients (67 ears, eight bilateral surgeries) had a normal preoperative TBCT findings reported by neuro-radiologists. Demographic data, otologic history, TM findings, preoperative imaging findings, intraoperative findings, and pre- and postoperative audiologic data were obtained and analyzed. Exploration was performed most frequently in the second and fifth decades. The most common postoperative diagnosis was stapedial fixation with non-progressive hearing loss. The most commonly performed hearing-restoring procedure was stapedotomy with piston wire prosthesis insertion. Various types of hearing-restoring procedures during exploration resulted in effective hearing improvement, especially with better outcome in the ossicular chain fixation group. In patients with CHL who have intact TM and normal TBCT, we should consider an exploratory tympanotomy for exact diagnosis and hearing improvement. Information of the common operative findings from this study may help in preoperative counseling.

  12. High-fidelity haptic and visual rendering for patient-specific simulation of temporal bone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sonny; Li, Peter; Locketz, Garrett; Salisbury, Kenneth; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2016-12-01

    Medical imaging techniques provide a wealth of information for surgical preparation, but it is still often the case that surgeons are examining three-dimensional pre-operative image data as a series of two-dimensional images. With recent advances in visual computing and interactive technologies, there is much opportunity to provide surgeons an ability to actively manipulate and interpret digital image data in a surgically meaningful way. This article describes the design and initial evaluation of a virtual surgical environment that supports patient-specific simulation of temporal bone surgery using pre-operative medical image data. Computational methods are presented that enable six degree-of-freedom haptic feedback during manipulation, and that simulate virtual dissection according to the mechanical principles of orthogonal cutting and abrasive wear. A highly efficient direct volume renderer simultaneously provides high-fidelity visual feedback during surgical manipulation of the virtual anatomy. The resulting virtual surgical environment was assessed by evaluating its ability to replicate findings in the operating room, using pre-operative imaging of the same patient. Correspondences between surgical exposure, anatomical features, and the locations of pathology were readily observed when comparing intra-operative video with the simulation, indicating the predictive ability of the virtual surgical environment.

  13. Completely-in-the-canal magnet-drive hearing device: a temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Malley, Melinda J D; Paulick, Peyton; Merlo, Mark W; Bachman, Mark; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2013-03-01

    The magnet-drive hearing device (MHD) is a small completely-in-the-canal hearing aid prototype that drives the tympanic membrane (TM) through a magnetic interface. A cadaveric temporal bone was prepared. The MHD was coupled to a nickel-epoxy pellet glued to the umbo. Frequency sweeps between 0.3 and 10 kHz were performed, and the MHD was driven with various levels of current. Displacements of the posterior crus of the stapes were measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer and compared with sound-induced displacements. The MHD had a linear frequency response and low total harmonic distortion. The pellet placement altered the stapes movements; however, the changes were statistically insignificant. Inputs of 100 and 300 mV produced displacements equivalent to those of the natural sound at 70- and 80-dB sound pressure level, respectively. The coupling of this novel device using a magnetic interface to the umbo had a frequency output wider than air conduction devices, and its actuator was effective in driving the TM.

  14. Radiography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashin, D.; Sternglass, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention provides radiography apparatus wherein the use of a flat, generally rectangular beam or a fan-shaped beam of radiation in combination with a collimator, scintillator and device for optically coupling a self-scanning array of photodiodes to the scintillator means will permit production of images or image data with high contrast sensitivity and detail. It is contemplated that the self-scanning array of photodiodes may contain from about 60 to 2048, and preferably about 256 to 2048, individual photodiode elements per inch of object width, thereby permitting maximum data collection to produce a complete image or complete collection of image data

  15. Radiography shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.

    1985-11-27

    Apparatus for the inspection of a pipe weld by radiography comprises a radiation source contained in a housing having a first collimator for defining the exit beam and a second collimator mountable on the pipe in the region of the weld to define with the first collimator a predetermined volume enclosing the radiation beam passing through the second collimator when the housing is in a predetermined position relative to the second collimator. The arrangement is such that if the housing is slightly displaced from the predetermined position the radiation beam still falls within the predetermined volume.

  16. Radiography shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for the inspection of a pipe weld by radiography comprises a radiation source contained in a housing having a first collimator for defining the exit beam and a second collimator mountable on the pipe in the region of the weld to define with the first collimator a predetermined volume enclosing the radiation beam passing through the second collimator when the housing is in a predetermined position relative to the second collimator. The arrangement is such that if the housing is slightly displaced from the predetermined position the radiation beam still falls within the predetermined volume. (author)

  17. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elander, S.; Hellesnes, J.; Reitan, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of radiography is developing rapidly, both regarding imaging technology and data hardware, and software technology. More and more advanced systems are marketed by the radiological companies. The wide product range makes it difficult to get an overview over principles and components. By closer inspection, however, the number of basic components and technologies is limited. Moreover, the components seem rather well known from other technologies, due to the long times of development in radiology. This report gives a survey of some new principles and components in the video chain. As components may deteriorate or age fast by irradiation, the radiation levels in the chain are evaluated. 13 refs

  18. Digital Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  19. Flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, F.

    1986-01-01

    Flash radiography is a method for recording radiographic pictures of a non-transparent high-speed phenomenon. Such events occur in a variety of fields: Ballistics, dynamic high pressure physics, detonics, industry, and medical diagnostics. The phenomena observed by flash-radiography generally move at velocities between 100 m/s and 10000 m/s. The motion blur recorded on the picture is negligible only if the duration of the X-ray pulse (or the exposure time) falls in the range 10 -8 - 10 -7 s. With a medical or industrial radiographic device, the correct blackening of a film is obtained with a current of some milliamperes and a mean exposure time of 0.1 s. From this it is deduced that the value of the current passing through a flash X-ray tube must be approximately equal to 10 4 A. These values cannot be attained in conventional X-ray tubes with a heated cathode. The production of large currents is mainly achieved by vacuum discharges and field emission. Two applications of the technique are presented: flash radiographs of shock waves, and flash X-ray diffraction. (Auth.)

  20. Computer tomography in children and adolescents with suspected malformation of the petrous portion of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, S.; Schneider-Moebius, C.; Koenig, E.; Meister, E.F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate HRCT findings and their therapeutic relevance in suspected congenital hearing disorders. Material and Methods: It was checked in 96 young patients if HRCT findings of the temporal bone could explain functional findings. Furthermore, the therapeutic consequences were noted. Results: Normal CT and normal functional findings were obtained in 49 temporal bones (TB). In conductive hearing loss (41 TB), dysplasias of the conducting apparatus (37 TB) and inflammatory changes (3 TB) were found. Combined hearing loss (18 TB) was clarified completely or partially in half the cases. There were 22 dysplasias of the inner ear, 3 dysplasias of the middle ear, 1 adandoned examination (2 TB), and 55 normal CT findings in senorineural hearing disorders (82 TB). 1 retardate had a malformation of the inner ear and, contralaterally, inflammatory middle ear. In cases of vestibular disorders (24 TB), 14 malformations of the inner ear were detected. (orig./AJ) [de

  1. Students Experience in Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyambane, K.D.; Faith Wanjiku Kimunge, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Radiography Students from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya share experiences of College Experience, Challenges, Myths and the Radiography dream. The Cultural shock and expectations towards Radiography has changed for the first timers’ students in the radiography class. This has motivated them to remove the fear of the unknown and negatives effects of radiation

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  11. Effect of Piecemeal vs En Bloc Approaches to the Lateral Temporal Bone on Survival Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelleman, Thomas; Chowdhury, Naweed I; Killeen, Daniel; Sykes, Kevin; Kutz, J Walter; Isaacson, Brandon; Staecker, Hinrich; Lin, James

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) has traditionally been performed en bloc in accordance with oncologic principles. Occasionally, this is not possible due to a low tegmen or lateralized vasculature. We sought to determine if outcomes of piecemeal and en bloc LTBR are comparable. Study Design Retrospective review. Setting Two academic medical centers. Subjects and Methods Multi-institutional retrospective cohort study. Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to identify patients with T1 to T3 squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal (EAC) who underwent LTBR from 2005 to 2015. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to compare total survival between the 2 treatment approaches. Pairwise comparisons were performed using χ 2 and Fisher exact tests (significance at P = .05), as appropriate. Results Twenty-five patients were identified. Ten patients underwent en bloc LTBR; 15 underwent piecemeal LTBR. Median follow-up time was 11 months (range, 1-60 months). There was not a significant difference in overall survival between en bloc (38.9 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 22.7-55.2) compared to piecemeal (37.5 months; 95% CI, 21.1-53.9) procedures ( P = .519). Estimates of disease-free survival also did not reveal statistically significant differences: estimated mean disease-free survival was 48.1 months (95% CI, 33.7-62.6) in en bloc patients and 32.5 months (95% CI, 17.1-47.8) in piecemeal patients ( P = .246). Conclusion These data suggest that piecemeal resection can be considered for cases of squamous cell carcinoma involving the external auditory canal where anatomic constraints preclude a safe en bloc resection. Larger studies or studies with a longer follow-up time may provide improved insight into survival comparisons.

  12. New total ossicular replacement prostheses with a resilient joint: experimental data from human temporal bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechvo, Irina; Bornitz, Matthias; Lasurashvili, Nikoloz; Zahnert, Thomas; Beleites, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    New flexible total ossicular prostheses with an integrated microjoint can compensate for large static displacements in the reconstructed ossicular chain. When properly designed, they can mimic the function of the joints of the intact chain and ensure good vibration transfer in both straight and bent conditions. Prosthesis dislocations and extrusions are frequently observed after middle ear surgery. They are mainly related to the altered distance between the coupling points because of large static eardrum displacements. The new prostheses consist of 2 titanium shafts, which are incorporated into a silicone body. The sound transfer function and stapes footplate displacement at static loads were evaluated in human temporal bones after ossicular reconstruction using prostheses with 2 different silicones with different hardness values. The stiffness and bending characteristics of the prostheses were investigated with a quasi-static load. The sound transfer properties of the middle ears with the prostheses inserted under uncompressed conditions were comparable with those of ears with intact ossicular chains. The implant with the soft silicone had improved acoustic transfer characteristics over the implant with the hard silicone in a compressed state. In the quasi-static experiments, the minimum medial footplate displacement was found with the same implant. The bending characteristics depended on the silicone stiffness and correlated closely with the point and angle of the load incidence. The titanium prostheses with a resilient joint that were investigated in this study had good sound transfer characteristics under optimal conditions as well as in a compressed state. As a result of joint bending, the implants compensate for the small changes in length of the ossicular chain that occur under varying middle ear pressure. The implants require a stable support at the stapes footplate to function properly.

  13. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliesi, R.; Freitas, A.G. de; Gammal, A.; Rizzatti, M.R.; Vercelli, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the main characteristics of the neutron radiography technique, which has been developed in the Nuclear Physics Department of the IPEN-CNEN-SP. Its employment, in technology varies enormously and includes among others, the inspection of the hydrogen-rich substances, highly radioactive materials, etc. The indirect conversion method with Dysprosium screen was employed. The experimental arrangement used was a neutron collimator installed in the bottom of the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor pool. Several samples were analysed which were exposed in a neutron flux ∼ 10 7 n/s.cm 2 during 10 minutes. The obtained results confirm the main characteristics of this technique as well as its viability to be developed in this reactor. (author)

  14. Radiography exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This chapter, the reader will introduce with basic knowledge on radiography exposure. All the code and standard must give a specification on density or their range that can accepted. So the result outside the specification usually will be unacceptable and this can effected the time, cost and energy of the radiographer. So, for radiographer, they must work carefully to produce a good result and one way to solve this problem is through good exposure. The more the exposure can make a film darker while the less exposure can make the radiograph not enough density. So, through this chapter, the reader can know detailed how to manage this problem. As mention earlier, this technique is a combination between theories and practical, so, here theory is a main part to make the practical successful.

  15. neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron radiography (or radiology) is a diverse filed that uses neutrons of various energies, subthermal, thermal, epithermal or fast in either steady state or pulsed mode to examine objects for industrial, medical, or other purposes, both microscopic and macroscopic. The applications include engineering design, biological studies, nondestructive inspection and materials evaluation. In the past decade, over 100 different centers in some 30 countries have published reports of pioneering activities using reactors, accelerators and isotopic neutron sources. While film transparency and electronic video are most common imaging methods for static or in motion objects respectively, there are other important data gathering techniques, including track etch, digital gauging and computed tomography. A survey of the world-wide progress shows the field to be gaining steadily in its diversity, its sophistication and its importance. (author)

  16. Filmless Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Technology initially prototyped under a Small Business Innovation Research contract between Quantex Corporation and Langley Research Center was licensed to Liberty Technology and incorporated into RADView, a new filmless radiography technology. The NASA-sponsored work involved the investigation of Electron Trapping, which led to a solid-state film that uses a special class of photoluminescent materials to capture radiographic images. RadView is a total imaging solution for the conversion of radiographic film records to digital format and digital acquisitions of radiographs. With the RADView technology, there is a reduction of exposure times and errors; film waste is eliminated; and the efficiency of data management and precise image analysis is boosted. The solid-state film can be exposed, read, erased, and re- exposed indefinitely until mechanical replacement is required. Digital images can be stored to optical media for up to 100 years and beyond without information loss.

  17. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  18. External ear canal exostosis and otitis media in temporal bones of prehistoric and historic chilean populations. A paleopathological and paleoepidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mario; Goycoolea, Marcos; Silva-Pinto, Verónica

    2017-04-01

    External ear canal exostosis is more prevalent in northern coastal groups than in the highlands, suggesting that ocean activities facilitate the appearance of exostosis. However, southern coastal groups exposed to colder ocean water have a lesser incidence of exostosis, possibly due to less duration of exposure. There was a high incidence of otitis media in all groups of native population in Chile. One coastal group had a higher incidence, presumably due to racial factors. This is a paleopathological and paleoepidemiological study in temporal bones which assesses external ear canal exostosis and otitis media in prehistoric and historic native populations in Chile. A total of 460 temporal bones were evaluated for exostosis (ex) and 542 temporal bones were evaluated for otitis media (om). The study involved four groups: (1) Prehistoric Coastal (400-1000 AD) populations in Northern Chile (Pisagua-Tiwanaku) (22 temporal bones ex; 28 om); (2) Prehistoric Highland (400-1000 AD) populations in Northern Chile (292 temporal bones ex; 334 om); (3) Pisagua-Regional Developments (coastal) in Northern Chile (1000-1450 AD) (66 temporal bones ex; 82 om); and (4) Historic (1500-1800 AD) coastal populations in Southern Chile (80 temporal bones ex: 18 Chonos, 62 Fuegians. 98 om: 22 Chonos, 76 Fuegians). Skulls were evaluated visually and with an operating microscope. In addition, the otitis media group was evaluated with Temporal bone radiology - -lateral XRays-Schuller view - to assess pneumatization as evidence of previous middle ear disease. Prehistoric northern coastal groups had an incidence of exostosis of 15.91%, the northern highlands group 1.37%, and the southern coastal group 1.25%. There were changes suggestive of otitis media in: Pisagua/Tiwanaku 53.57%; Pisagua/Regional Developments 70.73%; Northern Highlands population 47.90%; Chonos 63.64%; and Fuegian tribes 64.47%.

  19. Spatial and temporal changes of subchondral bone proceed to articular cartilage degeneration in rats subjected to knee immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Li, Zhe; Lei, Lei; Zhou, Yue-Zhu; Deng, Song-Yun; He, Yong-Bin; Ni, Guo-Xin

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal changes of subchondral bone and its overlying articular cartilage in rats following knee immobilization. A total of 36 male Wistar rats (11-13 months old) were assigned randomly and evenly into 3 groups. For each group, knee joints in 6 rats were immobilized unilaterally for 1, 4, or 8 weeks, respectively, while the remaining rats were allowed free activity and served as external control groups. For each animal, femurs at both sides were dissected after sacrificed. The distal part of femur was examined by micro-CT. Subsequently, femoral condyles were collected for further histological observation and analysis. For articular cartilage, significant changes were observed only at 4 and 8 weeks of immobilization. The thickness of articular cartilage and chondrocytes numbers decreased with time. However, significant changes in subchondral bone were defined by micro-CT following immobilization in a time-dependent manner. Immobilization led to a thinner and more porous subchondral bone plate, as well as a reduction in trabecular thickness and separation with a more rod-like architecture. Changes in subchondral bone occurred earlier than in articular cartilage. More importantly, immobilization-induced changes in subchondral bone may contribute, at least partially, to changes in its overlying articular cartilage. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Better imaging: the advantages of digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stelt, Paul F

    2008-06-01

    Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years, but it has not replaced conventional film-based radiography completely. This could be because of the costs involved in replacing conventional radiographic equipment with a digital imaging system, or because implementing new technology in the dental practice requires a bit of courage. When the practitioner is fully aware of the new possibilities offered by digital radiography, he or she can make a more informed decision about adopting it. This article offers information about digital radiography, not just as a replacement of conventional radiography, but also as a concept offering benefits beyond those of conventional radiography. Digital radiographs are composed of a set of numbers arranged as a grid of rows and columns. The dentist can perform mathematical operations on these numbers to create a new image in which certain characteristics are enhanced, thus making interpretation of the image easier. The dentist also can correct, to some extent, overexposed or underexposed images and can optimize contrast and brightness for specific diagnostic procedures, such as caries detection and bone level assessment. More advanced procedures are available as well, such as digital subtraction radiography and computer-aided recognition of image features. The author presents a selection of the advantages of digital radiography that are not achievable with conventional film-based radiography. Implementing digital radiography in the dental office requires additional training. However, once members of the dental team have gone through this initial phase, they have the benefits of several new diagnostic possibilities. With a digital system, information from radiographic images is collected more easily and in a more objective way, which will improve the performance of the diagnostic process.

  1. Progress in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelle, A.

    2016-01-01

    Because of its practical aspect digital radiography is more and more used in the industrial sector. There are 2 kinds of digital radiography. First, the 'computed radiography' that uses a photon-stimulated screen, and after radiation exposure this screen must be read by an analyser to get a digit image. The second type is the 'direct radiography' that allows one to get a digit radiograph of the object directly. Digital radiography uses the same radioactive nuclides as radiography with silver films: cobalt, iridium or selenium. The spatial resolution of digital radiography is less good than with classical silver film radiography but digital radiography offers a better visual contrast. (A.C.)

  2. Absorbed dose in the full-mouth periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and zonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soon Chul; Choi, Hang Moon

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of substitution of the zonography for the full-mouth periapical radiography in aspect of radiation protection. Rando phantom and LiF TLD chips were used for dosimetry. The absorbed doses at brain, skin above the TMJ, parotid gland, bone marrow in the mandibular body, and thyroid gland during the full-mouth periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and zonography were measured. From the zonography, the absorbed doses to the brain, the skin over the TMJ, and the parotid gland were relatively high, but the absorbed doses to the bone marrow in the mandibular body and, especially, the thyroid gland were very low. The zonography can be an alternative to the full-mouth periapical radiography in aspect of radiation protection.

  3. Absorbed dose in the full-mouth periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and zonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soon Chul; Choi, Hang Moon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of substitution of the zonography for the full-mouth periapical radiography in aspect of radiation protection. Rando phantom and LiF TLD chips were used for dosimetry. The absorbed doses at brain, skin above the TMJ, parotid gland, bone marrow in the mandibular body, and thyroid gland during the full-mouth periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and zonography were measured. From the zonography, the absorbed doses to the brain, the skin over the TMJ, and the parotid gland were relatively high, but the absorbed doses to the bone marrow in the mandibular body and, especially, the thyroid gland were very low. The zonography can be an alternative to the full-mouth periapical radiography in aspect of radiation protection.

  4. INTRAORAL RÖNTGEN TEKNİKLERİ VE ORTOPANTOMOGRAFİ (OPTG) İLE ÇEKİLEN FİLMLERDE ALVEOL KEMİĞİ GÖRÜNTÜLERİNİN KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI(*)-INTRAORAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES AND COMPARISONS OF THE IMAGES OF ALVEOLAR BONE IN THE RADIOGRAPHIES TAKEN BY ORTHOPANTOMOGRAPH

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZBAYRAK, Semih

    2013-01-01

    INTRAORAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES AND COMPARISONS OF THE IMAGES OF ALVEOLAR BONE IN THE RADIOGRAPHIES  TAKEN BY ORTHOPANTOMOGRAPH (OPTG)Anahtar Sözcükler: Alveol kemiği, açıortay-paralel teknik, ısırma grafikleri, ortopantomograflBu deneysel çalışmada alveol kemiğinin periodontal amaçlı çekilen röntgen filmlerindeki görüntüleri incelenmiştir. Horizontal ve vertikal kemik rezorpsiyonlarının görüntüleri açıortay-,paralel-teknik,ısırma radyografileri ve ortopantomografi yöntemlerinde karşılaştırm...

  5. Temporal bone CT findings of tuberculous otitis media : comparison with chronic otitis media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jeong A; Rho, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Min; Lee, Ho Seung; Choi, Pil Yeob; Seong, Young Soon; Kwon, Jae Soo; Lee, Sang Wook [Masan Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Keon Sik [Pohang Sunrin Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    To compare the differential findings of tuberculous otitis media(TOM) with those of chronic sup purative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, as seen on high resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed 14 cases of TOM, 30 cases of chronic suppurative otitis media(CSOM), and 30 cases of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma(Chole). All had been pathologically confirmed. We evaluated the preservation of mastoid cells without sclerotic change, the location and extension of soft tissue to the external auditary canal, and erosion of ossicles, the tegmen tympani, scutum, bony labyrinth, facial nerve canal and sigmoid sinus, and the presence of intracranial complications. Soft tissue in the mastoid antrum was seen in all cases of TOM(100%), 29 cases of CSOM(96.7%), and 26 cases of Chole(86.7%). In contrast, the soft tissue in the entire middle ear cavity was noted in 13 cases of TOM(92.8%), 7 cases of CSOM(23.3%), and 12 cases of Chole(40%). Soft tissue extended to the superior aspect of the external auditory canal in 4 cases of TOM (28.6%) and 5 cases of Chole (16.7%). Mastoid air cells were seen in 9 cases of TOM (64.3%), 4 cases of CSOM (13.3%), and 3 cases of Chole(10%). Ossicular erosion was noted in 6 cases of TOM (42.9%), 12 cases of CSOM (40%), and 26 cases of Chole(86.7%), while in one case of TOM (7.1%), 5 cases of CSOM (16.7%), and 15 cases of Chole(50%) there was erosion of the scutum. In one case of TOM, follow-up CT study after 9 months of antituberculous medication without surgery revealed complete clearing of previously noted soft tissue in the middle ear cavity. Specific CT findings of TOM were not seen, but if there were findings of soft tissue in the entire middle ear cavity, soft tissue extension to the external auditory canal, preservation of mastoid air cells without sclerotic change, and intact scutum, TOM may be differentiated from other chronic otitis media.

  6. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 https://edms.cern.ch/file/346848/LAST_RELEASED/PRP30.pdf The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address: http://cern.ch/rp-radio

  7. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi

    1988-01-01

    The thermal neutron absorption coefficient is essentially different from the X-ray absorption coefficient. Each substance has a characteristic absorption coefficient regardless of its density. Neutron deams have the following features: (1) neutrons are not transmitted efficiently by low molecular weight substances, (2) they are transmitted efficiently by heavy metals, and (3) the transmittance differs among isotopes. Thus, neutron beams are suitable for cheking for foreign matters in heavy metals and testing of composites consisting of both heavy and light materials. A neutron source generates fast neutrons, which should be converted into thermal neutrons by reducing their energy. Major neutron souces include nuclear reactors, radioisotopes and particle accelerators. Photographic films and television systems are mainly used to observe neutron transmission images. Computers are employed for image processing, computerized tomography and three-dimensional analysis. The major applications of neutron radiography include inspection of neclear fuel; evaluation of material for airplane; observation of fuel in the engine and oil in the hydraulic systems in airplanes; testing of composite materials; etc. (Nogami, K.)

  8. The neovascularization effect of bone marrow stromal cells in temporal muscle after encephalomyosynangiosis in chronic cerebral ischemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Syup; Lee, Hyung-Jin; Yeu, In-Seung; Yi, Jin-Seok; Yang, Ji-Ho; Lee, Il-Woo

    2008-10-01

    In Moyamoya disease, the primary goal of treatment is to improve collateral circulation through angiogenesis. In the present study, we obtained and sub-cultured bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from rats without a cell-mediated immune response. Then, we injected the labeled BMSCs directly into adjacent temporal muscle during encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS). Three weeks after BMSC transplantation, we examined the survival of the cells and the extent of neovascularization. We divided 20 rats into a BMSC transplantation group (n=12) and a control group (n=8). Seven days after the induction of chronic cerebral ischemia, an EMS operation was performed, and labeled BMSCs (1x106(6)/100 microL) were injected in the temporal muscle for the transplantation group, while an equivalent amount of culture solution was injected for the control group. Three weeks after the transplantation, temporal muscle and brain tissue were collected for histological examination and western blot analysis. The capillary/muscle ratio in the temporal muscle was increased in the BMSC transplantation group compared to the control group, showing a greater increase of angiogenesis (pangiogenesis was not significantly different between the two groups. The injected BMSCs in the temporal muscle were vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-positive by immunofluorescence staining. In both temporal muscle and brain tissue, the expression of VEGF by western blot analysis was not much different between the two groups. During EMS in a chronic cerebral ischemia rat model, the injection of BMSCs resulted in accelerated angiogenesis in the temporal muscle compared to the control group.

  9. A novel approach for studying the temporal modulation of embryonic skeletal development using organotypic bone cultures and microcomputed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanczler, Janos M; Smith, Emma L; Roberts, Carol A; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the structural development of embryonic bone in a three dimensional framework is fundamental to developing new strategies for the recapitulation of bone tissue in latter life. We present an innovative combined approach of an organotypic embryonic femur culture model, microcomputed tomography (μCT) and immunohistochemistry to examine the development and modulation of the three dimensional structures of the developing embryonic femur. Isolated embryonic chick femurs were organotypic (air/liquid interface) cultured for 10 days in either basal, chondrogenic, or osteogenic supplemented culture conditions. The growth development and modulating effects of basal, chondrogenic, or osteogenic culture media of the embryonic chick femurs was investigated using μCT, immunohistochemistry, and histology. The growth and development of noncultured embryonic chick femur stages E10, E11, E12, E13, E15, and E17 were very closely correlated with increased morphometric indices of bone formation as determined by μCT. After 10 days in the organotpyic culture set up, the early aged femurs (E10 and E11) demonstrated a dramatic response to the chondrogenic or osteogenic culture conditions compared to the basal cultured femurs as determined by a change in μCT morphometric indices and modified expression of chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. Although the later aged femurs (E12 and E13) increased in size and structure after 10 days organotpypic culture, the effects of the osteogenic and chondrogenic organotypic cultures on these femurs were not significantly altered compared to basal conditions. We have demonstrated that the embryonic chick femur organotpyic culture model combined with the μCT and immunohistochemical analysis can provide an integral methodology for investigating the modulation of bone development in an ex vivo culture setting. Hence, these interdisciplinary techniques of μCT and whole organ bone cultures will enable us to delineate some of the temporal

  10. The temporal expression of estrogen receptor alpha-36 and runx2 in human bone marrow derived stromal cells during osteogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, W.R.; Owens, S.E.; Wilde, C.; Pallister, I.; Kanamarlapudi, V.; Zou, W.; Xia, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ERα36 is the predominant ERα isoform involved in bone regulation in human BMSC. • ERα36 mRNA is significantly upregulated during the process of osteogenesis. • The pattern of ERα36 and runx2 mRNA expression is similar during osteogenesis. • ERα36 appears to be co-localised with runx2 during osteogenesis. - Abstract: During bone maintenance in vivo, estrogen signals through estrogen receptor (ER)-α. The objectives of this study were to investigate the temporal expression of ERα36 and ascertain its functional relevance during osteogenesis in human bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSC). This was assessed in relation to runt-related transcription factor-2 (runx2), a main modulatory protein involved in bone formation. ERα36 and runx2 subcellular localisation was assessed using immunocytochemistry, and their mRNA expression levels by real time PCR throughout the process of osteogenesis. The osteogenically induced BMSCs demonstrated a rise in ERα36 mRNA during proliferation followed by a decline in expression at day 10, which represents a change in dynamics within the culture between the proliferative stage and the differentiative stage. The mRNA expression profile of runx2 mirrored that of ERα36 and showed a degree subcellular co-localisation with ERα36. This study suggests that ERα36 is involved in the process of osteogenesis in BMSCs, which has implications in estrogen deficient environments

  11. Differences in the Diameter of Facial Nerve and Facial Canal in Bell's Palsy—A 3-Dimensional Temporal Bone Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Melissa; Adams, Meredith; Schachern, Patricia; Lazarini, Paulo Roberto; Paparella, Michael Mauro; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2014-01-01

    Bell's palsy is hypothesized to result from virally mediated neural edema. Ischemia occurs as the nerve swells in its bony canal, blocking neural blood supply. Because viral infection is relatively common and Bell's palsy relatively uncommon, it is reasonable to hypothesize that there are anatomic differences in facial canal (FC) that predispose the development of paralysis. Measurements of facial nerve (FN) and FC as it follows its tortuous course through the temporal bone are difficult without a 3D view. In this study, 3D reconstruction was used to compare temporal bones of patients with and without history of Bell's palsy. Methods Twenty-two temporal bones (HTBs) were included in the study, 12 HTBs from patients with history of Bell's palsy and 10 healthy controls. Three-dimensional models were generated from HTB histopathologic slides with reconstruction software (Amira), diameters of the FC and FN were measured at the midpoint of each segment. Results The mean diameter of the FC and FN was significantly smaller in the tympanic and mastoid segments (p = 0.01) in the BP group than in the controls. The FN to FC diameter ratio (FN/FC) was significantly bigger in the mastoid segment of BP group, when compared with the controls. When comparing the BP and control groups, the narrowest part of FC was the labyrinthine segment in control group and the tympanic segment in the BP. Conclusion This study suggests an anatomic difference in the diameter of FC in the tympanic and mastoid segments but not in the labyrinthine segment in patients with Bell's palsy. PMID:24518410

  12. Differences in the diameter of facial nerve and facial canal in bell's palsy--a 3-dimensional temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Melissa; Adams, Meredith; Schachern, Patricia; Lazarini, Paulo Roberto; Paparella, Michael Mauro; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2014-03-01

    Bell's palsy is hypothesized to result from virally mediated neural edema. Ischemia occurs as the nerve swells in its bony canal, blocking neural blood supply. Because viral infection is relatively common and Bell's palsy relatively uncommon, it is reasonable to hypothesize that there are anatomic differences in facial canal (FC) that predispose the development of paralysis. Measurements of facial nerve (FN) and FC as it follows its tortuous course through the temporal bone are difficult without a 3D view. In this study, 3D reconstruction was used to compare temporal bones of patients with and without history of Bell's palsy. Twenty-two temporal bones (HTBs) were included in the study, 12 HTBs from patients with history of Bell's palsy and 10 healthy controls. Three-dimensional models were generated from HTB histopathologic slides with reconstruction software (Amira), diameters of the FC and FN were measured at the midpoint of each segment. The mean diameter of the FC and FN was significantly smaller in the tympanic and mastoid segments (p = 0.01) in the BP group than in the controls. The FN to FC diameter ratio (FN/FC) was significantly bigger in the mastoid segment of BP group, when compared with the controls. When comparing the BP and control groups, the narrowest part of FC was the labyrinthine segment in control group and the tympanic segment in the BP. This study suggests an anatomic difference in the diameter of FC in the tympanic and mastoid segments but not in the labyrinthine segment in patients with Bell's palsy.

  13. CT examination of the temporal bones for cochlear implantation; Badanie CT kosci skroniowych u osob przygotowanych do operacji wszczepu slimakowego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szyfter, W.; Szymiec, E.; Pruszewicz, A.; Szmeja, Z.; Paprzycki, W.; Sekula, A.; Przybylska, J. [Klinika Otolaryngologii, Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    CT examinations of temporal bones were performed in 31 deaf patients from qualify diagnostic stage prepared for cochlear implants. Essential for surgical treatment anatomic details were estimated, especially canalis spiralis cochleae was paid to attention. In our group, 8 patients had some CT changes (abnormal findings) which corresponded to different stages of obliteration the cochlea. The majority of patients lost the hearing because of meningitis. In 6 implanted patients CT scan was compared with surgical findings. During the operation 1 patient with patent cochlea on CT scan had partially ossified basal turn. (author) 16 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Radiological diagnosis of round and oval window niches with high resolution CT scanning of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Kiyotaka; Isono, Michio; Oiki, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Akio; Ishida, Osamu

    1988-01-01

    Air and/or soft tissues in the oval and round window niches were diagnosed by high resolution CT scanning of the temporal bone with a slice thickness of 1.5 mm at intervals of 1.0 mm. The window level was fitted to +100, and a window width of 4000 HFU was used. The results of 61 ears (29 male ears, 32 female ears) were compared with the surgical findings. It was possible to diagnose air and/or soft tissue in the round window niche with an 80 % chance of being correct and in the oval window niche with a 70 % chance of being correct. (author)

  15. Temporal bone extramedullary hematopoiesis as a causeof pediatric bilateral conductive hearing loss:Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Alexander; Fordham, M Taylor

    2017-06-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis occurs in children with hemoglobinopathy and chronic anemia. The liver and spleen are often affected first, but other foci can develop to support erythrocyte demand. We report a case of a nine-year-old with beta thalassemia and temporal bone extramedullary hematopoiesis causing ossicular fixation and bilateral conductive hearing loss. There is only one case in the literature describing this phenomenon in pediatric patients, and this is the first case report of bilateral hearing loss from this physiologic phenomenon. Otolaryngologists should consider this etiology in patients with chronic anemia and conductive hearing loss in the absence of otitis media. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. High strength, biodegradable and cytocompatible alpha tricalcium phosphate-iron composites for temporal reduction of bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montufar, E B; Casas-Luna, M; Horynová, M; Tkachenko, S; Fohlerová, Z; Diaz-de-la-Torre, S; Dvořák, K; Čelko, L; Kaiser, J

    2018-04-01

    In this work alpha tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP)/iron (Fe) composites were developed as a new family of biodegradable, load-bearing and cytocompatible materials. The composites with composition from pure ceramic to pure metallic samples were consolidated by pulsed electric current assisted sintering to minimise processing time and temperature while improving their mechanical performance. The mechanical strength of the composites was increased and controlled with the Fe content, passing from brittle to ductile failure. In particular, the addition of 25 vol% of Fe produced a ceramic matrix composite with elastic modulus much closer to cortical bone than that of titanium or biodegradable magnesium alloys and specific compressive strength above that of stainless steel, chromium-cobalt alloys and pure titanium, currently used in clinic for internal fracture fixation. All the composites studied exhibited higher degradation rate than their individual components, presenting values around 200 μm/year, but also their compressive strength did not show a significant reduction in the period required for bone fracture consolidation. Composites showed preferential degradation of α-TCP areas rather than β-TCP areas, suggesting that α-TCP can produce composites with higher degradation rate. The composites were cytocompatible both in indirect and direct contact with bone cells. Osteoblast-like cells attached and spread on the surface of the composites, presenting proliferation rate similar to cells on tissue culture-grade polystyrene and they showed alkaline phosphatase activity. Therefore, this new family of composites is a potential alternative to produce implants for temporal reduction of bone fractures. Biodegradable alpha-tricalcium phosphate/iron (α-TCP/Fe) composites are promising candidates for the fabrication of temporal osteosynthesis devices. Similar to biodegradable metals, these composites can avoid implant removal after bone fracture healing, particularly in

  17. Temporal Subtraction of Serial CT Images with Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping in the Identification of Bone Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ryo; Yakami, Masahiro; Fujimoto, Koji; Nakagomi, Keita; Kubo, Takeshi; Emoto, Yutaka; Akasaka, Thai; Aoyama, Gakuto; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To determine the improvement of radiologist efficiency and performance in the detection of bone metastases at serial follow-up computed tomography (CT) by using a temporal subtraction (TS) technique based on an advanced nonrigid image registration algorithm. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was waived. CT image pairs (previous and current scans of the torso) in 60 patients with cancer (primary lesion location: prostate, n = 14; breast, n = 16; lung, n = 20; liver, n = 10) were included. These consisted of 30 positive cases with a total of 65 bone metastases depicted only on current images and confirmed by two radiologists who had access to additional imaging examinations and clinical courses and 30 matched negative control cases (no bone metastases). Previous CT images were semiautomatically registered to current CT images by the algorithm, and TS images were created. Seven radiologists independently interpreted CT image pairs to identify newly developed bone metastases without and with TS images with an interval of at least 30 days. Jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristics (JAFROC) analysis was conducted to assess observer performance. Reading time was recorded, and usefulness was evaluated with subjective scores of 1-5, with 5 being extremely useful and 1 being useless. Significance of these values was tested with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results The subtraction images depicted various types of bone metastases (osteolytic, n = 28; osteoblastic, n = 26; mixed osteolytic and blastic, n = 11) as temporal changes. The average reading time was significantly reduced (384.3 vs 286.8 seconds; Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = .028). The average figure-of-merit value increased from 0.758 to 0.835; however, this difference was not significant (JAFROC analysis, P = .092). The subjective usefulness survey response showed a median score of 5 for use of the technique

  18. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing...

  19. Radiography Following Perinatal Death: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Oe.E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Radiology Dept.

    2006-02-15

    Radiography of the perinatally dead infant provides detailed information about the skeleton and is valuable as an adjunct to autopsy. This article reviews the potential benefits and discusses the pitfalls in assessment of growth stage. Reference charts for individual bone lengths and secondary ossification centers are presented.

  20. [A temporal bone CT study of the infants with hearing loss referred from universal newborn hearing screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zheng; Li, Yun; Hou, Zheng; Cheng, Lan

    2007-02-01

    To explore the high resolution CT image of temporal bone in infants with hearing loss, and its value in evaluating the cause of hearing loss. In 2005, 0.12 million newborns have been included in the hearing screening system in Shanghai, and 1077 infants have failed to pass the hearing screening. One hundred and eight four infants were diagnosed as congenital hearing loss from mild to profound. A temporal bone HRCT scanning was performed to these infants. Among the 184 patients with congenital hearing loss, HRCT showed that 26 cases (14.1%) were associated with external ear malformation, and 21 cases (11.4%) were associated with middle ear malformation, 31 cases (16.8%) associated with inner ear malformation. The patients with inner ear malformation included 12 cases with Mondini malformation, 1 case with common cavity malformation, 6 cases with large vestibule malformation, 5 cases with internal auditory canal abnormalities, and 10 cases with vestibule, semicircular canals abnormalities. In addition, there were 20 cases (10.8%) with fluid in middle ear. HRCT image play an important role in the differential diagnosis and treatment of infants with congenital hearing loss.

  1. Pilot study: digital subtraction radiography as a tool to assess alveolar bone changes in periodontitis patients under treatment with subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goren, A.D.; Dunn, S.M.; Wolff, M.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Colosi, D.C.; Golub, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Subtle changes in marginal alveolar bone level can be demonstrated using digital subtraction of sequential radiographs. Objective We aimed to evaluate the practical application of geometrically corrected digital subtraction in a clinical study of alveolar bone response to a drug

  2. Digital radiography of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frija, J.; Kerviler, E. de; Zagdanski, A.M.; Feger, C.; Attal, P.; Laval-jeantet, M.

    1997-01-01

    Digital radiography of the thorax can, now be substituted to conventional chest radiography. Computed radiography with phosphor plates and the new selenium detector are emphasized. The major image processing are explained. Successively the main other methods of digital radiography are described: scanning equalization radiography, laser-digitized radiography and multiwire proportional chambers. Then the advantages and the drawbacks of chest computed radiography are extensively reviewed. (author)

  3. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul

    2001-01-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  4. Evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafslund, Bjorg; Clare, Judith; Graverholt, Birgitte; Wammen Nortvedt, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers the integration of the best research evidence with clinical knowledge and expertise and patient values. EBP is a well known term in health care. This paper discusses the implementation of EBP into radiography and introduces the term evidence-based radiography. Evidence-based radiography is radiography informed and based on the combination of clinical expertise and the best available research-based evidence, patient preferences and resources available. In Norway, EBP in radiography is being debated and radiographers are discussing the challenges of implementing EBP in both academic and clinical practice. This discussion paper explains why EBP needs to be a basis for a radiography curriculum and a part of radiographers' practice. We argue that Norwegian radiographers must increase participation in research and developing practice within their specific radiographic domain

  5. Significance of temporal bone CT scan for exposure of the facial canal and the lateral semicircular canal in cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Joon; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Kweon, Joon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-09-15

    By reviewing retrospectively the HRCT findings in 130 surgically proven cases of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma, we estimated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictability of the HRCT compared to surgical findings. For exposure of the facial canal, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictability was 59.7%, 84.9%, and 85.2% respectively. For exposure of the lateral semicircular canal, the sensitivity was 80.6%, the specificity 99.0%, and the positive predictability 96.2%. Conclusively, the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative temporal bone CT regarding the state of the lateral semicircular canal seems to be highly reliable. Gross invasion of the facial canal can be usually detected. However, relatively low sensitivity suggests that evaluation of the ultra-thin structures of the tympanic segment is often problematic.

  6. A rare case of an aggressive osteoblastoma of the squamous temporal bone: a unique presentation with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sujata; Rani, Amita; Urs, A B; Dabas, Jitender

    2014-10-01

    Aggressive osteoblastoma is a rare osteoid tissue forming tumour commonly affecting the spine with predilection for the posterior elements. Calvarial involvement is extremely rare with only two reported cases in the literature. Due to its overlapping clinical, radiographic and histological features with ossifying fibroma, benign osteoblastoma and osteosarcoma, it is very difficult accurately to diagnose this lesion at an early stage. A rare case of an aggressive osteoblastoma of the squamous temporal bone in a young male is presented here which was misdiagnosed twice before reaching the final diagnosis by correlating clinical, radiographic and histopathological features. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detecting osteoporosis in elderly women with panoramic radiography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barunawaty Yunus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a systemic disease which characterized by a reduction in bone mass with deterioration microarchitecture of bone and degradation of bone tissue which can raise loss of bone. Osteoporosis is a problem related to the aging process. Osteoporosis process actually begin at the age 40-50 years. At this age, men and women will experience shrinkage process of bone mass. in women, this process faster after menopause and is more common in women than men. The technique can be used to detect osteoporosis by performing panoramic radiographic examination techniques. Panoramic radiography is a technique for generating photo of facial structures, including the maxillary bone, mandibular and other support structures. To detect the presence of osteoporosis in elderly women using Panoramic Radiography Techniques. The subjects of this study is image results of a panoramic radiography with vulnerable women aged 50-70> obtained from the Hospital Radiology section of Unhas, Mental Index measurement is then performed on image results of the panoramic radiographs. Overall regardless of age , the prevalence of osteoporosis reached 10 % per 100 population . ( P > 0.05. In detecting osteoporosis in elderly women, panoramic radiography can be applied. The index used is Mental Index, an index of panoramic radiography has been developed to detect osteoporosis.

  8. The usefulness of MR imaging of the temporal bone in the evaluation of patients with facial and audiovestibular dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Uk; Kim, Hyung Jin; Cho, Young Kuk; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Won Hong; Suh, Chang Hae; Lee, Seung Chul [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of MR imaging of the temporal bone in patients with facial and audiovestibular dysfunction with particular emphasis on the importance of contrast enhancement. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 179 patients [72 men, 107 women; average age, 44 (range, 1-77) years] who presented with peripheral facial palsy (n=15), audiometrically proven sensorineural hearing loss (n=104), vertigo (n=109), or tinnitus (n=92). Positive MR imaging findings possibly responsible for the patients' clinical manifestations were categorized according to the anatomic sites and presumed etiologies of the lesions. We also assessed the utility of contrast-enhanced MR imaging by analyzing its contribution to the demonstration of lesions which would otherwise not have been apparent. All MR images were interpreted by two neuroradiologists, who reached their conclusions by consensus. MR images demonstrated positive findings, thought to account for the presenting symptoms, in 78 (44%) of 179 patients, including 15 (100%) of 15 with peripheral facial palsy, 43 (41%) of 104 with sensorineural hearing loss, 40 (37%) of 109 with vertigo, and 39 (42%) of 92 with tinnitus. Thirty (38%) of those 78 patients had lesions that could be confidently recognized only at contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Even though its use led to positive findings in less than half of these patients, MR imaging of the temporal bone is a useful diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of those with facial and audiovestibular dysfunction. Because it was only at contrast-enhanced MR imaging that a significant number of patients showed positive imaging findings which explained their clinical manifestations, the use of contrast material is highly recommended.

  9. The usefulness of MR imaging of the temporal bone in the evaluation of patients with facial and audiovestibular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Uk; Kim, Hyung Jin; Cho, Young Kuk; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Won Hong; Suh, Chang Hae; Lee, Seung Chul

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of MR imaging of the temporal bone in patients with facial and audiovestibular dysfunction with particular emphasis on the importance of contrast enhancement. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 179 patients [72 men, 107 women; average age, 44 (range, 1-77) years] who presented with peripheral facial palsy (n=15), audiometrically proven sensorineural hearing loss (n=104), vertigo (n=109), or tinnitus (n=92). Positive MR imaging findings possibly responsible for the patients' clinical manifestations were categorized according to the anatomic sites and presumed etiologies of the lesions. We also assessed the utility of contrast-enhanced MR imaging by analyzing its contribution to the demonstration of lesions which would otherwise not have been apparent. All MR images were interpreted by two neuroradiologists, who reached their conclusions by consensus. MR images demonstrated positive findings, thought to account for the presenting symptoms, in 78 (44%) of 179 patients, including 15 (100%) of 15 with peripheral facial palsy, 43 (41%) of 104 with sensorineural hearing loss, 40 (37%) of 109 with vertigo, and 39 (42%) of 92 with tinnitus. Thirty (38%) of those 78 patients had lesions that could be confidently recognized only at contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Even though its use led to positive findings in less than half of these patients, MR imaging of the temporal bone is a useful diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of those with facial and audiovestibular dysfunction. Because it was only at contrast-enhanced MR imaging that a significant number of patients showed positive imaging findings which explained their clinical manifestations, the use of contrast material is highly recommended

  10. Anatomy-Specific Virtual Reality Simulation in Temporal Bone Dissection: Perceived Utility and Impact on Surgeon Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locketz, Garrett D; Lui, Justin T; Chan, Sonny; Salisbury, Kenneth; Dort, Joseph C; Youngblood, Patricia; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2017-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of anatomy-specific virtual reality (VR) surgical rehearsal on surgeon confidence and temporal bone dissection performance. Study Design Prospective pre- and poststudy of a novel virtual surgical rehearsal platform. Setting Academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency training programs. Subjects and Methods Sixteen otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents from 2 North American training institutions were recruited. Surveys were administered to assess subjects' baseline confidence in performing 12 subtasks of cortical mastoidectomy with facial recess. A cadaver temporal bone was randomly assigned to each subject. Cadaver specimens were scanned with a clinical computed tomography protocol, allowing the creation of anatomy-specific models for use in a VR surgical rehearsal platform. Subjects then rehearsed a virtual mastoidectomy on data sets derived from their specimens. Surgical confidence surveys were administered again. Subjects then dissected assigned cadaver specimens, which were blindly graded with a modified Welling scale. A final survey assessed the perceived utility of rehearsal on dissection performance. Results Of 16 subjects, 14 (87.5%) reported a significant increase in overall confidence after conducting an anatomy-specific VR rehearsal. A significant correlation existed between perceived utility of rehearsal and confidence improvement. The effect of rehearsal on confidence was dependent on trainee experience and the inherent difficulty of the surgical subtask. Postrehearsal confidence correlated strongly with graded dissection performance. Subjects rated anatomy-specific rehearsal as having a moderate to high contribution to their dissection performance. Conclusion Anatomy-specific virtual rehearsal improves surgeon confidence in performing mastoid dissection, dependent on surgeon experience and task difficulty. The subjective confidence gained through rehearsal correlates positively with subsequent

  11. Investigation of a novel completely-in-the-canal direct-drive hearing device: a temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Paulick, Peyton; Kiumehr, Saman; Merlo, Mark; Bachman, Mark; Djalilian, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Whether a prototype direct-drive hearing device (DHD) is effective in driving the tympanic membrane (TM) in a temporal bone specimen to enable it to potentially treat moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Patient satisfaction with air conduction hearing aids has been low because of sound distortion, occlusion effect, and feedback issues. Implantable hearing aids provide a higher quality sound but require surgery for placement. The DHD was designed to combine the ability of driving the ossicular chain with placement in the external auditory canal. DHD is a 3.5-mm wide device that could fit entirely into the bony ear canal and directly drive the TM rather than use a speaker. A cadaveric temporal bone was prepared. The device developed in our laboratory was coupled to the external surface of the TM and against the malleus. Frequency sweeps between 300 Hz to 12 kHz were performed in 2 different coupling methods at 104 and 120 dB, and the DHD was driven with various levels of current. Displacements of the posterior crus of the stapes were measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The DHD showed a linear frequency response from 300 Hz to 12 kHz. Placement against the malleus showed higher amplitudes and lower power requirements than when the device was placed on the TM. DHD is a small completely-in-the-canal device that mechanically drives the TM. This novel device has a frequency output wider than most air conduction devices. Findings of the current study demonstrated that the DHD had the potential of being incorporated into a hearing aid in the future.

  12. A novel framework for the temporal analysis of bone mineral density in metastatic lesions using CT images of the femur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Tom H.; Derikx, Loes C.; Verdonschot, Nico; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2015-03-01

    In the progressive stages of cancer, metastatic lesions in often develop in the femur. The accompanying pain and risk of fracture dramatically affect the quality of life of the patient. Radiotherapy is often administered as palliative treatment to relieve pain and restore the bone around the lesion. It is thought to affect the bone mineralization of the treated region, but the quantitative relation between radiation dose and femur remineralization remains unclear. A new framework for the longitudinal analysis of CT-scans of patients receiving radiotherapy is presented to investigate this relationship. The implemented framework is capable of automatic calibration of Hounsfield Units to calcium equivalent values and the estimation of a prediction interval per scan. Other features of the framework are temporal registration of femurs using elastix, transformation of arbitrary Regions Of Interests (ROI), and extraction of metrics for analysis. Build in Matlab, the modular approach aids easy adaptation to the pertinent questions in the explorative phase of the research. For validation purposes, an in-vitro model consisting of a human cadaver femur with a milled hole in the intertrochanteric region was used, representing a femur with a metastatic lesion. The hole was incrementally stacked with plates of PMMA bone cement with variable radiopaqueness. Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, changes in density distribution due to an increase of the calcium concentration could be discriminated. In a 21 cm3 ROI, changes in 8% of the volume from 888 ± 57mg • ml-1 to 1000 ± 80mg • ml-1 could be statistically proven using the proposed framework. In conclusion, the newly developed framework proved to be a useful and flexible tool for the analysis of longitudinal CT data.

  13. Subtraction radiography and computer assisted densitometric analyses of standardized radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortmann, L.F.; Dunford, R.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1985-01-01

    A standardized radiographic series of incrementally increasing alveolar crestal defects in skulls were subjected to analyses by subtraction radiography and computer assisted quantitative densitometric analysis. Subjects were able to detect change using subtraction radiography in alveolar bone defects with bone loss in the range of 1-5 percent as measured by 125 I absorptiometry. Quantitative densitometric analyses utilizing radiographic pairs adjusted for differences in contrast (gamma corrected) can be used to follow longitudinal changes at a particular alveolar bone site. Such measurements correlate with change observed by 125 I absorptiometry (r=0.82-0.94). (author)

  14. Cholesteatoma: computed tomography and radiography in a dog; Colesteatoma: tomografia computadorizada e radiografia em cao com otite cronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: a_fbelotta@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia . Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Arruda, Vanesa Kutz de; Amorim, Rogerio Martins [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Clinica Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Cholesteatoma, a rare and/or misdiagnosed disease, results of a serious complication in dogs with chronic otitis. This article describes a case of a dachshund sent to the veterinary hospital presenting signs of cognitive dysfunction associated to peripheral neuropathy of the facial nerve on the right side. At radiography, an enlargement and thickness of the contours associated with loss of anatomical definition of the right tympanic bulla compared to the left was seen. At tomography, this enlargement and thickness were seen with better definition, besides the fulfilling by hyperdense calcified content, bullae osteolysis and temporal bone sclerosis at the same side. (author)

  15. Follow-up of bone lesions in an experimental multiple myeloma mouse model: Description of an in vivo technique using radiography dedicated for mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderkerken, K.; Goes, E.; Raeve, H. de; Radl, J.; Camp, B. van

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of bone lesions in transplantable C57BL/KaLwRij 5T mouse myeloma (MM) has been followed in vivo. Mice were anaesthetised and a radiograph of the pelvis and hind legs was performed by a radiograph dedicated for mammography. This is the first description of an in vivo technique under

  16. Imaging optimization of temporal bones with cochlear implant using a high-resolution cone beam CT and the corresponding effective dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, J.; Koivisto, J.; Lähelmä, J.; Aarnisalo, A.; Wolff, J.; Pyykkö, I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of tube voltage, tube current, pulse number, and magnification factor on the image quality of a novel experimental set-up and the corresponding radiation. Materials and Methods: Six human temporal bones with cochlear implant were imaged using various tube voltages,

  17. Imaging Optimization of Temporal Bones With Cochlear Implant Using a High-resolution Cone Beam CT and the Corresponding Effective Dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, J.; Koivisto, J.; Lahelma, J.; Aarnisalo, A.; Wolff, J.; Pyykko, I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of tube voltage, tube current, pulse number, and magnification factor on the image quality of a novel experimental set-up and the corresponding radiation. Materials and Methods: Six human temporal bones with cochlear implant were imaged using various tube voltages,

  18. High-resolution CT of temporal bone trauma: review of 38 cases; L'apport du scanner dans les traumatismes du rocher: a propos de 38 cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroual, M.R.; Zougarhi, A.; Cherif Idrissi El Ganouni, N.; Essadki, O.; Ousehal, A. [CHU Mohamed 6, Service de Radiologie, Marrakech (Morocco); Tijani Adil, O.; Maliki, O.; Aderdour, L.; Raji, A. [CHU Mohamed 6, Service d' ORL, Marrakech (Morocco)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose Temporal bone trauma is frequent but difficult to assess due to the diversity of clinical presentations and complex anatomy. We have sought to assess the different types of fractures and complications on high-resolution CT. Materials and methods Descriptive retrospective study over a 24 month period performed in the ENT radiology section of the Mohammed 6 university medical center in Marrakech. A total of 38 cases of temporal bone trauma were reviewed. All patients underwent ENT evaluation and high-resolution CT of the temporal bone using 1 mm axial and coronal sections. Results Mean patient age was 33 years (range: 14-55 years) with male predominance (sex ratio: 36/2). Clinical symptoms were mainly otorrhagia and conductive hearing loss. Oblique extra-labyrinthine fractures were most frequent. Two cases of pneumo-labyrinth were noted. Management was conservative in most cases with deafness in 3 cases. Conclusion High-resolution CT of the temporal bone provides accurate depiction of lesions explaining the clinical symptoms and helps guide management. MRI is complimentary to further assess the labyrinth and VII-VIII nerve complex. (author)

  19. Presbycusis: a human temporal bone study of individuals with flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss using a new method to quantify stria vascularis volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik G; Hinojosa, Raul

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of stria vascularis atrophy in individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss. Individuals with presbycusis have historically been categorized by the shape of their audiograms, and flat audiometric thresholds have been reported to be associated with atrophy of the stria vascularis. Stria vascularis volume was not measured in these studies. Retrospective case review. Archival human temporal bones from individuals with presbycusis were selected on the basis of strict audiometric criteria for flat audiometric thresholds. Six temporal bones that met these criteria were identified and compared with 10 temporal bones in individuals with normal hearing. A unique quantitative method was developed to measure the stria vascularis volume in these temporal bones. The hair cell and spiral ganglion cell populations also were quantitatively evaluated. Only one of the six individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric thresholds had significant atrophy of the stria vascularis. This individual with stria vascularis atrophy also had reduced inner hair cell, outer hair cell, and ganglion cell populations. Three of the individuals with presbycusis had spiral ganglion cell loss, three individuals had inner hair cell loss, and all six individuals had outer hair cell loss. The results of this investigation suggest that individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss infrequently have stria vascularis atrophy. Outer hair cell loss alone or in combination with inner hair cell or ganglion cell loss may be the cause of flat audiometric thresholds in individuals with presbycusis.

  20. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of periosteal reactions in bone sarcomas using conventional radiography as the reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Neto, José Luiz; Simão, Marcelo Novelino; Crema, Michel Daoud; Engel, Edgard Eduard; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting periosteal reactions and to compare MRI and conventional radiography (CR) in terms of the classification of periosteal reactions. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of 42 consecutive patients (mean age, 22 years; 20 men) with a confirmed diagnosis of osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma, MRI and CR images having been acquired pretreatment. Three blinded radiologists detected periosteal reactions and evaluated each periosteal reaction subtype in CR and MRI images: Codman's triangle; laminated; and spiculated. The CR was used as a benchmark to calculate the diagnostic performance. We used the kappa coefficient to assess interobserver reproducibility. A two-tailed Fisher's exact test was used in order to assess contingency between CR and MRI classifications. Results: In the detection of periosteal reactions, MRI showed high specificity, a high negative predictive value, and low-to-moderate sensitivity. For CR and for MRI, the interobserver agreement for periosteal reaction was almost perfect, whereas, for the classification of different subtypes of periosteal reaction, it was higher for the Codman's triangle subtype and lower for the spiculated subtype. There was no significant difference between MRI and CR in terms of the classifications (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We found no difference between MRI and CR in terms of their ability to classify periosteal reactions. MRI showed high specificity and almost perfect interobserver agreement for the detection of periosteal reactions. The interobserver agreement was variable for the different subtypes of periosteal reaction. PMID:28670029

  1. Picosecond Infrared Laser (PIRL) Application in Stapes Surgery-First Experience in Human Temporal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hannes; Gliese, Alexandra; Stober, Yannick; Maier, Stephanie; Hansen, Nils-Owe; Kruber, Sebastian; Eggert, Dennis; Tóth, Miklós; Gosau, Tobias; Schlüter, Hartmut; Püschel, Klaus; Schumacher, Udo; Miller, Robert John Dwayne; Münscher, Adrian; Dalchow, Carsten

    2018-04-01

    Using a contact-free laser technique for stapedotomy reduces the risk of mechanical damage of the stapes footplate. However, the risk of inner ear dysfunction due to thermal, acoustic, or direct damage has still not been solved. The objective of this study was to describe the first experiences in footplate perforation in cadaver tissue performed by the novel Picosecond-Infrared-Laser (PIRL), allowing a tissue preserving ablation. Three human cadaver stapes were perforated using a fiber-coupled PIRL. The results were compared with footplate perforations performed with clinically applied Er:YAG laser. Therefore, two different laser energies for the Er:YAG laser (30 and 60 mJ) were used for footplate perforation of three human cadaver stapes each. Comparisons were made using histology and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis. The perforations performed by the PIRL (total energy: 640-1070 mJ) revealed a precise cutting edge with an intact trabecular bone structure and no considerable signs of coagulation. Using the Er:YAG-Laser with a pulse energy of 30 mJ (total energy: 450-600 mJ), a perforation only in the center of the ablation zone was possible, whereas with a pulse energy of 60 mJ (total energy: of 195-260 mJ) the whole ablation zone was perforated. For both energies, the cutting edge appeared irregular with trabecular structure of the bone only be conjecturable and signs of superficial carbonization. The microscopic results following stapes footplate perforation suggest a superiority of the PIRL in comparison to the Er:YAG laser regarding the precision and tissue preserving ablation.

  2. Radiography - A conceptual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, Sanna-Mari

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this article is to describe interdisciplinary comparison of the attributes of the concept of radiography in health sciences, physics and technology on the grounds of concept analysis. Background: The concept of radiography is widely used in health sciences, physics and technology. However, the content of the concept may vary. In order to clarify the concept of radiography, the concept must be systematically examined and defined in linguistic form. Method: The concept of radiography was analysed by using the evolutionary method of concept analysis. The data were collected through discretionary sampling and consisted of literature and Internet pages. Qualitative content analysis was employed for analysing the data. Findings: As a result of concept analysis, the concept of radiography in health sciences was determined as expertise of radiographers in the use of radiation, which is dual, dynamic, social and situation-related in nature, and typically based on versatile synthesis. Regarding the attributes identified, the concept of radiography has both similarities and differences between health sciences, physics and technology. Conclusions: The concept of radiography was found to be more abstract, wider, more complex and more radiographer-centred in health sciences than in other disciplines. The content of the concept of radiography seems to vary according to the discipline

  3. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years......Background: Chest radiography is one of the most common examinations in radiology departments. In 2013 approximately 80,000 chest x-rays were performed on women in the fertile age. Even low dose for the examinationCorrect collimation Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing...... of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of clinical supervisors. Optimal collimation is determined by European...

  4. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian; Thomsen, Henrik

    Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials:A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from...... one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance...... at the conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  5. Effectiveness of Periapical Radiography Versus Cone Beam Computed Tomography with Different Kilovoltage Settings in the Detection of Chemically Created Peri-implant Bone Defects: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Lucas Rodrigues; Scarfe, William C; de Oliveira Sales, Marcelo Augusto; Gaia, Bruno Felipe; Cortes, Arthur Rodriguez; Gusmão Paraiso Cavalcanti, Marcelo

    To determine the effectiveness of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images obtained with different kilovoltage settings compared with intraoral periapical photostimulable storage phosphor (PSP) plate images in the detection of chemically created peri-implant defects utilizing a bovine rib bone model in vitro. After placing 80 implants in bovine ribs, peri-implant circumferential bone defects of different sizes were created with 70% perchloric acid. CBCT images (3D Accuitomo 170) were acquired at 90 and 75 kVp, and intraoral periapical images were acquired using a PSP system (Carestream KODAK, CS 7600). Using a 5-point Likert scale, two oral and maxillofacial radiologists (OMR) and two oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMS) evaluated the likelihood of a bone defect being absent or present. The kappa statistic was used to compare observer agreement, and area under the curve values were compared using analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey test. Significance was set at P ≤ .05. PSP reliability ranged from discordance to slight for small defects and fair to moderate for larger defects. For CBCT, OMRs had good agreement for defects using 90 kVp, and slight to fair using 75 kVp. Agreement for OMS observations was fair for 75 kVp, and varied from slight to good for 90 kVp. Small lesions were detected more effectively by CBCT than by PSP, and larger lesions were detected more effectively by CBCT at 90 kVp than by CBCT at 75 kVp or by PSP. CBCT imaging at 90 kVp was associated with a significantly higher rate of detection of both small and large chemically simulated bone defects than PSP or CBCT at 75 kVp. CBCT imaging at 75 kVp proved better than PSP for the detection of small defects.

  6. Temporal requirement for bone morphogenetic proteins in regeneration of the tail and limb of Xenopus tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Caroline W; Christen, Bea; Barker, Donna; Slack, Jonathan M W

    2006-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling is necessary for both the development of the tail bud and for tail regeneration in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Using a stable transgenic line in which expression of the soluble BMP inhibitor noggin is under the control of the temperature inducible hsp70 promoter, we have investigated the timing of the requirement for BMP signalling during tail regeneration. If noggin expression is induced followed by partial amputation of the tail, then wound closure and the formation of the neural ampulla occur normally but outgrowth of the regeneration bud is inhibited. Furthermore, we show that BMP signalling is also necessary for limb bud regeneration, which occurs in Xenopus tadpoles prior to differentiation. When noggin expression is induced, limb bud regeneration fails at an early stage and a stump is formed. The situation appears similar to the tail, with formation of the limb bud blastema occurring but renewed outgrowth inhibited. The transcriptional repressor Msx1, a direct target of BMP signalling with known roles in vertebrate appendage regeneration, fails to be re-expressed in both tail and limb in the presence of noggin. DNA labelling studies show that proliferation in the notochord and spinal cord of the tail, and of the blastema in the limb bud, is significantly inhibited by noggin induction, suggesting that in the context of these regenerating appendages BMP is mainly required, directly or indirectly, as a mitogenic factor.

  7. Drilling simulated temporal bones with left-handed tools: a left-hander's right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Cory S; Brydges, Ryan; Chen, Joseph M; Dubrowski, Adam

    2007-11-01

    Left-handed trainees can be at a disadvantage in the surgical environment because of a right-handed bias. The effectiveness of teaching left-handed trainees to use an otologic drill designed for their dominant hand versus the conventional right-handed drill was examined. Novice medical students were recruited from the university community. Twenty-four subjects were left-handed, and 12 were right-handed. Eight left-handed surgeons also participated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the performance of left-handed trainees using novel left-handed drills to that of left-handed trainees using right-handed tools and to that of right-handed trainees using right-handed tools. The evaluation consisted of 3 phases: pretest, skill acquisition, and 2 post-tests. The measurement tools included expert assessment of performance, and subjective and objective final product analyses. An initial construct validity phase was conducted in which validity of the assessment tools was ensured. Both the left-handers using left-handed tools and the right-handers using right-handed tools significantly outperformed the left-handers using right-handed tools at pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest. All participants improved their performance as a function of practice. The left-handed trainees learned bone drilling better with tools designed for the left hand. These tools may be incorporated into residency training programs for the development of surgical technical skills. Future studies should assess skill transfer between the left-handed and right-handed drills.

  8. Neutron radiography, techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

  9. Recent developments in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Harold

    1982-01-01

    Advances in radiography are reviewed and eighty-one references are cited to provide additional information. The review includes information on x-ray sources in terms of output, portability and imaging geometry and detectors in terms of films and screens, electrostatic methods, real-time techniques and solid state devices. Inspection methods utilizing radiations other than x-rays, neutrons and charged particles, expand the inspection problems suitable for radiography. Techniques such as tomography, digital radiography and image enhancement are described. Tomography, in particular, provides excellent capability to characterize materials and discontinuities

  10. Transitioning to digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, F., E-mail: Francisco.Miranda@pwc.ca [Pratt & Whitney Canada, Longueuil, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    This article provides insight on the technical and business considerations necessary to implement or to transition to digital radiography Continued refinements in digital radiography technology have resulted in significant improvements in image quality and detectability of indications. These improvements have resulted in the acceptance of the technology by users and aerospace primes for final product inspection and disposition. Digital radiography has also been identified as an interesting cost reduction initiative with the potential of providing gains in productivity through increased throughput and decreased inspection lead-times and resulting costs. (author)

  11. Experiments on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Ghaffar Ramli; Azali Muhamad; Wan Ruslan Yusof; Ahmad Sabri Abdul Razak; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim; Rosley Jaafar

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the neutron-radiography research activities in Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN) as a trial before a neutron-radiography service can routinely be given. This trial neutron-radiography research encompasses the design and construction of a facility (NuR 1), collimator and the exposure system, as well as measurements of neutron and gamma dose-distribution, neutron-beam properties in NuR 1 and characteristics of the image recorder. A few problems arose in the early stage of work and the action taken to overcome these are also mentioned. Finally, methods of increasing the quality of the image are proposed and attempted. This project has given some important information so as to enable the construction of a permanent facility (Nur 2) and the execution of a neutron-radiography service. (author)

  12. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  13. Initial results of a new generation dual source CT system using only an in-plane comb filter for ultra-high resolution temporal bone imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Raupach, Rainer; Schmidt, Bernhard; Lietzmann, Florian; Leidecker, Christianne; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Schad, Lothar R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate radiation dose and image quality of a third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) without z-axis filter behind the patient for temporal bone CT. Forty-five patients were either examined on a first, second, or third generation DSCT in an ultra-high-resolution (UHR) temporal bone-imaging mode. On the third generation DSCT system, the tighter focal spot of 0.2 mm(2) removes the necessity for an additional z-axis-filter, leading to an improved z-axis radiation dose efficiency. Images of 0.4 mm were reconstructed using standard filtered-back-projection or iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for previous generations of DSCT and a novel IR algorithm for the third generation DSCT. Radiation dose and image quality were compared between the three DSCT systems. The statistically significantly highest subjective and objective image quality was evaluated for the third generation DSCT when compared to the first or second generation DSCT systems (all p generation examination as compared to the first and second generation DSCT. Temporal bone imaging without z-axis-UHR-filter and a novel third generation IR algorithm allows for significantly higher image quality while lowering effective dose when compared to the first two generations of DSCTs. • Omitting the z-axis-filter allows a reduction in radiation dose of 50% • A smaller focal spot of 0.2 mm (2) significantly improves spatial resolution • Ultra-high-resolution temporal-bone-CT helps to gain diagnostic information of the middle/inner ear.

  14. Studies on the Fuji computed radiography depended on the panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Shiota, Satoru; Takazawa, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Toru; Takagi, Yoshiko; Funamoto, Choichiro

    1986-01-01

    The Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) developed recently involves the following procedures; photography in the same way as the hitherto radiography, printing auto imaging plate of photostimulable phospher, conversion to electric signals, and recording reproduced images by computerization. Highly valuable images for diagnoses in the medical field have already been obtained by the FCR. Then, we attempted to study FCR images panoramically radiographed for jaw lesions in the field of oral surgery. Method for study: As the samples to be studied, the selected subjects were cases of periodontal diseases, fracture of the jaw, odontogenic cyst and tumor, etc. In the present study the FCR images of panoramic radiography were compared with hitherto panoramic flat radiograms. Result of study: Although the images of the FCR vary depending on the methods of treatment, that is, on how gradient processing and spatial frequency enhancement are, the method of purpose-fitting treatment provided diagnostically significant images for grasping bone lesions. The images obtained from this FCR permitted us to grasp more distinctly condition of alveolar bone resorption in periodontal diseases, running of minute fracture lines in fracture of the jaw, and characteristic images of bone resorption in odontogenic cysts and tumor, etc. Thus the images of the FCR are highly useful in diagnosing bone lesions, but granularity of the images themselves have still been questioned, and additionally the images vary depending on the methods of gradient processing and spatial frequency enhancement. Therefore further repeat studies are probably needed for these questions. (author)

  15. Prevalence of radiographic semicircular canal dehiscence in very young children: an evaluation using high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Mari; Fatterpekar, Girish [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Shaikh, Jamil A. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, New York, NY (United States); Fang, Yixin [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, New York, NY (United States); New York University School of Medicine, Division of Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Roehm, Pamela C. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, New York, NY (United States); New York University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Division of Otology/Neurotology, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Previous studies suggest that semicircular canal dehiscences (SCDs) have a developmental origin. We hypothesized that if SCDs originate during development, incidence of radiographic SCDs in young children will be higher than in adults. Thirty-four temporal bone HRCTs of children younger than 2 years and 40 temporal bone HRCTs of patients older than 18 years were reformatted and re-evaluated for presence of SCD or canal thinning. Results were compared with indications for HRCT and clinical information. SCDs were detected in 27.3% of children younger than 2 years of age (superior, 13.8%; posterior, 20%) and in 3% of adults (P < 0.004). Of children with one radiographic dehiscence, 55.6% had multiple and 44% had bilateral SCDs on HRCT. No lateral canal SCDs were present. Thinning of bone overlying the semicircular canals was found in 44% of children younger than 2 years and 2.5% of adults (P < 0.0001). SCDs are more common on HRCTs of very young children. This supports the hypothesis that SCDs originate from discontinuation of bone deposition/maturation. However, SCDs on imaging do not necessarily correlate with canal dehiscence syndrome and should therefore be interpreted carefully. (orig.)

  16. Diagnostic criteria for enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) on CT of the temporal bones. Borderline cases of EVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Mariko; Hoshino, Tomoyuki; Kikura, Mikino; Kikawada, Keiko; Kikawada, Toru

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine measurements of the vestibular aqueduct on axial CT figures and to examine the cases with borderline EVA. The width of the vestibular aqueduct was measured in two places, the midpoint of the duct and the external aperture in the posterior cranial fossa. Criteria was as follow: Enlargement; ≥1.5 mm at the midpoint, ≥2 mm at the aperture, Borderline; 1-1.4 mm at the midpoint, 1.5-1.9 mm at the aperture. Three hundred forty-five cases with CT scans of the temporal bones taken during July 2003 to June 2004 in the secondary ENT referral center. Those patients include sensorinearal, mixed or conductive deafness, vertigo, ear infections and other ear diseases. Enlarged vestibular aqueduct was found in 10 ears with sensorineural deafness (SD) and 2 ears without SD. Borderline measurements were found in 19 ears with SD and 33 ears without SD. The enlarged midpoint measurement was not seen in the cases without SD. More than 1.5 mm of the definition for the enlargement at the midpoint of the vestibular aqueduct seemed to be appropriate in the clinical situation. The measurement at the midpoint of the duct is more reliable than at the external aperture. The conductive component in EVA Syndrome with mixed hearing loss is present only at the lower frequencies (250, 500 Hz), not at the middle and higer frequencies. Long-term follow-up of hearing should be done in the borderline cases with check-up of PDS gene anomaly if necessary. (author)

  17. Radiography at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    What is industrial radiography? It is a non-destructive method with a wide variety of applications, such as inspecting the quality of a weld. It uses high-energy radioactive sources or an X-ray generator.   Is this inspection technique used at CERN? Yes, it is widely used at CERN by the EN-MME Group, which outsources the work to one or more companies, depending on the workload. Is it possible to carry out radiography anywhere at CERN? Yes, it is possible to carry out radiography in any building/accelerator/experiment area at CERN (including in areas which are not normally subject to radiological hazards). When is radiography carried out? It normally takes place outside of working hours (7 p.m. to 6 a.m.). How will I know if radiography is taking place in my building? If this activity is planned in a CERN building, notices will be affixed to all of its main entrance doors at least 24 hours in advance. What are the risks? There is a risk of exposure to very high levels of radiation, dep...

  18. Digital radiography in NDT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprins, E.

    2004-01-01

    A lot of film radiography could be replaced by today's technologies in the field of digital radiography. Only few of these applications have indeed replaced film. The choice to go digital depends on cost, quality requirement, workflow and throughput. Digital images offer a lot of advantages in terms of image manipulation and workflow. But despite the many advantages, a lot of considerations are needed before someone can decide to convert his organization from conventional to digital radiography. This paper gives an overview of all different modalities that can be used in digital radiography with today's technologies, together with the experiences of the pioneers of digital radiography. Film Scanning, Computed Radiography and Digital Radiography by using of different kinds of flat panel detectors all have their specific application fields and customers. What is the status of the technology today, which advantages brings digital radiography, and which are the limitations radiographers have to consider when replacing film by digital systems. (author)

  19. Flat Panel Angiography in the Cross-Sectional Imaging of the Temporal Bone: Assessment of Image Quality and Radiation Dose Compared with a 64-Section Multisection CT Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, G; Scola, E; Calloni, S; Brambilla, R; Campoleoni, M; Lombardi, L; Di Berardino, F; Zanetti, D; Gaini, L M; Triulzi, F; Sina, C

    2017-10-01

    Cross-sectional imaging of the temporal bone is challenging because of the complexity and small dimensions of the anatomic structures. We evaluated the role of flat panel angiography in the cross-sectional imaging of the temporal bone by comparing its image quality and radiation dose with a 64-section multisection CT scanner. We retrospectively collected 29 multisection CT and 29 flat panel angiography images of normal whole-head temporal bones. Image quality was assessed by 2 neuroradiologists, who rated the visualization of 30 anatomic structures with a 3-point ordinal scale. The radiation dose was assessed with an anthropomorphic phantom. Flat panel angiography showed better image quality than multisection CT in depicting the anterior and posterior crura of the stapes, the footplate of the stapes, the stapedius muscle, and the anterior ligament of the malleus ( P panel angiography in assessing the tympanic membrane, the bone marrow of the malleus and incus, the tendon of the tensor tympani, the interscalar septum, and the modiolus of the cochlea ( P panel angiography had a significantly higher overall image quality rating than multisection CT ( P = .035). A reduction of the effective dose of approximately 40% was demonstrated for flat panel angiography compared with multisection CT. Flat panel angiography shows strengths and weaknesses compared with multisection CT. It is more susceptible to artifacts, but due to the higher spatial resolution, it shows equal or higher image quality in assessing some bony structures of diagnostic interest. The lower radiation dose is an additional advantage of flat panel angiography. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  20. Spatially coded backscatter radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, S.; Hussein, E.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography requires access to two opposite sides of an object, which makes it unsuitable for the inspection of extended and/or thick structures (airframes, bridges, floors etc.). Backscatter imaging can overcome this problem, but the indications obtained are difficult to interpret. This paper applies the coded aperture technique to gamma-ray backscatter-radiography in order to enhance the detectability of flaws. This spatial coding method involves the positioning of a mask with closed and open holes to selectively permit or block the passage of radiation. The obtained coded-aperture indications are then mathematically decoded to detect the presence of anomalies. Indications obtained from Monte Carlo calculations were utilized in this work to simulate radiation scattering measurements. These simulated measurements were used to investigate the applicability of this technique to the detection of flaws by backscatter radiography

  1. Are radiography lecturers, leaders?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, Julie Anne

    2013-01-01

    This review article aims to explore the concept of radiography lecturers acting as leaders to their student followers. Through a brief review of the literature, a definition of leadership is suggested and some leadership theories explored. The path-goal theory, leader–member exchange theory and the contemporary theory of transformational leadership are examined more closely. Links between lecturer-leader behaviour and student motivation and learning are tentatively suggested with transformational leadership appearing to offer the optimal leadership style for lecturers to adopt. The paucity of literature relating directly to radiography is acknowledged and areas for further research are suggested. The article concludes with some of the author's practical ideas for incorporating transformational leadership styles and behaviours into radiography education today

  2. Broadening the radiography spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waswa, L.; Mutwasi, O.; Kioko, J.

    2006-05-01

    The text discuses the mammography in breast screening and evaluation of breast cancer; Small parts ultrasounds at plaza imaging solutions; role of a Radiographer in mammography-new perspective; Medical imaging education in africa; Caring for the paediatric patient as to broaden radiotherapy spectrum; Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy; Paediatric radiotherapy, management and side effects; The principles of pattern recognition of skeletal structures; the place of distance learning education in broadening the radiography spectrum; the curriculum and budgeting image; sonographer's guide; Computed radiography- X-Ray with vision; digital Radiography in Kenya today; Particle Therapy at Ithemba Labs; The role of lung perfusion and ventilation study in the evaluation of the pulmonary embolism and lastly, an overview of Head and neck treatment at Kenyatta National hospital radiotherapy

  3. Real-time radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components

  4. Practical radiography. 11. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoxter, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    After a brief explanation of the basics of electricity, the fundamentals of radiography are dealt with in more detail - the discovery of X-rays, their nature and properties, the production of the X-ray image and ways of improving the image. A chapter is devoted to the important subject of radiation protection. Explanations are given of the use of the Siemens exposure tables, which make it simpler to modify exposures from the values given in the tables. There is also a section on some of the standard radiographic positioning for patients. The most common medical terms used in radiography and fluoroscopy are listed and an Appendix gives details of the major items of Siemens X-ray equipment. There is a list of literature recommended for further study. Theoretical explanations have been kept to a minimum so that information that is important to radiography can be emphasized. (orig./MG)

  5. [Comparison between cone beam computed tomography and periapical radiography in the diagnosis of periapical disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Gao; Jing, Shen

    2015-04-01

    With the development of medical radiography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely used in stomatology because of its numerous advantages, such as adequate spatial resolution, low radiation, undistorted three- dimensional tissue information, and good applicability for hard tissue imaging. Traditional periapical radiography is based on two-dimensional image which displays the three-dimensional object and its surrounding structures. Periapical radiography can only show the overlapping mesio-distally direction bone destruction, can't show buccolingual direction bone destruction. As a kind of three-dimensional imaging technology, CBCT can show three-dimensional structure of the organization from sagittal, coronal and axial direction, to overcome the defect of two-dimensional image such as overlap and deformation. CBCT has a unique advantage than periapical radiography in the diagnosis and treatment for periapical disease. This review will summarize the difference between CBCT and periapical radiography in the periapical disease.

  6. High-resolution T1-weighted 3D real IR imaging of the temporal bone using triple-dose contrast material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo; Aoki, Ikuo

    2003-01-01

    The small structures in the temporal bone are surrounded by bone and air. The objectives of this study were (a) to compare contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images acquired by fast spin-echo-based three-dimensional real inversion recovery (3D rIR) against those acquired by gradient echo-based 3D SPGR in the visualization of the enhancement of small structures in the temporal bone, and (b) to determine whether either 3D rIR or 3D SPGR is useful for visualizing enhancement of the cochlear lymph fluid. Seven healthy men (age range 27-46 years) volunteered to participate in this study. All MR imaging was performed using a dedicated bilateral quadrature surface phased-array coil for temporal bone imaging at 1.5 T (Visart EX, Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan). The 3D rIR images (TR/TE/TI: 1800 ms/10 ms/500 ms) and flow-compensated 3D SPGR images (TR/TE/FA: 23 ms/10 ms/25 ) were obtained with a reconstructed voxel size of 0.6 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm 3 . Images were acquired before and 1, 90, 180, and 270 min after the administration of triple-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA (0.3 mmol/kg). In post-contrast MR images, the degree of enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct, endolymphatic sac, subarcuate artery, geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve, and cochlear lymph fluid space was assessed by two radiologists. The degree of enhancement was scored as follows: 0 (no enhancement); 1 (slight enhancement); 2 (intermediate between 1 and 3); and 3 (enhancement similar to that of vessels). Enhancement scores for the endolymphatic sac, subarcuate artery, and geniculate ganglion were higher in 3D rIR than in 3D SPGR. Washout of enhancement in the endolymphatic sac appeared to be delayed compared with that in the subarcuate artery, suggesting that the enhancement in the endolymphatic sac may have been due in part to non-vascular tissue enhancement. Enhancement of the cochlear lymph space was not observed in any of the subjects in 3D rIR and 3D SPGR. The 3D rIR sequence may be more sensitive than the 3D SPGR sequence in

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging, radiography, and scintigraphy of the finger joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, M; Ostergaard, M; Jensen, K E

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate synovial membrane hypertrophy, tenosynovitis, and erosion development of the 2nd to 5th metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints by magnetic resonance imaging in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or suspected RA followed up for one year. Add....... Additionally, to compare the results with radiography, bone scintigraphy, and clinical findings....

  8. Manual on industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    This manual is intended as a source of educational material to personnel seeking certification as industrial radiographers, and as a guide and reference text for educational organizations that are providng courses in industrial radiography. It covers the basic principles of x-ray and gamma radiation, radiation safety, films and film processing, welding, casting and forging, aircraft structures and components, radiographic techniques, and records

  9. Scanning equalization radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plewes, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is in the field of radiography and seeks to reduce the undesirable effects on a radiographic image due to variations in thickness of the irradiated object which cause large variations in exposure at the image plane that can exceed the practical or desirable exposure range of the film or other imaging medium. 17 figs

  10. Neutron induced electron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Marcos Leandro Garcia

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper a new radiography technique, the 'Neutron Induced Electron Radiography' - NIER, to inspect low thickness samples on the order of micra, has been developed. This technique makes use of low energy electrons as penetrating radiation generated from metallic gadolinium screens when irradiated by thermal neutrons. The conditions to obtain the best image for the conventional X-ray film Kodak-AA were determined by using a digital system to quantify the darkening level of the film. The irradiations have been performed at a radiography equipment installed at the beam-hole no. 8 of the 5 MW IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The irradiation time to obtain the best radiography was 100 seconds and for such condition the technique was able to discern 1 μm in 24 μm of aluminum at a resolution of 32 μm. By visual comparison the images obtained by the NIER shown a higher quality when compared with the ones from other usual techniques the make use of electrons a penetrating radiation and films for image registration. Furthermore the use of the digital system has provided a smaller time for data acquisition and data analysis as well as an improvement in the image visualization. (author)

  11. High definition radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the use of small X and gamma ray sources in industrial radiography. The emphasis is on how they can be used in the ''mass production'' situation or when a large number of tube to tubeplate welds are to be inspected

  12. RNA analysis of inner ear cells from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) archival human temporal bone section using laser microdissection--a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yurika; Kubo, Sachiho; Koda, Hiroko; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro; Sawabe, Motoji; Kitamura, Ken

    2013-08-01

    Molecular analysis using archival human inner ear specimens is challenging because of the anatomical complexity, long-term fixation, and decalcification. However, this method may provide great benefit for elucidation of otological diseases. Here, we extracted mRNA for RT-PCR from tissues dissected from archival FFPE human inner ears by laser microdissection. Three human temporal bones obtained at autopsy were fixed in formalin, decalcified by EDTA, and embedded in paraffin. The samples were isolated into spiral ligaments, outer hair cells, spiral ganglion cells, and stria vascularis by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted and heat-treated in 10 mM citrate buffer to remove the formalin-derived modification. To identify the sites where COCH and SLC26A5 mRNA were expressed, semi-nested RT-PCR was performed. We also examined how long COCH mRNA could be amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR in archival temporal bone. COCH was expressed in the spiral ligament and stria vascularis. However, SLC26A5 was expressed only in outer hair cells. The maximum base length of COCH mRNA amplified by RT-PCR was 98 bp in 1 case and 123 bp in 2 cases. We detected COCH and SLC26A5 mRNA in specific structures and cells of the inner ear from archival human temporal bone. Our innovative method using laser microdissection and semi-nested RT-PCR should advance future RNA study of human inner ear diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Presbycusis: a human temporal bone study of individuals with downward sloping audiometric patterns of hearing loss and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik G; Hinojosa, Raul

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case review was to identify patterns of cochlear element degeneration in individuals with presbycusis exhibiting downward sloping audiometric patterns of hearing loss and to correlate these findings with those reported in the literature to clarify conflicting concepts regarding the association between hearing loss and morphologic abnormalities. Archival human temporal bones from individuals with presbycusis were selected on the basis of strict audiometric criteria for downward-sloping audiometric thresholds. Twenty-one temporal bones that met these criteria were identified and compared with 10 temporal bones from individuals with normal hearing. The stria vascularis volumes, spiral ganglion cell populations, inner hair cells, and outer hair cells were quantitatively evaluated. The relationship between the severity of hearing loss and the degeneration of cochlear elements was analyzed using univariate linear regression models. Outer hair cell loss and ganglion cell loss was observed in all individuals with presbycusis. Inner hair cell loss was observed in 18 of the 21 individuals with presbycusis and stria vascularis loss was observed in 10 of the 21 individuals with presbycusis. The extent of degeneration of all four of the cochlear elements evaluated was highly associated with the severity of hearing loss based on audiometric thresholds at 8,000 Hz and the pure-tone average at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 Hz. The extent of ganglion cell degeneration was associated with the slope of the audiogram. Individuals with downward-sloping audiometric patterns of presbycusis exhibit degeneration of the stria vascularis, spiral ganglion cells, inner hair cells, and outer hair cells that is associated with the severity of hearing loss. This association has not been previously reported in studies that did not use quantitative methodologies for evaluating the cochlear elements and strict audiometric criteria for selecting cases.

  14. Artifacts in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Whan; Kim, Jung Min; Jeong, Hoi Woun

    2015-01-01

    Digital Radiography is a big part of diagnostic radiology. Because uncorrected digital radiography image supported false effect of Patient’s health care. We must be manage the correct digital radiography image. Thus, the artifact images can have effect to make a wrong diagnosis. We report types of occurrence by analyzing the artifacts that occurs in digital radiography system. We had collected the artifacts occurred in digital radiography system of general hospital from 2007 to 2014. The collected data had analyzed and then had categorize as the occurred causes. The artifacts could be categorized by hardware artifacts, software artifacts, operating errors, system artifacts, and others. Hardware artifact from a Ghost artifact that is caused by lag effect occurred most frequently. The others cases are the artifacts caused by RF noise and foreign body in equipments. Software artifacts are many different types of reasons. The uncorrected processing artifacts and the image processing error artifacts occurred most frequently. Exposure data recognize (EDR) error artifacts, the processing error of commissural line, and etc., the software artifacts were caused by various reasons. Operating artifacts were caused when the user did not have the full understanding of the digital medical image system. System artifacts had appeared the error due to DICOM header information and the compression algorithm. The obvious artifacts should be re-examined, and it could result in increasing the exposure dose of the patient. The unclear artifact leads to a wrong diagnosis and added examination. The ability to correctly determine artifact are required. We have to reduce the artifact occurrences by understanding its characteristic and providing sustainable education as well as the maintenance of the equipments

  15. Artifacts in digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shin Gu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Beakseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Digital Radiography is a big part of diagnostic radiology. Because uncorrected digital radiography image supported false effect of Patient’s health care. We must be manage the correct digital radiography image. Thus, the artifact images can have effect to make a wrong diagnosis. We report types of occurrence by analyzing the artifacts that occurs in digital radiography system. We had collected the artifacts occurred in digital radiography system of general hospital from 2007 to 2014. The collected data had analyzed and then had categorize as the occurred causes. The artifacts could be categorized by hardware artifacts, software artifacts, operating errors, system artifacts, and others. Hardware artifact from a Ghost artifact that is caused by lag effect occurred most frequently. The others cases are the artifacts caused by RF noise and foreign body in equipments. Software artifacts are many different types of reasons. The uncorrected processing artifacts and the image processing error artifacts occurred most frequently. Exposure data recognize (EDR) error artifacts, the processing error of commissural line, and etc., the software artifacts were caused by various reasons. Operating artifacts were caused when the user did not have the full understanding of the digital medical image system. System artifacts had appeared the error due to DICOM header information and the compression algorithm. The obvious artifacts should be re-examined, and it could result in increasing the exposure dose of the patient. The unclear artifact leads to a wrong diagnosis and added examination. The ability to correctly determine artifact are required. We have to reduce the artifact occurrences by understanding its characteristic and providing sustainable education as well as the maintenance of the equipments.

  16. Dual energy scanning beam X-radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Randolph Frank

    Dual energy X-radiography is a method first developed in the mid-1970's by which one uses the information contained in the energy spectrum of the transmitted X-ray flux through an object. With this information one can distinguish the types of materials present in a radiograph and thus allow a computer to subtract them from the image enhancing the contrast of the remaining materials. Using this method, one can see details, which would have been hidden by overlying structures of other materials such as seen in radiographs of parts, made up of mixtures of metals and composites. There is also great interest in this technique for medical imaging of the chest where images of the organs are significantly improved by subtracting the bones. However, even with the enhanced capabilities realized with this technique, the majority of X-radiography systems only measures the bulk transmitted X-ray intensity and ignores the information contained in the energy spectrum. This is due to the added expense, time requirements, and registration problems incurred using standard radiographic methods to obtain dual energy radiographs. This dissertation describes a novel method which overcomes these problems and allows one to perform inexpensive, near real time, single shot dual energy X-radiography. The work of this thesis resulted in US patent #5,742,660.

  17. Right-to-left-shunt detected by c-TCD using the orbital window in comparison with temporal bone windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kimura, Kazumi; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Sakai, Kenichirou; Aoki, Junya; Iwanaga, Takeshi; Shibazaki, Kensaku

    2012-01-01

    There have been some reports on right-to-left shunt as a cause of cryptogenic stroke. Although contrast transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) can detect RLS, an insufficient temporal window has occasionally restricted its applicability. Thus, we compared the rates of detecting RLS among temporal windows for the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) and the orbital window for the internal carotid artery (ICA) on c-TCD. We used c-TCD to detect RLS in patients with suspected ischemic stroke. We enrolled patients who had both sufficient bilateral temporal windows for MCAs and a right orbital window for ICA and performed c-TCD using all three windows simultaneously. We enrolled 106 consecutive patients and identified microembolic signals (MES) in 30 (28%) of them. Among these 30 patients, 15 had MES from all 3 windows. When these 30 patients were defined as being positive for RLS, the rates of detection were 67%, 73%, and 80% from the right temporal, left temporal, and right orbital windows, respectively (P= .795). The right orbital window as well as the temporal window for c-TCD could detect RLS. Insonation from the orbital window should be useful for patients who lack temporal windows. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  18. A procedure for the evaluation of 2D radiographic texture analysis to assess 3D bone micro-architecture; Evaluation de l'analyse de la texture de radiographies 2D pour evaluer les micro architecture 3D d'os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostol, L.; Peyrin, F.; Yot, S.; Basset, O.; Odet, Ch. [CREATIS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (UMR CNRS 5515), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Apostal, L.; Boller, E. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France); Tabary, J.; Dinten, J.M. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France); Boudousq, V.; Kotzki, P.O. [Faculte de Medecine, Lab. de Biophysique Medicale, 30 - Nimes (France)

    2004-07-01

    Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis is mainly based on Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, it has been shown that trabecular bone micro-architecture is also an important factor in regards of fracture risk, which can be efficiently assessed in vitro using three-dimensional x-ray microtomography ({mu}CT). In vivo, techniques based on high-resolution x-ray radiography associated to texture analysis have been proposed to investigate bone micro-architecture, but their relevance for giving pertinent 3D information is unclear. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for evaluating the relationships between 3D micro-architecture and 2D texture parameters, and optimizing the conditions for radiographic imaging. Bone sample images taken from cortical to cortical were acquired using 3D-synchrotron x-ray {mu}CT at the ESRF. The 3D digital images were further used for two purposes: 1) quantification of three-dimensional bone micro-architecture, 2) simulation of realistic x-ray radiographs under different acquisition conditions. Texture analysis was then applied to these 2D radiographs using a large variety of methods (co-occurrence, spectrum, fractal...). First results of the statistical analysis between 2D and 3D parameters allowed identifying the most relevant 2D texture parameters. (authors)

  19. Dose in conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna D, E.; Padilla R, Z. P.; Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2011-10-01

    It has been pointed out that medical exposures are the most significant sources of exposure to ionizing radiation for the general population. Inside the medical exposures the most important is the X-ray use for diagnosis, which is by far the largest contribution to the average dose received by the population. From all studies performed in radiology the chest radiography is the most abundant. In an X-ray machine, voltage and current are combined to obtain a good image and a reduce dose, however due to the workload in a radiology service individual dose is not monitored. In order to evaluate the dose due to chest radiography in this work a plate phantom was built according to the ISO recommendations using methylmethacrylate walls and water. The phantom was used in the Imaging department of the Zacatecas General Hospital as a radiology patient asking for a chest study; using thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD 100 the kerma at the surface entrance was determined. (Author)

  20. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy-particle radiography has clinical potential as a newly developed noninvasive low-dose imaging procedure that provides increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high-energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program for medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low-dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures, brain and spinal neoplasms, and the heart. The potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, is now proving to be an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, and for the early detection of small soft-tissue tumors at low radiation dose