Sample records for templates genetic

  1. Attempted nonenzymatic template-directed oligomerizations on a polyadenylic acid template: implications for the nature of the first genetic material (United States)

    Stribling, R.; Miller, S. L.


    Previous attempts to produce nonenzymatic template-directed oligomerizations of activated pyrimidines on polypurine templates have been unsuccessful. The only efficient reactions are those where the template is composed primarily of pyrimidines, especially cytosine. Because molecular evolution requires that a synthesized daughter polynucleotide be capable of acting as a template for the synthesis of the original polynucleotide, the one-way replication achieved thus far is inadequate to initiate an evolving system. Several uracil analogs were used in this investigation in order to search for possible replacements for uracil. The monomers used in this investigation were the imidazolides of UMP, xanthosine 5'-monophosphate, the bis-monophosphates of the acyclic nucleosides of uracil, and 2,4-quinazolinedione. The concentrations of various salts, buffers, pH, and temperature were among the different variables investigated in attempts to find conditions that would permit template-directed oligomerizations. Although the different monomers in this study demonstrated varying abilities to form very short oligomers, we were unable to detect any enhancement of this oligomerization that could be attributed to the poly(A) template. Although special conditions might be found that would allow purine-rich templates to work, these reactions cannot be considered robust. The results of our experiments suggest that pyrimidines were not part of the original replicating system on the primitive Earth. It has already been shown that ribose is an unlikely component of the first replicating systems, and we now suggest that phosphate was absent as well. This is due to the low solubility of phosphate in the present ocean (3 x 10(-6) M), as well as the difficulty of prebiotic activation of phosphates.

  2. Graphene Sheets Stabilized on Genetically Engineered M13 Viral Templates as Conducting Frameworks for Hybrid Energy-Storage Materials (United States)


    LiFePO4 [10] and SnO2 [15]). However, due to the non-specific nature of the interactions between the graphene templates and active materials, it is...19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) New Reprint Graphene Sheets Stabilized on Genetically Engineered M13 Viral Templates as Conducting...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE (SF298) (Continuation Sheet) Continuation for Block 13 ARO Report Number 55012.422-LS-ICB Graphene Sheets Stabilized on

  3. Self-Organization of Template-Replicating Polymers and the Spontaneous Rise of Genetic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarle Breivik


    Full Text Available Abstract: Living systems imply self-reproducing constructs capable of Darwinian evolution. How such dynamics can arise from undirected interactions between simple monomeric objects remains an open question. Here we circumvent difficulties related to the manipulation of chemical interactions, and present a system of ferromagnetic objects that self-organize into template-replicating polymers due to environmental fluctuations in temperature. Initially random sequences of monomers direct the formation of complementary sequences, and structural information is inherited from one structure to another. Selective replication of sequences occurs in dynamic interaction with the environment, and the system demonstrates the fundamental link between thermodynamics, information theory, and life science in an unprecedented manner.

  4. Biomimetic self-templating optical structures fabricated by genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage. (United States)

    Kim, Won-Geun; Song, Hyerin; Kim, Chuntae; Moon, Jong-Sik; Kim, Kyujung; Lee, Seung-Wuk; Oh, Jin-Woo


    Here, we describe a highly sensitive and selective surface plasmon resonance sensor system by utilizing self-assembly of genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage. About 2700 copies of genetically expressed peptide copies give superior selectivity and sensitivity to M13 phage-based SPR sensor. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the M13 phage-based SPR sensor was enhanced due to the aligning of receptor matrix in specific direction. Incorporation of specific binding peptide (His Pro Gln: HPQ) gives M13 bacteriophage high selectivity for the streptavidin. Our M13 phage-based SPR sensor takes advantage of simplicity of self-assembly compared with relatively complex photolithography techniques or chemical conjugations. Additionally, designed structure which is composed of functionalized M13 bacteriophage can simultaneously improve the sensitivity and selectivity of SPR sensor evidently. By taking advantages of the genetic engineering and self-assembly, we propose the simple method for fabricating novel M13 phage-based SPR sensor system which has a high sensitivity and high selectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Report Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj


    To ensure consistent reporting of life cycle assessment (LCA), we provide a report template. The report includes elements of an LCA study as recommended but the ILCD Handbook. Illustrative case study reported according to this template is presented in Chap. 39 ....

  6. Forensic genetic SNP typing of low-template DNA and highly degraded DNA from crime case samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Morling, Niels


    Heterozygote imbalances leading to allele drop-outs and disproportionally large stutters leading to allele drop-ins are known stochastic phenomena related to STR typing of low-template DNA (LtDNA). The large stutters and the many drop-ins in typical STR stutter positions are artifacts from the PCR...

  7. Perl Template Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Chamberlain, Darren; Cross, David; Torkington, Nathan; Diaz, tatiana Apandi


    Among the many different approaches to "templating" with Perl--such as Embperl, Mason, HTML::Template, and hundreds of other lesser known systems--the Template Toolkit is widely recognized as one of the most versatile. Like other templating systems, the Template Toolkit allows programmers to embed Perl code and custom macros into HTML documents in order to create customized documents on the fly. But unlike the others, the Template Toolkit is as facile at producing HTML as it is at producing XML, PDF, or any other output format. And because it has its own simple templating language, templates

  8. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A


    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  9. Genetically Engineered Phage-Templated MnO2 Nanowires: Synthesis and Their Application in Electrochemical Glucose Biosensor Operated at Neutral pH Condition. (United States)

    Han, Lei; Shao, Changxu; Liang, Bo; Liu, Aihua


    To conveniently obtain one-dimensional MnO2 nanowires (NWs) with controlled structure and unique properties for electron transfer, the genetically engineered M13 phages were used as templates for precise nucleation and growth of MnO2 crystals in filamentous phage scaffolds, via the spontaneous oxidation of Mn(2+) in alkaline solution. It was found that the morphology of NWs could be tailored by the surface charge of M13 mutants. MnO2 crystals were uniformly distributed on the surface of negatively charged tetraglutamate-fused phage (M13-E4), significantly different from irregular MnO2 agglomeration on the weakly negatively charged wild-type phage and positively charged tetraarginine-fused phage. The as-synthesized M13-E4@MnO2 NWs could catalyze the electro-oxidation of H2O2 at neutral pH. To demonstrate the superiority of the electrocatalytic activity in the solution containing plenty of chloride ions at neutral pH, both glucose oxidase and as-prepared MnO2 NWs were used for fabricating the glucose biosensor. The proposed biosensor showed a wide linear range (5 μM to 2 mM glucose), a low limit of detection of 1.8 μM glucose (S/N = 3), good interassay and intra-assay reproducibility and satisfactory storage stability. Due to the superiorities of synthesis and electrochemical performance, the as-prepared MnO2 NWs are promising for applications in electrocatalysis, electrochemical sensor, and supercapacitor.

  10. DTM: Deformable Template Matching


    Lee, Hyungtae; Kwon, Heesung; Robinson, Ryan M.; Nothwang, William D.


    A novel template matching algorithm that can incorporate the concept of deformable parts, is presented in this paper. Unlike the deformable part model (DPM) employed in object recognition, the proposed template-matching approach called Deformable Template Matching (DTM) does not require a training step. Instead, deformation is achieved by a set of predefined basic rules (e.g. the left sub-patch cannot pass across the right patch). Experimental evaluation of this new method using the PASCAL VO...

  11. S-template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Bhagchandani


    Full Text Available Recently introduced Yen angle and W angle suggest the use of center of premaxilla (M and mandibular symphysis (G as landmarks for assessing sagittal jaw base discrepancies. These landmarks have been considered to be more stable than traditionally used points A and B. This article is an attempt to develop a simple tool that will enable the clinician to identify the centers of premaxilla and mandibular symphysis and hence the name Simplified template, i.e., S-template. This tool would aid the orthodontist in locating the centroids of maxilla and mandibular symphysis more easily and accurately than prefabricated templates.

  12. In search of the song template. (United States)

    Adret, Patrice


    The auditory template theory-the conversion of memorized song to produced song using feedback as an error-correction mechanism-is central to neurobiological studies of birdsong learning. The essence of the theory is the construction of a complex sound replica based on a set of both genetic and environmental instructions. These premises, as yet unchallenged, have stimulated much research on the process of vocal imitation. Two somewhat distinct, but closely related streams of research have emerged. One seeks to determine the neural mechanisms that underlie the formation, storage, and retrieval of vocal memories as a consequence of experience during a sensitive phase-the template concept in its purest form. The other aims at establishing an explanatory basis for genetically based species differences in auditory responsiveness; here, the prime focus is on innately specified templates that guide learning preferences in young, naïve birds. The chapter begins with an historical overview of conceptual issues. Then recent progress in the attempt to characterize template properties is reviewed, focusing on selected studies of sparrows, nightingales, and zebra finches. The chapter concludes with a discussion of research strategy and tactics, including suggestions for criteria that must be met in identifying neural substrates for template specification and localization. The chapter is intended to provide a conceptual framework for further progress in this critical area.

  13. A fast template periodogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman John


    Full Text Available This proceedings contribution presents a novel, non-linear extension to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram that allows periodograms to be generated for arbitrary signal shapes. Such periodograms are already known as “template periodograms” or “periodic matched filters,” but current implementations are computationally inefficient. The “fast template periodogram” presented here improves existing techniques by a factor of ∼a few for small test cases (O(10 observations, and over three orders of magnitude for lightcurves containing O(104 observations. The fast template periodogram scales asymptotically as O(HNf log HNf + H4Nf, where H denotes the number of harmonics required to adequately approximate the template and Nf is the number of trial frequencies. Existing implementations scale as O(NobsNf, where Nobs is the number of observations in the lightcurve. An open source Python implementation is available on GitHub.

  14. A fast template periodogram (United States)

    Hoffman, John; VanderPlas, Jake; Hartman, Joel; Bakos, Gáspár


    This proceedings contribution presents a novel, non-linear extension to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram that allows periodograms to be generated for arbitrary signal shapes. Such periodograms are already known as "template periodograms" or "periodic matched filters," but current implementations are computationally inefficient. The "fast template periodogram" presented here improves existing techniques by a factor of ˜a few for small test cases (O(10) observations), and over three orders of magnitude for lightcurves containing O(104) observations. The fast template periodogram scales asymptotically as O(HNf log HNf + H4Nf), where H denotes the number of harmonics required to adequately approximate the template and Nf is the number of trial frequencies. Existing implementations scale as O(NobsNf), where Nobs is the number of observations in the lightcurve. An open source Python implementation is available on GitHub.

  15. Platinum and palladium nanotubes based on genetically engineered elastin-mimetic fusion protein-fiber templates: synthesis and application in lithium-O₂ batteries. (United States)

    Guo, Guilue; Truong, Thi Hong Anh; Tan, Huiteng; Ang, Huixiang; Zhang, Wenyu; Xu, Chen; Rui, Xianghong; Hu, Zhaolong; Fong, Eileen; Yan, Qingyu


    The coupling of proteins with self-assembly properties and proteins that are capable of recognizing and mineralizing specific inorganic species is a promising strategy for the synthesis of nanoscale materials with controllable morphology and functionality. Herein, GPG-AG3 protein fibers with both of these properties were constructed and served as templates for the synthesis of Pt and Pd nanotubes. The protein fibers of assembled GPG-AG3 were more than 10 μm long and had diameters of 20-50 nm. The as-synthesized Pt and Pd nanotubes were composed of dense layers of ~3-5 nm Pt and Pd nanoparticles. When tested as cathodes in lithium-O2 batteries, the porous Pt nanotubes showed low charge potentials of 3.8 V, with round-trip efficiencies of about 65% at a current density of 100 mA g(-1). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Biometric Template Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nagar


    Full Text Available Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.

  17. Joomla! 3 template essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Frankowski, Pawel


    Using this hands-on, step-by step tutorial filled with practical examples, the readers will be able to create beautiful templates and themes for your websites that will make them stand out from others.This book is written for all of you who wish to create your own unique templates for Joomla! 3.x. This book can be used by Joomla! administrators or visual designers (with no programming experience) or those of you who are used to working with common web developer tools like HTML/CSS editors for coding purposes. You would need basic knowledge of Joomla! and some knowledge of CSS and HTML.

  18. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan


    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  19. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio


    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  20. The Cadastral Template Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Steudler, Daniel; Williamson, Ian P.


      While many country reports have been compiled in the area of land administration over the last decade, there has not much attention been given to the basic cadastral issues. As a result, one of the objectives of Working Group 3 ?Cadastre? of the PCGIAP is the establishment of a cadastral template...

  1. A series of template plasmids for Escherichia coli genome engineering. (United States)

    Deb, Shalini S; Reshamwala, Shamlan M S; Lali, Arvind M


    Metabolic engineering strategies often employ multi-copy episomal vectors to overexpress genes. However, chromosome-based overexpression is preferred as it avoids the use of selective pressure and reduces metabolic burden on the cell. We have constructed a series of template plasmids for λ Red-mediated Escherichia coli genome engineering. The template plasmids allow construction of genome integrating cassettes that can be used to integrate single copies of DNA sequences at predetermined sites or replace promoter regions. The constructed cassettes provide flexibility in terms of expression levels achieved and antibiotics used for selection, as well as allowing construction of marker-free strains. The modular design of the template plasmids allows replacement of genetic parts to construct new templates. Gene integration and promoter replacement using the template plasmids are illustrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. NLG vs. Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, E R


    One of the most important questions in applied NLG is what benefits (or `value-added', in business-speak) NLG technology offers over template-based approaches. Despite the importance of this question to the applied NLG community, however, it has not been discussed much in the research NLG community, which I think is a pity. In this paper, I try to summarize the issues involved and recap current thinking on this topic. My goal is not to answer this question (I don't think we know enough to be able to do so), but rather to increase the visibility of this issue in the research community, in the hope of getting some input and ideas on this very important question. I conclude with a list of specific research areas I would like to see more work in, because I think they would increase the `value-added' of NLG over templates.

  3. Templating mesoporous zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Kustova, Marina


    phase. It is shown that the available templating approaches are quite versatile, and accordingly, it is possible to produce a very wide range of hierarchical zeolite materials. The resulting zeolite materials, featuring noncrystallographic mesopores in addition to the crystallographic micropores......, exhibit significantly enhanced diffusional properties in comparison with purely microporous zeolite materials. These enhanced mass transport properties have been shown in several cases to result in significantly improved catalytic properties in a range of important reactions....

  4. A Deformable Template Model, with Special Reference to Elliptical Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Pedersen, Jan; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel


    This paper suggests a high-level continuous image model for planar star-shaped objects. Under this model, a planar object is a stochastic deformation of a star-shaped template. The residual process, describing the difference between the radius-vector function of the template and the object...

  5. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates (United States)

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu


    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.


    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Crops such as potato have the potential to feed and con- tribute to the food security of vulnerable populations who depend on this ancestral tuber for their daily nutrition. But high-quality varieties are required. This Canadian–Colombian research project uses innovative genetic techniques to pro- duce biofortified potatoes ...

  7. Genetics (United States)

    ... Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... mother and medications). These include: Asthma Cancer Coronary heart disease Diabetes Hypertension Stroke MITOCHONDRIAL DNA-LINKED DISORDERS Mitochondria ...

  8. Wide band gap semiconductor templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Stan, Liliana (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); DePaula, Raymond F. (Santa Fe, NM); Usov, Igor O. (Los Alamos, NM)


    The present invention relates to a thin film structure based on an epitaxial (111)-oriented rare earth-Group IVB oxide on the cubic (001) MgO terminated surface and the ion-beam-assisted deposition ("IBAD") techniques that are amendable to be over coated by semiconductors with hexagonal crystal structures. The IBAD magnesium oxide ("MgO") technology, in conjunction with certain template materials, is used to fabricate the desired thin film array. Similarly, IBAD MgO with appropriate template layers can be used for semiconductors with cubic type crystal structures.

  9. Supply-Chain Optimization Template (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.


    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  10. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt


    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  11. Web Template Extraction Based on Hyperlink Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Alarte


    Full Text Available Web templates are one of the main development resources for website engineers. Templates allow them to increase productivity by plugin content into already formatted and prepared pagelets. For the final user templates are also useful, because they provide uniformity and a common look and feel for all webpages. However, from the point of view of crawlers and indexers, templates are an important problem, because templates usually contain irrelevant information such as advertisements, menus, and banners. Processing and storing this information is likely to lead to a waste of resources (storage space, bandwidth, etc.. It has been measured that templates represent between 40% and 50% of data on the Web. Therefore, identifying templates is essential for indexing tasks. In this work we propose a novel method for automatic template extraction that is based on similarity analysis between the DOM trees of a collection of webpages that are detected using menus information. Our implementation and experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the technique.

  12. Design reflowable digital book template (United States)

    Prasetya, Didik Dwi; Widiyaningtyas, Triyanna; Arifin, M. Zainal; Wahyu Sakti G., I.


    Electronic books (e-books or digital books) increasingly in demand and continue to grow in the form of future books. One of the standard format electronic books that potential is EPUB (electronic publication) published by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). This digital book has major advantages are able to provide interactive and reflowable content, which are not found in another book format, such as PDF. Reflowable content allows the book can be accessed through a variety of reader device, like desktop and mobile with a fit and comfort view. However, because the generating process of an EPUB digital book is not as easy a PDF, so this format is less popular. Therefore, in order to help overcome the existing problems, this paper develops digital reflowable text book templates to support electronic learning, especially in Indonesia. This template can be used by anyone to produce a standard digital book quickly and easily without requiring additional specialized knowledge.

  13. Ordered nanoparticle arrays formed on engineered chaperonin protein templates (United States)

    McMillan, R. Andrew; Paavola, Chad D.; Howard, Jeanie; Chan, Suzanne L.; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Trent, Jonathan D.


    Traditional methods for fabricating nanoscale arrays are usually based on lithographic techniques. Alternative new approaches rely on the use of nanoscale templates made of synthetic or biological materials. Some proteins, for example, have been used to form ordered two-dimensional arrays. Here, we fabricated nanoscale ordered arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots by binding preformed nanoparticles onto crystalline protein templates made from genetically engineered hollow double-ring structures called chaperonins. Using structural information as a guide, a thermostable recombinant chaperonin subunit was modified to assemble into chaperonins with either 3 nm or 9 nm apical pores surrounded by chemically reactive thiols. These engineered chaperonins were crystallized into two-dimensional templates up to 20 microm in diameter. The periodic solvent-exposed thiols within these crystalline templates were used to size-selectively bind and organize either gold (1.4, 5 or 10nm) or CdSe-ZnS semiconductor (4.5 nm) quantum dots into arrays. The order within the arrays was defined by the lattice of the underlying protein crystal. By combining the self-assembling properties of chaperonins with mutations guided by structural modelling, we demonstrate that quantum dots can be manipulated using modified chaperonins and organized into arrays for use in next-generation electronic and photonic devices.

  14. Functional Programming with C++ Template Metaprograms (United States)

    Porkoláb, Zoltán

    Template metaprogramming is an emerging new direction of generative programming. With the clever definitions of templates we can force the C++ compiler to execute algorithms at compilation time. Among the application areas of template metaprograms are the expression templates, static interface checking, code optimization with adaption, language embedding and active libraries. However, as template metaprogramming was not an original design goal, the C++ language is not capable of elegant expression of metaprograms. The complicated syntax leads to the creation of code that is hard to write, understand and maintain. Although template metaprogramming has a strong relationship with functional programming, this is not reflected in the language syntax and existing libraries. In this paper we give a short and incomplete introduction to C++ templates and the basics of template metaprogramming. We will enlight the role of template metaprograms, and some important and widely used idioms. We give an overview of the possible application areas as well as debugging and profiling techniques. We suggest a pure functional style programming interface for C++ template metaprograms in the form of embedded Haskell code which is transformed to standard compliant C++ source.

  15. Dynamic Compilation of C++ Template Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Cole


    Full Text Available Generic programming using the C++ template facility has been a successful method for creating high-performance, yet general algorithms for scientific computing and visualization. However, adding template code tends to require more template code in surrounding structures and algorithms to maintain generality. Compiling all possible expansions of these templates can lead to massive template bloat. Furthermore, compile-time binding of templates requires that all possible permutations be known at compile time, limiting the runtime extensibility of the generic code. We present a method for deferring the compilation of these templates until an exact type is needed. This dynamic compilation mechanism will produce the minimum amount of compiled code needed for a particular application, while maintaining the generality and performance that templates innately provide. Through a small amount of supporting code within each templated class, the proper templated code can be generated at runtime without modifying the compiler. We describe the implementation of this goal within the SCIRun dataflow system. SCIRun is freely available online for research purposes.

  16. I - Template Metaprogramming for Massively Parallel Scientific Computing - Expression Templates

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  17. Templated growth of graphenic materials. (United States)

    Nicholas, Nolan W; Connors, L Matthew; Ding, Feng; Yakobson, Boris I; Schmidt, Howard K; Hauge, Robert H


    A novel strategy is proposed for the topologically controlled synthesis of extended graphenic sheets by additively reacting carbon into a pre-existing graphene sheet which is on top of a templating substrate. This concept is implemented and demonstrated using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Novel morphological features observed in this study suggest unusual aspects of the CVD growth process. CVD results demonstrate the basic soundness of the synthesis strategy but highlight the sensitivity of the process to certain types of disruption and the need for alternative forms of embodiment.

  18. A template for design personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Storgaard Nielsen, Kira; Stage, Jan


    The persona method is gaining widespread use and support. Many researchers have reported from single cases and from novel domains on how they have used the method. However, the way companies and design groups describe personas has not been the focus of attention. This paper analyses 47 descriptions...... from 13 companies and compares these to an analysis of recommendations from 11 templates from literature. Furthermore, 28 interviews with Danish practitioners with experience in using personas are analyzed for content on persona descriptions. The study finds that a Danish persona style has developed...

  19. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune


    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template...... models making a non-expert user able to use the model. A comparative study of a number of optimization algorithms is also reported. In addition a general polygon-based model, an ellipse model and a textile model are proposed and a number of applications have been solved. Finally the Grenander model...

  20. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go eKawamura


    Full Text Available Metal nanowires (NWs have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  1. Template-Directed Olefin Cross Metathesis


    Cantrill, Stuart J.; Grubbs, Robert H; Lanari, Daniela; Leung, Ken C.-F.; Nelson, Alshakim; Poulin-Kerstien, Katherine G.; Smidt, Sebastian P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Tirrell, David A.


    A template containing two secondary dialkylammonium ion recognition sites for encirclement by olefin-bearing dibenzo[24]crown-8 derivatives has been used to promote olefin cross metatheses with ruthenium-alkylidene catalysts. For monoolefin monomers, the rates of metatheses and yields of the dimers are both amplified in the presence of the template. Likewise, for a diolefin monomer, the yield of the dimer is enhanced in the presence of the template under conditions where higher oligomers are ...

  2. Vertical Carbon Nanotube Device in Nanoporous Templates (United States)

    Maschmann, Matthew Ralph (Inventor); Fisher, Timothy Scott (Inventor); Sands, Timothy (Inventor); Bashir, Rashid (Inventor)


    A modified porous anodic alumina template (PAA) containing a thin CNT catalyst layer directly embedded into the pore walls. CNT synthesis using the template selectively catalyzes SWNTs and DWNTs from the embedded catalyst layer to the top PAA surface, creating a vertical CNT channel within the pores. Subsequent processing allows for easy contact metallization and adaptable functionalization of the CNTs and template for a myriad of applications.

  3. Templated Dry Printing of Conductive Metal Nanoparticles (United States)

    Rolfe, David Alexander

    Printed electronics can lower the cost and increase the ubiquity of electrical components such as batteries, sensors, and telemetry systems. Unfortunately, the advance of printed electronics has been held back by the limited minimum resolution, aspect ratio, and feature fidelity of present printing techniques such as gravure, screen printing and inkjet printing. Templated dry printing offers a solution to these problems by patterning nanoparticle inks into templates before drying. This dissertation shows advancements in two varieties of templated dry nanoprinting. The first, advective micromolding in vapor-permeable templates (AMPT) is a microfluidic approach that uses evaporation-driven mold filling to create submicron features with a 1:1 aspect ratio. We will discuss submicron surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made through this process, and the refinement process in the template manufacturing process necessary to make these devices. We also present modeling techniques that can be applied to future AMPT templates. We conclude with a modified templated dry printing that improves throughput and isolated feature patterning by transferring dry-templated features with laser ablation. This method utilizes surface energy-defined templates to pattern features via doctor blade coating. Patterned and dried features can be transferred to a polymer substrate with an Nd:YAG MOPA fiber laser, and printed features can be smaller than the laser beam width.

  4. Influence of template fill in graphoepitaxy DSA (United States)

    Doise, Jan; Bekaert, Joost; Chan, Boon Teik; Hong, SungEun; Lin, Guanyang; Gronheid, Roel


    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) is considered a promising patterning approach for the 7 nm node and beyond. Specifically, a grapho-epitaxy process using a cylindrical phase BCP may offer an efficient solution for patterning randomly distributed contact holes with sub-resolution pitches, such as found in via and cut mask levels. In any grapho-epitaxy process, the pattern density impacts the template fill (local BCP thickness inside the template) and may cause defects due to respectively over- or underfilling of the template. In order to tackle this issue thoroughly, the parameters that determine template fill and the influence of template fill on the resulting pattern should be investigated. In this work, using three process flow variations (with different template surface energy), template fill is experimentally characterized as a function of pattern density and film thickness. The impact of these parameters on template fill is highly dependent on the process flow, and thus pre-pattern surface energy. Template fill has a considerable effect on the pattern transfer of the DSA contact holes into the underlying layer. Higher fill levels give rise to smaller contact holes and worse critical dimension uniformity. These results are important towards DSA-aware design and show that fill is a crucial parameter in grapho-epitaxy DSA.

  5. Comparison between the standard SPM2 template and Korean-standard template in FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Byeong Il; Song, Ho Chun; Min, Jung Joon; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The preprocessing step of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) requires the procedure of spatial normalization that consists of applying the nonlinear deformations needed to force every particular PET scan to match a reference template. The purpose of this study is to asses the statistic influence of using 2 different templates (the standard SPM2-PET template and Korean-standard PET template) in the normalization. We compared the regional metabolic patterns on 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) images obtained from 4 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 16 normal subjects. The statistical outcome of between- group comparison was analyzed with SPM2 and was applied into two levels of thresholds (an uncorrected P value of P <0.001, a corrected P value of P < 0.05). As a result, the most significant hypometabolic region was commonly found in the left temporal gyrus regardless of template type or thresholds. However, inconsistent results including different extent and the t-score statistics representing metabolic changes could be also observed between two templates. While the standard SPM2 template showed hypometabolic regions corresponding to Brodman area (BA) 7 and 9, Korean-standard template was not observed these regions. In addition, hypometabolic regions corresponding to BA 38 and 46 indicated not the standard SPM2 template but Korean-standard template. Statistic result showed that the standard SPM2 template effectively reflects the dorsal region of the brain while Korean-standard template is more sensitive to the medial region of the brain.

  6. Practical Biometric Authentication with Template Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyls, P.; Akkermans, A.H.M.; Kevenaar, T.A.M.; Schrijen, G.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kanade, T.; Jain, A.K.; Ratha, N.K.

    We show the feasibility of template protecting biometric authentication systems. In particular, we apply template protection schemes to fingerprint data. Therefore we first make a fixed length representation of the fingerprint data by applying Gabor filtering. Next we introduce the reliable

  7. Screening for templates that promote crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Horst, J.H. ter; Verdoes, D.; Jansens, P.J.


    In Situ Product Recovery (ISPR) applied in fermentation processes leads to improved yield and productivity of these processes. In principle, ISPR can be achieved using Template Induced Crystallization (TIC), which is one possible ISPR technique. With TIC, templates are added to the solution as a

  8. Surgical Templates for Dental Implant Positioning; Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    applicability of surgical templates used in the placement of dental implants. KEYWORDS: Dental implants, surgical templates, surgical procedure, stent. Access this .... ended up with the identification of basic three‑fabrication design concepts; (1) ... surgical guide on mounted diagnostic models of patient's mouth. He also ...

  9. Initiator tRNA genes template the 3' CCA end at high frequencies in bacteria. (United States)

    Ardell, David H; Hou, Ya-Ming


    While the CCA sequence at the mature 3' end of tRNAs is conserved and critical for translational function, a genetic template for this sequence is not always contained in tRNA genes. In eukaryotes and Archaea, the CCA ends of tRNAs are synthesized post-transcriptionally by CCA-adding enzymes. In Bacteria, tRNA genes template CCA sporadically. In order to understand the variation in how prokaryotic tRNA genes template CCA, we re-annotated tRNA genes in tRNAdb-CE database version 0.8. Among 132,129 prokaryotic tRNA genes, initiator tRNA genes template CCA at the highest average frequency (74.1%) over all functional classes except selenocysteine and pyrrolysine tRNA genes (88.1% and 100% respectively). Across bacterial phyla and a wide range of genome sizes, many lineages exist in which predominantly initiator tRNA genes template CCA. Convergent and parallel retention of CCA templating in initiator tRNA genes evolved in independent histories of reductive genome evolution in Bacteria. Also, in a majority of cyanobacterial and actinobacterial genera, predominantly initiator tRNA genes template CCA. We also found that a surprising fraction of archaeal tRNA genes template CCA. We suggest that cotranscriptional synthesis of initiator tRNA CCA 3' ends can complement inefficient processing of initiator tRNA precursors, "bootstrap" rapid initiation of protein synthesis from a non-growing state, or contribute to an increase in cellular growth rates by reducing overheads of mass and energy to maintain nonfunctional tRNA precursor pools. More generally, CCA templating in structurally non-conforming tRNA genes can afford cells robustness and greater plasticity to respond rapidly to environmental changes and stimuli.

  10. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang


    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  11. Expected net gain data of low-template DNA analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gittelson


    Full Text Available Low-template DNA analyses are affected by stochastic effects which can produce a configuration of peaks in the electropherogram (EPG that is different from the genotype of the DNA׳s donor. A probabilistic and decision-theoretic model can quantify the expected net gain (ENG of performing a DNA analysis by the difference between the expected value of information (EVOI and the cost of performing the analysis. This article presents data on the ENG of performing DNA analyses of low-template DNA for a single amplification, two replicate amplifications, and for a second replicate amplification given the result of a first analysis. The data were obtained using amplification kits AmpFlSTR Identifiler Plus and Promega׳s PowerPlex 16 HS, an ABI 3130xl genetic sequencer, and Applied Biosystem׳s GeneMapper ID-X software. These data are supplementary to an original research article investigating whether a forensic DNA analyst should perform a single DNA analysis or two replicate analyses from a decision-theoretic point of view, entitled “Low-template DNA: a single DNA analysis or two replicates?” (Gittelson et al., 2016 [1].

  12. Templated Growth of Magnetic Recording Media (United States)

    Sundar, Vignesh

    Current and potential next-generation magnetic recording technologies are based on the writing and reading of bits on a magnetic thin film with a granular microstructure, with grains of the magnetic material surrounded by an amorphous segregant. In order to realize the highest achievable data storage capabilities, there is a need for better control of the magnetic media microstructure, particularly in terms of minimizing grain size and grain boundary thickness distributions. In this work, a guided magnetic media growth is attempted by creating a pre-fabricated template with a specific material and morphology. The template is designed in such a way that, when magnetic media consisting of the magnetic alloy and segregant are sputtered, the sites on the template result in a controlled two-phase growth of magnetic media. The template is fabricated using self-assembling block copolymers, which can be used to fabricate nanostructures with a regular hexagonal lattice of spheres of one block in the other's matrix. These are then used as etch-masks to fabricate the template. In this thesis, we describe the approach used to fabricate these templates and demonstrate the two-phase growth of magnetic recording media. In such an approach, the magnetic grain size is defined by the uniform pitch of the block copolymer pattern, resulting in a uniform microstructure with much better grain size distribution than can be obtained with conventional un-templated media growth. The templated growth technique is also a suitable additive technique for the fabrication of Bit Patterned Media, another potential next-generation technology wherein the magnetic bits are isolated patterned islands. Combining nanoimprint lithography with templated growth, we can generate a long range spatially ordered array of magnetic islands with no etching of the magnetic material.

  13. Templated Native Silk Smectic Gels (United States)

    Jin, Hyoung-Joon (Inventor); Park, Jae-Hyung (Inventor); Valluzzi, Regina (Inventor)


    One aspect of the present invention relates to a method of preparing a fibrous protein smectic hydrogel by way of a solvent templating process, comprising the steps of pouring an aqueous fibrous protein solution into a container comprising a solvent that is not miscible with water; sealing the container and allowing it to age at about room temperature; and collecting the resulting fibrous protein smectic hydrogel and allowing it to dry. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of obtaining predominantly one enantiomer from a racemic mixture, comprising the steps of pouring an aqueous fibrous protein solution into a container comprising a solvent that is not miscible with water; sealing the container and allowing it to age at about room temperature; allowing the enantiomers of racemic mixture to diffuse selectively into the smectic hydrogel in solution; removing the smectic hydrogel from the solution; rinsing predominantly one enantiomer from the surface of the smectic hydrogel; and extracting predominantly one enantiomer from the interior of the smectic hydrogel. The present invention also relates to a smectic hydrogel prepared according to an aforementioned method.

  14. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.


    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis ...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  15. Effect of migration in a diffusion model for template coexistence in protocells. (United States)

    Fontanari, José F; Serva, Maurizio


    The compartmentalization of distinct templates in protocells and the exchange of templates between them (migration) are key elements of a modern scenario for prebiotic evolution. Here we use the diffusion approximation of population genetics to study analytically the steady-state properties of such a prebiotic scenario. The coexistence of distinct template types inside a protocell is achieved by a selective pressure at the protocell level (group selection) favoring protocells with a mixed template composition. In the degenerate case, where the templates have the same replication rate, we find that a vanishingly small migration rate suffices to eliminate the segregation effect of random drift and so to promote coexistence. In the nondegenerate case, a small migration rate greatly boosts coexistence as compared with the situation where there is no migration. However, increase of the migration rate beyond a critical value leads to the complete dominance of the more efficient template type (homogeneous regime). In this case, we find a continuous phase transition separating the homogeneous and the coexistence regimes, with the order parameter vanishing linearly with the distance to the transition point.

  16. On the origin of DNA genomes: evolution of the division of labor between template and catalyst in model replicator systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuto Takeuchi


    Full Text Available The division of labor between template and catalyst is a fundamental property of all living systems: DNA stores genetic information whereas proteins function as catalysts. The RNA world hypothesis, however, posits that, at the earlier stages of evolution, RNA acted as both template and catalyst. Why would such division of labor evolve in the RNA world? We investigated the evolution of DNA-like molecules, i.e. molecules that can function only as template, in minimal computational models of RNA replicator systems. In the models, RNA can function as both template-directed polymerase and template, whereas DNA can function only as template. Two classes of models were explored. In the surface models, replicators are attached to surfaces with finite diffusion. In the compartment models, replicators are compartmentalized by vesicle-like boundaries. Both models displayed the evolution of DNA and the ensuing division of labor between templates and catalysts. In the surface model, DNA provides the advantage of greater resistance against parasitic templates. However, this advantage is at least partially offset by the disadvantage of slower multiplication due to the increased complexity of the replication cycle. In the compartment model, DNA can significantly delay the intra-compartment evolution of RNA towards catalytic deterioration. These results are explained in terms of the trade-off between template and catalyst that is inherent in RNA-only replication cycles: DNA releases RNA from this trade-off by making it unnecessary for RNA to serve as template and so rendering the system more resistant against evolving parasitism. Our analysis of these simple models suggests that the lack of catalytic activity in DNA by itself can generate a sufficient selective advantage for RNA replicator systems to produce DNA. Given the widespread notion that DNA evolved owing to its superior chemical properties as a template, this study offers a novel insight into the

  17. Templated and template-free fabrication strategies for zero-dimensional hollow MOF superstructures. (United States)

    Kim, Hyehyun; Lah, Myoung Soo


    Various fabrication strategies for hollow metal-organic framework (MOF) superstructures are reviewed and classified using various types of external templates and their properties. Hollow MOF superstructures have also been prepared without external templates, wherein unstable intermediates obtained during reactions convert to the final hollow MOF superstructures. Many hollow MOF superstructures have been fabricated using hard templates. After the core-shell core@MOF structure was prepared using a hard template, the core was selectively etched to generate a hollow MOF superstructure. Another approach for generating hollow superstructures is to use a solid reactant as a sacrificial template; this method requires no additional etching process. Soft templates such as discontinuous liquid/emulsion droplets and gas bubbles in a continuous soft phase have also been employed to prepare hollow MOF superstructures.

  18. Fast Legendre moment computation for template matching (United States)

    Li, Bing C.


    Normalized cross correlation (NCC) based template matching is insensitive to intensity changes and it has many applications in image processing, object detection, video tracking and pattern recognition. However, normalized cross correlation implementation is computationally expensive since it involves both correlation computation and normalization implementation. In this paper, we propose Legendre moment approach for fast normalized cross correlation implementation and show that the computational cost of this proposed approach is independent of template mask sizes which is significantly faster than traditional mask size dependent approaches, especially for large mask templates. Legendre polynomials have been widely used in solving Laplace equation in electrodynamics in spherical coordinate systems, and solving Schrodinger equation in quantum mechanics. In this paper, we extend Legendre polynomials from physics to computer vision and pattern recognition fields, and demonstrate that Legendre polynomials can help to reduce the computational cost of NCC based template matching significantly.

  19. Template for safety reports with descriptive example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report provides a template for future safety reports on long-term safety in support of important decisions and permit applications in connection with the construction of a deep repository system. The template aims at providing a uniform structure for describing long-term safety, after the repository has been closed and sealed. The availability of such a structure will simplify both preparation and review of the safety reports, and make it possible to follow how safety assessments are influenced by the progressively more detailed body of data that emerges. A separate section containing `descriptive examples` has been appended to the template. This section illustrates what the different chapters of the template should contain. 279 refs.

  20. Template-based prediction of protein function. (United States)

    Petrey, Donald; Chen, T Scott; Deng, Lei; Garzon, Jose Ignacio; Hwang, Howook; Lasso, Gorka; Lee, Hunjoong; Silkov, Antonina; Honig, Barry


    We discuss recent approaches for structure-based protein function annotation. We focus on template-based methods where the function of a query protein is deduced from that of a template for which both the structure and function are known. We describe the different ways of identifying a template. These are typically based on sequence analysis but new methods based on purely structural similarity are also being developed that allow function annotation based on structural relationships that cannot be recognized by sequence. The growing number of available structures of known function, improved homology modeling techniques and new developments in the use of structure allow template-based methods to be applied on a proteome-wide scale and in many different biological contexts. This progress significantly expands the range of applicability of structural information in function annotation to a level that previously was only achievable by sequence comparison. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Template analysis for the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Uta [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration


    The MAGIC telescopes are two 17-m-diameter Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes located on the Canary island of La Palma. They record the Cherenkov light from air showers induced by very high energy photons. The current data analysis uses a parametrization of the two shower images (including Hillas parameters) to determine the characteristics of the primary particle. I am implementing an advanced analysis method that compares shower images on a pixel basis with template images based on Monte Carlo simulations. To reduce the simulation effort the templates contain only pure shower images that are convolved with the telescope response later in the analysis. The primary particle parameters are reconstructed by maximizing the likelihood of the template. By using all the information available in the shower images, the performance of MAGIC is expected to improve. In this presentation I will explain the general idea of a template-based analysis and show the first results of the implementation.

  2. Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbing, Jana; Koidl, Kevin


    Please, cite this publication as: Abbing, J. & Koidl, K. (2006). Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from

  3. In search of the visual pigment template


    Govardovskii, V.I.; Fyhrquist, N; Reuter, T; Kuzmin, D.G.; Donner, K


    Absorbance spectra were recorded by microspectrophotometry from 39 different rod and cone types representing amphibians, reptiles, and fishes, with A1- or A2-based visual pigments and [lambda]max ranging from 357 to 620 nm. The purpose was to investigate accuracy limits of putative universal templates for visual pigment absorbance spectra, and if possible to amend the templates to overcome the limitations. It was found that (1) the absorbance spectrum of frog rhodopsin extract very precisely ...

  4. Multi-template polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kalle


    Full Text Available PCR is a formidable and potent technology that serves as an indispensable tool in a wide range of biological disciplines. However, due to the ease of use and often lack of rigorous standards many PCR applications can lead to highly variable, inaccurate, and ultimately meaningless results. Thus, rigorous method validation must precede its broad adoption to any new application. Multi-template samples possess particular features, which make their PCR analysis prone to artifacts and biases: multiple homologous templates present in copy numbers that vary within several orders of magnitude. Such conditions are a breeding ground for chimeras and heteroduplexes. Differences in template amplification efficiencies and template competition for reaction compounds undermine correct preservation of the original template ratio. In addition, the presence of inhibitors aggravates all of the above-mentioned problems. Inhibitors might also have ambivalent effects on the different templates within the same sample. Yet, no standard approaches exist for monitoring inhibitory effects in multitemplate PCR, which is crucial for establishing compatibility between samples.

  5. A Generic Stochastic Template Bank Placement Algorithm (United States)

    Frei, Melissa; Fotopoulos, N.; Priviteria, S.


    Black hole binary (BBH) systems represent strong candidates for gravitational wave (GW) detection by GW detectors LIGO and Virgo. BBH searches are template based searches where the templates describe potential GWs. Most BBH sources are spinning strongly enough to affect orbital dynamics though past searches have all been for non-spinning systems. Neglecting spin results in a significant decrease in a BBH search's sensitivity to spinning systems while the inclusion of leading order, single parameter spin corrections regain much of that sensitivity. BBH templates in past searches were chosen so that the overlap between neighboring templates was 97%. The optimal placement of non-spinning, inspiral templates is known but does not work for systems described by more parameters. For spinning systems, the placement metric is not known and stochastic methods like the one described in this poster are necessary. The method described here is based on previous stochastic work. It represents a fast, flexible, open-source tool using publicly available LIGO Algorithms Library (LAL) to generate stochastic banks for any template family no matter the number of parameters used to describe it. The method shows more efficient coverage of the parameter space of interest than a discrete stacking of a two-dimensional bank in a third direction.

  6. US Federal LCA Commons Life Cycle Inventory Unit Process Template (United States)

    The US Federal LCA Commons Life Cycle Inventory Unit Process Template is a multi-sheet Excel template for life cycle inventory data, metadata and other documentation. The template comes as a package that consistent of three parts: (1) the main template itself for life cycle inven...

  7. Monosaccharide templates for de novo designed 4-alpha-helix bundle proteins: template effects in carboproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Jesper; Dideriksen, J.M.; Nielsen, John


    Da 4-alpha-helix bundles by oxime ligation of tetra-aminooxyacetyl functionalized D-galacto-, D-gluco-, and D-altropyranoside templates with an amphiphilic C- terminal hexadecapeptide aldehyde sequence. CD spectroscopy indicated that the choice of template has an effect on the overall structure...

  8. Conversion of Radiology Reporting Templates to the MRRT Standard. (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E; Genereaux, Brad; Langlotz, Curtis P


    In 2013, the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Radiology workgroup developed the Management of Radiology Report Templates (MRRT) profile, which defines both the format of radiology reporting templates using an extension of Hypertext Markup Language version 5 (HTML5), and the transportation mechanism to query, retrieve, and store these templates. Of 200 English-language report templates published by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), initially encoded as text and in an XML schema language, 168 have been converted successfully into MRRT using a combination of automated processes and manual editing; conversion of the remaining 32 templates is in progress. The automated conversion process applied Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) scripts, an XML parsing engine, and a Java servlet. The templates were validated for proper HTML5 and MRRT syntax using web-based services. The MRRT templates allow radiologists to share best-practice templates across organizations and have been uploaded to the template library to supersede the prior XML-format templates. By using MRRT transactions and MRRT-format templates, radiologists will be able to directly import and apply templates from the RSNA Report Template Library in their own MRRT-compatible vendor systems. The availability of MRRT-format reporting templates will stimulate adoption of the MRRT standard and is expected to advance the sharing and use of templates to improve the quality of radiology reports.

  9. Learning probabilistic document template models via interaction (United States)

    Ahmadullin, Ildus; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan


    Document aesthetics measures are key to automated document composition. Recently we presented a probabilistic document model (PDM) which is a micro-model for document aesthetics based on a probabilistic modeling of designer choice in document design. The PDM model comes with efficient layout synthesis algorithms once the aesthetic model is defined. A key element of this approach is an aesthetic prior on the parameters of a template encoding aesthetic preferences for template parameters. Parameters of the prior were required to be chosen empirically by designers. In this work we show how probabilistic template models (and hence the PDM cost function) can be learnt directly by observing a designer making design choices in composing sample documents. From such training data our learning approach can learn a quality measure that can mimic some of the design tradeoffs a designer makes in practice.

  10. A Hybrid Approach to Protect Palmprint Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailun Liu


    Full Text Available Biometric template protection is indispensable to protect personal privacy in large-scale deployment of biometric systems. Accuracy, changeability, and security are three critical requirements for template protection algorithms. However, existing template protection algorithms cannot satisfy all these requirements well. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that combines random projection and fuzzy vault to improve the performances at these three points. Heterogeneous space is designed for combining random projection and fuzzy vault properly in the hybrid scheme. New chaff point generation method is also proposed to enhance the security of the heterogeneous vault. Theoretical analyses of proposed hybrid approach in terms of accuracy, changeability, and security are given in this paper. Palmprint database based experimental results well support the theoretical analyses and demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed hybrid approach.

  11. Three-particle templates for boosted Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Leandro G; Juknevich, José; Lee, Seung J; Perez, Gilad; Sterman, George


    We explore the ability of three-particle templates to distinguish color neutral objects from QCD background. This method is particularly useful to identify the standard model Higgs, as well as other massive neutral particles. Simple cut-based analysis in the overlap distributions of the signal and background is shown to provide a significant rejection power. By combining with other discriminating variables, such as planar flow, and several variables that depend on the partonic template, three-particle templates are used to characterize the influence of gluon emission and color flow in collider events. The performance of the method is discussed for the case of a highly boosted Higgs in association with a leptonically-decaying W boson.

  12. A Robust and Engineerable Self-Assembling Protein Template for the Synthesis and Patterning of Ordered Nanoparticle Arrays (United States)

    McMillan, R. Andrew; Howard, Jeanie; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Kagawa, Hiromi K.; Li, Yi-Fen; Paavola, Chad D.; Trent, Jonathan D.


    Self-assembling biomolecules that form highly ordered structures have attracted interest as potential alternatives to conventional lithographic processes for patterning materials. Here we introduce a general technique for patterning materials on the nanoscale using genetically modified protein cage structures called chaperonins that self-assemble into crystalline templates. Constrained chemical synthesis of transition metal nanoparticles is specific to templates genetically functionalized with poly-Histidine sequences. These arrays of materials are ordered by the nanoscale structure of the crystallized protein. This system may be easily adapted to pattern a variety of materials given the rapidly growing list of peptide sequences selected by screening for specificity for inorganic materials.

  13. Polymer templated nickel cobaltate for energy storage★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albohani Shaymaa


    Full Text Available In order to take advantage of the increasing sophistication of technology for harnessing renewable energy resources, serious attention must be paid to how to store and re-access this energy. Electrochemical storage, in the guise of batteries, supercapacitors and pseudocapacitors, has attracted much attention as a viable option for enhanced energy storage applications. But in order for these technologies to be implemented successfully we need to find materials that perform better and are relatively easy to synthesise. Bimetallic transition metal oxides are materials that are readily synthesised and may be multifunctional, i.e. have a role at the electrochemical atomic level as well as the device level. In order for these materials to work efficiently in new generation systems based on sodium and lithium they also need to be mesoporous. This can be achieved by trying to find synthetic techniques that produce specific, highly regulated nanostructures or by adding a ‘templating’ agent during the bulk synthesis step. We have investigated the simple hydrothermal preparation of a number of nickel cobaltate (NiCo2O4 materials using polymer templates, eggshell membrane (ESM and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA, as potential electrode materials for supercapacitors. The ESM was expected to act as a fibrous, random polymeric template while the PMMA should produce a much more ordered material. Electrochemical testing showed that the different templates have led to changes in material morphology and these have resulted in a difference in electrochemical properties. Templated materials increased specific capacitance compared to non-templated and the choice of template could influence the capacitance by as much as 30%.

  14. Templated sequence insertion polymorphisms in the human genome (United States)

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Aplan, Peter


    Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including 1) target-site duplication (TSD), 2) polyadenylation 10-30 nucleotides downstream of a “cryptic” polyadenylation signal, and 3) preference for insertion at a 5’-TTTT/A-3’ sequence. In contrast, class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double-strand break via insertion of a DNA “patch” that is derived from a distant genomic region. Survey of a large number of normal human volunteers demonstrates that most individuals have 25-30 TSIPs, and that these TSIPs track with specific geographic regions. Similar to other forms of human polymorphism, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases.

  15. 2D vector-cyclic deformable templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette; Conradsen, Knut


    matrices applied to the vector cycle. An approximation in the parameter distribution is introduced. The main advantage by using the deformable template model is the ability to simulate a wide range of objects trained by e.g. their biological variations, and thereby improve restoration, segmentation...... and probabillity measurement. The case study concerns estimation of meat percent in pork carcasses. Given two cross-sectional images - one at the front and one near the ham of the carcass - the areas of lean and fat and a muscle in the lean area are measured automatically by the deformable templates....

  16. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Hiroaki, E-mail: [Department of Informatics and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Shimogamo Nakaragi-cyo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishima, Yuya [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Takenaka, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, Yonago National College of Technology, 4448, Hikona-cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Isao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)


    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  17. Affordance Templates for Shared Robot Control (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kim


    This paper introduces the Affordance Template framework used to supervise task behaviors on the NASA-JSC Valkyrie robot at the 2013 DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Trials. This framework provides graphical interfaces to human supervisors that are adjustable based on the run-time environmental context (e.g., size, location, and shape of objects that the robot must interact with, etc.). Additional improvements, described below, inject degrees of autonomy into instantiations of affordance templates at run-time in order to enable efficient human supervision of the robot for accomplishing tasks.

  18. Introduction to ASPNET 4 AJAX Client Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Shoemaker, Craig


    This Wrox Blox will teach you how to create and customize ASP.NET 4 AJAX Preview 4 Client Templates. The author shows you how to use declarative as well as imperative data-binding techniques to address the simple to advanced UI requirements. He also covers how the observer pattern is fully implemented in ASP.NET 4 AJAX and, when used in conjunction with the Client Template markup extensions, provides a developer experience much like XAML-based applications like WPF and Silverlight. This Wrox Blox walks you through how to implement examples that fetch data from ASP.NET Web Forms using Page Meth

  19. Controlling Nanostructures by Templated Templates: Inheriting Molecular Orientation in Binary Heterostructures. (United States)

    Breuer, Tobias; Witte, Gregor


    Precise preparation strategies are required to fabricate molecular nanostructures of specific arrangement. In bottom-up approaches, where nanostructures are gradually formed by piecing together individual parts to the final structure, the self-ordering mechanisms of the involved structures are utilized. In order to achieve the desired structures regarding morphology, grain size, and orientation of the individual moieties, templates can be applied, which influence the formation process of subsequent structures. However, this strategy is of limited use for complex architectures because the templates only influence the structure formation at the interface between the template and the first compound. Here, we discuss the implementation of so-called templated templates and analyze to what extent orientations of the initial layers are inherited in the top layers of another compound to enable structural control in binary heterostructures. For that purpose, we prepared crystalline templates of the organic semiconductors pentacene and perfluoropentacene in different exclusive orientations. We observe that for templates of both individual materials the molecular orientation is inherited in the top layers of the respective counterpart. This behavior is also observed for various other molecules, indicating the robustness of this approach.

  20. The biogeochemical cycle of the adsorbed template. II - Selective adsorption of mononucleotides on adsorbed polynucleotide templates (United States)

    Lazard, Daniel; Lahav, Noam; Orenberg, James B.


    Experimental results are presented for the verification of the specific interaction step of the 'adsorbed template' biogeochemical cycle, a simple model for a primitive prebiotic replication system. The experimental system consisted of gypsum as the mineral to which an oligonucleotide template attaches (Poly-C or Poly-U) and (5-prime)-AMP, (5-prime)-GMP, (5-prime)-CMP and (5-prime)-UMP as the interacting biomonomers. When Poly-C or Poly-U were used as adsorbed templates, (5-prime)-GMP and (5-prime)-AMP, respectively, were observed to be the most strongly adsorbed species.

  1. Genomic RNAs of Borna disease virus are elongated on internal template motifs after realignment of the 3' termini. (United States)

    Martin, Arnold; Hoefs, Nadja; Tadewaldt, Josefine; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs


    The terminal structures of the Borna disease virus (BDV) genome (vRNA) and antigenome (cRNA) differ from those of other negative strand RNA viruses, as both molecules possess four nucleotides at the 3' terminus without an apparent template at the 5' end of the opposite strand. Consequently, the v- and cRNA molecules are not perfect mirror images, a situation that is not compatible with conventional strategies to maintain genetic information. We show here that recombinant viruses recovered from cDNA lacking the nontemplated nucleotides efficiently reconstitute the 3' overhangs. Analyses of recombinant viruses encoding genetic markers in potential alternative template sequences demonstrated that the BDV v- and cRNA molecules are extended by a realign-and-elongation process on internal template motifs located in close proximity to the 3' ends of v- and cRNA, respectively. The data further suggest that cRNA elongation is restricted to a single template motif of the nascent strand, whereas elongation of vRNA might use multiple template motifs. We propose that the elongation of the 3' termini supports the terminal integrity of the genomic RNA molecules during BDV persistence, and furthermore provides an elegant strategy to eliminate the triphosphate groups from the 5' termini of the BDV v- and cRNA without compromising the genetic information of the virus.

  2. Genomic RNAs of Borna disease virus are elongated on internal template motifs after realignment of the 3′ termini (United States)

    Martin, Arnold; Hoefs, Nadja; Tadewaldt, Josefine; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs


    The terminal structures of the Borna disease virus (BDV) genome (vRNA) and antigenome (cRNA) differ from those of other negative strand RNA viruses, as both molecules possess four nucleotides at the 3′ terminus without an apparent template at the 5′ end of the opposite strand. Consequently, the v- and cRNA molecules are not perfect mirror images, a situation that is not compatible with conventional strategies to maintain genetic information. We show here that recombinant viruses recovered from cDNA lacking the nontemplated nucleotides efficiently reconstitute the 3′ overhangs. Analyses of recombinant viruses encoding genetic markers in potential alternative template sequences demonstrated that the BDV v- and cRNA molecules are extended by a realign-and-elongation process on internal template motifs located in close proximity to the 3′ ends of v- and cRNA, respectively. The data further suggest that cRNA elongation is restricted to a single template motif of the nascent strand, whereas elongation of vRNA might use multiple template motifs. We propose that the elongation of the 3′ termini supports the terminal integrity of the genomic RNA molecules during BDV persistence, and furthermore provides an elegant strategy to eliminate the triphosphate groups from the 5′ termini of the BDV v- and cRNA without compromising the genetic information of the virus. PMID:21482759

  3. Triggered Templated Assembly of Protein Polymersomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.; Wolf, de F.A.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Stuart, M.A.C.; Leermakers, F.A.M.


    Trigger the block: Stable biocompatible protein polymersomes can be generated by a triggered templated self-assembly route (see picture). Pluronic L121 vesicles (red core with blue corona) take up a biosynthetic triblock copolymer CSXSXC into their unilamellar shell. In response to changes in pH

  4. Template Based Low Data Rate Speech Encoder (United States)


    95 with unquantized parameters. 9" Frame size 20 ms is preferred Excelent (Our choice) 95 "•. FrmeSietme Fig. 2 - Frame size vs. spech ...synthesized from the filter coefficients selected from the reference templates that are free from nonspeech sounds. We again use a similar technique but take it

  5. Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregar, K.C.; Winans, R.E.; Botto, R.E.


    A method is given for incorporating diverse varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and LiF for 2 days with an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by US patent No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, June 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have water-solubility, positive charge, and thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

  6. Performance Templates and the Regulation of Learning (United States)

    Lyons, Paul


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed, theoretical underpinning for the training and performance improvement method: performance template (P-T). The efficacy of P-T, with limitations, has been demonstrated in this journal and in others. However, the theoretical bases of the P-T approach had not been well-developed. The other…

  7. Recyclable Waste Paper Sorting Using Template Matching (United States)

    Osiur Rahman, Mohammad; Hussain, Aini; Scavino, Edgar; Hannan, M. A.; Basri, Hassan

    This paper explores the application of image processing techniques in recyclable waste paper sorting. In recycling, waste papers are segregated into various grades as they are subjected to different recycling processes. Highly sorted paper streams will facilitate high quality end products, and save processing chemicals and energy. Since 1932 to 2009, different mechanical and optical paper sorting methods have been developed to fill the demand of paper sorting. Still, in many countries including Malaysia, waste papers are sorted into different grades using manual sorting system. Due to inadequate throughput and some major drawbacks of mechanical paper sorting systems, the popularity of optical paper sorting systems is increased. Automated paper sorting systems offer significant advantages over human inspection in terms of fatigue, throughput, speed, and accuracy. This research attempts to develop a smart vision sensing system that able to separate the different grades of paper using Template Matching. For constructing template database, the RGB components of the pixel values are used to construct RGBString for template images. Finally, paper object grade is identified based on the maximum occurrence of a specific template image in the search image. The outcomes from the experiment in classification for White Paper, Old Newsprint Paper and Old Corrugated Cardboard are 96%, 92% and 96%, respectively. The remarkable achievement obtained with the method is the accurate identification and dynamic sorting of all grades of papers using simple image processing techniques.

  8. Surgical Templates for Dental Implant Positioning; Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical templates for dental implant. 5. Nigerian Journal of Surgery. Jan‑Jun 2015 | Volume 21 | Issue 1. 18. Tarlow JL. Fabrication of an implant surgical stent for the edentulous mandible. J Prosthet Dent 1992;67:217‑8. 19. Stellino G, Morgano SM, Imbelloni A. A dual‑purpose, implant stent made from a provisional fixed ...

  9. Ceramic microfluidic monoliths by ice templating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jumeng; Salamon, David; Lefferts, Leonardus; Wessling, Matthias; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.


    Meso/macro-porous alumina microfluidic monoliths were fabricated by an ice-templating (or freeze-casting) technique. A (green) compact with sufficient strength is obtained after controlled freezing and simple drying under ambient conditions by starting with an aqueous suspension of a mixture of

  10. Computational templates for introductory nuclear science using mathcad (United States)

    Sarantites, D. G.; Sobotka, L. G.


    Computational templates used to teach an introductory course in nuclear chemistry and physics at Washington University in St. Louis are presented in brief. The templates cover both basic and applied topics.

  11. Visual cluster analysis and pattern recognition template and methods (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil; Martinez, Rubel Francisco


    A method of clustering using a novel template to define a region of influence. Using neighboring approximation methods, computation times can be significantly reduced. The template and method are applicable and improve pattern recognition techniques.

  12. Emergency department documentation templates: variability in template selection and association with physical examination and test ordering in dizziness presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurer William J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical documentation systems, such as templates, have been associated with process utilization. The T-System emergency department (ED templates are widely used but lacking are analyses of the templates association with processes. This system is also unique because of the many different template options available, and thus the selection of the template may also be important. We aimed to describe the selection of templates in ED dizziness presentations and to investigate the association between items on templates and process utilization. Methods Dizziness visits were captured from a population-based study of EDs that use documentation templates. Two relevant process outcomes were assessed: head computerized tomography (CT scan and nystagmus examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of each outcome for patients who did or did not receive a relevant-item template. Propensity scores were also used to adjust for selection effects. Results The final cohort was 1,485 visits. Thirty-one different templates were used. Use of a template with a head CT item was associated with an increase in the adjusted probability of head CT utilization from 12.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-16.6% to 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.9%. The adjusted probability of documentation of a nystagmus assessment increased from 12.0% (95%CI, 8.8%-16.2% when a nystagmus-item template was not used to 95.0% (95% CI, 92.8%-96.6% when a nystagmus-item template was used. The associations remained significant after propensity score adjustments. Conclusions Providers use many different templates in dizziness presentations. Important differences exist in the various templates and the template that is used likely impacts process utilization, even though selection may be arbitrary. The optimal design and selection of templates may offer a feasible and effective opportunity to improve care delivery.

  13. Business Process Variability : A Tool for Declarative Template Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulanov, P.; Groefsema, H.; Aiello, M.


    To lower both implementation time and cost, many Business Process Management tools use process templates to implement highly recurring processes. However, in order for such templates to be used, a process has to adhere substantially to the template. Therefore, current practice for processes which

  14. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maijenburg, A.W.


    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the

  15. FDG-PET template MNI152 1mm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A FDG-PET template in MNI space aligned to the MNI152 atlas This PET-FDG template is provided as is free of charge for all purposes, provided that the following paper is cited......(to appear) when ever the template is used. The authors cannot, under any circumstances, be held responsible for any...

  16. Assessing ligand efficiencies using template-based molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    on a series of 38 TIBO derivatives as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) inhibitors. Four different templates of the Cl-TIBO (1-REV) were created and used as reference templates for docking and align- ing. On the basis of the optimal conformation of the ligands, when fitting to the template, the respective scoring functions ...

  17. CPU and GPU (Cuda Template Matching Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Borcovas


    Full Text Available Image processing, computer vision or other complicated opticalinformation processing algorithms require large resources. It isoften desired to execute algorithms in real time. It is hard tofulfill such requirements with single CPU processor. NVidiaproposed CUDA technology enables programmer to use theGPU resources in the computer. Current research was madewith Intel Pentium Dual-Core T4500 2.3 GHz processor with4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU I, NVidia GeForce GT320M CUDAcompliable graphics card (GPU I and Intel Core I5-2500K3.3 GHz processor with 4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU II, NVidiaGeForce GTX 560 CUDA compatible graphic card (GPU II.Additional libraries as OpenCV 2.1 and OpenCV 2.4.0 CUDAcompliable were used for the testing. Main test were made withstandard function MatchTemplate from the OpenCV libraries.The algorithm uses a main image and a template. An influenceof these factors was tested. Main image and template have beenresized and the algorithm computing time and performancein Gtpix/s have been measured. According to the informationobtained from the research GPU computing using the hardwarementioned earlier is till 24 times faster when it is processing abig amount of information. When the images are small the performanceof CPU and GPU are not significantly different. Thechoice of the template size makes influence on calculating withCPU. Difference in the computing time between the GPUs canbe explained by the number of cores which they have.

  18. Deep Human Parsing with Active Template Regression. (United States)

    Liang, Xiaodan; Liu, Si; Shen, Xiaohui; Yang, Jianchao; Liu, Luoqi; Dong, Jian; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng


    In this work, the human parsing task, namely decomposing a human image into semantic fashion/body regions, is formulated as an active template regression (ATR) problem, where the normalized mask of each fashion/body item is expressed as the linear combination of the learned mask templates, and then morphed to a more precise mask with the active shape parameters, including position, scale and visibility of each semantic region. The mask template coefficients and the active shape parameters together can generate the human parsing results, and are thus called the structure outputs for human parsing. The deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is utilized to build the end-to-end relation between the input human image and the structure outputs for human parsing. More specifically, the structure outputs are predicted by two separate networks. The first CNN network is with max-pooling, and designed to predict the template coefficients for each label mask, while the second CNN network is without max-pooling to preserve sensitivity to label mask position and accurately predict the active shape parameters. For a new image, the structure outputs of the two networks are fused to generate the probability of each label for each pixel, and super-pixel smoothing is finally used to refine the human parsing result. Comprehensive evaluations on a large dataset well demonstrate the significant superiority of the ATR framework over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F1-score reaches 64.38 percent by our ATR framework, significantly higher than 44.76 percent based on the state-of-the-art algorithm [28].

  19. A Neonatal Bimodal MR-CT Head Template.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Ghadimi

    Full Text Available Neonatal MR templates are appropriate for brain structural analysis and spatial normalization. However, they do not provide the essential accurate details of cranial bones and fontanels-sutures. Distinctly, CT images provide the best contrast for bone definition and fontanels-sutures. In this paper, we present, for the first time, an approach to create a fully registered bimodal MR-CT head template for neonates with a gestational age of 39 to 42 weeks. Such a template is essential for structural and functional brain studies, which require precise geometry of the head including cranial bones and fontanels-sutures. Due to the special characteristics of the problem (which requires inter-subject inter-modality registration, a two-step intensity-based registration method is proposed to globally and locally align CT images with an available MR template. By applying groupwise registration, the new neonatal CT template is then created in full alignment with the MR template to build a bimodal MR-CT template. The mutual information value between the CT and the MR template is 1.17 which shows their perfect correspondence in the bimodal template. Moreover, the average mutual information value between normalized images and the CT template proposed in this study is 1.24±0.07. Comparing this value with the one reported in a previously published approach (0.63±0.07 demonstrates the better generalization properties of the new created template and the superiority of the proposed method for the creation of CT template in the standard space provided by MR neonatal head template. The neonatal bimodal MR-CT head template is freely downloadable from

  20. Progress of UV-NIL template making (United States)

    Hiraka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Jun; Nakanishi, Yuko; Yusa, Satoshi; Sasaki, Shiho; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya


    Nano-imprint lithography (NIL) has been counted as one of the lithography candidates for hp32nm node and beyond and has showed excellent resolution capability with remarkable low line edge roughness that is attracting many researchers in the industry who were searching for the finest patterning technology. Therefore, recently we have been focusing on the resolution improvement on the NIL templates with the 100keV acceleration voltage spot beam (SB) EB writer and the 50keV acceleration voltage variable shaped beam (VSB) EB writer. The 100keV SB writers have high resolution capability, but they show fatally low throughput if we need full chip writing. Usually templates for resolution pioneers needed just a small field (several hundred microns square or so), but recently requirements for full chip templates are increasing. For full chip writing, we have also started the resolution improvement with the 50keV VSB writers used in current 4X photomask manufacturing. The 50keV VSB writers could generate full chip pattern in a reasonable time though resolution limits are inferior to that with the 100keV SB writers. In this paper, we will show latest results with both the 100keV SB and the 50keV VSB EB writers. With the 100keV SB EB writer, we have achieved down to hp15nm resolution for line and space pattern, but found that to achieve further improvement, an innovation in pattern generation method or material would be inevitable. With the 50keV VSB EB writer, we have achieved down to hp22nm resolution for line and space pattern. Though NIL has excellent resolution capability, solutions for defect inspection and repair are not clearly shown yet. In this paper, we will show preliminary inspection results with an EB inspection tool. We tested an EB inspection tool by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI), which was originally developed for and are currently used as a wafer inspection tool, and now have been started to seek the application for mask use, using a programmed defect

  1. Robust structural identification via polyhedral template matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Mahler; Schmidt, Søren; Schiøtz, Jakob


    thresholds thereof) to classify atomic structure. As a consequence they are sensitive to strain and thermal displacements, and preprocessing such as quenching or temporal averaging of the atomic positions is necessary to provide reliable identifications. We propose a new method, polyhedral template matching...... to identify structures even in simulations near the melting point, and that it can identify the most common ordered alloy structures as well. In addition, the method makes it easy to identify the local lattice orientation in polycrystalline samples, and to calculate the local strain tensor. An implementation...

  2. Flagellar filament bio-templated inorganic oxide materials – towards an efficient lithium battery anode (United States)

    Beznosov, Sergei N.; Veluri, Pavan S.; Pyatibratov, Mikhail G.; Chatterjee, Abhijit; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Fedorov, Oleg V.; Mitra, Sagar


    Designing a new generation of energy-intensive and sustainable electrode materials for batteries to power a variety of applications is an imperative task. The use of biomaterials as a nanosized structural template for these materials has the potential to produce hitherto unachievable structures. In this report, we have used genetically modified flagellar filaments of the extremely halophilic archaea species Halobacterium salinarum to synthesize nanostructured iron oxide composites for use as a lithium-ion battery anode. The electrode demonstrated a superior electrochemical performance compared to existing literature results, with good capacity retention of 1032 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles and with high rate capability, delivering 770 mAh g−1 at 5 A g−1 (~5 C) discharge rate. This unique flagellar filament based template has the potential to provide access to other highly structured advanced energy materials in the future. PMID:25583370

  3. Flagellar filament bio-templated inorganic oxide materials - towards an efficient lithium battery anode. (United States)

    Beznosov, Sergei N; Veluri, Pavan S; Pyatibratov, Mikhail G; Chatterjee, Abhijit; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Fedorov, Oleg V; Mitra, Sagar


    Designing a new generation of energy-intensive and sustainable electrode materials for batteries to power a variety of applications is an imperative task. The use of biomaterials as a nanosized structural template for these materials has the potential to produce hitherto unachievable structures. In this report, we have used genetically modified flagellar filaments of the extremely halophilic archaea species Halobacterium salinarum to synthesize nanostructured iron oxide composites for use as a lithium-ion battery anode. The electrode demonstrated a superior electrochemical performance compared to existing literature results, with good capacity retention of 1032 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles and with high rate capability, delivering 770 mAh g(-1) at 5 A g(-1) (~5 C) discharge rate. This unique flagellar filament based template has the potential to provide access to other highly structured advanced energy materials in the future.

  4. Genetic diversity analysis of various red spider mite- resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivars that are applied in cultivar identification and breeder's right protection of cottons. The genomic DNA was used as template and random primers were used to analyze the genetic diversity.

  5. Genetic diversity analysis of various red spider miteresistant upland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivars that are applied in cultivar identification and breeder's right protection of cottons. The genomic DNA was used as template and random primers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 21 accessions ...

  6. Silicon template preparation for the fabrication of thin patterned gold films via template stripping (United States)

    Schmidl, G.; Dellith, J.; Dellith, A.; Teller, N.; Zopf, D.; Li, G.; Dathe, A.; Mayer, G.; Hübner, U.; Zeisberger, M.; Stranik, O.; Fritzsche, W.


    Metallic nanostructures play an important role in the vast field of modern nanophotonics, which ranges from the life sciences to biomedicine and beyond. Gold is a commonly-used and attractive material for plasmonics in the visible wavelength range, most importantly due to its chemical stability. In the present work, we focused on the different methods of plasmonic nanostructure fabrication that possess the greatest potential for cost-efficient fabrication. Initially, reusable (1 0 0) silicon templates were prepared. For this purpose, three different lithography methods (i.e. e-beam, optical, and nanoparticle lithography) were used that correspond to the desired structural scales. The application of a subsequent anisotropic crystal orientation-dependent wet etching process produced well-defined pyramidal structures in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from several microns to less than 100 nm. Finally, a 200 nm-thick gold layer was deposited by means of confocal sputtering on the silicon templates and stripped in order to obtain gold films that feature a surface replica of the initial template structure. The surface roughness that was achieved on the stripped films corresponds well with the roughness of the template used. This makes it possible to prepare cost-efficient high-quality structured films in large quantities with little effort. The gold films produced were thoroughly characterized, particularly with respect to their plasmonic response.

  7. 20 The Tools - 07 Threshold Concepts - Threshold Concepts: Poster template (TC poster template for case study)


    TfLN-Transforming Perspectives project


    Part of a toolkit used in the Transforming Perspectives project, looking at using 'threshold concepts' as a framework for identifying areas of conceptual difficulty in disciplinary curricula. This is a blank 'poster' template used by the project by participants sharing 'their' identified threshold concepts with other participants at a seminar series.

  8. Biocompatibility of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencoglu, Maria F. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Spurri, Amanda [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Franko, Mitchell [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, Jihua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Hensley, Dale K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Heldt, Caryn L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Saha, Dipendu [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    We report that soft-templated mesoporous carbon is morphologically a non-nano type of carbon. It is a relatively newer variety of biomaterial, which has already demonstrated its successful role in drug delivery applications. To investigate the toxicity and biocompatibility, we introduced three types of mesoporous carbons with varying synthesis conditions and pore textural properties. We compared the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pore width and performed cytotoxicity experiments with HeLa cells, cell viability studies with fibroblast cells and hemocomapatibility studies. Cytotoxicity tests reveal that two of the carbons are not cytotoxic, with cell survival over 90%. The mesoporous carbon with the highest surface area showed slight toxicity (~70% cell survival) at the highest carbon concentration of 500 μg/mL. Fibroblast cell viability assays suggested high and constant viability of over 98% after 3 days with no apparent relation with materials property and good visible cell-carbon compatibility. No hemolysis (<1%) was confirmed for all the carbon materials. Protein adsorption experiments with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen revealed a lower protein binding capacity of 0.2–0.6 mg/m2 and 2–4 mg/m2 for BSA and fibrinogen, respectively, with lower binding associated with an increase in surface area. The results of this study confirm the biocompatibility of soft-templated mesoporous carbons.

  9. Kinetic theory of amyloid fibril templating. (United States)

    Schmit, Jeremy D


    The growth of amyloid fibrils requires a disordered or partially unfolded protein to bind to the fibril and adapt the same conformation and alignment established by the fibril template. Since the H-bonds stabilizing the fibril are interchangeable, it is inevitable that H-bonds form between incorrect pairs of amino acids which are either incorporated into the fibril as defects or must be broken before the correct alignment can be found. This process is modeled by mapping the formation and breakage of H-bonds to a one-dimensional random walk. The resulting microscopic model of fibril growth is governed by two timescales: the diffusion time of the monomeric proteins, and the time required for incorrectly bound proteins to unbind from the fibril. The theory predicts that the Arrhenius behavior observed in experiments is due to off-pathway states rather than an on-pathway transition state. The predicted growth rates are in qualitative agreement with experiments on insulin fibril growth rates as a function of protein concentration, denaturant concentration, and temperature. These results suggest a templating mechanism where steric clashes due to a single mis-aligned molecule prevent the binding of additional molecules.

  10. Weaving Nanoscale Cloth through Electrostatic Templating. (United States)

    Champsaur, Anouck M; Mézière, Cécile; Allain, Magali; Paley, Daniel W; Steigerwald, Michael L; Nuckolls, Colin; Batail, Patrick


    Here we disclose a simple route to nanoscopic 2D woven structures reminiscent of the methods used to produce macroscopic textiles. We find that the same principles used in macroscopic weaving can be applied on the nanoscale to create two-dimensional molecular cloth from polymeric strands, a molecular thread. The molecular thread is composed of Co6Se8(PEt3)4L2 superatoms that are bridged with L = benzene bis-1,4-isonitrile to form polymer strands. As the superatoms that make up the polymer chain are electrochemically oxidized, they are electrostatically templated by a nanoscale anion, the tetragonal Lindqvist polyoxometalate Mo6O19(2-). The tetragonal symmetry of the dianionic template creates a nanoscale version of the box weave. The crossing points in the weave feature π-stacking of the bridging linker. By examining the steps in the weaving process with single crystal X-ray diffraction, we find that the degree of polymerization at the crossing points is crucial in the cloth formation. 2D nanoscale cloth will provide access to a new generation of smart, multifunctional materials, coatings, and surfaces.

  11. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes


    Maijenburg, A.W.


    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the formation of different types of nanostructures. Throughout this thesis, three different nanostructures were made: nanowires (Chapters 2 to 6), nanotubes (Chapters 2 and 5) and nanocubes (Chapters 7 and ...

  12. Implementation of a template management interface for document systems


    Kmet, Damjan


    In the development of document management systems we are often confronted with the implementation of office packages into the document management system. By doing this, we face similar concerns regarding the implementation of the template, therefore we can put the requirements together and create an interface to manage the template into the document management system. The interface can shorten the time required for the construction and maintenance of templates of the office packages in the do...

  13. Templating fullerenes by domain boundaries of a nanoporous network. (United States)

    den Boer, Duncan; Han, Ggoch Ddeul; Swager, Timothy M


    We present a new templating approach that combines the templating properties of nanoporous networks with the dynamic properties and the lattice mismatch of domain boundaries. This templating approach allows for the inclusion of guests with different sizes without the need for a strict molecular design to tailor the nanoporous network. With this approach, nonperiodic patterns of functional molecules can be formed and studied. We show that domain boundaries in a trimesic acid network are preferred over pores within the network as adsorption sites for fullerenes by a factor of 100-200. Pristine fullerenes of different sizes and functionalized fullerenes were templated in this way.

  14. Directed self-assembly graphoepitaxy template generation with immersion lithography (United States)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Lei, Junjiang; Andres Torres, J.; Hong, Le; Word, James; Fenger, Germain; Tritchkov, Alexander; Lippincott, George; Gupta, Rachit; Lafferty, Neal; He, Yuan; Bekaert, Joost; Vanderberghe, Geert


    We present an optimization methodology for the template designs of subresolution contacts using directed self-assembly (DSA) with graphoepitaxy and immersion lithography. We demonstrate the flow using a 60-nm-pitch contact design in doublet with Monte Carlo simulations for DSA. We introduce the notion of template error enhancement factor (TEEF) to gauge the sensitivity of DSA printing infidelity to template printing infidelity and evaluate optimized template designs with TEEF metrics. Our data show that source mask optimization and inverse lithography technology are critical to achieve sub-80 nm non-L0 pitches for DSA patterns using 193i.

  15. Virus Assemblies as Templates for Nanocircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James N Culver; Michael T Harris


    The goals of this project were directed at the identification and characterization of bio-mineralization processes and patterning methods for the development of nano scale materials and structures with novel energy and conductive traits. This project utilized a simple plant virus as a model template to investigate methods to attach and coat metals and other inorganic compounds onto biologically based nanotemplates. Accomplishments include: the development of robust biological nanotemplates with enhanced inorganic coating activities; novel coating strategies that allow for the deposition of a continuous inorganic layer onto a bio-nanotemplate even in the absence of a reducing agent; three-dimensional patterning methods for the assemble of nano-featured high aspect ratio surfaces and the demonstrated use of these surfaces in enhancing battery and energy storage applications. Combined results from this project have significantly advanced our understanding and ability to utilize the unique self-assembly properties of biologically based molecules to produce novel materials at the nanoscale level.

  16. A generic process template for continuous pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Rozada-Sanches, Raquel; Dean, William


    In the work reported here, a conceptual generic continuous process template for pharmaceutical production is presented. The template is demonstrated on a nitro reduction case study that should in principle be generic such that it can handle a series of substrates with similar molecular...

  17. Excel Template For Processing Examination Results For Higher

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: In this work, we designed, developed and implemented an examination result processing template for all the Postgraduate programmes in the Faculty of Science, Kaduna State. University, Kaduna. The designed template when fed in with data computes and grades students appropriately. Its design was done ...

  18. Transdisciplinary Pedagogical Templates and Their Potential for Adaptive Reuse (United States)

    Dobozy, Eva; Dalziel, James


    This article explores the use and usefulness of carefully designed transdisciplinary pedagogical templates (TPTs) aligned to different learning theories. The TPTs are based on the Learning Design Framework outlined in the Larnaca Declaration (Dalziel et al. in this collection). The generation of pedagogical plans or templates is not new. However,…

  19. A non-parametric 2D deformable template classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut


    feature space the ship-master will be able to interactively define a segmentation map, which is refined and optimized by the deformable template algorithms. The deformable templates are defined as two-dimensional vector-cycles. Local random transformations are applied to the vector-cycles, and stochastic...

  20. New NIR light-curve templates for classical Cepheids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inno, L.; Matsunaga, N.; Romaniello, M.; Bono, G.; Monson, A.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Persson, E.; Buonanno, R.; Freedman, W.; Gieren, W.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Ita, Y.; Laney, C.D.; Lemasle, B.; Madore, B.F.; Nagayama, T.; Nakada, Y.; Nonino, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Primas, F.; Scowcroft, V.; Soszyński, I.; Tanabé, T.; Udalski, A.


    Aims. We present new near-infrared (NIR) light-curve templates for fundamental (FU, J, H, KS) and first overtone (FO, J) classical Cepheids. The new templates together with period-luminosity and period-Wesenheit (PW) relations provide Cepheid distances from single-epoch observations with a precision

  1. Tailoring the porosity of hierarchical zeolites by carbon-templating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kake; Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Claus H.


    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of hierarchical porous zeolite single crystal materials with a range of porosities made available by carbon-templating using differently-sized carbon particles as templates for the additional non-micropore porosity. The materials were...

  2. Proline-catalysed asymmetric ketol cyclizations: The template ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. A modified template mechanism based on modelling studies of energy minimised complexes is presented for the asymmetric proline-catalysed cyclization of triketones 1, 2 and 3 to the 2S,3S-ketols. 1a, 2a and 3a respectively. The template model involves a three-point contact as favoured in enzyme– substrate ...

  3. Proline-catalysed asymmetric ketol cyclizations: The template ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified template mechanism based on modelling studies of energy minimised complexes is presented for the asymmetric proline-catalysed cyclization of triketones 1, 2 and 3 to the 2, 3-ketols 1a, 2a and 3a respectively. The template model involves a three-point contact as favoured in enzyme-substrate interactions.

  4. Design of a process template for amine synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Godfrey, Andy; Gregertsen, Björn

    A conceptual nitro reduction process template that should be generic such that it can handle a series of substrates with sim ilar molecular functionality has been designed. The reduction process is based on a continuo us plug-flow slurry reactor. The process template aims at speeding up the proce...

  5. Template-Directed Copolymerization, Random Walks along Disordered Tracks, and Fractals (United States)

    Gaspard, Pierre


    In biology, template-directed copolymerization is the fundamental mechanism responsible for the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and proteins. More than 50 years have passed since the discovery of DNA structure and its role in coding genetic information. Yet, the kinetics and thermodynamics of information processing in DNA replication, transcription, and translation remain poorly understood. Challenging issues are the facts that DNA or RNA sequences constitute disordered media for the motion of polymerases or ribosomes while errors occur in copying the template. Here, it is shown that these issues can be addressed and sequence heterogeneity effects can be quantitatively understood within a framework revealing universal aspects of information processing at the molecular scale. In steady growth regimes, the local velocities of polymerases or ribosomes along the template are distributed as the continuous or fractal invariant set of a so-called iterated function system, which determines the copying error probabilities. The growth may become sublinear in time with a scaling exponent that can also be deduced from the iterated function system.

  6. Visual positioning for round pin chips based on a parametric deformable template (United States)

    Wang, Zujin; Huang, Xiaodiao


    With increasing necessities for reliable printed circuit board (PCB) products, there has been a considerable demand for a high speed and high precision vision positioning system. To locate a round pin chip with high accuracy and reliability with the obtained image, a positioning method is proposed based on the analysis of the image features, in which a deformable template is used to detect the deflection angle and the offset. The deformable template is constructed according to the arrangement of pins, whose offset, deflection, and zoom are denoted with five parameters. In addition, an energy function is defined by combining the image gradient, gray, and geometry features, which is optimized with the genetic algorithm to find the best matching position between the deformable template and a target image. The last experimental results show that this method has good accuracy, stability, and computing speed, and the detection errors are <0.1 deg and 0.25 pixels, which can meet the positioning accuracy of the placement machine vision system.

  7. Semiconductor nanowires and templates for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Xiang


    This thesis starts by developing a platform for the organized growth of nanowires directly on a planar substrate. For this, a method to fabricate horizontal porous alumina membranes is studied. The second part of the thesis focuses on the study of nanowires. It starts by the understanding of the growth mechanisms of germanium nanowires and follows by the structural and electrical properties at the single nanowire level. Horizontally aligned porous anodic alumina (PAA) was used as a template for the nanowire synthesis. Three PAA arrangements were studied: - high density membranes - micron-sized fingers - multi-contacts Membranes formed by a high density of nanopores were obtained by anodizing aluminum thin films. Metallic and semiconducting nanowires were synthesized into the PAA structures via DC deposition, pulsed electro-depostion and CVD growth. The presence of gold, copper, indium, nickel, tellurium, and silicon nanowires inside PAA templates was verified by SEM and EDX analysis. Further, room-temperature transport measurements showed that the pores are completely filled till the bottom of the pores. In this dissertation, single crystalline and core-shell germanium nanowires are synthesized using indium and bismuth as catalyst in a chemical vapor deposition procedure with germane (GeH{sub 4}) as growth precursor. A systematic growth study has been performed to obtain high aspect-ratio germanium nanowires. The influence of the growth conditions on the final morphology and the crystalline structure has been determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In the case of indium catalyzed germanium nanowires, two different structures were identified: single crystalline and crystalline core-amorphous shell. The preferential growth axis of both kinds of nanowires is along the [110] direction. The occurrence of the two morphologies was found to only depend on the nanowire dimension. In the case of bismuth

  8. YBCO nanowires grown by the alumina template method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koblischka, Michael R.; Hartmann, Uwe [Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Campus C 6 3, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Koblischka-Veneva, Anjela [Functional Materials, Saarland University, Campus C 6 3, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Skumryev, Vassil [Institut Catala de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)


    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) nanowires are grown by the anodized alumina template method, starting from pre-sintered YBCO powder. As templates, we have employed commercially available alumina templates with pore diameters of 30 nm and 100 nm, and an overall thickness of 50 {mu}m. An oxygen annealing step is required to obtain superconducting nanowires. Superconductivity with a transition temperature of 88 K is confirmed by means of magnetic susceptibility measurements. The resulting nanowires are analyzed in detail employing electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The separation of the nanowires of the templates is not yet established, but individual nanowires of up to 10 {mu}m length could be separated from the template. In several cases, the template pores are not completely filled by the superconducting material, which implies that the observed length is similar to what could be expected from regular grain growth. Resistance measurements using cut pieces of the filled templates were carried out as a function of temperature. These pieces were covered with Au films on top and bottom in order to provide the electric contacts. The measurements confirmed the magnetically determined critical temperatures.

  9. Radiographic templating of total hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures. (United States)

    Lakstein, Dror; Bachar, Ira; Debi, Ronen; Lubovsky, Omri; Cohen, Ornit; Tan, Zachary; Atoun, Ehud


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of pre-operative digital templating to minimize complications including limb length discrepancy (LLD), intraoperative fractures and early dislocations in patients with intracapsular femoral neck fractures. We retrospectively compared 23 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) for intracapsular femoral fractures with pre-operative digital templating and 48 patients without templating. The mean post-operative LLD was significantly lower in patients who had pre-operative templating than in the control group (6.7 vs. 11.5 mm, p = 0.023). Only three patients (13 %) with templating had LLD greater than 1.5 cm, compared to the 15 patients (31 %) without templating (p = 0.17). In eight cases the final femoral stem size matched the templated size, while 19 patients were within two size increments. Complications included one dislocation and one intra-operative fracture in the control group. The present study demonstrated that careful pre-operative planning may reduce LLD in patients undergoing THA due to intracapsular hip fractures.

  10. Alkyltin Keggin Clusters Templated by Sodium. (United States)

    Saha, Sumit; Park, Deok-Hie; Hutchison, Danielle C; Olsen, Morgan R; Zakharov, Lev N; Marsh, David; Goberna-Ferrón, Sara; Frederick, Ryan T; Diulus, J Trey; Kenane, Nizan; Herman, Gregory S; Johnson, Darren W; Keszler, Douglas A; Nyman, May


    Dodecameric (Sn12 ) and hexameric topologies dominate monoalkyltin-oxo cluster chemistry. Their condensation, triggered by radiation exposure, recently produced unprecedented patterning performance in EUV lithography. A new cluster topology was crystallized from industrial n-BuSnOOH, and additional characterization techniques indicate other clusters are present. Single-crystal X-ray analysis reveals a β-Keggin cluster, which is known but less common than other Keggin isomers in polyoxometalate and polyoxocation chemistry. The structure is formulated [NaO4 (BuSn)12 (OH)3 (O)9 (OCH3 )12 (Sn(H2 O)2 )] (β-NaSn13 ). SAXS, NMR, and ESI MS differentiate β-NaSn13 , Sn12 , and other clusters present in crude "n-BuSnOOH" and highlight the role of Na as a template for alkyltin Keggin clusters. Unlike other alkyltin clusters that are cationic, β-NaSn13 is neutral. Consequently, it stands as a unique model system, absent of counterions, to study the transformation of clusters to films and nanopatterns. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Template-assisted fabrication of protein nanocapsules (United States)

    Dougherty, Shelley A.; Liang, Jianyu; Kowalik, Timothy F.


    Bionanomaterials have recently begun to spark a great amount of interest and could potentially revolutionize biomedical research. Nanoparticles, nanocapsules, and nanotubular structures are becoming attractive options in drug and gene delivery. The size of the delivery vehicles greatly impacts cellular uptake and makes it highly desirable to precisely control the diameter and length of nanocarriers to make uniform nanoparticles at low cost. Carbon nanotubes have shown great potential within the field of drug and gene delivery. However, their insolubility and cytotoxicity could severely delay FDA approval. A desirable alternative would be to fabricate nanostructures from biomaterials such as proteins, peptides, or liposomes, which are already FDA approved. In this article we demonstrate the preparation of protein nanocapsules with both ends sealed using a template-assisted alternate immersion method combined with controlled cleaving. Glucose oxidase nanocapsules with controllable diameter, wall thickness, and length were fabricated and characterized with SEM and TEM. The biochemical activity of glucose oxidase in the form of nanocapsules after processing was confirmed using UV spectrometry. Our future work will explore proteins suitable for drug encapsulation and cellular uptake and will focus on optimizing the cleaving process to gain precise control over the length of the nanocapsules.

  12. Open Cell Aerogel Foams via Emulsion Templating. (United States)

    Teo, Nicholas; Jana, Sadhan C


    The water-in-oil emulsion-templating method is used in this work for fabrication of open cell aerogel foams from syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS). A surfactant-stabilized emulsion is prepared at 60-100 °C by dispersing water in a solution of sPS in toluene. sPS gel, formed upon cooling of the emulsion to room temperature, locks the water droplets inside the gel. The gel is solvent exchanged in ethanol and then dried under supercritical condition of carbon dioxide to yield the aerogel foams. The aerogel foams show a significant fraction of macropores with a diameter of a few tens of micrometers, defined as macrovoids that originated from the emulsified water droplets. In conjunction, customary macropores of diameter 50-200 nm are derived from sPS gels. The macrovoids add additional openness to the aerogel structures. This paper evaluates the structural characteristics of the macrovoids, such as diameter distribution, macrovoid interconnect density, and skin layer density, in conjunction with the final aerogel foam properties.

  13. Convex Lens-Induced Nanoscale Templating (United States)

    Berard, Daniel; Michaud, Francois; McFaul, Christopher; Mahsid, Sara; Reisner, Walter; Leslie, Sabrina


    We demonstrate a new platform, ``Convex Lens-Induced Nanoscale Templating'' (CLINT), for dynamic manipulation and trapping of single DNA molecules. In the CLINT technique, the curved surface of a convex lens is used to deform a flexible coverslip above a substrate containing embedded nanotopography, creating a nanoscale gap that can be adjusted during an experiment to confine molecules within the embedded nanostructures. Critically, CLINT has the capability of actively transforming a macroscale flow-cell into a nanofluidic device without need for high-temperature direct bonding, leading to ease of sample loading and greater accessibility of the surface. Moreover, as DNA molecules present in the gap will be driven into the embedded topography from above, CLINT eliminates the need for the high pressures or electric fields necessitated by direct bonded nanofluidic devices for loading DNA in the confined structures. To demonstrate the versatility of CLINT, we confine DNA to nanogroove structures, demonstrating DNA nanochannel-based stretching. Using ionic strengths that are in line with typical biological buffers, we have successfully extended DNA in sub 30nm nanochannels, achieving high stretching (90%) that is in good agreement with Odijk deflection theory.

  14. Templated Chemically Deposited Semiconductor Optical Fiber Materials (United States)

    Sparks, Justin R.; Sazio, Pier J. A.; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Badding, John V.


    Chemical deposition is a powerful technology for fabrication of planar microelectronics. Optical fibers are the dominant platform for telecommunications, and devices such as fiber lasers are forming the basis for new industries. High-pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) allows for conformal layers and void-free wires of precisely doped crystalline unary and compound semiconductors inside the micro-to-nanoscale-diameter pores of microstructured optical fibers (MOFs). Drawing the fibers to serve as templates into which these semiconductor structures can be fabricated allows for geometric design flexibility that is difficult to achieve with planar fabrication. Seamless coupling of semiconductor optoelectronic and photonic devices with existing fiber infrastructure thus becomes possible, facilitating all-fiber technological approaches. The deposition techniques also allow for a wider range of semiconductor materials compositions to be exploited than is possible by means of preform drawing. Gigahertz bandwidth junction-based fiber devices can be fabricated from doped crystalline semiconductors, for example. Deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon, which cannot be drawn, allows for the exploitation of strong nonlinear optical function in fibers. Finally, crystalline compound semiconductor fiber cores hold promise for high-power infrared light-guiding fiber devices and subwavelength-resolution, large-area infrared imaging.

  15. Macroporous inorganic solids from a biomineral template (United States)

    Yue, Wenbo; Park, Robert J.; Kulak, Alex N.; Meldrum, Fiona C.


    A range of macroporous inorganic solids, with unique, sponge-like structures were synthesised by templating sea urchin skeletal plates. Although composed of a single crystal of calcite, a sea urchin plate exhibits a bicontinuous morphology with pores of diameter 10-15 μm. As both the solid and porous fractions of the plate exhibit identical form and dimensions, filling the porous network with an alternative material and dissolving away the CaCO 3 generates a cast with identical morphology to the original plate. The versatility of this approach is demonstrated in this paper, which provides both a review of previously published work, and a description of the application to a number of new systems. Macroporous metals, including gold and nickel were synthesised either from pre-prepared particles or via electroless deposition, while silica and titania were generated by sol-gel techniques. Sponge-like polymer membranes, formed as casts of the sea urchin plates, were also used as an environment in which to precipitate a range of single crystals with complex morphologies: CaCO 3, SrSO 4, PbSO 4, PbCO 3, NaCl and CuSO 4·5H 2O. These experiments demonstrate that single crystals with intricate forms are not restricted to the realms of biology, but that shape constraint provides an extremely general route for morphological control.

  16. Virus-templated iridium oxide-gold hybrid nanowires for electrochromic application (United States)

    Nam, Yoon Sung; Park, Heechul; Magyar, Andrew P.; Yun, Dong Soo; Pollom, Thomas S.; Belcher, Angela M.


    A highly porous electrode comprised of biologically templated iridium oxide-gold (IrO2-Au) hybrid nanowires is introduced for electrochromic applications. A filamentous M13 virus is genetically engineered to display IrO2-binding peptides on the viral surface and used as a template for the self-assembly of IrO2 nanoclusters into a nanowire. The open porous morphology of the prepared nanowire film facilitates ion transport. Subsequently, the redox kinetics of the IrO2 nanowires seems to be limited by the electric resistance of the nanowire film. To increase the electron mobility in the nanowires, gold nanoparticles are chemically linked to the virus prior to the IrO2 mineralization, forming a gold nanostring structure along the long axis of the virus. The resulting IrO2-Au hybrid nanowires exhibit a switching time of 35 ms for coloration and 25 ms for bleaching with a transmission change of about 30.5% at 425 nm. These values represent almost an order of magnitude faster switching responses than those of an IrO2 nanowire film having the similar optical contrast. This work shows that genetically engineered viruses can serve as versatile templates to co-assemble multiple functional molecules, enabling control of the electrochemical properties of nanomaterials.A highly porous electrode comprised of biologically templated iridium oxide-gold (IrO2-Au) hybrid nanowires is introduced for electrochromic applications. A filamentous M13 virus is genetically engineered to display IrO2-binding peptides on the viral surface and used as a template for the self-assembly of IrO2 nanoclusters into a nanowire. The open porous morphology of the prepared nanowire film facilitates ion transport. Subsequently, the redox kinetics of the IrO2 nanowires seems to be limited by the electric resistance of the nanowire film. To increase the electron mobility in the nanowires, gold nanoparticles are chemically linked to the virus prior to the IrO2 mineralization, forming a gold nanostring

  17. Iris-based authentication system with template protection and renewability (United States)

    Ercole, Chiara; Campisi, Patrizio; Neri, Alessandro


    Biometrics is the most emerging technology for automatic people authentication, nevertheless severe concerns raised about security of such systems and users' privacy. In case of malicious attacks toward one or more components of the authentication system, stolen biometric features cannot be replaced. This paper focuses on securing the enrollment database and the communication channel between such database and the matcher. In particular, a method is developed to protect the stored biometric templates, adapting the fuzzy commitment scheme to iris biometrics by exploiting error correction codes tailored on template discriminability. The aforementioned method allows template renewability applied to iris based authentication and guarantees high security performing the match in the encrypted domain.

  18. The biogeochemical cycle of the adsorbed template. I - formation of the template (United States)

    Lazard, Daniel; Lahav, Noam; Orenberg, J. B.


    Experimental results are presented for the verification of the first adsorption step of the 'adsorbed template' biogeochemical cycle, a simple model for a primitive prebiotic replication system. The adsorption of Poly-C, Poly-U, Poly-A, Poly-G, and 5'-AMP, 5'-GMP, 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP onto gypsum was studied. It was found that under the conditions of the experiment, the polymers have a very high affinity for the mineral surface, while the monomers adsorb much less efficiently.

  19. Biomimetic self-assembly of apatite hybrid materials: from a single molecular template to bi-/multi-molecular templates. (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Jianglin; Ai, Xin; Zhang, Shengmin


    The self-assembly of apatite and proteins is a critical process to induce the formation of the bones and teeth in vertebrates. Although hierarchical structures and biomineralization mechanisms of the mineralized tissues have been intensively studied, most researches focus on the self-assembly biomimetic route using one single-molecular template, while the natural bone is an outcome of a multi-molecular template co-assembly process. Inspired by such a mechanism in nature, a novel strategy based on multi-molecular template co-assembly for fabricating bone-like hybrid materials was firstly proposed by the authors. In this review article we have summarized the new trends from single-molecular template to bi-/multi-molecular template systems in biomimetic fabrication of apatite hybrid materials. So far, many novel apatite hybrid materials with controlled morphologies and hierarchical structures have been successfully achieved using bi-/multi-molecular template strategy, and are found to have multiple common features in comparison with natural mineralized tissues. The carboxyl, carbonyl and amino groups of the template molecules are identified to initiate the nucleation of calcium phosphate during the assembling process. For bi-/multi-molecular templates, the incorporation of multiple promotion sites for calcium and phosphate ions precisely enables to regulate the apatite nucleation from the early stage. The roles of acidic molecules and the synergetic effects of protein templates have been significantly recognized in recent studies. In addition, a specific attention is paid to self-assembling of apatite nanoparticles into ordered structures on tissue regenerative scaffolds due to their promising clinical applications ranging from implant grafts, coatings to drug and gene delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Emergence of a code in the polymerization of amino acids along RNA templates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lehmann

    Full Text Available The origin of the genetic code in the context of an RNA world is a major problem in the field of biophysical chemistry. In this paper, we describe how the polymerization of amino acids along RNA templates can be affected by the properties of both molecules. Considering a system without enzymes, in which the tRNAs (the translation adaptors are not loaded selectively with amino acids, we show that an elementary translation governed by a Michaelis-Menten type of kinetics can follow different polymerization regimes: random polymerization, homopolymerization and coded polymerization. The regime under which the system is running is set by the relative concentrations of the amino acids and the kinetic constants involved. We point out that the coding regime can naturally occur under prebiotic conditions. It generates partially coded proteins through a mechanism which is remarkably robust against non-specific interactions (mismatches between the adaptors and the RNA template. Features of the genetic code support the existence of this early translation system.

  1. Improving your target-template alignment with MODalign.

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Alessandro


    SUMMARY: MODalign is an interactive web-based tool aimed at helping protein structure modelers to inspect and manually modify the alignment between the sequences of a target protein and of its template(s). It interactively computes, displays and, upon modification of the target-template alignment, updates the multiple sequence alignments of the two protein families, their conservation score, secondary structure and solvent accessibility values, and local quality scores of the implied three-dimensional model(s). Although it has been designed to simplify the target-template alignment step in modeling, it is suitable for all cases where a sequence alignment needs to be inspected in the context of other biological information. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Freely available on the web at Website implemented in HTML and JavaScript with all major browsers supported. CONTACT:

  2. Template-Framework Interactions in Tetraethylammonium-Directed Zeolite Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Joel E.; Fu, Donglong; Deem, Michael W.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.


    Zeolites, having widespread applications in chemical industries, are often synthesized using organic templates. These can be cost-prohibitive, motivating investigations into their role in promoting crystallization. Herein, the relationship between framework structure, chemical composition, synthesis

  3. CT Study of Radiopaque Implant Template for Gingival Form

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsutsumi, Toyoshige


    .... The concentrations of barium sulfate were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 vol%. The CT template were replaced the porcine mandibule and was fixed by immersion in a water vessel using a phantom before cone beam CT examination...

  4. Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template (United States)

    The Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template can be use to issue a Tier 1 Public Notification when it has been determined that source ground water is contaminated with E. Coli bacteria.

  5. GPP Webinar: Solar Procurement Templates and Tools for Higher Education (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar on solar procurement for Higher Education which features various tools and templates that schools can use to shape and manage the solar procurement process to a successful outcome.

  6. Dental rehabilitation of amelogenesis imperfecta using thermoformed templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNMP Sockalingam


    Full Text Available Amelogenesis imperfecta represents a group of dental developmental conditions that are genomic in origin. Hypoplastic AI, hypomineralised AI or both in combination were the most common types seen clinically. This paper describes oral rehabilitation of a 9-year-old Malay girl with inherited hypoplastic AI using transparent thermoforming templates. The defective surface areas were reconstructed to their original dimensions on stone cast models of the upper and lower arches using composite, and transparent thermoform templates were fabricated on the models. The templates were used as crown formers to reconstruct the defective teeth clinically using esthetically matching composite. The usage of the templates allowed direct light curing of the composite, accurate reproducibility of the anatomic contours of the defective teeth, reduced chair-side time and easy contouring and placement of homogenous thickness of composite in otherwise inaccessible sites of the affected teeth.

  7. Template matching techniques in computer vision theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brunelli, Roberto


    The detection and recognition of objects in images is a key research topic in the computer vision community.  Within this area, face recognition and interpretation has attracted increasing attention owing to the possibility of unveiling human perception mechanisms, and for the development of practical biometric systems. This book and the accompanying website, focus on template matching, a subset of object recognition techniques of wide applicability, which has proved to be particularly effective for face recognition applications. Using examples from face processing tasks throughout the book to illustrate more general object recognition approaches, Roberto Brunelli: examines the basics of digital image formation, highlighting points critical to the task of template matching;presents basic and  advanced template matching techniques, targeting grey-level images, shapes and point sets;discusses recent pattern classification paradigms from a template matching perspective;illustrates the development of a real fac...

  8. The Address on Umueri Airport City Project: A Template for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; and (3) a template that governors of other States, especially those who are obviously not performing effectively, should adopt and adapt towards efficiency and effectiveness in leadership and governance at the subnational level of Nigeria.

  9. A Survey On Various Web Template Detection And Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Mary Varghese


    Full Text Available Abstract In todays digital world reliance on the World Wide Web as a source of information is extensive. Users increasingly rely on web based search engines to provide accurate search results on a wide range of topics that interest them. The search engines in turn parse the vast repository of web pages searching for relevant information. However majority of web portals are designed using web templates which are designed to provide consistent look and feel to end users. The presence of these templates however can influence search results leading to inaccurate results being delivered to the users. Therefore to improve the accuracy and reliability of search results identification and removal of web templates from the actual content is essential. A wide range of approaches are commonly employed to achieve this and this paper focuses on the study of the various approaches of template detection and extraction that can be applied across homogenous as well as heterogeneous web pages.

  10. Ordered Nanomaterials Thin Films via Supported Anodized Alumina Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eES-SOUNI


    Full Text Available Supported anodized alumina template films with highly ordered porosity are best suited for fabricating large area ordered nanostructures with tunable dimensions and aspect ratios. In this paper we first discuss important issues for the generation of such templates, including required properties of the Al/Ti/Au/Ti thin film heterostructure on a substrate for high quality templates. We then show examples of anisotropic nanostructure films consisting of noble metals using these templates, discuss briefly their optical properties and their applications to molecular detection using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Finally we briefly address the possibility to make nanocomposite films, exemplary shown on a plasmonic-thermochromic nanocomposite of VO2-capped Au-nanorods.

  11. Template switching during break-induced replication is promoted by the Mph1 helicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Stafa, Anamarija; Donnianni, Roberto A; Timashev, Leonid A; Lam, Alicia F; Symington, Lorraine S


    Chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) that have only one end with homology to a donor duplex undergo repair by strand invasion followed by replication to the chromosome terminus (break-induced replication, BIR). Using a transformation-based assay system, it was previously shown that BIR could occur by several rounds of strand invasion, DNA synthesis, and dissociation. Here we describe a modification of the transformation-based assay to facilitate detection of switching between donor templates during BIR by genetic selection in diploid yeast. In addition to the expected recovery of template switch products, we found a high frequency of recombination between chromosome homologs during BIR, suggesting transfer of the DSB from the transforming linear DNA to the donor chromosome, initiating secondary recombination events. The frequency of BIR increased in the mph1Δ mutant, but the percentage of template switch events was significantly decreased, revealing an important role for Mph1 in promoting BIR-associated template switching. In addition, we show that the Mus81, Rad1, and Yen1 structure-selective nucleases act redundantly to facilitate BIR.

  12. III - Template Metaprogramming for massively parallel scientific computing - Templates for Iteration; Thread-level Parallelism

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  13. II - Template Metaprogramming for Massively Parallel Scientific Computing - Vectorization with Expression Templates

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  14. Acquiring Common Sense Spatial Knowledge through Implicit Spatial Templates


    Collell, Guillem; Van Gool, Luc; Moens, Marie-Francine


    Spatial understanding is a fundamental problem with wide-reaching real-world applications. The representation of spatial knowledge is often modeled with spatial templates, i.e., regions of acceptability of two objects under an explicit spatial relationship (e.g., "on", "below", etc.). In contrast with prior work that restricts spatial templates to explicit spatial prepositions (e.g., "glass on table"), here we extend this concept to implicit spatial language, i.e., those relationships (genera...

  15. A competition-based deformable template for junction extraction


    Cazorla Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Escolano Ruiz, Francisco; Gallardo López, Domingo; Colomina Pardo, Otto


    We propose a deformable template for junction extraction. Our method evolves from the Kona approach. Junction detection is performed in two steps: center detection and wedge extraction. In the first stage, a local filter is used to detect candidates. Then a template deformation method is used to find the optimal number of sections. Comunicación presentada en el VIII Simposium Nacional de Reconocimiento de Formas y Análisis de Imágenes, Bilbao, mayo 1999.

  16. Template directed synthesis of highly organized functional biomimetic silica nanostructures


    Kind, Lucy


    Silica is an important mineral in technological and biological applications. Many protocols have been developed for the synthesis of complex silica architectures. Most prominent is the silicification approach, where polymers build up the templates for the revealed polymer/silica structures. The current thesis demonstrates that star-shaped polymers and block copolymers are efficient templates for the fabrication of silica particles with spherical or raspberry-like morphology....

  17. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly


    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  18. Silver nanowires-templated metal oxide for broadband Schottky photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Kim, Joondong, E-mail: [Photoelectric and Energy Device Application Lab (PEDAL) and Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, 119 Academy Rd. Yeonsu, Incheon 406772 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyeong-Ho [Applied Device and Material Lab., Device Technology Division, Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center (KANC), Suwon 443270 (Korea, Republic of)


    Silver nanowires (AgNWs)-templated transparent metal oxide layer was applied for Si Schottky junction device, which remarked the record fastest photoresponse of 3.4 μs. Self-operating AgNWs-templated Schottky photodetector showed broad wavelength photodetection with high responsivity (42.4 A W{sup −1}) and detectivity (2.75 × 10{sup 15} Jones). AgNWs-templated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) showed band-to-band excitation due to the internal photoemission, resulting in significant carrier collection performances. Functional metal oxide layer was formed by AgNWs-templated from ITO structure. The grown ITO above AgNWs has a cylindrical shape and acts as a thermal protector of AgNWs for high temperature environment without any deformation. We developed thermal stable AgNWs-templated transparent oxide devices and demonstrated the working mechanism of AgNWs-templated Schottky devices. We may propose the high potential of hybrid transparent layer design for various photoelectric applications, including solar cells.

  19. Detection of Cancerous Masses in Mammograms by Template Matching: Optimization of Template Brightness Distribution by Means of Evolutionary Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bator, Marcin; Nieniewski, Mariusz


    .... This optimization is performed by the evolutionary algorithm using an auxiliary mass classifier. Brightness along the radius of the circularly symmetric template is coded indirectly by its second derivative...

  20. Genetic diversity of Annona senegalensis Pers. populations as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 16, 2007 ... assessment of the genetic diversity in A. senegalensis would assist in planning for future germplasm collection, conservation and fruit .... templates in 20 µl total volume. The amplifications were conducted ... The SSRs were screened on Genetic Analyzer model 3730 XL automated DNA sequencer, G5 dye ...

  1. Genetic Synthesis of Periodic Protein Materials


    Fournier, M J; Creel, H. S.; Krejchi, M. T.; Mason, T L; Tirrell, D.A.; McGrath, K. P.; Atkins, E. D. T.


    Genetic engineering offers a novel approach to the development of advanced polymeric materials, in particular protein-based materials. Biological synthesis provides levels of control of polymer chain architecture that cannot yet be attained by current methods of chemical synthesis. In addition to employing naturally occurring genetic templates artificial genes can be designed to encode completely new materials with customized properties. In the present paper we: 1) review th...

  2. Templated hydrogels for combination devices: therapeutic contact lenses. (United States)

    Ali, Maryam; Vaughan, Asa D; Zhang, Jeney; Venkatesh, Sid; Byrne, Mark E


    Molecular imprinting provides a rational design strategy for the development of controlled release drug delivery systems. We demonstrate that imprinting a network results in macromolecular memory for the template molecule, indicated by the two or more times greater partitioning into these networks as compared to non-imprinted networks. Partitioning of drug into networks synthesized from multiple functional monomers was 8 times greater than networks synthesized from single monomers. One-dimensional permeation studies showed that the gel with maximum incorporated chemical functionality had the lowest diffusion coefficient, which was at least an order of magnitude lower than all other gels studied. All imprinted networks had significantly lower diffusion coefficients than non-imprinted networks, in spite of comparable mesh sizes and equilibrium polymer volume fractions in the swollen state. This work also demonstrates molecular imprinting using a "living/controlled" polymerization strategy to enhance template loading/affinity and delay release in weakly crosslinked gels. Recognition studies revealed more than a 50% increase in template loading and dynamic template release studies showed that imprinting via "living" polymerization extends or delays the template release profile by two-fold over that of imprinting via conventional free-radical polymerization techniques and four-fold over the control network. The imprinted gel and imprinted gel prepared via "living/controlled" polymerization release profiles were less Fickian and moved toward zero-order release with profile coefficients of 0.68 and 0.70, respectively.

  3. Template-Directed Biopolymerization: Tape-Copying Turing Machines (United States)

    Sharma, Ajeet K.; Chowdhury, Debashish


    DNA, RNA and proteins are among the most important macromolecules in a living cell. These molecules are polymerized by molecular machines. These natural nano-machines polymerize such macromolecules, adding one monomer at a time, using another linear polymer as the corresponding template. The machine utilizes input chemical energy to move along the template which also serves as a track for the movements of the machine. In the Alan Turing year 2012, it is worth pointing out that these machines are "tape-copying Turing machines". We review the operational mechanisms of the polymerizer machines and their collective behavior from the perspective of statistical physics, emphasizing their common features in spite of the crucial differences in their biological functions. We also draw the attention of the physics community to another class of modular machines that carry out a different type of template-directed polymerization. We hope this review will inspire new kinetic models for these modular machines.

  4. Electroless Fabrication of Cobalt Alloys Nanowires within Alumina Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Dadvand


    Full Text Available A new method of nanowire fabrication based on electroless deposition process is described. The method is novel compared to the current electroless procedure used in making nanowires as it involves growing nanowires from the bottom up. The length of the nanowires was controlled at will simply by adjusting the deposition time. The nanowires were fabricated within the nanopores of an alumina template. It was accomplished by coating one side of the template by a thin layer of palladium in order to activate the electroless deposition within the nanopores from bottom up. However, prior to electroless deposition process, the template was pretreated with a suitable wetting agent in order to facilitate the penetration of the plating solution through the pores. As well, the electroless deposition process combined with oblique metal evaporation process within a prestructured silicon wafer was used in order to fabricate long nanowires along one side of the grooves within the wafer.

  5. Computer-Aided Template for Model Reuse, Development and Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul


    A template-based approach for model development is presented in this work. Based on a model decomposition technique, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool , which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps......, as well as the guidance through the steps providing additional information and comments. The application of the tool is highlighted with a multiscale modeling case study involving a catalytic membrane fixed bed reactor. The modeling templates for reactor as well as particle scales have been developed...... . For the particle scale, two alternative mechanisms to describe the diffusion inside catalyst pellets are available: a Fickian diffusion model and a dusty gas model . Moreover, the effects of isothermal and non-isothermal catalyst are also considered during the model development process. Thereby, any number...

  6. Template-mediated ontogenesis: A novel approach to mesomorphic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.E.; Anderson, M.T.; Odinek, J.; Newcomer, P.


    In this report the authors describe the methods they have developed for producing stable periodic mesoporous silica gels, thin films of mesoporous silica for sensor applications, a route to nonaqueous synthesis, and the use of various additives in controlling the pore size and structure of these materials. Mesoporous silica is formed by templating silica precursors around micelles of cationic quaternary ammonium surfactants. During the synthesis these micelles undergo a phase transition to a hexagonal, lamellar or cubic liquid crystalline state, thus imposing periodic order on the amorphous silica which occupies the interface of the hydrophilic cationic headgroups of the surfactants. The product of the bulk wet synthesis is a gel composed of micron size silica/surfactant particles, each of which consists of one or more crystalline domains of silica condensed around the surfactant template. The wet gel can then be washed and pyrolyzed to remove the surfactant template, yielding the periodic mesoporous silica product.

  7. Anticipatory Eye Movements in Interleaving Templates of Human Behavior (United States)

    Matessa, Michael


    Performance modeling has been made easier by architectures which package psychological theory for reuse at useful levels of abstraction. CPM-GOMS uses templates of behavior to package at a task level (e.g., mouse move-click, typing) predictions of lower-level cognitive, perceptual, and motor resource use. CPM-GOMS also has a theory for interleaving resource use between templates. One example of interleaving is anticipatory eye movements. This paper describes the use of ACT-Stitch, a framework for translating CPM-GOMS templates and interleaving theory into ACT-R, to model anticipatory eye movements in skilled behavior. The anticipatory eye movements explain performance in a well-practiced perceptual/motor task, and the interleaving theory is supported with results from an eye-tracking experiment.

  8. Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil


    -cultural field study of think-aloud testing done by usability vendor companies in the three countries. The result was a grounded theory of cultural variations in the production of a usability problem list. Study 2 was a follow-up, ethnographic interview study of how the companies typically perform usability......The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross...... tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research...

  9. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Pan


    Full Text Available Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  10. In vitro transcription of a torsionally constrained template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas; Nielsen, Peter E


    of torsionally constrained DNA by free RNAP. We asked whether or not a newly synthesized RNA chain would limit transcription elongation. For this purpose we developed a method to immobilize covalently closed circular DNA to streptavidin-coated beads via a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-biotin conjugate in principle...... mimicking a SAR/MAR attachment. We used this construct as a torsionally constrained template for transcription of the beta-lactamase gene by Escherichia coli RNAP and found that RNA synthesis displays similar characteristics in terms of rate of elongation whether or not the template is torsionally...... constrained. We conclude that transcription of a natural bacterial gene may proceed with high efficiency despite the fact that newly synthesized RNA is entangled around the template in the narrow confines of torsionally constrained supercoiled DNA....

  11. Fabrication of Gold Nanochains with Octreotide Acetate Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou


    Full Text Available We described a facile method for assembly gold nanochains by using octreotide acetate as template in aqueous environment. In acidic solution, octreotide acetate was conferred positive charges and its structure changed to chain-like. The monodisperse negative gold nanoparticles were bound to the surface of octreotide acetate template by electrostatic attraction and the interaction of gold nanoparticles with amino acid residues (tryptophan and lysine. The fabricated gold nanostructure presented chain-like observed by transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of gold nanochains was examined by tetrazolium dye-based microtitration (MTT assay, which demonstrated significantly less toxicity than that of octreotide acetate alone. The MTT assay also reflected the combinative action between the gold nanoparticles with octreotide acetate. Our work lays the groundwork for developing octreotide acetate-templated nanomaterials that can be used as a building block for the creation of nanomaterials. Meanwhile, the harmfulless gold nanochains have great application prospects in the biomedical filed.

  12. Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.


    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.

  13. Computer-aided modelling template: Concept and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul


    decomposition technique which identifies generic steps and workflow involved, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool, which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps and guidance through the steps providing additional......Modelling is an important enabling technology in modern chemical engineering applications. A template-based approach is presented in this work to facilitate the construction and documentation of the models and enable their maintenance for reuse in a wider application range. Based on a model...

  14. An Empirical Ultraviolet Iron Spectrum Template Applicable to Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.


    Iron emission is often a severe contaminant in optical-ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies. Its presence complicates emission line studies. A viable solution, already successfully applied at optical wavelengths, is to use an empirical iron emission template. We have generated FeII and Fe......III templates for ultraviolet active galaxy spectra based on HST archival 1100 - 3100 A spectra of IZw1. Their application allows fitting and subtraction of the iron emission in active galaxy spectra. This work has shown that in particular CIII] lambda 1909 can be heavily contaminated by other line emission...

  15. Template-Assisted Formation of Nanostructured Dopamine-Modified Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhu


    Full Text Available Dopamine-modified alginate and gelatin were prepared. The polymers were characterized and the properties of their aqueous solutions were investigated. Aqueous solutions of dopamine-modified alginate and gelatin with a concentration exceeding 20 mg/mL naturally formed gels after 16 h. Although polydopamine itself was not used for template-assisted nanostructure formation, the modified polymers could be used with dopamine. Mixing with dopamine allowed the precise shape of the template to be maintained in the resulting material, allowing nanopatterned surfaces and nanotubes to be prepared.

  16. A Bayesian Generative Model for Surface Template Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma


    Full Text Available 3D surfaces are important geometric models for many objects of interest in image analysis and Computational Anatomy. In this paper, we describe a Bayesian inference scheme for estimating a template surface from a set of observed surface data. In order to achieve this, we use the geodesic shooting approach to construct a statistical model for the generation and the observations of random surfaces. We develop a mode approximation EM algorithm to infer the maximum a posteriori estimation of initial momentum μ, which determines the template surface. Experimental results of caudate, thalamus, and hippocampus data are presented.

  17. Solvothermal removal of the organic template from L{sub 3} ('sponge') templated silica monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabbs, Daniel M. [Princeton University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); Mulders, Norbert [University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Aksay, Ilhan A. [Princeton University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)], E-mail: iaksay@princeton.EDU


    We compare the methods of continuous solvent (Soxhlet) and supercritical solvent extractions for the removal of the organic template from nanostructured silica monoliths. Our monoliths are formed by templating the L{sub 3} liquid crystal phase of cetylpyridinium chloride in aqueous solutions with tetramethoxy silane. The monoliths that result from both Soxhlet and supercritical extraction methods are mechanically robust, optically clear, and free of cracks. The Soxhlet method compares favorably with supercritical solvent extraction in that equivalent L{sub 3}-templated silica can be synthesized without the use of specialized reactor hardware or higher temperatures and high pressures, while avoiding noxious byproducts. The comparative effectiveness of various solvents in the Soxhlet process is related to the Hildebrand solubility parameter, determined by the effective surface area of the extracted silica.

  18. Detection of cancerous masses in mammograms by template matching: optimization of template brightness distribution by means of evolutionary algorithm. (United States)

    Bator, Marcin; Nieniewski, Mariusz


    Optimization of brightness distribution in the template used for detection of cancerous masses in mammograms by means of correlation coefficient is presented. This optimization is performed by the evolutionary algorithm using an auxiliary mass classifier. Brightness along the radius of the circularly symmetric template is coded indirectly by its second derivative. The fitness function is defined as the area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for the mass classifier. The ROC and AUC are obtained for a teaching set of regions of interest (ROIs), for which it is known whether a ROI is true-positive (TP) or false-positive (F). The teaching set is obtained by running the mass detector using a template with a predetermined brightness. Subsequently, the evolutionary algorithm optimizes the template by classifying masses in the teaching set. The optimal template (OT) can be used for detection of masses in mammograms with unknown ROIs. The approach was tested on the training and testing sets of the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). The free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) obtained with the new mass detector seems superior to the FROC for the hemispherical template (HT). Exemplary results are the following: in the case of the training set in the DDSM, the true-positive fraction (TPF) = 0.82 for the OT and 0.79 for the HT; in the case of the testing set, TPF = 0.79 for the OT and 0.72 for the HT. These values were obtained for disease cases, and the false-positive per image (FPI) = 2.

  19. Investigation of Terminology Coverage in Radiology Reporting Templates and Free‐text Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hong


    Full Text Available The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA is improving reporting practices by developing an online library of clear and consistent report templates. To compare term occurrences in free‐text radiology reports and RSNA reporting templates, the Wilcoxon signed‐rank test method was applied to investigate how much of the content of conventional narrative reports is covered by the terms included in the RSNA reporting templates. The results show that the RSNA reporting templates cover most terms that appear in actual radiology reports. The Wilcoxon test may be helpful in evaluatingexisting templates and guiding the enhancement of reporting templates.

  20. Deficiency of RecA-dependent RecFOR and RecBCD pathways causes increased instability of the (GAA*TTC)n sequence when GAA is the lagging strand template. (United States)

    Pollard, Laura M; Chutake, Yogesh K; Rindler, Paul M; Bidichandani, Sanjay I


    The most common mutation in Friedreich ataxia is an expanded (GAA*TTC)n sequence, which is highly unstable in human somatic cells and in the germline. The mechanisms responsible for this genetic instability are poorly understood. We previously showed that cloned (GAA*TTC)n sequences replicated in Escherichia coli are more unstable when GAA is the lagging strand template, suggesting erroneous lagging strand synthesis as the likely mechanism for the genetic instability. Here we show that the increase in genetic instability when GAA serves as the lagging strand template is seen in RecA-deficient but not RecA-proficient strains. We also found the same orientation-dependent increase in instability in a RecA+ temperature-sensitive E. coli SSB mutant strain (ssb-1). Since stalling of replication is known to occur within the (GAA*TTC)n sequence when GAA is the lagging strand template, we hypothesized that genetic stability of the (GAA*TTC)n sequence may require efficient RecA-dependent recombinational restart of stalled replication forks. Consistent with this hypothesis, we noted significantly increased instability when GAA was the lagging strand template in strains that were deficient in components of the RecFOR and RecBCD pathways. Our data implicate defective processing of stalled replication forks as a mechanism for genetic instability of the (GAA*TTC)n sequence.

  1. Nanomolar determination of Pb (II ions by selective templated electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazloum-Ardakani Mohammad


    Full Text Available Polypyrrole modified electrode, prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of methyl red as a dopant, was templated with respect to Pb2+ ion and applied for potentiometric and voltammetric detection of this ion. The templating process improved the analytical response characteristics of the electrode, specially their selectivity, with respect to Pb2+ ion. The improvement depends on both the incorporated ligand (dopant and the templating process, with the latter being more vital. The potentiometric response of the electrode was linear within the Pb2+ concentration range of 2.0×10-6 to 5.0×10-2 M with a near-Nernstian slope of 28.6 mV decade-1 and a detection limit of 7.0 ×10-7 M. The electrode was also used for preconcentration differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV and results showed that peak currents for the incorporated lead species were dependent on the metal ion concentration in the range of 1.0×10-8 to 1.0×10-3 M. The detection limit of DPASV method was 3.5 ×10-9 M. The selectivity of the electrode with respect to some transition metal ions was investigated. The modified-templated electrode was used for the successful assay of lead in two standard reference material samples.

  2. organic template free synthesis of zsm11 from kaolinite clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    hydrocarbon, etc. Accordingly, this work present successful synthesis of zeolite ZSM11 from kaolinite clay, seeded with. NaY type zeolite and aged for 3-11 days, in an organic template free condition. The used kaolinite clays were sourced from two different mines in Nigeria, namely; Kankara and Onibode. They were both ...

  3. Ultrafast coherence transfer in DNA-templated silver nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling; Bogh, Sidsel Ammitzbøll; Carro, Miguel


    DNA-templated silver nanoclusters of a few tens of atoms or less have come into prominence over the last several years due to very strong absorption and efficient emission. Applications in microscopy and sensing have already been realized, however little is known about the excited-state structure...

  4. Public Notification - Revised Total Coliform Rule Failure To Report Template (United States)

    When a PWS fails to report their monitoring results for Total Coliform bacteria, it must issue a public notice to inform consumers of its water of that failure to report. This template can be used as a guide for preparing that public notice.

  5. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates (United States)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Rocha-Rodrigues, P.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Alameda, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Santos, J. L.; Araujo, J. P.; Teixeira, J. M.; Guerreiro, A.


    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores  +  anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS-NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (~1.55) is quite lower (~22%) than the commonly used Al2O3 handbook value (~1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates.

  6. Supported lipid bilayers as templates to design manganese oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) have been used as templates to synthesize these nanoparticles in a water- based medium at room ... Keywords. Manganese oxide; supported lipid bilayers; nanoparticles; organized assemblies. 1. Introduction .... before coating with two layers of the lipid DOMA,. DOMA+DPPC or ...

  7. Assessing ligand efficiencies using template-based molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Statistical modelling using artificial neural network (ANN: 2 = 0.922) and multiple linear regression method (MLR: 2 = 0.851) showed good correlation between the biological activity, binding affinity, and different ligand efficiencies of the compounds, which suggest the robustness of the template-based binding ...

  8. General Template for the FMEA Applications in Primary Food Processing. (United States)

    Özilgen, Sibel; Özilgen, Mustafa

    Data on the hazards involved in the primary steps of processing cereals, fruit and vegetables, milk and milk products, meat and meat products, and fats and oils are compiled with a wide-ranging literature survey. After determining the common factors from these data, a general FMEA template is offered, and its use is explained with a case study on pasteurized milk production.

  9. Automatic capture of attention by conceptually generated working memory templates. (United States)

    Sun, Sol Z; Shen, Jenny; Shaw, Mark; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne


    Many theories of attention propose that the contents of working memory (WM) can act as an attentional template, which biases processing in favor of perceptually similar inputs. While support has been found for this claim, it is unclear how attentional templates are generated when searching real-world environments. We hypothesized that in naturalistic settings, attentional templates are commonly generated from conceptual knowledge, an idea consistent with sensorimotor models of knowledge representation. Participants performed a visual search task in the delay period of a WM task, where the item in memory was either a colored disk or a word associated with a color concept (e.g., "Rose," associated with red). During search, we manipulated whether a singleton distractor in the array matched the contents of WM. Overall, we found that search times were impaired in the presence of a memory-matching distractor. Furthermore, the degree of impairment did not differ based on the contents of WM. Put differently, regardless of whether participants were maintaining a perceptually colored disk identical to the singleton distractor, or whether they were simply maintaining a word associated with the color of the distractor, the magnitude of attentional capture was the same. Our results suggest that attentional templates can be generated from conceptual knowledge, in the physical absence of the visual feature.

  10. Making Legacy LMS adaptable using Policy and Policy templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesling, Arne; Herder, Eelco; De Coi, Juri; Abel, Fabian


    Koesling, A., Herder, E., De Coi, J., & Abel, F. (2008). Making Legacy LMS adaptable using Policy and Policy templates. In J. Baumeister & M. Atzmüller, Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Adaptivity and User Modeling in Interactive System, ABIS 2008 (pp. 35-40). October, 6-8, 2008, Würzburg,

  11. Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Faniel, S.


    A simple technique for fabricating single nanowires with well-defined position is presented. The process implies the use of a silicon nitride mask for selective electrochemical growth of the nanowires in a porous alumina template. We show that this method allows the realization of complex nanowire...

  12. Exploring Many-Core Design Templates for FPGAs and ASICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia Lebedev


    Full Text Available We present a highly productive approach to hardware design based on a many-core microarchitectural template used to implement compute-bound applications expressed in a high-level data-parallel language such as OpenCL. The template is customized on a per-application basis via a range of high-level parameters such as the interconnect topology or processing element architecture. The key benefits of this approach are that it (i allows programmers to express parallelism through an API defined in a high-level programming language, (ii supports coarse-grained multithreading and fine-grained threading while permitting bit-level resource control, and (iii reduces the effort required to repurpose the system for different algorithms or different applications. We compare template-driven design to both full-custom and programmable approaches by studying implementations of a compute-bound data-parallel Bayesian graph inference algorithm across several candidate platforms. Specifically, we examine a range of template-based implementations on both FPGA and ASIC platforms and compare each against full custom designs. Throughout this study, we use a general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU implementation as a performance and area baseline. We show that our approach, similar in productivity to programmable approaches such as GPGPU applications, yields implementations with performance approaching that of full-custom designs on both FPGA and ASIC platforms.

  13. Polymerase chain reaction preparation of template for massively parallel pyrosequencing. (United States)

    Whetten, Ross W; Sofía, Valenzuela A; Frampton, John


    Massively parallel pyrosequencing of DNA fragments immobilized on beads has been applied to genome survey sequencing and transcriptome analysis of a variety of eukaryotic organisms, including laboratory model species, agricultural crops and livestock, and species of interest to population biologists and ecologists. Preparation of sufficient high-quality template for sequencing has been an obstacle to sequence analysis of nucleic acids from tissues or cell types available in limited quantities. We report that the use of a biotinylated primer for polymerase chain reaction amplification allows removal of excess primer and poly(A) tract fragments from the sequencing templates, providing much higher yields of useful sequence information from pyrosequencing of amplified templates. This advance allows deep sequencing analysis of nucleic acids isolated from very small tissue samples. Massively parallel pyrosequencing is particularly useful for preliminary investigations of species that have not yet been the subject of significant genomic research, as genomic survey sequences and catalogs of expressed genes provide a means of linking the biology of less intensively studied species to that of more intensively studied model organisms. We obtained over 220 Mb of transcript DNA sequences from Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir., a conifer species native to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Comparison of the resulting assembled putative transcripts with similar data obtained by other sequencing methods from other conifers demonstrates the utility of the improved sequencing template preparation.

  14. A visual template-matching method for articulation angle measurement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, C


    Full Text Available and proposed sensing methods are limited either in terms of commercial feasibility or measurement accuracy. This paper investigates a vision-based system consisting of a single tractor-mounted camera, a template-matching image processing algorithm...

  15. Binary gabor statistical features for palmprint template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Ruan, Qiuqi; Shao, X.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    The biometric template protection system requires a highquality biometric channel and a well-designed error correction code (ECC). Due to the intra-class variations of biometric data, an efficient fixed-length binary feature extractor is required to provide a high-quality biometric channel so that

  16. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  17. Conformational studies of common protein templates in macromolecularly imprinted polymers. (United States)

    Kryscio, David R; Fleming, Michael Q; Peppas, Nicholas A


    Unlike the molecular imprinting of small molecule templates, molecularly imprinted polymers specific to large templates (>1,500 Da), have achieved limited success to date. Conformational stability of these labile macromolecules is one of the main factors that prevent the direct extension of successful procedures from the small molecule regime. We continue our systematic investigation of the effect of common components in macromolecular MIPs on the conformation of protein templates. Circular dichroism was used to show that frequently employed monomers and crosslinkers induce significant changes in the secondary structures of lysozyme and bovine hemoglobin. The extent to which this change occurs, at ligand concentrations far below what are typically used reported work, is cause for concern and provides as rational explanation for the lack of success in this arena. This is because a change in the template structure prior to polymerization would lead to the binding sites formed during polymerization to be specific to this alternate conformation. Subsequent studies with the macromolecule in its native state and the crosslinked network would not be successful. Using this information as a guide, we offer suggestions as to where work in macromolecular imprinted polymers should focus going forward in order for these antibody mimics to reach their vast potential as a new class of biomedical diagnostic devices.

  18. Synthesis of zeolite-templated carbons for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M


    Full Text Available Hydrogen storage has been a key bottle-neck in the actualization of hydrogen as an energy carrier. The new field of hydrogen storage in templated carbonaceous materials has excited many researchers and considerable effort is being directed...

  19. A Comparison Between Craniofacial Templates of Iranian and Western Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Hosseinzadeh Nik


    Full Text Available Templates are very useful tools for diagnosis of malocclusions. A number of templates have been provided for some populations in previous years. Since craniofacial characteristics of different ethnic groups are not the same, each population needs its own norms. The aim of this study was to provide orthodontic craniofacial templates for 8-16 year old Iranian boys and compare dentoskeletal features between Iranian and western populations. 3330 boys with the age range of 8-16 years were examined in Tehran, and 107 cases were finally chosen for the study and their lateral cephalograms were traced. Since there is no universal, consensus about the selection of one specific point or line for cephalometric superimposition, both the sella nasion (SN and basion nasion (Ba-N lines were chosen for this purpose. Based on both SN and Ba-N lines, a template was prepared for each age. Simple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the angles and the multivariant regression analysis for evaluation of landmark vectors. Posterior cranial base, maxillary and mandibular lengths, upper and lower anterior facial heights (N-ANS and ANS-Me and posterior facial height (S-Go are greater in Iranian population. But anterior cranial base, height and inclination of the incisors and molar height are similar in two populations.

  20. Involute Spur Gear Template Development by Parametric Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 3 (2), January, 2009. ISSN 1994-9057 (Print). ISSN 2070-0083 (Online). Involute Spur Gear Template Development by ... The third method and the most accurate system is the graphic ..... a three-dimensional part directly from a parametric solid modeled gear file.

  1. Battery Data MI Importer Template Quick Start Guide (United States)

    Levinson, Laurie H.


    In order to ensure the persistent availability and reliability of test data generated over the course of the project, the M-SHELLS Project has decided to store acquired test data, as well as associated pedigree information, in the Granta Materials Intelligence (MI) database. To facilitate that effort, an importer template and associated graphical user interface (GUI) software have been developed, with this guide providing the operating instructions for their use. The template and automation software GUI are contained in the BatteryDataImporter.xlsm Excel workbook, and are to be used to import M-SHELLS summary, or pedigree, data and the associated raw test data results into an importer template-based file, formatted in such a way as to be ready for immediate upload to the Test Data: Battery Performance table of the Granta MI database. The provided GUI enables the user to select the appropriate summary data file(s), with each file containing the required information to identify any associated raw test data file(s) to be processed. In addition to describing the setup and operation of the importer template and GUI software, this guide also provides instructions for uploading processed data to the database and for viewing the data following upload.

  2. Natural biopolymers : novel templates for the synthesis of nanostructures. (United States)

    Sonal Padalkar; J.R. Capadona; S.J. Rowan; C. Weder; Yu-Ho Won; Lia A. Stanciu; Robert J. Moon


    Biological systems such as proteins, viruses, and DNA have been most often reported to be used as templates for the synthesis of functional nanomaterials, but the properties of widely available biopolymers, such as cellulose, have been much less exploited for this purpose. Here, we report for the first time that cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) have the capacity to assist...

  3. Cu(I)/Cu(II) templated functional pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion, (ii) donor/acceptor forces, (iii) hydrogen bond- ing, (iv) π–π stacking, (v) electrostatic forces.13 Metal ions as templates has shown accessible pathways ..... 34 456; (e) Sauvage J P (ed.) 2001 Molecu- lar machines and motors; Structure and bonding; Berlin,. Germany: Springer. 7. (a) Kay E R, Leigh D A and Zerbetto F ...

  4. A computationally efficient approach for template matching-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Image registration using template matching is an important step in image processing. In this paper, a simple, robust and computationally efficient approach is presented. The proposed approach is based on the properties of a normalized covariance matrix. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that the image ...

  5. Enzyme Activity and Biomolecule Templating at Liquid and Solid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey W. Blanch


    There are two main components of this research program. The first involves studies of the adsorption and catalytic activity of proteins at fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces; the second employs biological macromolecules as templates at the solid-liquid interface for controlled crystallization of inorganic materials, to provide materials with specific functionality.

  6. Identification of inhibitors of checkpoint kinase 1 through template screening. (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P; Klair, Suki; Burns, Samantha; Boxall, Kathy; Cherry, Michael; Fisher, Martin; Westwood, Isaac M; Walton, Michael I; McHardy, Tatiana; Cheung, Kwai-Ming J; Van Montfort, Rob; Williams, David; Aherne, G Wynne; Garrett, Michelle D; Reader, John; Collins, Ian


    Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is an oncology target of significant current interest. Inhibition of CHK1 abrogates DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints and sensitizes p53 deficient cancer cells to genotoxic therapies. Using template screening, a fragment-based approach to small molecule hit generation, we have identified multiple CHK1 inhibitor scaffolds suitable for further optimization. The sequential combination of in silico low molecular weight template selection, a high concentration biochemical assay and hit validation through protein-ligand X-ray crystallography provided 13 template hits from an initial in silico screening library of ca. 15000 compounds. The use of appropriate counter-screening to rule out nonspecific aggregation by test compounds was essential for optimum performance of the high concentration bioassay. One low molecular weight, weakly active purine template hit was progressed by iterative structure-based design to give submicromolar pyrazolopyridines with good ligand efficiency and appropriate CHK1-mediated cellular activity in HT29 colon cancer cells.

  7. Processing of Nanosensors Using a Sacrificial Template Approach (United States)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.; Hunter, Gary W.


    A new microsensor fabrication approach has been demonstrated based upon the use of nanostructures as templates. The fundamental idea is that existing nanostructures, such as carbon nano tubes or biological structures, have a material structure that can be used advantageously in order to provide new sensor systems but lack the advantages of some materials to, for example, operate at high temperatures. The approach is to start with a template using nanostructures such as a carbon nanotube. This template can then be coated by an oxide material with higher temperature capabilities. Upon heating in air, the carbon nanotube template is burned off, leaving only the metal oxide nanostructure. The resulting structure has a combination of the crystal structure and surface morphology of the carbon nanotube, combined with the material durability and hightemperature- sensing properties of the metal oxide. Further, since the metal oxide nanocrystals are deposited on the carbon nanotube, after burn-off what is left is a metal oxide porous nanostructure. This makes both the interior and the exterior of this nano structured sensor available for gas species detection. This, in effect, increases the surface area available for sensing, which has been shown in the past to significantly increase sensor performance.

  8. Julius – a template based supplementary electronic health record system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Gunnar O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background EHR systems are widely used in hospitals and primary care centres but it is usually difficult to share information and to collect patient data for clinical research. This is partly due to the different proprietary information models and inconsistent data quality. Our objective was to provide a more flexible solution enabling the clinicians to define which data to be recorded and shared for both routine documentation and clinical studies. The data should be possible to reuse through a common set of variable definitions providing a consistent nomenclature and validation of data. Another objective was that the templates used for the data entry and presentation should be possible to use in combination with the existing EHR systems. Methods We have designed and developed a template based system (called Julius that was integrated with existing EHR systems. The system is driven by the medical domain knowledge defined by clinicians in the form of templates and variable definitions stored in a common data repository. The system architecture consists of three layers. The presentation layer is purely web-based, which facilitates integration with existing EHR products. The domain layer consists of the template design system, a variable/clinical concept definition system, the transformation and validation logic all implemented in Java. The data source layer utilizes an object relational mapping tool and a relational database. Results The Julius system has been implemented, tested and deployed to three health care units in Stockholm, Sweden. The initial responses from the pilot users were positive. The template system facilitates patient data collection in many ways. The experience of using the template system suggests that enabling the clinicians to be in control of the system, is a good way to add supplementary functionality to the present EHR systems. Conclusion The approach of the template system in combination with various local EHR

  9. The Oncor Geodatabase for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program: Handbook of Data Reduction Procedures, Workbooks, and Exchange Templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sather, Nichole K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diefenderfer, Heida L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serkowski, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Andre M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This Handbook of Data Reduction Procedures, Workbooks, and Exchange Templates is designed to support the Oncor geodatabase for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). The following data categories are covered: water-surface elevation and temperature, sediment accretion rate, photo points, herbaceous wetland vegetation cover, tree plots and site summaries, fish catch and density, fish size, fish diet, fish prey, and Chinook salmon genetic stock identification. The handbook is intended for use by scientists collecting monitoring and research data for the CEERP. The ultimate goal of Oncor is to provide quality, easily accessible, geospatial data for synthesis and evaluation of the collective performance of CEERP ecosystem restoration actions at a program scale.

  10. BioAssay templates for the semantic web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Clark


    Full Text Available Annotation of bioassay protocols using semantic web vocabulary is a way to make experiment descriptions machine-readable. Protocols are communicated using concise scientific English, which precludes most kinds of analysis by software algorithms. Given the availability of a sufficiently expressive ontology, some or all of the pertinent information can be captured by asserting a series of facts, expressed as semantic web triples (subject, predicate, object. With appropriate annotation, assays can be searched, clustered, tagged and evaluated in a multitude of ways, analogous to other segments of drug discovery informatics. The BioAssay Ontology (BAO has been previously designed for this express purpose, and provides a layered hierarchy of meaningful terms which can be linked to. Currently the biggest challenge is the issue of content creation: scientists cannot be expected to use the BAO effectively without having access to software tools that make it straightforward to use the vocabulary in a canonical way. We have sought to remove this barrier by: (1 defining a BioAssay Template (BAT data model; (2 creating a software tool for experts to create or modify templates to suit their needs; and (3 designing a common assay template (CAT to leverage the most value from the BAO terms. The CAT was carefully assembled by biologists in order to find a balance between the maximum amount of information captured vs. low degrees of freedom in order to keep the user experience as simple as possible. The data format that we use for describing templates and corresponding annotations is the native format of the semantic web (RDF triples, and we demonstrate some of the ways that generated content can be meaningfully queried using the SPARQL language. We have made all of these materials available as open source (, in order to encourage community input and use within diverse projects, including but not limited to our own

  11. A new route of synthesizing perovskite nanotubes by templating approach (United States)

    Habiballah, Anisah Shafiqah; Osman, Nafisah; Jani, Abdul Mutalib Md


    A perovskite oxide for example Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) has attracted growing attention due to its high catalytic activity and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Recent research of BSCF is more comprehensively based on a remarkable trajectory of innovation, in particular with regards to the synthesis of perovskite structures in one-dimensional (1-D) nanometric scales as they promote not only to increase an active electrode area for the oxygen reduction reaction, but also allow the tailoring of electrode's architecture. Nevertheless, achieving the desired 1-D structure by a conventional method such as hydrothermal, solvothermal, or sonochemical are far from satisfactory. Herein, the aim of this work is to synthesize the BSCF perovskite nanotubes via soft templating approach, particularly using anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) as a template, focusing on the morphology, composition and structural properties were demonstrated. After the AAO template was anodized at 80 V, the fabricated template was clamped between apair of spectroscopic cells containing BSCF sol and deionized water (with a hole of both sides) for 24 hours. After that, the sample was removed from the cells followed by heat treatment process. The FESEM images showed that BSCF nanotubes were successfully achieved, with the diameter of the nanotubes' approximately 80 nm. The EDX result also confirmed the nominal stoichiometry of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ. Meanwhile, the XRD pattern confirmed a single crystalline phase of BSCF nanotubes was successfully obtained and congruent to a cubic perovskite structure of BSCF. Possible formation mechanism,as well as the schematic illustration of BSCF nanotubes inside the template was also discussed in this paper.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The template polymerization of N-vinylimidazole (VIm) along poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) in water at 50-degrees-C with 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane).2HCl (AAP) as initiator was studied by using variable initiator and monomer concentrations at constant [PMAA]/[VIm]0. From the order in [VIm] it was

  13. Analytical template protection performance and maximum key size given a Gaussian-modeled biometric source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; Breebaart, Jeroen; Buhan, I.R.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Vijaya Kumar, B.V.K.; Prabhakar, Salil; Ross, Arun A.


    Template protection techniques are used within biometric systems in order to protect the stored biometric template against privacy and security threats. A great portion of template protection techniques are based on extracting a key from or binding a key to a biometric sample. The achieved

  14. Multi-template tensor-based morphometry: application to analysis of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart


    In this paper methods for using multiple templates in tensor-based morphometry (TBM) are presented and compared to the conventional single-template approach. TBM analysis requires non-rigid registrations which are often subject to registration errors. When using multiple templates and, therefore,...

  15. Multi-template synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon spheres with potential application in supercapacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Weizheng; Lin, Zhixing; Tong, Gangsheng; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Yan, Deyue; Mai, Yiyong; Zhu, Xinyuan


    A new and simple multi-template approach towards hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) materials was reported. HPC spheres were prepared by using hierarchical silica capsules (HSCs) as the hard template and triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as the soft template. Three types of pores were tunably

  16. Pitfall of the Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation within template protection and a remedy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; de Groot, K.T.J.; Chen, C.; Breebaart, J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    One of the requirements of a biometric template protection system is that the protected template ideally should not leak any information about the biometric sample or its derivatives. In the literature, several proposed template protection techniques are based on binary vectors. Hence, they require

  17. Script identification from images using cluster-based templates (United States)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Kelly, P.M.; Thomas, T.R.


    A computer-implemented method identifies a script used to create a document. A set of training documents for each script to be identified is scanned into the computer to store a series of exemplary images representing each script. Pixels forming the exemplary images are electronically processed to define a set of textual symbols corresponding to the exemplary images. Each textual symbol is assigned to a cluster of textual symbols that most closely represents the textual symbol. The cluster of textual symbols is processed to form a representative electronic template for each cluster. A document having a script to be identified is scanned into the computer to form one or more document images representing the script to be identified. Pixels forming the document images are electronically processed to define a set of document textual symbols corresponding to the document images. The set of document textual symbols is compared to the electronic templates to identify the script. 17 figs.

  18. Quantum interference device made by DNA templating of superconducting nanowires. (United States)

    Hopkins, David S; Pekker, David; Goldbart, Paul M; Bezryadin, Alexey


    The application of single molecules as templates for nanodevices is a promising direction for nanotechnology. We used a pair of suspended DNA molecules as templates for superconducting two-nanowire devices. Because the resulting wires are very thin, comparable to the DNA molecules themselves, they are susceptible to thermal fluctuations typical for one-dimensional superconductors and exhibit a nonzero resistance over a broad temperature range. We observed resistance oscillations in these two-nanowire structures that are different from the usual Little-Parks oscillations. Here, we provide a quantitative explanation for the observed quantum interference phenomenon, which takes into account strong phase gradients created in the leads by the applied magnetic field.

  19. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    This work focuses on the development of a computer-aided modeling framework. The framework is a knowledge-based system that is built on a generic modeling language and structured on workflows for different modeling tasks. The overall objective is to support model developers and users to generate...... and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be made faster, cheaper and more efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework, a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific models is presented....... The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene...

  20. Template based parallel checkpointing in a massively parallel computer system (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Inglett, Todd Alan [Rochester, MN


    A method and apparatus for a template based parallel checkpoint save for a massively parallel super computer system using a parallel variation of the rsync protocol, and network broadcast. In preferred embodiments, the checkpoint data for each node is compared to a template checkpoint file that resides in the storage and that was previously produced. Embodiments herein greatly decrease the amount of data that must be transmitted and stored for faster checkpointing and increased efficiency of the computer system. Embodiments are directed to a parallel computer system with nodes arranged in a cluster with a high speed interconnect that can perform broadcast communication. The checkpoint contains a set of actual small data blocks with their corresponding checksums from all nodes in the system. The data blocks may be compressed using conventional non-lossy data compression algorithms to further reduce the overall checkpoint size.

  1. Interstitial irradiation of rectal carcinoma with rectal template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Kinji; Tanaka, Ken; Nakanishi, Makoto; Inoue, Takehiro (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    Using Iridium-192 wires through a rectal template after Syed, interstitial brachytherapy was conducted in a patient with inoperable adenocarcinoma of the rectum. A 67-year-old man with constipation and change in the stool caliber underwent external radiotherapy (4,000cGy/4W) to the whole pelvis including the perineum, followed by interstitial implant using a template, at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Marked tumor regression, marked circumferential fibrosis and a remarkable decline of CEA titers (pre-RT: 35.8ng/ml, post-RT: 6.2ng/ml) were observed until 7 months post-RT. The domestic production of Iridium-192 wires has made possible the intergrated use of brachytherapy in the perineal region in Japan.

  2. Double-sided porous silicon as template for metal deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumpf, Klemens; Granitzer, Petra [Institute of Physics, Karl-Franzens-University Graz (Austria); Poelt, Peter; Albu, Mihaela [Institute for Electron Microscopy, University of Technology Graz (Austria)


    Mesoporous silicon, achieved by etching of a highly n-doped wafer is used as template for electrochemical metal deposition. The fabrication of porous silicon samples with a porous layer on each side is performed in a double tank electrolytic cell in applying a pulsed current with a frequency of typically 0.1 Hz. Ferromagnetic metals such as Ni and Co are deposited into the pores of the matrices, either the same metal on both sides of the sample, a different metal on each side or an alloy of both. As substrate material also ultrathin silicon wafers with an average thickness of 60 {mu}m are used to achieve a thickness as small as possible of the remaining bulk silicon in between the two porous layers. These fragile templates are also filled with transition metals and investigated magnetically. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Rapid earthquake detection through GPU-Based template matching (United States)

    Mu, Dawei; Lee, En-Jui; Chen, Po


    The template-matching algorithm (TMA) has been widely adopted for improving the reliability of earthquake detection. The TMA is based on calculating the normalized cross-correlation coefficient (NCC) between a collection of selected template waveforms and the continuous waveform recordings of seismic instruments. In realistic applications, the computational cost of the TMA is much higher than that of traditional techniques. In this study, we provide an analysis of the TMA and show how the GPU architecture provides an almost ideal environment for accelerating the TMA and NCC-based pattern recognition algorithms in general. So far, our best-performing GPU code has achieved a speedup factor of more than 800 with respect to a common sequential CPU code. We demonstrate the performance of our GPU code using seismic waveform recordings from the ML 6.6 Meinong earthquake sequence in Taiwan.

  4. Fabrication of Nanostructures Using Self-Assembled Peptides as Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime


    This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self-organize into nanostruc......This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self......-organize into nanostructures (nanotubes, nanofibers or nanospheres) under very mild conditions; some of its properties make them excellent candidates to be use as, for instance, dry-etch masks in a reactive ion etching process for the rapid fabrication of silicon micro and nanowires. Here, the methods used to exploit...

  5. Facile template-free hydrothermal synthesis and microstrain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. ZnO nanorods were synthesized at low temperature by hydrothermally heating 0⋅1 M solution of. ZnCl2 for 5, 10 and 15 h at a pH of 10. No template, seeded substrate, catalyst and autoclave were employed for the synthesis of ZnO nanorods. The effect of heating durations on the morphology and crystal ...

  6. A Framework for Analyzing Biometric Template Aging and Renewal Prediction (United States)


    biometrics that has a paucity of research is template aging and the adult age-progression, particularly facial aging. This dissertation presents a...growth. The transformation formula models a growth pattern and ratios of expansion on the craniofacial regions from adolescence to adult [RaC06a...based facial recognition technologies. Both algorithms/SDKs are camera independent, webcam capable and offer a set of programming samples and

  7. Facile template-free hydrothermal synthesis and microstrain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO nanorods were synthesized at low temperature by hydrothermally heating 0.1 M solution of ZnCl2 for 5, 10 and 15 h at a pH of 10. No template, seeded substrate, catalyst and autoclave were employed for the synthesis of ZnO nanorods. The effect of heating durations on the morphology and crystal orientation of the ...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of diblock copolymer templated iron oxide nanoparticles (United States)

    Akcora, Pinar


    Templating ordered assemblies of magnetic oxide nanoparticles within self-assembled diblock copolymers of varying morphologies is an important problem with a wide applicability such as in electromagnetics, optical devices, metal catalysts, medicine and biology. In this thesis, the effects of different polymer structures on particle ordering and resultant magnetic properties have been investigated using various microstructure and magnetic characterization tools. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of norbornene and functionalized norbornene monomers has been used to synthesize diblock copolymers of narrow polydispersities using Grubbs' catalyst. These block copolymers can be used as templates to form inorganic nanoparticles. In this research, the structural and physical understanding of the inorganic-copolymer system was studied by small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering techniques and transmission electron microscopy. Synthesis of gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles has been achieved within novel block copolymers of (norbornene)-b-(deuterated norbornene dicarboxylic) acid and (norbornene methanol-(norbornene dicarboxylic acid). The polymer morphologies were controlled by varying the volume fractions of the constituent blocks. The pure norbornene based diblock copolymer morphologies were demonstrated by electron microscopy for the first tune. Spherical, cylindrical and lamellar morphologies of these novel diblock copolymers were reported. The block ratios of the synthesized polymers were determined using gel permeation chromatography-light scattering, elemental analysis and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Solution phase doping and submersion of thin films in metal salt solutions were employed as metal doping methods and the observed nanoparticle structures were compared to those of the undoped copolymer morphologies. This project reports on the types of templating structures and dispersion of the nanoparticles. The effects of particle, interactions on the microphase

  9. Template preparation for rapid PCR in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca M. Gabriela


    Full Text Available Isolation of DNA for PCR is time-consuming and involves many reagents. The aim of this work was to optimise a rapid and easy PCR methodology without previous DNA isolation. Different strains of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum were used. Protoplasts were generated using lytic enzymes under high incubation temperatures using different methodologies to obtain the template. A rapid (10 minute methodology was successful for smaller amplicons (<750 bp.

  10. Recycling of surfactant template in mesoporous MCM-41 synthesis (United States)

    Lai, J. Y.; Twaiq, F.; Ngu, L. H.


    The recycling of surfactant template is investigated through the reuse of the surfactant template in the mesoporous MCM-41 synthesis process. In the synthesis of MCM-41, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) solution in water was utilized as the silica source while hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solution in ethyl alcohol was used as a surfactant template. The synthesized gel is formed thoroughly by mixing the two solutions under acid conditions with a pH value of 0.5 for 1 hour and kept for crystallization for 48 hours. The as-synthesized MCM-41 powder is recovered by filtration while the filtrate (mother liquor) was then reused for the second synthesis cycle. The synthesis procedure was repeated till no further solid product was formed. The synthesized gel was not produced in the unifying solution in the fifth cycle of MCM-41 synthesis. The quality of the calcined MCM-41 powder produced in each synthesis cycle was evaluated by calculating the amount of MCM-41 produced and the surface area of the powder product. The result showed that 1.28, 0.37, 1.64, 1.90 and 0.037 g were obtained in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th synthesis cycle, respectively. The surface area of the powder produced was found to be 1170, 916, 728, and 508 m2/g for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th respectively. The concentration of the surfactant template has reached value lower than the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and remained constant after the 4th cycle. There was no further formation of gel due to low availability in the interaction between silicate anions and surfactant cations when the amount of TEOS was fixed for every synthesis cycle.

  11. Shot Noise Thermometry for Thermal Characterization of Templated Carbon Nanotubes


    Sayer, Robert A; Kim, Sunkook; Franklin, Aaron D; Mohammadi, Saeed; Fisher, Timothy


    A carbon nanotube (CNT) thermometer that operates on the principles of electrical shot noise is reported. Shot noise thermometry is a self-calibrating measurement technique that relates statistical fluctuations in dc current across a device to temperature. A structure consisting of vertical, top, and bottom-contacted single-walled carbon nanotubes in a porous anodic alumina template was fabricated and used to measure shot noise. Frequencies between 60 and 100 kHz were observed to preclude sig...

  12. Standardized ultrasound templates for diagnosing appendicitis reduce annual imaging costs. (United States)

    Nordin, Andrew B; Sales, Stephen; Nielsen, Jason W; Adler, Brent; Bates, David Gregory; Kenney, Brian


    Ultrasound is preferred over computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing appendicitis in children to avoid undue radiation exposure. We previously reported our experience in instituting a standardized appendicitis ultrasound template, which decreased CT rates by 67.3%. In this analysis, we demonstrate the ongoing cost savings associated with using this template. Retrospective chart review for the time period preceding template implementation (June 2012-September 2012) was combined with prospective review through December 2015 for all patients in the emergency department receiving diagnostic imaging for appendicitis. The type of imaging was recorded, and imaging rates and ultrasound test statistics were calculated. Estimated annual imaging costs based on pretemplate ultrasound and CT utilization rates were compared with post-template annual costs to calculate annual and cumulative savings. In the pretemplate period, ultrasound and CT rates were 80.2% and 44.3%, respectively, resulting in a combined annual cost of $300,527.70. Similar calculations were performed for each succeeding year, accounting for changes in patient volume. Using pretemplate rates, our projected 2015 imaging cost was $371,402.86; however, our ultrasound rate had increased to 98.3%, whereas the CT rate declined to 9.6%, yielding an annual estimated cost of $224,853.00 and a savings of $146,549.86. Since implementation, annual savings have steadily increased for a cumulative cost savings of $336,683.83. Standardizing ultrasound reports for appendicitis not only reduces the use of CT scans and the associated radiation exposure but also decreases annual imaging costs despite increased numbers of imaging studies. Continued cost reduction may be possible by using diagnostic algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SnapDock-template-based docking by Geometric Hashing. (United States)

    Estrin, Michael; Wolfson, Haim J


    A highly efficient template-based protein-protein docking algorithm, nicknamed SnapDock, is presented. It employs a Geometric Hashing-based structural alignment scheme to align the target proteins to the interfaces of non-redundant protein-protein interface libraries. Docking of a pair of proteins utilizing the 22 600 interface PIFACE library is performed in or

  14. Customized Digital Case Presentation Template in Microsoft Word 2007


    P G Makhija; Anup Belludi; Amit Bhardwaj; Virag Bhatia; Madhur Navlani; Geetika Tomar


    Introduction : In today′s era of digital orthodontics, digital communication and presentation skills require regular updating. Case presentation and patient communication require an effort to manipulate digital records to be put in the unique digital case presentation format which is custom-made to fulfill one′s own or institutional requirement. These digital templates can easily be made in Microsoft Word 2007 and then can be printed on suitable paper for permanent records. Problem: This m...

  15. Metal-organic framework templated electrodeposition of functional gold nanostructures


    Worrall, Stephen D.; Bissett, Mark A.; Hill, Patrick I.; Rooney, Aidan. P.; Haigh, Sarah J.; Attfield, Martin P.; Dryfe, Robert A. W.


    Utilizing a pair of quick, scalable electrochemical processes, the permanently porous MOF HKUST-1 was electrochemically grown on a copper electrode and this HKUST-1-coated electrode was used to template electrodeposition of a gold nanostructure within the pore network of the MOF. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a proportion of the gold nanostructures exhibit structural features replicating the pore space of this ~1.4 nm maximum pore diameter MOF, as well as regions that are...

  16. Multifunctional Graphene/Platinum/Nafion Hybrids via Ice Templating

    KAUST Repository

    Estevez, Luis


    We report the synthesis of multifunctional hybrids in both films and bulk form, combining electrical and ionic conductivity with porosity and catalytic activity. The hybrids are synthesized by a two-step process: (a) ice templation of an aqueous suspension comprised of Nafion, graphite oxide, and chloroplatinic acid to form a microcellular porous network and (b) mild reduction in hydrazine or monosodium citrate which leads to graphene-supported Pt nanoparticles on a Nafion scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Biomolecular templating of functional hybrid nanostructures using repeat protein scaffolds. (United States)

    Romera, David; Couleaud, Pierre; Mejias, Sara H; Aires, Antonio; Cortajarena, Aitziber L


    The precise synthesis of materials and devices with tailored complex structures and properties is a requisite for the development of the next generation of products based on nanotechnology. Nowadays, the technology for the generation of this type of devices lacks the precision to determine their properties and is accomplished mostly by 'trial and error' experimental approaches. The use of bottom-up approaches that rely on highly specific biomolecular interactions of small and simple components is an attractive approach for the templating of nanoscale elements. In nature, protein assemblies define complex structures and functions. Engineering novel bio-inspired assemblies by exploiting the same rules and interactions that encode the natural diversity is an emerging field that opens the door to create nanostructures with numerous potential applications in synthetic biology and nanotechnology. Self-assembly of biological molecules into defined functional structures has a tremendous potential in nano-patterning and the design of novel materials and functional devices. Molecular self-assembly is a process by which complex 3D structures with specified functions are constructed from simple molecular building blocks. Here we discuss the basis of biomolecular templating, the great potential of repeat proteins as building blocks for biomolecular templating and nano-patterning. In particular, we focus on the designed consensus tetratricopeptide repeats (CTPRs), the control on the assembly of these proteins into higher order structures and their potential as building blocks in order to generate functional nanostructures and materials. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  18. Chitosan as template for the synthesis of ceria nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifontes, A.B., E-mail: [Centro de Quimica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez, G.; Ochoa, J.L. [Centro de Ingenieria, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Tovar, L.M.; Zoltan, T. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Canizales, E. [PDVSA, Intevep, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles with cubic fluorite structure were prepared using chitosan as template, cerium nitrate as a starting material and sodium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. Calcinated powders at 350 {sup o}C contain agglomerated particles with average particle size of {approx}4 nm, very high porosity and foam-like morphology formed by open and close pores. Highlights: {yields} Pure CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can take place using chitosan as template. {yields} A porous material was obtained. {yields} Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra have been observed in cerium oxide nanocrystallites. -- Abstract: Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}), nanoparticles were prepared using chitosan as template, cerium nitrate as a starting material and sodium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. The resultant ceria-chitosan spheres were calcined at 350 {sup o}C. The synthesized powders were characterized by, XRD, HRTEM, UV-vis, FTIR, and TG-DTA. The average size of the nanoparticles obtained was {approx}4 nm and BET specific surface area {approx}105 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra have been observed in cerium oxide nanocrystallites. The band-gap was found to be 4.5 eV. The blueshifts are well explained for diameters down to less than a few nanometers by the change in the electronic band structure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Mesoscopic high aspect ratio ferroelectric tube structures of a diverse range of compositions with tailored physical properties can be used as key components in miniaturized flexible electronics, nano- and micro-electro-mechanical systems, nonvolatile FeRAM memories, and tunable photonic applications. They are usually produced through advanced “bottom-up” or “topdown” fabrication techniques. In this study, a template wetting approach is employed for fabrication of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT microtubes. The method is based on repeated infiltration of precursor solution into macroporous silicon (Si templates at a sub-atmospheric pressure. Prior to crystallization at 750°C, free-standing tubes of a 2-μm outer diameter, extending to over 30 μm in length were released from the Si template using a selective isotropic-pulsed XeF2 reactive ion etching. To facilitate rapid electrical characterization and enable future integration process, directed positioning and aligning of the PZT tubes was performed by dielectrophoresis. The electric field-assisted technique involves an alternating electric voltage that is applied through pre-patterned microelectrodes to a colloidal suspension of PZT tubes dispersed in isopropyl alcohol. The most efficient biasing for the assembly of tubes across the electrode gap of 12 μm was a square wave signal of 5 Vrms and 10 Hz. By varying the applied frequency in between 1 and 10 Hz, an enhancement in tube alignment was obtained.

  20. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K. [Mahatma Gandhi University Regional Research Center in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam-686666, Kerala (India)


    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}⋅8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  1. Physical controls on directed virus assembly at nanoscale chemical templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, C L; Chung, S; Chatterji, A; Lin, T; Johnson, J E; Hok, S; Perkins, J; De Yoreo, J


    Viruses are attractive building blocks for nanoscale heterostructures, but little is understood about the physical principles governing their directed assembly. In-situ force microscopy was used to investigate organization of Cowpea Mosaic Virus engineered to bind specifically and reversibly at nanoscale chemical templates with sub-30nm features. Morphological evolution and assembly kinetics were measured as virus flux and inter-viral potential were varied. The resulting morphologies were similar to those of atomic-scale epitaxial systems, but the underlying thermodynamics was analogous to that of colloidal systems in confined geometries. The 1D templates biased the location of initial cluster formation, introduced asymmetric sticking probabilities, and drove 1D and 2D condensation at subcritical volume fractions. The growth kinetics followed a t{sup 1/2} law controlled by the slow diffusion of viruses. The lateral expansion of virus clusters that initially form on the 1D templates following introduction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) into the solution suggests a significant role for weak interaction.

  2. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates. (United States)

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq


    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10-90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content.

  3. Telomerase RNA is more than a DNA template. (United States)

    Webb, Christopher J; Zakian, Virginia A


    The addition of telomeric DNA to chromosome ends is an essential cellular activity that compensates for the loss of genomic DNA that is due to the inability of the conventional DNA replication apparatus to duplicate the entire chromosome. The telomerase reverse transcriptase and its associated RNA bind to the very end of the telomere via a sequence in the RNA and specific protein-protein interactions. Telomerase RNA also provides the template for addition of new telomeric repeats by the reverse-transcriptase protein subunit. In addition to the template, there are 3 other conserved regions in telomerase RNA that are essential for normal telomerase activity. Here we briefly review the conserved core regions of telomerase RNA and then focus on a recent study in fission yeast that determined the function of another conserved region in telomerase RNA called the Stem Terminus Element (STE). (1) The STE is distant from the templating core of telomerase in both the linear and RNA secondary structure, but, nonetheless, affects the fidelity of telomere sequence addition and, in turn, the ability of telomere binding proteins to bind and protect chromosome ends. We will discuss possible mechanisms of STE action and the suitability of the STE as an anti-cancer target.

  4. Space charge templates for high-current beam modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiev, Leonid G.; /Fermilab


    A computational method to evaluate space charge potential and gradients of charged particle beam in the presence of conducting boundaries, has been introduced. The three-dimensional (3D) field of the beam can be derived as a convolution of macro Green's functions (template fields), satisfying the same boundary conditions, as the original beam. Numerical experiments gave a confidence that space charge effects can be modeled by templates with enough accuracy and generality within dramatically faster computational times than standard combination: a grid density + Poisson solvers, realized in the most of Particle in Cell codes. The achieved rapidity may significantly broaden the high-current beam design space, making the optimization in automatic mode possible, which so far was only feasible for simplest self-field formulations such as rms envelope equations. The template technique may be used as a standalone program, or as an optional field solver in existing beam dynamics codes both in one-passage structures and in rings.

  5. Secure Minutiae-Based Fingerprint Templates Using Random Triangle Hashing (United States)

    Jin, Zhe; Jin Teoh, Andrew Beng; Ong, Thian Song; Tee, Connie

    Due to privacy concern on the widespread use of biometric authentication systems, biometric template protection has gained great attention in the biometric research recently. It is a challenging task to design a biometric template protection scheme which is anonymous, revocable and noninvertible while maintaining acceptable performance. Many methods have been proposed to resolve this problem, and cancelable biometrics is one of them. In this paper, we propose a scheme coined as Random Triangle Hashing which follows the concept of cancelable biometrics in the fingerprint domain. In this method, re-alignment of fingerprints is not required as all the minutiae are translated into a pre-defined 2 dimensional space based on a reference minutia. After that, the proposed Random Triangle hashing method is used to enforce the one-way property (non-invertibility) of the biometric template. The proposed method is resistant to minor translation error and rotation distortion. Finally, the hash vectors are converted into bit-strings to be stored in the database. The proposed method is evaluated using the public database FVC2004 DB1. An EER of less than 1% is achieved by using the proposed method.

  6. Faster rates with less catalyst in template-directed reactions (United States)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Baird, E. E.


    We have recently shown that the polycytidylic acid-directed polymerization of guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) is amenable to kinetic study and that rate determinations as a function of 2-MeImpG concentration can reveal much mechanistic detail (Kanavarioti et al. 1993). Here we report kinetic data which show that, once the reaction has been initiated by the formation of dimers, the elongation of dimers to form longer oligomers is accelerated by decreasing polycytidylate (poly(C)) concentration from 0.05 to 0.002 M. This result is consistent with the previously proposed mechanism. The increase in the observed pseudo-first order rate constant for formation of the trimer, k3', and the corresponding constant for formation of oligomers longer than the trimer, ki' (ki' is independent of oligomer length for i > or = 4), with decreasing template concentration for a given monomer concentration is attributed to an increase in template occupancy as template concentration is reduced.

  7. Templates for Fabricating Nanowire/Nanoconduit-Based Devices (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Holt, Todd; Welker, David


    An effort is underway to develop processes for making templates that could be used as deposition molds and etching masks in the fabrication of devices containing arrays of nanowires and/or nanoconduits. Highly-ordered, optical-fiber arrays consisting of dissimilar polymers comprise the template technology. The selective removal of the fiber cores in specific solvents creates the porous templates to be filled with a "top-down" deposition process such as electrochemical deposition, sputter deposition, molecular beam epitaxy, and the like. Typically, the fiber bundles consist of polystyrene (PS) fiber cores, which are clad with varying thickness poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). When arranged in hexagonal, close-packed configuration and pulled, the fibers form highly-ordered arrays comprised of PS fiber cores surrounded by a continuous matrix of PMMA. The ratio of PMMA cladding thickness to PS core diameter determines the spacing between PS fiber cores and typically ranges from 3:1 to 1:1. Essentially, the simultaneous heating and drawing or pulling in the longitudinal direction of polymer-fiber arrays fuses the fibers together.

  8. Templating for hierarchical structure control in carbon materials. (United States)

    Schrettl, Stephen; Schulte, Bjoern; Frauenrath, Holger


    Carbon-based materials show a remarkable variety of physical properties. For this reason, they have recently been explored for many advanced applications and emerging technologies. In the absence of actual "chemical" functionalities in these materials, tailoring these physical properties requires control on all levels of the structural hierarchy, from the atomic structure (carbon connectivity, defects, impurities), to the supramolecular level (domain orientations), nanoscopic length scale (domain sizes, porosity), microscopic structure (morphology), and macroscopic aspects (shape, surface chemistry). When preparing carbon materials, all these features can be tailored through the use of hard, soft, or molecular templates. Based on such templating approaches or through their combination, tremendous progress towards hierarchically structured carbon materials has recently been accomplished. Novel carbon nanomaterials such as brick-walled carbon tubes, carbon nanotube forests, coral-like carbon monoliths, or functional carbon nanosheets have become available, some of which exhibit unusual combinations of electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties. This review aims to discuss how the different templating approaches allow the control of structure formation on various length scales, how hierarchical structure formation can be realized, and which challenges remain, such as the detailed control over the carbon connectivity or the surface chemistry.

  9. Medical genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorde, L.B.; Carey, J.C.; White, R.L.


    This book on the subject of medical genetics is a textbook aimed at a very broad audience: principally, medical students, nursing students, graduate, and undergraduate students. The book is actually a primer of general genetics as applied to humans and provides a well-balanced introduction to the scientific and clinical basis of human genetics. The twelve chapters include: Introduction, Basic Cell Biology, Genetic Variation, Autosomal Dominant and Recessive Inheritance, Sex-linked and Mitochondrial Inheritance, Clinical Cytogenetics, Gene Mapping, Immunogenetics, Cancer Genetics, Multifactorial Inheritance and Common Disease, Genetic Screening, Genetic Diagnosis and Gene Therapy, and Clinical Genetics and Genetic Counseling.

  10. Looking sharp: Becoming a search template boosts precision and stability in visual working memory. (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Ouslis, Natasha E; Wilson, Daryl E; Pratt, Jay


    Visual working memory (VWM) plays a central role in visual cognition, and current work suggests that there is a special state in VWM for items that are the goal of visual searches. However, whether the quality of memory for target templates differs from memory for other items in VWM is currently unknown. In this study, we measured the precision and stability of memory for search templates and accessory items to determine whether search templates receive representational priority in VWM. Memory for search templates exhibited increased precision and probability of recall, whereas accessory items were remembered less often. Additionally, while memory for Templates showed benefits when instances of the Template appeared in search, this benefit was not consistently observed for Accessory items when they appeared in search. Our results show that becoming a search template can substantially affect the quality of a representation in VWM.

  11. Genetic algorithms (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.


    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  12. Dopamine-Imprinted Polymers: Template-Monomer Interactions, Analysis of Template Removal and Application to Solid Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Szutowski


    Full Text Available A dopamine-imprinted polymer (MIP was prepared in aqueous methanolsolution at 60oC by free-radical cross-linking polymerization of methacrylic acid in thepresence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and dopamine hydrochlorideas the template molecule. Its ability to isolate dopamine was evaluated as the basis of asolid phase extraction procedure and compared with that of a non-imprinted polymer(NIP. The binding of dopamine was 84.1% and 29.1% for MIP and NIP, respectively.Various reported post-polymerization treatments to reduce template bleeding wereexamined. In our case the lowest bleeding was achieved after applying a combinedprocedure: continuous extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus (CE, followed by microwave-assisted extraction (ME to a level of 0.061 μg/mL. A simplified model of the template-monomer complexes allowed rationalization of monomer choice based on the heats ofcomplex formation at a PM3 level of theory.

  13. Genetic Counseling (United States)

    Genetic counseling provides information and support to people who have, or may be at risk for, genetic disorders. A ... meets with you to discuss genetic risks. The counseling may be for yourself or a family member. ...

  14. Genetic Counseling (United States)

    ... been added to your dashboard . KEY POINTS Genetic counseling helps you understand how genes, birth defects and medical ... in your area. What is genetic counseling? Genetic counseling helps you understand how genes , birth defects and other ...

  15. Design and Fabrication of a Precision Template for Spine Surgery Using Selective Laser Melting (SLM). (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Yimeng; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Changhui; Yang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zimian; Lin, Hui; Zhen, Yongqiang; Liao, Suixiang


    In order to meet the clinical requirements of spine surgery, this paper proposes the fabrication of the customized template for spine surgery through computer-aided design. A 3D metal printing-selective laser melting (SLM) technique was employed to directly fabricate the 316L stainless steel template, and the metal template with tiny locating holes was used as an auxiliary tool to insert spinal screws inside the patient's body. To guarantee accurate fabrication of the template for cervical vertebra operation, the contact face was placed upwards to improve the joint quality between the template and the cervical vertebra. The joint surface of the printed template had a roughness of Ra = 13 ± 2 μm. After abrasive blasting, the surface roughness was Ra = 7 ± 0.5 μm. The surgical metal template was bound with the 3D-printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic model. The micro-hardness values determined at the cross-sections of SLM-processed samples varied from HV0.3 250 to HV0.3 280, and the measured tensile strength was in the range of 450 MPa to 560 MPa, which showed that the template had requisite strength. Finally, the metal template was clinically used in the patient's surgical operation, and the screws were inserted precisely as the result of using the auxiliary template. The geometrical parameters of the template hole (e.g., diameter and wall thickness) were optimized, and measures were taken to optimize the key geometrical units (e.g., hole units) in metal 3D printing. Compared to the traditional technology of screw insertion, the use of the surgical metal template enabled the screws to be inserted more easily and accurately during spinal surgery. However, the design of the high-quality template should fully take into account the clinical demands of surgeons, as well as the advice of the designing engineers and operating technicians.

  16. Design and Fabrication of a Precision Template for Spine Surgery Using Selective Laser Melting (SLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wang


    Full Text Available In order to meet the clinical requirements of spine surgery, this paper proposes the fabrication of the customized template for spine surgery through computer-aided design. A 3D metal printing-selective laser melting (SLM technique was employed to directly fabricate the 316L stainless steel template, and the metal template with tiny locating holes was used as an auxiliary tool to insert spinal screws inside the patient’s body. To guarantee accurate fabrication of the template for cervical vertebra operation, the contact face was placed upwards to improve the joint quality between the template and the cervical vertebra. The joint surface of the printed template had a roughness of Ra = 13 ± 2 μm. After abrasive blasting, the surface roughness was Ra = 7 ± 0.5 μm. The surgical metal template was bound with the 3D-printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS plastic model. The micro-hardness values determined at the cross-sections of SLM-processed samples varied from HV0.3 250 to HV0.3 280, and the measured tensile strength was in the range of 450 MPa to 560 MPa, which showed that the template had requisite strength. Finally, the metal template was clinically used in the patient’s surgical operation, and the screws were inserted precisely as the result of using the auxiliary template. The geometrical parameters of the template hole (e.g., diameter and wall thickness were optimized, and measures were taken to optimize the key geometrical units (e.g., hole units in metal 3D printing. Compared to the traditional technology of screw insertion, the use of the surgical metal template enabled the screws to be inserted more easily and accurately during spinal surgery. However, the design of the high-quality template should fully take into account the clinical demands of surgeons, as well as the advice of the designing engineers and operating technicians.

  17. Liquid as template for next generation micro devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmet, Jerome; Haquette, Henri; Laux, Edith; Keppner, Herbert [HES-SO ARC, Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquees, La Chaux de Fonds (Switzerland); Gorodyska, Ganna; Textor, Marcus [ETHZ, BioInterfaceGroup, Zuerich (Switzerland); Durante, Guido Spinola; Portuondo-Campa, Erwin; Knapp, Helmut [CSEM Centre Suisse d' Electronique et de Microtechnique SA, Alpnach (Switzerland); Bitterli, Roland; Noell, Wilfried, E-mail: Jerome.Charmet@he-arc.c [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Microengineering, Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems laboratory, Rue Jaquet Droz 1, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)


    Liquids have fascinated generations of scientists and engineers. Since ancient Greece, the perfect natural shape of liquids has been used to create optical systems. Nowadays, the natural shape of liquid is used in the fabrication of microlens arrays that rely on the melting of glass or photoresist to generate high quality lenses. However shrinkage normally associated to the liquid to solid phase transition will affect the initial shape and quality of the liquid structure. In this contribution, a novel fabrication technique that enables the encapsulation and replication of liquid templates without affecting their natural shape is presented. The SOLID (SOlid on LIquid Deposition) process allows for a transparent solid film to be deposited and grown onto a liquid template (droplet, film, line) in a way that the liquid shapes the overgrowing solid layer. The resulting configuration of the SOLID devices is chemically and mechanically stable and is the base of a huge variety of new micro-nano systems in the field of microfluidics, biomedical devices and micro-optics among others. The SOLID process enables in a one step process the encapsulation of liquid microlenses, fluidics channels, drug reservoir or any naturally driven liquid structure. The phenomenon and solid-liquid interface resulting from the SOLID process is new and still unexploited. The solid layer used for the SOLID process chosen in this paper is poly-para-xylylene called Parylene, a transparent biocompatible polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties. Moreover, as the solid layer is growing over a liquid template, atomically smooth surfaces channels can be obtained. The polymerization of Parylene does not exert stress and does not change the shape of the liquid; this latter aspect is particularly interesting for manufacturing naturally driven liquid structures. In this paper the authors explore the limits of this new method by testing different designs of SOLID encapsulated structures and

  18. Surface smoothing and template partitioning for cranial implant CAD (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-june; Dean, David


    Employing patient-specific prefabricated implants can be an effective treatment for large cranial defects (i.e., > 25 cm2). We have previously demonstrated the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software that starts with the patient"s 3D head CT-scan. A template is accurately matched to the pre-detected skull defect margin. For unilateral cranial defects the template is derived from a left-to-right mirrored skull image. However, two problems arise: (1) slice edge artifacts generated during isosurface polygonalization are inherited by the final implant; and (2) partitioning (i.e., cookie-cutting) the implant surface from the mirrored skull image usually results in curvature discontinuities across the interface between the patient"s defect and the implant. To solve these problems, we introduce a novel space curve-to-surface partitioning algorithm following a ray-casting surface re-sampling and smoothing procedure. Specifically, the ray-cast re-sampling is followed by bilinear interpolation and low-pass filtering. The resulting surface has a highly regular grid-like topological structure of quadrilaterally arranged triangles. Then, we replace the regions to be partitioned with predefined sets of triangular elements thereby cutting the template surface to accurately fit the defect margin at high resolution and without surface curvature discontinuities. Comparisons of the CAD implants for five patients against the manually generated implant that the patient actually received show an average implant-patient gap of 0.45mm for the former and 2.96mm for the latter. Also, average maximum normalized curvature of interfacing surfaces was found to be smoother, 0.043, for the former than the latter, 0.097. This indicates that the CAD implants would provide a significantly better fit.

  19. Stampless fabrication of sheet bars using disposable templates (United States)

    Smolentsev, V. P.; Safonov, S. V.; Smolentsev, E. V.; Fedonin, O. N.


    The article is devoted to the new method of small-scale fabrication of sheet bars. The procedure is performed by using disposable overlay templates, or those associated with a sheet, which parameters are obtained directly from the drawing. The proposed method used as a substitution of die cutting enables to intensify the preparatory technological process, which is particularly effective when launching the market-oriented items into production. It significantly increases the competitiveness of mechanical engineering and creates the conditions for technical support of present-day flexible production systems.

  20. DNA origami as a nanoscale template for protein assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzyk, Anton; Laitinen, Kimmo T [Nanoscience Center, Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PO Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Toermae, Paeivi [Department of Applied Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 5100, FIN-02015 (Finland)], E-mail:


    We describe two general approaches to the utilization of DNA origami structures for the assembly of materials. In one approach, DNA origami is used as a prefabricated template for subsequent assembly of materials. In the other, materials are assembled simultaneously with the DNA origami, i.e. the DNA origami technique is used to drive the assembly of materials. Fabrication of complex protein structures is demonstrated by these two approaches. The latter approach has the potential to be extended to the assembly of multiple materials with single attachment chemistry.

  1. Synthesis of Biocompatible Hydroxyapatite Using Chitosan Oligosaccharide as a Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Wang


    Full Text Available In this study, a novel biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA was synthesized by using chitosan oligosaccharide (COS as a template. These HA samples were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The biocompatibility of HA samples was evaluated via cell viability, cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase staining of MG-63 cell lines. The results show that HA synthesized in the presence of COS was favorable to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MG-63 cells. These hydroxyapatites are potentially attractive biomaterials for bone tissue engineering applications.

  2. Black silicon maskless templates for carbon nanotube forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja


    We present here a proof of concept for a novel fabrication method of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, utilizing black silicon nanograss (a forest of silicon nanometer-sized spikes created with reactive ion etching) coated with titanium tungsten diffusion barrier as a template. The method...... allows maskless definition of carbon nanotube forests with control of their density, nanotube diameter and height. Four nanograss reactive ion etching recipes are investigated and their wafer-to-wafer repeatability, wafer uniformity, and density control is discussed. Evaluation of carbon nanotube forests...

  3. Modelling Template for the Development of the Process Flowsheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Gani, Rafiqul


    provides building blocks for the templates (generic models previously developed); 3) computer aided methods and tools, that include procedures to perform model translation, model analysis, model verification/validation, model solution and model documentation. In this work, the integrated use of all three......Models are playing important roles in design and analysis of chemicals/bio-chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Model-based methods and tools have the potential to decrease the number of experiments, which can be expensive and time consuming, and point to candidates...

  4. The construction of MRI brain/head templates for Chinese children from 7 to 16 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanze Xie


    Full Text Available Population-specific brain templates that provide detailed brain information are beneficial to both structural and functional neuroimaging research. However, age-specific MRI templates have not been constructed for Chinese or any Asian developmental populations. This study developed novel T1-weighted average brain and head templates for Chinese children from 7 to 16 years of age in two-year increments using high quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and well-validated image analysis techniques. A total of 138 Chinese children (51 F/87 M were included in this study. The internally and externally validated registrations show that these Chinese age-specific templates fit Chinese children's MR images significantly better than age-specific templates created from U.S. children, or adult templates based on either Chinese or North American adults. It implies that age-inappropriate (e.g., the Chinese56 template, the US20–24 template and nationality-inappropriate brain templates (e.g., U.S. children's templates, the US20–24 template do not provide optimal reference MRIs for processing MR brain images of Chinese pediatric populations. Thus, our age-specific MRI templates are the first of the kind and should be useful in neuroimaging studies with children from Chinese or other Asian populations. These templates can also serve as the foundations for the construction of more comprehensive sets of nationality-specific templates for Asian developmental populations. These templates are available for use in our database.

  5. Template security analysis of multimodal biometric frameworks based on fingerprint and hand geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal


    Full Text Available Biometric systems are automatic tools used to provide authentication during various applications of modern computing. In this work, three different design frameworks for multimodal biometric systems based on fingerprint and hand geometry modalities are proposed. An analysis is also presented to diagnose various types of template security issues in the proposed system. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is applied with five decision parameters on all the designs and framework 1 is found to be better in terms of template data security, templates fusion and computational efficiency. It is noticed that template data security before storage in database is a challenging task. An important observation is that a template may be secured at feature fusion level and an indexing technique may be used to improve the size of secured templates.

  6. Efficiency, comprehensiveness and cost-effectiveness when comparing dictation and electronic templates for operative reports. (United States)

    Laflamme, Mark R; Dexter, Paul R; Graham, Marilyn F; Hui, Siu L; McDonald, Clement J


    Surgeons typically document operative events using dictation services. Dictated reports are frequently incomplete or delayed. Electronic note templates could potentially improve this process. Using a study design of alternating four week blocks, we compared the timeliness and comprehensiveness of operative notes created through the use of electronic templates versus dictation services for five surgical procedures. Templates resulted in dramatically faster times to the presence of a verified operative report in the medical record compared to dictation services (mean 28 v. 22,440 minutes). Templates increased overall compliance with national standards for operative note documentation and avoided transcription costs. Documentation with templates took slightly more time than dictation (mean 6.77 v. 5.96 minutes; P=0.036), not including the additional time necessary to subsequently verify dictated reports. We conclude that electronic note templates can improve the timeliness and comprehensiveness of operative documentation, while decreasing transcription costs and requiring minimal additional effort on the part of surgeons.

  7. Syed-Neblett interstitial template in locally advanced gynecological malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampuero, F.; Doss, L.L.; Khan, M.; Skipper, B.; Hilgers, R.D.


    Twenty-eight patients with locally advanced malignancies of the cervix and vagina were treated with a combination of external radiation therapy and after loading Syed-Neblett iridium template. There were 22 patients with squamous cell cancer and two patients with adenocarcinomas of the cervix. Four patients with squamous cell cancer of the vagina were treated with this method. Only patients with locally advanced disease (cervical lesion >4 cm in diameter) and poor vagnal anatomy were selected for this modality of therapy. In this series the incidence of distant failures of 39% seems to confirm the significance of local volume of disease as a prognostic indicator; despite a local control rate of 59%, only 33% of the patients are alive from 25-51 months. Complications occurred in 12 patients (42%). Six patients (22%) developed severe rectal stricture or rectovaginal fistula necessitating diverting sigmoid colostomy; five patients (18%) developed hemorrhagic proctitis with diarrhea and tenesmus; one patient developed vaginal vault necrosis. Complications occurred 7 to 24 months following therapy. Six of the 12 patients developing complications are dead of disease. On the basis of this study and because of the low cure rate and high incidence of complications, the value of the Syed-Neblett template in locally advanced gynecologic malignancies should be reconsidered.

  8. Fire Protection Engineering Design Brief Template. Hydrogen Refueling Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Groth, Katrina M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Building a hydrogen infrastructure system is critical to supporting the development of alternate- fuel vehicles. This report provides a methodology for implementing a performance-based design of an outdoor hydrogen refueling station that does not meet specific prescriptive requirements in NFPA 2, The Hydrogen Technologies Code . Performance-based designs are a code-compliant alternative to meeting prescriptive requirements. Compliance is demonstrated by comparing a prescriptive-based fueling station design with a performance-based design approach using Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) methods and hydrogen risk assessment tools. This template utilizes the Sandia-developed QRA tool, Hydrogen Risk Analysis Models (HyRAM), which combines reduced-order deterministic models that characterize hydrogen release and flame behavior with probabilistic risk models to quantify risk values. Each project is unique and this template is not intended to account for site-specific characteristics. Instead, example content and a methodology are provided for a representative hydrogen refueling site which can be built upon for new hydrogen applications.

  9. DNA template dependent accuracy variation of nucleotide selection in transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Mellenius

    Full Text Available It has been commonly assumed that the effect of erroneous transcription of DNA genes into messenger RNAs on peptide sequence errors are masked by much more frequent errors of mRNA translation to protein. We present a theoretical model of transcriptional accuracy. It uses experimentally estimated standard free energies of double-stranded DNA and RNA/DNA hybrids and predicts a DNA template dependent transcriptional accuracy variation spanning several orders of magnitude. The model also identifies high-error as well a high-accuracy transcription motifs. The source of the large accuracy span is the context dependent variation of the stacking free energy of pairs of correct and incorrect base pairs in the ever moving transcription bubble. Our model predictions have direct experimental support from recent single molecule based identifications of transcriptional errors in the C. elegans transcriptome. Our conclusions challenge the general view that amino acid substitution errors in proteins are mainly caused by translational errors. It suggests instead that transcriptional error hotspots are the dominating source of peptide sequence errors in some DNA template contexts, while mRNA translation is the major cause of protein errors in other contexts.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of free-template zeolite T from kaolin (United States)

    Arshad, Sazmal E.; Yusslee, Eddy F.; Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Sarkar, Shaheen M.; Patuwan, Siti Z.


    Free-template zeolite T crystals were synthesized via hydrothermal synthesis by utilizing the activated kaolin as silica and alumina source, with the molar composition of 1 SiO2: 0.04 Al2O3: 0.26 Na2O: 0.09 K2O: 14 H2O. Observation of the formation of free-template zeolite crystals were done at temperature 90°C, 100 °C and 110 °C respectively. It was therefore determined that during the 120 h of the synthesis at 90 °C, zeolite T nucleated and formed a first competitive phase with zeolite L. As temperature increases to 100 °C, zeolite T presented itself as a major phase in the system at time 168 h. Subsequently, development of Zeolite T with second competitive phase of zeolite W was observed at temperature 110 °C. In this study, XRD and SEM instruments were used to monitor the behavior of zeolite T crystals with respect of temperature and time. By using natural resource of kaolin clay as a starting material, this paper hence aims to provide new findings in synthesis of zeolite T using low energy consumption and low production cost.

  11. Microscopic and magnetic properties of template assisted electrodeposited iron nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irshad, M. I., E-mail:; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail:; Yar, A., E-mail: [Department of Fundamental & Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia); Ahmad, F., E-mail:; Abdullah, M. Z., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia)


    Nanowires of magnetic materials such as Iron, nickel, cobalt, and alloys of them are one of the most widely investigated structures because of their possible applications in high density magnetic recording media, sensor elements, and building blocks in biological transport systems. In this work, Iron nanowires have been prepared by electrodeposition technique using Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. The electrolyte used consisted of FeSO{sub 4.}6H{sub 2}O buffered with H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and acidized by dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. FESEM analysis shows that the asdeposited nanowires are parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. To fabricate the working electrode, a thin film of copper (∼ 220 nm thick) was coated on back side of AAO template by e-beam evaporation system to create electrical contact with the external circuit. The TEM results show that electrodeposited nanowires have diameter around 100 nm and are polycrystalline in structure. Magnetic properties show the existence of anisotropy for in and out of plane configuration. These nanowires have potential applications in magnetic data storage, catalysis and magnetic sensor applications.

  12. Functional Nanomaterials based on Nanoporous Block Copolymer Templates (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kon


    Nanoporous templates have been widely used for the development of new functional nanostructured materials suitable for electronics, optics, magnetism, and energy storage materials. We have prepared nanoporous templates by using thin films of mixtures of polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS- b -PMMA) and PMMA homopolymers. These nanoporous films were found to be very effective for the separation of human Rhinovirus type 14, major pathogen of a common cold in humans. We found that when the pore size was effectively controlled down to 6 nm, a long-term constant in vitro release of BSA and hGH was achieved without their denaturation up to 2 months. The long-term constant delivery based on this membrane for protein drugs within the therapeutic range can be highly appreciated for the patients with hormone-deficiency. Work done in collaboration with Seung Yun Yang, Pohang University of Science and Technology. This work was supported by the National Creative Research Initiative Program supported by NRF.

  13. Template-based education toolkit for mobile platforms (United States)

    Golagani, Santosh Chandana; Esfahanian, Moosa; Akopian, David


    Nowadays mobile phones are the most widely used portable devices which evolve very fast adding new features and improving user experiences. The latest generation of hand-held devices called smartphones is equipped with superior memory, cameras and rich multimedia features, empowering people to use their mobile phones not only as a communication tool but also for entertainment purposes. With many young students showing interest in learning mobile application development one should introduce novel learning methods which may adapt to fast technology changes and introduce students to application development. Mobile phones become a common device, and engineering community incorporates phones in various solutions. Overcoming the limitations of conventional undergraduate electrical engineering (EE) education this paper explores the concept of template-based based education in mobile phone programming. The concept is based on developing small exercise templates which students can manipulate and revise for quick hands-on introduction to the application development and integration. Android platform is used as a popular open source environment for application development. The exercises relate to image processing topics typically studied by many students. The goal is to enable conventional course enhancements by incorporating in them short hands-on learning modules.

  14. Memoir: template-based structure prediction for membrane proteins. (United States)

    Ebejer, Jean-Paul; Hill, Jamie R; Kelm, Sebastian; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M


    Membrane proteins are estimated to be the targets of 50% of drugs that are currently in development, yet we have few membrane protein crystal structures. As a result, for a membrane protein of interest, the much-needed structural information usually comes from a homology model. Current homology modelling software is optimized for globular proteins, and ignores the constraints that the membrane is known to place on protein structure. Our Memoir server produces homology models using alignment and coordinate generation software that has been designed specifically for transmembrane proteins. Memoir is easy to use, with the only inputs being a structural template and the sequence that is to be modelled. We provide a video tutorial and a guide to assessing model quality. Supporting data aid manual refinement of the models. These data include a set of alternative conformations for each modelled loop, and a multiple sequence alignment that incorporates the query and template. Memoir works with both α-helical and β-barrel types of membrane proteins and is freely available at

  15. Biosynthesis of amorphous mesoporous aluminophosphates using yeast cells as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifontes, Ángela B., E-mail: [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); González, Gema [Centro de Ingeniería de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Tovar, Leidy M.; Méndez, Franklin J. [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gomes, Maria E. [Centro de Ingeniería de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Cañizales, Edgar [Área de Análisis Químico Inorgánico, PDVSA, INTEVEP, Los Teques 1070-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Villalobos, Hector [Centro de Microbiología y Biología Celular, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Brito, Joaquin L. [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Amorphous aluminophosphates can take place using yeast as template. ► A mesoporous material was obtained. ► The specific surface area after calcinations ranged between 176 and 214 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: In this study aluminophosphates have been synthesized from aluminum isopropoxide and phosphoric acid solutions using yeast cells as template. The physicochemical characterization was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis; X-ray diffraction; Fourier transform infrared; N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms; scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy and potentiometric titration with N-butylamine for determination of: thermal stability; crystalline structure; textural properties; morphology and surface acidity, respectively. The calcined powders consisted of an intimate mixture of amorphous and crystallized AlPO particles with sizes between 23 and 30 nm. The average pore size observed is 13–16 nm and the specific surface area after calcinations (at 650 °C) ranged between 176 and 214 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}.

  16. Templated synthesis of DNA nanotubes with controlled, predetermined lengths. (United States)

    Lo, Pik Kwan; Altvater, Florian; Sleiman, Hanadi F


    We report a DNA-templated approach to construct nanotubes with controlled lengths and narrow molecular weight distribution, allowing the deliberate variation of this length. This approach relies on the facile and modular assembly of a DNA guide strand of precise length that contains single-stranded gaps repeating at every 50 nm. This is followed by positioning triangular DNA "rungs" on each of these single-stranded gaps and adding identical linking strands to the two other sides of the triangles to close the DNA nanotubes. The length of the guide strand can be deliberately changed. We show the use of this approach to produce nanotubes with lengths of 1 microm or 500 nm and narrow length distributions. This is in contrast to nontemplated approaches, which lead to long and polydisperse nanotubes. We also demonstrate the encapsulation of 20 nm gold nanoparticles within these well-defined nanotubes to form finite lines of gold nanoparticles with longitudinal plasmon coupling, with a number of potential nanophotonic applications. This guiding strand approach is a useful tool in the creation of DNA nanostructures, in this case allowing the use of a simple template generated by a minimal number of DNA strands to program the length and molecular weight distribution of assemblies, as well as to organize any number of DNA-labeled nano-objects into finite structures.

  17. Templated Control of Au nanospheres in Silica Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, J W; Vanamu, G; Zaidi, S H


    The formation of regularly-spaced metal nanostructures in selectively-placed insulating nanowires is an important step toward realization of a wide range of nano-scale electronic and opto-electronic devices. Here we report templated synthesis of Au nanospheres embedded in silica nanowires, with nanospheres consistently spaced with a period equal to three times their diameter. Under appropriate conditions, nanowires form exclusively on Si nanostructures because of enhanced local oxidation and reduced melting temperatures relative to templates with larger dimensions. We explain the spacing of the nanospheres with a general model based on a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, in which an Au/Si alloy dendrite remains liquid in the nanotube until a critical Si concentration is achieved locally by silicon oxide-generated nanowire growth. Additional Si oxidation then locally reduces the surface energy of the Au-rich alloy by creating a new surface with minimum area inside of the nanotube. The isolated liquid domain subsequently evolves to become an Au nanosphere, and the process is repeated.

  18. Nitrite-Templated Synthesis of Lanthanide-Containing [2]Rotaxanes for Anion Sensing** (United States)

    Langton, Matthew J; Blackburn, Octavia A; Lang, Thomas; Faulkner, Stephen; Beer, Paul D


    The first anion-templated synthesis of a lanthanide-containing interlocked molecule is demonstrated by utilizing a nitrite anion to template initial pseudorotaxane formation. Subsequent stoppering of the interpenetrated assembly allows for the preparation of a lanthanide-functionalized [2]rotaxane in high yield. Following removal of the nitrite anion template, the europium [2]rotaxane host is demonstrated to recognize and sense fluoride selectively. PMID:24989322

  19. Computational Resources to Filter Gravitational Wave Data with P-approximant Templates


    Porter, Edward K.


    The prior knowledge of the gravitational waveform from compact binary systems makes matched filtering an attractive detection strategy. This detection method involves the filtering of the detector output with a set of theoretical waveforms or templates. One of the most important factors in this strategy is knowing how many templates are needed in order to reduce the loss of possible signals. In this study we calculate the number of templates and computational power needed for a one-step searc...

  20. Rancang Bangun E-commerce Template Untuk Aplikasi Content and Management Electronic Mall (Came-mall)


    Maulana, Kamal; Sugiharto, Aris; Wibawa, Helmie Arif


    Kebanyakan e-commerce di Indonesia masih berorientasi ke pasar regional. Sehingga e-commerce tersebut masih menggunakan bahasa Indonesia. Adanya e-commerce template memudahkan pembuatan sebuah e-commerce. Namun, kebanyakan e-commerce template menggunakan bahasa Inggris sebagai default. Dibutuhkan aplikasi pembuat e-commerce yang menggunakan bahasa Indonesia dan memiliki fungsi-fungsi yang hanya dibutuhkan oleh pengguna pemula. Came-mall adalah salah satu aplikasi e-commerce template yang meng...

  1. Operating and Maintaining Energy Smart Schools Action Plan Template - All Action Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    EnergySmart Schools action plan templates for benchmarking, lighting, HVAC, water heating, building envelope, transformer, plug loads, kitchen equipment, swimming pool, building automation system, other.

  2. Directed self-assembly (DSA) grapho-epitaxy template generation with immersion lithography (United States)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Lei, Junjiang; Torres, J. A.; Hong, Le; Word, James; Fenger, Germain; Tritchkov, Alexander; Lippincott, George; Gupta, Rachit; Lafferty, Neal; He, Yuan; Bekaert, Joost; Vanderberghe, Geert


    In this paper, we present an optimization methodology for the template designs of sub-resolution contacts using directed self-assembly (DSA) with grapho-epitaxy and immersion lithography. We demonstrate the flow using a 60nm-pitch contact design in doublet with Monte Carlo simulations for DSA. We introduce the notion of Template Error Enhancement Factor (TEEF) to gauge the sensitivity of DSA printing infidelity to template printing infidelity, and evaluate optimized template designs with TEEF metrics. Our data shows that SMO is critical to achieve sub-80nm non- L0 pitches for DSA patterns using 193i.

  3. Aluminum Templates of Different Sizes with Micro-, Nano- and Micro/Nano-Structures for Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Liang Yen


    Full Text Available This study investigates the results of cell cultures on aluminum (Al templates with flat-structures, micro-structures, nano-structures and micro/nano-structures. An Al template with flat-structure was obtained by electrolytic polishing; an Al template with micro-structure was obtained by micro-powder blasting; an Al template with nano-structure was obtained by aluminum anodization; and an Al template with micro/nano-structure was obtained by micro-powder blasting and then anodization. Osteoblast-like cells were cultured on aluminum templates with various structures. The microculture tetrazolium test assay was utilized to assess the adhesion, elongation, and proliferation behaviors of cultured osteoblast-like cells on aluminum templates with flat-structures, micro-structures, nano-structures, and micro/nano-structures. The results showed that the surface characterization of micro/nano-structure of aluminum templates had superhydrophilic property, and these also revealed that an aluminum template with micro/nano-structure could provide the most suitable growth situation for cell culture.

  4. Influence of solvent polarity and supersaturation on template-induced nucleation of carbamazepine crystal polymorphs (United States)

    Parambil, Jose V.; Poornachary, Sendhil K.; Tan, Reginald B. H.; Heng, Jerry Y. Y.


    Studies on the use of template surfaces to induce heterogeneous crystal nucleation have gained momentum in recent years-with potential applications in selective crystallisation of polymorphs and in the generation of seed crystals in a continuous crystallisation process. In developing a template-assisted solution crystallisation process, the kinetics of homogeneous versus heterogeneous crystal nucleation could be influenced by solute-solvent, solute-template, and solvent-template interactions. In this study, we report the effect of solvents of varying polarity on the nucleation of carbamazepine (CBZ) crystal polymorphs, a model active pharmaceutical ingredient. The experimental results demonstrate that functionalised template surfaces are effective in promoting crystallisation of either the metastable (form II) or stable (form III) polymorphs of CBZ only in moderately (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol) and low polar (toluene) solvents. A solvent with high polarity (acetonitrile) is thought to mask the template effect on heterogeneous nucleation due to strong solute-solvent and solvent-template interactions. The current study highlights that a quality-by-design (QbD) approach-considering the synergistic effects of solute concentration, solvent type, solution temperature, and template surface chemistry on crystal nucleation-is critical to the development of a template-induced crystallisation process.

  5. RNA/DNA hybrid binding affinity determines telomerase template-translocation efficiency (United States)

    Qi, Xiaodong; Xie, Mingyi; Brown, Andrew F; Bley, Christopher J; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Chen, Julian J-L


    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome termini from an intrinsic RNA template. The processive synthesis of DNA repeats relies on a unique, yet poorly understood, mechanism whereby the telomerase RNA template translocates and realigns with the DNA primer after synthesizing each repeat. Here, we provide evidence that binding of the realigned RNA/DNA hybrid by the active site is an essential step for template translocation. Employing a template-free human telomerase system, we demonstrate that the telomerase active site directly binds to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates for DNA polymerization. In telomerase processivity mutants, the template-translocation efficiency correlates with the affinity for the RNA/DNA hybrid substrate. Furthermore, the active site is unoccupied during template translocation as a 5 bp extrinsic RNA/DNA hybrid effectively reduces the processivity of the template-containing telomerase. This suggests that strand separation and template realignment occur outside the active site, preceding the binding of realigned hybrid to the active site. Our results provide new insights into the ancient RNA/DNA hybrid binding ability of telomerase and its role in template translocation. PMID:21989387

  6. Organizational and Technical Considerations for the Implementation of a Digital Orthopaedic Templating System. (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Iorio, Richard; Smiaronksi, John; Wronka, Andrew; Rodriguez, George; Specht, Larry; Chang, Gregory; Egol, Kenneth A


    Digital templating systems have been promoted due to their ability to reduce costs, facilitate preoperative planning, and maintain surgical accuracy. The implementation of a templating system at a large institution is complicated and has not been fully described. We aim to explain the requisite collaboration between orthopaedic surgery, radiology, and information technology needed to implement a successful orthopaedic templating system at a large institution. A search of the PubMed database was performed to provide a comprehensive review of digital templating. Furthermore, we offer the organizational and technical details needed to implement an institutional templating system. We have provided a strategic plan to describe the collaboration between orthopaedic surgery, musculoskeletal radiology, and information technology required for a successful templating system. The transition to digital templating requires planning, training, and communication between multiple disciplines. Digital templating systems have the potential to foster preoperative planning, improve trainee education, and reduce departmental costs. Preoperative digital templating is a means to reduce the risk of intraoperative fracture, decrease overall surgical time, and plan for implant size prior to surgery.

  7. Template-directed synthesis of linear porphyrin oligomers: classical, Vernier and mutual Vernier. (United States)

    Kamonsutthipaijit, Nuntaporn; Anderson, Harry L


    Three different types of template-directed syntheses of linear porphyrin oligomers are presented. In the classical approach the product has the same number of binding sites as the template, whereas in Vernier reactions the product has the lowest common multiple of the numbers of binding sites in the template and the building block. Mutual Vernier templating is like Vernier templating except that both strands of the Vernier complex undergo coupling simultaneously, so that it becomes impossible to say which is the 'template' and which is the 'building block'. The template-directed synthesis of monodisperse linear oligomers is more difficult than that of cyclic oligomers, because the products of linear templating have reactive ends. All three types of templating are demonstrated here, and used to prepare a nickel(ii) porphyrin dodecamer with 4-pyridyl substituents on all twelve porphyrin units. The stabilities and cooperativities of the double-strand complexes involved in these reactions were investigated by UV-vis-NIR titration. The four-rung ladder duplex has a stability constant of about 2 × 1018 M-1 in dichloromethane at 298 K.

  8. Sources of Error in Mammalian Genetic Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Magill Sack


    Full Text Available Genetic screens are invaluable tools for dissection of biological phenomena. Optimization of such screens to enhance discovery of candidate genes and minimize false positives is thus a critical aim. Here, we report several sources of error common to pooled genetic screening techniques used in mammalian cell culture systems, and demonstrate methods to eliminate these errors. We find that reverse transcriptase-mediated recombination during retroviral replication can lead to uncoupling of molecular tags, such as DNA barcodes (BCs, from their associated library elements, leading to chimeric proviral genomes in which BCs are paired to incorrect ORFs, shRNAs, etc. This effect depends on the length of homologous sequence between unique elements, and can be minimized with careful vector design. Furthermore, we report that residual plasmid DNA from viral packaging procedures can contaminate transduced cells. These plasmids serve as additional copies of the PCR template during library amplification, resulting in substantial inaccuracies in measurement of initial reference populations for screen normalization. The overabundance of template in some samples causes an imbalance between PCR cycles of contaminated and uncontaminated samples, which results in a systematic artifactual depletion of GC-rich library elements. Elimination of contaminating plasmid DNA using the bacterial endonuclease Benzonase can restore faithful measurements of template abundance and minimize GC bias.

  9. Integrated Nanosystems Templated by Self-assembled Virus Capsids (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas

    This dissertation presents the synthesis and modeling of multicomponent nanosystems templated by self-assembled virus capsids. The design principles, synthesis, analysis, and future directions for these capsid-based materials are presented. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the literature on the application of virus capsids in constructing nanomaterials. The uses of capsids in three main areas are considered: (1) as templates for inorganic materials or nanoparticles; (2) as vehicles for biological applications like medical imaging and treatment; and (3) as scaffolds for catalytic materials. In light of this introduction, an overview of the material in this dissertation is described. Chapters 2-4 all describe integrated nanosystems templated by bacteriophage MS2, a spherical icosahedral virus capsid. MS2 possesses an interior and exterior surface that can be modified orthogonally using bioconjugation chemistry to create multivalent, multicomponent constructs with precise localization of components attached to the capsid proteins. Chapter 2 describes the use of MS2 to synthesize a photocatalytic construct by modifying the internal surface with sensitizing chromophores and the external surface with a photocatalytic porphyrin. The chromophores absorbed energy that the porphyrin could not, and transferred it to the porphyrin via FRET through the protein shell. The porphyrin was then able to utilize the energy to carry out photocatalysis at new wavelengths. In Chapter 3, porphyrins were installed on the interior surface of MS2 and DNA aptamers specific for Jurkat leukemia T cells on the exterior surface. The dual-modified capsids were able to bind to Jurkat cells, and upon illumination the porphyrins generated singlet oxygen to kill them selectively over non-targeted cells. Chapter 4 explores integrating MS2 with DNA origami in order to arrange the capsids at larger length scales. Capsids modified with fluorescent dyes inside and single-stranded DNA outside were able to

  10. Analytic family of post-merger template waveforms (United States)

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Nagar, Alessandro


    Building on the analytical description of the post-merger (ringdown) waveform of coalescing, nonprecessing, spinning binary black holes introduced by Damour and Nagar [Phys. Rev. D 90, 024054 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.024054], we propose an analytic, closed form, time-domain, representation of the ℓ=m =2 gravitational radiation mode emitted after merger. This expression is given as a function of the component masses and dimensionless spins (m1 ,2,χ1 ,2) of the two inspiraling objects, as well as of the mass MBH and (complex) frequency σ1 of the fundamental quasinormal mode of the remnant black hole. Our proposed template is obtained by fitting the post-merger waveform part of several publicly available numerical relativity simulations from the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) catalog and then suitably interpolating over (symmetric) mass ratio and spins. We show that this analytic expression accurately reproduces (˜0.01 rad ) the phasing of the post-merger data of other data sets not used in its construction. This is notably the case of the spin-aligned run SXS:BBH:0305, whose intrinsic parameters are consistent with the 90% credible intervals reported in the parameter-estimation followup of GW150914 by B.P. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.241102]. Using SXS waveforms as "experimental" data, we further show that our template could be used on the actual GW150914 data to perform a new measure of the complex frequency of the fundamental quasinormal mode so as to exploit the complete (high signal-to-noise-ratio) post-merger waveform. We assess the usefulness of our proposed template by analyzing, in a realistic setting, SXS full inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms and constructing posterior probability distribution functions for the central frequency damping time of the first overtone of the fundamental quasinormal mode as well as for the physical parameters of the systems. We also briefly explore the possibility

  11. Preformed template fluctuations promote fibril formation: Insights from lattice and all-atom models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouza, Maksim, E-mail:; Kolinski, Andrzej [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszaw (Poland); Co, Nguyen Truong [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of HCM City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Institute for Computational Science and Technology, Quang Trung Software City, Tan Chanh Hiep Ward, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Phuong H. [Laboratoire de Biochimie Theorique, UPR 9080 CNRS, IBPC, Universite Paris 7, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Li, Mai Suan, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)


    Fibril formation resulting from protein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Despite the fact that the fibril formation process is very slow and thus poses a significant challenge for theoretical and experimental studies, a number of alternative pictures of molecular mechanisms of amyloid fibril formation have been recently proposed. What seems to be common for the majority of the proposed models is that fibril elongation involves the formation of pre-nucleus seeds prior to the creation of a critical nucleus. Once the size of the pre-nucleus seed reaches the critical nucleus size, its thermal fluctuations are expected to be small and the resulting nucleus provides a template for sequential (one-by-one) accommodation of added monomers. The effect of template fluctuations on fibril formation rates has not been explored either experimentally or theoretically so far. In this paper, we make the first attempt at solving this problem by two sets of simulations. To mimic small template fluctuations, in one set, monomers of the preformed template are kept fixed, while in the other set they are allowed to fluctuate. The kinetics of addition of a new peptide onto the template is explored using all-atom simulations with explicit water and the GROMOS96 43a1 force field and simple lattice models. Our result demonstrates that preformed template fluctuations can modulate protein aggregation rates and pathways. The association of a nascent monomer with the template obeys the kinetics partitioning mechanism where the intermediate state occurs in a fraction of routes to the protofibril. It was shown that template immobility greatly increases the time of incorporating a new peptide into the preformed template compared to the fluctuating template case. This observation has also been confirmed by simulation using lattice models and may be invoked to understand the role of template fluctuations in

  12. Computational resources to filter gravitational wave data with P-approximant templates (United States)

    Porter, Edward K.


    The prior knowledge of the gravitational waveform from compact binary systems makes matched filtering an attractive detection strategy. This detection method involves the filtering of the detector output with a set of theoretical waveforms or templates. One of the most important factors in this strategy is knowing how many templates are needed in order to reduce the loss of possible signals. In this study, we calculate the number of templates and computational power needed for a one-step search for gravitational waves from inspiralling binary systems. We build on previous works by first expanding the post-Newtonian waveforms to 2.5-PN order and second, for the first time, calculating the number of templates needed when using P-approximant waveforms. The analysis is carried out for the four main first-generation interferometers, LIGO, GEO600, VIRGO and TAMA. As well as template number, we also calculate the computational cost of generating banks of templates for filtering GW data. We carry out the calculations for two initial conditions. In the first case we assume a minimum individual mass of 1 Msolar and in the second, we assume a minimum individual mass of 5 Msolar. We find that, in general, we need more P-approximant templates to carry out a search than if we use standard PN templates. This increase varies according to the order of PN-approximation, but can be as high as a factor of 3 and is explained by the smaller span of the P-approximant templates as we go to higher masses. The promising outcome is that for 2-PN templates, the increase is small and is outweighed by the known robustness of the 2-PN P-approximant templates.

  13. Computational resources to filter gravitational wave data with P-approximant templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Edward K [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3YB, UK (United Kingdom)


    The prior knowledge of the gravitational waveform from compact binary systems makes matched filtering an attractive detection strategy. This detection method involves the filtering of the detector output with a set of theoretical waveforms or templates. One of the most important factors in this strategy is knowing how many templates are needed in order to reduce the loss of possible signals. In this study, we calculate the number of templates and computational power needed for a one-step search for gravitational waves from inspiralling binary systems. We build on previous works by first expanding the post-Newtonian waveforms to 2.5-PN order and second, for the first time, calculating the number of templates needed when using P-approximant waveforms. The analysis is carried out for the four main first-generation interferometers, LIGO, GEO600, VIRGO and TAMA. As well as template number, we also calculate the computational cost of generating banks of templates for filtering GW data. We carry out the calculations for two initial conditions. In the first case we assume a minimum individual mass of 1 M{sub o-dot} and in the second, we assume a minimum individual mass of 5 M{sub o-dot}. We find that, in general, we need more P-approximant templates to carry out a search than if we use standard PN templates. This increase varies according to the order of PN-approximation, but can be as high as a factor of 3 and is explained by the smaller span of the P-approximant templates as we go to higher masses. The promising outcome is that for 2-PN templates, the increase is small and is outweighed by the known robustness of the 2-PN P-approximant templates.

  14. The Appropriateness of Language Found in Research Consent Form Templates: A Computational Linguistic Analysis. (United States)

    Villafranca, Alexander; Kereliuk, Stephanie; Hamlin, Colin; Johnson, Andrea; Jacobsohn, Eric


    To facilitate informed consent, consent forms should use language below the grade eight level. Research Ethics Boards (REBs) provide consent form templates to facilitate this goal. Templates with inappropriate language could promote consent forms that participants find difficult to understand. However, a linguistic analysis of templates is lacking. We reviewed the websites of 124 REBs for their templates. These included English language medical school REBs in Australia/New Zealand (n = 23), Canada (n = 14), South Africa (n = 8), the United Kingdom (n = 34), and a geographically-stratified sample from the United States (n = 45). Template language was analyzed using Coh-Metrix linguistic software (v.3.0, Memphis, USA). We evaluated the proportion of REBs with five key linguistic outcomes at or below grade eight. Additionally, we compared quantitative readability to the REBs' own readability standards. To determine if the template's country of origin or the presence of a local REB readability standard influenced the linguistic variables, we used a MANOVA model. Of the REBs who provided templates, 0/94 (0%, 95% CI = 0-3.9%) provided templates with all linguistic variables at or below the grade eight level. Relaxing the standard to a grade 12 level did not increase this proportion. Further, only 2/22 (9.1%, 95% CI = 2.5-27.8) REBs met their own readability standard. The country of origin (DF = 20, 177.5, F = 1.97, p = 0.01), but not the presence of an REB-specific standard (DF = 5, 84, F = 0.73, p = 0.60), influenced the linguistic variables. Inappropriate language in templates is an international problem. Templates use words that are long, abstract, and unfamiliar. This could undermine the validity of participant informed consent. REBs should set a policy of screening templates with linguistic software.

  15. Genetic Disorders (United States)

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  16. Genetic Counseling (United States)

    ... and their families. Clinical Geneticists Clinical geneticists are medical doctors with special training in genetics. In addition to educating families about genetic conditions, they perform clinical exams and order lab tests to diagnose the causes ...

  17. Anisotropy engineering using exchange bias on antidot templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. T. Goncalves


    Full Text Available We explore an emerging device concept based on exchange bias used in conjunction with an antidot geometry to fine tune ferromagnetic resonances. Planar cavity ferromagnetic resonance is used to study the microwave response of NiO/NiFe bilayers with antidot structuring. A large frequency asymmetry with respect to an applied magnetic field is found across a broad field range whose underlying cause is linked to the distribution of magnetic poles at the antidot surfaces. This distribution is found to be particularly sensitive to the effects of exchange bias, and robust in regards to the quality of the antidot geometry. The template based antidot geometry we study offers advantages for practical device construction, and we show that it is suitable for broadband absorption and filtering applications, allowing tunable anisotropies via interface engineering.

  18. Database extraction strategies for low-template evidence. (United States)

    Bleka, Øyvind; Dørum, Guro; Haned, Hinda; Gill, Peter


    Often in forensic cases, the profile of at least one of the contributors to a DNA evidence sample is unknown and a database search is needed to discover possible perpetrators. In this article we consider two types of search strategies to extract suspects from a database using methods based on probability arguments. The performance of the proposed match scores is demonstrated by carrying out a study of each match score relative to the level of allele drop-out in the crime sample, simulating low-template DNA. The efficiency was measured by random man simulation and we compared the performance using the SGM Plus kit and the ESX 17 kit for the Norwegian population, demonstrating that the latter has greatly enhanced power to discover perpetrators of crime in large national DNA databases. The code for the database extraction strategies will be prepared for release in the R-package forensim. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Photonic hyperuniform networks by silicon double inversion of polymer templates

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Nicolas; Marichy, Catherine; Scheffold, Frank


    Hyperuniform disordered networks belong to a peculiar class of structured materials predicted to possess partial and complete photonic bandgaps for relatively moderate refractive index contrasts. The practical realization of such photonic designer materials is challenging however, as it requires control over a multi-step fabcrication process on optical length scales. Here we report the direct-laser writing of hyperuniform polymeric templates followed by a silicon double inversion procedure leading to high quality network structures made of polycrystalline silicon. We observe a pronounced gap in the shortwave infrared centered at a wavelength of $\\lambda_{\\text{Gap}}\\simeq $ 2.5 $\\mu$m, in nearly quantitative agreement with numerical simulations. In the experiments the typical structural length scale of the seed pattern can be varied between 2 $\\mu$m and 1.54 $\\mu$m leading to a blue-shift of the gap accompanied by an increase of the silicon volume filling fraction.

  20. Growth of hollow cell spheroids in microbead templated chambers. (United States)

    Wang, Eddie; Wang, Dong; Geng, Andrew; Seo, Richard; Gong, Xiaohua


    Cells form hollow, spheroidal structures during the development of many tissues, including the ocular lens, inner ear, and many glands. Therefore, techniques for in vitro formation of hollow spheroids are valued for studying developmental and disease processes. Current in vitro methods require cells to self-organize into hollow morphologies; we explored an alternative strategy based on cell growth in predefined, spherical scaffolds. Our method uses sacrificial, gelatin microbeads to simultaneously template spherical chambers within a hydrogel and deliver cells into the chambers. We use mouse lens epithelial cells to demonstrate that cells can populate the internal surfaces of the chambers within a week to create numerous hollow spheroids. The platform supports manipulation of matrix mechanics, curvature, and biochemical composition to mimic in vivo microenvironments. It also provides a starting point for engineering organoids of tissues that develop from hollow spheroids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Individuelle Templates für Rekonstruktionen des linken Herzventrikels (United States)

    Feder, Stefan; Falk, Volkmar; Gutberiet, Matthias; Bartz, Dirk

    Bei krankhaften Vergrößerungen des linken Herzventrikels kann eine chirurgische Ventrikelrekonstruktion zur Verbesserung der Herzleistung beitragen. Die dabei erstellte Ventrikelgeometrie ist von entscheidender Bedeutung. Diese Studie befasst sich mit der computerbasierten Planung von individuellen Schablonen (Templates) für Ventrikelrekonstruktionen. Ziel ist es aus Cardio-CT-Daten, präoperativ, patientenindividuelle 3D-Modelle für Ventrikeltemplates zu erstellen. Hierfür wird aus CT-Daten der linksventrikuläre Blutpool segmentiert und daraus das Ventrikeltemplate modelliert. Dies geschieht anhand von zwei Kriterien: dem physiologischen Ventrikelfüllungsvolumen und der hämodynamisch günstigen ellipsoiden Form. Es konnten 20 3D-Templatemodelle mit einem durchschnittlichen Volumen von 144 ml erstellt werden. Die ellipsoide Form konnte durch manuelle Modellierung erreicht werden. Der Nachweis verbesserter Operationsergebnisse muss in nachfolgenden klinischen Studien erbracht werden.

  2. Template synthesis and characterization of carbon nanomaterials from ferrocene crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkasov, Nikolay, E-mail: [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Savilov, Serguei V.; Ivanov, Anton S.; Egorov, Alex V.; Lunin, Valery V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ibhadon, Alex O. [School of Biological, Biomedical and Environmental Sciences and Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)


    Filamentous ribbon-like structures of highly disordered carbon of thickness 10–100 nm built from merged individual carbon nanofibers were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition from saturated ferrocene–benzene solution at 950 K. The materials obtained were characterized by electron microscopy, x-ray and electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and a possible growth mechanism for their formation was proposed and discussed. The synthesis demonstrates the possibility of a template growth of carbon nanomaterials and supports the vapour–solid–solid growth model of carbon materials because the catalysing metal particles are solid under the experimental conditions. Due to the large number of structural defects, filamentous structure, submicrometer thickness and low intraparticle diffusion of the nanomaterials, they can find application in catalysis as catalyst supports and sorbents.

  3. Silica needle template fabrication of metal hollow microneedle arrays (United States)

    Zhu, M. W.; Li, H. W.; Chen, X. L.; Tang, Y. F.; Lu, M. H.; Chen, Y. F.


    Drug delivery through hollow microneedle (HMN) arrays has now been recognized as one of the most promising techniques because it minimizes the shortcomings of the traditional drug delivery methods and has many exciting advantages—pain free and tunable release rates, for example. However, this drug delivery method has been hindered greatly from mass clinical application because of the high fabrication cost of HMN arrays. Hence, we developed a simple and cost-effective procedure using silica needles as templates to massively fabricate HMN arrays by using popular materials and industrially applicable processes of micro- imprint, hot embossing, electroplating and polishing. Metal HMN arrays with high quality are prepared with great flexibility with tunable parameters of area, length of needle, size of hollow and array dimension. This efficient and cost-effective fabrication method can also be applied to other applications after minor alterations, such as preparation of optic, acoustic and solar harvesting materials and devices.

  4. Precise organization of metal nanoparticles on DNA origami template. (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Song, Chen; Wang, Zhen-Gang; Li, Na; Ding, Baoquan


    Nanoscale assemblies of metal nanoparticles in one dimension (1D) to three dimensions (3D) can exhibit novel phenomena that are not observed in the amorphous state. Bottom-up assembly technique is expected to overcome the resolution limit of top-down method and casts a new light on the nanofabrication field. DNA origami, which is mainly used to construct discrete and addressable nanostructures, can be utilized to assemble functional colloidal nanoparticles into delicate geometries with interesting properties. This review aims to summarize the methods that use DNA origami structures as templates to precisely organize metal nanoparticles, such as gold nanospheres (AuNSs) gold nanorods (AuNRs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The potential applications and the perspective are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assembling Bare Au Nanoparticles at Positively Charged Templates (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David


    In-situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence X-ray small-angle scattering (GISAXS) reveal that unfunctionalized (bare) gold nanoparticles (AuNP) spontaneously adsorb to a cationic lipid template formed by a Langmuir monolayer of DPTAP (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) at vapor/aqueous interfaces. Analysis of the XRR yields the electron density profile across the charged-interfaces along the surface normal showing the AuNPs assemble with vertical thickness comparable to the particle size. The GISAXS analysis indicates that the adsorbed mono-particle layer exhibits short-range in-plane correlations. By contrast, single-stranded DNA-functionalized AuNPs, while attracted to the positively charged surface (more efficiently with the addition of salt to the solution), display less in-plane regular packing compared to bare AuNPs.

  6. Assembling Bare Au Nanoparticles at Positively Charged Templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David


    In-situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence X-ray small-angle scattering (GISAXS) reveal that unfunctionalized (bare) gold nanoparticles (AuNP) spontaneously adsorb to a cationic lipid template formed by a Langmuir monolayer of DPTAP (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) at vapor/aqueous interfaces. Analysis of the XRR yields the electron density profile across the chargedinterfaces along the surface normal showing the AuNPs assemble with vertical thickness comparable to the particle size. The GISAXS analysis indicates that the adsorbed mono-particle layer exhibits shortrange in-plane correlations. By contrast, single-stranded DNA-functionalized AuNPs, while attracted to the positively charged surface (more efficiently with the addition of salt to the solution), display less in-plane regular packing compared to bare AuNPs.

  7. Liquid Crystal Elastomer Actuators from Anisotropic Porous Polymer Template. (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Li; Yu, Meina; Zhao, Dongyu; Song, Ping; Chi, Hun; Guo, Lin; Yang, Huai


    Controlling self-assembly behaviors of liquid crystals is a fundamental issue for designing them as intelligent actuators. Here, anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is utilized as a template to induce homogeneous alignment of liquid crystals. The mechanism of liquid crystal alignment induced by anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is illustrated based on the relationship between the alignment behavior of liquid crystals and surface microstructure of anisotropic polyvinylidene fluoride film. Liquid crystal elastomer actuators with fast responsiveness, large strain change, and reversible actuation behaviors are achieved by the photopolymerization of liquid crystal monomer in liquid crystal cells coated with anisotropic porous films. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Pseudo-template synthesis of gold nanoparticles based on polyhydrosilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarescu, Liviu, E-mail: [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Simionescu, Mihaela; Sacarescu, Gabriela [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania)


    Highly stable colloidal gold nanoparticles are obtained in a pseudo-template system using a specific polyhydrosilane copolymeric structure. This process takes place in situ by microwaves activation of the polymer solution in a non-polar solvent followed by stirring with solid HAuCl{sub 4} in natural light. The experimental procedure is very simple and the resulted colloidal gold solution is indefinitely stable. The specific surface plasmon resonance absorption band of the gold nanoparticles is strongly red shifted and is strictly related to their size. AFM correlated with DLS analysis showed flattened round shaped colloidal polymer-gold nanoparticles with large diameters. SEM-EDX combined analysis reveals that the polysilane-gold nanoparticles show a natural tendency to auto-assemble in close packed structures which form large areas over the polymer film surface.

  9. Biopolymer colloids for controlling and templating inorganic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Preiss


    Full Text Available Biopolymers and biopolymer colloids can act as controlling agents and templates not only in many processes in nature, but also in a wide range of synthetic approaches. Inorganic materials can be either synthesized ex situ and later incorporated into a biopolymer structuring matrix or grown in situ in the presence of biopolymers. In this review, we focus mainly on the latter case and distinguish between the following possibilities: (i biopolymers as controlling agents of nucleation and growth of inorganic materials; (ii biopolymers as supports, either as molecular supports or as carrier particles acting as cores of core–shell structures; and (iii so-called “soft templates”, which include on one hand stabilized droplets, micelles, and vesicles, and on the other hand continuous scaffolds generated by gelling biopolymers.

  10. Mixed Surfactant Template Method for Preparation of Nanometer Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Li


    Full Text Available Selenium nanoparticles have been synthesized in an aqueous solution by using sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyvinyl alcohol as a soft template. The factors on synthesis, such as reaction time, concentration of reactants and ultrasonic irradiation were studied. The uniform stable selenium nanospheres were obstained in the conditions of 1.0 (mass fraction sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1.0 (mass fraction polyvinyl alcohol, n(Vc:n(H2SeO3=7:1 and 7 minutes after the initiation of the reaction at room temperature. The average particle size of selenium is about 30 nm. The product was characterized by UV and TEM. Finally the applications of the red element nanometer selenium in anti-older cosmetics are presented.

  11. Electrospun human keratin matrices as templates for tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Sow, Wan Ting; Lui, Yuan Siang; Ng, Kee Woei


    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of fabricating human hair keratin matrices through electrospinning and to evaluate the potential of these matrices for tissue regeneration. Keratin was extracted from human hair using Na2S and blended with poly(ethylene oxide) in the weight ratio of 60:1 for electrospinning. Physical morphology and chemical properties of the matrices were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Cell viability and morphology of murine and human fibroblasts cultured on the matrices were evaluated through the Live/Dead(®) assay and scanning electron microscopy. Electrospun keratin matrices were successfully produced without affecting the chemical conformation of keratin. Fibroblasts cultured on keratin matrices showed healthy morphology and penetration into matrices at day 7. Electrospun human hair keratin matrices provide a bioinductive and structural environment for cell growth and are thus attractive as alternative templates for tissue regeneration.

  12. A fast template matching method for LED chip Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Fuqiang


    Full Text Available Efficiency determines the profits of the semiconductor producers. So the producers spare no effort to enhance the efficiency of every procedure. The purpose of the paper is to present a method to shorten the time to locate the LED chips on wafer. The method consists of 3 steps. Firstly, image segmentation and blob analyzation are used to predict the positions of potential chips. Then predict the orientations of potential chips based on their dominant orientations. Finally, according to the positions and orientations predicted above, locate the chips precisely based on gradient orientation features. Experiments show that the algorithm is faster than the traditional method we choose to locate the LED chips. Besides, even the orientations of the chips on wafer are of big deviation to the orientation of the template, the efficiency of this method won't be affected.

  13. Self-templated chemically stable hollow spherical covalent organic framework (United States)

    Kandambeth, Sharath; Venkatesh, V.; Shinde, Digambar B.; Kumari, Sushma; Halder, Arjun; Verma, Sandeep; Banerjee, Rahul


    Covalent organic frameworks are a family of crystalline porous materials with promising applications. Although active research on the design and synthesis of covalent organic frameworks has been ongoing for almost a decade, the mechanisms of formation of covalent organic frameworks crystallites remain poorly understood. Here we report the synthesis of a hollow spherical covalent organic framework with mesoporous walls in a single-step template-free method. A detailed time-dependent study of hollow sphere formation reveals that an inside-out Ostwald ripening process is responsible for the hollow sphere formation. The synthesized covalent organic framework hollow spheres are highly porous (surface area ~1,500 m2 g-1), crystalline and chemically stable, due to the presence of strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding. These mesoporous hollow sphere covalent organic frameworks are used for a trypsin immobilization study, which shows an uptake of 15.5 μmol g-1 of trypsin.

  14. Dynamic fragmentation of cellular, ice-templated alumina scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yi Ming; Cervantes, Octavio; Nam, SeanWoo; Molitoris, John D.; Hooper, Joseph P.


    We examine the dynamic failure of ice-templated freeze-cast alumina scaffolds that are being considered as biomimetic hierarchical structures. Three porosities of alumina freeze-cast structures were fabricated, and a systematic variation in microstructural properties such as lamellar width and thickness was observed with changing porosity. Dynamic impact tests were performed in a light-gas gun to examine the failure properties of these materials under high strain-rate loading. Nearly complete delamination was observed following impact, along with characteristic cracking across the lamellar width. Average fragment size decreases with increasing porosity, and a theoretical model was developed to explain this behavior based on microstructural changes. Using an energy balance between kinetic, strain, and surface energies within a single lamella, we are able to accurately predict the characteristic fragment size using only standard material properties of bulk alumina.

  15. Genetic modification and genetic determinism (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B


    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  16. Genetic modification and genetic determinism. (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B


    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  17. Forest gradient response in Sierran landscapes: the physical template (United States)

    Urban, Dean L.; Miller, Carol; Halpin, Patrick N.; Stephenson, Nathan L.


    Vegetation pattern on landscapes is the manifestation of physical gradients, biotic response to these gradients, and disturbances. Here we focus on the physical template as it governs the distribution of mixed-conifer forests in California's Sierra Nevada. We extended a forest simulation model to examine montane environmental gradients, emphasizing factors affecting the water balance in these summer-dry landscapes. The model simulates the soil moisture regime in terms of the interaction of water supply and demand: supply depends on precipitation and water storage, while evapotranspirational demand varies with solar radiation and temperature. The forest cover itself can affect the water balance via canopy interception and evapotranspiration. We simulated Sierran forests as slope facets, defined as gridded stands of homogeneous topographic exposure, and verified simulated gradient response against sample quadrats distributed across Sequoia National Park. We then performed a modified sensitivity analysis of abiotic factors governing the physical gradient. Importantly, the model's sensitivity to temperature, precipitation, and soil depth varies considerably over the physical template, particularly relative to elevation. The physical drivers of the water balance have characteristic spatial scales that differ by orders of magnitude. Across large spatial extents, temperature and precipitation as defined by elevation primarily govern the location of the mixed conifer zone. If the analysis is constrained to elevations within the mixed-conifer zone, local topography comes into play as it influences drainage. Soil depth varies considerably at all measured scales, and is especially dominant at fine (within-stand) scales. Physical site variables can influence soil moisture deficit either by affecting water supply or water demand; these effects have qualitatively different implications for forest response. These results have clear implications about purely inferential approaches

  18. Topographic and hydraulic controls over alluviation on a bedrock template (United States)

    Milan, David; Heritage, George; Entwistle, Neil; Tooth, Stephen


    Bedrock-alluvial anastomosed channels found in dryland rivers are characterised by an over-wide channel cut into the host rock containing a network of interconnecting bedrock sub-channels separated by bedrock influenced interfluve areas. Whilst the channels remain largely free of sediment the interfluves display varying levels of alluviation ranging from bare rock, sand sheets and silt drapes through to consolidated bedrock core bars, islands and lateral deposits. Examination of the sedimentary units associated with the bedrock anastomosed reaches of the Sabie river in the Kruger National Park, South Africa reveal a repeating sequence of coarse sand / fine gravel grading through to silt representing successive flood related depositional units. Unit development in relation to the bedrock template was investigated using pre-flood aerial imagery of bedrock core bar locations and post flood LiDAR data of bedrock anastomosed sites stripped during the 2000 and 2012 extreme flood events. This revealed a propensity for bar development associated with bedrock hollows disconnected from the principal high-energy sub-channels. 2-D morpho-dynamic modelling was used to further investigate spatial patterns of deposition over the bedrock template. Although topographic lows displayed mid-range velocities during peak flow events, these are likely to be preferential routing areas, with sediments stalling in low energy areas on the falling limb of floods. It is also likely that vegetation development plays a fundamental role in the development of alluviated zones, through increasing strength of alluvial units and capturing new sediments. With these results in mind we present a conceptual model for the development of bedrock-core bars, the fundamental unit in bedrock-alluvial anastomosed channels.

  19. Template-directed synthesis using the heterogeneous templates produced by montmorillonite catalysis. A possible bridge between the prebiotic and RNA worlds (United States)

    Ertem, G.; Ferris, J. P.


    The synthesis of oligoguanylates [oligo(G)s] is catalyzed by a template of oligocytidylates [oligo(C)s] containing 2',5'- and 3',5'-linked phosphodiester bonds with and without incorporated C5'ppC groupings. An oligo(C) template containing exclusively 2',5'-phosphodiester bonds also serves as a template for the synthesis of complementary oligo(G)s. The oligo(C) template was prepared by the condensation of the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of cytidine on montmorillonite clay. These studies establish that RNA oligomers prepared by mineral catalysis, or other routes on the primitive earth, did not have to be exclusively 3',5'-linked to catalyze template-directed synthesis, since oligo(C)s containing a variety of linkage isomers serve as templates for the formation of complementary oligo(G)s. These findings support the postulate that origin of the RNA world was initiated by the RNA oligomers produced by polymerization of activated monomers formed by prebiotic processes.

  20. Imaging Genetics (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.


    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  1. Hollow colloidal particles by emulsion templating, from synthesis to self-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoldesi, C.I.


    This research was focused on developing a new method to prepare hollow colloidal particles in the micrometer range, based on emulsion templating, characterization of both the templates and the resulting particles from physical and chemical viewpoint, and fabrication of materials based on such

  2. Performance evaluation of fusing protected fingerprint minutiae templates on the decision level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Groot, K.T.J. de; Christoph Busch; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Xu, H.


    In a biometric authentication system using protected templates, a pseudonymous identifier is the part of a protected template that can be directly compared. Each compared pair of pseudonymous identifiersresults in a decision testing whether both identifiers are derived from the same biometric

  3. Application of the Generic Modeling Template Approach to Unsaturated Fatty Acid Oxidation and Crystallization Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Papadakis, Emmanouil; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup


    In this work, a couple of applications of the template-based approach for model development are presented. The computer-aided template concept has been developed based on a model decomposition technique and has been implemented as a software tool, which provides a user-friendly interface for foll...

  4. Template Matching of Colored Image Based on Quaternion Fourier Transform and Image Pyramid Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Template matching method is one of the most significant object recognition techniques and it has many applications in the field of digital signal processing and image processing and it is the base for object tracking in computer vision field. The traditional template matching by correlation is performed between gray template image w and the candidate gray image f where the template’s position is to be determined in the candidate image. This task can be achieved by measuring the similarity between the template image and the candidate image to identify and localize the existence of object instances within an image. When applying this method to colored image, the image must be converted to a gray one or decomposed to its RGB components to be processed separately. The current paper aims to apply the template matching technique to colored images via generating the quaternion Fourier transforms of both the template and candidate colored image and hence performing the cross-correlation between those transforms. Moreover, this approach is improved by representing both the image and template as pyramid multi-resolution format to reduce the time of processing. The proposed algorithm is implemented and applied to different images and templates using Matlab functions.

  5. New immobilisation protocol for the template used in solid-phase synthesis of MIP nanoparticles (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Muhammad, Turghun; Yakup, Burabiye; Piletsky, Sergey A.


    As a novel imprinting method, solid-phase synthesis has proven to be a promising approach to prepare polymer nanoparticles with specific recognition sites for a template molecule. In this method, imprinted polymer nanoparticles were synthesized using template immobilized on a solid support. Herein, preparation of immobilized templates on quartz chips through homogeneous route was reported as an efficient alternative strategy to heterogeneous one. The template molecule indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was reacted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to produce silylated template (IBA-APTES), and it was characterized by IR, 1H NMR and GC-MS. Then, the silylated template molecule was grafted onto the activated surfaces of quartz chip to prepare immobilized template (SiO2@IBA-APTES). The immobilization was confirmed by contact angle, XPS, UV and fluorescence measurement. Immobilization protocol has shown good reproducibility and stability of the immobilized template. MIP nanoparticles were prepared with high selectivity toward the molecule immobilized onto the solid surface. This provides a new approach for the development of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles.

  6. Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwanger, A; Berggren, C; Bayoudh, S; Crecenzi, C; Karlsson, L; Owens, PK; Ensing, K; Cormack, P; Sherrington, D; Sellergren, B


    Polymers imprinted with clenbuterol were used to study the influence of various post-polymerization treatments [e.g., thermal annealing, microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid template desorption] on the bleeding of residual template. The aim of the study was

  7. Pattern Registration Between Spherical Block-Copolymer Domains and Topographical Templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, J.Y.; Zhang, F.; Smith, H.I.; Vancso, Gyula J.; Ross, C.A.


    Pattern registration is achieved in thin films of self-assembling block copolymers by using a topographical template to guide the positions of the polymer domains. The placement accuracy of the polymer domains is related to the edge roughness of the topographical template, and the ultimate placement

  8. 78 FR 64925 - Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates (United States)


    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The USPTO is proposing to eliminate the Patents Search Templates from the USPTO Web site. In 2006, the...

  9. The role of the geophysical template and environmental regimes in controlling stream-living trout populations (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna; Steve F. Railsback; Jason B. Dunham; Sherri Johnson; Robert E. Bilby; Arne E. Skaugset; Michael Bradford


    The importance of multiple processes and instream factors to aquatic biota has been explored extensively, but questions remain about how local spatiotemporal variability of aquatic biota is tied to environmental regimes and the geophysical template of streams. We used an individual-based trout model to explore the relative role of the geophysical template versus...

  10. Age-specific average head template for typically developing 6-month-old infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Akiyama

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid anatomical changes that occur within the brain structure in early human development and the significant differences between infant brains and the widely used standard adult templates, it becomes increasingly important to utilize appropriate age- and population-specific average templates when analyzing infant neuroimaging data. In this study we created a new and highly detailed age-specific unbiased average head template in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system for healthy, typically developing 6-month-old infants by performing linear normalization, diffeomorphic normalization and iterative averaging processing on 60 subjects' structural images. The resulting age-specific average templates in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system demonstrate sharper anatomical detail and clarity compared to existing infant average templates and successfully retains the average head size of the 6-month-old infant. An example usage of the average infant templates transforms magnetoencephalography (MEG estimated activity locations from MEG's subject-specific head coordinate space to the standard MNI152-like infant coordinate space. We also created a new atlas that reflects the true 6-month-old infant brain anatomy. Average templates and atlas are publicly available on our website (

  11. An Empirical Ultraviolet Template for Iron Emission in Quasars as Derived from I Zw 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.


    We present an empirical template spectrum suitable for fitting/subtracting and studying the FeII and FeIII line emission in the restframe UV spectra of active galatic nuclei (AGNs), the first empirical UV iron template to cover the full 1250 - 3090 A range. Iron emission is often a severe contami...

  12. Nanolithography based contacting method for electrical measurements on single template synthesized nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusil, S.; Piraux, L.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan


    A reliable method enabling electrical measurements on single nanowires prepared by electrodeposition in an alumina template is described. This technique is based on electrically controlled nanoindentation of a thin insulating resist deposited on the top face of the template filled by the nanowires...

  13. Localized Template-Driven Functionalization of Nanoparticles by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowak, Piotr; Saggiomo, Vittorio; Salehian, Fatemeh; Colomb-Delsuc, Mathieu; Han, Yang; Otto, Sijbren


    We have developed a method for the localized functionalization of gold nanoparticles using imine-based dynamic combinatorial chemistry. By using DNA templates, amines were grafted on the aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles only if and where the nanoparticles interacted with the template molecules.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Fusing Protected Fingerprint Minutiae Templates on the Decision Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Bian; Busch, C.; Groot, K. de; Xu, H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    In a biometric authentication system using protected templates, a pseudonymous identifier is the part of a protected template that can be directly compared. Each compared pair of pseudonymous identifiers results in a decision testing whether both identifiers are derived from the same biometric

  15. A Novel Approach Based on PCNNs Template for Fingerprint Image Thinning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dacheng, X.; Bailiang, L.; Nijholt, Antinus; Kacprzyk, J.


    A PCNNs-based square-and-triangle-template method for binary fingerprint image thinning is proposed. The algorithm is iterative, in which a combined sequential and parallel processing is employed to accelerate execution. When a neuron satisfies the square template, the pixel corresponding to this

  16. Synthesis mechanism and improved (100) oriented NaNbO{sub 3} templates by ultrasonication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdasi, O. A.; Kolekar, Y. D.; Kambale, R. C., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune-411 007, Maharashtra (India); Kim, D. J.; Song, T. K. [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)


    The plate-like NaNbO{sub 3} (NN) templates with (100) preferential orientation was synthesized from bismuth layer structured ferroelectric Bi{sub 2.5}Na{sub 3.5}Nb{sub 5}O{sub 18} (BNN) precursor by topochemical microcrystal conversion (TMC) method. The large platelets of BNN were first obtained by molten salt synthesis at the 1125 °C with a salt-to oxide weight ratio 1.5: 1. The anisotropic NN templates were derived from BNN at the 975 °C with BNN/ Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} molar ratio of 1:1.5. The NaNbO{sub 3} templates have an average length of ~ 10-14 µm. The NN templates retains their elemental constitutes of Na, Nb and O in stoichiometric proportion. The effect of ultrasonication on the orientation factor (F{sub h00}) of NN templates was understood by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. The degree of (100) orientation of as synthesized NN templates (~57%) was found to be increased (~89%) after ultrasonication. Moreover, the microstructure i.e. alignment / shape of as synthesized NN templates was changed from rectangular (110) orientation to square (100) orientation geometry after ultrasonication. Hence, ultrasonication is a cost effective approach to preparing the textured piezoelectric ceramics by the template grain growth technique using tape casting.

  17. Vernier-templated synthesis, crystal structure, and supramolecular chemistry of a 12-porphyrin nanoring. (United States)

    Kondratuk, Dmitry V; Sprafke, Johannes K; O'Sullivan, Melanie C; Perdigao, Luis M A; Saywell, Alex; Malfois, Marc; O'Shea, James N; Beton, Peter H; Thompson, Amber L; Anderson, Harry L


    Vernier templating exploits a mismatch between the number of binding sites in a template and a reactant to direct the formation of a product that is large enough to bind several template units. Here, we present a detailed study of the Vernier-templated synthesis of a 12-porphyrin nanoring. NMR and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses show that Vernier complexes are formed as intermediates in the cyclo-oligomerization reaction. UV/Vis/NIR titrations show that the three-component assembly of the 12-porphyrin nanoring figure-of-eight template complex displays high allosteric cooperativity and chelate cooperativity. This nanoring-template 1:2 complex is among the largest synthetic molecules to have been characterized by single-crystal analysis. It crystallizes as a racemate, with an angle of 27° between the planes of the two template units. The crystal structure reveals many unexpected intramolecular C-H⋅⋅⋅N contacts involving the tert-butyl side chains. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments show that molecules of the 12-porphyrin template complex can remain intact on the gold surface, although the majority of the material unfolds into the free nanoring during electrospray deposition. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  18. Pengenalan Angka Pada Sistem Operasi Android Dengan Menggunakan Metode Template Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Pandu Kusuma


    Full Text Available AbstrakUsia dini merupakan usia yang efektif untuk mengembangkan berbagai potensi yang dimiliki oleh anak. Upaya pengembangan potensi dapat dilakukan melalui berbagai cara termasuk dengan cara bermain. Bermain bagi anak merupakan cara yang tepat untuk belajar. Berdasarkan fenomena tersebut, maka perlu dibuat sebuah aplikasi pengenalan angka yang interaktif dengan unsur edukasi. Aplikasi tersebut diharapkan dapat mengambil keputusan secara otomatis apa yang ditulis anak itu bernilai benar atau salah dan juga dapat membangkitkan semangat belajar anak dalam mengenal pola angka. Solusi yang sesuai agar aplikasi tersebut dapat memberikan jawaban salah atau benar digunakan satu metode yaitu template matching. Pengenalan angka dengan menggunakan metode template matching dilakukan dengan cara membandingkan citra masukan dengan citra template. Hasil template matching dihitung dari banyaknya titik pada citra masukan yang sesuai dengan citra template. Template disediakan pada database untuk memberikan contoh cara penulisan pola angka. Uji coba dilakukan pada aplikasi sebanyak 40 kali dengan pola yang berbeda. Dari hasil uji coba didapat prosentase keberhasilan aplikasi ini mencapai 75,75%.Kata kunci: Belajar, bermain, Template Matching, dan pola. AbstractEarly childhood is an effective age to develop the potential of the child. Potential development efforts can be done through various ways, including by playing. Playing for children is a great way to learn. Based on this phenomenon, it should be made an introduction to the numbers interactive application with elements of education. The application is expected to take decisions automatically what the child is written is true or false, and also can encourage a child's learning in recognizing number patterns. Appropriate solutions so that the app can give an answer right or wrong to use the methods that template matching. The introduction of the numbers by using template matching is done by comparing the

  19. Using Writing Templates as Materials to Improve Writing Skills in EFL Classes: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Selçuk AKDEMİR


    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed at revealing the findings of an experimental study in which writing templates were used as writing materials to improve writing skills in intermediate (B1 EFL classes as well as reviewing the concepts writing skills, second language writing and writing templates. The study was conducted with 50 students, aged 20-23, of a public university in Turkey. In Writing and Speaking in English II class writing templates were used as writing materials during 12 weeks. The students were asked to fulfil tasks asking them to use some basic writing types for B1 level such as formal and informal letter writing, CV writing, writing business e-mails etc. before and after the study. It was concluded that writing templates can be used as writing materials to improve intermediate (B1 EFL classes.Keywords: Writing, writing templates, L2 writing.

  20. Cross-catalytic peptide nucleic acid (PNA) replication based on templated ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singhal, Abhishek; Nielsen, Peter E


    We report the first PNA self-replicating system based on template directed cross-catalytic ligation, a process analogous to biological replication. Using two template PNAs and four pentameric precursor PNAs, all four possible carbodiimide assisted amide ligation products were detected and identif......We report the first PNA self-replicating system based on template directed cross-catalytic ligation, a process analogous to biological replication. Using two template PNAs and four pentameric precursor PNAs, all four possible carbodiimide assisted amide ligation products were detected...... and identified by HPLC and MALDI-TOF analysis. We conclude that the two template complementary reaction products are generated via cross-catalysis, while the other two self-complementary (and in principle auto-catalytic) products are formed via intra-complex coupling between the two sets of complementary PNA...

  1. Optimization of the synthesis of SAPO-11 for the methylation of naphthalene with methanol by varying templates and template content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Liangfu; Xiang, Hongwei, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China); Guo, Shaoqing [Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan (China)


    SAPO-11 zeolites were successfully synthesized by using three different templates (diethylamine (DEA), di-n-propylamine (DPA) and di-isopropylamine (DIPA)) and varying DPA contents (nDPA/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0) under hydrothermal conditions. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3} -TPD) and {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The samples were also evaluated towards the methylation of naphthalene with methanol to produce 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene (2,6-DMN). XRD results indicated that the directing effect of the different templates for AEL (Aluminophosphate-ELeven) structure decreased in the order DPA > DEA > DIPA and the most suitable DPA content was nDPA/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 1.2. N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption results showed that SAPO-11(DPA,1.2) exhibited the broadest pore size distribution, the highest BET specific surface area and the largest pore volume among all the SAPO-11 samples. SAPO-11(DPA,1.2) exhibited high catalytic performances in the methylation of naphthalene due to its high crystallinity, high external surface and broad pore size distribution. The pore structure of SAPO-11 zeolite, rather than its acidity, played an important role in achieving high catalytic performances in the methylation of naphthalene with methanol. (author)

  2. Influence of the normalization template on the outcome of statistical parametric mapping of PET scans. (United States)

    Gispert, J D; Pascau, J; Reig, S; Martínez-Lázaro, R; Molina, V; García-Barreno, P; Desco, M


    Spatial normalization is an essential preprocessing step in statistical parametric mapping (SPM)-based analysis of PET scans. The standard template provided with the SPM99 software package was originally constructed using (15)O-H(2)O PET scans and is commonly applied regardless of the tracer actually used in the scans being analyzed. This work studies the effect of using three different normalization templates in the outcome of the statistical analysis of PET scans: (1) the standard SPM99 PET template; (2) an (18)F-FDG PET template, constructed by averaging PET scans previously normalized to the standard template; and (3) an MRI-aided (18)F-FDG PET template, constructed by averaging PET scans normalized according to the deformation parameters obtained from MRI scans. A strictly anatomical MRI normalization of each PET was used as a reference, under the rationale that a normalization based only upon MRI should provide higher spatial accuracy. The potential bias involved in the normalization process was estimated in a clinical SPM study comparing schizophrenic patients with control subjects. For each between-group comparison, three SPM maps were obtained, one for each template. To evaluate the influence of the template, these SPM maps were compared to the reference SPM map achieved using the anatomical normalization. SPMs obtained by MRI-aided normalization showed the highest spatial specificity, and also higher sensitivity when compared to the standard normalization using the SPM99 (15)O-H(2)O template. These results show that the use of the standard template under inappropriate conditions (different tracer or mental state) may lead to inconsistent interpretations of the statistical analysis.

  3. SU-E-J-108: Template Matching Based On Multiple Templates Can Improve the Tumor Tracking Performance When There Is Large Tumor Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X; Lin, J; Diwanji, T; Mooney, K; D' Souza, W; Mistry, N [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Purpose: Recently, template matching has been shown to be able to track tumor motion on cine-MRI images. However, artifacts such as deformation, rotation, and/or out-of-plane movement could seriously degrade the performance of this technique. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of multiple templates derived from different phases of tumor motion in reducing the negative effects of artifacts and improving the accuracy of template matching methods. Methods: Data from 2 patients with large tumors and significant tumor deformation were analyzed from a group of 12 patients from an earlier study. Cine-MRI (200 frames) imaging was performed while the patients were instructed to breathe normally. Ground truth tumor position was established on each frame manually by a radiation oncologist. Tumor positions were also automatically determined using template matching with either single or multiple (5) templates. The tracking errors, defined as the absolute differences in tumor positions determined by the manual and automated methods, when using either single or multiple templates were compared in both the AP and SI directions, respectively. Results: Using multiple templates reduced the tracking error of template matching. In the SI direction where the tumor movement and deformation were significant, the mean tracking error decreased from 1.94 mm to 0.91 mm (Patient 1) and from 6.61 mm to 2.06 mm (Patient 2). In the AP direction where the tumor movement was small, the reduction of the mean tracking error was significant in Patient 1 (from 3.36 mm to 1.04 mm), but not in Patient 2 ( from 3.86 mm to 3.80 mm). Conclusion: This study shows the effectiveness of using multiple templates in improving the performance of template matching when artifacts like large tumor deformation or out-of-plane motion exists. Accurate tumor tracking capabilities can be integrated with MRI guided radiation therapy systems. This work was supported in part by grants from NIH/NCI CA 124766 and Varian

  4. A pilot study of a heuristic algorithm for novel template identification from VA electronic medical record text. (United States)

    Redd, Andrew M; Gundlapalli, Adi V; Divita, Guy; Carter, Marjorie E; Tran, Le-Thuy; Samore, Matthew H


    Templates in text notes pose challenges for automated information extraction algorithms. We propose a method that identifies novel templates in plain text medical notes. The identification can then be used to either include or exclude templates when processing notes for information extraction. The two-module method is based on the framework of information foraging and addresses the hypothesis that documents containing templates and the templates within those documents can be identified by common features. The first module takes documents from the corpus and groups those with common templates. This is accomplished through a binned word count hierarchical clustering algorithm. The second module extracts the templates. It uses the groupings and performs a longest common subsequence (LCS) algorithm to obtain the constituent parts of the templates. The method was developed and tested on a random document corpus of 750 notes derived from a large database of US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic medical notes. The grouping module, using hierarchical clustering, identified 23 groups with 3 documents or more, consisting of 120 documents from the 750 documents in our test corpus. Of these, 18 groups had at least one common template that was present in all documents in the group for a positive predictive value of 78%. The LCS extraction module performed with 100% positive predictive value, 94% sensitivity, and 83% negative predictive value. The human review determined that in 4 groups the template covered the entire document, with the remaining 14 groups containing a common section template. Among documents with templates, the number of templates per document ranged from 1 to 14. The mean and median number of templates per group was 5.9 and 5, respectively. The grouping method was successful in finding like documents containing templates. Of the groups of documents containing templates, the LCS module was successful in deciphering text belonging to the template

  5. Investigation of metal hydride nanoparticles templated in metal organic frameworks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Herberg, Julie L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Highley, Aaron M.; Grossman, Jeffrey (MIT, Cambridge, MA); Wagner, Lucas (MIT, Cambridge, MA); Bhakta, Raghu; Peaslee, D. (University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO); Allendorf, Mark D.; Liu, X. (University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO); Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Majzoub, Eric H. (University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO)


    Hydrogen is proposed as an ideal carrier for storage, transport, and conversion of energy. However, its storage is a key problem in the development of hydrogen economy. Metal hydrides hold promise in effectively storing hydrogen. For this reason, metal hydrides have been the focus of intensive research. The chemical bonds in light metal hydrides are predominantly covalent, polar covalent or ionic. These bonds are often strong, resulting in high thermodynamic stability and low equilibrium hydrogen pressures. In addition, the directionality of the covalent/ionic bonds in these systems leads to large activation barriers for atomic motion, resulting in slow hydrogen sorption kinetics and limited reversibility. One method for enhancing reaction kinetics is to reduce the size of the metal hydrides to nano scale. This method exploits the short diffusion distances and constrained environment that exist in nanoscale hydride materials. In order to reduce the particle size of metal hydrides, mechanical ball milling is widely used. However, microscopic mechanisms responsible for the changes in kinetics resulting from ball milling are still being investigated. The objective of this work is to use metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as templates for the synthesis of nano-scale NaAlH4 particles, to measure the H2 desorption kinetics and thermodynamics, and to determine quantitative differences from corresponding bulk properties. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) offer an attractive alternative to traditional scaffolds because their ordered crystalline lattice provides a highly controlled and understandable environment. The present work demonstrates that MOFs are stable hosts for metal hydrides and their reactive precursors and that they can be used as templates to form metal hydride nanoclusters on the scale of their pores (1-2 nm). We find that using the MOF HKUST-1 as template, NaAlH4 nanoclusters as small as 8 formula units can be synthesized inside the pores. A detailed picture of

  6. Templated self-assembly of SiGe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dais, Christian


    This PhD thesis reports on the fabrication and characterization of exact aligned SiGe quantum dot structures. In general, SiGe quantum dots which nucleate via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode exhibit broad size dispersion and nucleate randomly on the surface. However, to tap the full potential of SiGe quantum dots it is necessary to control the positioning and size of the dots on a nanometer length, e.g. for electronically addressing of individual dots. This can be realized by so-called templated self-assembly, which combines top-down lithography with bottom-up selfassembly. In this process the lithographically defined pits serve as pre-defined nucleation points for the epitaxially grown quantum dots. In this thesis, extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at a wavelength of e=13.4 nm is employed for prepatterning of the Si substrates. This technique allows the precise and fast fabrication of high-resolution templates with a high degree of reproducibility. The subsequent epitaxial deposition is either performed by molecular beam epitaxy or low-pressure chemical vapour deposition. It is shown that the dot nucleation on pre-patterned substrates depends strongly on the lithography parameters, e.g. size and periodicity of the pits, as well as on the epitaxy parameters, e.g. growth temperature or material coverage. The interrelations are carefully analyzed by means of scanning force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Provided that correct template and overgrowth parameters are chosen, perfectly aligned and uniform SiGe quantum dot arrays of different period, size as well as symmetry are created. In particular, the quantum dot arrays with the so far smallest period (35 nm) and smallest size dispersion are fabricated in this thesis. Furthermore, the strain fields of the underlying quantum dots allow the fabrication of vertically aligned quantum dot stacks. Combining lateral and vertical dot alignment results in three

  7. High Speed Genetic Lips Detection by Dynamic Search Domain Control (United States)

    Akashi, Takuya; Wakasa, Yuji; Tanaka, Kanya; Karungaru, Stephen; Fukumi, Minoru

    In this paper, high-speed size and orientation invariant lips detection of a talking person in an active scene using template matching and genetic algorithms is proposed. As part of the objectives, we also try to acquire numerical parameters to represent the lips. The information is very important for many applications, where high performance is required, such as audio-visual speech recognition, speaker identification systems, robot perception and personal mobile devices interfaces. The difficulty in lips detection is mainly due to deformations and geometric changes of the lips during speech and the active scene by free camera motion. In order to enhance the performance in speed and accuracy, initially, the performance is improved on a single still image, that is, the base of video processing. Our proposed system is based on template matching using genetic algorithms (GA). Only one template is prepared per experiment. The template is the closed mouth of a subject, because the application is for personal devices. In our previous study, the main problem was trade-off between search accuracy and search speed. To overcome this problem, we use two methods: scaling window and dynamic search domain control (SD-Control). We therefore focus on the population size of the GA, because it has a direct effect on search accuracy and speed. The effectiveness of the proposed system is demonstrated by performing computer simulations. We achieved a lips detection accuracy of 91.33% at an average processing time of 33.70 milliseconds per frame.

  8. Electronic templates versus dictation for the completion of Mohs micrographic surgery operative notes. (United States)

    Cowan, David A; Sands, Mandy B; Rabizadeh, Susan M; Amos, Charles S; Ford, Carolyn; Nussbaum, Rachel; Stein, David; Liegeois, Nanette J


    Operative notes can be generated electronically by manual input of the entire note, free-form oral dictation, or using either an electronic template or a template for dictation. There are few studies that have directly compared these modalities in terms of speed, accuracy, and completeness. The objective was to determine whether electronic templates are more efficient and reduce errors compared to free-form oral dictation for the completion of Mohs micrographic surgery operative notes. Operative notes for 110 consecutive Mohs micrographic surgery cases were completed either by oral dictation or by electronic template. The time to dictate or complete the template was recorded for each note. Notes were subsequently edited, recording the number and type of errors as well as the time required to edit each note. Compared with dictation, operative notes completed with the electronic template had fewer errors (5.8% vs. 81%), took less time to complete (175.5 seconds vs. 240.0 seconds), took less time to review and edit (41.6 seconds vs. 201.1 seconds), and were completed and signed in a more timely fashion (0.115 days vs. 20.7 days). Electronic templates are a more accurate and rapid method compared to free-form oral dictation for the completion of Mohs micrographic surgery operative notes and have the advantage of being immediately available to review and sign.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal


    Full Text Available Biometric is the science of human recognition based upon using their biological, chemical or behavioural traits. These systems are used in many real life applications simply from biometric based attendance system to providing security at very sophisticated level. A biometric system deals with raw data captured using a sensor and feature template extracted from raw image. One of the challenges being faced by designers of these systems is to secure template data extracted from the biometric modalities of the user and protect the raw images. To minimize spoof attacks on biometric systems by unauthorised users one of the solutions is to use multi-biometric systems. Multi-modal biometric system works by using fusion technique to merge feature templates generated from different modalities of the human. In this work a new scheme is proposed to secure template during feature fusion level. Scheme is based on union operation of fuzzy relations of templates of modalities during fusion process of multimodal biometric systems. This approach serves dual purpose of feature fusion as well as transformation of templates into a single secured non invertible template. The proposed technique is cancelable and experimentally tested on a bimodal biometric system comprising of fingerprint and hand geometry. Developed scheme removes the problem of an attacker learning the original minutia position in fingerprint and various measurements of hand geometry. Given scheme provides improved performance of the system with reduction in false accept rate and improvement in genuine accept rate.

  10. Automated epileptiform spike detection via affinity propagation-based template matching. (United States)

    Thomas, John; Jing Jin; Dauwels, Justin; Cash, Sydney S; Westover, M Brandon


    Interictal epileptiform spikes are the key diagnostic biomarkers for epilepsy. The clinical gold standard of spike detection is visual inspection performed by neurologists. This is a tedious, time-consuming, and expert-centered process. The development of automated spike detection systems is necessary in order to provide a faster and more reliable diagnosis of epilepsy. In this paper, we propose an efficient template matching spike detector based on a combination of spike and background waveform templates. We generate a template library by clustering a collection of spikes and background waveforms extracted from a database of 50 patients with epilepsy. We benchmark the performance of five clustering techniques based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. In addition, background templates are integrated with existing spike templates to improve the overall performance. The affinity propagation-based template matching system with a combination of spike and background templates is shown to outperform the other four conventional methods with the highest area-under-curve (AUC) of 0.953.

  11. Vernier templating and synthesis of a 12-porphyrin nano-ring. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Melanie C; Sprafke, Johannes K; Kondratuk, Dmitry V; Rinfray, Corentin; Claridge, Timothy D W; Saywell, Alex; Blunt, Matthew O; O'Shea, James N; Beton, Peter H; Malfois, Marc; Anderson, Harry L


    Templates are widely used to arrange molecular components so they can be covalently linked into complex molecules that are not readily accessible by classical synthetic methods. Nature uses sophisticated templates such as the ribosome, whereas chemists use simple ions or small molecules. But as we tackle the synthesis of larger targets, we require larger templates-which themselves become synthetically challenging. Here we show that Vernier complexes can solve this problem: if the number of binding sites on the template, n(T), is not a multiple of the number of binding sites on the molecular building blocks, n(B), then small templates can direct the assembly of relatively large Vernier complexes where the number of binding sites in the product, n(P), is the lowest common multiple of n(B) and n(T) (refs 8, 9). We illustrate the value of this concept for the covalent synthesis of challenging targets by using a simple six-site template to direct the synthesis of a 12-porphyrin nano-ring with a diameter of 4.7 nm, thus establishing Vernier templating as a powerful new strategy for the synthesis of large monodisperse macromolecules.

  12. Genetic barcodes (United States)

    Weier, Heinz -Ulrich G


    Herein are described multicolor FISH probe sets termed "genetic barcodes" targeting several cancer or disease-related loci to assess gene rearrangements and copy number changes in tumor cells. Two, three or more different fluorophores are used to detect the genetic barcode sections thus permitting unique labeling and multilocus analysis in individual cell nuclei. Gene specific barcodes can be generated and combined to provide both numerical and structural genetic information for these and other pertinent disease associated genes.

  13. Comparison of five-axis milling and rapid prototyping for implant surgical templates. (United States)

    Park, Ji-Man; Yi, Tae-Kyoung; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyoon; Park, Eun-Jin; Heo, Seong-Joo


    This study aims to compare and evaluate the accuracy of surgical templates fabricated using coordinate synchronization processing with five-axis milling and design-related processing with rapid prototyping (RP). Master phantoms with 10 embedded gutta-percha cylinders hidden under artificial gingiva were fabricated and imaged using cone beam computed tomography. Vectors of the hidden cylinders were extracted and transferred to those of the planned implants through reverse engineering using virtual planning software. An RP-produced template was fabricated by stereolithography in photopolymer at the RP center according to planned data. Metal sleeves were bonded after holes were bored (group RP). For the milled template, milling coordinates were synchronized using the conversion process for the coordinate synchronization platform located on the model's bottom. Metal bushings were set on holes milled on the five-axis milling machine, on which the model was fixed through the coordinate synchronization plate, and the framework was constructed on the model using orthodontic resin (group CS). A computed tomography image was taken with templates firmly fixed on models using anchor pins (RP) or anchor screws (CS). The accuracy was analyzed via reverse engineering. Differences between the two groups were compared by repeated measures two-factor analysis. From the reverse-engineered image of the template on the experimental model, RP-produced templates showed significantly larger deviations than did milled surgical guides. Maximum deviations of the group RP were 1.58 mm (horizontal), 1.68 mm (vertical), and 8.51 degrees (angular); those of the group CS were 0.68 mm (horizontal), 0.41 mm (vertical), and 3.23 degrees (angular). A comparison of milling and RP template production methods showed that a vector-milled surgical guide had significantly smaller deviations than did an RP-produced template. The accuracy of computer-guided milled surgical templates was within the safety

  14. An evaluation of automated homology modelling methods at low target template sequence similarity. (United States)

    Dalton, James A R; Jackson, Richard M


    There are two main areas of difficulty in homology modelling that are particularly important when sequence identity between target and template falls below 50%: sequence alignment and loop building. These problems become magnified with automatic modelling processes, as there is no human input to correct mistakes. As such we have benchmarked several stand-alone strategies that could be implemented in a workflow for automated high-throughput homology modelling. These include three new sequence-structure alignment programs: 3D-Coffee, Staccato and SAlign, plus five homology modelling programs and their respective loop building methods: Builder, Nest, Modeller, SegMod/ENCAD and Swiss-Model. The SABmark database provided 123 targets with at least five templates from the same SCOP family and sequence identities Modeller as the common modelling program, 3D-Coffee outperforms Staccato and SAlign using both multiple templates and the best single template, and across the sequence identity range 20-50%. The mean model RMSD generated from 3D-Coffee using multiple templates is 15 and 28% (or using single templates, 3 and 13%) better than those generated by Staccato and Salign, respectively. 3D-Coffee gives equivalent modelling accuracy from multiple and single templates, but Staccato and SAlign are more successful with single templates, their quality deteriorating as additional lower sequence identity templates are added. Evaluating the different homology modelling programs, on average Modeller performs marginally better in overall modelling than the others tested. However, on average Nest produces the best loops with an 8% improvement by mean RMSD compared to the loops generated by Builder.

  15. Template protection and its implementation in 3D face recognition systems (United States)

    Zhou, Xuebing


    As biometric recognition systems are widely applied in various application areas, security and privacy risks have recently attracted the attention of the biometric community. Template protection techniques prevent stored reference data from revealing private biometric information and enhance the security of biometrics systems against attacks such as identity theft and cross matching. This paper concentrates on a template protection algorithm that merges methods from cryptography, error correction coding and biometrics. The key component of the algorithm is to convert biometric templates into binary vectors. It is shown that the binary vectors should be robust, uniformly distributed, statistically independent and collision-free so that authentication performance can be optimized and information leakage can be avoided. Depending on statistical character of the biometric template, different approaches for transforming biometric templates into compact binary vectors are presented. The proposed methods are integrated into a 3D face recognition system and tested on the 3D facial images of the FRGC database. It is shown that the resulting binary vectors provide an authentication performance that is similar to the original 3D face templates. A high security level is achieved with reasonable false acceptance and false rejection rates of the system, based on an efficient statistical analysis. The algorithm estimates the statistical character of biometric templates from a number of biometric samples in the enrollment database. For the FRGC 3D face database, the small distinction of robustness and discriminative power between the classification results under the assumption of uniquely distributed templates and the ones under the assumption of Gaussian distributed templates is shown in our tests.

  16. Template reporting matters--a nationwide study on histopathology reporting on colorectal carcinoma resections. (United States)

    Haugland, Hans Kristian; Casati, Bettina; Dørum, Liv Marit; Bjugn, Roger


    Complete and accurate histopathology reports are fundamental in providing quality cancer care. The Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Society of Pathology have previously developed a national electronic template for histopathology reporting on colorectal carcinoma resection specimens. The present study was undertaken to investigate (1) whether quality routines in Norwegian pathology laboratories might affect completeness of such histopathology reports and (2) whether the national electronic template improves completeness of histopathology reports compared with other modes of reporting. A questionnaire on quality routines was sent to the 21 pathology laboratories in Norway. All histopathology reports on colorectal cancer submitted to the Cancer Registry for a 3-month period in the autumn of 2007 were then evaluated on the mode of reporting and the presence of 11 key parameters. Of the 20 laboratories that handled resection specimens, 16 had written guidelines on histopathology reporting. Of these, 4 used the national electronic template, 5 used checklists, 3 used locally developed electronic templates, whereas the remaining 4 had neither obligatory checklists nor templates. Of the 650 histopathology reports submitted to the Cancer Registry in the 3-month period, the national template had been used in 170 cases (26.2%), checklists/locally developed templates in 112 cases (17.2%), and free text in 368 cases (56.6%). Quality routines in the pathology laboratories clearly governed reporting practice and the completeness of the histopathology reports. Use of the national electronic template significantly improved (P < .05) the presence of the 11 key parameters compared with reporting by checklists, locally developed electronic templates, or free text. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hollow ZIF-8 Nanoworms from Block Copolymer Templates

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Haizhou


    Recently two quite different types of “nano-containers” have been recognized as attractive potential drug carriers; these are wormlike filamenteous micelles (“filomicelles”) on the one hand and metal organic frameworks on the other hand. In this work we combine these two concepts. We report for the first time the manufacturing of metal organic framework nanotubes with a hollow core. These worm-like tubes are about 200 nm thick and several μm long. The preparation is simple: we first produce long and flexible filament-shaped micelles by block copolymer self-assembly. These filomicelles serve as templates to grow a very thin layer of interconnected ZIF-8 crystals on their surface. Finally the block copolymer is removed by solvent extraction and the hollow ZIF-8 nanotubes remain. These ZIF-NTs are surprisingly stable and withstand purification by centrifugation. The synthesis method is straightforward and can easily be applied for other metal organic framework materials. The ZIF-8 NTs exhibit high loading capacity for the model anti cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) with a pH-triggered release. Hence, a prolonged circulation in the blood stream and a targeted drug release behavior can be expected.

  18. Using templates and linguistic patterns to define process performance indicators (United States)

    del-Río-Ortega, Adela; Resinas, Manuel; Durán, Amador; Ruiz-Cortés, Antonio


    Process performance management (PPM) aims at measuring, monitoring and analysing the performance of business processes (BPs), in order to check the achievement of strategic and operational goals and to support decision-making for their optimisation. PPM is based on process performance indicators (PPIs), so having an appropriate definition of them is crucial. One of the main problems of PPIs definition is to express them in an unambiguous, complete, understandable, traceable and verifiable manner. In practice, PPIs are defined informally - usually in ad hoc, natural language, with its well-known problems - or they are defined from an implementation perspective, hardly understandable to non-technical people. In order to solve this problem, in this article we propose a novel approach to improve the definition of PPIs using templates and linguistic patterns. This approach promotes reuse, reduces both ambiguities and missing information, is understandable to all stakeholders and maintains traceability with the process model. Furthermore, it enables the automated processing of PPI definitions by its straightforward translation into the PPINOT metamodel, allowing the gathering of the required information for their computation as well as the analysis of the relationships between them and with BP elements.

  19. Vacuum template synthesis of multifunctional nanotubes with tailored nanostructured walls (United States)

    Filippin, A. Nicolas; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Saghi, Zineb; Idígoras, Jesús; Burdet, Pierre; Barranco, Angel; Midgley, Paul; Anta, Juan A.; Borras, Ana


    A three-step vacuum procedure for the fabrication of vertical TiO2 and ZnO nanotubes with three dimensional walls is presented. The method combines physical vapor deposition of small-molecules, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of inorganic functional thin films and layers and a post-annealing process in vacuum in order to remove the organic template. As a result, an ample variety of inorganic nanotubes are made with tunable length, hole dimensions and shapes and tailored wall composition, microstructure, porosity and structure. The fabrication of multishell nanotubes combining different semiconducting oxides and metal nanoparticles is as well explored. This method provides a feasible and reproducible route for the fabrication of high density arrays of vertically alligned nanotubes on processable substrates. The emptying mechanism and microstructure of the nanotubes have been elucidated through SEM, STEM, HAADF-STEM tomography and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In this article, as a proof of concept, it is presented the straightforward integration of ZnO nanotubes as photoanode in a photovoltaic cell and as a photonic oxygen gas sensor.

  20. Birdsong memory and the brain: in search of the template. (United States)

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Moorman, Sanne


    In his pioneering research on the neural mechanisms of filial imprinting, Gabriel Horn has gone a long way to fulfilling Karl Lashley's dream of finding the 'engram' or memory trace in the brain. Here we review recent research into the engram(s) of song learning in songbirds, particularly zebra finches. When juvenile songbirds learn their songs from a tutor, they form and alter a central representation of the tutor song, known as the 'template'. Secondary auditory regions in the caudal medial pallium are likely to contain the neural substrate for the representation of tutor song, but the roles of the different regions remain to be elucidated. Female zebra finches do not sing, but nevertheless form an auditory memory of their father's song, for which the neural substrate is located in the caudomedial pallium. In males that are learning their songs, there is continual interaction between the secondary auditory regions and sensorimotor regions, similar to the interaction between Broca's and Wernicke's areas in human infants acquiring speech and language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrochemical Characterization of Platinum Nanotubules Made via Template Wetting Nanofabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Broaddus


    Full Text Available Standard oxidation-reduction reactions such as those of ferrocyanide and ferrocene have long been employed in evaluating and comparing new electrode structures with more traditional configurations. A variety of nanostructured carbon electrodes developed in recent years have been reported to exhibit faster electron transfer kinetics than more traditional carbon structures when studied with these redox reactions. This type of comparison has not been widely explored for nanostructured platinum electrodes that have become increasingly common. In this work, a platinum nanotubule array electrode was fabricated via a simple template-based process and evaluated using the standard ferrocyanide redox reaction. The nanotubule array electrodes were observed to more closely approach ideal reversible behavior than a typical Pt black/Nafion fuel cell electrode or a standard polished Pt disc electrode. The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer coefficient was determined using the Nicholson method and found to be one to two orders of magnitude greater for the nanotubule array electrodes, depending on the diameter of the nanotubules, in comparison with these same two more traditional electrode structures.

  2. The development of a reliable amateur boxing performance analysis template. (United States)

    Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri


    The aim of this study was to devise a valid performance analysis system for the assessment of the movement characteristics associated with competitive amateur boxing and assess its reliability using analysts of varying experience of the sport and performance analysis. Key performance indicators to characterise the demands of an amateur contest (offensive, defensive and feinting) were developed and notated using a computerised notational analysis system. Data were subjected to intra- and inter-observer reliability assessment using median sign tests and calculating the proportion of agreement within predetermined limits of error. For all performance indicators, intra-observer reliability revealed non-significant differences between observations (P > 0.05) and high agreement was established (80-100%) regardless of whether exact or the reference value of ±1 was applied. Inter-observer reliability was less impressive for both analysts (amateur boxer and experienced analyst), with the proportion of agreement ranging from 33-100%. Nonetheless, there was no systematic bias between observations for any indicator (P > 0.05), and the proportion of agreement within the reference range (±1) was 100%. A reliable performance analysis template has been developed for the assessment of amateur boxing performance and is available for use by researchers, coaches and athletes to classify and quantify the movement characteristics of amateur boxing.

  3. A template for non-religious-based discussions against euthanasia. (United States)

    Bloodworth, Melissa; Bloodworth, Nathaniel; Ely, E Wesley


    We submit this manuscript as part of the ongoing conversation in society at large about physician-assisted death (PAD) and euthanasia. This outlines an approach used by lay healthcare professionals in arguing against PAD/euthanasia during a 1-hour debate conducted on a secular medical school campus. We have included the elements chosen for the "con" side of the argument (i.e., against PAD) by the medical students and attending physician. The goal of this manuscript is to provide a focused and pithy template upon which to build an approach that honors the dignity of life in all circumstances. Lay summary: The discussion over physician assisted death and euthanasia remains ongoing in secular academic medical institutions across the United States and much of the western world. These debates have incentivized efforts to develop a framework for arguments against Euthanasia that will find traction in an environment generally hostile to religion and religious thought. In this essay, we present arguments given by the "con" side in a student-led debate over physician assisted death and euthanasia at Vanderbilt University with the hope that they will provide a foundation for future discussions promoting truth and life without alienating our secular colleagues.

  4. Soft-Template-Synthesized Mesoporous Carbon for Oral Drug Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Warren, Kaitlyn E [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL


    Template-synthesized mesoporous carbons were successfully used in in vitro investigations of controlled delivery of three model drugs, captopril, furosemide, and ranitidine hydrochloride. Captopril and furosemide exhibited desorption kinetics over 30 40 h, and ranitidine HCl had a complete release time of 5 10 h. As evident from the slow release kinetics, we contend that our mesoporous carbon is an improved drug-delivery medium compared to state-of-the-art porous silica-based substrates. The mesoporous carbons, synthesized from phloroglucinol and lignin, a synthetic and a sustainable precursor, respectively, exhibit BET surface area of 200 400 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.2 0.6 cm3 g-1. The phloroglucinol-based carbon has narrower pore widths and higher pore volume than the lignin-derived counterpart and maintains a longer release time. Numerical modeling of the release kinetics data reveals that the diffusivities of all the drugs from lignin-based carbon media are of equivalent magnitude (10-22 to 10-24 m2 s-1). However, a tailored reduction of pore width in the sorbent reduces the diffusivity of smaller drug molecules (captopril) by an order of magnitude. Thus, engineered pore morphology in our synthesized carbon sorbent, along with its potential to tailor the chemistry of its interaction with sorbet, can be exploited for optimal delivery system of a preferred drug within its therapeutic level and below the level of toxicity.

  5. 3-Isoxazolidinone: A New Achiral Template for Enantioselective Transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibi, Mukund P.; Gustafson, Brandon; Coulomb, Julien [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo (United States)


    Cycloadditions with the α-methylacrylate 3 were investigated next in an effort to evaluate if rotamer control installed in the template plays a role in the efficiency of the reaction (eqn 2). These results are shown in Table 2. Cycloaddition using magnesium triflimide/9 gave the cycloadduct as a nearly 1:1 mixture in low yield with no selectivity (entry 1). Zinc triflimide as a Lewis acid was also ineffective (entry 2). Iron triflimide/9 gave the endo/exo adducts in high yield and modest selectivity (entry 3). Reaction with copper triflate/9 was less effective and gave the adducts in modest selectivity (entry 4). Interestingly, the products were enantiomeric to that obtained with iron and zinc Lewis acids. Cooling the reaction temperature to 0 or .20 .deg. C led to substantial improvement in selectivity (entries 5 and 6). However, the chemical yields were very low. Doubling the catalyst loading to 30 mol % led to improvement in chemical yield but the selectivities remained the same.

  6. Extending Supernova Spectral Templates for Next Generation Space Telescope Observations (United States)

    Roberts-Pierel, Justin; Rodney, Steven A.; Steven Rodney


    Widely used empirical supernova (SN) Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) have not historically extended meaningfully into the ultraviolet (UV), or the infrared (IR). However, both are critical for current and future aspects of SN research including UV spectra as probes of poorly understood SN Ia physical properties, and expanding our view of the universe with high-redshift James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) IR observations. We therefore present a comprehensive set of SN SED templates that have been extended into the UV and IR, as well as an open-source software package written in Python that enables a user to generate their own extrapolated SEDs. We have taken a sampling of core-collapse (CC) and Type Ia SNe to get a time-dependent distribution of UV and IR colors (U-B,r’-[JHK]), and then generated color curves are used to extrapolate SEDs into the UV and IR. The SED extrapolation process is now easily duplicated using a user’s own data and parameters via our open-source Python package: SNSEDextend. This work develops the tools necessary to explore the JWST’s ability to discriminate between CC and Type Ia SNe, as well as provides a repository of SN SEDs that will be invaluable to future JWST and WFIRST SN studies.

  7. Mechanical Stability of Templated Mesoporous Silica Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williford, Rick E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Baskaran, Suresh; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Zemanian, Thomas S.; Wang, Chong M.; Courtney, Andrea R.


    Mesoporous silica thin films about 1 micron thick were prepared by spin casting using several organic templates that provide a range of pore structures from disordered (sponge-like) to more ordered (honeycomb-like) 2D hexagonal arrays. Nanoindentation measurements indicate that the elastic modulus (E), and thus the density, of the pore wall material are substantially lower than for fused silica. The corresponding lower dielectric constant for pore walls was used to calculate film porosities (P) with recent correlations from the literature. Curve fits to the standard modulus vs. porosity correlation, E/Eporewall=(1-P)n, for the films gave lower n=2.2 for the honeycomb-like film with higher E, but higher n=2.5 for the sponge-like film with lower E, in contrast to theoretical expectations (n=2 for sponge-like and n=3 for honeycomb-like). Although the dielectric constant depends primarily on first-order structural information (P), the elastic modulus of these structurally imperfect films required second-order (pore wall thickness/diameter ratio) and third-order (pore connectivity) parameters to resolve the data. The power law exponent n can vary continuously, depending on the details of the mesostructure, and should not be assumed a' priori unless justified by detailed structural information

  8. Diamond network: template-free fabrication and properties. (United States)

    Zhuang, Hao; Yang, Nianjun; Fu, Haiyuan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Chun; Huang, Nan; Jiang, Xin


    A porous diamond network with three-dimensionally interconnected pores is of technical importance but difficult to be produced. In this contribution, we demonstrate a simple, controllable, and "template-free" approach to fabricate diamond networks. It combines the deposition of diamond/β-SiC nanocomposite film with a wet-chemical selective etching of the β-SiC phase. The porosity of these networks was tuned from 15 to 68%, determined by the ratio of the β-SiC phase in the composite films. The electrochemical working potential and the reactivity of redox probes on the diamond networks are similar to those of a flat nanocrystalline diamond film, while their surface areas are hundreds of times larger than that of a flat diamond film (e.g., 490-fold enhancement for a 3 μm thick diamond network). The marriage of the unprecedented physical/chemical features of diamond with inherent advantages of the porous structure makes the diamond network a potential candidate for various applications such as water treatment, energy conversion (batteries or fuel cells), and storage (capacitors), as well as electrochemical and biochemical sensing.

  9. Adsorptive removal of PPCPs by biomorphic HAP templated from cotton. (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Xiong, Dan; Zhao, Tingting; He, Huan; Pan, Xuejun


    Biomorphic nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) was fabricated by a co-precipitation method using cotton as bio-templates and employed in adsorptive removal of ofloxacin (OFL) and triclosan (TCS) that are two representative pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). The surface area and porosity, crystal phase, functional group, morphology and micro-structure of the synthesized HAP were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron macroscopic and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of initial pH, ionic strength, initial concentration, contact time and temperature on the removal of PPCPs were studied in a batch experiment. The adsorption of OFL and TCS was rapid and almost accomplished within 50 min. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process of OFL and TCS followed the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm described the OFL adsorption process well but the adsorption of TCS fitted the Langmuir isotherm better. Thermodynamics and isotherm parameters suggested that both OFL and TCS adsorption were feasible and spontaneous. Hydrogen bond and Lewis acid-base reaction may be the dominating adsorption mechanism of OFL and TCS, respectively. Compared to other adsorbents, biomorphic HAP is environmentally friendly and has the advantages of high adsorption capacity, exhibiting potential application for PPCPs removal.

  10. A de novo designed monomeric, compact three helix bundle protein on a carbohydrate template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Leila; Nygård, Jesper; Christensen, Niels Johan


    proteins, so called carboproteins. The hypothesis is that the template pre-organizes the secondary structure elements and directs the formation of a tertiary structure, thus achieving structural economy in the combination of peptide, linker, and template. We speculate that the structural information from...... the template could facilitate protein folding. Here we report the design and synthesis of 3-helix bundle carboproteins on deoxy-hexopyranosides. The carboproteins were analyzed by CD, AUC, SAXS, and NMR, which revealed the formation of the first compact, and folded monomeric carboprotein distinctly different...

  11. Numerical Control Device for Preparation Nano-Carbon Granule Coating Superhydrophobic Template and Its Application (United States)

    Shang, G. R.; Li, Y.


    It is one of the ways for changing surface property by fabricating superhydrophibic coating with the help of template that is made of depositing nano-carbon particles of fuel flame on substrate such as pure copper or aluminium alloy. In the process of making template, it is difficult to keep the deposition layer uniformed. In this work, the problem was solved by manufacturing a set of numerical control equipment. It has been proved by application test that the deposition layer was uniformed by means of this facility. The contact angle is more than 150°. A new way has been developed for making superhydrohibic template.

  12. Synthesis of mesoporous zeolite catalysts by in situ formation of carbon template over nickel nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Kegnæs, Marina; Hytoft, Glen


    A novel synthesis procedure for the preparation of the hierarchical zeolite materials with MFI structure based on the carbon templating method with in situ generated carbon template is presented in this study. Through chemical vapour deposition of coke on nickel nanoparticles supported on silica...... impregnation procedures and rather expensive chemicals are used. Removal of the carbon template by combustion results in zeolite single crystals with intracrystalline pore volumes between 0.28 and 0.48 cm3/g. The prepared zeolites are characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and physisorption analysis. The isomerization...

  13. Nanoscale Si template for the growth of self-organized one-dimensional nanostructures (United States)

    Masson, Laurence; Sahaf, Houda; Amsalem, Patrick; Dettoni, Florent; Moyen, Eric; Koch, Norbert; Hanbücken, Margrit


    Through silicon deposition onto the silver (1 1 0) surface, we have fabricated in a one-step process a highly perfect nanoscale template consisting of a self-assembled Si nanostripe array with a pitch of 2 nm, covering uniformly the entire surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy investigations show that this system can be used, in a very simple way, as a template for the growth of identical highly ordered one-dimensional nanostructures. The adsorption of Co at room temperature and C60 at 190 °C gives rise to the growth of self-organized one-dimensional nanostructures reproducing the one-dimensional pattern of the Si template.

  14. Mesoporous carbon prepared from carbohydrate as hard template for hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Claus H.


    A mesoporous carbon prepared from sucrose was successfully employed as a hard template to produce hierarchical silicalite-1, thus providing a very simple and inexpensive route to desirable zeolite catalysts from widely available raw materials. The porous carbon was prepared by hydrothermal...... treatment of a mixture of sucrose and ammonia followed by carbonization of the mixture in N-2 at high temperatures. The porous carbon produced by this method was subsequently applied as a hard template in the synthesis of mesoporous silicalite-1 and removed by combustion after synthesis. X-ray diffraction...... the porous carbon template as well as the mesoporous zeolite single-crystal material....

  15. Using Writing Templates as Materials to Improve Writing Skills in EFL Classes: An Experimental Study


    AKDEMİR, Ahmet Selçuk; EYERCİ, Aysel


    In this study it was aimed at revealing the findings of an experimental study in which writing templates were used as writing materials to improve writing skills in intermediate (B1) EFL classes as well as reviewing the concepts writing skills, second language writing and writing templates. The study was conducted with 50 students, aged 20-23, of a public university in Turkey. In Writing and Speaking in English II class writing templates were used as writing materials during 12 weeks. The stu...

  16. Semiconducting P3HT microstructures: fibres and tubes obtained from macroporous silicon template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, R.; Formentin, P.; Pallares, J.; Marsal, L.F. [Nano-Electronic and Photonic Systems, Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Tarragono (Spain); Trifonov, T.; Alcubilla, R. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Estrada, M. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Depto. Ingenieria Electrica, CINVESTAV-IPN (Mexico)


    Microtubes and microfibres composed of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) were fabricated by melt-assisted templates using ordered macroporous silicon. We have studied the influence of the pore depth and the template type on the microstructure fabrication, where the templates were membranes or structures opened only at one end. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements demonstrated that the resistivity of these P3HT microstructures was in the same order as that of homogeneous films, which allows them to be used in electronic devices. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B


    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  18. Genetic Mapping (United States)

    ... at NHGRI About About the Institute Budget and Financial Information Divisions Director's Page How to Contact Us Institute ... genome, has greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic ... for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) [], as well as ...

  19. Genetic Engineering (United States)

    Phillips, John


    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  20. Mullins effect behaviour under compression in micelle-templated silica and micelle-templated silica/agarose systems. (United States)

    Puértolas, J A; Vadillo, J L; Sánchez-Salcedo, S; Nieto, A; Gómez-Barrena, E; Vallet-Regí, M


    The mechanical properties of bioceramic conformed pieces based on micelle-templated silica (MTS) such as SBA15, MCM41 and MCM48 as well as MTS/agarose systems have been evaluated under static and cyclic compressive tests. The MTS pieces exhibited a brittle behaviour. Agarose, a biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogel, has been used to shape ceramic-agarose pieces following a low temperature shaping method. Agarose conferred toughness, ductility and a rubbery consistency up to a 60% strain in ceramic MTS/agarose systems leading to a maximum strength of 10-50 MPa, without losing their initial cylindrical structure. This combination of ceramic and organic matrix contributes to avoiding the inherent brittleness of the bioceramic and enhances the compression resistance of hydrogel. The presence of mechanical hysteresis, permanent deformation after the first cycle and recovery of the master monotonous curve of MTS/agarose systems indicate a Mullins-like effect similar to that found in carbon-filled rubber systems. We report this type of mechanical behaviour, the Mullins effect, for the first time in MTS bioceramics and MTS bioceramic/agarose systems.

  1. Nanostructured thin films obtained by electrodeposition over a colloidal crystal template: applications in electrochemical devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinicius R. Gonçales; Mariana P. Massafera; Tânia M. Benedetti; David G. Moore; Susana I. Córdoba de Torresi; Roberto M. Torresi


    .... In the present work, the assembly of monodisperse polystyrene templates was conduced over gold, platinum and glassy carbon substrates in order to show the electrodeposition of an oxide, a conducting...

  2. Review analysis of properties for an ideal secure biometric template scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mzila, Phiwa


    Full Text Available With new advances in technologies, biometrics is becoming emerging technology for verification and authentication of individuals. However, the storage of biometric templates still needs necessary attention since it poses major threats to user...

  3. Temperature Dependence and Thermodynamics of Klenow Polymerase Binding to Primed-Template DNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Datta, Kausiki; Wowor, Andy J; Richard, Allison J; LiCata, Vince J


    DNA binding of Klenow polymerase has been characterized with respect to temperature to delineate the thermodynamic driving forces involved in the interaction of this polymerase with primed-template DNA...

  4. Public Notification Instructions and Templates for the Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) (United States)

    EPA has developed public notification (PN) templates to help with implementation of the PN Rule. This document aims to assist water systems with the Public Notification requirements specific to the Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR).

  5. Towards the engineering of molecular nanostructures: local anchoring and functionalization of porphyrins on model-templates (United States)

    Ditze, Stefanie; Röckert, Michael; Buchner, Florian; Zillner, Elisabeth; Stark, Michael; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Marbach, Hubertus


    We demonstrate that Cu(111) surfaces pre-covered with a submonolayer of copper oxide or metallic nickel are suitable model-templates for the selective adsorption and/or localized functionalization of functional molecules such as different free base porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. The oxide/Cu(111) model-template is able to steer the adsorption of tetraphenylporphyrins (TPP): 2HTPP selectively adsorbs on the bare Cu areas, and for CoTPP anchoring at the rim of the copper oxide islands is found. On the Ni/Cu(111) model-template TPP molecules are pinned on the Ni areas while they are mobile on the bare Cu surface. Interestingly, adsorption of free base octaethylporphyrin on Ni/Cu(111) leads to a local functionalization, namely the metalation to NiOEP on the Ni areas. Model-template preparation and characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy is performed at room temperature.

  6. Nanoporous Thin Film Templates for the Fabrication of Nanowires and Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Kirill


    -standing thin-film substrates was developed. The method involves the use of water-soluble NaCl release layer produced by means of e-beam evaporation in high vacuum. The PAA templates are fabricated via anodization of thin Al films supported by thin layers of e-beam evaporated silicon oxide or aluminum oxide...... of nanowires or nanotubes are obtained. Such arrays can be subsequently integrated into e.g. solar cells and other electronic devices. This thesis is focused on the fabrication of thin-film porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates on different substrates. The fabrication of organic nanowires and nanotubes via...... melt- or solution-assisted wetting of PAA templates is also studied. Supported PAA templates were obtained by anodization of thin Al films. Thin Al films produced by evaporation of Al onto different substrates were studied by SEM and AFM. It has been found that the structure and surface morphology...

  7. Viral capsids as templates for the production of monodisperse Prussian blue nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Escosura, A; Verwegen, M.; Sikkema, F.D.; Comellas Aragones, M.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, T.; Nolte, Roeland; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria


    The use of a viral template has allowed the synthesis of monodisperse Prussian blue nanoparticles with a diameter of 18 ± 1.7 nm and their organization into hexagonal patterns on mica and hydrophilic carbon surfaces.

  8. A novel memristive cellular neural network with time-variant templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Hu


    Full Text Available A cellular neural network (CNN is a massively parallel analog array processor capable of solving various complex processing problems by using specific templates that characterize the synaptic connections. The hardware implementation and applications of CNN have attracted a great deal of attention. Recently, memristors with nanometer-scale and variable gradual conductance have been exploited to make compact and programmable electric synapses. This paper proposes and studies a novel memristive CNN (Mt-CNN with time-variant templates realized by memristor crossbar synaptic circuits. The template parameters are estimated analytically. The Mt-CNN provides a promising solution to hardware realization of real-time template updating processes, which can be used to effectively deal with various complicated problems of cascaded processing. Its effectiveness and advantages are demonstrated by practical examples of edge detection on noisy images.

  9. Autonomy Among Thieves: Template Course Design for Student and Faculty Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathleen Huun; Lisa Hughes


    ... member collaborated to build a course evaluation rubric, learning management system template, and corresponding matrix to help support student learning and retention as well as faculty autonomy and creativity...

  10. Topological defects in liquid crystals as templates for molecular self-assembly (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Miller, Daniel S.; Bukusoglu, Emre; de Pablo, Juan J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.


    Topological defects in liquid crystals (LCs) have been widely used to organize colloidal dispersions and template polymerization, leading to a range of assemblies, elastomers and gels. However, little is understood about molecular-level assembly processes within defects. Here, we report that nanoscopic environments defined by LC topological defects can selectively trigger processes of molecular self-assembly. By using fluorescence microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and super-resolution optical microscopy, we observed signatures of molecular self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules in topological defects, including cooperativity, reversibility and controlled growth. We also show that nanoscopic o-rings synthesized from Saturn-ring disclinations and other molecular assemblies templated by defects can be preserved by using photocrosslinkable amphiphiles. Our results reveal that, in analogy to other classes of macromolecular templates such as polymer-surfactant complexes, topological defects in LCs are a versatile class of three-dimensional, dynamic and reconfigurable templates that can direct processes of molecular self-assembly.

  11. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes with SiC nanowire as template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, B.; Song, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Huang, X.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wen, G.W., E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xia, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)


    Highlights: {yields} Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have been fabricated using SiC nanowires as template. {yields} SiC nanowires could be effectively etched out by the vapors decomposed from ammonia borane, leading to the formation of BNNTs. {yields} A template self-sacrificing mechanism is responsible for the formation of BNNTs. -- Abstract: A novel template method for the preparation of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) using SiC nanowire as template and ammonia borane as precursor is reported. We find out that the SiC nanowires could be effectively etched out by the vapors decomposed from ammonia borane, leading to the formation of BNNTs. The as-prepared products are well characterized by means of complementary analytical techniques. A possible formation mechanism is disclosed. The method developed here paves the way for large scale production of BNNTs.

  12. Template-controlled mineralization: Determining film granularity and structure by surface functionality patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumenstein, Nina J; Berson, Jonathan; Walheim, Stefan; Atanasova, Petia; Baier, Johannes; Bill, Joachim; Schimmel, Thomas


    .... In the presented case, a zinc oxide film is deposited by chemical bath deposition on a nearly topography-free template structure composed of a pattern of two self-assembled monolayers with different...

  13. Successful Reconstruction of Complex Pediatric Nasal Lesions: Improving Outcomes Using Dermal Regenerative Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorelei J. Grunwaldt, MD


    Conclusions: The reconstruction of complex pediatric nasal lesions using dermal regenerative templates and full-thickness postauricular skin grafts is safe and effective, and associated with low morbidity and significant improvement in VACS scores.

  14. A Simplification of Residential Feature by the Shape Cognition and Template Matching Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Xiongfeng


    Full Text Available Aiming at the typical template characteristics of building representation, this study built a series of templates to abstract the building shape by generalizing building polygons and analyzing the typical characteristics of regional environment.The shape description operator used the turn function method through the measure of the similarity between the building target and the template. From the perspective of shape cognition, this method conducted the building simplification by searching and matching the most similar template to replace the target building. The presented method is able to guarantee the overall shape structure unchanging and maintaining the area balance after the simplification. The experiments under real data show that the method holds high reliability and practicability, able to be widely applied to practical map generalization.

  15. Synthesis of mesh-shaped calcia partially stabilized zirconia using eggshell membrane template as filler composite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gema Gempita; Zulia Hasratiningsih; Gantini Subrata; Bambang Sunendar Purwasasmita


    ...) by sol-gel method using eggshell membrane template as a composite filler. The eggshell membrane was used to produce a mesh shaped structure, which hopefully can improve the mechanical properties of the composite...

  16. Nacre-like calcium carbonate controlled by ionic liquid/graphene oxide composite template. (United States)

    Yao, Chengli; Xie, Anjian; Shen, Yuhua; Zhu, Jinmiao; Li, Hongying


    Nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures have been mediated by an ionic liquid (IL)-graphene oxide (GO) composite template. The resultant crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that either 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4) or graphene oxide can act as a soft template for calcium carbonate formation with unusual morphologies. Based on the time-dependent morphology changes of calcium carbonate particles, it is concluded that nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures can be formed gradually utilizing [BMIM]BF4/GO composite template. During the process of calcium carbonate formation, [BMIM]BF4 acted not only as solvents but also as morphology templates for the fabrication of calcium carbonate materials with nacre-like morphology. Based on the observations, the possible mechanisms were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Guar gum-grafted poly(acrylonitrile)-templated silica xerogel: nanoengineered material for lead ion removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pandey, Sadanand; Ramontja, James


    .... Aside from this Saponification guar-graft-polyacrylonitrile (s-GG-g-PAN) as a copolymer are included in the precursor solution for providing a novel templating environment for silica matrix formation...

  18. External and semi-internal controls for PCR amplification of homologous sequences in mixed templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalle, Elena; Gulevich, Alexander; Rensing, Christopher Günther T


    . This study demonstrated the efficiency of a model mixed template as an adequate external amplification control for a particular PCR application. The conditions of multi-template PCR do not allow implementation of a classic internal control; therefore we developed a convenient semi-internal control...... as an acceptable alternative. In order to evaluate the effects of inhibitors, a model multi-template mix was amplified in a mixture with DNAse-treated sample. Semi-internal control allowed establishment of intervals for robust PCR performance for different samples, thus enabling correct comparison of the samples....... The complexity of the external and semi-internal amplification controls must be comparable with the assumed complexity of the samples. We also emphasize that amplification controls should be applied in multi-template PCR regardless of the post-assay method used to analyze products....

  19. Analysis of a Polycomb Group Protein Defines Regions That Link Repressive Activity on Nucleosomal Templates to In Vivo Function (United States)

    King, Ian F. G.; Emmons, Richard B.; Francis, Nicole J.; Wild, Brigitte; Müller, Jürg; Kingston, Robert E.; Wu, Chao-ting


    Polycomb group (PcG) genes propagate patterns of transcriptional repression throughout development. The products of several such genes are part of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), which inhibits chromatin remodeling and transcription in vitro. Genetic and biochemical studies suggest the product of the Posterior sex combs (Psc) gene plays a central role in both PcG-mediated gene repression in vivo and PRC1 activity in vitro. To dissect the relationship between the in vivo and in vitro activities of Psc, we identified the lesions associated with 11 genetically characterized Psc mutations and asked how the corresponding mutant proteins affect Psc activity on nucleosomal templates in vitro. Analysis of both single-mutant Psc proteins and recombinant complexes containing mutant protein revealed that Psc encodes at least two functions, complex formation and the inhibition of remodeling and transcription, which require different regions of the protein. There is an excellent correlation between the in vivo phenotypes of mutant Psc alleles and the structure and in vitro activities of the corresponding proteins, suggesting that the in vitro activities of PRC1 reflect essential functions of Psc in vivo. PMID:16024794

  20. Templating Routes to Supported Oxide Catalysts by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notestein, Justin M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)


    The rational design and understanding of supported oxide catalysts requires at least three advancements, in order of increasing complexity: the ability to quantify the number and nature of active sites in a catalytic material, the ability to place external controls on the number and structure of these active sites, and the ability to assemble these active sites so as to carry out more complex functions in tandem. As part of an individual investigator research program that is integrated with the Northwestern University Institute for Catalysis in Energy Processes (ICEP) as of 2015, significant advances were achieved in these three areas. First, phosphonic acids were utilized in the quantitative assessment of the number of active and geometrically-available sites in MOx-SiO2 catalysts, including nanocrystalline composites, co-condensed materials, and grafted structures, for M=Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta. That work built off progress in understanding supported Fe, Cu, and Co oxide catalysts from chelating and/or multinuclear precursors to maximize surface reactivity. Secondly, significant progress was made in the new area of using thin oxide overcoats containing ‘nanocavities’ from organic templates as a method to control the dispersion and thermal stability of subsequently deposited metal nanoparticles or other catalytic domains. Similar methods were used to control surface reactivity in SiO2-Al2O3 acid catalysts and to control reactant selectivity in Al2O3-TiO2 photocatalysts. Finally, knowledge gained from the first two areas has been combined to synthesize a tandem catalyst for hydrotreating reactions and an orthogonal tandem catalyst system where two subsequent reactions in a reaction network are independently controlled by light and heat. Overall, work carried out under this project significantly advanced the knowledge of synthesis-structure-function relationships in supported

  1. Biomimetic High-Density Lipoproteins from a Gold Nanoparticle Template (United States)

    Luthi, Andrea Jane

    For hundreds of years the field of chemistry has looked to nature for inspiration and insight to develop novel solutions for the treatment of human diseases. The ability of chemists to identify, mimic, and modifiy small molecules found in nature has led to the discovery and development of many important therapeutics. Chemistry on the nanoscale has made it possible to mimic natural, macromolecular structures that may also be useful for understanding and treating diseases. One example of such a structure is high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The goal of this work is to use a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) as a template to synthesize functional mimics of HDL and characterize their structure and function. Chapter 1 details the structure and function of natural HDL and how chemistry on the nanoscale provides new strategies for mimicking HDL. This Chapter also describes the first examples of using nanoparticles to mimic HDL. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis and characterization of biomimetic HDL using different sizes of Au NPs and different surface chemistries and how these variables can be used to tailor the properties of biomimetic HDL. From these studies the optimal strategy for synthesizing biomimetic HDL was determined. In Chapter 3, the optimization of the synthesis of biomimetic HDL is discussed as well as a full characterization of its structure. In addition, the work in this chapter shows that biomimetic HDL can be synthesized on a large scale without alterations to its structure or function. Chapter 4 focuses on understanding the pathways by which biomimetic HDL accepts cholesterol from macrophage cells. The results of these studies demonstrate that biomimetic HDL is able to accept cholesterol by both active and passive pathways of cholesterol efflux. In Chapter 5 the preliminary results of in vivo studies to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biomimetic HDL are presented. These studies suggest that biomimetic HDL traffics through tissues prone to

  2. Novel nanoarray structures formed by template based approach: Characterization and electrochemistry (United States)

    Alhoshan, Mansour Saleh

    Several different methods have been developed to form nanomaterials. The methods employed depend on the desired properties and applications. One of the broadest and important synthetic approaches for nanomaterials is based on templates. Templates provide a predetermined configuration or cast to guide the formation of nanomaterials with the desired morphology. They provide a very rich method to fabricate nanomaterials with a wide range of different morphologies and tunable sizes. After a materials formation reaction, the template can be sacrificially removed, leaving behind the final product that replicates the morphology of the original template. The synthetic methods based on templates overcome a weakness of other synthesis methods by providing good control of the final morphology of the produced nanomaterials. In addition, the methods are very general with respect to the types of materials that may be prepared. The main focus in this thesis is to produce highly ordered novel structures and arrays at nano/micro scales that are of electrochemical interest with good control of size and shape. Template-based approaches were used here to fabricate nano/micro tubes, rods, wires and porous films. By this approach, we incorporated electroless deposition and electrodeposition reactions with various templates, so that once the template is removed, the desired structures are reveled. Among the templates that were used are: track etched polycarbonate membrane, anodized aluminum oxide membrane and silica colloidal sphere. Electroless deposition and electrodeposition within the template to form nanomaterials is very attractive approach because it can be carried out under conditions mild enough to avoid any damage of both the desired materials and the template used. This approach makes possible the formation of a wide range of nanomaterials that may be useful technologically for catalytic, electronic, and energy storage applications. Examples of the nanostructures that were

  3. Self-Templated Formation of Hollow Structures for Electrochemical Energy Applications. (United States)

    Yu, Le; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David


    The rational design and synthesis of hollow structured functional materials are of great significance as both fundamental challenges in materials science and practical solutions for efficient energy utilization in modern society. The unique structural features of hollow functional materials bring outstanding electrochemical properties for both energy storage and electrocatalysis. However, conventional templating methods are normally less efficient in constructing hollow structures with desirable compositions and architectures. In the past decade, many novel synthetic approaches directly converting templates into hollow structures have been developed. Collectively termed as the "self-templated" strategy, it makes use of various physical/chemical processes to transform solid templates into hollow structures of target materials. Of particular note is the outstanding capability to construct complex hollow architectures of a wide variety of inorganic or hybrid functional materials, thus providing effective solutions for various electrochemical energy applications. In this Account, we present the recent progress in self-templated formation of hollow structures especially with complex architectures, and their remarkable performance in electrochemical energy-related technologies. These advanced self-templated methods are summarized as three categories. "Selective etching" creates hollow structures from solid templates of same materials by removing some of the internal parts, forming multishelled or unusual hollow architectures. "Outward diffusion" utilizes the relocation of mass in templates from inner region to outer region driven by various mechanisms, to construct hollow structures with multiple or hierarchical shells. "Heterogeneous contraction" typically applies to thermally decomposable templates and generates various hollow structures under nonequilibrium heating conditions. We further demonstrate some remarkable electrochemical properties of such hollow structures

  4. Advanced cleaning of nano-imprint lithography template in patterned media applications (United States)

    Singh, Sherjang; Chen, Ssuwei; Dress, Peter; Kurataka, Nobuo; Gauzner, Gene; Dietze, Uwe


    As the magnetic storage industry roadmap calls for aggressive terabit/in2 densities over the next few years, the shift from the current planar media to patterned media; grooved surfaces (discrete track media / DTM) and/or individually defined magnetic dots (bit patterned media / BPM), will be necessary. Both types of patterned media require lithography to produce the pattern on the disk and the most promising lithography candidate today is nano-imprint lithography (NIL). During the imprinting process a thin, round, transparent template made of quartz is functioned as a mold to inversely transfer the features from its surface to the patterning medium on the disks by direct contact. One issue with this technique is the high probability of defects due to repeated contact of the template with the resist before, during, and after UV radiation. Defect management through template cleaning, inspection and defect characterization is critical to preserve integrity of the process. In this paper, advanced acid-free cleaning combined with MegaSonic treatment for defect elimination is investigated for effectiveness on discrete track recording (DTR) and BPM patterned templates. For the experiments, templates containing 250KTPI (100nm track pitch) full surface DTR pattern, 450 KTPI (56nm track pitch) with narrow band DTR pattern, and 250Gdpsi (50nm track pitch) with narrow band BPM pattern are used. The effect of MegaSonic cleaning on the pattern integrity of fragile features is studied. General characterization of defect attributes is made feasible through a series of imprinting and template cleaning cycles focused on resist residues and contaminant removal. Imprinted disks are analyzed using Candela disk inspection and SEM imaging of the pattern. Template cleaning is performed using HamaTech MaskTrack TeraPure automated template cleaning system.

  5. Electrochemical fabrication of CdS/Co nanowire arrays in porous aluminum oxide templates

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, C H


    A procedure for preparing semiconductor/metal nanowire arrays is described, based on a template method which entails electrochemical deposition into nanometer-wide parallel pores of anodic aluminum oxide films on aluminum. Aligned CdS/Co heterostructured nanowires have been prepared by ac electrodeposition in the anodic aluminum oxide templates. By varying the preparation conditions, a variety of CdS/Co nanowire arrays were fabricated, whose dimensional properties could be adjusted.

  6. "Cloud" functions and templates of engineering calculations for nuclear power plants (United States)

    Ochkov, V. F.; Orlov, K. A.; Ko, Chzho Ko


    The article deals with an important problem of setting up computer-aided design calculations of various circuit configurations and power equipment carried out using the templates and standard computer programs available in the Internet. Information about the developed Internet-based technology for carrying out such calculations using the templates accessible in the Mathcad Prime software package is given. The technology is considered taking as an example the solution of two problems relating to the field of nuclear power engineering.

  7. The first polyoxometalate-templated four-fold interpenetrated coordination polymer with new topology and ferroelectricity. (United States)

    Zheng, Shou-Tian; Yang, Guo-Yu


    MOFs including non-coordinating POMs as a template are rare. We report here the first four-fold interpenetrated POM-templated 3D MOF [Cu(3)(4,4'-bpy)(5)](2)[H(2)SiW(11)O(39)] x 5H(2)O, whose framework topology is previously unknown with the vertex symbol (6 x 6 x 8(2))(2)(6 x 6 x 8 x 8 x 10(6) x 10(6)).

  8. Emulsion templated scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties for bone tissue engineering


    Owen, Robert; Sherborne, Colin; Paterson, Thomas; Green, Nicola H.; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Claeyssens, Frederik


    Polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (PolyHIPEs) are manufactured via emulsion templating and exhibit a highly interconnected microporosity. These materials are commonly used as thin membranes for 3D cell culture. This study uses emulsion templating in combination with microstereolithography to fabricate PolyHIPE scaffolds with a tightly controlled and reproducible architecture. This combination of methods produces hierarchical structures, where the microstructural properties can be inde...

  9. A collection of suggested electronic course templates for use in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill W. Fresen


    Full Text Available The collection of electronic course templates suggested in this article results from collaborative investigation between instructional support staff and academic staff users of the virtual learning environment (VLE at two institutions, one in the United Kingdom and the other in the United States. The particular VLE in use at both institutions was Sakai, although the experience described here can be applied to the design process and workflow using any VLE that allows the selection and some configuration of standard tools.We applied the lattice model of Hill, Fresen and Geng (2012 to design and build a set of six course site templates, which are used as the basis on which site owners can easily build new sites in the VLE. As the ultimate goal of template provision is to underpin pedagogy, academics are free to use a template or build a site from scratch, based on their own teaching context, and they may adapt any template according to the pedagogical purpose and nature of the course. The underlying assumptions are that academic staff retain full control over the content, tools and permissions in their new site. The templates are not mutually exclusive – that is, aspects from any template may be incorporated, where applicable, into another one.We conclude that it is helpful for the VLE support team to take the lead in proposing a set of templates according to the predominant teaching and learning models in use at a particular institution, which may contribute to consistency across course sites and ultimately result in an improved student learning experience.

  10. Mechanisms of polymer-templated nanoparticle synthesis: contrasting ZnS and Au


    Podhorska, L; Delcassian, D; Goode, AE; Agyei, M; Mccomb, DW; Ryan, MP; Dunlop, IE


    We combine solution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and high-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) to gain a full mechanistic understanding of substructure formation in nanoparticles templated by block copolymer reverse micelles, specifically poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine). We report a novel substructure for micelle-templated ZnS nanoparticles, in which small crystallites (~4 nm) exist within a larger (~20 nm) amorphous organic-inorganic hybrid matrix. ...

  11. Templated Synthesis of Peptide Nucleic Acids via Sequence-Selective Base-Filling Reactions


    Heemstra, Jennifer M.; Liu, David R.


    The templated synthesis of nucleic acids has previously been achieved through the backbone ligation of preformed nucleotide monomers or oligomers. In contrast, here we demonstrate templated nucleic acid synthesis using a base-filling approach in which individual bases are added to abasic sites of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Because nucleobase substrates in this approach are not self-reactive, a base-filling approach may reduce the formation of nontemplated reaction products. Using either re...

  12. Base motif recognition and design of DNA templates for fluorescent silver clusters by machine learning. (United States)

    Copp, Stacy M; Bogdanov, Petko; Debord, Mark; Singh, Ambuj; Gwinn, Elisabeth


    Discriminative base motifs within DNA templates for fluorescent silver clusters are identified using methods that combine large experimental data sets with machine learning tools for pattern recognition. Combining the discovery of certain multibase motifs important for determining fluorescence brightness with a generative algorithm, the probability of selecting DNA templates that stabilize fluorescent silver clusters is increased by a factor of >3. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Vertically aligned nanowires on flexible silicone using a supported alumina template prepared by pulsed anodization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.


    Carpets of vertically aligned nanowires on flexible substrates are successfully realized by a template method. Applying special pulsed anodization conditions, defect-free nanoporous alumina structures supported on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a flexible silicone elastomer, are created. By using...... this template with nanopores ending on a conducting underlayer, a high-density nanowire array can be simply grown by direct DCelectrodeposition on the top of the silicone rubber....

  14. Nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth of non-polar group III nitrides (United States)

    Wang, George T [Albuquerque, NM; Li, Qiming [Albuquerque, NM; Creighton, J Randall [Albuquerque, NM


    A method for growing high quality, nonpolar Group III nitrides using lateral growth from Group III nitride nanowires. The method of nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth (NTLEG) employs crystallographically aligned, substantially vertical Group III nitride nanowire arrays grown by metal-catalyzed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) as templates for the lateral growth and coalescence of virtually crack-free Group III nitride films. This method requires no patterning or separate nitride growth step.

  15. Percolation transition in the porous structure of latex-templated silica monoliths


    Guillemot, François; Brunet-Bruneau, Aline; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Boilot, Jean-Pierre; Barthel, Etienne; Gacoin, Thierry


    International audience; Porous sol-gel silica monoliths are prepared using PMMA nanoparticles, 60 nm in diameter, as sacrificial templates. The pore-structure of the calcined pellets is investigated through nitrogen adsorption to assess the evolution of the porosity when varying the amount of porogen. The latex templated monoliths present a well defined spherical extrinsic porosity and an intrinsic microporosity due to preparation process. As a result of a careful analysis of the adsorption h...

  16. Preliminary experience with the patient-specific templating total knee arthroplasty


    Boonen, Bert; Schotanus, Martijn G.M.; Kort, Nanne P.


    Background and purpose Patient-specific templating total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a new method for alignment of a total knee arthroplasty that uses disposable guides. We present the results of the first 40 consecutive patients who were operated on using this technique. Methods In this case-control study, we compared blood loss, operation time, and alignment of 40 TKAs performed using a patient-specific templating alignment technique with values from a matched control group of patients who w...

  17. Preliminary experience with the patient-specific templating total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Boonen, Bert; Schotanus, Martijn G M; Kort, Nanne P


    Patient-specific templating total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a new method for alignment of a total knee arthroplasty that uses disposable guides. We present the results of the first 40 consecutive patients who were operated on using this technique. In this case-control study, we compared blood loss, operation time, and alignment of 40 TKAs performed using a patient-specific templating alignment technique with values from a matched control group of patients who were operated on by conventional intramedullary alignment technique. Alignment of the mechanical axis of the leg and flexion/extension and varus/valgus of the individual prosthesis components were measured on standing, long-leg, and standard lateral digital radiographs. The fraction of outliers (> 3˚) was determined. Mean mechanical axis of templating TKAs was 181° with a fraction of outliers of 0.3, and mean mechanical axis of conventional TKAs was 179˚ (outlier fraction 0.5). Fraction of outliers in the frontal plane for femoral components was 0.05 in the templating TKAs and 0.4 in the conventional TKAs, and for tibial components the corresponding values were 0.2 and 0.2. In the templating TKAs and conventional TKAs, fraction of outliers in the sagittal plane was 0.4 and 0.9, respectively, for femoral components and 0.4 and 0.6 for tibial components. Mean operation time was 10 min shorter and blood loss was 60 mL less for templating TKA than for intramedullary-aligned TKAs. Patient-specific templating TKA showed improved accuracy of alignment and a small reduction in blood loss and operating time compared to intramedullary-aligned TKA, but the fraction of outliers was relatively high. Larger RCTs are needed for further evaluation of the technique and to define the future role of patient-specific template alignment techniques for TKA.

  18. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template for catalytic membrane fixed bed reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul


    and users to generate and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be faster, cheaper and very efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific catalytic...... membrane fixed bed models is developed. The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene....

  19. Novel simple templates for reproducible positioning of skin applicators in brachytherapy. (United States)

    Villalba, Silvia Rodríguez; Perez-Calatayud, Maria Jose; Bautista, Juan Antonio; Carmona, Vicente; Celada, Francisco; Tormo, Alejandro; García-Martinez, Teresa; Richart, José; Ortega, Manuel Santos; Silla, Magda; Ballester, Facundo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose


    Esteya and Valencia surface applicators are designed to treat skin tumors using brachytherapy. In clinical practice, in order to avoid errors that may affect the treatment outcome, there are two issues that need to be carefully addressed. First, the selected applicator for the treatment should provide adequate margin for the target, and second, the applicator has to be precisely positioned before each treatment fraction. In this work, we describe the development and use of a new acrylic templates named Template La Fe-ITIC. They have been designed specifically to help the clinical user in the selection of the correct applicator, and to assist the medical staff in reproducing the positioning of the applicator. These templates are freely available upon request. Templates that were developed by University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe (La Fe) and Hospital Clínica Benidorm (ITIC) in cooperation with Elekta, consist of a thin sheet made of transparent acrylic. For each applicator, a crosshair and two different circles are drawn on these templates: the inner one corresponds to the useful beam, while the outer one represents the external perimeter of the applicator. The outer circle contains slits that facilitate to draw a circle on the skin of the patient for exact positioning of the applicator. In addition, there are two perpendicular rulers to define the adequate margin. For each applicator size, a specific template was developed. The templates have been used successfully in our institutions for more than 50 patients' brachytherapy treatments. They are currently being used for Esteya and Valencia applicators. The template La Fe-ITIC is simple and practical. It improves both the set-up time and reproducibility. It helps to establish the adequate margins, an essential point in the clinical outcome.

  20. Prediction of enzyme function based on 3D templates of evolutionarily important amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Brian Y


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural genomics projects such as the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI yield many new structures, but often these have no known molecular functions. One approach to recover this information is to use 3D templates – structure-function motifs that consist of a few functionally critical amino acids and may suggest functional similarity when geometrically matched to other structures. Since experimentally determined functional sites are not common enough to define 3D templates on a large scale, this work tests a computational strategy to select relevant residues for 3D templates. Results Based on evolutionary information and heuristics, an Evolutionary Trace Annotation (ETA pipeline built templates for 98 enzymes, half taken from the PSI, and sought matches in a non-redundant structure database. On average each template matched 2.7 distinct proteins, of which 2.0 share the first three Enzyme Commission digits as the template's enzyme of origin. In many cases (61% a single most likely function could be predicted as the annotation with the most matches, and in these cases such a plurality vote identified the correct function with 87% accuracy. ETA was also found to be complementary to sequence homology-based annotations. When matches are required to both geometrically match the 3D template and to be sequence homologs found by BLAST or PSI-BLAST, the annotation accuracy is greater than either method alone, especially in the region of lower sequence identity where homology-based annotations are least reliable. Conclusion These data suggest that knowledge of evolutionarily important residues improves functional annotation among distant enzyme homologs. Since, unlike other 3D template approaches, the ETA method bypasses the need for experimental knowledge of the catalytic mechanism, it should prove a useful, large scale, and general adjunct to combine with other methods to decipher protein function in the structural proteome.

  1. Strongly Coupled Plasmonic Modes on Macroscopic Areas via Template-Assisted Colloidal Self-Assembly


    Hanske, Christoph; Tebbe, Moritz; Kuttner, Christian; Bieber, Vera; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Chanana, Munish; K?nig, Tobias A. F.; Fery, Andreas


    We present ensembles of surface-ordered nanoparticle arrangements, which are formed by template-assisted self-assembly of monodisperse, protein-coated gold nanoparticles in wrinkle templates. Centimeter-squared areas of highly regular, linear assemblies with tunable line width are fabricated and their extinction cross sections can be characterized by conventional UV/vis/NIR spectroscopy. Modeling based on electrodynamic simulations shows a clear signature of strong plasmonic coupling with an ...

  2. Effect of Dopant on the Nanostructured Morphology of Poly (1-naphthylamine) Synthesized by Template Free Method


    Riaz, Ufana; Ahmad, Sharif; Ashraf, S Marghoob


    AbstractThe study reports some preliminary investigations on the template free synthesis of ascantlyinvestigated polyaniline (PANI) derivative—poly (1-naphthylamine) (PNA) by template free method in presence as well as absence of hydrochloric acid (HCl) (dopant), using ferric chloride as oxidant. The polymerization was carried out in alcoholic medium. Polymerization of 1-naphthylamine (NPA) was confirmed by the FT-IR as well as UV–visible studies. The morphology and size of PNA pa...

  3. Novel simple templates for reproducible positioning of skin applicators in brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rodríguez Villalba


    Full Text Available Purpose : Esteya and Valencia surface applicators are designed to treat skin tumors using brachytherapy. In clinical practice, in order to avoid errors that may affect the treatment outcome, there are two issues that need to be carefully addressed. First, the selected applicator for the treatment should provide adequate margin for the target, and second, the applicator has to be precisely positioned before each treatment fraction. In this work, we describe the development and use of a new acrylic templates named Template La Fe-ITIC. They have been designed specifically to help the clinical user in the selection of the correct applicator, and to assist the medical staff in reproducing the positioning of the applicator. These templates are freely available upon request. Material and methods: Templates that were developed by University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe (La Fe and Hospital Clínica Benidorm (ITIC in cooperation with Elekta, consist of a thin sheet made of transparent acrylic. For each applicator, a crosshair and two different circles are drawn on these templates: the inner one corresponds to the useful beam, while the outer one represents the external perimeter of the applicator. The outer circle contains slits that facilitate to draw a circle on the skin of the patient for exact positioning of the applicator. In addition, there are two perpendicular rulers to define the adequate margin. For each applicator size, a specific template was developed. Results: The templates have been used successfully in our institutions for more than 50 patients’ brachytherapy treatments. They are currently being used for Esteya and Valencia applicators. Conclusions : The template La Fe-ITIC is simple and practical. It improves both the set-up time and reproducibility. It helps to establish the adequate margins, an essential point in the clinical outcome.

  4. Developing an efficient scheduling template of a chemotherapy treatment unit: A case study. (United States)

    Ahmed, Z; Elmekkawy, Ty; Bates, S


    This study was undertaken to improve the performance of a Chemotherapy Treatment Unit by increasing the throughput and reducing the average patient's waiting time. In order to achieve this objective, a scheduling template has been built. The scheduling template is a simple tool that can be used to schedule patients' arrival to the clinic. A simulation model of this system was built and several scenarios, that target match the arrival pattern of the patients and resources availability, were designed and evaluated. After performing detailed analysis, one scenario provide the best system's performance. A scheduling template has been developed based on this scenario. After implementing the new scheduling template, 22.5% more patients can be served. 1. CancerCare Manitoba is a provincially mandated cancer care agency. It is dedicated to provide quality care to those who have been diagnosed and are living with cancer. MacCharles Chemotherapy unit is specially built to provide chemotherapy treatment to the cancer patients of Winnipeg. In order to maintain an excellent service, it tries to ensure that patients get their treatment in a timely manner. It is challenging to maintain that goal because of the lack of a proper roster, the workload distribution and inefficient resource allotment. In order to maintain the satisfaction of the patients and the healthcare providers, by serving the maximum number of patients in a timely manner, it is necessary to develop an efficient scheduling template that matches the required demand with the availability of resources. This goal can be reached using simulation modelling. Simulation has proven to be an excellent modelling tool. It can be defined as building computer models that represent real world or hypothetical systems, and hence experimenting with these models to study system behaviour under different scenarios.1, 2 A study was undertaken at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario to identify the issues behind the long waiting

  5. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strings of artificial genetic systems are analogous to chromosomes. GENERAL I ARTICLE. GAs operate by combining the information present in different possible solutions for a given problem, in such a way that a better solution is obtained in future generations. Terminologies used in natural genetic systems (NGS) and.

  6. Efficacy and accuracy of a novel rapid prototyping drill template for cervical pedicle screw placement. (United States)

    Lu, Sheng; Xu, Yong Q; Chen, Guo P; Zhang, Yuan Z; Lu, Di; Chen, Yu B; Shi, Ji H; Xu, Xing M


    To develop and validate the efficacy and accuracy of a novel drill template for cervical pedicle instrumentation. A CT scan of the cervical vertebrae was performed, and a 3D model of the vertebrae was reconstructed using MIMICS 10.01 software. The 3D vertebral model was then exported in STL format, and opened in a workstation running UGS Imageware 12.0 software to determine the optimal pedicle screw size and orientation. A virtual navigational template was established according to the laminar anatomic trait, and physical navigational templates were manufactured using rapid prototyping. The navigational templates were used intraoperatively to assist in the placement of cervical pedicle screws. In all, 84 pedicle screws were placed, and the accuracy of screw placement was confirmed with postoperative X-rays and CT scans. Eighty-two screws were rated as Grade 0, 2 as Grade 1, and no screws as Grade 2 or 3. Hence, safer screw positioning was accomplished with the drill template technique. This study demonstrates a patient-specific template technique that is easy to use, can simplify the surgical act, and generates highly accurate cervical pedicle screw placement. The advantages of this technology over traditional techniques are that it enables planning of the screw trajectory to be completed prior to surgery, and that the screw can be sized to fit the patient's anatomy.

  7. Synthesis of ordered ZnO nanowire arrays from aqueous solution using AAO template (United States)

    Kumar, Nagesh; Varma, G. D.; Nath, R.; Srivastava, A. K.


    In this paper we report a simple method that enables the easy fabrication of ordered ZnO nanowire arrays using Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) template. We have used a vacuum injection technique to fill solution into the pores of an AAO template. The AAO template has been fabricated by a two-step anodization process using 0.3 M oxalic acid (H2C2O4) solution under a constant voltage of 40 V. The AAO template formed through this process has been detached from Al substrate via an anodic voltage pulse using perchloric acid (HClO4) solution (70%). The nanowires of ZnO have been synthesized by injecting the saturated Zn(NO3)2 solution into the pores of the detached AAO template using a vacuum pump. The ZnO nanowires synthesized by this technique have been found dense & continuous with uniform diameter throughout the length of the wire. The structural characteristics of AAO template and ZnO nanowires have been studied by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Atomic force microscope (AFM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM).

  8. On visual pigment templates and the spectral shape of invertebrate rhodopsins and metarhodopsins (United States)


    The absorbance spectra of visual pigments can be approximated with mathematical expressions using as single parameter the absorbance peak wavelength. A comparison of the formulae of Stavenga et al. in Vision Res 33:1011–1017 (1993) and Govardovskii et al. in Vis Neurosci 17:509–528 (2000) applied to a number of invertebrate rhodopsins reveals that both templates well describe the normalized α-band of rhodopsins with peak wavelength > 400 nm; the template spectra are virtually indistinguishable in an absorbance range of about three log units. The template formulae of Govardovskii et al. in Vis Neurosci 17:509–528 (2000) describe the rhodopsin spectra better for absorbances below 10−3. The template predicted spectra deviate in the ultraviolet wavelength range from each other as well as from measured spectra, preventing a definite conclusion about the spectral shape in the wavelength range <400 nm. The metarhodopsin spectra of blowfly and fruitfly R1-6 photoreceptors derived from measured data appear to be virtually identical. The established templates describe the spectral shape of fly metarhodopsin reasonably well. However, the best fitting template spectrum slightly deviates from the experimental spectra near the peak and in the long-wavelength tail. Improved formulae for fitting the fly metarhodopsin spectra are proposed. PMID:20725729

  9. Automatic Generation of Template Images for Detecting Vehicles in Parking Lots (United States)

    Iwasa, Kazumasa; Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Sagawa, Yuji; Sugie, Noboru

    An increase in the number of parking lots is very slow though that of cars increases much every year. Thus, efficient management of parking lots is needed. If information of vacant divisions is transmitted to cars waiting at gates of parking lots, traffic jam caused by cars searching parking divisions will be decreased. Therefore several methods for detecting parking cars have been developed. Especially, the method that detects cars hiding white lines drawn on parking lots is highly reliable. The method needs a template image for each camera. Since these images were created by human in the previous research, much cost and time was needed. In this paper, we present the method automatically generating the template images. Firstly, our method synthesizes an image of parking lots including no cars from several images. Then, the method detects white line segments from the image. The line segments are corrected in consideration of the rule that white lines on the parking lots are parallel and their length is constant. Finally, parking divisions are determined from the line segments and stored in the template image. In the experiment using the template generated by our method, accuracy of detecting cars was about 96%. The template is comparable to the manually created template in accuracy.

  10. Protein-protein complex structure predictions by multimeric threading and template recombination (United States)

    Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang


    Summary The number of protein-protein complex structures is nearly 6-times smaller than that of tertiary structures in PDB which limits the power of homology-based approaches to complex structure modeling. We present a new threading-recombination approach, COTH, to boost the protein complex structure library by combining tertiary structure templates with complex alignments. The query sequences are first aligned to complex templates using a modified dynamic programming algorithm, guided by ab initio binding-site predictions. The monomer alignments are then shifted to the multimeric template framework by structural alignments. COTH was tested on 500 non-homologous dimeric proteins, which can successfully detect correct templates for half of the cases after homologous templates are excluded, which significantly outperforms conventional homology modeling algorithms. It also shows a higher accuracy in interface modeling than rigid-body docking of unbound structures from ZDOCK although with lower coverage. These data demonstrate new avenues to model complex structures from non-homologous templates. PMID:21742262

  11. Preparation, Characterization and Performance of Templated Silica Membranes in Non-Osmotic Desalination (United States)

    Ladewig, Bradley P.; Tan, Ying Han; Lin, Chun Xiang C.; Ladewig, Katharina; Diniz da Costa, João C.; Smart, Simon


    In this work we investigate the potential of a polyethylene glycol-polypropylene glycol-polyethylene glycol, tri-block copolymer as a template for a hybrid carbon/silica membrane for use in the non-osmotic desalination of seawater. Silica samples were loaded with varying amounts of tri-block copolymer and calcined in a vacuum to carbonize the template and trap it within the silica matrix. The resultant xerogels were analyzed with FTIR, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and N2 sorption techniques, wherein it was determined that template loadings of 10 and 20% produced silica networks with enhanced pore volumes and appropriately sized pores for desalination. Membranes were created via two different routes and tested with feed concentrations of 3, 10 and 35 ppk of NaCl at room temperature employing a transmembrane pressure drop of 85% (in most cases >95%) and fluxes higher than 1.6 kg m−2 h−1. Furthermore, the carbonized templated membranes displayed equal or improved performance compared to similarly prepared non-templated silica membranes, with the best results of a flux of 3.7 kg m−2 h−1 with 98.5% salt rejection capacity, exceeding previous literature reports. In addition, the templated silica membranes exhibited superior hydrostability demonstrating their potential for long-term operation. PMID:28879954

  12. Systematic Heuristic Evaluation of Computerized Consultation Order Templates: Clinicians' and Human Factors Engineers' Perspectives. (United States)

    Savoy, April; Patel, Himalaya; Flanagan, Mindy E; Weiner, Michael; Russ, Alissa L


    We assessed the usability of consultation order templates and identified problems to prioritize in design efforts for improving referral communication. With a sample of 26 consultation order templates, three evaluators performed a usability heuristic evaluation. The evaluation used 14 domain-independent heuristics and the following three supplemental references: 1 new domain-specific heuristic, 6 usability goals, and coded clinicians' statements regarding ease of use for 10 sampled templates. Evaluators found 201 violations, a mean of 7.7 violations per template. Minor violations outnumbered major violations almost twofold, 115 (57%) to 62 (31%). Approximately 68% of violations were linked to 5 heuristics: aesthetic and minimalist design (17%), error prevention (16%), consistency and standards (14%), recognition rather than recall (11%), and meet referrers' information needs (10%). Severe violations were attributed mostly to meet referrers' information needs and recognition rather than recall. Recorded violations yielded potential negative consequences for efficiency, effectiveness, safety, learnability, and utility. Evaluators and clinicians demonstrated 80% agreement in usability assessment. Based on frequency and severity of usability heuristic violations, the consultation order templates reviewed may impede clinical efficiency and risk patient safety. Results support the following design considerations: communicate consultants' requirements, facilitate information seeking, and support communication. While the most frequent heuristic violations involved interaction design and presentation, the most severe violations lacked information desired by referring clinicians. Violations related to templates' inability to support referring clinicians' information needs had the greatest potential negative impact on efficiency and safety usability goals. Heuristics should be prioritized in future design efforts.

  13. Computer-assisted virtual planning and surgical template fabrication for frontoorbital advancement. (United States)

    Soleman, Jehuda; Thieringer, Florian; Beinemann, Joerg; Kunz, Christoph; Guzman, Raphael


    OBJECT The authors describe a novel technique using computer-assisted design (CAD) and computed-assisted manufacturing (CAM) for the fabrication of individualized 3D printed surgical templates for frontoorbital advancement surgery. METHODS Two patients underwent frontoorbital advancement surgery for unilateral coronal synostosis. Virtual surgical planning (SurgiCase-CMF, version 5.0, Materialise) was done by virtual mirroring techniques and superposition of an age-matched normative 3D pediatric skull model. Based on these measurements, surgical templates were fabricated using a 3D printer. Bifrontal craniotomy and the osteotomies for the orbital bandeau were performed based on the sterilized 3D templates. The remodeling was then done placing the bone plates within the negative 3D templates and fixing them using absorbable poly-dl-lactic acid plates and screws. RESULTS Both patients exhibited a satisfying head shape postoperatively and at follow-up. No surgery-related complications occurred. The cutting and positioning of the 3D surgical templates proved to be very accurate and easy to use as well as reproducible and efficient. CONCLUSIONS Computer-assisted virtual planning and 3D template fabrication for frontoorbital advancement surgery leads to reconstructions based on standardizedmeasurements, precludes subjective remodeling, and seems to be overall safe and feasible. A larger series of patients with long-term follow-up is needed for further evaluation of this novel technique.

  14. A template-based computerized instruction entry system helps the comunication between doctors and nurses. (United States)

    Takeda, Toshihiro; Mihara, Naoki; Nakagawa, Rie; Manabe, Shiro; Shimai, Yoshie; Teramoto, Kei; Matsumura, Yasushi


    In a hospital, doctors and nurses shares roles in treating admitted patients. Communication between them is necessary and communication errors become the problem in medical safety. In Japan, verbal instruction is prohibited and doctors write their instruction on paper instruction slips. However, because it is difficult to ascertain revision history and the active instructions on instruction slips, human errors can occur. We developed template-based computerized instruction entry system to reduce ward workloads and contribute to medical safety. Templates enable us to input the instructions easily and standardize the descriptions of instructions. By standardizing and combine the instruction into one template for one instruction item, the systems could prevent instructions overlap. We created sets of templates (e.g., admission set, preoperative set), so that doctors could enter their instructions easily. Instructions entered via any of the sets can be subdivided into separate items by the system before being submitted, and can also be changed on a per-item basis. The instructions were displayed as calendar form. Calendar form represents the instruction shift and current active instructions. We prepared 382 standardized instruction templates. In our system, 66% of instructions were entered via templates, and 34% were entered as free-text comments. Our system prevents communication errors between medical staff.

  15. Using Large-Scale Statistical Chinese Brain Template (Chinese2020 in Popular Neuroimage Analysis Toolkits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shi


    Full Text Available Given that the morphology of Chinese brains statistically differs from that of Caucasian, there is an urgent need to develop a Chinese brain template for neuroimaging studies in Chinese populations. Based on a multi-center dataset, we developed a statistical Chinese brain template, named as Chinese2020 (Liang et al., 2015. This new Chinese brain atlas has been validated in brain normalization and segmentation for anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies, and is publicly available at In our previous study, we have demonstrated this Chinese atlas showed higher accuracy in segmentation and relatively smaller shape deformations during registration. Because the spatial normalization of functional images is mainly based on the segmentation and normalization of anatomical image, the population-specific brain atlas should also be more appropriate for functional studies involving Chinese populations. The aim of this technology report is to validate the performance of Chinsese2020 template in functional neuroimaging studies, and demonstrated that for Chinese population studies, the use of the Chinese2010 template produces more valid results. The steps of how to use the Chinese2020 template in SPM software were given in details in this technology report, and based on an example of finger tapping fMRI study, this technology report demonstrated the Chinese2020 template could improve the performance of the neuroimaging analysis of Chinese populations.

  16. Chromatographic Separation of Xanthine Derivatives on Single and Mixed-Template Imprinted Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dexian; Hong, Seung Pyo; Row, Kyung Ho [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    We developed in the present study molecular imprinted polymers (MIP{sub s}), using single templates (pentoxifylline, caffeine and theophylline) and mixed-templates (pentoxifylline-caffeine, pentoxifylline-theophylline and caffeine-theophylline). The MIP{sub s} were prepared with methacrylic acid (MAA) as the monomer, ethylene glycol dimetharylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinker and 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as the initiator. The obtained polymer particles (particle size after grinding was about 25-35 {mu}m) were packed into a HPLC column (3.9 mm i.d. {Chi} 150 mm). The selectivity and chromatographic characteristics of the MIP{sub s} were studied using acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. UV detector wavelength was set at 270 nm. Different single template MIP{sub s} showed different molecular recognitions to the templates and the structurally analogues, according to the rigidity and steric hindrance of the compounds. Recognition was improved on the mixed-template MIP{sub s} as a result of the cooperation or sum effect of the templates, whereas on the pentoxifylline-theophylline imprinted polymer, the highest selectivity and affinity were obtained. Separations of the test compounds on different polymers were also investigated

  17. New Genetics (United States)

    ... RNA, transcription, RNA splicing, translation, ribosomes, antibiotics, genetic diseases, gene chips. » more Chapter 2: RNA and DNA Revealed: New Roles, New Rules Covers microRNAs, RNAi, epigenetics, telomeres, mtDNA, recombinant DNA. » more Chapter 3: Life's ...

  18. Genetic Discrimination (United States)

    Skip to main content Genetic Discrimination Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  19. Content analysis of physical examination templates in electronic health records using SNOMED CT. (United States)

    Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Chen, Rong; Højen, Anne Randorff; Elberg, Pia


    Most electronic health record (EHR) systems are built on proprietary information models and terminology, which makes achieving semantic interoperability a challenge. Solving interoperability problems requires well-defined standards. In contrast, the need to support clinical work practice requires a local customization of EHR systems. Consequently, contrasting goals may be evident in EHR template design because customization means that local EHR organizations can define their own templates, whereas standardization implies consensus at some level. To explore the complexity of balancing these two goals, this study analyzes the differences and similarities between templates in use today. A similarity analysis was developed on the basis of SNOMED CT. The analysis was performed on four physical examination templates from Denmark and Sweden. The semantic relationships in SNOMED CT were used to quantify similarities and differences. Moreover, the analysis used these identified similarities to investigate the common content of a physical examination template. The analysis showed that there were both similarities and differences in physical examination templates, and the size of the templates varied from 18 to 49 fields. In the SNOMED CT analysis, exact matches and terminology similarities were represented in all template pairs. The number of exact matches ranged from 7 to 24. Moreover, the number of unrelated fields differed a lot from 1/18 to 22/35. Cross-country comparisons tended to have more unrelated content than within-country comparisons. On the basis of identified similarities, it was possible to define the common content of a physical examination. Nevertheless, a complete view on the physical examination required the inclusion of both exact matches and terminology similarities. This study revealed that a core set of items representing the physical examination templates can be generated when the analysis takes into account not only exact matches but also terminology

  20. Genetic counseling. (United States)

    Pina-Neto, João Monteiro de


    The objective of this review of genetic counseling (GC) is to describe the current concepts and philosophical and ethical principles accepted by the great majority of countries and recommended by the World Health Organization, the stages of the process, its results and the psychological impact that a genetic disease has on a family. The concepts presented are based on an historical synthesis of the literature on GC since the 1930s until today, and the articles cited represent the most important research published which today provides the foundation for the theory and practice of GC. The modern definition of GC is a process of communication that deals with the human problems related with the occurrence of a genetic disease in a family. It is of fundamental importance that health professionals are aware of the psychological aspects triggered by genetic diseases and the ways in which these can be managed. In the field of human and medical genetics we are still living in a phase in which technical and scientific aspects predominate, with little emphasis on the study of emotional reactions and people's processes of adaptation to these diseases, which leads to clients having a low level of understanding of the events that have taken place, with negative consequences for family life and for society. The review concludes by discussing the need to refer families with genetic diseases for GC and the need for professionals working in this area to invest more in humanizing care and developing non-directive psychological GC techniques.

  1. High Resolution Additive Patterning of Nanoparticles and Polymers Enabled by Vapor Permeable Polymer Templates (United States)

    Demko, Michael Thomas

    The structure and chemistry of nanoparticles and polymers are interesting for applications in electronics and sensors. However, because they are outside of the standard material set typically used for these applications, widespread use of these materials has not yet been realized. This is due in part to the limited ability of traditional manufacturing processes to adapt to these unique materials. As a result, several alternative manufacturing methods have been developed, including nanoimprint lithography, gravure printing, inkjet printing, and screen printing, among many others. However, these current processes are not able to simultaneously produce patterns with high resolution and high dimensional fidelity, rapidly, over large areas, and in a completely additive manner. In this work, high-resolution patterns of nanoparticles and polymers are created on a variety of substrates in a completely additive manner using a template-based microfluidic process. Permeation of solvent through a vapor-permeable polymer template is used to both drive the flow of ink and concentrate the solute inside of template features. This fluidic process is shown to allow gradual packing of solute inside the template features, enabling creation of three-dimensional features with low defect densities. Additionally, because the mechanical properties of the template material are found to significantly impact patterning resolution and fidelity, and a process for creating rigid, vapor permeable templates from poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) is developed. These templates are used for creating patterning of nanoparticles and polymers with a minimum line width of smaller than 350 nm. The process is then applied to the creation of low temperature metallization for polymer electronics using metallic nanoparticles and a highly-sensitive ultraviolet light sensor from zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  2. Methodological considerations on the use of template matching to study long-lasting memory trace replay. (United States)

    Tatsuno, Masami; Lipa, Peter; McNaughton, Bruce L


    Replay of behaviorally induced neural activity patterns during subsequent sleep has been suggested to play an important role in memory consolidation. Many previous studies, mostly involving familiar experiences, suggest that such reactivation occurs, but decays quickly (approximately 1 h). Recently, however, long-lasting (up to approximately 48 h) "reverberation" of neural activity patterns induced by a novel experience was reported on the basis of a template-matching analysis. Because detection and quantification of memory-trace replay depends critically on analysis methods, we investigated the statistical properties of the template-matching method and analyzed rodent neural ensemble activity patterns after a novel experience. For comparison, we also analyzed the same data with an independent analysis technique, the explained variance method. Contrary to the recent report, we did not observe significant long-lasting reverberation using either the template matching or the explained variance approaches. The latter, however, did reveal short-lasting reactivation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In addition, detailed analysis of the template-matching method shows that, in the present study, coarse mean firing rate differences among neurons, but not fine temporal spike structures, dominate the results of template matching. Most importantly, it is also demonstrated that partial comparisons of template-matching correlations, such as used in the recent paper, may lead to erroneous conclusions. These investigations indicate that the outcome of template-matching analysis is very sensitive to the conditions of how it is applied, and should be interpreted cautiously, and that the existence of long-lasting reverberation after a novel experience requires additional verification.

  3. Inter-ictal spike detection using a database of smart templates. (United States)

    Lodder, Shaun S; Askamp, Jessica; van Putten, Michel J A M


    Visual analysis of EEG is time consuming and suffers from inter-observer variability. Assisted automated analysis helps by summarizing key aspects for the reviewer and providing consistent feedback. Our objective is to design an accurate and robust system for the detection of inter-ictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in scalp EEG. IED Templates are extracted from the raw data of an EEG training set. By construction, the templates are given the ability to learn by searching for other IEDs within the training set using a time-shifted correlation. True and false detections are remembered and classifiers are trained for improving future predictions. During detection, trained templates search for IEDs in the new EEG. Overlapping detections from all templates are grouped and form one IED. Certainty values are added based on the reliability of the templates involved. For evaluation, 2160 templates were used on an evaluation dataset of 15 continuous recordings containing 241 IEDs (0.79/min). Sensitivities up to 0.99 (7.24fp/min) were reached. To reduce false detections, higher certainty thresholds led to a mean sensitivity of 0.90 with 2.36fp/min. By using many templates, this technique is less vulnerable to variations in spike morphology. A certainty value for each detection allows the system to present findings in a more efficient manner and simplifies the review process. Automated spike detection can assist in visual interpretation of the EEG which may lead to faster review times. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Action video game play facilitates the development of better perceptual templates. (United States)

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Zhang, Ruyuan; Li, Renjie; Pouget, Alexandre; Green, C Shawn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bavelier, Daphne


    The field of perceptual learning has identified changes in perceptual templates as a powerful mechanism mediating the learning of statistical regularities in our environment. By measuring threshold-vs.-contrast curves using an orientation identification task under varying levels of external noise, the perceptual template model (PTM) allows one to disentangle various sources of signal-to-noise changes that can alter performance. We use the PTM approach to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the wide range of improvements noted after action video game play. We show that action video game players make use of improved perceptual templates compared with nonvideo game players, and we confirm a causal role for action video game play in inducing such improvements through a 50-h training study. Then, by adapting a recent neural model to this task, we demonstrate how such improved perceptual templates can arise from reweighting the connectivity between visual areas. Finally, we establish that action gamers do not enter the perceptual task with improved perceptual templates. Instead, although performance in action gamers is initially indistinguishable from that of nongamers, action gamers more rapidly learn the proper template as they experience the task. Taken together, our results establish for the first time to our knowledge the development of enhanced perceptual templates following action game play. Because such an improvement can facilitate the inference of the proper generative model for the task at hand, unlike perceptual learning that is quite specific, it thus elucidates a general learning mechanism that can account for the various behavioral benefits noted after action game play.

  5. J. Genet. classic 17

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 1, April 2004. 17. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 1, April 2004. 18. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 1, April 2004. 19. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 1, April 2004. 20. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  6. J. Genet. classic 99

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 2, August 2005. 99. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 2, August 2005. 100. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 2, August 2005. 101. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 2, August 2005. 102. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  7. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  8. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  9. J. Genet. classic 125

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 125. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 126. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 127. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 128. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  10. J. Genet. classic 17

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 17. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 18. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 19. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 20. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  11. About Genetic Counselors (United States)

    ... seeing a genetic counselor? Q. What is a genetic counselor? A. Genetic counselors are healthcare professionals with ... and serve as patient advocates. Q. What is genetic counseling? A. Genetic counseling is the process of ...

  12. Multiple template-based fluoroscopic tracking of lung tumor mass without implanted fiducial markers (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Dy, Jennifer G.; Sharp, Gregory C.; Alexander, Brian; Jiang, Steve B.


    Precise lung tumor localization in real time is particularly important for some motion management techniques, such as respiratory gating or beam tracking with a dynamic multi-leaf collimator, due to the reduced clinical tumor volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margin and/or the escalated dose. There might be large uncertainties in deriving tumor position from external respiratory surrogates. While tracking implanted fiducial markers has sufficient accuracy, this procedure may not be widely accepted due to the risk of pneumothorax. Previously, we have developed a technique to generate gating signals from fluoroscopic images without implanted fiducial markers using a template matching method (Berbeco et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4481-90, Cui et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 741-55). In this paper, we present an extension of this method to multiple-template matching for directly tracking the lung tumor mass in fluoroscopy video. The basic idea is as follows: (i) during the patient setup session, a pair of orthogonal fluoroscopic image sequences are taken and processed off-line to generate a set of reference templates that correspond to different breathing phases and tumor positions; (ii) during treatment delivery, fluoroscopic images are continuously acquired and processed; (iii) the similarity between each reference template and the processed incoming image is calculated; (iv) the tumor position in the incoming image is then estimated by combining the tumor centroid coordinates in reference templates with proper weights based on the measured similarities. With different handling of image processing and similarity calculation, two such multiple-template tracking techniques have been developed: one based on motion-enhanced templates and Pearson's correlation score while the other based on eigen templates and mean-squared error. The developed techniques have been tested on six sequences of fluoroscopic images from six lung cancer patients against the reference

  13. Genetic GIScience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey; Sabel, Clive E; Shi, Chen


    The exposome, defined as the totality of an individual's exposures over the life course, is a seminal concept in the environmental health sciences. Although inherently geographic, the exposome as yet is unfamiliar to many geographers. This article proposes a place-based synthesis, genetic...... geographic information science (genetic GIScience), that is founded on the exposome, genome+, and behavome. It provides an improved understanding of human health in relation to biology (the genome+), environmental exposures (the exposome), and their social, societal, and behavioral determinants (the behavome......). Genetic GIScience poses three key needs: first, a mathematical foundation for emergent theory; second, process-based models that bridge biological and geographic scales; third, biologically plausible estimates of space?time disease lags. Compartmental models are a possible solution; this article develops...

  14. TiO2 nanowire-templated hierarchical nanowire network as water-repelling coating (United States)

    Hang, Tian; Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Xiao, Shuai; Yang, Chengduan; Chen, Meiwan; Tao, Jun; Shieh, Han-ping; Yang, Bo-ru; Liu, Chuan; Xie, Xi


    Extraordinary water-repelling properties of superhydrophobic surfaces make them novel candidates for a great variety of potential applications. A general approach to achieve superhydrophobicity requires low-energy coating on the surface and roughness on nano- and micrometre scale. However, typical construction of superhydrophobic surfaces with micro-nano structure through top-down fabrication is restricted by sophisticated fabrication techniques and limited choices of substrate materials. Micro-nanoscale topographies templated by conventional microparticles through surface coating may produce large variations in roughness and uncontrollable defects, resulting in poorly controlled surface morphology and wettability. In this work, micro-nanoscale hierarchical nanowire network was fabricated to construct self-cleaning coating using one-dimensional TiO2 nanowires as microscale templates. Hierarchical structure with homogeneous morphology was achieved by branching ZnO nanowires on the TiO2 nanowire backbones through hydrothermal reaction. The hierarchical nanowire network displayed homogeneous micro/nano-topography, in contrast to hierarchical structure templated by traditional microparticles. This hierarchical nanowire network film exhibited high repellency to both water and cell culture medium after functionalization with fluorinated organic molecules. The hierarchical structure templated by TiO2 nanowire coating significantly increased the surface superhydrophobicity compared to vertical ZnO nanowires with nanotopography alone. Our results demonstrated a promising strategy of using nanowires as microscale templates for the rational design of hierarchical coatings with desired superhydrophobicity that can also be applied to various substrate materials.

  15. Challenges for Successful Planning of Open and Distance Learning (ODL: A Template Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansie Minnaar


    Full Text Available How to plan an open and distance learning (ODL unit in higher education is not clearly described in the literature. A number of ODL facilities at residential universities have not been successful because of a lack of planning or because of failure to ensure that all the different systems for ODL delivery were in place and functioning. This paper sheds light on how to plan strategically and how to implement an ODL unit at an existing university.A template analysis was used to construct a road map for ODL planners. We used this analytical tool to organise data from a large collection of articles, books, and documents from 1980-2010. We purposefully chose template analysis as a document analysis process to foster the recurring themes found in published articles on planning and implementing ODL facilities in higher education.The results indicate four main strategies for successful implementation of an ODL unit. The template consists of strategic planning, policies, systems, and challenges. It was concluded that the template for ODL planning offers new insight into distance education. It could be used as a foundation for ODL planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. We recommend further research on the template with the aim of theory construction for ODL planning and implementation.

  16. Effect of Using Suboptimal Alignments in Template-Based Protein Structure Prediction (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Kihara, Daisuke


    Computational protein structure prediction remains a challenging task in protein bioinformatics. In the recent years, the importance of template-based structure prediction is increasing due to the growing number of protein structures solved by the structural genomics projects. To capitalize the significant efforts and investments paid on the structural genomics projects, it is urgent to establish effective ways to use the solved structures as templates by developing methods for exploiting remotely related proteins that cannot be simply identified by homology. In this work, we examine the effect of employing suboptimal alignments in template-based protein structure prediction. We showed that suboptimal alignments are often more accurate than the optimal one, and such accurate suboptimal alignments can occur even at a very low rank of the alignment score. Suboptimal alignments contain a significant number of correct amino acid residue contacts. Moreover, suboptimal alignments can improve template-based models when used as input to Modeller. Finally, we employ suboptimal alignments for handling a contact potential in a probabilistic way in a threading program, SUPRB. The probabilistic contacts strategy outperforms the partly thawed approach which only uses the optimal alignment in defining residue contacts and also the reranking strategy, which uses the contact potential in reranking alignments. The comparison with existing methods in the template-recognition test shows that SUPRB is very competitive and outperform existing methods. PMID:21058297

  17. Photometric redshifts for the next generation of deep radio continuum surveys - I. Template fitting (United States)

    Duncan, Kenneth J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Williams, Wendy L.; Best, Philip N.; Buat, Veronique; Burgarella, Denis; Jarvis, Matt J.; Małek, Katarzyna; Oliver, S. J.; Röttgering, Huub J. A.; Smith, Daniel J. B.


    We present a study of photometric redshift performance for galaxies and active galactic nuclei detected in deep radio continuum surveys. Using two multiwavelength data sets, over the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey Boötes and COSMOS fields, we assess photometric redshift (photo-z) performance for a sample of ∼4500 radio continuum sources with spectroscopic redshifts relative to those of ∼63 000 non-radio-detected sources in the same fields. We investigate the performance of three photometric redshift template sets as a function of redshift, radio luminosity and infrared/X-ray properties. We find that no single template library is able to provide the best performance across all subsets of the radio-detected population, with variation in the optimum template set both between subsets and between fields. Through a hierarchical Bayesian combination of the photo-z estimates from all three template sets, we are able to produce a consensus photo-z estimate that equals or improves upon the performance of any individual template set.

  18. An Improved Adaptive Template Size Pixel-Tracking Method for Monitoring Large-Gradient Mining Subsidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilei Huang


    Full Text Available The monitoring of large-gradient deformation caused by coal mining is of great significance to the prevention and management of disasters in mining areas. The interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR method captures the small-gradient ground deformation on the edge of the subsidence basin accurately but is unreliable for capturing large-gradient deformation. The intensity-based pixel-tracking method (e.g., the normalized cross-correlation (NCC method can overcome the limitations of InSAR’s maximum detectable displacement gradient and incoherence. However, the pixel-tracking method is sensitive to template size. It is difficult to estimate ground subsidence accurately by the conventional pixel-tracking method with fixed template size. In this paper, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is redefined and an improved locally adaptive template size method is proposed by identifying optimal template adaptively based on maximization of the redefined SNR. The constraint radius is used to constrain the search area in this improved method. The frequency of misrepresentation is reduced by finding the peak of the correlation coefficient surface within the search area. Both simulation data and real ground subsidence data are used to test this algorithm. The results show that this method can improve monitoring accuracy compared with the traditional pixel-tracking method for fixed template size.

  19. The effect of template selection on diffusion tensor voxel-based analysis results. (United States)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; Sage, Caroline A; Emsell, Louise; Veraart, Jelle; Sijbers, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Parizel, Paul M


    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is increasingly being used to study white matter (WM) degeneration in patients with psychiatric and neurological disorders. In order to compare diffusion measures across subjects in an automated way, voxel-based analysis (VBA) methods were introduced. In VBA, all DTI data are transformed to a template, after which the diffusion measures of control subjects and patients are compared quantitatively in each voxel. Although VBA has many advantages compared to other post-processing approaches, such as region of interest analysis or tractography, VBA results need to be interpreted cautiously, since it has been demonstrated that they depend on the different parameter settings that are applied in the VBA processing pipeline. In this paper, we examine the effect of the template selection on the VBA results of DTI data. We hypothesized that the choice of template to which all data are transformed would also affect the VBA results. To this end, simulated DTI data sets as well as DTI data from control subjects and multiple sclerosis patients were aligned to (i) a population-specific DTI template, (ii) a subject-based DTI atlas in MNI space, and (iii) the ICBM-81 DTI atlas. Our results suggest that the highest sensitivity and specificity to detect WM abnormalities in a VBA setting was achieved using the population-specific DTI atlas, presumably due to the better spatial image alignment to this template. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Supramolecular ssDNA templated porphyrin and metalloporphyrin nanoassemblies with tunable helicity. (United States)

    Sargsyan, Gevorg; Leonard, Brian M; Kubelka, Jan; Balaz, Milan


    Free-base and nickel porphyrin-diaminopurine conjugates were formed by hydrogen-bond directed assembly on single-stranded oligothymidine templates of different lengths into helical multiporphyrin nanoassemblies with highly modular structural and chiroptical properties. Large red-shifts of the Soret band in the UV/Vis spectroscopy confirmed strong electronic coupling among assembled porphyrin-diaminopurine units. Slow annealing rates yielded preferentially right-handed nanostructures, whereas fast annealing yielded left-handed nanostructures. Time-dependent DFT simulations of UV/Vis and CD spectra for model porphyrin clusters templated on the canonical B-DNA and its enantiomeric form, were employed to confirm the origin of observed chiroptical properties and to assign the helicity of porphyrin nanoassemblies. Molar CD and CD anisotropy g factors of dialyzed templated porphyrin nanoassemblies showed very high chiroptical anisotropy. The DNA-templated porphyrin nanoassemblies displayed high thermal and pH stability. The structure and handedness of all assemblies was preserved at temperatures up to +85 °C and pH between 3 and 12. High-resolution transition electron microscopy confirmed formation of DNA-templated nickel(II) porphyrin nanoassemblies and their self-assembly into helical fibrils with micrometer lengths. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Bulky Macroporous TiO2 Photocatalyst with Cellular Structure via Facile Wood-Template Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfeng Sun


    Full Text Available We report a bulky macroporous TiO2 particles with cellular structure prepared in the presence of wood slices as template. Firstly, TiO2 sol was coated onto the wood slices by repeated dip-coating process. Then, after calcinations at 550°C, the wood template could be removed, and the bulky TiO2 structure was obtained. The prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and transmission electron microscope (TEM techniques. XRD pattern confirmed the crystalline phase of the wood-templated TiO2 is anatase phase. And interestingly, from the observation of SEM image, the wood-templated TiO2 inherited the initial cellular structures of birch lumber (B. albosinensis Burk, and numerous macropores were observed in the sample. Meanwhile, the wood-templated TiO2 presented a superior photocatalytic ability to decompose Rhodamine B (RhB under ultraviolet irradiation.

  2. Stochastic Template Bank for Gravitational Wave Searches for Precessing Neutron Star-Black Hole Coalescence Events (United States)

    Indik, Nathaniel; Haris, K.; Dal Canton, Tito; Fehrmann, Henning; Krishnan, Badri; Lundgren, Andrew; Nielsen, Alex B.; Pai, Archana


    Gravitational wave searches to date have largely focused on non-precessing systems. Including precession effects greatly increases the number of templates to be searched over. This leads to a corresponding increase in the computational cost and can increase the false alarm rate of a realistic search. On the other hand, there might be astrophysical systems that are entirely missed by non-precessing searches. In this paper we consider the problem of constructing a template bank using stochastic methods for neutron star-black hole binaries allowing for precession, but with the restrictions that the total angular momentum of the binary is pointing toward the detector and that the neutron star spin is negligible relative to that of the black hole. We quantify the number of templates required for the search, and we explicitly construct the template bank. We show that despite the large number of templates, stochastic methods can be adapted to solve the problem. We quantify the parameter space region over which the non-precessing search might miss signals.

  3. Immigrant Sexual Citizenship: Intersectional Templates among Mexican Gay Immigrants to the United States. (United States)

    Epstein, Steven; Carrillo, Héctor


    Existing literature on sexual citizenship has emphasized the sexuality-related claims of de jure citizens of nation-states, generally ignoring immigrants. Conversely, the literature on immigration rarely attends to the salience of sexual issues in understanding the social incorporation of migrants. This article seeks to fill the gap by theorizing and analyzing immigrant sexual citizenship. While some scholars of sexual citizenship have focused on the rights and recognition granted formally by the nation-state and others have stressed more diffuse, cultural perceptions of community and local belonging, we argue that the lived experiences of immigrant sexual citizenship call for multiscalar scrutiny of templates and practices of citizenship that bridge national policies with local connections. Analysis of ethnographic data from a study of 76 Mexican gay and bisexual male immigrants to San Diego, California reveals the specific citizenship templates that these men encounter as they negotiate their intersecting social statuses as gay/bisexual and as immigrants (legal or undocumented); these include an "asylum" template, a "rights" template, and a "local attachments" template. However, the complications of their intersecting identities constrain their capacity to claim immigrant sexual citizenship. The study underscores the importance of both intersectional and multiscalar approaches in research on citizenship as social practice.

  4. Microparticles Produced by the Hydrogel Template Method for Sustained Drug Delivery (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Sturek, Michael; Park, Kinam


    Polymeric microparticles have been used widely for sustained drug delivery. Current methods of microparticle production can be improved by making homogeneous particles in size and shape, increasing the drug loading, and controlling the initial burst release. In the current study, the hydrogel template method was used to produce homogeneous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles and to examine formulation and process-related parameters. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was used to make hydrogel templates. The parameters examined include PVA molecular weight, type of PLGA (as characterized by lactide content, inherent viscosity), polymer concentration, drug concentration and composition of solvent system. Three model compounds studied were risperidone, methylprednisolone acetate and paclitaxel. The ability of the hydrogel template method to produce microparticles with good conformity to template was dependent on molecular weight of PVA and viscosity of the PLGA solution. Drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were found to be influenced by PLGA lactide content, polymer concentration and composition of the solvent system. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 28.7% and 82% for risperidone, 31.5% and 90% for methylprednisolone acetate, and 32.2 % and 92 % for paclitaxel, respectively. For all three drugs, release was sustained for weeks, and the in vitro release profile of risperidone was comparable to that of microparticles prepared using the conventional emulsion method. The hydrogel template method provides a new approach of manipulating microparticles. PMID:24333903


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius P. S. Caldeira


    Full Text Available To understand the physicochemical properties and catalytic activity during the pyrolysis of atmospheric petroleum residue, a template-free ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized using a direct method without additional seeds or an organic structure director and compared with conventionally synthesized ZSM-5. The crystallinities of the two zeolites were evaluated by XRD and FTIR and were quite similar; however, structural analyses using SEM and argon physisorption revealed that the zeolites diverged in particle diameter and in the external surface area of the micropores. The synthesis procedure without a template incorporated additional aluminum into the crystalline network, according to ICP-AES and TPD NH3 experiments. The catalytic pyrolysis performed over the template-free ZSM-5 generated results comparable to those for pyrolysis performed over the conventional ZSM-5 according to its hydrocarbon distribution. The selectivity to aromatics compounds was exactly the same for both ZSM-5 zeolites, and these values stand out compared to thermal pyrolysis. The template-free ZSM-5 produced 20% of light hydrocarbons (C4-C6, where such compounds are olefins and paraffins of great interest to the petrochemical industry. Therefore, template-free ZSM-5 is promising for industrial use due to its lowered synthesis time, low-cost and significant distribution to light hydrocarbons.

  6. The Role of Templating in the Emergence of RNA from the Prebiotic Chemical Mixture. (United States)

    Tupper, Andrew S; Shi, Kevin; Higgs, Paul G


    Biological RNA is a uniform polymer in three senses: it uses nucleotides of a single chirality; it uses only ribose sugars and four nucleobases rather than a mixture of other sugars and bases; and it uses only 3'-5' bonds rather than a mixture of different bond types. We suppose that prebiotic chemistry would generate a diverse mixture of potential monomers, and that random polymerization would generate non-uniform strands of mixed chirality, monomer composition, and bond type. We ask what factors lead to the emergence of RNA from this mixture. We show that template-directed replication can lead to the emergence of all the uniform properties of RNA by the same mechanism. We study a computational model in which nucleotides react via polymerization, hydrolysis, and template-directed ligation. Uniform strands act as templates for ligation of shorter oligomers of the same type, whereas mixed strands do not act as templates. The three uniform properties emerge naturally when the ligation rate is high. If there is an exact symmetry, as with the chase of chirality, the uniform property arises via a symmetry-breaking phase transition. If there is no exact symmetry, as with monomer selection and backbone regioselectivity, the uniform property emerges gradually as the rate of template-directed ligation is increased.

  7. The Role of Templating in the Emergence of RNA from the Prebiotic Chemical Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Tupper


    Full Text Available Biological RNA is a uniform polymer in three senses: it uses nucleotides of a single chirality; it uses only ribose sugars and four nucleobases rather than a mixture of other sugars and bases; and it uses only 3′-5′ bonds rather than a mixture of different bond types. We suppose that prebiotic chemistry would generate a diverse mixture of potential monomers, and that random polymerization would generate non-uniform strands of mixed chirality, monomer composition, and bond type. We ask what factors lead to the emergence of RNA from this mixture. We show that template-directed replication can lead to the emergence of all the uniform properties of RNA by the same mechanism. We study a computational model in which nucleotides react via polymerization, hydrolysis, and template-directed ligation. Uniform strands act as templates for ligation of shorter oligomers of the same type, whereas mixed strands do not act as templates. The three uniform properties emerge naturally when the ligation rate is high. If there is an exact symmetry, as with the chase of chirality, the uniform property arises via a symmetry-breaking phase transition. If there is no exact symmetry, as with monomer selection and backbone regioselectivity, the uniform property emerges gradually as the rate of template-directed ligation is increased.

  8. Template-controlled mineralization: Determining film granularity and structure by surface functionality patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina J. Blumenstein


    Full Text Available We present a promising first example towards controlling the properties of a self-assembling mineral film by means of the functionality and polarity of a substrate template. In the presented case, a zinc oxide film is deposited by chemical bath deposition on a nearly topography-free template structure composed of a pattern of two self-assembled monolayers with different chemical functionality. We demonstrate the template-modulated morphological properties of the growing film, as the surface functionality dictates the granularity of the growing film. This, in turn, is a key property influencing other film properties such as conductivity, piezoelectric activity and the mechanical properties. A very pronounced contrast is observed between areas with an underlying fluorinated, low energy template surface, showing a much more (almost two orders of magnitude coarse-grained film with a typical agglomerate size of around 75 nm. In contrast, amino-functionalized surface areas induce the growth of a very smooth, fine-grained surface with a roughness of around 1 nm. The observed influence of the template on the resulting clear contrast in morphology of the growing film could be explained by a contrast in surface adhesion energies and surface diffusion rates of the nanoparticles, which nucleate in solution and subsequently deposit on the functionalized substrate.

  9. Template-controlled mineralization: Determining film granularity and structure by surface functionality patterns. (United States)

    Blumenstein, Nina J; Berson, Jonathan; Walheim, Stefan; Atanasova, Petia; Baier, Johannes; Bill, Joachim; Schimmel, Thomas


    We present a promising first example towards controlling the properties of a self-assembling mineral film by means of the functionality and polarity of a substrate template. In the presented case, a zinc oxide film is deposited by chemical bath deposition on a nearly topography-free template structure composed of a pattern of two self-assembled monolayers with different chemical functionality. We demonstrate the template-modulated morphological properties of the growing film, as the surface functionality dictates the granularity of the growing film. This, in turn, is a key property influencing other film properties such as conductivity, piezoelectric activity and the mechanical properties. A very pronounced contrast is observed between areas with an underlying fluorinated, low energy template surface, showing a much more (almost two orders of magnitude) coarse-grained film with a typical agglomerate size of around 75 nm. In contrast, amino-functionalized surface areas induce the growth of a very smooth, fine-grained surface with a roughness of around 1 nm. The observed influence of the template on the resulting clear contrast in morphology of the growing film could be explained by a contrast in surface adhesion energies and surface diffusion rates of the nanoparticles, which nucleate in solution and subsequently deposit on the functionalized substrate.

  10. Insights into the Determination of the Templating Nucleotide at the Initiation of φ29 DNA Replication. (United States)

    del Prado, Alicia; Lázaro, José M; Longás, Elisa; Villar, Laurentino; de Vega, Miguel; Salas, Margarita


    Bacteriophage φ29 from Bacillus subtilis starts replication of its terminal protein (TP)-DNA by a protein-priming mechanism. To start replication, the DNA polymerase forms a heterodimer with a free TP that recognizes the replication origins, placed at both 5' ends of the linear chromosome, and initiates replication using as primer the OH-group of Ser-232 of the TP. The initiation of φ29 TP-DNA replication mainly occurs opposite the second nucleotide at the 3' end of the template. Earlier analyses of the template position that directs the initiation reaction were performed using single-stranded and double-stranded oligonucleotides containing the replication origin sequence without the parental TP. Here, we show that the parental TP has no influence in the determination of the nucleotide used as template in the initiation reaction. Previous studies showed that the priming domain of the primer TP determines the template position used for initiation. The results obtained here using mutant TPs at the priming loop where Ser-232 is located indicate that the aromatic residue Phe-230 is one of the determinants that allows the positioning of the penultimate nucleotide at the polymerization active site to direct insertion of the initiator dAMP during the initiation reaction. The role of Phe-230 in limiting the internalization of the template strand in the polymerization active site is discussed. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. A Template-Based Protein Structure Reconstruction Method Using Deep Autoencoder Learning. (United States)

    Li, Haiou; Lyu, Qiang; Cheng, Jianlin


    Protein structure prediction is an important problem in computational biology, and is widely applied to various biomedical problems such as protein function study, protein design, and drug design. In this work, we developed a novel deep learning approach based on a deeply stacked denoising autoencoder for protein structure reconstruction. We applied our approach to a template-based protein structure prediction using only the 3D structural coordinates of homologous template proteins as input. The templates were identified for a target protein by a PSI-BLAST search. 3DRobot (a program that automatically generates diverse and well-packed protein structure decoys) was used to generate initial decoy models for the target from the templates. A stacked denoising autoencoder was trained on the decoys to obtain a deep learning model for the target protein. The trained deep model was then used to reconstruct the final structural model for the target sequence. With target proteins that have highly similar template proteins as benchmarks, the GDT-TS score of the predicted structures is greater than 0.7, suggesting that the deep autoencoder is a promising method for protein structure reconstruction.

  12. Hybrid geometric-random template-placement algorithm for gravitational wave searches from compact binary coalescences (United States)

    Roy, Soumen; Sengupta, Anand S.; Thakor, Nilay


    Astrophysical compact binary systems consisting of neutron stars and black holes are an important class of gravitational wave (GW) sources for advanced LIGO detectors. Accurate theoretical waveform models from the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases of such systems are used to filter detector data under the template-based matched-filtering paradigm. An efficient grid over the parameter space at a fixed minimal match has a direct impact on the overall time taken by these searches. We present a new hybrid geometric-random template placement algorithm for signals described by parameters of two masses and one spin magnitude. Such template banks could potentially be used in GW searches from binary neutron stars and neutron star-black hole systems. The template placement is robust and is able to automatically accommodate curvature and boundary effects with no fine-tuning. We also compare these banks against vanilla stochastic template banks and show that while both are equally efficient in the fitting-factor sense, the bank sizes are ˜25 % larger in the stochastic method. Further, we show that the generation of the proposed hybrid banks can be sped up by nearly an order of magnitude over the stochastic bank. Generic issues related to optimal implementation are discussed in detail. These improvements are expected to directly reduce the computational cost of gravitational wave searches.

  13. Commercial alumina templates as base to fabricate 123-type high-T{sub c} superconductor nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koblischka, M.R.; Zeng, X.L.; Hartmann, U. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, P. O. Box 151150, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)


    Nanowires of high-T{sub c} superconductors of the RE-123 type (RE = rare earths) were grown by the anodized alumina template method, employing commercially available alumina templates with nominal pore diameters of 20 and 100 nm. Pre-reacted YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) and NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (NdBCO) powder was molten on top of the templates in order to fill the pores with the 123-type material. The resulting samples were oxygen-annealed at 450 C. Superconductivity with a transition temperature of 88 K (YBCO) and 96 K (NdBCO) was confirmed by means of magnetic susceptibility measurements (SQUID) using pieces of the filled template. The electric (resistance) and magnetic measurements revealed further relatively sharp superconducting transitions. To understand the dimensions of the resulting nanowires (length up to 10 μm, diameter between 100 and 250 nm), which do not correspond to the nominal pore diameters, the empty and filled commercial templates were analyzed in detail by scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the feasibility of this approach to produce larger amounts of nanowires. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Comparing new templates and atlas-based segmentations in the volumetric analysis of brain magnetic resonance images for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Zhao, Weizhao; Loewenstein, David A; Potter, Elizabeth; Greig, Maria T; Raj, Ashok; Barker, Warren; Potter, Huntington; Duara, Ranjan


    The segmentation of brain structures on magnetic resonance imaging scans for calculating regional brain volumes, using automated anatomic labeling, requires the use of both brain atlases and templates (template sets). This study aims to improve the accuracy of volumetric analysis of hippocampus (HP) and amygdala (AMG) in the assessment of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) by developing template sets that correspond more closely to the brains of elderly individuals. Total intracranial volume and HP and AMG volumes were calculated for elderly subjects with no cognitive impairment (n = 103), with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 68), or with probable AD (n = 46) using the following: (1) a template set consisting of a standard atlas (atlas S), drawn on a young adult male brain, and the widely used Montreal Neurological Institute template (MNI template set); (2) a template set (template S set) in which the template is based on smoothing the image from which atlas S is derived; and (3) a new template set (template E set) in which the template is based on an atlas (atlas E) created from the brain of an elderly individual. Correspondence to HP and AMG volumes derived from manual segmentation was highest with automated segmentation by template E set, intermediate with template S set, and lowest with the MNI template set. The areas under the receiver operating curve for distinguishing elderly subjects with no cognitive impairment from elderly subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or probable AD and the correlations between HP and AMG volumes and cognitive and functional scores were highest for template E set, intermediate for template S set, and lowest for the MNI template set. The accuracy of automated anatomic labeling and the diagnostic value of the derived volumes are improved with template sets based on brain atlases closely resembling the anatomy of the to-be-segmented brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. Copyright © 2012 The Alzheimer's Association

  15. Application of A Novel Three-dimensional Printing Genioplasty Template System and Its Clinical Validation: A Control Study. (United States)

    Li, Biao; Wei, Hongpu; Zeng, Feini; Li, Jianfu; Xia, James J; Wang, Xudong


    The purpose of this control study was to assess the accuracy and clinical validation of a novel genioplasty template system. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: experimental group (using genioplasty templates) and control group (without genioplasty templates). For the experimental group, the templates were designed based on computerized surgical plan and manufactured using three-dimensional printing technique. The template system included a cutting guide and a pair of repositioning guides. For the control group, traditional intraoperative measurements were used without genioplasty templates. The outcome evaluation was completed by comparing planned outcomes with postoperative outcomes. Linear and angular differences for the chin was measured and reported using root mean square deviation (RMSD) and the Bland-Altman method. All surgeries were successfully completed. There was no difficulty to use genioplasty templates. For the experimental group, the largest RMSDs were 1.1 mm in anteroposterior direction and 2.6° in pitch orientation. For the control group without templates, the largest RMSDs were 2.63 mm in superoinferior direction and 7.21° in pitch orientation. Our findings suggest that this genioplasty template system provides greater accuracy in repositioning the chin than traditional intraoperative measurements, and the computerized plan can be transferred accurately to the patient for genioplasty.

  16. High incidence of non-random template strand segregation and asymmetric fate determination in dividing stem cells and their progeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Conboy


    Full Text Available Decades ago, the "immortal strand hypothesis" was proposed as a means by which stem cells might limit acquiring mutations that could give rise to cancer, while continuing to proliferate for the life of an organism. Originally based on observations in embryonic cells, and later studied in terms of stem cell self-renewal, this hypothesis has remained largely unaccepted because of few additional reports, the rarity of the cells displaying template strand segregation, and alternative interpretations of experiments involving single labels or different types of labels to follow template strands. Using sequential pulses of halogenated thymidine analogs (bromodeoxyuridine [BrdU], chlorodeoxyuridine [CldU], and iododeoxyuridine [IdU], and analyzing stem cell progeny during induced regeneration in vivo, we observed extraordinarily high frequencies of segregation of older and younger template strands during a period of proliferative expansion of muscle stem cells. Furthermore, template strand co-segregation was strongly associated with asymmetric cell divisions yielding daughters with divergent fates. Daughter cells inheriting the older templates retained the more immature phenotype, whereas daughters inheriting the newer templates acquired a more differentiated phenotype. These data provide compelling evidence of template strand co-segregation based on template age and associated with cell fate determination, suggest that template strand age is monitored during stem cell lineage progression, and raise important caveats for the interpretation of label-retaining cells.

  17. On-substrate fabrication of porous Al2O3 templates with tunable pore diameters and interpore distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Nele; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; habouti, salah


    This work is focused on the on-substrate fabrication of porous aluminum oxide templates by anodization of a thin aluminum film deposited directly on the substrate using different concentrations of oxalic acid. These on-substrate templates are used for fabricating supported, free-standing nanorod...... (NR)-arrays by electrochemical deposition of Pt followed by the removal of the template. The interpore distance of the templates is tuned by varying the concentration of the electrolyte used for anodization and the applied voltage. The diameter of the pores (and thus the NRs of the resulting array...

  18. Assessing Plant Genetic Diversity by Molecular Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Mondini


    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of the diverse, predominantly molecular techniques, used in assessing plant genetic diversity. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the application of molecular genetic methods for assessing the conservation and use of plant genetic resources. Molecular techniques have been applied in the analysis of specific genes, as well as to increase understanding of gene action, generate genetic maps and assist in the development of gene transfer technologies. Molecular techniques have also had critical roles in studies of phylogeny and species evolution, and have been applied to increase our understanding of the distribution and extent of genetic variation within and between species. These techniques are well established and their advantages as well as limitations have been realized and described in this work. Recently, a new class of advanced techniques has emerged, primarily derived from a combination of earlier, more basic techniques. Advanced marker techniques tend to amalgamate advantageous features of several basic techniques, in order to increase the sensitivity and resolution to detect genetic discontinuity and distinctiveness. Some of the advanced marker techniques utilize newer classes of DNA elements, such as retrotransposons, mitochondrial and chloroplast based microsatellites, thereby revealing genetic variation through increased genome coverage. Techniques such as RAPD and AFLP are also being applied to cDNA-based templates to study patterns of gene expression and uncover the genetic basis of biological responses. The most important and recent advances made in molecular marker techniques are discussed in this review, along with their applications, advantages and limitations applied to plant sciences.

  19. Preliminary application of virtual simulation and reposition template for zygomatico-orbitomaxillary complex fracture. (United States)

    Li, Peng; Tang, Wei; Li, Jia; Tian, Dong W


    This report introduced and evaluated our computer-assisted surgical method in the treatment of complex maxillofacial fractures. One patient with zygomatico-orbitomaxillary complex fracture underwent computed tomography to obtain DICOM data. Three-dimensional reconstruction and virtual surgical planning were carried out in the software MIMICS 10.01. Three reposition templates and 1 skull model were manufactured in our three-dimensional rapid prototyping machine. Reconstruction surgery was carried out according to the preoperative planning and with the guide of reposition templates. At 3-month follow-up, the treatment outcome was consistent with preoperative planning exactly, and the patient expressed high satisfaction with the surgery. Combination of reposition templates and rapid prototyping method demonstrated great practical value in complex maxillofacial fracture surgery.

  20. qsubsec: a lightweight template system for defining sun grid engine workflows. (United States)

    Droop, Alastair P


    The Sun Grid Engine (SGE) high-performance computing batch queueing system is commonly used in bioinformatics analysis. Creating re-usable scripts for the SGE is a common challenge. The qsubsec template language and interpreter described here allow researchers to easily create generic template definitions that encapsulate a particular computational job, effectively separating the process logic from the specific run details. At submission time, the generic template is filled in with specific values. This system provides an intermediate level between simple scripting and complete workflow management tools. Qsubsec is open-source and is available at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Template-stripped, ultraflat gold surfaces with coplanar, embedded titanium micropatterns. (United States)

    Venkataraman, Nagaiyanallur V; Pei, Jia; Cremmel, Clément V M; Rossi, Antonella; Spencer, Nicholas D


    Ultraflat gold surfaces with coplanar, embedded titanium micropatterns, exhibiting extremely low roughness over the entire surface, have been obtained by a modified template-stripping procedure. Titanium is deposited onto photolithographically predefined regions of a silicon template. Following photoresist lift-off, the entire surface is backfilled with gold, template stripping is conducted, and an ultraflat micropatterned surface is revealed. Atomic force microscopy confirms a roughness of time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). They confirm the presence of well-separated Ti and Au regions, with a chemical contrast that is sharp (as determined by ToF-SIMS) and complete (as determined by i-XPS) across the Ti-Au interface. Thus, a surface has been fabricated that is physically homogeneous down to the nanoscale incorporating chemically distinct micropatterns consisting of two different metals, with totally contrasting surface chemistries.

  2. Development of semipolar (11-22) LEDs on GaN templates (United States)

    Corbett, B.; Quan, Z.; Dinh, D. V.; Kozlowski, G.; O'Mahony, D.; Akhter, M.; Schulz, S.; Parbrook, P.; Maaskant, P.; Caliebe, M.; Hocker, M.; Thonke, K.; Scholz, F.; Pristovsek, M.; Han, Y.; Humphreys, C. J.; Brunner, F.; Weyers, M.; Meyer, T. M.; Lymperakis, L.


    We report on blue and green light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) grown on (11-22)-GaN templates. The templates were created by overgrowth on structured r-plane sapphire substrates. Low defect density, 100 mm diameter GaN templates were obtained by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (VPE) and hydride VPE techniques. Chemical-mechanical polishing was used to obtain smooth surfaces for the subsequent growth of LED structures. Ohmic contacts to the p-type GaN were obtained despite the lower activated acceptor levels. The LEDs show excellent output power and fast carrier dynamics. Freestanding LEDs have been obtained by use of laser-lift-off. The work is the result of collaboration under the European Union funded ALIGHT project.

  3. High field matching effects in superconducting Nb porous arrays catalyzed from anodic alumina templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinckx, W.; Vanacken, J.; Moshchalkov, V.V.


    Vortex pinning in a superconducting Nb thin film deposited on an anodically grown alumina template is investigated. Anodic oxidation of aluminium layers permits under specific conditions the formation of highly ordered porous alumina, a membrane-like structure consisting of triangular arrays...... of parallel pores. Its pore diameter and interpore distance are set by careful tuning of the anodization parameters. A superconducting Nb thin film is deposited directly onto the alumina film. The porous alumina acts as a template and it allows Nb to form a periodic pinning array during its growth. Pinning...... force vs. field measurements derived from magnetization measurements, show matching effects in fields up to 1 T. We demonstrate that the anodic alumina template with 50 nm interpore spacing provides enhanced vortex pinning in a large field and temperature range....

  4. Performance of peaky template matching under additive white Gaussian noise and uniform quantization (United States)

    Horvath, Matthew S.; Rigling, Brian D.


    Peaky template matching (PTM) is a special case of a general algorithm known as multinomial pattern matching originally developed for automatic target recognition of synthetic aperture radar data. The algorithm is a model- based approach that first quantizes pixel values into Nq = 2 discrete values yielding generative Beta-Bernoulli models as class-conditional templates. Here, we consider the case of classification of target chips in AWGN and develop approximations to image-to-template classification performance as a function of the noise power. We focus specifically on the case of a uniform quantization" scheme, where a fixed number of the largest pixels are quantized high as opposed to using a fixed threshold. This quantization method reduces sensitivity to the scaling of pixel intensities and quantization in general reduces sensitivity to various nuisance parameters difficult to account for a priori. Our performance expressions are verified using forward-looking infrared imagery from the Army Research Laboratory Comanche dataset.

  5. A meta-analysis of the mechanical properties of ice-templated ceramics and metals (United States)

    Deville, Sylvain; Meille, Sylvain; Seuba, Jordi


    Ice templating, also known as freeze casting, is a popular shaping route for macroporous materials. Over the past 15 years, it has been widely applied to various classes of materials, and in particular ceramics. Many formulation and process parameters, often interdependent, affect the outcome. It is thus difficult to understand the various relationships between these parameters from isolated studies where only a few of these parameters have been investigated. We report here the results of a meta analysis of the structural and mechanical properties of ice templated materials from an exhaustive collection of records. We use these results to identify which parameters are the most critical to control the structure and properties, and to derive guidelines for optimizing the mechanical response of ice templated materials. We hope these results will be a helpful guide to anyone interested in such materials.

  6. In-situ preparation of functionalized molecular sieve material and a methodology to remove template (United States)

    Yadav, Rekha; Ahmed, Maqsood; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Sakthivel, Ayyamperumal


    A series of diaminosilane-functionalized silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve (SAPO-37) was prepared by in-situ synthesis, and a novel method was developed for the selective removal of structure directing agent (SDA)/template from the functionalized SAPO-37.The complete removal of the SDA was evident according to FT-IR, TGA, 13C MAS-NMR and elemental analysis. The developed method was found to be efficient for removal of template from microporous molecular sieve viz., SAPO-37 and can be applied for other microporous molecular sieves such as SAPO-5, SAPO-40, etc. The powder XRD pattern of the template-removed samples showed a highly crystalline SAPO-37 phase. Argentometric titration revealed that more than 90% of diamine functionality exposed on the surface was accessible for catalytic applications. The resultant materials showed promising activity for ring opening of epoxide with aniline to yield β-amino-alcohol.

  7. Double epitaxy as a paradigm for templated growth of highly ordered three-dimensional mesophase crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yongsoon; Tao, Jinhui; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chongmin; Exarhos, Gregory J.; De Yoreo, James J.; Sushko, Maria L.; Liu, Jun


    Molecular templating and self-assembly are fundamental mechanisms for controlling the morphology of biominerals, while in synthetic two-dimensional layered materials similar levels of control over materials structure can be achieved through the epitaxial relationship with the substrate. In this study these two concepts are combined to provide an approach for the nucleation and growth of three-dimensional ordered mesophases on solid surfaces. A combined experimental and theoretical study revealed how atomic ordering of the substrate controls the structure of surfactant template and the orientation and morphology of the epitaxially grown inorganic material. Such dual epitaxial relationship between the substrate, surfactant template and inorganic mesophase gives rise to a highly ordered porous mesophase with a well-defined cubic lattice of pores. The level of control over material’s three-dimensional architecture achieved in this one-step synthesis is reminiscent to that in biomineralization.

  8. Programmable nanoengineering templates for fabrication of three-dimensional nanophotonic structures (United States)

    Lin, Qingfeng; Leung, Siu-Fung; Tsui, Kwong-Hoi; Hua, Bo; Fan, Zhiyong


    Porous anodic alumina membranes (AAMs) have attracted great amount of attention due to their potential application as templates for nanoengineering. Template-guided fabrication and assembly of nanomaterials based on AAMs are cost-effective and scalable methods to program and engineer the shape and morphology of nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this work, perfectly ordered AAMs with the record large pitch up to 3 μm have been fabricated by properly controlling the anodization conditions and utilization of nanoimprint technique. Due to the capability of programmable structural design and fabrication, a variety of nanostructures, including nanopillar arrays, nanotower arrays, and nanocone arrays, have been successfully fabricated using nanoengineered AAM templates. Particularly, amorphous Si nanocones have been fabricated as three-dimensional nanophotonic structures with the characterization of their intriguing optical anti-reflection property. These results directly indicate the potential application of the reported approach for photonics and optoelectronics.

  9. Electroless synthesis of lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) nanotubes in ion track etched polycarbonate templates (United States)

    Neetzel, C.; Gasi, T.; Ksenofontov, V.; Felser, C.; Ionescu, E.; Ensinger, W.


    In this study, we describe the electroless synthesis of lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) nanotubes produced in ion track etched polycarbonate foils. The foils act as templates after they had been irradiated with heavy ions to produce latent tracks that were etched with a desired diameter. Templates are used to fabricate shape formed 1D nanostructures in general. The synthesis of lepidocrocite nanotubes was carried out in a simple two-step method: firstly, particles were formed by precipitation in aqueous solution; secondly, nanotubes were produced by the deposition of the particles inside the nanochannels of the polycarbonate template. Solvent effects were considered to achieve homogeneous growth resulting in well-defined nanotubes of constant wall thickness along the tube axis. Lepidocrocite nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), Raman, and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  10. Electroless synthesis of lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH) nanotubes in ion track etched polycarbonate templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neetzel, C., E-mail: [Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, Materials Analysis Group, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Gasi, T.; Ksenofontov, V.; Felser, C. [Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Ionescu, E. [Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, Dispersive Solids, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Ensinger, W. [Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, Materials Analysis Group, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)


    In this study, we describe the electroless synthesis of lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH) nanotubes produced in ion track etched polycarbonate foils. The foils act as templates after they had been irradiated with heavy ions to produce latent tracks that were etched with a desired diameter. Templates are used to fabricate shape formed 1D nanostructures in general. The synthesis of lepidocrocite nanotubes was carried out in a simple two-step method: firstly, particles were formed by precipitation in aqueous solution; secondly, nanotubes were produced by the deposition of the particles inside the nanochannels of the polycarbonate template. Solvent effects were considered to achieve homogeneous growth resulting in well-defined nanotubes of constant wall thickness along the tube axis. Lepidocrocite nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), Raman, and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  11. The effect of a new communication template on anticipated willingness to initiate or resume allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, Moises A; Cox, Linda; Casale, Thomas B


    of prescription and (ii) a new communication template viewed some months later, we performed an Internet-based survey of patient panels in France, Germany, Spain, the USA and Russia. The survey participants were either recent "early abandoners" (having discontinued allergen immunotherapy before the end...... of the prescribed course) or "non-starters" (having decided not to initiate a course of allergen immunotherapy recommended by their physician). All participants completed an on-line questionnaire immediately before and immediately after viewing the new communication template. The study's main objectives were...... to validate the new communication template and to assess its impact on anticipated willingness to initiate or resume allergen immunotherapy. RESULTS: We surveyed a total of 261 patients (France: 57; Germany: 51; Spain: 52; USA: 51; Russia: 50), comprising 127 "early abandoners" and 134 "non...

  12. Evaluation of template-based models in CASP8 with standard measures

    KAUST Repository

    Cozzetto, Domenico


    The strategy for evaluating template-based models submitted to CASP has continuously evolved from CASP1 to CASP5, leading to a standard procedure that has been used in all subsequent editions. The established approach includes methods for calculating the quality of each individual model, for assigning scores based on the distribution of the results for each target and for computing the statistical significance of the differences in scores between prediction methods. These data are made available to the assessor of the template-based modeling category, who uses them as a starting point for further evaluations and analyses. This article describes the detailed workflow of the procedure, provides justifications for a number of choices that are customarily made for CASP data evaluation, and reports the results of the analysis of template-based predictions at CASP8.

  13. Local intelligent electronic device (IED) rendering templates over limited bandwidth communication link to manage remote IED (United States)

    Bradetich, Ryan; Dearien, Jason A; Grussling, Barry Jakob; Remaley, Gavin


    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for remote device management. According to various embodiments, a local intelligent electronic device (IED) may be in communication with a remote IED via a limited bandwidth communication link, such as a serial link. The limited bandwidth communication link may not support traditional remote management interfaces. According to one embodiment, a local IED may present an operator with a management interface for a remote IED by rendering locally stored templates. The local IED may render the locally stored templates using sparse data obtained from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, the management interface may be a web client interface and/or an HTML interface. The bandwidth required to present a remote management interface may be significantly reduced by rendering locally stored templates rather than requesting an entire management interface from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, an IED may comprise an encryption transceiver.

  14. Hyperbranched polymers and dendrimers as templates for organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. (United States)

    Huang, Xinhua; Zheng, Sudan; Kim, Il


    This paper reviews the recent research and development of hyperbranched polymers (HPs) and dendrimers, and their use as templates for organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. Hyperbranched polymers (HPs) are highly branched macromolecules with three-dimensional globular structures featuring unique properties such as low viscosity, high solubility, and a large number of terminal functional groups compared to their linear analogs. They are easily prepared by (1) condensation polymerization, (2) self-condensing vinyl copolymerization (SCVCP), and (3) ring-opening multibranch polymerization methods. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials are synthesized by a template approach using HPs/dendrimers. Monometallic, bimetallic (alloy and core/shell), semiconductor, and metal oxide nanoparticles have been prepared by this route. The dendrimer component of these composites serves not only as a template for preparing the nanoparticles but also as a stabilizer for the nanoparticles.

  15. A Convenient and Templated Method for the Fabrication of Monodisperse Micrometer Hollow Titania Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Yao


    Full Text Available A simple and widely applicable methodology was presented to synthesize monodisperse micrometer hollow titania spheres (HTS based on the templating method. It was performed by using the preformed poly(styrene-acrylic acid (PSA as template spheres which was mixed with tetrabutyltitanate (TBOT in an ethanol solvent under steam treatment. The HTS which were obtained by the calcination of PSA/TiO2 composite core-shell spheres had a narrow particle size distribution and commendable surface topography characterized by SEM. The calcined HTS at 500°C displayed crystalline reflection peaks that were characteristic to the anatase phase by XRD. Moreover, some key influencing factors including TBOT concentration and reaction time were analyzed. As expected, the diameter of HTS could be readily controlled by altering the size of PSA template spheres. In addition, the approach was also applied to fabricate hollow zirconia spheres and other inorganic spheres.

  16. Filling preposition-based templates to capture information from medical abstracts. (United States)

    Leroy, G; Chen, H


    Due to the recent explosion of information in the biomedical field, it is hard for a single researcher to review the complex network involving genes, proteins, and interactions. We are currently building GeneScene, a toolkit that will assist researchers in reviewing existing literature, and report on the first phase in our development effort: extracting the relevant information from medical abstracts. We are developing a medical parser that extracts information, fills basic prepositional-based templates, and combines the templates to capture the underlying sentence logic. We tested our parser on 50 unseen abstracts and found that it extracted 246 templates with a precision of 70%. In comparison with many other techniques, more information was extracted without sacrificing precision. Future improvement in precision will be achieved by correcting three categories of errors.

  17. Synthesis, characterizations and photocatalytic studies of mesoporous titania prepared by using four plant skins as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao Yingchun [Department of Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Faculty of Chemical and Life Sciences, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655000 (China); Zhai Zhongbiao [Department of Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Kunming Metallurgy Research Institute, Kunming 650031 (China); He Jiao; Li Bin; Li Junjie [Department of Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Wang Jiaqiang, E-mail: [Department of Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)


    Anatase mesoporous titania with novel morphologies were synthesized by using the skins of tomatoes, bulb onions, grapes, and garlic bulbs, respectively, as templates and used for the photodegradation of Gentian violet, methyl violet, xylenol orange, and Rhodamine B under UV light. The samples were characterized by a combination of various physicochemical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, SEM, HRTEM, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis, and FT-IR. It was found that all of the synthesized mesoporous titania samples exhibited similar morphologies to those of the original templates. The photoactivity of P25 TiO{sub 2} for the four dyes is nearly the same while the mesoporous titania samples synthesized by using the four skins as templates exhibited varied photoactivities for the four dyes.

  18. Genetic Recombination (United States)

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.


    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  19. Genetic counseling (United States)

    ... MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 30. Review Date 1/25/2016 Updated by: Chad Haldeman-Englert, MD, FACMG, Fullerton Genetics Center, Asheville, NC. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ...

  20. Genetic Romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro


    The role that national epic poetry has played in romantic nationalism during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is well documented. The role that the new genetics has played in such processes, however, is less well known and understood as a form of writing national narratives of origin...