WorldWideScience

Sample records for template numerical constraints

  1. Relative Packing Groups in Template-Based Structure Prediction: Cooperative Effects of True Positive Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ryan; Qu, Xiaotao; Swanson, Rosemarie; Bohannan, Zach; Bliss, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Most current template-based structure prediction methods concentrate on finding the correct backbone conformation and then packing sidechains within that backbone. Our packing-based method derives distance constraints from conserved relative packing groups (RPGs). In our refinement approach, the RPGs provide a level of resolution that restrains global topology while allowing conformational sampling. In this study, we test our template-based structure prediction method using 51 prediction units from CASP7 experiments. RPG-based constraints are able to substantially improve approximately two-thirds of starting templates. Upon deeper investigation, we find that true positive spatial constraints, especially those non-local in sequence, derived from the RPGs were important to building nearer native models. Surprisingly, the fraction of incorrect or false positive constraints does not strongly influence the quality of the final candidate. This result indicates that our RPG-based true positive constraints sample the self-consistent, cooperative interactions of the native structure. The lack of such reinforcing cooperativity explains the weaker effect of false positive constraints. Generally, these findings are encouraging indications that RPGs will improve template-based structure prediction. PMID:21210729

  2. Numerical Control Device for Preparation Nano-Carbon Granule Coating Superhydrophobic Template and Its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, G. R.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    It is one of the ways for changing surface property by fabricating superhydrophibic coating with the help of template that is made of depositing nano-carbon particles of fuel flame on substrate such as pure copper or aluminium alloy. In the process of making template, it is difficult to keep the deposition layer uniformed. In this work, the problem was solved by manufacturing a set of numerical control equipment. It has been proved by application test that the deposition layer was uniformed by means of this facility. The contact angle is more than 150°. A new way has been developed for making superhydrohibic template.

  3. Numerical methods for optimal control problems with state constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Pytlak, Radosław

    1999-01-01

    While optimality conditions for optimal control problems with state constraints have been extensively investigated in the literature the results pertaining to numerical methods are relatively scarce. This book fills the gap by providing a family of new methods. Among others, a novel convergence analysis of optimal control algorithms is introduced. The analysis refers to the topology of relaxed controls only to a limited degree and makes little use of Lagrange multipliers corresponding to state constraints. This approach enables the author to provide global convergence analysis of first order and superlinearly convergent second order methods. Further, the implementation aspects of the methods developed in the book are presented and discussed. The results concerning ordinary differential equations are then extended to control problems described by differential-algebraic equations in a comprehensive way for the first time in the literature.

  4. A numerical method for variational problems with convexity constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Oberman, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of approximating the solution of variational problems subject to the constraint that the admissible functions must be convex. This problem is at the interface between convex analysis, convex optimization, variational problems, and partial differential equation techniques. The approach is to approximate the (non-polyhedral) cone of convex functions by a polyhedral cone which can be represented by linear inequalities. This approach leads to an optimization problem with l...

  5. Physical and numerical constraints in source modeling for finite difference simulation of room acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Jonathan; van Walstijn, Maarten; Fazenda, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    In finite difference time domain simulation of room acoustics, source functions are subject to various constraints. These depend on the way sources are injected into the grid and on the chosen parameters of the numerical scheme being used. This paper addresses the issue of selecting and designing sources for finite difference simulation, by first reviewing associated aims and constraints, and evaluating existing source models against these criteria. The process of exciting a model is generalized by introducing a system of three cascaded filters, respectively, characterizing the driving pulse, the source mechanics, and the injection of the resulting source function into the grid. It is shown that hard, soft, and transparent sources can be seen as special cases within this unified approach. Starting from the mechanics of a small pulsating sphere, a parametric source model is formulated by specifying suitable filters. This physically constrained source model is numerically consistent, does not scatter incoming waves, and is free from zero- and low-frequency artifacts. Simulation results are employed for comparison with existing source formulations in terms of meeting the spectral and temporal requirements on the outward propagating wave.

  6. Ptychographic overlap constraint errors and the limits of their numerical recovery using conjugate gradient descent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ashish; McNulty, Ian; Shpyrko, Oleg G

    2014-01-27

    Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging is a form of scanning microscopy that does not require optics to image a sample. A series of scanned coherent diffraction patterns recorded from multiple overlapping illuminated regions on the sample are inverted numerically to retrieve its image. The technique recovers the phase lost by detecting the diffraction patterns by using experimentally known constraints, in this case the measured diffraction intensities and the assumed scan positions on the sample. The spatial resolution of the recovered image of the sample is limited by the angular extent over which the diffraction patterns are recorded and how well these constraints are known. Here, we explore how reconstruction quality degrades with uncertainties in the scan positions. We show experimentally that large errors in the assumed scan positions on the sample can be numerically determined and corrected using conjugate gradient descent methods. We also explore in simulations the limits, based on the signal to noise of the diffraction patterns and amount of overlap between adjacent scan positions, of just how large these errors can be and still be rendered tractable by this method.

  7. Constraints on the coupling between tectonics and landform evolution from numerical modelling, thermochronology and ensemble inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years much work has been devoted to improving our understanding of the coupling between surface processes, climate and tectonics. Thanks to improved computer power and state-of-the-art computational methods, numerical models of crustal deformation have been developed that allow for a fully-dynamical study of the coupling between tectonic processes and surface erosion in active mountain belts. These models have demonstrated that the large-scale morphology of orogenic belts may be strongly influenced by the nature and intensity of erosional processes which, in turn, are related to local climatic conditions. To properly understand this important feed back that arises from the large gravitational stresses generated by vertical movement of the Earth surface, we must obtain constraints on (a) the rate at which surface processes operate and (b) how rapidly tectonics processes adjust to temporal variations in erosion rates. I propose that numerical models are necessary tools to derive useful, quantitative information on the rate of Earth processes from a wide range of geological and geophysical observations. For example, thermochronological data can be used to determine the rate at which rocks are exhumed towards the surface. I will show how, by combining a landscape evolution model to a numerical model of heat transfer in the crust, one can use thermochronological datasets to derive direct information on the rate of landform evolution through geological times, as well as the rate of mean rock exhumation in a variety of tectonic settings. I will also demonstrate how numerical models can be used as spatial and temporal integrators to extract from spatially sparse datasets important information on Earth system behaviour. This point will be illustrated by showing how one can derive estimates of the relative importance of a variety of soil transport mechanisms from field measurements of soil thickness, surface curvature and rate of soil production at a small number

  8. A unified numerical scheme for linear-quadratic optimal control problems with joint control and state constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Lanshan; Camlibel, M. Kanat; Pang, Jong-Shi; Heemels, W. P. Maurice H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical scheme for solving the continuous-time convex linear-quadratic (LQ) optimal control problem with mixed polyhedral state and control constraints. Unifying a discretization of this optimal control problem as often employed in model predictive control and that obtained

  9. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2014-07-27

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  10. Assessing hERG Pore Models As Templates for Drug Docking Using Published Experimental Constraints: The Inactivated State in the Context of Drug Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Many structurally and therapeutically diverse drugs interact with the human heart K+ channel hERG by binding within the K+ permeation pathway of the open channel, leading to drug-induced ‘long QT syndrome’. Drug binding to hERG is often stabilized by inactivation gating. In the absence of a crystal structure, hERG pore homology models have been used to characterize drug interactions. Here we assess potentially inactivated states of the bacterial K+ channel, KcsA, as templates for inactivated state hERG pore models in the context of drug binding using computational docking. Although Flexidock and GOLD docking produced low energy score poses in the models tested, each method selected a MthK K+ channel-based model over models based on the putative inactivated state KcsA structures for each of the 9 drugs tested. The variety of docking poses found indicates that an optimal arrangement for drug binding of aromatic side chains in the hERG pore can be achieved in several different configurations. This plasticity of the drug “binding site” is likely to be a feature of the hERG inactivated state. The results demonstrate that experimental data on specific drug interactions can be used as structural constraints to assess and refine hERG homology models. PMID:24471705

  11. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Based Numerical Simulation of Machining of Thin-Wall Components with Varying Wall Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shrikrishna Nandkishor; Bolar, Gururaj

    2017-06-01

    Control of part deflection and deformation during machining of low rigidity thin-wall components is an important aspect in the manufacture of desired quality products. This paper presents a comparative study on the effect of geometry constraints on the product quality during machining of thin-wall components made of an aerospace alloy aluminum 2024-T351. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (FE) based simulations of machining of thin-wall parts were carried out by considering three variations in the wall constraint viz. free wall, wall constrained at one end, and wall with constraints at both the ends. Lagrangian formulation based transient FE model has been developed to simulate the interaction between the workpiece and helical milling cutter. Johnson-Cook material and damage model were adopted to account for material behavior during machining process; damage initiation and chip separation. A modified Coulomb friction model was employed to define the contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece. The numerical model was validated with experimental results and found to be in good agreement. Based on the simulation results it was noted that deflection and deformation were maximum in the thin-wall constrained at one end in comparison with those obtained in other cases. It was noted that three dimensional finite element simulations help in a better way to predict the product quality during precision manufacturing of thin-wall components.

  12. Optimality conditions for the numerical solution of optimization problems with PDE constraints :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilo Valentin, Miguel Alejandro; Ridzal, Denis

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical framework for the numerical solution of partial di erential equation (PDE) constrained optimization problems is presented in this report. This theoretical framework embodies the fundamental infrastructure required to e ciently implement and solve this class of problems. Detail derivations of the optimality conditions required to accurately solve several parameter identi cation and optimal control problems are also provided in this report. This will allow the reader to further understand how the theoretical abstraction presented in this report translates to the application.

  13. Radiation Hydrodynamical Turbulence in Protoplanetary Disks: Numerical Models and Observational Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Mario; Nelson, Richard P.; Turner, Neal J.; Bertrang, Gesa H.-M.; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Lyra, Wladimir; Teague, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Planets are born in protostellar disks, which are now observed with enough resolution to address questions about internal gas flows. Magnetic forces are possibly drivers of the flows, but ionization state estimates suggest that much of the gas mass decouples from magnetic fields. Thus, hydrodynamical instabilities could play a major role. We investigate disk dynamics under conditions typical for a T Tauri system, using global 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with embedded particles and a resolution of 70 cells per scale height. Stellar irradiation heating is included with realistic dust opacities. The disk starts in joint radiative balance and hydrostatic equilibrium. The vertical shear instability (VSI) develops into turbulence that persists up to at least 1600 inner orbits (143 outer orbits). Turbulent speeds are a few percent of the local sound speed at the midplane, increasing to 20%, or 100 m s-1, in the corona. These are consistent with recent upper limits on turbulent speeds from optically thin and thick molecular line observations of TW Hya and HD 163296. The predominantly vertical motions induced by the VSI efficiently lift particles upward. Grains 0.1 and 1 mm in size achieve scale heights greater than expected in isotropic turbulence. We conclude that while kinematic constraints from molecular line emission do not directly discriminate between magnetic and nonmagnetic disk models, the small dust scale heights measured in HL Tau and HD 163296 favor turbulent magnetic models, which reach lower ratios of the vertical kinetic energy density to the accretion stress.

  14. Social-Contextual Influences on Adolescent Romantic Involvement: The Constraints of Being a Numerical Minority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, R Kelly; Sullivan, M Kate

    2010-01-01

    This research explores white-black differences in adolescent heterosexual romantic involvement and how these differences are shaped by social context. We find that, parallel to patterns of marriage in adulthood, Non-Hispanic white girls are more likely to be in a romantic relationship than African American girls. This is particularly true when we focus on heterosexual romantic relationships formed with schoolmates. Among boys, African Americans are more likely to be romantically involved than Non-Hispanic whites. We investigate the contribution of two broad types of social-demographic factors to these race-ethnic differences, population composition and normative climate. We develop theory about why being a numerical minority should lead to lower levels of relationship formation, especially when interracial relationships are rare. Results support the population composition hypotheses but not the idea that race-ethnic differences arise because of differences in normative climate.

  15. Are computer numerical control (CNC)-manufactured patient-specific metal templates available for posterior thoracic pedicle screw insertion? Feasibility and accuracy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxue; Tang, Lei; Ye, Qiang; Huang, Wenhua; Li, Jianyi

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and safe posterior thoracic pedicle insertion (PTPI) remains a challenge. Patient-specific drill templates (PDTs) created by rapid prototyping (RP) can assist in posterior thoracic pedicle insertion, but pose biocompatibility risks. The aims of this study were to develop alternative PDTs with computer numerical control (CNC) and assess their feasibility and accuracy in assisting PTPI. Preoperative CT images of 31 cadaveric thoracic vertebras were obtained and then the optimal pedicle screw trajectories were planned. The PDTs with optimal screw trajectories were randomly assigned to be designed and manufactured by CNC or RP in each vertebra. With the guide of the CNC- or RP-manufactured PDTs, the appropriate screws were inserted into the pedicles. Postoperative CT scans were performed to analyze any deviations at entry point and midpoint of the pedicles. The CNC group was found to be significant manufacture-time-shortening, and cost-decreasing, when compared with the RP group (P  0.05). The screw positions were grade 0 in 90.3% and grade 1 in 9.7% of the cases in the CNC group and grade 0 in 93.5% and grade 1 in 6.5% of the cases in the RP group (P = 0.641). CNC-manufactured PDTs are viable for assisting in PTPI with good feasibility and accuracy.

  16. Report Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2017-01-01

    To ensure consistent reporting of life cycle assessment (LCA), we provide a report template. The report includes elements of an LCA study as recommended but the ILCD Handbook. Illustrative case study reported according to this template is presented in Chap. 39 ....

  17. Numerical Analysis of the Influence of In-Plane Constraints on the Crack Tip Opening Displacement for SEN(B Specimens Under Predominantly Plane Strain Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graba M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical analysis of the relationship between in-plane constraints and the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD for single-edge notched bend (SEN(B specimens under predominantly plane strain conditions. It provides details of the numerical model and discusses the influence of external load and in-plane constraints on the CTOD. The work also reviews methods for determining the CTOD. The new formula proposed in this paper can be used to estimate the value of the coefficient dn as a function of the relative crack length, the strain hardening exponent and the yield strength - dn(n, σ0/E, a/W, with these parameters affecting the level of in-plane constraints. Some of the numerical results were approximated using simple mathematical formulae.

  18. Ore controls in the Charters Towers goldfield, NE Australia: Constraints from geological, geophysical and numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, O.P.; Blenkinsop, T.G.; Morrison, R.J.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The approach taken in this paper, namely synthesising a wealth of previous information with new data and a genetic model, in combination with integrated numerical analyses, led to new insights into the geological controls on the localisation of auriferous veins and residual prospectivity of the Charters Towers goldfield, NE Australia. The method also has implications for the assessment of other "mature" goldfields worldwide. Despite a number of different ore controls having operated within the Charters Towers goldfield, the controlling factors can be linked to a single genetic model for orogenic, granitoid-hosted lode-gold mineralisation in a brittle deformation regime (D4) of NE-SW to NNE-SSW shortening, under conditions of supralithostatic fluid pressure and low stress difference. Spatial autocorrelation results suggest district-scale alignment of the auriferous veins parallel to and overlapping with the ESE-WNW- to E-W-striking Charters Towers-Ravenswood lineament, a major crustal boundary in the basement to the Ravenswood batholith. At the camp-scale, auriferous veins have abundance and proximity relationships with NW-SE-, NNW-SSE-, NE-SW- and ENE-WSW-oriented lineaments, suggesting that structures that controlled gold deposition in one camp did not necessarily control mineralisation in other camps. Fractal dimensions obtained with the box-counting method range from 1.02 to 1.10, whereas veins in the Charters Towers City camp are characterised by a significantly higher fractal dimension of 1.28. This discrepancy may be taken to imply that most or all outcropping and near-surface deposits within the Charters Towers City camp have been found and that new discoveries are more likely to occur at greater levels of depth, or outside the boundaries of this camp. The new understanding has implications for the assessment of the residual prospectivity of the Charters Towers goldfield, where large areas of prospective rock types and structures (e.g., approximately 40% of

  19. Numerical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boumaza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.

  20. Perl Template Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Chamberlain, Darren; Cross, David; Torkington, Nathan; Diaz, tatiana Apandi

    2004-01-01

    Among the many different approaches to "templating" with Perl--such as Embperl, Mason, HTML::Template, and hundreds of other lesser known systems--the Template Toolkit is widely recognized as one of the most versatile. Like other templating systems, the Template Toolkit allows programmers to embed Perl code and custom macros into HTML documents in order to create customized documents on the fly. But unlike the others, the Template Toolkit is as facile at producing HTML as it is at producing XML, PDF, or any other output format. And because it has its own simple templating language, templates

  1. Numerical method for a quadratic minimization problem with an ellipsoidal constraint and an a priori estimate for the solution norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryazhenkov, A. A.; Potapov, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    An algorithm for solving a quadratic minimization problem on an ellipsoidal set in a Hilbert space is proposed. The algorithm is stable to nonuniform perturbations of the operators. A key condition for its application is that we know an estimate for the norm of the exact solution. Applications to boundary control problems for the one-dimensional wave equation are considered. Numerical results are presented.

  2. Deep Structure and Evolution of The Central Graben, North Sea: Constraints From Seismic Observations and Numerical Dynamic Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, N.; Frederiksen, S.; Nielsen, L.; Nørmark, E.; Nielsen, S. B.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    The Central Graben forms the southern arm of a three-arm rift system in the North Sea, with the Viking Graben as the northern arm and the Moray Firth Basin as the western arm. It is a 70-130 km wide graben with a length of about 550 km. High qual- ity normal-incidence and wide-angle seismic data from the MONA LISA deep seismic experiment across the Central Graben show crustal thinning by a factor of 2 in areas of thickest sedimentary sequences and localized seismic reflectivity in the upper mantle dipping away from the deepest parts of the graben. A numerical dynamic lithospheric model with significant Triassic and Late Jurassic extensional phases as well as Mid- dle Jurassic thermal doming accounts for the observed up to 8 km of Late Permian to Cenozoic sediments in the deepest parts of the Graben, for most of the observed lateral thickness variation of sedimentary formations and is consistent with both the deep-seismic data, present-day heat-flow and gravity data. The detailed crustal model produced by joint inverse modelling of seimic refraction data and gravity data shows a distinct thinning of the crust and local elevation of Moho by up to 5 km in a 40 km narrow zone below areas of thick upper Jurassic sediments. This Moho structure suggests that a relatively shallow and otherwise strong uppermost mantle has been interrupted, perhaps by mantle shear zones induced by strain softening as in our nu- merical model. The integrated seismic observational and numerical modelling results indicate that an initially pure-shear donimated extensional regime changed into an ex- tensional regime where simple shear played an important part with mantle shear zones developed during the Late Jurassic extension.

  3. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  4. Numerous Numerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henle, James M.

    This pamphlet consists of 17 brief chapters, each containing a discussion of a numeration system and a set of problems on the use of that system. The numeration systems used include Egyptian fractions, ordinary continued fractions and variants of that method, and systems using positive and negative bases. The book is informal and addressed to…

  5. Bad-good constraints on a polarity correspondence account for the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) and markedness association of response codes (MARC) effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leth-Steensen, Craig; Citta, Richie

    2016-01-01

    Performance in numerical classification tasks involving either parity or magnitude judgements is quicker when small numbers are mapped onto a left-sided response and large numbers onto a right-sided response than for the opposite mapping (i.e., the spatial-numerical association of response codes or SNARC effect). Recent research by Gevers et al. [Gevers, W., Santens, S., Dhooge, E., Chen, Q., Van den Bossche, L., Fias, W., & Verguts, T. (2010). Verbal-spatial and visuospatial coding of number-space interactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139, 180-190] suggests that this effect also arises for vocal "left" and "right" responding, indicating that verbal-spatial coding has a role to play in determining it. Another presumably verbal-based, spatial-numerical mapping phenomenon is the linguistic markedness association of response codes (MARC) effect whereby responding in parity tasks is quicker when odd numbers are mapped onto left-sided responses and even numbers onto right-sided responses. A recent account of both the SNARC and MARC effects is based on the polarity correspondence principle [Proctor, R. W., & Cho, Y. S. (2006). Polarity correspondence: A general principle for performance of speeded binary classification tasks. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 416-442]. This account assumes that stimulus and response alternatives are coded along any number of dimensions in terms of - and + polarities with quicker responding when the polarity codes for the stimulus and the response correspond. In the present study, even-odd parity judgements were made using either "left" and "right" or "bad" and "good" vocal responses. Results indicated that a SNARC effect was indeed present for the former type of vocal responding, providing further evidence for the sufficiency of the verbal-spatial coding account for this effect. However, the decided lack of an analogous SNARC-like effect in the results for the latter type of vocal responding provides an important

  6. Metaprogramming Applied to Numerical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulansky, Mario; Ahnert, Karsten

    2011-09-01

    From the discovery that the template system of C++ forms a Turing complete language in 1994, a programming technique called Template Metaprogramming has emerged that allows for the creation of faster, more generic and better code. Here, we apply Template Metaprogramming to implement a generic Runge-Kutta scheme that can be used to numerically solve ordinary differential equations. We show that using Template Metaprogramming results in a significantly improved performance compared to a classical implementation.

  7. DTM: Deformable Template Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyungtae; Kwon, Heesung; Robinson, Ryan M.; Nothwang, William D.

    2016-01-01

    A novel template matching algorithm that can incorporate the concept of deformable parts, is presented in this paper. Unlike the deformable part model (DPM) employed in object recognition, the proposed template-matching approach called Deformable Template Matching (DTM) does not require a training step. Instead, deformation is achieved by a set of predefined basic rules (e.g. the left sub-patch cannot pass across the right patch). Experimental evaluation of this new method using the PASCAL VO...

  8. Insights from numerical modeling on the global-scale mantle water cycle: evolution of the surface water ocean as a constraint on the plate-mantle-core system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T.; Spiegelman, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    In our previous model on global-scale water cycle in the mantle, we considered a boundary condition that provided an `infinite water reservoir' at the surface [Nakagawa and Spiegelman, revised]. However, the volume of the surface water reservoir is clearly finite with 1OM over the age of the Earth [Hamano et al., 2013]. Here we describe a new model where the amount of surface water reservoir is controlled by the degassing-regassing balance. In addition, for addressing the entire evolution of plate-mantle-core system in the numerical model, we also include the core cooling effects described as global heat balance with the inner core growth effects and core-mantle chemical reaction to transport oxygen and/or volatile from the deep mantle in the model. Since petrological studies suggest that mantle minerals are not necessarily saturated with water at the surface [Asimow and Langmuir, 2003], we introduce the efficiency of regassing for computing both regassing flux and the boundary conditions on mantle water content varying from 10-5(strongly under-saturated) to 1 (completely saturated) as suggested from a parameterized model of mantle water cycle evolution [Sandu et al., 2011]. Checking the model sensitivities to the initial amount of surface water ocean (2 to 5 ocean masses) and the efficiency of regassing, the best-fit scenario for explaining the current amount of surface water reservoir requires a small efficiency of regassing with any choice of initial amount of surface water ocean. If the efficiency of regassing is large, the active plate-like motion easily transports all of surface water ocean into the mantle in about time-scale of O(100) Myrs. This suggests that the water content of oceanic lithosphere might be less than the petrological constraints ( 200 ppm [Asimow and Langmiur, 2003]). Since the rheological dependence of water on hydrous minerals enhances the heat transfer of mantle convection, the thermo-chemical evolution of the plate-mantle-core system

  9. S-template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Bhagchandani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently introduced Yen angle and W angle suggest the use of center of premaxilla (M and mandibular symphysis (G as landmarks for assessing sagittal jaw base discrepancies. These landmarks have been considered to be more stable than traditionally used points A and B. This article is an attempt to develop a simple tool that will enable the clinician to identify the centers of premaxilla and mandibular symphysis and hence the name Simplified template, i.e., S-template. This tool would aid the orthodontist in locating the centroids of maxilla and mandibular symphysis more easily and accurately than prefabricated templates.

  10. A fast template periodogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This proceedings contribution presents a novel, non-linear extension to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram that allows periodograms to be generated for arbitrary signal shapes. Such periodograms are already known as “template periodograms” or “periodic matched filters,” but current implementations are computationally inefficient. The “fast template periodogram” presented here improves existing techniques by a factor of ∼a few for small test cases (O(10 observations, and over three orders of magnitude for lightcurves containing O(104 observations. The fast template periodogram scales asymptotically as O(HNf log HNf + H4Nf, where H denotes the number of harmonics required to adequately approximate the template and Nf is the number of trial frequencies. Existing implementations scale as O(NobsNf, where Nobs is the number of observations in the lightcurve. An open source Python implementation is available on GitHub.

  11. A fast template periodogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John; VanderPlas, Jake; Hartman, Joel; Bakos, Gáspár

    2017-09-01

    This proceedings contribution presents a novel, non-linear extension to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram that allows periodograms to be generated for arbitrary signal shapes. Such periodograms are already known as "template periodograms" or "periodic matched filters," but current implementations are computationally inefficient. The "fast template periodogram" presented here improves existing techniques by a factor of ˜a few for small test cases (O(10) observations), and over three orders of magnitude for lightcurves containing O(104) observations. The fast template periodogram scales asymptotically as O(HNf log HNf + H4Nf), where H denotes the number of harmonics required to adequately approximate the template and Nf is the number of trial frequencies. Existing implementations scale as O(NobsNf), where Nobs is the number of observations in the lightcurve. An open source Python implementation is available on GitHub.

  12. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...

  13. Biometric Template Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nagar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.

  14. Towards a cosmological exploitation of cosmic void statistics - New numerical tools in the CosmoBolognaLib to extract cosmological constraints from the void size function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Tommaso; Marulli, Federico

    2017-03-01

    We present new numerical tools to analyse cosmic void catalogues, implemented inside the CosmoBolognaLib, a large set of Open Source C++/Python numerical libraries. The CosmoBolognaLib provides a common numerical environment for cosmological calculations. This work extends these libraries by adding new algorithms for cosmological analyses of cosmic voids, covering the existing gap between theory and observations. We implemented new methods to model the size function of cosmic voids, in both observed and simulated samples of dark matter and biased tracers. Moreover, we provide new numerical tools to construct unambiguous void catalogues. The latter are designed to be independent of the void finder, in order to allow a high versatility in comparing independent results. The implemented Open Source software is available at the GitHub repository https://github.com/federicomarulli/CosmoBolognaLib. We provide also a full doxygen documentation and some example codes that explain how to use these libraries.

  15. Joomla! 3 template essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Frankowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Using this hands-on, step-by step tutorial filled with practical examples, the readers will be able to create beautiful templates and themes for your websites that will make them stand out from others.This book is written for all of you who wish to create your own unique templates for Joomla! 3.x. This book can be used by Joomla! administrators or visual designers (with no programming experience) or those of you who are used to working with common web developer tools like HTML/CSS editors for coding purposes. You would need basic knowledge of Joomla! and some knowledge of CSS and HTML.

  16. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  17. The Cadastral Template Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Steudler, Daniel; Williamson, Ian P.

    2004-01-01

      While many country reports have been compiled in the area of land administration over the last decade, there has not much attention been given to the basic cadastral issues. As a result, one of the objectives of Working Group 3 ?Cadastre? of the PCGIAP is the establishment of a cadastral template...

  18. Cosmological exploitation of cosmic void statistics. New numerical tools in the CosmoBolognaLib to extract cosmological constraints from the void size function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Tommaso; Marulli, Federico

    2017-10-01

    Context. We present new numerical tools to analyse cosmic void catalogues, implemented inside the CosmoBolognaLib, a large set of open source C++/Python numerical libraries. Aims: The CosmoBolognaLib provides a common numerical environment for cosmological calculations. This work extends these libraries by adding new algorithms for cosmological analyses of cosmic voids, covering the existing gap between theory and observations. Methods: We implemented new methods to model the size function of cosmic voids, in both observed and simulated samples of dark matter and biased tracers. Moreover, we provide new numerical tools to construct unambiguous void catalogues. The latter are designed to be independent of the void finder, in order to allow a high versatility in comparing independent results. Results: The implemented open source software is available at the GitHub repository of the CosmoBolognaLib. We also provide a full doxygen documentation and some example codes that explain how to use these libraries. The implemented open source software is available at http://https://github.com/federicomarulli/CosmoBolognaLib

  19. NLG vs. Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, E R

    1995-01-01

    One of the most important questions in applied NLG is what benefits (or `value-added', in business-speak) NLG technology offers over template-based approaches. Despite the importance of this question to the applied NLG community, however, it has not been discussed much in the research NLG community, which I think is a pity. In this paper, I try to summarize the issues involved and recap current thinking on this topic. My goal is not to answer this question (I don't think we know enough to be able to do so), but rather to increase the visibility of this issue in the research community, in the hope of getting some input and ideas on this very important question. I conclude with a list of specific research areas I would like to see more work in, because I think they would increase the `value-added' of NLG over templates.

  20. Templating mesoporous zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Kustova, Marina

    2008-01-01

    phase. It is shown that the available templating approaches are quite versatile, and accordingly, it is possible to produce a very wide range of hierarchical zeolite materials. The resulting zeolite materials, featuring noncrystallographic mesopores in addition to the crystallographic micropores......, exhibit significantly enhanced diffusional properties in comparison with purely microporous zeolite materials. These enhanced mass transport properties have been shown in several cases to result in significantly improved catalytic properties in a range of important reactions....

  1. Quaternary channels within the Northeast German Basin and their relevance on double diffusive convective transport processes: Constraints from 3-D thermohaline numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Björn Onno; Cacace, Mauro; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2013-08-01

    The internal geological structure of the Northeast German Basin (NEGB) is affected by intense salt diapirism and by the presence of several stratified aquifer complexes of regional relevance. The shallow Quaternary to late Tertiary freshwater aquifer is separated from the underlying Mesozoic saline aquifers by an embedded Tertiary clay enriched aquitard (Rupelian Aquitard). An important feature of this aquitard is that hydraulic connections between the upper and lower aquifers do exist in areas where the Rupelian Aquitard is missing (hydrogeological windows). Three-dimensional thermohaline numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the effects of such hydrogeological windows in the Rupelian Aquitard on the resulting groundwater, temperature, and salinity distributions. Numerical results suggest that hydrogeological windows act as preferential domains of hydraulic interconnectivity between the different aquifers at depth and enable vigorous heat and mass transport which causes a mixing of warm and saline groundwater with cold and less saline groundwater within both aquifers. In areas where the Rupelian Aquitard confines the Mesozoic aquifer, dissolved solutes from major salt structures are transported laterally giving rise to plumes of variable salinity content ranging from few hundreds of meters to several tens of kilometers. Furthermore, destabilizing thermal buoyancy forces may overwhelm counteracting stabilizing salinity induced forces offside of salt domes. This may result in buoyant upward groundwater flow transporting heat and mass to shallower levels within the same Mesozoic Aquifer.

  2. Comparing Evolutionary Algorithms on Binary Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craenen, B.G.W.; Eiben, A.E.; van Hemert, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    Constraint handling is not straightforward in evolutionary algorithms (EAs) since the usual search operators, mutation and recombination, are 'blind' to constraints. Nevertheless, the issue is highly relevant, for many challenging problems involve constraints. Over the last decade, numerous EAs for

  3. A Deformable Template Model, with Special Reference to Elliptical Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Pedersen, Jan; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2002-01-01

    This paper suggests a high-level continuous image model for planar star-shaped objects. Under this model, a planar object is a stochastic deformation of a star-shaped template. The residual process, describing the difference between the radius-vector function of the template and the object...

  4. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-08-01

    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.

  5. A multimedia constraint system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.A. van Hintum; G.J. Reynolds

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe MADE constraint system provides excellent opportunities to introduce constraints in a multimedia application. Multimedia applications are not only a good place to experiment with constraint systems; constraints in a multimedia environment are almost indispensable. Due to the

  6. Continuous Optimization on Constraint Manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates continuous optimization on the differentiable manifold formed by continuous constraint functions. The first order tensor geodesic differential equation is solved on the manifold in both numerical and closed analytic form for simple nonlinear programs. Advantages and disadvantages with respect to conventional optimization techniques are discussed.

  7. Wide band gap semiconductor templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Stan, Liliana (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); DePaula, Raymond F. (Santa Fe, NM); Usov, Igor O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-14

    The present invention relates to a thin film structure based on an epitaxial (111)-oriented rare earth-Group IVB oxide on the cubic (001) MgO terminated surface and the ion-beam-assisted deposition ("IBAD") techniques that are amendable to be over coated by semiconductors with hexagonal crystal structures. The IBAD magnesium oxide ("MgO") technology, in conjunction with certain template materials, is used to fabricate the desired thin film array. Similarly, IBAD MgO with appropriate template layers can be used for semiconductors with cubic type crystal structures.

  8. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  9. Web Template Extraction Based on Hyperlink Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Alarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Web templates are one of the main development resources for website engineers. Templates allow them to increase productivity by plugin content into already formatted and prepared pagelets. For the final user templates are also useful, because they provide uniformity and a common look and feel for all webpages. However, from the point of view of crawlers and indexers, templates are an important problem, because templates usually contain irrelevant information such as advertisements, menus, and banners. Processing and storing this information is likely to lead to a waste of resources (storage space, bandwidth, etc.. It has been measured that templates represent between 40% and 50% of data on the Web. Therefore, identifying templates is essential for indexing tasks. In this work we propose a novel method for automatic template extraction that is based on similarity analysis between the DOM trees of a collection of webpages that are detected using menus information. Our implementation and experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the technique.

  10. Constraint based frequent pattern mining for generalized query ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraint based frequent pattern mining for generalized query templates from web log. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  11. Soft Concurrent Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Bistarelli, S.; Montanari, U.; Rossi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Soft constraints extend classical constraints to represent multiple consistency levels, and thus provide a way to express preferences, fuzziness, and uncertainty. While there are many soft constraint solving formalisms, even distributed ones, by now there seems to be no concurrent programming framework where soft constraints can be handled. In this paper we show how the classical concurrent constraint (cc) programming framework can work with soft constraints, and we also propose an extension ...

  12. Macroporous inorganic solids from a biomineral template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wenbo; Park, Robert J.; Kulak, Alex N.; Meldrum, Fiona C.

    2006-08-01

    A range of macroporous inorganic solids, with unique, sponge-like structures were synthesised by templating sea urchin skeletal plates. Although composed of a single crystal of calcite, a sea urchin plate exhibits a bicontinuous morphology with pores of diameter 10-15 μm. As both the solid and porous fractions of the plate exhibit identical form and dimensions, filling the porous network with an alternative material and dissolving away the CaCO 3 generates a cast with identical morphology to the original plate. The versatility of this approach is demonstrated in this paper, which provides both a review of previously published work, and a description of the application to a number of new systems. Macroporous metals, including gold and nickel were synthesised either from pre-prepared particles or via electroless deposition, while silica and titania were generated by sol-gel techniques. Sponge-like polymer membranes, formed as casts of the sea urchin plates, were also used as an environment in which to precipitate a range of single crystals with complex morphologies: CaCO 3, SrSO 4, PbSO 4, PbCO 3, NaCl and CuSO 4·5H 2O. These experiments demonstrate that single crystals with intricate forms are not restricted to the realms of biology, but that shape constraint provides an extremely general route for morphological control.

  13. Design reflowable digital book template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, Didik Dwi; Widiyaningtyas, Triyanna; Arifin, M. Zainal; Wahyu Sakti G., I.

    2017-09-01

    Electronic books (e-books or digital books) increasingly in demand and continue to grow in the form of future books. One of the standard format electronic books that potential is EPUB (electronic publication) published by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). This digital book has major advantages are able to provide interactive and reflowable content, which are not found in another book format, such as PDF. Reflowable content allows the book can be accessed through a variety of reader device, like desktop and mobile with a fit and comfort view. However, because the generating process of an EPUB digital book is not as easy a PDF, so this format is less popular. Therefore, in order to help overcome the existing problems, this paper develops digital reflowable text book templates to support electronic learning, especially in Indonesia. This template can be used by anyone to produce a standard digital book quickly and easily without requiring additional specialized knowledge.

  14. Stochastic Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    To model combinatorial decision problems involving uncertainty and probability, we introduce stochastic constraint programming. Stochastic constraint programs contain both decision variables (which we can set) and stochastic variables (which follow a probability distribution). They combine together the best features of traditional constraint satisfaction, stochastic integer programming, and stochastic satisfiability. We give a semantics for stochastic constraint programs, and propose a number...

  15. Holonomic constraints: an analytical result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazars, Martial [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Universite de Paris Sud XI, Batiment 210, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2007-02-23

    Systems subjected to holonomic constraints follow quite complicated dynamics that could not be described easily with Hamiltonian or Lagrangian dynamics. The influence of holonomic constraints in equations of motions is taken into account by using Lagrange multipliers. Finding the value of the Lagrange multipliers allows us to compute the forces induced by the constraints and therefore, to integrate the equations of motions of the system. Computing analytically the Lagrange multipliers for a constrained system may be a difficult task that depends on the complexity of systems. For complex systems it is, most of the time, impossible to achieve. In computer simulations, some algorithms using iterative procedures estimate numerically Lagrange multipliers or constraint forces by correcting the unconstrained trajectory. In this work, we provide an analytical computation of the Lagrange multipliers for a set of linear holonomic constraints with an arbitrary number of bonds of constant length. In the appendix explicit formulae are shown for Lagrange multipliers for systems having 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 bonds of constant length, linearly connected.

  16. Functional Programming with C++ Template Metaprograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkoláb, Zoltán

    Template metaprogramming is an emerging new direction of generative programming. With the clever definitions of templates we can force the C++ compiler to execute algorithms at compilation time. Among the application areas of template metaprograms are the expression templates, static interface checking, code optimization with adaption, language embedding and active libraries. However, as template metaprogramming was not an original design goal, the C++ language is not capable of elegant expression of metaprograms. The complicated syntax leads to the creation of code that is hard to write, understand and maintain. Although template metaprogramming has a strong relationship with functional programming, this is not reflected in the language syntax and existing libraries. In this paper we give a short and incomplete introduction to C++ templates and the basics of template metaprogramming. We will enlight the role of template metaprograms, and some important and widely used idioms. We give an overview of the possible application areas as well as debugging and profiling techniques. We suggest a pure functional style programming interface for C++ template metaprograms in the form of embedded Haskell code which is transformed to standard compliant C++ source.

  17. Dynamic Compilation of C++ Template Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Cole

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Generic programming using the C++ template facility has been a successful method for creating high-performance, yet general algorithms for scientific computing and visualization. However, adding template code tends to require more template code in surrounding structures and algorithms to maintain generality. Compiling all possible expansions of these templates can lead to massive template bloat. Furthermore, compile-time binding of templates requires that all possible permutations be known at compile time, limiting the runtime extensibility of the generic code. We present a method for deferring the compilation of these templates until an exact type is needed. This dynamic compilation mechanism will produce the minimum amount of compiled code needed for a particular application, while maintaining the generality and performance that templates innately provide. Through a small amount of supporting code within each templated class, the proper templated code can be generated at runtime without modifying the compiler. We describe the implementation of this goal within the SCIRun dataflow system. SCIRun is freely available online for research purposes.

  18. I - Template Metaprogramming for Massively Parallel Scientific Computing - Expression Templates

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  19. Templated growth of graphenic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Nolan W; Connors, L Matthew; Ding, Feng; Yakobson, Boris I; Schmidt, Howard K; Hauge, Robert H

    2009-06-17

    A novel strategy is proposed for the topologically controlled synthesis of extended graphenic sheets by additively reacting carbon into a pre-existing graphene sheet which is on top of a templating substrate. This concept is implemented and demonstrated using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Novel morphological features observed in this study suggest unusual aspects of the CVD growth process. CVD results demonstrate the basic soundness of the synthesis strategy but highlight the sensitivity of the process to certain types of disruption and the need for alternative forms of embodiment.

  20. A template for design personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Storgaard Nielsen, Kira; Stage, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The persona method is gaining widespread use and support. Many researchers have reported from single cases and from novel domains on how they have used the method. However, the way companies and design groups describe personas has not been the focus of attention. This paper analyses 47 descriptions...... from 13 companies and compares these to an analysis of recommendations from 11 templates from literature. Furthermore, 28 interviews with Danish practitioners with experience in using personas are analyzed for content on persona descriptions. The study finds that a Danish persona style has developed...

  1. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template...... models making a non-expert user able to use the model. A comparative study of a number of optimization algorithms is also reported. In addition a general polygon-based model, an ellipse model and a textile model are proposed and a number of applications have been solved. Finally the Grenander model...

  2. Interactive numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Although Arabic numerals (like ‘2016’ and ‘3.14’) are ubiquitous, we show that in interactive computer applications they are often misleading and surprisingly unreliable. We introduce interactive numerals as a new concept and show, like Roman numerals and Arabic numerals, interactive numerals introduce another way of using and thinking about numbers. Properly understanding interactive numerals is essential for all computer applications that involve numerical data entered by users, including finance, medicine, aviation and science. PMID:28484609

  3. Random constraint sampling and duality for convex optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Haskell, William B.; Pengqian, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We are interested in solving convex optimization problems with large numbers of constraints. Randomized algorithms, such as random constraint sampling, have been very successful in giving nearly optimal solutions to such problems. In this paper, we combine random constraint sampling with the classical primal-dual algorithm for convex optimization problems with large numbers of constraints, and we give a convergence rate analysis. We then report numerical experiments that verify the effectiven...

  4. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go eKawamura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanowires (NWs have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  5. Template-Directed Olefin Cross Metathesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cantrill, Stuart J.; Grubbs, Robert H; Lanari, Daniela; Leung, Ken C.-F.; Nelson, Alshakim; Poulin-Kerstien, Katherine G.; Smidt, Sebastian P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Tirrell, David A.

    2005-01-01

    A template containing two secondary dialkylammonium ion recognition sites for encirclement by olefin-bearing dibenzo[24]crown-8 derivatives has been used to promote olefin cross metatheses with ruthenium-alkylidene catalysts. For monoolefin monomers, the rates of metatheses and yields of the dimers are both amplified in the presence of the template. Likewise, for a diolefin monomer, the yield of the dimer is enhanced in the presence of the template under conditions where higher oligomers are ...

  6. Vertical Carbon Nanotube Device in Nanoporous Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmann, Matthew Ralph (Inventor); Fisher, Timothy Scott (Inventor); Sands, Timothy (Inventor); Bashir, Rashid (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modified porous anodic alumina template (PAA) containing a thin CNT catalyst layer directly embedded into the pore walls. CNT synthesis using the template selectively catalyzes SWNTs and DWNTs from the embedded catalyst layer to the top PAA surface, creating a vertical CNT channel within the pores. Subsequent processing allows for easy contact metallization and adaptable functionalization of the CNTs and template for a myriad of applications.

  7. Templated Dry Printing of Conductive Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, David Alexander

    Printed electronics can lower the cost and increase the ubiquity of electrical components such as batteries, sensors, and telemetry systems. Unfortunately, the advance of printed electronics has been held back by the limited minimum resolution, aspect ratio, and feature fidelity of present printing techniques such as gravure, screen printing and inkjet printing. Templated dry printing offers a solution to these problems by patterning nanoparticle inks into templates before drying. This dissertation shows advancements in two varieties of templated dry nanoprinting. The first, advective micromolding in vapor-permeable templates (AMPT) is a microfluidic approach that uses evaporation-driven mold filling to create submicron features with a 1:1 aspect ratio. We will discuss submicron surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made through this process, and the refinement process in the template manufacturing process necessary to make these devices. We also present modeling techniques that can be applied to future AMPT templates. We conclude with a modified templated dry printing that improves throughput and isolated feature patterning by transferring dry-templated features with laser ablation. This method utilizes surface energy-defined templates to pattern features via doctor blade coating. Patterned and dried features can be transferred to a polymer substrate with an Nd:YAG MOPA fiber laser, and printed features can be smaller than the laser beam width.

  8. Influence of template fill in graphoepitaxy DSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doise, Jan; Bekaert, Joost; Chan, Boon Teik; Hong, SungEun; Lin, Guanyang; Gronheid, Roel

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) is considered a promising patterning approach for the 7 nm node and beyond. Specifically, a grapho-epitaxy process using a cylindrical phase BCP may offer an efficient solution for patterning randomly distributed contact holes with sub-resolution pitches, such as found in via and cut mask levels. In any grapho-epitaxy process, the pattern density impacts the template fill (local BCP thickness inside the template) and may cause defects due to respectively over- or underfilling of the template. In order to tackle this issue thoroughly, the parameters that determine template fill and the influence of template fill on the resulting pattern should be investigated. In this work, using three process flow variations (with different template surface energy), template fill is experimentally characterized as a function of pattern density and film thickness. The impact of these parameters on template fill is highly dependent on the process flow, and thus pre-pattern surface energy. Template fill has a considerable effect on the pattern transfer of the DSA contact holes into the underlying layer. Higher fill levels give rise to smaller contact holes and worse critical dimension uniformity. These results are important towards DSA-aware design and show that fill is a crucial parameter in grapho-epitaxy DSA.

  9. The Flattened Aggregate Constraint Homotopy Method for Nonlinear Programming Problems with Many Nonlinear Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aggregate constraint homotopy method uses a single smoothing constraint instead of m-constraints to reduce the dimension of its homotopy map, and hence it is expected to be more efficient than the combined homotopy interior point method when the number of constraints is very large. However, the gradient and Hessian of the aggregate constraint function are complicated combinations of gradients and Hessians of all constraint functions, and hence they are expensive to calculate when the number of constraint functions is very large. In order to improve the performance of the aggregate constraint homotopy method for solving nonlinear programming problems, with few variables and many nonlinear constraints, a flattened aggregate constraint homotopy method, that can save much computation of gradients and Hessians of constraint functions, is presented. Under some similar conditions for other homotopy methods, existence and convergence of a smooth homotopy path are proven. A numerical procedure is given to implement the proposed homotopy method, preliminary computational results show its performance, and it is also competitive with the state-of-the-art solver KNITRO for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization.

  10. Comparison between the standard SPM2 template and Korean-standard template in FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Byeong Il; Song, Ho Chun; Min, Jung Joon; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The preprocessing step of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) requires the procedure of spatial normalization that consists of applying the nonlinear deformations needed to force every particular PET scan to match a reference template. The purpose of this study is to asses the statistic influence of using 2 different templates (the standard SPM2-PET template and Korean-standard PET template) in the normalization. We compared the regional metabolic patterns on 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) images obtained from 4 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 16 normal subjects. The statistical outcome of between- group comparison was analyzed with SPM2 and was applied into two levels of thresholds (an uncorrected P value of P <0.001, a corrected P value of P < 0.05). As a result, the most significant hypometabolic region was commonly found in the left temporal gyrus regardless of template type or thresholds. However, inconsistent results including different extent and the t-score statistics representing metabolic changes could be also observed between two templates. While the standard SPM2 template showed hypometabolic regions corresponding to Brodman area (BA) 7 and 9, Korean-standard template was not observed these regions. In addition, hypometabolic regions corresponding to BA 38 and 46 indicated not the standard SPM2 template but Korean-standard template. Statistic result showed that the standard SPM2 template effectively reflects the dorsal region of the brain while Korean-standard template is more sensitive to the medial region of the brain.

  11. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Thierry; Poder, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  12. Practical Biometric Authentication with Template Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyls, P.; Akkermans, A.H.M.; Kevenaar, T.A.M.; Schrijen, G.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kanade, T.; Jain, A.K.; Ratha, N.K.

    We show the feasibility of template protecting biometric authentication systems. In particular, we apply template protection schemes to fingerprint data. Therefore we first make a fixed length representation of the fingerprint data by applying Gabor filtering. Next we introduce the reliable

  13. Screening for templates that promote crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Horst, J.H. ter; Verdoes, D.; Jansens, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Situ Product Recovery (ISPR) applied in fermentation processes leads to improved yield and productivity of these processes. In principle, ISPR can be achieved using Template Induced Crystallization (TIC), which is one possible ISPR technique. With TIC, templates are added to the solution as a

  14. Surgical Templates for Dental Implant Positioning; Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    applicability of surgical templates used in the placement of dental implants. KEYWORDS: Dental implants, surgical templates, surgical procedure, stent. Access this .... ended up with the identification of basic three‑fabrication design concepts; (1) ... surgical guide on mounted diagnostic models of patient's mouth. He also ...

  15. Composing constraint solvers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Zoeteweij (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractComposing constraint solvers based on tree search and constraint propagation through generic iteration leads to efficient and flexible constraint solvers. This was demonstrated using OpenSolver, an abstract branch-and-propagate tree search engine that supports a wide range of relevant

  16. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang

    2015-05-04

    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  17. Biomolecular templating of functional hybrid nanostructures using repeat protein scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera, David; Couleaud, Pierre; Mejias, Sara H; Aires, Antonio; Cortajarena, Aitziber L

    2015-10-01

    The precise synthesis of materials and devices with tailored complex structures and properties is a requisite for the development of the next generation of products based on nanotechnology. Nowadays, the technology for the generation of this type of devices lacks the precision to determine their properties and is accomplished mostly by 'trial and error' experimental approaches. The use of bottom-up approaches that rely on highly specific biomolecular interactions of small and simple components is an attractive approach for the templating of nanoscale elements. In nature, protein assemblies define complex structures and functions. Engineering novel bio-inspired assemblies by exploiting the same rules and interactions that encode the natural diversity is an emerging field that opens the door to create nanostructures with numerous potential applications in synthetic biology and nanotechnology. Self-assembly of biological molecules into defined functional structures has a tremendous potential in nano-patterning and the design of novel materials and functional devices. Molecular self-assembly is a process by which complex 3D structures with specified functions are constructed from simple molecular building blocks. Here we discuss the basis of biomolecular templating, the great potential of repeat proteins as building blocks for biomolecular templating and nano-patterning. In particular, we focus on the designed consensus tetratricopeptide repeats (CTPRs), the control on the assembly of these proteins into higher order structures and their potential as building blocks in order to generate functional nanostructures and materials. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  18. Space charge templates for high-current beam modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiev, Leonid G.; /Fermilab

    2008-07-01

    A computational method to evaluate space charge potential and gradients of charged particle beam in the presence of conducting boundaries, has been introduced. The three-dimensional (3D) field of the beam can be derived as a convolution of macro Green's functions (template fields), satisfying the same boundary conditions, as the original beam. Numerical experiments gave a confidence that space charge effects can be modeled by templates with enough accuracy and generality within dramatically faster computational times than standard combination: a grid density + Poisson solvers, realized in the most of Particle in Cell codes. The achieved rapidity may significantly broaden the high-current beam design space, making the optimization in automatic mode possible, which so far was only feasible for simplest self-field formulations such as rms envelope equations. The template technique may be used as a standalone program, or as an optional field solver in existing beam dynamics codes both in one-passage structures and in rings.

  19. On Noisy Extensions of Nonholonomic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Putkaradze, Vakhtang

    2016-12-01

    We propose several stochastic extensions of nonholonomic constraints for mechanical systems and study the effects on the dynamics and on the conservation laws. Our approach relies on a stochastic extension of the Lagrange-d'Alembert framework. The mechanical system we focus on is the example of a Routh sphere, i.e., a rolling unbalanced ball on the plane. We interpret the noise in the constraint as either a stochastic motion of the plane, random slip or roughness of the surface. Without the noise, this system possesses three integrals of motion: energy, Jellet and Routh. Depending on the nature of noise in the constraint, we show that either energy, or Jellet, or both integrals can be conserved, with probability 1. We also present some exact solutions for particular types of motion in terms of stochastic integrals. Next, for an arbitrary nonholonomic system, we consider two different ways of including stochasticity in the constraints. We show that when the noise preserves the linearity of the constraints, then energy is preserved. For other types of noise in the constraint, e.g., in the case of an affine noise, the energy is not conserved. We study in detail a class of Lagrangian mechanical systems on semidirect products of Lie groups, with "rolling ball type" constraints. We conclude with numerical simulations illustrating our theories, and some pedagogical examples of noise in constraints for other nonholonomic systems popular in the literature, such as the nonholonomic particle, the rolling disk and the Chaplygin sleigh.

  20. Template Composite Dark Matter : SU(2) gauge theory with 2 fundamental flavours

    CERN Document Server

    Drach, Vincent; Pica, Claudio; Rantaharju, Jarno; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-11-13

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon exchange computing the electric polarizability of the DM candidate. Finally, we briefly discuss the viability of the model given the present experimental constraints.

  1. An Improved Adaptive Template Size Pixel-Tracking Method for Monitoring Large-Gradient Mining Subsidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilei Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of large-gradient deformation caused by coal mining is of great significance to the prevention and management of disasters in mining areas. The interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR method captures the small-gradient ground deformation on the edge of the subsidence basin accurately but is unreliable for capturing large-gradient deformation. The intensity-based pixel-tracking method (e.g., the normalized cross-correlation (NCC method can overcome the limitations of InSAR’s maximum detectable displacement gradient and incoherence. However, the pixel-tracking method is sensitive to template size. It is difficult to estimate ground subsidence accurately by the conventional pixel-tracking method with fixed template size. In this paper, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is redefined and an improved locally adaptive template size method is proposed by identifying optimal template adaptively based on maximization of the redefined SNR. The constraint radius is used to constrain the search area in this improved method. The frequency of misrepresentation is reduced by finding the peak of the correlation coefficient surface within the search area. Both simulation data and real ground subsidence data are used to test this algorithm. The results show that this method can improve monitoring accuracy compared with the traditional pixel-tracking method for fixed template size.

  2. Templated Growth of Magnetic Recording Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Vignesh

    Current and potential next-generation magnetic recording technologies are based on the writing and reading of bits on a magnetic thin film with a granular microstructure, with grains of the magnetic material surrounded by an amorphous segregant. In order to realize the highest achievable data storage capabilities, there is a need for better control of the magnetic media microstructure, particularly in terms of minimizing grain size and grain boundary thickness distributions. In this work, a guided magnetic media growth is attempted by creating a pre-fabricated template with a specific material and morphology. The template is designed in such a way that, when magnetic media consisting of the magnetic alloy and segregant are sputtered, the sites on the template result in a controlled two-phase growth of magnetic media. The template is fabricated using self-assembling block copolymers, which can be used to fabricate nanostructures with a regular hexagonal lattice of spheres of one block in the other's matrix. These are then used as etch-masks to fabricate the template. In this thesis, we describe the approach used to fabricate these templates and demonstrate the two-phase growth of magnetic recording media. In such an approach, the magnetic grain size is defined by the uniform pitch of the block copolymer pattern, resulting in a uniform microstructure with much better grain size distribution than can be obtained with conventional un-templated media growth. The templated growth technique is also a suitable additive technique for the fabrication of Bit Patterned Media, another potential next-generation technology wherein the magnetic bits are isolated patterned islands. Combining nanoimprint lithography with templated growth, we can generate a long range spatially ordered array of magnetic islands with no etching of the magnetic material.

  3. Templated Native Silk Smectic Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hyoung-Joon (Inventor); Park, Jae-Hyung (Inventor); Valluzzi, Regina (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of the present invention relates to a method of preparing a fibrous protein smectic hydrogel by way of a solvent templating process, comprising the steps of pouring an aqueous fibrous protein solution into a container comprising a solvent that is not miscible with water; sealing the container and allowing it to age at about room temperature; and collecting the resulting fibrous protein smectic hydrogel and allowing it to dry. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of obtaining predominantly one enantiomer from a racemic mixture, comprising the steps of pouring an aqueous fibrous protein solution into a container comprising a solvent that is not miscible with water; sealing the container and allowing it to age at about room temperature; allowing the enantiomers of racemic mixture to diffuse selectively into the smectic hydrogel in solution; removing the smectic hydrogel from the solution; rinsing predominantly one enantiomer from the surface of the smectic hydrogel; and extracting predominantly one enantiomer from the interior of the smectic hydrogel. The present invention also relates to a smectic hydrogel prepared according to an aforementioned method.

  4. Memoir: template-based structure prediction for membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebejer, Jean-Paul; Hill, Jamie R; Kelm, Sebastian; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M

    2013-07-01

    Membrane proteins are estimated to be the targets of 50% of drugs that are currently in development, yet we have few membrane protein crystal structures. As a result, for a membrane protein of interest, the much-needed structural information usually comes from a homology model. Current homology modelling software is optimized for globular proteins, and ignores the constraints that the membrane is known to place on protein structure. Our Memoir server produces homology models using alignment and coordinate generation software that has been designed specifically for transmembrane proteins. Memoir is easy to use, with the only inputs being a structural template and the sequence that is to be modelled. We provide a video tutorial and a guide to assessing model quality. Supporting data aid manual refinement of the models. These data include a set of alternative conformations for each modelled loop, and a multiple sequence alignment that incorporates the query and template. Memoir works with both α-helical and β-barrel types of membrane proteins and is freely available at http://opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/webapps/memoir.

  5. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis ...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  6. Canard explosion of limit cycles in templator models of self-replication mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Templators are differential equation models for self-replicating chemical systems. Beutel and Peacock-López [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 125104 (2007)]10.1063/1.2716396 have numerically analyzed a model for a cross-catalytic self-replicating system and found two cases of canard explosion, that is, a sub...

  7. Templates for Linear Algebra Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Z.; Day, D.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Gu, M.; Ruhe, A.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    1995-01-01

    The increasing availability of advanced-architecture computers is having a very signicant eect on all spheres of scientic computation, including algorithm research and software development in numerical linear algebra. Linear algebra {in particular, the solution of linear systems of equations and

  8. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This book is composed of two parts: First part describes basics in numerical relativity, that is, the formulations and methods for a solution of Einstein's equation and general relativistic matter field equations. This part will be helpful for beginners of numerical relativity who would like to understand the content of numerical relativity and its background. The second part focuses on the application of numerical relativity. A wide variety of scientific numerical results are introduced focusing in particular on the merger of binary neutron stars and black holes.

  9. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Khabaza, I M

    1960-01-01

    Numerical Analysis is an elementary introduction to numerical analysis, its applications, limitations, and pitfalls. Methods suitable for digital computers are emphasized, but some desk computations are also described. Topics covered range from the use of digital computers in numerical work to errors in computations using desk machines, finite difference methods, and numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the importance of digital computers in numerical analysis, followed by a discussion on errors in comput

  10. Templated and template-free fabrication strategies for zero-dimensional hollow MOF superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyehyun; Lah, Myoung Soo

    2017-05-16

    Various fabrication strategies for hollow metal-organic framework (MOF) superstructures are reviewed and classified using various types of external templates and their properties. Hollow MOF superstructures have also been prepared without external templates, wherein unstable intermediates obtained during reactions convert to the final hollow MOF superstructures. Many hollow MOF superstructures have been fabricated using hard templates. After the core-shell core@MOF structure was prepared using a hard template, the core was selectively etched to generate a hollow MOF superstructure. Another approach for generating hollow superstructures is to use a solid reactant as a sacrificial template; this method requires no additional etching process. Soft templates such as discontinuous liquid/emulsion droplets and gas bubbles in a continuous soft phase have also been employed to prepare hollow MOF superstructures.

  11. Frontiers in Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charles R.; Finn, Lee S.; Hobill, David W.

    2011-06-01

    Preface; Participants; Introduction; 1. Supercomputing and numerical relativity: a look at the past, present and future David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 2. Computational relativity in two and three dimensions Stuart L. Shapiro and Saul A. Teukolsky; 3. Slowly moving maximally charged black holes Robert C. Ferrell and Douglas M. Eardley; 4. Kepler's third law in general relativity Steven Detweiler; 5. Black hole spacetimes: testing numerical relativity David H. Bernstein, David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 6. Three dimensional initial data of numerical relativity Ken-ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 7. Initial data for collisions of black holes and other gravitational miscellany James W. York, Jr.; 8. Analytic-numerical matching for gravitational waveform extraction Andrew M. Abrahams; 9. Supernovae, gravitational radiation and the quadrupole formula L. S. Finn; 10. Gravitational radiation from perturbations of stellar core collapse models Edward Seidel and Thomas Moore; 11. General relativistic implicit radiation hydrodynamics in polar sliced space-time Paul J. Schinder; 12. General relativistic radiation hydrodynamics in spherically symmetric spacetimes A. Mezzacappa and R. A. Matzner; 13. Constraint preserving transport for magnetohydrodynamics John F. Hawley and Charles R. Evans; 14. Enforcing the momentum constraints during axisymmetric spacelike simulations Charles R. Evans; 15. Experiences with an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm in numerical relativity Matthew W. Choptuik; 16. The multigrid technique Gregory B. Cook; 17. Finite element methods in numerical relativity P. J. Mann; 18. Pseudo-spectral methods applied to gravitational collapse Silvano Bonazzola and Jean-Alain Marck; 19. Methods in 3D numerical relativity Takashi Nakamura and Ken-ichi Oohara; 20. Nonaxisymmetric rotating gravitational collapse and gravitational radiation Richard F. Stark; 21. Nonaxisymmetric neutron star collisions: initial results using smooth particle hydrodynamics

  12. Fast Legendre moment computation for template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing C.

    2017-05-01

    Normalized cross correlation (NCC) based template matching is insensitive to intensity changes and it has many applications in image processing, object detection, video tracking and pattern recognition. However, normalized cross correlation implementation is computationally expensive since it involves both correlation computation and normalization implementation. In this paper, we propose Legendre moment approach for fast normalized cross correlation implementation and show that the computational cost of this proposed approach is independent of template mask sizes which is significantly faster than traditional mask size dependent approaches, especially for large mask templates. Legendre polynomials have been widely used in solving Laplace equation in electrodynamics in spherical coordinate systems, and solving Schrodinger equation in quantum mechanics. In this paper, we extend Legendre polynomials from physics to computer vision and pattern recognition fields, and demonstrate that Legendre polynomials can help to reduce the computational cost of NCC based template matching significantly.

  13. Template for safety reports with descriptive example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report provides a template for future safety reports on long-term safety in support of important decisions and permit applications in connection with the construction of a deep repository system. The template aims at providing a uniform structure for describing long-term safety, after the repository has been closed and sealed. The availability of such a structure will simplify both preparation and review of the safety reports, and make it possible to follow how safety assessments are influenced by the progressively more detailed body of data that emerges. A separate section containing `descriptive examples` has been appended to the template. This section illustrates what the different chapters of the template should contain. 279 refs.

  14. Template-based prediction of protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrey, Donald; Chen, T Scott; Deng, Lei; Garzon, Jose Ignacio; Hwang, Howook; Lasso, Gorka; Lee, Hunjoong; Silkov, Antonina; Honig, Barry

    2015-06-01

    We discuss recent approaches for structure-based protein function annotation. We focus on template-based methods where the function of a query protein is deduced from that of a template for which both the structure and function are known. We describe the different ways of identifying a template. These are typically based on sequence analysis but new methods based on purely structural similarity are also being developed that allow function annotation based on structural relationships that cannot be recognized by sequence. The growing number of available structures of known function, improved homology modeling techniques and new developments in the use of structure allow template-based methods to be applied on a proteome-wide scale and in many different biological contexts. This progress significantly expands the range of applicability of structural information in function annotation to a level that previously was only achievable by sequence comparison. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Template analysis for the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Uta [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The MAGIC telescopes are two 17-m-diameter Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes located on the Canary island of La Palma. They record the Cherenkov light from air showers induced by very high energy photons. The current data analysis uses a parametrization of the two shower images (including Hillas parameters) to determine the characteristics of the primary particle. I am implementing an advanced analysis method that compares shower images on a pixel basis with template images based on Monte Carlo simulations. To reduce the simulation effort the templates contain only pure shower images that are convolved with the telescope response later in the analysis. The primary particle parameters are reconstructed by maximizing the likelihood of the template. By using all the information available in the shower images, the performance of MAGIC is expected to improve. In this presentation I will explain the general idea of a template-based analysis and show the first results of the implementation.

  16. Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbing, Jana; Koidl, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Abbing, J. & Koidl, K. (2006). Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  17. In search of the visual pigment template

    OpenAIRE

    Govardovskii, V.I.; Fyhrquist, N; Reuter, T; Kuzmin, D.G.; Donner, K

    2000-01-01

    Absorbance spectra were recorded by microspectrophotometry from 39 different rod and cone types representing amphibians, reptiles, and fishes, with A1- or A2-based visual pigments and [lambda]max ranging from 357 to 620 nm. The purpose was to investigate accuracy limits of putative universal templates for visual pigment absorbance spectra, and if possible to amend the templates to overcome the limitations. It was found that (1) the absorbance spectrum of frog rhodopsin extract very precisely ...

  18. Multi-template polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kalle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PCR is a formidable and potent technology that serves as an indispensable tool in a wide range of biological disciplines. However, due to the ease of use and often lack of rigorous standards many PCR applications can lead to highly variable, inaccurate, and ultimately meaningless results. Thus, rigorous method validation must precede its broad adoption to any new application. Multi-template samples possess particular features, which make their PCR analysis prone to artifacts and biases: multiple homologous templates present in copy numbers that vary within several orders of magnitude. Such conditions are a breeding ground for chimeras and heteroduplexes. Differences in template amplification efficiencies and template competition for reaction compounds undermine correct preservation of the original template ratio. In addition, the presence of inhibitors aggravates all of the above-mentioned problems. Inhibitors might also have ambivalent effects on the different templates within the same sample. Yet, no standard approaches exist for monitoring inhibitory effects in multitemplate PCR, which is crucial for establishing compatibility between samples.

  19. A Generic Stochastic Template Bank Placement Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Melissa; Fotopoulos, N.; Priviteria, S.

    2012-01-01

    Black hole binary (BBH) systems represent strong candidates for gravitational wave (GW) detection by GW detectors LIGO and Virgo. BBH searches are template based searches where the templates describe potential GWs. Most BBH sources are spinning strongly enough to affect orbital dynamics though past searches have all been for non-spinning systems. Neglecting spin results in a significant decrease in a BBH search's sensitivity to spinning systems while the inclusion of leading order, single parameter spin corrections regain much of that sensitivity. BBH templates in past searches were chosen so that the overlap between neighboring templates was 97%. The optimal placement of non-spinning, inspiral templates is known but does not work for systems described by more parameters. For spinning systems, the placement metric is not known and stochastic methods like the one described in this poster are necessary. The method described here is based on previous stochastic work. It represents a fast, flexible, open-source tool using publicly available LIGO Algorithms Library (LAL) to generate stochastic banks for any template family no matter the number of parameters used to describe it. The method shows more efficient coverage of the parameter space of interest than a discrete stacking of a two-dimensional bank in a third direction.

  20. Symbolic Constraints in Constructive Geometric Constraint Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Christoph M.; Joan-Arinyo, Robert

    1997-01-01

    In design and manufacturing applications, users of computer aided design systems want to define relationships between dimension variables, since such relationships express design intent very flexibly. This work reports on a technique developed to enhance a class of constructive geometric constraint solvers with the capability of managing functional relationships between dimension variables. The method is shown to be correct.

  1. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  2. Credit Constraints in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…

  3. The Antigone Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggy, David

    This paper presents a class of sentences that certain syntactic rules of English would be expected to produce, but that are not grammatical. The sentences all involve the raising of a sentential Noun Phrase (NP) and the subsequent application of some syntactic rule to that senential NP. A constraint, referred to as the Antigone Constraint, is…

  4. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  5. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  6. US Federal LCA Commons Life Cycle Inventory Unit Process Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Federal LCA Commons Life Cycle Inventory Unit Process Template is a multi-sheet Excel template for life cycle inventory data, metadata and other documentation. The template comes as a package that consistent of three parts: (1) the main template itself for life cycle inven...

  7. Hindi Numerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, William

    In most languages encountered by linguists, the numerals, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular numeral system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…

  8. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, G Shanker

    2006-01-01

    About the Book: This book provides an introduction to Numerical Analysis for the students of Mathematics and Engineering. The book is designed in accordance with the common core syllabus of Numerical Analysis of Universities of Andhra Pradesh and also the syllabus prescribed in most of the Indian Universities. Salient features: Approximate and Numerical Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equation Interpolation of Functions Numerical Differentiation and Integration and Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations The last three chapters deal with Curve Fitting, Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors of a Matrix and Regression Analysis. Each chapter is supplemented with a number of worked-out examples as well as number of problems to be solved by the students. This would help in the better understanding of the subject. Contents: Errors Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations Finite Differences Interpolation with Equal Intervals Interpolation with Unequal Int...

  9. A numerical study of sensory-guided multiple views for improved object identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, B. A.; Zelnio, E. G.; Koditschek, D. E.

    2014-06-01

    We explore the potential on-line adjustment of sensory controls for improved object identification and discrimination in the context of a simulated high resolution camera system carried onboard a maneuverable robotic platform that can actively choose its observational position and pose. Our early numerical studies suggest the significant efficacy and enhanced performance achieved by even very simple feedback-driven iteration of the view in contrast to identification from a fixed pose, uninformed by any active adaptation. Specifically, we contrast the discriminative performance of the same conventional classification system when informed by: a random glance at a vehicle; two random glances at a vehicle; or a random glance followed by a guided second look. After each glance, edge detection algorithms isolate the most salient features of the image and template matching is performed through the use of the Hausdor↵ distance, comparing the simulated sensed images with reference images of the vehicles. We present initial simulation statistics that overwhelmingly favor the third scenario. We conclude with a sketch of our near-future steps in this study that will entail: the incorporation of more sophisticated image processing and template matching algorithms; more complex discrimination tasks such as distinguishing between two similar vehicles or vehicles in motion; more realistic models of the observers mobility including platform dynamics and eventually environmental constraints; and expanding the sensing task beyond the identification of a specified object selected from a pre-defined library of alternatives.

  10. Monosaccharide templates for de novo designed 4-alpha-helix bundle proteins: template effects in carboproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Jesper; Dideriksen, J.M.; Nielsen, John

    2003-01-01

    Da 4-alpha-helix bundles by oxime ligation of tetra-aminooxyacetyl functionalized D-galacto-, D-gluco-, and D-altropyranoside templates with an amphiphilic C- terminal hexadecapeptide aldehyde sequence. CD spectroscopy indicated that the choice of template has an effect on the overall structure...

  11. Constraint-based reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gotlieb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  12. Conversion of Radiology Reporting Templates to the MRRT Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E; Genereaux, Brad; Langlotz, Curtis P

    2015-10-01

    In 2013, the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Radiology workgroup developed the Management of Radiology Report Templates (MRRT) profile, which defines both the format of radiology reporting templates using an extension of Hypertext Markup Language version 5 (HTML5), and the transportation mechanism to query, retrieve, and store these templates. Of 200 English-language report templates published by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), initially encoded as text and in an XML schema language, 168 have been converted successfully into MRRT using a combination of automated processes and manual editing; conversion of the remaining 32 templates is in progress. The automated conversion process applied Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) scripts, an XML parsing engine, and a Java servlet. The templates were validated for proper HTML5 and MRRT syntax using web-based services. The MRRT templates allow radiologists to share best-practice templates across organizations and have been uploaded to the template library to supersede the prior XML-format templates. By using MRRT transactions and MRRT-format templates, radiologists will be able to directly import and apply templates from the RSNA Report Template Library in their own MRRT-compatible vendor systems. The availability of MRRT-format reporting templates will stimulate adoption of the MRRT standard and is expected to advance the sharing and use of templates to improve the quality of radiology reports.

  13. In search of the song template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adret, Patrice

    2004-06-01

    The auditory template theory-the conversion of memorized song to produced song using feedback as an error-correction mechanism-is central to neurobiological studies of birdsong learning. The essence of the theory is the construction of a complex sound replica based on a set of both genetic and environmental instructions. These premises, as yet unchallenged, have stimulated much research on the process of vocal imitation. Two somewhat distinct, but closely related streams of research have emerged. One seeks to determine the neural mechanisms that underlie the formation, storage, and retrieval of vocal memories as a consequence of experience during a sensitive phase-the template concept in its purest form. The other aims at establishing an explanatory basis for genetically based species differences in auditory responsiveness; here, the prime focus is on innately specified templates that guide learning preferences in young, naïve birds. The chapter begins with an historical overview of conceptual issues. Then recent progress in the attempt to characterize template properties is reviewed, focusing on selected studies of sparrows, nightingales, and zebra finches. The chapter concludes with a discussion of research strategy and tactics, including suggestions for criteria that must be met in identifying neural substrates for template specification and localization. The chapter is intended to provide a conceptual framework for further progress in this critical area.

  14. Learning probabilistic document template models via interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadullin, Ildus; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan

    2013-03-01

    Document aesthetics measures are key to automated document composition. Recently we presented a probabilistic document model (PDM) which is a micro-model for document aesthetics based on a probabilistic modeling of designer choice in document design. The PDM model comes with efficient layout synthesis algorithms once the aesthetic model is defined. A key element of this approach is an aesthetic prior on the parameters of a template encoding aesthetic preferences for template parameters. Parameters of the prior were required to be chosen empirically by designers. In this work we show how probabilistic template models (and hence the PDM cost function) can be learnt directly by observing a designer making design choices in composing sample documents. From such training data our learning approach can learn a quality measure that can mimic some of the design tradeoffs a designer makes in practice.

  15. A Hybrid Approach to Protect Palmprint Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric template protection is indispensable to protect personal privacy in large-scale deployment of biometric systems. Accuracy, changeability, and security are three critical requirements for template protection algorithms. However, existing template protection algorithms cannot satisfy all these requirements well. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that combines random projection and fuzzy vault to improve the performances at these three points. Heterogeneous space is designed for combining random projection and fuzzy vault properly in the hybrid scheme. New chaff point generation method is also proposed to enhance the security of the heterogeneous vault. Theoretical analyses of proposed hybrid approach in terms of accuracy, changeability, and security are given in this paper. Palmprint database based experimental results well support the theoretical analyses and demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed hybrid approach.

  16. Three-particle templates for boosted Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Leandro G; Juknevich, José; Lee, Seung J; Perez, Gilad; Sterman, George

    2012-01-01

    We explore the ability of three-particle templates to distinguish color neutral objects from QCD background. This method is particularly useful to identify the standard model Higgs, as well as other massive neutral particles. Simple cut-based analysis in the overlap distributions of the signal and background is shown to provide a significant rejection power. By combining with other discriminating variables, such as planar flow, and several variables that depend on the partonic template, three-particle templates are used to characterize the influence of gluon emission and color flow in collider events. The performance of the method is discussed for the case of a highly boosted Higgs in association with a leptonically-decaying W boson.

  17. Bulky Macroporous TiO2 Photocatalyst with Cellular Structure via Facile Wood-Template Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfeng Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a bulky macroporous TiO2 particles with cellular structure prepared in the presence of wood slices as template. Firstly, TiO2 sol was coated onto the wood slices by repeated dip-coating process. Then, after calcinations at 550°C, the wood template could be removed, and the bulky TiO2 structure was obtained. The prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and transmission electron microscope (TEM techniques. XRD pattern confirmed the crystalline phase of the wood-templated TiO2 is anatase phase. And interestingly, from the observation of SEM image, the wood-templated TiO2 inherited the initial cellular structures of birch lumber (B. albosinensis Burk, and numerous macropores were observed in the sample. Meanwhile, the wood-templated TiO2 presented a superior photocatalytic ability to decompose Rhodamine B (RhB under ultraviolet irradiation.

  18. Polymer templated nickel cobaltate for energy storage★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albohani Shaymaa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to take advantage of the increasing sophistication of technology for harnessing renewable energy resources, serious attention must be paid to how to store and re-access this energy. Electrochemical storage, in the guise of batteries, supercapacitors and pseudocapacitors, has attracted much attention as a viable option for enhanced energy storage applications. But in order for these technologies to be implemented successfully we need to find materials that perform better and are relatively easy to synthesise. Bimetallic transition metal oxides are materials that are readily synthesised and may be multifunctional, i.e. have a role at the electrochemical atomic level as well as the device level. In order for these materials to work efficiently in new generation systems based on sodium and lithium they also need to be mesoporous. This can be achieved by trying to find synthetic techniques that produce specific, highly regulated nanostructures or by adding a ‘templating’ agent during the bulk synthesis step. We have investigated the simple hydrothermal preparation of a number of nickel cobaltate (NiCo2O4 materials using polymer templates, eggshell membrane (ESM and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA, as potential electrode materials for supercapacitors. The ESM was expected to act as a fibrous, random polymeric template while the PMMA should produce a much more ordered material. Electrochemical testing showed that the different templates have led to changes in material morphology and these have resulted in a difference in electrochemical properties. Templated materials increased specific capacitance compared to non-templated and the choice of template could influence the capacitance by as much as 30%.

  19. Numerical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Manoj, N.T.

    Various numerical models used to study the dynamics and horizontal distribution of salinity in Mandovi-Zuari estuaries, Goa, India is discussed in this chapter. Earlier, a one-dimensional network model was developed for representing the complex...

  20. Planck 2015 results: XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators – separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal – we obtain consiste...

  1. 2D vector-cyclic deformable templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette; Conradsen, Knut

    1998-01-01

    matrices applied to the vector cycle. An approximation in the parameter distribution is introduced. The main advantage by using the deformable template model is the ability to simulate a wide range of objects trained by e.g. their biological variations, and thereby improve restoration, segmentation...... and probabillity measurement. The case study concerns estimation of meat percent in pork carcasses. Given two cross-sectional images - one at the front and one near the ham of the carcass - the areas of lean and fat and a muscle in the lean area are measured automatically by the deformable templates....

  2. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Hiroaki, E-mail: onoda@kpu.ac.jp [Department of Informatics and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Shimogamo Nakaragi-cyo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishima, Yuya [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Takenaka, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, Yonago National College of Technology, 4448, Hikona-cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Isao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  3. Affordance Templates for Shared Robot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template framework used to supervise task behaviors on the NASA-JSC Valkyrie robot at the 2013 DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Trials. This framework provides graphical interfaces to human supervisors that are adjustable based on the run-time environmental context (e.g., size, location, and shape of objects that the robot must interact with, etc.). Additional improvements, described below, inject degrees of autonomy into instantiations of affordance templates at run-time in order to enable efficient human supervision of the robot for accomplishing tasks.

  4. Introduction to ASPNET 4 AJAX Client Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Shoemaker, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This Wrox Blox will teach you how to create and customize ASP.NET 4 AJAX Preview 4 Client Templates. The author shows you how to use declarative as well as imperative data-binding techniques to address the simple to advanced UI requirements. He also covers how the observer pattern is fully implemented in ASP.NET 4 AJAX and, when used in conjunction with the Client Template markup extensions, provides a developer experience much like XAML-based applications like WPF and Silverlight. This Wrox Blox walks you through how to implement examples that fetch data from ASP.NET Web Forms using Page Meth

  5. Functional Nanoparticles Enabled by Block Copolymer Templates: from Precision Synthesis of Block Copolymers to Properties and Applications of Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Iocozzia, James; Chen, Yihuang; Zhao, Shiqiang; Cui, Xun; Wang, Wei; Yu, Haifeng; Lin, Shaoliang; Lin, Zhiqun

    2017-08-07

    Inorganic nanoparticles have become a research focus in numerous fields because of their unique properties that distinguish them from their bulk counterparts. Controlling the size and shape of nanoparticles is an essential aspect of nanoparticle synthesis. Preparing inorganic nanoparticles via block copolymer templates is one of the most reliable routes for tuning the size and shape of nanoparticles with a high degree of precision. In this review, we discuss recent progress in block copolymer template design and implementation in the crafting of spherical inorganic nanoparticles including plain, hollow and core@shell varieties. The templates, also known as nanoreactors, are divided into two categories: micelles self-assembled from linear block copolymers and unimolecular star-like block copolymers. The precise control of size and morphology of nanoparticles is highlighted. The useful properties and applications of inorganic nanoparticles prepared from block copolymer templates are also addressed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Controlling Nanostructures by Templated Templates: Inheriting Molecular Orientation in Binary Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Tobias; Witte, Gregor

    2015-09-16

    Precise preparation strategies are required to fabricate molecular nanostructures of specific arrangement. In bottom-up approaches, where nanostructures are gradually formed by piecing together individual parts to the final structure, the self-ordering mechanisms of the involved structures are utilized. In order to achieve the desired structures regarding morphology, grain size, and orientation of the individual moieties, templates can be applied, which influence the formation process of subsequent structures. However, this strategy is of limited use for complex architectures because the templates only influence the structure formation at the interface between the template and the first compound. Here, we discuss the implementation of so-called templated templates and analyze to what extent orientations of the initial layers are inherited in the top layers of another compound to enable structural control in binary heterostructures. For that purpose, we prepared crystalline templates of the organic semiconductors pentacene and perfluoropentacene in different exclusive orientations. We observe that for templates of both individual materials the molecular orientation is inherited in the top layers of the respective counterpart. This behavior is also observed for various other molecules, indicating the robustness of this approach.

  7. The biogeochemical cycle of the adsorbed template. II - Selective adsorption of mononucleotides on adsorbed polynucleotide templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Daniel; Lahav, Noam; Orenberg, James B.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the verification of the specific interaction step of the 'adsorbed template' biogeochemical cycle, a simple model for a primitive prebiotic replication system. The experimental system consisted of gypsum as the mineral to which an oligonucleotide template attaches (Poly-C or Poly-U) and (5-prime)-AMP, (5-prime)-GMP, (5-prime)-CMP and (5-prime)-UMP as the interacting biomonomers. When Poly-C or Poly-U were used as adsorbed templates, (5-prime)-GMP and (5-prime)-AMP, respectively, were observed to be the most strongly adsorbed species.

  8. Photonic hyperuniform networks by silicon double inversion of polymer templates

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Nicolas; Marichy, Catherine; Scheffold, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuniform disordered networks belong to a peculiar class of structured materials predicted to possess partial and complete photonic bandgaps for relatively moderate refractive index contrasts. The practical realization of such photonic designer materials is challenging however, as it requires control over a multi-step fabcrication process on optical length scales. Here we report the direct-laser writing of hyperuniform polymeric templates followed by a silicon double inversion procedure leading to high quality network structures made of polycrystalline silicon. We observe a pronounced gap in the shortwave infrared centered at a wavelength of $\\lambda_{\\text{Gap}}\\simeq $ 2.5 $\\mu$m, in nearly quantitative agreement with numerical simulations. In the experiments the typical structural length scale of the seed pattern can be varied between 2 $\\mu$m and 1.54 $\\mu$m leading to a blue-shift of the gap accompanied by an increase of the silicon volume filling fraction.

  9. Growth of hollow cell spheroids in microbead templated chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eddie; Wang, Dong; Geng, Andrew; Seo, Richard; Gong, Xiaohua

    2017-10-01

    Cells form hollow, spheroidal structures during the development of many tissues, including the ocular lens, inner ear, and many glands. Therefore, techniques for in vitro formation of hollow spheroids are valued for studying developmental and disease processes. Current in vitro methods require cells to self-organize into hollow morphologies; we explored an alternative strategy based on cell growth in predefined, spherical scaffolds. Our method uses sacrificial, gelatin microbeads to simultaneously template spherical chambers within a hydrogel and deliver cells into the chambers. We use mouse lens epithelial cells to demonstrate that cells can populate the internal surfaces of the chambers within a week to create numerous hollow spheroids. The platform supports manipulation of matrix mechanics, curvature, and biochemical composition to mimic in vivo microenvironments. It also provides a starting point for engineering organoids of tissues that develop from hollow spheroids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Triggered Templated Assembly of Protein Polymersomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.; Wolf, de F.A.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Stuart, M.A.C.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Trigger the block: Stable biocompatible protein polymersomes can be generated by a triggered templated self-assembly route (see picture). Pluronic L121 vesicles (red core with blue corona) take up a biosynthetic triblock copolymer CSXSXC into their unilamellar shell. In response to changes in pH

  11. Template Based Low Data Rate Speech Encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-30

    95 with unquantized parameters. 9" Frame size 20 ms is preferred Excelent (Our choice) 95 "•. FrmeSietme Fig. 2 - Frame size vs. spech ...synthesized from the filter coefficients selected from the reference templates that are free from nonspeech sounds. We again use a similar technique but take it

  12. Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregar, K.C.; Winans, R.E.; Botto, R.E.

    1992-12-31

    A method is given for incorporating diverse varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and LiF for 2 days with an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by US patent No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, June 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have water-solubility, positive charge, and thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

  13. Performance Templates and the Regulation of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed, theoretical underpinning for the training and performance improvement method: performance template (P-T). The efficacy of P-T, with limitations, has been demonstrated in this journal and in others. However, the theoretical bases of the P-T approach had not been well-developed. The other…

  14. Recyclable Waste Paper Sorting Using Template Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiur Rahman, Mohammad; Hussain, Aini; Scavino, Edgar; Hannan, M. A.; Basri, Hassan

    This paper explores the application of image processing techniques in recyclable waste paper sorting. In recycling, waste papers are segregated into various grades as they are subjected to different recycling processes. Highly sorted paper streams will facilitate high quality end products, and save processing chemicals and energy. Since 1932 to 2009, different mechanical and optical paper sorting methods have been developed to fill the demand of paper sorting. Still, in many countries including Malaysia, waste papers are sorted into different grades using manual sorting system. Due to inadequate throughput and some major drawbacks of mechanical paper sorting systems, the popularity of optical paper sorting systems is increased. Automated paper sorting systems offer significant advantages over human inspection in terms of fatigue, throughput, speed, and accuracy. This research attempts to develop a smart vision sensing system that able to separate the different grades of paper using Template Matching. For constructing template database, the RGB components of the pixel values are used to construct RGBString for template images. Finally, paper object grade is identified based on the maximum occurrence of a specific template image in the search image. The outcomes from the experiment in classification for White Paper, Old Newsprint Paper and Old Corrugated Cardboard are 96%, 92% and 96%, respectively. The remarkable achievement obtained with the method is the accurate identification and dynamic sorting of all grades of papers using simple image processing techniques.

  15. Surgical Templates for Dental Implant Positioning; Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical templates for dental implant. 5. Nigerian Journal of Surgery. Jan‑Jun 2015 | Volume 21 | Issue 1. 18. Tarlow JL. Fabrication of an implant surgical stent for the edentulous mandible. J Prosthet Dent 1992;67:217‑8. 19. Stellino G, Morgano SM, Imbelloni A. A dual‑purpose, implant stent made from a provisional fixed ...

  16. Ceramic microfluidic monoliths by ice templating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jumeng; Salamon, David; Lefferts, Leonardus; Wessling, Matthias; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Meso/macro-porous alumina microfluidic monoliths were fabricated by an ice-templating (or freeze-casting) technique. A (green) compact with sufficient strength is obtained after controlled freezing and simple drying under ambient conditions by starting with an aqueous suspension of a mixture of

  17. Constraint and gauge shocks in one-dimensional numerical relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, B.; Alcubierre, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Nunez, D.

    2004-01-01

    We study how different types of blow-ups can occur in systems of hyperbolic evolution equations of the type found in general relativity. In particular, we discuss two independent criteria that can be used to determine when such blow-ups can be expected. One criteria is related with the so-called geometric blow-up leading to gradient catastrophes, while the other is based upon the ODE-mechanism leading to blow-ups within finite time. We show how both mechanisms work in the case of a simple one...

  18. Optimization problems with equilibrium constraints and their numerical solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočvara, Michal; Outrata, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 1 (2004), s. 119-149 ISSN 0025-5610 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1075005 Grant - others:BMBF(DE) 03ZOM3ER Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : optimization problems * MPEC * MPCC Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.016, year: 2004

  19. Constraints in Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikow, Cezary Z.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic programming refers to a class of genetic algorithms utilizing generic representation in the form of program trees. For a particular application, one needs to provide the set of functions, whose compositions determine the space of program structures being evolved, and the set of terminals, which determine the space of specific instances of those programs. The algorithm searches the space for the best program for a given problem, applying evolutionary mechanisms borrowed from nature. Genetic algorithms have shown great capabilities in approximately solving optimization problems which could not be approximated or solved with other methods. Genetic programming extends their capabilities to deal with a broader variety of problems. However, it also extends the size of the search space, which often becomes too large to be effectively searched even by evolutionary methods. Therefore, our objective is to utilize problem constraints, if such can be identified, to restrict this space. In this publication, we propose a generic constraint specification language, powerful enough for a broad class of problem constraints. This language has two elements -- one reduces only the number of program instances, the other reduces both the space of program structures as well as their instances. With this language, we define the minimal set of complete constraints, and a set of operators guaranteeing offspring validity from valid parents. We also show that these operators are not less efficient than the standard genetic programming operators if one preprocesses the constraints - the necessary mechanisms are identified.

  20. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, C

    2012-01-01

    Numerical analysis has witnessed many significant developments in the 20th century. This book brings together 16 papers dealing with historical developments, survey papers and papers on recent trends in selected areas of numerical analysis, such as: approximation and interpolation, solution of linear systems and eigenvalue problems, iterative methods, quadrature rules, solution of ordinary-, partial- and integral equations. The papers are reprinted from the 7-volume project of the Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics on '/homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html<

  1. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...

  2. Least Squares Problems with Absolute Quadratic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schöne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes linear least squares problems with absolute quadratic constraints. We develop a generalized theory following Bookstein's conic-fitting and Fitzgibbon's direct ellipse-specific fitting. Under simple preconditions, it can be shown that a minimum always exists and can be determined by a generalized eigenvalue problem. This problem is numerically reduced to an eigenvalue problem by multiplications of Givens' rotations. Finally, four applications of this approach are presented.

  3. Computational templates for introductory nuclear science using mathcad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantites, D. G.; Sobotka, L. G.

    2013-01-01

    Computational templates used to teach an introductory course in nuclear chemistry and physics at Washington University in St. Louis are presented in brief. The templates cover both basic and applied topics.

  4. Visual cluster analysis and pattern recognition template and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil; Martinez, Rubel Francisco

    1999-01-01

    A method of clustering using a novel template to define a region of influence. Using neighboring approximation methods, computation times can be significantly reduced. The template and method are applicable and improve pattern recognition techniques.

  5. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  6. Emergency department documentation templates: variability in template selection and association with physical examination and test ordering in dizziness presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurer William J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical documentation systems, such as templates, have been associated with process utilization. The T-System emergency department (ED templates are widely used but lacking are analyses of the templates association with processes. This system is also unique because of the many different template options available, and thus the selection of the template may also be important. We aimed to describe the selection of templates in ED dizziness presentations and to investigate the association between items on templates and process utilization. Methods Dizziness visits were captured from a population-based study of EDs that use documentation templates. Two relevant process outcomes were assessed: head computerized tomography (CT scan and nystagmus examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of each outcome for patients who did or did not receive a relevant-item template. Propensity scores were also used to adjust for selection effects. Results The final cohort was 1,485 visits. Thirty-one different templates were used. Use of a template with a head CT item was associated with an increase in the adjusted probability of head CT utilization from 12.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-16.6% to 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.9%. The adjusted probability of documentation of a nystagmus assessment increased from 12.0% (95%CI, 8.8%-16.2% when a nystagmus-item template was not used to 95.0% (95% CI, 92.8%-96.6% when a nystagmus-item template was used. The associations remained significant after propensity score adjustments. Conclusions Providers use many different templates in dizziness presentations. Important differences exist in the various templates and the template that is used likely impacts process utilization, even though selection may be arbitrary. The optimal design and selection of templates may offer a feasible and effective opportunity to improve care delivery.

  7. Random Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Coja-Oghlan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Random instances of constraint satisfaction problems such as k-SAT provide challenging benchmarks. If there are m constraints over n variables there is typically a large range of densities r=m/n where solutions are known to exist with probability close to one due to non-constructive arguments. However, no algorithms are known to find solutions efficiently with a non-vanishing probability at even much lower densities. This fact appears to be related to a phase transition in the set of all solutions. The goal of this extended abstract is to provide a perspective on this phenomenon, and on the computational challenge that it poses.

  8. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  9. Business Process Variability : A Tool for Declarative Template Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulanov, P.; Groefsema, H.; Aiello, M.

    2012-01-01

    To lower both implementation time and cost, many Business Process Management tools use process templates to implement highly recurring processes. However, in order for such templates to be used, a process has to adhere substantially to the template. Therefore, current practice for processes which

  10. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maijenburg, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the

  11. FDG-PET template MNI152 1mm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A FDG-PET template in MNI space aligned to the MNI152 atlas This PET-FDG template is provided as is free of charge for all purposes, provided that the following paper is cited......(to appear) when ever the template is used. The authors cannot, under any circumstances, be held responsible for any...

  12. Assessing ligand efficiencies using template-based molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    on a series of 38 TIBO derivatives as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) inhibitors. Four different templates of the Cl-TIBO (1-REV) were created and used as reference templates for docking and align- ing. On the basis of the optimal conformation of the ligands, when fitting to the template, the respective scoring functions ...

  13. Minimal investment risk of a portfolio optimization problem with budget and investment concentration constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, the minimal investment risk for a portfolio optimization problem with imposed budget and investment concentration constraints is considered using replica analysis. Since the minimal investment risk is influenced by the investment concentration constraint (as well as the budget constraint), it is intuitive that the minimal investment risk for the problem with an investment concentration constraint can be larger than that without the constraint (that is, with only the budget constraint). Moreover, a numerical experiment shows the effectiveness of our proposed analysis. In contrast, the standard operations research approach failed to identify accurately the minimal investment risk of the portfolio optimization problem.

  14. Minimization of wave drag due to thickness with constraints on constant volume and maximum thickness position

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Yoji; 石田 洋治

    2001-01-01

    A numerical method has been developed for designing minimum-drag supersonic wing thickness with constraints on total volume and wing's maximum thickness position. This method is based on the linearized supersonic theory and is an extension of Kawasaki's method (ref.10) which deals only with total volume constraint. The maximum thickness position of the wing, a new constraint condition, is important information from both aerodynamic and structural points of view. The addition of the constraint...

  15. Implementation of standard testbeds for numerical relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuc, M C [Department of Physics and Physical Science, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755 (United States); Husa, S [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Alic, D [Department of Physics, University of the Balearic Islands, Cra Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hinder, I [Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lechner, C [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics (WIAS), Mohrenstrasse 39, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Schnetter, E [Center for Computation and Technology, 216 Johnston Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Szilagyi, B; Dorband, N; Pollney, D; Winicour, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Muehlenberg 1, 14076 Golm (Germany); Zlochower, Y [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, 78 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2008-06-21

    We discuss results that have been obtained from the implementation of the initial round of testbeds for numerical relativity which was proposed in the first paper of the Apples with Apples Alliance. We present benchmark results for various codes which provide templates for analyzing the testbeds and to draw conclusions about various features of the codes. This allows us to sharpen the initial test specifications, design a new test and add theoretical insight.

  16. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T

    1993-01-01

    In GR13 we heard many reports on recent. progress as well as future plans of detection of gravitational waves. According to these reports (see the report of the workshop on the detection of gravitational waves by Paik in this volume), it is highly probable that the sensitivity of detectors such as laser interferometers and ultra low temperature resonant bars will reach the level of h ~ 10—21 by 1998. in this level we may expect the detection of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as coalescing binary neutron stars once a year or so. Therefore the progress in numerical relativity is urgently required to predict the wave pattern and amplitude of the gravitational waves from realistic astrophysical sources. The time left for numerical relativists is only six years or so although there are so many difficulties in principle as well as in practice.

  17. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...

  18. Template-based protein structure prediction in CASP11 and retrospect of I-TASSER in the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianyi; Zhang, Wenxuan; He, Baoji; Walker, Sara Elizabeth; Zhang, Hongjiu; Govindarajoo, Brandon; Virtanen, Jouko; Xue, Zhidong; Shen, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Yang

    2016-09-01

    We report the structure prediction results of a new composite pipeline for template-based modeling (TBM) in the 11th CASP experiment. Starting from multiple structure templates identified by LOMETS based meta-threading programs, the QUARK ab initio folding program is extended to generate initial full-length models under strong constraints from template alignments. The final atomic models are then constructed by I-TASSER based fragment reassembly simulations, followed by the fragment-guided molecular dynamic simulation and the MQAP-based model selection. It was found that the inclusion of QUARK-TBM simulations as an intermediate modeling step could help improve the quality of the I-TASSER models for both Easy and Hard TBM targets. Overall, the average TM-score of the first I-TASSER model is 12% higher than that of the best LOMETS templates, with the RMSD in the same threading-aligned regions reduced from 5.8 to 4.7 Å. Nevertheless, there are nearly 18% of TBM domains with the templates deteriorated by the structure assembly pipeline, which may be attributed to the errors of secondary structure and domain orientation predictions that propagate through and degrade the procedures of template identification and final model selections. To examine the record of progress, we made a retrospective report of the I-TASSER pipeline in the last five CASP experiments (CASP7-11). The data show no clear progress of the LOMETS threading programs over PSI-BLAST; but obvious progress on structural improvement relative to threading templates was witnessed in recent CASP experiments, which is probably attributed to the integration of the extended ab initio folding simulation with the threading assembly pipeline and the introduction of atomic-level structure refinements following the reduced modeling simulations. Proteins 2016; 84(Suppl 1):233-246. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Numerical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Agelet de Saracibar Bosch, Carlos; Boman, Romain; Bussetta, Philippe; Cajas García, Juan Carlos; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Chiumenti, Michèle; Coll Sans, Abel; Dadvand, Pooyan; Hernández Ortega, Joaquín Alberto; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Pasenau de Riera, Miguel; Ponthot, Jean Philippe

    2016-01-01

    As one of the results of an ambitious project, this handbook provides a well-structured directory of globally available software tools in the area of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME). The compilation covers models, software tools, and numerical methods allowing describing electronic, atomistic, and mesoscopic phenomena, which in their combination determine the microstructure and the properties of materials. It reaches out to simulations of component manufacture compris...

  20. Partially clairvoyant scheduling for aggregate constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Subramani

    2005-01-01

    constraints. In this paper, we extend the class of constraints for which partially clairvoyant schedules can be determined efficiently, to include aggregate constraints. Aggregate constraints form a strict superset of standard constraints and can be used to model performance metrics.

  1. CPU and GPU (Cuda Template Matching Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Borcovas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Image processing, computer vision or other complicated opticalinformation processing algorithms require large resources. It isoften desired to execute algorithms in real time. It is hard tofulfill such requirements with single CPU processor. NVidiaproposed CUDA technology enables programmer to use theGPU resources in the computer. Current research was madewith Intel Pentium Dual-Core T4500 2.3 GHz processor with4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU I, NVidia GeForce GT320M CUDAcompliable graphics card (GPU I and Intel Core I5-2500K3.3 GHz processor with 4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU II, NVidiaGeForce GTX 560 CUDA compatible graphic card (GPU II.Additional libraries as OpenCV 2.1 and OpenCV 2.4.0 CUDAcompliable were used for the testing. Main test were made withstandard function MatchTemplate from the OpenCV libraries.The algorithm uses a main image and a template. An influenceof these factors was tested. Main image and template have beenresized and the algorithm computing time and performancein Gtpix/s have been measured. According to the informationobtained from the research GPU computing using the hardwarementioned earlier is till 24 times faster when it is processing abig amount of information. When the images are small the performanceof CPU and GPU are not significantly different. Thechoice of the template size makes influence on calculating withCPU. Difference in the computing time between the GPUs canbe explained by the number of cores which they have.

  2. Deep Human Parsing with Active Template Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaodan; Liu, Si; Shen, Xiaohui; Yang, Jianchao; Liu, Luoqi; Dong, Jian; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the human parsing task, namely decomposing a human image into semantic fashion/body regions, is formulated as an active template regression (ATR) problem, where the normalized mask of each fashion/body item is expressed as the linear combination of the learned mask templates, and then morphed to a more precise mask with the active shape parameters, including position, scale and visibility of each semantic region. The mask template coefficients and the active shape parameters together can generate the human parsing results, and are thus called the structure outputs for human parsing. The deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is utilized to build the end-to-end relation between the input human image and the structure outputs for human parsing. More specifically, the structure outputs are predicted by two separate networks. The first CNN network is with max-pooling, and designed to predict the template coefficients for each label mask, while the second CNN network is without max-pooling to preserve sensitivity to label mask position and accurately predict the active shape parameters. For a new image, the structure outputs of the two networks are fused to generate the probability of each label for each pixel, and super-pixel smoothing is finally used to refine the human parsing result. Comprehensive evaluations on a large dataset well demonstrate the significant superiority of the ATR framework over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F1-score reaches 64.38 percent by our ATR framework, significantly higher than 44.76 percent based on the state-of-the-art algorithm [28].

  3. Sensitive surface plasmon resonance enabled by templated periodic arrays of gold nanodonuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xuan; Lin, Yuh-Chieh; Choi, Baeck; Wu, Kedi; Jiang, Peng

    2016-05-01

    Here we report a simple and scalable colloidal lithography technology for fabricating periodic arrays of gold nanodonuts for sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. This new bottom-up approach leverages a unique polymer wetting layer between a self-assembled, non-close-packed monolayer silica colloidal crystal and a silicon substrate to template ordered gold nanodonuts with tunable geometries over wafer-sized areas. The processes involved in this templating nanofabrication approach, including spin coating, oxygen plasma etching, and metal sputtering, are all compatible with standard microfabrication technologies. Specular reflection measurements reveal that the efficient electromagnetic coupling of the incident light with the tunable SPR modes of the templated gold nanodonut arrays enables good spectral tunability. Bulk refractive index sensing experiments show that a high SPR sensitivity of ∼758 nm per refractive index unit, which outperforms many plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by both top-down and bottom-up approaches, can be achieved using the templated gold nanodonut arrays. Numerical finite-difference time-domain simulations have also been performed to complement the optical characterization and the theoretical results match well with the experimental measurements.

  4. Analytic family of post-merger template waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Nagar, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Building on the analytical description of the post-merger (ringdown) waveform of coalescing, nonprecessing, spinning binary black holes introduced by Damour and Nagar [Phys. Rev. D 90, 024054 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.024054], we propose an analytic, closed form, time-domain, representation of the ℓ=m =2 gravitational radiation mode emitted after merger. This expression is given as a function of the component masses and dimensionless spins (m1 ,2,χ1 ,2) of the two inspiraling objects, as well as of the mass MBH and (complex) frequency σ1 of the fundamental quasinormal mode of the remnant black hole. Our proposed template is obtained by fitting the post-merger waveform part of several publicly available numerical relativity simulations from the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) catalog and then suitably interpolating over (symmetric) mass ratio and spins. We show that this analytic expression accurately reproduces (˜0.01 rad ) the phasing of the post-merger data of other data sets not used in its construction. This is notably the case of the spin-aligned run SXS:BBH:0305, whose intrinsic parameters are consistent with the 90% credible intervals reported in the parameter-estimation followup of GW150914 by B.P. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.241102]. Using SXS waveforms as "experimental" data, we further show that our template could be used on the actual GW150914 data to perform a new measure of the complex frequency of the fundamental quasinormal mode so as to exploit the complete (high signal-to-noise-ratio) post-merger waveform. We assess the usefulness of our proposed template by analyzing, in a realistic setting, SXS full inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms and constructing posterior probability distribution functions for the central frequency damping time of the first overtone of the fundamental quasinormal mode as well as for the physical parameters of the systems. We also briefly explore the possibility

  5. Robust stability in predictive control with soft constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2010-01-01

    constraints. In more detail, we parameterize the MPC predictions in terms of the primary Youla parameter and use this parameter as the online optimization variable. The uncertainty is parameterized in terms of the dual Youla parameter. Stability can then be guaranteed through small gain arguments on the loop...... consisting of the primary and dual Youla parameter. This is included in the MPC optimization as a constraint on the induced gain of the optimization variable. We illustrate the method with a numerical simulation example....

  6. A Neonatal Bimodal MR-CT Head Template.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Ghadimi

    Full Text Available Neonatal MR templates are appropriate for brain structural analysis and spatial normalization. However, they do not provide the essential accurate details of cranial bones and fontanels-sutures. Distinctly, CT images provide the best contrast for bone definition and fontanels-sutures. In this paper, we present, for the first time, an approach to create a fully registered bimodal MR-CT head template for neonates with a gestational age of 39 to 42 weeks. Such a template is essential for structural and functional brain studies, which require precise geometry of the head including cranial bones and fontanels-sutures. Due to the special characteristics of the problem (which requires inter-subject inter-modality registration, a two-step intensity-based registration method is proposed to globally and locally align CT images with an available MR template. By applying groupwise registration, the new neonatal CT template is then created in full alignment with the MR template to build a bimodal MR-CT template. The mutual information value between the CT and the MR template is 1.17 which shows their perfect correspondence in the bimodal template. Moreover, the average mutual information value between normalized images and the CT template proposed in this study is 1.24±0.07. Comparing this value with the one reported in a previously published approach (0.63±0.07 demonstrates the better generalization properties of the new created template and the superiority of the proposed method for the creation of CT template in the standard space provided by MR neonatal head template. The neonatal bimodal MR-CT head template is freely downloadable from https://www.u-picardie.fr/labo/GRAMFC.

  7. The NCL natural constraint language

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianyang

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the Natural Constraint Language (NCL) language, a description language in conventional mathematical logic for modeling and solving constraint satisfaction problems. It uses illustrations and tutorials to detail NCL and its applications.

  8. Quantum centipedes with strong global constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    A centipede made of N quantum walkers on a one-dimensional lattice is considered. The distance between two consecutive legs is either one or two lattice spacings, and a global constraint is imposed: the maximal distance between the first and last leg is N  +  1. This is the strongest global constraint compatible with walking. For an initial value of the wave function corresponding to a localized configuration at the origin, the probability law of the first leg of the centipede can be expressed in closed form in terms of Bessel functions. The dispersion relation and the group velocities are worked out exactly. Their maximal group velocity goes to zero when N goes to infinity, which is in contrast with the behaviour of group velocities of quantum centipedes without global constraint, which were recently shown by Krapivsky, Luck and Mallick to give rise to ballistic spreading of extremal wave-front at non-zero velocity in the large-N limit. The corresponding Hamiltonians are implemented numerically, based on a block structure of the space of configurations corresponding to compositions of the integer N. The growth of the maximal group velocity when the strong constraint is gradually relaxed is explored, and observed to be linear in the density of gaps allowed in the configurations. Heuristic arguments are presented to infer that the large-N limit of the globally constrained model can yield finite group velocities provided the allowed number of gaps is a finite fraction of N.

  9. Numerical electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, R; Dünweg, B

    2012-11-21

    A new lattice method is presented in order to efficiently solve the electrokinetic equations, which describe the structure and dynamics of the charge cloud and the flow field surrounding a single charged colloidal sphere, or a fixed array of such objects. We focus on calculating the electrophoretic mobility in the limit of small driving field, and systematically linearize the equations with respect to the latter. This gives rise to several subproblems, each of which is solved by a specialized numerical algorithm. For the total problem we combine these solvers in an iterative procedure. Applying this method, we study the effect of the screening mechanism (salt screening versus counterion screening) on the electrophoretic mobility, and find a weak non-trivial dependence, as expected from scaling theory. Furthermore, we find that the orientation of the charge cloud (i.e. its dipole moment) depends on the value of the colloid charge, as a result of a competition between electrostatic and hydrodynamic effects.

  10. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jacques, Ian

    1987-01-01

    This book is primarily intended for undergraduates in mathematics, the physical sciences and engineering. It introduces students to most of the techniques forming the core component of courses in numerical analysis. The text is divided into eight chapters which are largely self-contained. However, with a subject as intricately woven as mathematics, there is inevitably some interdependence between them. The level of difficulty varies and, although emphasis is firmly placed on the methods themselves rather than their analysis, we have not hesitated to include theoretical material when we consider it to be sufficiently interesting. However, it should be possible to omit those parts that do seem daunting while still being able to follow the worked examples and to tackle the exercises accompanying each section. Familiarity with the basic results of analysis and linear algebra is assumed since these are normally taught in first courses on mathematical methods. For reference purposes a list of theorems used in the t...

  11. An efficient method for minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function subject to a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function over a region defined by a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint, and two-sided bounds on the variables (box constraints. Such problems are interesting from both theoretical and practical point of view because they arise in some mathematical programming problems as well as in various practical problems such as problems of production planning and scheduling, allocation of resources, decision making, facility location problems, and so forth. Polynomial algorithms are proposed for solving problems of this form and their convergence is proved. Some examples and results of numerical experiments are also presented.

  12. Progress of UV-NIL template making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Jun; Nakanishi, Yuko; Yusa, Satoshi; Sasaki, Shiho; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya

    2009-04-01

    Nano-imprint lithography (NIL) has been counted as one of the lithography candidates for hp32nm node and beyond and has showed excellent resolution capability with remarkable low line edge roughness that is attracting many researchers in the industry who were searching for the finest patterning technology. Therefore, recently we have been focusing on the resolution improvement on the NIL templates with the 100keV acceleration voltage spot beam (SB) EB writer and the 50keV acceleration voltage variable shaped beam (VSB) EB writer. The 100keV SB writers have high resolution capability, but they show fatally low throughput if we need full chip writing. Usually templates for resolution pioneers needed just a small field (several hundred microns square or so), but recently requirements for full chip templates are increasing. For full chip writing, we have also started the resolution improvement with the 50keV VSB writers used in current 4X photomask manufacturing. The 50keV VSB writers could generate full chip pattern in a reasonable time though resolution limits are inferior to that with the 100keV SB writers. In this paper, we will show latest results with both the 100keV SB and the 50keV VSB EB writers. With the 100keV SB EB writer, we have achieved down to hp15nm resolution for line and space pattern, but found that to achieve further improvement, an innovation in pattern generation method or material would be inevitable. With the 50keV VSB EB writer, we have achieved down to hp22nm resolution for line and space pattern. Though NIL has excellent resolution capability, solutions for defect inspection and repair are not clearly shown yet. In this paper, we will show preliminary inspection results with an EB inspection tool. We tested an EB inspection tool by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI), which was originally developed for and are currently used as a wafer inspection tool, and now have been started to seek the application for mask use, using a programmed defect

  13. Robust structural identification via polyhedral template matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Mahler; Schmidt, Søren; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    thresholds thereof) to classify atomic structure. As a consequence they are sensitive to strain and thermal displacements, and preprocessing such as quenching or temporal averaging of the atomic positions is necessary to provide reliable identifications. We propose a new method, polyhedral template matching...... to identify structures even in simulations near the melting point, and that it can identify the most common ordered alloy structures as well. In addition, the method makes it easy to identify the local lattice orientation in polycrystalline samples, and to calculate the local strain tensor. An implementation...

  14. Ab initio and template-based prediction of multi-class distance maps by two-dimensional recursive neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Alberto JM

    2009-01-01

    predictions on the CASP7 targets using a pre-CASP7 PDB, and find that both predictors are state-of-the-art, with the template-based one far outperforming the best CASP7 systems if templates with sequence identity to the query of 10% or better are available. Although this is not the main focus of this paper we also report on reconstructions of Cα traces based on both ab initio and template-based 4-class map predictions, showing that the latter are generally more accurate even when homology is dubious. Conclusion Accurate predictions of multi-class maps may provide valuable constraints for improved ab initio and template-based prediction of protein structures, naturally incorporate multiple templates, and yield state-of-the-art binary maps. Predictions of protein structures and 8 Å contact maps based on the multi-class distance map predictors described in this paper are freely available to academic users at the url http://distill.ucd.ie/.

  15. Minimization of Wave Drag Due to Thickness with Constraints on Constant Volume and Maximum Thickness Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yoji

    We have developed a numerical method for design of minimum-drag supersonic wing thickness with constraints on total volume and wing maximum thickness position. The method is based on the linearized supersonic theory and is an extension of Kawasaki's method which deals only with total volume constraint. The maximum thickness position of the wing, a new constraint condition, is an important information from both aerodynamic and structural point of view. The addition of the constraint has considerably extended the design possibility and has actually produced many interesting optimum thickness families. Numerical examples are given for delta, gothic and arrow wings which confirm the usefulness of present design method.

  16. Silicon template preparation for the fabrication of thin patterned gold films via template stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidl, G.; Dellith, J.; Dellith, A.; Teller, N.; Zopf, D.; Li, G.; Dathe, A.; Mayer, G.; Hübner, U.; Zeisberger, M.; Stranik, O.; Fritzsche, W.

    2015-12-01

    Metallic nanostructures play an important role in the vast field of modern nanophotonics, which ranges from the life sciences to biomedicine and beyond. Gold is a commonly-used and attractive material for plasmonics in the visible wavelength range, most importantly due to its chemical stability. In the present work, we focused on the different methods of plasmonic nanostructure fabrication that possess the greatest potential for cost-efficient fabrication. Initially, reusable (1 0 0) silicon templates were prepared. For this purpose, three different lithography methods (i.e. e-beam, optical, and nanoparticle lithography) were used that correspond to the desired structural scales. The application of a subsequent anisotropic crystal orientation-dependent wet etching process produced well-defined pyramidal structures in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from several microns to less than 100 nm. Finally, a 200 nm-thick gold layer was deposited by means of confocal sputtering on the silicon templates and stripped in order to obtain gold films that feature a surface replica of the initial template structure. The surface roughness that was achieved on the stripped films corresponds well with the roughness of the template used. This makes it possible to prepare cost-efficient high-quality structured films in large quantities with little effort. The gold films produced were thoroughly characterized, particularly with respect to their plasmonic response.

  17. 20 The Tools - 07 Threshold Concepts - Threshold Concepts: Poster template (TC poster template for case study)

    OpenAIRE

    TfLN-Transforming Perspectives project

    2007-01-01

    Part of a toolkit used in the Transforming Perspectives project, looking at using 'threshold concepts' as a framework for identifying areas of conceptual difficulty in disciplinary curricula. This is a blank 'poster' template used by the project by participants sharing 'their' identified threshold concepts with other participants at a seminar series.

  18. Biocompatibility of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencoglu, Maria F. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Spurri, Amanda [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Franko, Mitchell [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, Jihua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Hensley, Dale K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Heldt, Caryn L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Saha, Dipendu [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2014-08-21

    We report that soft-templated mesoporous carbon is morphologically a non-nano type of carbon. It is a relatively newer variety of biomaterial, which has already demonstrated its successful role in drug delivery applications. To investigate the toxicity and biocompatibility, we introduced three types of mesoporous carbons with varying synthesis conditions and pore textural properties. We compared the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pore width and performed cytotoxicity experiments with HeLa cells, cell viability studies with fibroblast cells and hemocomapatibility studies. Cytotoxicity tests reveal that two of the carbons are not cytotoxic, with cell survival over 90%. The mesoporous carbon with the highest surface area showed slight toxicity (~70% cell survival) at the highest carbon concentration of 500 μg/mL. Fibroblast cell viability assays suggested high and constant viability of over 98% after 3 days with no apparent relation with materials property and good visible cell-carbon compatibility. No hemolysis (<1%) was confirmed for all the carbon materials. Protein adsorption experiments with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen revealed a lower protein binding capacity of 0.2–0.6 mg/m2 and 2–4 mg/m2 for BSA and fibrinogen, respectively, with lower binding associated with an increase in surface area. The results of this study confirm the biocompatibility of soft-templated mesoporous carbons.

  19. Kinetic theory of amyloid fibril templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Jeremy D

    2013-05-14

    The growth of amyloid fibrils requires a disordered or partially unfolded protein to bind to the fibril and adapt the same conformation and alignment established by the fibril template. Since the H-bonds stabilizing the fibril are interchangeable, it is inevitable that H-bonds form between incorrect pairs of amino acids which are either incorporated into the fibril as defects or must be broken before the correct alignment can be found. This process is modeled by mapping the formation and breakage of H-bonds to a one-dimensional random walk. The resulting microscopic model of fibril growth is governed by two timescales: the diffusion time of the monomeric proteins, and the time required for incorrectly bound proteins to unbind from the fibril. The theory predicts that the Arrhenius behavior observed in experiments is due to off-pathway states rather than an on-pathway transition state. The predicted growth rates are in qualitative agreement with experiments on insulin fibril growth rates as a function of protein concentration, denaturant concentration, and temperature. These results suggest a templating mechanism where steric clashes due to a single mis-aligned molecule prevent the binding of additional molecules.

  20. Weaving Nanoscale Cloth through Electrostatic Templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champsaur, Anouck M; Mézière, Cécile; Allain, Magali; Paley, Daniel W; Steigerwald, Michael L; Nuckolls, Colin; Batail, Patrick

    2017-08-30

    Here we disclose a simple route to nanoscopic 2D woven structures reminiscent of the methods used to produce macroscopic textiles. We find that the same principles used in macroscopic weaving can be applied on the nanoscale to create two-dimensional molecular cloth from polymeric strands, a molecular thread. The molecular thread is composed of Co6Se8(PEt3)4L2 superatoms that are bridged with L = benzene bis-1,4-isonitrile to form polymer strands. As the superatoms that make up the polymer chain are electrochemically oxidized, they are electrostatically templated by a nanoscale anion, the tetragonal Lindqvist polyoxometalate Mo6O19(2-). The tetragonal symmetry of the dianionic template creates a nanoscale version of the box weave. The crossing points in the weave feature π-stacking of the bridging linker. By examining the steps in the weaving process with single crystal X-ray diffraction, we find that the degree of polymerization at the crossing points is crucial in the cloth formation. 2D nanoscale cloth will provide access to a new generation of smart, multifunctional materials, coatings, and surfaces.

  1. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    OpenAIRE

    Maijenburg, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the formation of different types of nanostructures. Throughout this thesis, three different nanostructures were made: nanowires (Chapters 2 to 6), nanotubes (Chapters 2 and 5) and nanocubes (Chapters 7 and ...

  2. Implementation of a template management interface for document systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kmet, Damjan

    2010-01-01

    In the development of document management systems we are often confronted with the implementation of office packages into the document management system. By doing this, we face similar concerns regarding the implementation of the template, therefore we can put the requirements together and create an interface to manage the template into the document management system. The interface can shorten the time required for the construction and maintenance of templates of the office packages in the do...

  3. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-12-10

    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  4. Templating fullerenes by domain boundaries of a nanoporous network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Duncan; Han, Ggoch Ddeul; Swager, Timothy M

    2014-01-28

    We present a new templating approach that combines the templating properties of nanoporous networks with the dynamic properties and the lattice mismatch of domain boundaries. This templating approach allows for the inclusion of guests with different sizes without the need for a strict molecular design to tailor the nanoporous network. With this approach, nonperiodic patterns of functional molecules can be formed and studied. We show that domain boundaries in a trimesic acid network are preferred over pores within the network as adsorption sites for fullerenes by a factor of 100-200. Pristine fullerenes of different sizes and functionalized fullerenes were templated in this way.

  5. Directed self-assembly graphoepitaxy template generation with immersion lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Lei, Junjiang; Andres Torres, J.; Hong, Le; Word, James; Fenger, Germain; Tritchkov, Alexander; Lippincott, George; Gupta, Rachit; Lafferty, Neal; He, Yuan; Bekaert, Joost; Vanderberghe, Geert

    2015-07-01

    We present an optimization methodology for the template designs of subresolution contacts using directed self-assembly (DSA) with graphoepitaxy and immersion lithography. We demonstrate the flow using a 60-nm-pitch contact design in doublet with Monte Carlo simulations for DSA. We introduce the notion of template error enhancement factor (TEEF) to gauge the sensitivity of DSA printing infidelity to template printing infidelity and evaluate optimized template designs with TEEF metrics. Our data show that source mask optimization and inverse lithography technology are critical to achieve sub-80 nm non-L0 pitches for DSA patterns using 193i.

  6. The Roundest Polyhedra with Symmetry Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Lengyel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the convex polyhedra with n faces circumscribed about the unit sphere, which has the minimum surface area? This is the isoperimetric problem in discrete geometry which is addressed in this study. The solution of this problem represents the closest approximation of the sphere, i.e., the roundest polyhedra. A new numerical optimization method developed previously by the authors has been applied to optimize polyhedra to best approximate a sphere if tetrahedral, octahedral, or icosahedral symmetry constraints are applied. In addition to evidence provided for various cases of face numbers, potentially optimal polyhedra are also shown for n up to 132.

  7. Constraints on the braneworld from compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe, R.G. [Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa, ISEL, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, CFTP, Lisboa (Portugal); Paret, D.M. [Universidad de la Habana, Departamento de Fisica General, Facultad de Fisica, La Habana (Cuba); Martinez, A.P. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    According to the braneworld idea, ordinary matter is confined on a three-dimensional space (brane) that is embedded in a higher-dimensional space-time where gravity propagates. In this work, after reviewing the limits coming from general relativity, finiteness of pressure and causality on the brane, we derive observational constraints on the braneworld parameters from the existence of stable compact stars. The analysis is carried out by solving numerically the brane-modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, using different representative equations of state to describe matter in the star interior. The cases of normal dense matter, pure quark matter and hybrid matter are considered. (orig.)

  8. Soft-Template-Synthesized Mesoporous Carbon for Oral Drug Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Warren, Kaitlyn E [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Template-synthesized mesoporous carbons were successfully used in in vitro investigations of controlled delivery of three model drugs, captopril, furosemide, and ranitidine hydrochloride. Captopril and furosemide exhibited desorption kinetics over 30 40 h, and ranitidine HCl had a complete release time of 5 10 h. As evident from the slow release kinetics, we contend that our mesoporous carbon is an improved drug-delivery medium compared to state-of-the-art porous silica-based substrates. The mesoporous carbons, synthesized from phloroglucinol and lignin, a synthetic and a sustainable precursor, respectively, exhibit BET surface area of 200 400 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.2 0.6 cm3 g-1. The phloroglucinol-based carbon has narrower pore widths and higher pore volume than the lignin-derived counterpart and maintains a longer release time. Numerical modeling of the release kinetics data reveals that the diffusivities of all the drugs from lignin-based carbon media are of equivalent magnitude (10-22 to 10-24 m2 s-1). However, a tailored reduction of pore width in the sorbent reduces the diffusivity of smaller drug molecules (captopril) by an order of magnitude. Thus, engineered pore morphology in our synthesized carbon sorbent, along with its potential to tailor the chemistry of its interaction with sorbet, can be exploited for optimal delivery system of a preferred drug within its therapeutic level and below the level of toxicity.

  9. Constraints and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Biskjær, Michael Mose; Lundqvist, Caroline Emilie

    2017-01-01

    Developing creative abilities is an important part of 21st century skills, and yet remains challenging. In this paper we describe a study investigating small-scale creative strategies that groups of Scandinavian high school students use when collaboratively building LEGO models. We recorded thirty...... groups of students building three models each. We studied groups building with traditional plastic bricks and also using a digital environment. The building tasks students undertake, and our subsequent analysis, are informed by the role constraints and ambiguity play in creative processes. Based...... on the insights we gained, we present three strategies for designing tools and environments that support students as they develop creative skills. These strategies relate to: tools and materials, mutual learning, and reflection...

  10. Relative constraints and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan G. Diaz

    2014-03-01

    Several mathematical models of evolving systems assume that changes in the micro-states are constrained to the search of an optimal value in a local or global objective function. However, the concept of evolution requires a continuous change in the environment and species, making difficult the definition of absolute optimal values in objective functions. In this paper, we define constraints that are not absolute but relative to local micro-states, introducing a rupture in the invariance of the phase space of the system. This conceptual basis is useful to define alternative mathematical models for biological (or in general complex) evolving systems. We illustrate this concept with a modified Ising model, which can be useful to understand and model problems like the somatic evolution of cancer.

  11. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due to n...... and sub-concepts, including ‘late’, ‘self-imposed’, and ‘continua of creativity constraints’, to inform future cross-disciplinary work on creativity constraints....

  12. Solving Sudoku with Constraint Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Broderick; Castro, Carlos; Monfroy, Eric

    Constraint Programming (CP) is a powerful paradigm for modeling and solving Complex Combinatorial Problems (generally issued from Decision Making). In this work, we model the known Sudoku puzzle as a Constraint Satisfaction Problems and solve it with CP comparing the performance of different Variable and Value Selection Heuristics in its Enumeration phase. We encourage this kind of benchmark problem because it may suggest new techniques in constraint modeling and solving of complex systems, or aid the understanding of its main advantages and limits.

  13. Constraint-Based Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, G; Bouma, Gosse; Noord, Gertjan van

    1994-01-01

    We propose a generalization of Categorial Grammar in which lexical categories are defined by means of recursive constraints. In particular, the introduction of relational constraints allows one to capture the effects of (recursive) lexical rules in a computationally attractive manner. We illustrate the linguistic merits of the new approach by showing how it accounts for the syntax of Dutch cross-serial dependencies and the position and scope of adjuncts in such constructions. Delayed evaluation is used to process grammars containing recursive constraints.

  14. Virus Assemblies as Templates for Nanocircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James N Culver; Michael T Harris

    2011-08-31

    The goals of this project were directed at the identification and characterization of bio-mineralization processes and patterning methods for the development of nano scale materials and structures with novel energy and conductive traits. This project utilized a simple plant virus as a model template to investigate methods to attach and coat metals and other inorganic compounds onto biologically based nanotemplates. Accomplishments include: the development of robust biological nanotemplates with enhanced inorganic coating activities; novel coating strategies that allow for the deposition of a continuous inorganic layer onto a bio-nanotemplate even in the absence of a reducing agent; three-dimensional patterning methods for the assemble of nano-featured high aspect ratio surfaces and the demonstrated use of these surfaces in enhancing battery and energy storage applications. Combined results from this project have significantly advanced our understanding and ability to utilize the unique self-assembly properties of biologically based molecules to produce novel materials at the nanoscale level.

  15. Numerical methods for multibody systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowinski, Roland; Nasser, Mahmoud G.

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a brief summary of some results obtained by Nasser on modeling and simulation of inequality problems in multibody dynamics. In particular, the augmented Lagrangian method discussed here is applied to a constrained motion problem with impulsive inequality constraints. A fundamental characteristic of the multibody dynamics problem is the lack of global convexity of its Lagrangian. The problem is transformed into a convex analysis problem by localization (piecewise linearization), where the augmented Lagrangian has been successfully used. A model test problem is considered and a set of numerical experiments is presented.

  16. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  17. Deepening Contractions and Collateral Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Ravn, Søren Hove; Santoro, Emiliano

    and occasionally non-binding credit constraints. Easier credit access increases the likelihood that constraints become slack in the face of expansionary shocks, while contractionary shocks are further amplified due to tighter constraints. As a result, busts gradually become deeper than booms. Based...... on the differential impact that occasionally non-binding constraints exert on the shape of expansions and contractions, we are also able to reconcile a more negatively skewed business cycle with a moderation in its volatility. Finally, our model can account for an intrinsic feature of economic downturns preceded...

  18. Radiofrequency pulse design in parallel transmission under strict temperature constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulant, Nicolas; Massire, Aurélien; Amadon, Alexis; Vignaud, Alexandre

    2014-09-01

    To gain radiofrequency (RF) pulse performance by directly addressing the temperature constraints, as opposed to the specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints, in parallel transmission at ultra-high field. The magnitude least-squares RF pulse design problem under hard SAR constraints was solved repeatedly by using the virtual observation points and an active-set algorithm. The SAR constraints were updated at each iteration based on the result of a thermal simulation. The numerical study was performed for an SAR-demanding and simplified time of flight sequence using B1 and ΔB0 maps obtained in vivo on a human brain at 7T. The proposed adjustment of the SAR constraints combined with an active-set algorithm provided higher flexibility in RF pulse design within a reasonable time. The modifications of those constraints acted directly upon the thermal response as desired. Although further confidence in the thermal models is needed, this study shows that RF pulse design under strict temperature constraints is within reach, allowing better RF pulse performance and faster acquisitions at ultra-high fields at the cost of higher sequence complexity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A generic process template for continuous pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Rozada-Sanches, Raquel; Dean, William

    2012-01-01

    In the work reported here, a conceptual generic continuous process template for pharmaceutical production is presented. The template is demonstrated on a nitro reduction case study that should in principle be generic such that it can handle a series of substrates with similar molecular...

  20. Excel Template For Processing Examination Results For Higher

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: In this work, we designed, developed and implemented an examination result processing template for all the Postgraduate programmes in the Faculty of Science, Kaduna State. University, Kaduna. The designed template when fed in with data computes and grades students appropriately. Its design was done ...

  1. Transdisciplinary Pedagogical Templates and Their Potential for Adaptive Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobozy, Eva; Dalziel, James

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the use and usefulness of carefully designed transdisciplinary pedagogical templates (TPTs) aligned to different learning theories. The TPTs are based on the Learning Design Framework outlined in the Larnaca Declaration (Dalziel et al. in this collection). The generation of pedagogical plans or templates is not new. However,…

  2. A non-parametric 2D deformable template classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut

    2005-01-01

    feature space the ship-master will be able to interactively define a segmentation map, which is refined and optimized by the deformable template algorithms. The deformable templates are defined as two-dimensional vector-cycles. Local random transformations are applied to the vector-cycles, and stochastic...

  3. New NIR light-curve templates for classical Cepheids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inno, L.; Matsunaga, N.; Romaniello, M.; Bono, G.; Monson, A.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Persson, E.; Buonanno, R.; Freedman, W.; Gieren, W.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Ita, Y.; Laney, C.D.; Lemasle, B.; Madore, B.F.; Nagayama, T.; Nakada, Y.; Nonino, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Primas, F.; Scowcroft, V.; Soszyński, I.; Tanabé, T.; Udalski, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We present new near-infrared (NIR) light-curve templates for fundamental (FU, J, H, KS) and first overtone (FO, J) classical Cepheids. The new templates together with period-luminosity and period-Wesenheit (PW) relations provide Cepheid distances from single-epoch observations with a precision

  4. Tailoring the porosity of hierarchical zeolites by carbon-templating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kake; Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Claus H.

    2008-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of hierarchical porous zeolite single crystal materials with a range of porosities made available by carbon-templating using differently-sized carbon particles as templates for the additional non-micropore porosity. The materials were...

  5. Proline-catalysed asymmetric ketol cyclizations: The template ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A modified template mechanism based on modelling studies of energy minimised complexes is presented for the asymmetric proline-catalysed cyclization of triketones 1, 2 and 3 to the 2S,3S-ketols. 1a, 2a and 3a respectively. The template model involves a three-point contact as favoured in enzyme– substrate ...

  6. Proline-catalysed asymmetric ketol cyclizations: The template ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified template mechanism based on modelling studies of energy minimised complexes is presented for the asymmetric proline-catalysed cyclization of triketones 1, 2 and 3 to the 2, 3-ketols 1a, 2a and 3a respectively. The template model involves a three-point contact as favoured in enzyme-substrate interactions.

  7. Design of a process template for amine synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Godfrey, Andy; Gregertsen, Björn

    A conceptual nitro reduction process template that should be generic such that it can handle a series of substrates with sim ilar molecular functionality has been designed. The reduction process is based on a continuo us plug-flow slurry reactor. The process template aims at speeding up the proce...

  8. Modifier constraint in alkali borophosphate glasses using topological constraint theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zeng, Huidan, E-mail: hdzeng@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Jiang, Qi [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Donghui [Unifrax Corporation, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States); Chen, Guorong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Polymer Program, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Chen, Jianding [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, composition-dependent properties of glasses have been successfully predicted using the topological constraint theory. The constraints of the glass network are derived from two main parts: network formers and network modifiers. The constraints of the network formers can be calculated on the basis of the topological structure of the glass. However, the latter cannot be accurately calculated in this way, because of the existing of ionic bonds. In this paper, the constraints of the modifier ions in phosphate glasses were thoroughly investigated using the topological constraint theory. The results show that the constraints of the modifier ions are gradually increased with the addition of alkali oxides. Furthermore, an improved topological constraint theory for borophosphate glasses is proposed by taking the composition-dependent constraints of the network modifiers into consideration. The proposed theory is subsequently evaluated by analyzing the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature in alkali borophosphate glasses. This method is supposed to be extended to other similar glass systems containing alkali ions.

  9. A series of template plasmids for Escherichia coli genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Shalini S; Reshamwala, Shamlan M S; Lali, Arvind M

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic engineering strategies often employ multi-copy episomal vectors to overexpress genes. However, chromosome-based overexpression is preferred as it avoids the use of selective pressure and reduces metabolic burden on the cell. We have constructed a series of template plasmids for λ Red-mediated Escherichia coli genome engineering. The template plasmids allow construction of genome integrating cassettes that can be used to integrate single copies of DNA sequences at predetermined sites or replace promoter regions. The constructed cassettes provide flexibility in terms of expression levels achieved and antibiotics used for selection, as well as allowing construction of marker-free strains. The modular design of the template plasmids allows replacement of genetic parts to construct new templates. Gene integration and promoter replacement using the template plasmids are illustrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gowdy waves as a test-bed for constraint-preserving boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, C

    2010-01-01

    Gowdy waves, one of the standard 'apples with apples' tests, is proposed as a test-bed for constraint-preserving boundary conditions in the non-linear regime. As an illustration, energy-constraint preservation is separately tested in the Z4 framework. Both algebraic conditions, derived from energy estimates, and derivative conditions, deduced from the constraint-propagation system, are considered. The numerical errors at the boundary are of the same order than those at the interior points.

  11. Action principle for Numerical Relativity evolution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, C; Palenzuela, C

    2010-01-01

    A Lagrangian density is provided, that allows to recover the Z4 evolution system from an action principle. The resulting system is then strongly hyperbolic when supplemented by gauge conditions like '1+log' or 'freezing shift', suitable for numerical evolution. The physical constraint $Z_\\mu = 0$ can be imposed just on the initial data. The corresponding Hamiltonian and canonical equations are also provided. This opens the door to analogous results for other numerical-relativity formalisms, like BSSN, that can be derived from Z4 by a symmetry-breaking procedure. The harmonic formulation can be easily recovered by a slight modification of the procedure. This provides a mechanism for deriving both the field evolution equations and the gauge conditions from the action principle, with a view on using simplectic integrators for a constraint-preserving numerical evolution.

  12. A fast algorithm for the construction of universal footprinting templates in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James W; Fox, Keith R; Niblo, Graham A

    2006-03-01

    We introduce and give a complete description of a new graph to be used for DNA sequencing questions. This graph has the advantage over the classical de Bruijn graph that it fully accounts for the double stranded nature of DNA, rather than dealing with single strands. Technically, our graph may be thought of as the quotient of the de Bruijn graph under the natural involution of sending a DNA strand to its complementary strand. However, this involution has fixed points, and this complicates the structure of the quotient graph which we have therefore modified herein. As an application and motivating example, we give an efficient algorithm for constructing universal footprinting templates for n-mers. This problem may be formulated as the task of finding a shortest possible segment of DNA which contains every possible sequence of base pairs of some fixed length n. Previous work by Kwan et al has attacked this problem from a numerical point of view and generated minimal length universal footprinting templates for n = 2, 3, 5, 7, together with unsubstantiated candidates for the case n = 4. We show that their candidates for n = 4 are indeed minimal length universal footprinting templates.

  13. Parallel Synthesis of Poly(amino ether)-Templated Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Transgene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles have been increasingly investigated for numerous applications in medicine, sensing, and catalysis. In particular, gold nanoparticles have been investigated for separations, sensing, drug/nucleic acid delivery, and bioimaging. In addition, silver nanoparticles demonstrate antibacterial activity, resulting in potential application in treatments against microbial infections, burns, diabetic skin ulcers, and medical devices. Here, we describe the facile, parallel synthesis of both gold and silver nanoparticles using a small set of poly(amino ethers), or PAEs, derived from linear polyamines, under ambient conditions and in absence of additional reagents. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation were dependent on PAE concentration and chemical composition. In addition, yields were significantly greater in case of PAEs when compared to 25 kDa poly(ethylene imine), which was used as a standard catonic polymer. Ultraviolet radiation enhanced the kinetics and the yield of both gold and silver nanoparticles, likely by means of a coreduction effect. PAE-templated gold nanoparticles demonstrated the ability to deliver plasmid DNA, resulting in transgene expression, in 22Rv1 human prostate cancer and MB49 murine bladder cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results indicate that chemically diverse poly(amino ethers) can be employed for rapidly templating the formation of metal nanoparticles under ambient conditions. The simplicity of synthesis and chemical diversity make PAE-templated nanoparticles useful tools for several applications in biotechnology, including nucleic acid delivery. PMID:25084138

  14. Kinetic Analysis for Macrocyclizations Involving Anionic Template at the Transition State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martí-Centelles

    2012-01-01

    competitive oligomerization/polymerization processes yielding undesired oligomeric/polymeric byproducts. The effect of anions has also been included in the kinetic models, as they can act as catalytic templates in the transition state reducing and stabilizing the transition state. The corresponding differential equation systems for each kinetic model can be solved numerically. Through a comprehensive analysis of these results, it is possible to obtain a better understanding of the different parameters that are involved in the macrocyclization reaction mechanism and to develop strategies for the optimization of the desired processes.

  15. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...

  16. Constraints in vector meson photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, F

    2000-01-31

    Constraints are discussed for spin observables extracted from photoproduction of vector mesons. These constraints originate from positivity of the spin density matrix and should be part of any future analysis of experimental data. Spin observables need to be defined in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame.

  17. Constraints in Vector Meson Photoproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, F.

    2000-01-01

    Constraints are discussed for spin observables extracted from photoproduction of vector mesons. These constraints originate from positivity of the spin density matrix and should be part of any future analysis of experimental data. Spin observables need to be defined in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame.

  18. Thermodynamic Constraints Improve Metabolic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Elias W; Libourel, Igor G L

    2017-08-08

    In pursuit of establishing a realistic metabolic phenotypic space, the reversibility of reactions is thermodynamically constrained in modern metabolic networks. The reversibility constraints follow from heuristic thermodynamic poise approximations that take anticipated cellular metabolite concentration ranges into account. Because constraints reduce the feasible space, draft metabolic network reconstructions may need more extensive reconciliation, and a larger number of genes may become essential. Notwithstanding ubiquitous application, the effect of reversibility constraints on the predictive capabilities of metabolic networks has not been investigated in detail. Instead, work has focused on the implementation and validation of the thermodynamic poise calculation itself. With the advance of fast linear programming-based network reconciliation, the effects of reversibility constraints on network reconciliation and gene essentiality predictions have become feasible and are the subject of this study. Networks with thermodynamically informed reversibility constraints outperformed gene essentiality predictions compared to networks that were constrained with randomly shuffled constraints. Unconstrained networks predicted gene essentiality as accurately as thermodynamically constrained networks, but predicted substantially fewer essential genes. Networks that were reconciled with sequence similarity data and strongly enforced reversibility constraints outperformed all other networks. We conclude that metabolic network analysis confirmed the validity of the thermodynamic constraints, and that thermodynamic poise information is actionable during network reconciliation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

    1998-12-17

    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  20. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  1. Weighted Constraints in Fuzzy Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Kaymak (Uzay); J.M. Sousa

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMany practical optimization problems are characterized by some flexibility in the problem constraints, where this flexibility can be exploited for additional trade-off between improving the objective function and satisfying the constraints. Especially in decision making, this type of

  2. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  3. Integrity Constraints in Trust Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Winsborough, William H.

    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust managementstyle authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then we address the fact that not all participants in a trust

  4. Path following control of planar snake robots using virtual holonomic constraints: theory and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour, Ehsan; Pettersen, Kristin Y; Liljebäck, Pål; Gravdahl, Jan T; Kelasidi, Eleni

    This paper considers path following control of planar snake robots using virtual holonomic constraints. In order to present a model-based path following control design for the snake robot, we first derive the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion of the system. Subsequently, we define geometric relations among the generalized coordinates of the system, using the method of virtual holonomic constraints. These appropriately defined constraints shape the geometry of a constraint manifold for the system, which is a submanifold of the configuration space of the robot. Furthermore, we show that the constraint manifold can be made invariant by a suitable choice of feedback. In particular, we analytically design a smooth feedback control law to exponentially stabilize the constraint manifold. We show that enforcing the appropriately defined virtual holonomic constraints for the configuration variables implies that the robot converges to and follows a desired geometric path. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical approach.

  5. Conservation constraints on random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Wen Jong; Hsieh, J

    2003-01-01

    We study the random matrices constrained by the summation rules that are present in the Hessian of the potential energy surface in the instantaneous normal mode calculations, as a result of momentum conservation. In this paper, we analyse the properties related to such conservation constraints in two classes of real symmetric matrices: one with purely row-wise summation rules and the other with the constraints on the blocks of each matrix, which underscores partially the spatial dimension. We show explicitly that the constraints are removable by separating the degrees of freedom of the zero-eigenvalue modes. The non-spectral degrees of freedom under the constraints can be realized in terms of the ordinary constraint-free orthogonal symmetry but with the rank deducted by the block dimension. We propose that the ensemble of real symmetric matrices with full randomness, constrained by the summation rules, is equivalent to the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) with lowered rank. Independent of the joint probabil...

  6. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint...... space and answers linear-constraint queries using an optimal number of I/Os in the worst case. For d=3, we present a near-linear-size data structure that answers queries using an optimal number of I/Os on the average. We present linear-size data structures that can answer d-dimensional linear-constraint...

  7. Optimization with PDE constraints ESF networking program 'OPTPDE'

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book on PDE Constrained Optimization contains contributions on the mathematical analysis and numerical solution of constrained optimal control and optimization problems where a partial differential equation (PDE) or a system of PDEs appears as an essential part of the constraints. The appropriate treatment of such problems requires a fundamental understanding of the subtle interplay between optimization in function spaces and numerical discretization techniques and relies on advanced methodologies from the theory of PDEs and numerical analysis as well as scientific computing. The contributions reflect the work of the European Science Foundation Networking Programme ’Optimization with PDEs’ (OPTPDE).

  8. Semiconductor nanowires and templates for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Xiang

    2009-07-15

    This thesis starts by developing a platform for the organized growth of nanowires directly on a planar substrate. For this, a method to fabricate horizontal porous alumina membranes is studied. The second part of the thesis focuses on the study of nanowires. It starts by the understanding of the growth mechanisms of germanium nanowires and follows by the structural and electrical properties at the single nanowire level. Horizontally aligned porous anodic alumina (PAA) was used as a template for the nanowire synthesis. Three PAA arrangements were studied: - high density membranes - micron-sized fingers - multi-contacts Membranes formed by a high density of nanopores were obtained by anodizing aluminum thin films. Metallic and semiconducting nanowires were synthesized into the PAA structures via DC deposition, pulsed electro-depostion and CVD growth. The presence of gold, copper, indium, nickel, tellurium, and silicon nanowires inside PAA templates was verified by SEM and EDX analysis. Further, room-temperature transport measurements showed that the pores are completely filled till the bottom of the pores. In this dissertation, single crystalline and core-shell germanium nanowires are synthesized using indium and bismuth as catalyst in a chemical vapor deposition procedure with germane (GeH{sub 4}) as growth precursor. A systematic growth study has been performed to obtain high aspect-ratio germanium nanowires. The influence of the growth conditions on the final morphology and the crystalline structure has been determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In the case of indium catalyzed germanium nanowires, two different structures were identified: single crystalline and crystalline core-amorphous shell. The preferential growth axis of both kinds of nanowires is along the [110] direction. The occurrence of the two morphologies was found to only depend on the nanowire dimension. In the case of bismuth

  9. The transition from constraint to regulation at the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Terrence W; Srivastava, Alok; Bacigalupi, J Augustus

    2014-06-01

    The origin of living dynamics required a local evasion of thermodynamic degradation by maintaining critical dynamical and structural constraints. Scenarios for life`s origin that fail to distinguish between constrained chemistry and regulated metabolism do not address the question of how living processes first emerge from simpler constraints on molecular interactions. We describe a molecular model system consisting of coupled reciprocal catalysis and self-assembly in which one of the catalytic bi-products tends to spontaneously self-assemble into a containing shell (analogous to a viral capsule). In this process, which we call autogenesis, self-repair/reconstitution and reproduction are made possible by the fact that each of these linked self-organizing processes generates boundary constraints that promote and limit the other, and because this synergy thereby becomes embodied as a persistent rate-independent substrate-transferrable constraint on the synergy of its component constraint-generating processes. It is proposed that this higher-order formal constraint is necessary and sufficient to constitute regulation as opposed to mere physico-chemical constraint. Two minor elaborations of this model system demonstrate how cybernetic and template-based regulation could emerge from this basic process.

  10. YBCO nanowires grown by the alumina template method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koblischka, Michael R.; Hartmann, Uwe [Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Campus C 6 3, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Koblischka-Veneva, Anjela [Functional Materials, Saarland University, Campus C 6 3, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Skumryev, Vassil [Institut Catala de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) nanowires are grown by the anodized alumina template method, starting from pre-sintered YBCO powder. As templates, we have employed commercially available alumina templates with pore diameters of 30 nm and 100 nm, and an overall thickness of 50 {mu}m. An oxygen annealing step is required to obtain superconducting nanowires. Superconductivity with a transition temperature of 88 K is confirmed by means of magnetic susceptibility measurements. The resulting nanowires are analyzed in detail employing electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The separation of the nanowires of the templates is not yet established, but individual nanowires of up to 10 {mu}m length could be separated from the template. In several cases, the template pores are not completely filled by the superconducting material, which implies that the observed length is similar to what could be expected from regular grain growth. Resistance measurements using cut pieces of the filled templates were carried out as a function of temperature. These pieces were covered with Au films on top and bottom in order to provide the electric contacts. The measurements confirmed the magnetically determined critical temperatures.

  11. Radiographic templating of total hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakstein, Dror; Bachar, Ira; Debi, Ronen; Lubovsky, Omri; Cohen, Ornit; Tan, Zachary; Atoun, Ehud

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of pre-operative digital templating to minimize complications including limb length discrepancy (LLD), intraoperative fractures and early dislocations in patients with intracapsular femoral neck fractures. We retrospectively compared 23 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) for intracapsular femoral fractures with pre-operative digital templating and 48 patients without templating. The mean post-operative LLD was significantly lower in patients who had pre-operative templating than in the control group (6.7 vs. 11.5 mm, p = 0.023). Only three patients (13 %) with templating had LLD greater than 1.5 cm, compared to the 15 patients (31 %) without templating (p = 0.17). In eight cases the final femoral stem size matched the templated size, while 19 patients were within two size increments. Complications included one dislocation and one intra-operative fracture in the control group. The present study demonstrated that careful pre-operative planning may reduce LLD in patients undergoing THA due to intracapsular hip fractures.

  12. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  13. Efficient DSA-DP hybrid lithography conflict detection and guiding template assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jiaojiao; Cline, Brian; Yeric, Greg; Pan, David Z.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, directed self-assembly (DSA) has demonstrated tremendous potential to reduce cost for multiple patterning with fewer masks, especially for via patterning. DSA is considered as one of the next generation lithography candidates or complementary lithography techniques to extend 193i lithography further for the sub- 7 nm nodes. In this work, we focus on the simultaneous DSA guiding template assignment and decomposition with DSA and double patterning (DSA-DP) hybrid lithography for 7nm technology node. We first analyze the placement error of DSA patterns with different shapes and sizes. We then propose a graph-based approach to reduce the problem size and solve the problem more efficiently without affecting the optimality of the results. The experimental results demonstrate that we can achieve a 50% reduction in both the number of variables and constraints compared to previous work, which leads to a 50X speed up in runtime.

  14. Alkyltin Keggin Clusters Templated by Sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sumit; Park, Deok-Hie; Hutchison, Danielle C; Olsen, Morgan R; Zakharov, Lev N; Marsh, David; Goberna-Ferrón, Sara; Frederick, Ryan T; Diulus, J Trey; Kenane, Nizan; Herman, Gregory S; Johnson, Darren W; Keszler, Douglas A; Nyman, May

    2017-08-14

    Dodecameric (Sn12 ) and hexameric topologies dominate monoalkyltin-oxo cluster chemistry. Their condensation, triggered by radiation exposure, recently produced unprecedented patterning performance in EUV lithography. A new cluster topology was crystallized from industrial n-BuSnOOH, and additional characterization techniques indicate other clusters are present. Single-crystal X-ray analysis reveals a β-Keggin cluster, which is known but less common than other Keggin isomers in polyoxometalate and polyoxocation chemistry. The structure is formulated [NaO4 (BuSn)12 (OH)3 (O)9 (OCH3 )12 (Sn(H2 O)2 )] (β-NaSn13 ). SAXS, NMR, and ESI MS differentiate β-NaSn13 , Sn12 , and other clusters present in crude "n-BuSnOOH" and highlight the role of Na as a template for alkyltin Keggin clusters. Unlike other alkyltin clusters that are cationic, β-NaSn13 is neutral. Consequently, it stands as a unique model system, absent of counterions, to study the transformation of clusters to films and nanopatterns. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Template-assisted fabrication of protein nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Shelley A.; Liang, Jianyu; Kowalik, Timothy F.

    2009-02-01

    Bionanomaterials have recently begun to spark a great amount of interest and could potentially revolutionize biomedical research. Nanoparticles, nanocapsules, and nanotubular structures are becoming attractive options in drug and gene delivery. The size of the delivery vehicles greatly impacts cellular uptake and makes it highly desirable to precisely control the diameter and length of nanocarriers to make uniform nanoparticles at low cost. Carbon nanotubes have shown great potential within the field of drug and gene delivery. However, their insolubility and cytotoxicity could severely delay FDA approval. A desirable alternative would be to fabricate nanostructures from biomaterials such as proteins, peptides, or liposomes, which are already FDA approved. In this article we demonstrate the preparation of protein nanocapsules with both ends sealed using a template-assisted alternate immersion method combined with controlled cleaving. Glucose oxidase nanocapsules with controllable diameter, wall thickness, and length were fabricated and characterized with SEM and TEM. The biochemical activity of glucose oxidase in the form of nanocapsules after processing was confirmed using UV spectrometry. Our future work will explore proteins suitable for drug encapsulation and cellular uptake and will focus on optimizing the cleaving process to gain precise control over the length of the nanocapsules.

  16. Open Cell Aerogel Foams via Emulsion Templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Nicholas; Jana, Sadhan C

    2017-10-26

    The water-in-oil emulsion-templating method is used in this work for fabrication of open cell aerogel foams from syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS). A surfactant-stabilized emulsion is prepared at 60-100 °C by dispersing water in a solution of sPS in toluene. sPS gel, formed upon cooling of the emulsion to room temperature, locks the water droplets inside the gel. The gel is solvent exchanged in ethanol and then dried under supercritical condition of carbon dioxide to yield the aerogel foams. The aerogel foams show a significant fraction of macropores with a diameter of a few tens of micrometers, defined as macrovoids that originated from the emulsified water droplets. In conjunction, customary macropores of diameter 50-200 nm are derived from sPS gels. The macrovoids add additional openness to the aerogel structures. This paper evaluates the structural characteristics of the macrovoids, such as diameter distribution, macrovoid interconnect density, and skin layer density, in conjunction with the final aerogel foam properties.

  17. Convex Lens-Induced Nanoscale Templating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Daniel; Michaud, Francois; McFaul, Christopher; Mahsid, Sara; Reisner, Walter; Leslie, Sabrina

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate a new platform, ``Convex Lens-Induced Nanoscale Templating'' (CLINT), for dynamic manipulation and trapping of single DNA molecules. In the CLINT technique, the curved surface of a convex lens is used to deform a flexible coverslip above a substrate containing embedded nanotopography, creating a nanoscale gap that can be adjusted during an experiment to confine molecules within the embedded nanostructures. Critically, CLINT has the capability of actively transforming a macroscale flow-cell into a nanofluidic device without need for high-temperature direct bonding, leading to ease of sample loading and greater accessibility of the surface. Moreover, as DNA molecules present in the gap will be driven into the embedded topography from above, CLINT eliminates the need for the high pressures or electric fields necessitated by direct bonded nanofluidic devices for loading DNA in the confined structures. To demonstrate the versatility of CLINT, we confine DNA to nanogroove structures, demonstrating DNA nanochannel-based stretching. Using ionic strengths that are in line with typical biological buffers, we have successfully extended DNA in sub 30nm nanochannels, achieving high stretching (90%) that is in good agreement with Odijk deflection theory.

  18. Templated Chemically Deposited Semiconductor Optical Fiber Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Justin R.; Sazio, Pier J. A.; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Badding, John V.

    2013-07-01

    Chemical deposition is a powerful technology for fabrication of planar microelectronics. Optical fibers are the dominant platform for telecommunications, and devices such as fiber lasers are forming the basis for new industries. High-pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) allows for conformal layers and void-free wires of precisely doped crystalline unary and compound semiconductors inside the micro-to-nanoscale-diameter pores of microstructured optical fibers (MOFs). Drawing the fibers to serve as templates into which these semiconductor structures can be fabricated allows for geometric design flexibility that is difficult to achieve with planar fabrication. Seamless coupling of semiconductor optoelectronic and photonic devices with existing fiber infrastructure thus becomes possible, facilitating all-fiber technological approaches. The deposition techniques also allow for a wider range of semiconductor materials compositions to be exploited than is possible by means of preform drawing. Gigahertz bandwidth junction-based fiber devices can be fabricated from doped crystalline semiconductors, for example. Deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon, which cannot be drawn, allows for the exploitation of strong nonlinear optical function in fibers. Finally, crystalline compound semiconductor fiber cores hold promise for high-power infrared light-guiding fiber devices and subwavelength-resolution, large-area infrared imaging.

  19. CONSTRAINT PROGRAMMING AND UNIVERSITY TIMETABLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.W. Groves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The technology of Constraint Programming is rapidly becoming a popular alternative for solving large-scale industry problems. This paper provides an introduction to Constraint Programming and to Constraint Logic Programming (CLP, an enabler of constraint programming. The use of Constraint Logic Programming is demonstrated by describing a system developed for scheduling university timetables. Timetabling problems have a high degree of algorithmic complexity (they are usually NP-Complete, and share features with scheduling problems encountered in industry. The system allows the declaration of both hard requirements, which must always be satisfied, and soft constraints which need not be satisfied, though this would be an advantage.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel beskryf ’n familie van probleem-oplossingstegnieke bekend as “Constraint Programming”, wat al hoe meer gebruik word om groot-skaalse industriële probleme op te los. Die nut van hierdie tegnieke word gedemonstreer deur die beskrywing van ’n skeduleringsisteem om die roosters vir ’n universiteit te genereer. Roosterskeduleringsprobleme is in praktiese gevalle NP-volledig en deel baie eienskappe met industriële skeduleringsprobleme. Die sisteem wat hier beskryf word maak gebruik van beide harde beperkings (wat altyd bevredig moet word en sagte beperkings (bevrediging hiervan is wel voordelig maar dit is opsioneel.

  20. Open set recognition of aircraft in aerial imagery using synthetic template models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapst, Aleksander B.; Tran, Jonathan; Koch, Mark W.; Moya, Mary M.; Swahn, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Fast, accurate and robust automatic target recognition (ATR) in optical aerial imagery can provide game-changing advantages to military commanders and personnel. ATR algorithms must reject non-targets with a high degree of confidence in a world with an infinite number of possible input images. Furthermore, they must learn to recognize new targets without requiring massive data collections. Whereas most machine learning algorithms classify data in a closed set manner by mapping inputs to a fixed set of training classes, open set recognizers incorporate constraints that allow for inputs to be labelled as unknown. We have adapted two template-based open set recognizers to use computer generated synthetic images of military aircraft as training data, to provide a baseline for military-grade ATR: (1) a frequentist approach based on probabilistic fusion of extracted image features, and (2) an open set extension to the one-class support vector machine (SVM). These algorithms both use histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) as features as well as artificial augmentation of both real and synthetic image chips to take advantage of minimal training data. Our results show that open set recognizers trained with synthetic data and tested with real data can successfully discriminate real target inputs from non-targets. However, there is still a requirement for some knowledge of the real target in order to calibrate the relationship between synthetic template and target score distributions. We conclude by proposing algorithm modifications that may improve the ability of synthetic data to represent real data.

  1. Iris-based authentication system with template protection and renewability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercole, Chiara; Campisi, Patrizio; Neri, Alessandro

    2007-10-01

    Biometrics is the most emerging technology for automatic people authentication, nevertheless severe concerns raised about security of such systems and users' privacy. In case of malicious attacks toward one or more components of the authentication system, stolen biometric features cannot be replaced. This paper focuses on securing the enrollment database and the communication channel between such database and the matcher. In particular, a method is developed to protect the stored biometric templates, adapting the fuzzy commitment scheme to iris biometrics by exploiting error correction codes tailored on template discriminability. The aforementioned method allows template renewability applied to iris based authentication and guarantees high security performing the match in the encrypted domain.

  2. Analysis of optical flow constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C

    1995-01-01

    Different constraint equations have been proposed in the literature for the derivation of optical flow. Despite of the large number of papers dealing with computational techniques to estimate optical flow, only a few authors have investigated conditions under which these constraints exactly model the velocity field, that is, the perspective projection on the image plane of the true 3-D velocity. These conditions are analyzed under different hypotheses, and the departures of the constraint equations in modeling the velocity field are derived for different motion conditions. Experiments are also presented giving measures of these departures and of the induced errors in the estimation of the velocity field.

  3. The biogeochemical cycle of the adsorbed template. I - formation of the template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Daniel; Lahav, Noam; Orenberg, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the verification of the first adsorption step of the 'adsorbed template' biogeochemical cycle, a simple model for a primitive prebiotic replication system. The adsorption of Poly-C, Poly-U, Poly-A, Poly-G, and 5'-AMP, 5'-GMP, 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP onto gypsum was studied. It was found that under the conditions of the experiment, the polymers have a very high affinity for the mineral surface, while the monomers adsorb much less efficiently.

  4. Biomimetic self-assembly of apatite hybrid materials: from a single molecular template to bi-/multi-molecular templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Jianglin; Ai, Xin; Zhang, Shengmin

    2014-01-01

    The self-assembly of apatite and proteins is a critical process to induce the formation of the bones and teeth in vertebrates. Although hierarchical structures and biomineralization mechanisms of the mineralized tissues have been intensively studied, most researches focus on the self-assembly biomimetic route using one single-molecular template, while the natural bone is an outcome of a multi-molecular template co-assembly process. Inspired by such a mechanism in nature, a novel strategy based on multi-molecular template co-assembly for fabricating bone-like hybrid materials was firstly proposed by the authors. In this review article we have summarized the new trends from single-molecular template to bi-/multi-molecular template systems in biomimetic fabrication of apatite hybrid materials. So far, many novel apatite hybrid materials with controlled morphologies and hierarchical structures have been successfully achieved using bi-/multi-molecular template strategy, and are found to have multiple common features in comparison with natural mineralized tissues. The carboxyl, carbonyl and amino groups of the template molecules are identified to initiate the nucleation of calcium phosphate during the assembling process. For bi-/multi-molecular templates, the incorporation of multiple promotion sites for calcium and phosphate ions precisely enables to regulate the apatite nucleation from the early stage. The roles of acidic molecules and the synergetic effects of protein templates have been significantly recognized in recent studies. In addition, a specific attention is paid to self-assembling of apatite nanoparticles into ordered structures on tissue regenerative scaffolds due to their promising clinical applications ranging from implant grafts, coatings to drug and gene delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Topology Optimization with Stress Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbart, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contains contributions to the development of topology optimization techniques capable of handling stress constraints. The research that led to these contributions was motivated by the need for topology optimization techniques more suitable for industrial applications. Currently, topology

  6. Decentralized systems with design constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides a rigorous examination of the analysis, stability and control of large-scale systems, and addresses the difficulties that arise because of dimensionality, information structure constraints, parametric uncertainty and time-delays.

  7. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due...... to no overall conceptual framing or shared terminology. This lack of unity hinders overt opportunities for cross-disciplinary interchange. We argue that an improved understanding of constraints in creativity holds a promising potential for advancements in creativity research across domains and disciplines. Here......, we give an overview of the growing, but incohesive body of research into creativity and constraints, which leads us to introduce ‘creativity constraints’ as a unifying concept to help bridge these disjoint contributions to facilitate crossdisciplinary interchange. Finally, we suggest key topics...

  8. Improving your target-template alignment with MODalign.

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Alessandro

    2012-02-04

    SUMMARY: MODalign is an interactive web-based tool aimed at helping protein structure modelers to inspect and manually modify the alignment between the sequences of a target protein and of its template(s). It interactively computes, displays and, upon modification of the target-template alignment, updates the multiple sequence alignments of the two protein families, their conservation score, secondary structure and solvent accessibility values, and local quality scores of the implied three-dimensional model(s). Although it has been designed to simplify the target-template alignment step in modeling, it is suitable for all cases where a sequence alignment needs to be inspected in the context of other biological information. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Freely available on the web at http://modorama.biocomputing.it/modalign. Website implemented in HTML and JavaScript with all major browsers supported. CONTACT: jan.kosinski@uniroma1.it.

  9. Template-Framework Interactions in Tetraethylammonium-Directed Zeolite Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Joel E.; Fu, Donglong; Deem, Michael W.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-01-01

    Zeolites, having widespread applications in chemical industries, are often synthesized using organic templates. These can be cost-prohibitive, motivating investigations into their role in promoting crystallization. Herein, the relationship between framework structure, chemical composition, synthesis

  10. CT Study of Radiopaque Implant Template for Gingival Form

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsutsumi, Toyoshige

    2012-01-01

    .... The concentrations of barium sulfate were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 vol%. The CT template were replaced the porcine mandibule and was fixed by immersion in a water vessel using a phantom before cone beam CT examination...

  11. Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template can be use to issue a Tier 1 Public Notification when it has been determined that source ground water is contaminated with E. Coli bacteria.

  12. GPP Webinar: Solar Procurement Templates and Tools for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar on solar procurement for Higher Education which features various tools and templates that schools can use to shape and manage the solar procurement process to a successful outcome.

  13. Dental rehabilitation of amelogenesis imperfecta using thermoformed templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNMP Sockalingam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenesis imperfecta represents a group of dental developmental conditions that are genomic in origin. Hypoplastic AI, hypomineralised AI or both in combination were the most common types seen clinically. This paper describes oral rehabilitation of a 9-year-old Malay girl with inherited hypoplastic AI using transparent thermoforming templates. The defective surface areas were reconstructed to their original dimensions on stone cast models of the upper and lower arches using composite, and transparent thermoform templates were fabricated on the models. The templates were used as crown formers to reconstruct the defective teeth clinically using esthetically matching composite. The usage of the templates allowed direct light curing of the composite, accurate reproducibility of the anatomic contours of the defective teeth, reduced chair-side time and easy contouring and placement of homogenous thickness of composite in otherwise inaccessible sites of the affected teeth.

  14. Template matching techniques in computer vision theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brunelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The detection and recognition of objects in images is a key research topic in the computer vision community.  Within this area, face recognition and interpretation has attracted increasing attention owing to the possibility of unveiling human perception mechanisms, and for the development of practical biometric systems. This book and the accompanying website, focus on template matching, a subset of object recognition techniques of wide applicability, which has proved to be particularly effective for face recognition applications. Using examples from face processing tasks throughout the book to illustrate more general object recognition approaches, Roberto Brunelli: examines the basics of digital image formation, highlighting points critical to the task of template matching;presents basic and  advanced template matching techniques, targeting grey-level images, shapes and point sets;discusses recent pattern classification paradigms from a template matching perspective;illustrates the development of a real fac...

  15. The Address on Umueri Airport City Project: A Template for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; and (3) a template that governors of other States, especially those who are obviously not performing effectively, should adopt and adapt towards efficiency and effectiveness in leadership and governance at the subnational level of Nigeria.

  16. A Survey On Various Web Template Detection And Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Mary Varghese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In todays digital world reliance on the World Wide Web as a source of information is extensive. Users increasingly rely on web based search engines to provide accurate search results on a wide range of topics that interest them. The search engines in turn parse the vast repository of web pages searching for relevant information. However majority of web portals are designed using web templates which are designed to provide consistent look and feel to end users. The presence of these templates however can influence search results leading to inaccurate results being delivered to the users. Therefore to improve the accuracy and reliability of search results identification and removal of web templates from the actual content is essential. A wide range of approaches are commonly employed to achieve this and this paper focuses on the study of the various approaches of template detection and extraction that can be applied across homogenous as well as heterogeneous web pages.

  17. Ordered Nanomaterials Thin Films via Supported Anodized Alumina Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eES-SOUNI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supported anodized alumina template films with highly ordered porosity are best suited for fabricating large area ordered nanostructures with tunable dimensions and aspect ratios. In this paper we first discuss important issues for the generation of such templates, including required properties of the Al/Ti/Au/Ti thin film heterostructure on a substrate for high quality templates. We then show examples of anisotropic nanostructure films consisting of noble metals using these templates, discuss briefly their optical properties and their applications to molecular detection using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Finally we briefly address the possibility to make nanocomposite films, exemplary shown on a plasmonic-thermochromic nanocomposite of VO2-capped Au-nanorods.

  18. Can Leverage Constraints Help Investors?

    OpenAIRE

    Heimer, Rawley

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides causal evidence that leverage constraints can reduce the underperformance of individual investors. In accordance with Dodd-Frank, the CFTC was given regulatory authority over the retail market for foreign exchange and capped the maximum permissible leverage available to U.S. traders. By comparing U.S. traders on the same brokerages with their unregulated European counterparts, I show that the leverage constraint reduces average per-trade losses even after adjusting for ris...

  19. Risk Sharing under Incentive Constraints.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    In addressing the matter, this thesis covers issues such as the welfare gains from international risk sharing, the impact of international risk sharing on national economic policies and production efficiency, the welfare effects of international risk sharing in the presence of tax competition, and risk sharing among entrepreneurs that face financing constraints. The thesis outlines the implications of incentive constraints for the efficiency of the actual extent and pattern of risk sharing am...

  20. Template banks to search for low-mass binary black holes in advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Duncan A; Nitz, Alexander H

    2012-01-01

    Coalescing binary black holes (BBHs) are among the most likely sources for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and its international partners Virgo and KAGRA. Optimal searches for BBHs require accurate waveforms for the signal model and effectual template banks that cover the mass space of interest. We investigate the ability of the second-order post-Newtonian TaylorF2 hexagonal template placement metric to construct an effectual template bank, if the template waveforms used are effective one body waveforms tuned to numerical relativity (EOBNRv2). We find that by combining the existing TaylorF2 placement metric with EOBNRv2 waveforms, we can construct an effectual search for BBHs with component masses in the range 3 Msolar <= m1, m2 <= 25 Msolar. We also show that the (computationally less expensive) TaylorF2 post-Newtonian waveforms can be used in place of EOBNRv2 waveforms when M <~ 12 Msolar. Finally, we investigate the effect of modes other than the dominant {l = m = 2}...

  1. Constraint Propagation of $C^2$-adjusted Formulation - Another Recipe for Robust ADM Evolution System

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchiya, Takuya; Shinkai, Hisa-aki

    2011-01-01

    With a purpose of constructing a robust evolution system against numerical instability for integrating the Einstein equations, we propose a new formulation by adjusting the ADM evolution equations with constraints. We apply an adjusting method proposed by Fiske (2004) which uses the norm of the constraints, C2. One of the advantages of this method is that the effective signature of adjusted terms (Lagrange multipliers) for constraint-damping evolution is pre-determined. We demonstrate this fact by showing the eigenvalues of constraint propagation equations. We also perform numerical tests of this adjusted evolution system using polarized Gowdy-wave propagation, which show robust evolutions against the violation of the constraints than that of the standard ADM formulation.

  2. III - Template Metaprogramming for massively parallel scientific computing - Templates for Iteration; Thread-level Parallelism

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  3. II - Template Metaprogramming for Massively Parallel Scientific Computing - Vectorization with Expression Templates

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  4. Acquiring Common Sense Spatial Knowledge through Implicit Spatial Templates

    OpenAIRE

    Collell, Guillem; Van Gool, Luc; Moens, Marie-Francine

    2017-01-01

    Spatial understanding is a fundamental problem with wide-reaching real-world applications. The representation of spatial knowledge is often modeled with spatial templates, i.e., regions of acceptability of two objects under an explicit spatial relationship (e.g., "on", "below", etc.). In contrast with prior work that restricts spatial templates to explicit spatial prepositions (e.g., "glass on table"), here we extend this concept to implicit spatial language, i.e., those relationships (genera...

  5. A competition-based deformable template for junction extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Cazorla Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Escolano Ruiz, Francisco; Gallardo López, Domingo; Colomina Pardo, Otto

    1999-01-01

    We propose a deformable template for junction extraction. Our method evolves from the Kona approach. Junction detection is performed in two steps: center detection and wedge extraction. In the first stage, a local filter is used to detect candidates. Then a template deformation method is used to find the optimal number of sections. Comunicación presentada en el VIII Simposium Nacional de Reconocimiento de Formas y Análisis de Imágenes, Bilbao, mayo 1999.

  6. Template directed synthesis of highly organized functional biomimetic silica nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Silica is an important mineral in technological and biological applications. Many protocols have been developed for the synthesis of complex silica architectures. Most prominent is the silicification approach, where polymers build up the templates for the revealed polymer/silica structures. The current thesis demonstrates that star-shaped polymers and block copolymers are efficient templates for the fabrication of silica particles with spherical or raspberry-like morphology....

  7. Planck 2013 Results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG).Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordiallocal, equilateral......-Sachs-Wolfe-lensing bispectrum at a level expected in the ΛCDM scenario. The results are based on comprehensive crossvalidationof these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensivesuite of tests, and are confirmed by skew-C∫, wavelet bispectrum......, excited initial states (non-Bunch-Daviesvacua), and directionally-dependent vector models. We provide an initial survey of scale-dependent feature and resonance models. These results bound both general single-field and multi-field model parameter ranges, such as the speed of sound, cs ≥0.02 (95% CL...

  8. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  9. Silver nanowires-templated metal oxide for broadband Schottky photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Kim, Joondong, E-mail: joonkim@inu.ac.kr [Photoelectric and Energy Device Application Lab (PEDAL) and Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, 119 Academy Rd. Yeonsu, Incheon 406772 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyeong-Ho [Applied Device and Material Lab., Device Technology Division, Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center (KANC), Suwon 443270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-04

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs)-templated transparent metal oxide layer was applied for Si Schottky junction device, which remarked the record fastest photoresponse of 3.4 μs. Self-operating AgNWs-templated Schottky photodetector showed broad wavelength photodetection with high responsivity (42.4 A W{sup −1}) and detectivity (2.75 × 10{sup 15} Jones). AgNWs-templated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) showed band-to-band excitation due to the internal photoemission, resulting in significant carrier collection performances. Functional metal oxide layer was formed by AgNWs-templated from ITO structure. The grown ITO above AgNWs has a cylindrical shape and acts as a thermal protector of AgNWs for high temperature environment without any deformation. We developed thermal stable AgNWs-templated transparent oxide devices and demonstrated the working mechanism of AgNWs-templated Schottky devices. We may propose the high potential of hybrid transparent layer design for various photoelectric applications, including solar cells.

  10. Incorporation of physical constraints in optimal surface search for renal cortex segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuli; Chen, Xinjian; Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Xing; Tian, Jie

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for multiple surfaces segmentation based on the incorporation of physical constraints in optimal surface searching. We apply our new approach to solve the renal cortex segmentation problem, an important but not sufficiently researched issue. In this study, in order to better restrain the intensity proximity of the renal cortex and renal column, we extend the optimal surface search approach to allow for varying sampling distance and physical separation constraints, instead of the traditional fixed sampling distance and numerical separation constraints. The sampling distance of each vertex-column is computed according to the sparsity of the local triangular mesh. Then the physical constraint learned from a priori renal cortex thickness is applied to the inter-surface arcs as the separation constraints. Appropriate varying sampling distance and separation constraints were learnt from 6 clinical CT images. After training, the proposed approach was tested on a test set of 10 images. The manual segmentation of renal cortex was used as the reference standard. Quantitative analysis of the segmented renal cortex indicates that overall segmentation accuracy was increased after introducing the varying sampling distance and physical separation constraints (the average true positive volume fraction (TPVF) and false positive volume fraction (FPVF) were 83.96% and 2.80%, respectively, by using varying sampling distance and physical separation constraints compared to 74.10% and 0.18%, respectively, by using fixed sampling distance and numerical separation constraints). The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Challenging the gold standard for 3D-QSAR: template CoMFA versus X-ray alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Bernd; Cramer, Richard D.

    2014-08-01

    X-ray-based alignments of bioactive compounds are commonly used to correlate structural changes with changes in potencies, ultimately leading to three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships such as CoMFA or CoMSIA models that can provide further guidance for the design of new compounds. We have analyzed data sets where the alignment of the compounds is entirely based on experimentally derived ligand poses from X-ray-crystallography. We developed CoMFA and CoMSIA models from these X-ray-determined receptor-bound conformations and compared the results with models generated from ligand-centric Template CoMFA, finding that the fluctuations in the positions and conformations of compounds dominate X-ray-based alignments can yield poorer predictions than those from the self-consistent template CoMFA alignments. Also, when there exist multiple different binding modes, structural interpretation in terms of binding site constraints can often be simpler with template-based alignments than with X-ray-based alignments.

  12. Detection of Cancerous Masses in Mammograms by Template Matching: Optimization of Template Brightness Distribution by Means of Evolutionary Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bator, Marcin; Nieniewski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    .... This optimization is performed by the evolutionary algorithm using an auxiliary mass classifier. Brightness along the radius of the circularly symmetric template is coded indirectly by its second derivative...

  13. Applying Motion Constraints Based on Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    MSC ADAMS is a simulation software that is used to analyze multibody dynamics. Using user subroutines, it is possible to apply motion constraints to the rigid bodies so that they match the motion profile collected from test data. This presentation describes the process of taking test data and passing it to ADAMS using user subroutines, and uses the Morpheus free-flight 4 test as an example of motion data used for this purpose. Morpheus is the name of a prototype lander vehicle built by NASA that serves as a test bed for various experimental technologies (see backup slides for details) MSC.ADAMS"TM" is used to play back telemetry data (vehicle orientation and position) from each test as the inputs to a 6-DoF general motion constraint (details in backup slides) The MSC.ADAMS"TM" playback simulations allow engineers to examine and analyze flight trajectory as well as observe vehicle motion from any angle and at any playback speed. This facilitates the development of robust and stable control algorithms, increasing reliability and reducing development costs of this developmental engine The simulation also incorporates a 3D model of the artificial hazard field, allowing engineers to visualize and measure performance of the developmental autonomous landing and hazard avoidance technology ADAMS is a multibody dynamics solver. It uses forces, constraints, and mass properties to numerically integrate equations of motion. The ADAMS solver will ask the motion subroutine for position, velocity, and acceleration values at various time steps. Those values must be continuous over the whole time domain. Each degree of freedom in the telemetry data can be examined separately; however, linear interpolation of the telemetry data is invalid, since there will be discontinuities in velocity and acceleration.

  14. Topology Optimization of Continuum Structures with Local Stress Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duysinx, Pierre; Bendsøe, Martin P

    1998-01-01

    We introduce an extension of current technologies for topology optimization of continuum structures which allows for treating local stress criteria. We first consider relevant stress criteria for porous composite materials, initially by studying the stress states of the so-called rank 2 layered...... materials. Then, on the basis of the theoretical study of the rank 2 microstructures, we propose an empirical model, that extends the power penalized stiffness model (also called SIMP for Solid Isotropic Microstructure with Penalization for intermediate densities). In a second part, solution aspects...... of topology problems are considered. To deal with the so-called 'singularity' phenomenon of stress constraints in topology design, an epsilon-constraint relaxation of the stress constraints is used. We describe the mathematical programming approach that is used to solve the numerical optimization problems...

  15. Structural optimization under overhang constraints imposed by additive manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, G.; Dapogny, C.; Estevez, R.; Faure, A.; Michailidis, G.

    2017-12-01

    This article addresses one of the major constraints imposed by additive manufacturing processes on shape optimization problems - that of overhangs, i.e. large regions hanging over void without sufficient support from the lower structure. After revisiting the 'classical' geometric criteria used in the literature, based on the angle between the structural boundary and the build direction, we propose a new mechanical constraint functional, which mimics the layer by layer construction process featured by additive manufacturing technologies, and thereby appeals to the physical origin of the difficulties caused by overhangs. This constraint, as well as some variants, is precisely defined; their shape derivatives are computed in the sense of Hadamard's method, and numerical strategies are extensively discussed, in two and three space dimensions, to efficiently deal with the appearance of overhang features in the course of shape optimization processes.

  16. Constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murren, Courtney J; Auld, Josh R.; Callahan, Hilary S

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generally regarded as a key mechanism for enabling organisms to survive in the face of environmental change. Because no organism is infinitely or ideally plastic, theory suggests that there must be limits (for example, the lack of ability to produce...... an optimal trait) to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, or that plasticity may have inherent significant costs. Yet numerous experimental studies have not detected widespread costs. Explicitly differentiating plasticity costs from phenotype costs, we re-evaluate fundamental questions of the limits...... to the evolution of plasticity and of generalists vs specialists. We advocate for the view that relaxed selection and variable selection intensities are likely more important constraints to the evolution of plasticity than the costs of plasticity. Some forms of plasticity, such as learning, may be inherently...

  17. Numerical Optimization in Microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg

    2017-01-01

    Numerical modelling can illuminate the working mechanism and limitations of microfluidic devices. Such insights are useful in their own right, but one can take advantage of numerical modelling in a systematic way using numerical optimization. In this chapter we will discuss when and how numerical...

  18. Numerical Analysis of Constrained, Time-Optimal Satellite Reorientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Melton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work on time-optimal satellite slewing maneuvers, with one satellite axis (sensor axis required to obey multiple path constraints (exclusion from keep-out cones centered on high-intensity astronomical sources reveals complex motions with no part of the trajectory touching the constraint boundaries (boundary points or lying along a finite arc of the constraint boundary (boundary arcs. This paper examines four cases in which the sensor axis is either forced to follow a boundary arc, or has initial and final directions that lie on the constraint boundary. Numerical solutions, generated via a Legendre pseudospectral method, show that the forced boundary arcs are suboptimal. Precession created by the control torques, moving the sensor axis away from the constraint boundary, results in faster slewing maneuvers. A two-stage process is proposed for generating optimal solutions in less time, an important consideration for eventual onboard implementation.

  19. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  20. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sharmeen, Rezwana; S. M. Kamruzzaman

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform...

  1. Magnetotail dynamics under isobaric constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl; Janicke, Lutz; Hesse, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Using linear theory and nonlinear MHD simulations, we investigate the resistive and ideal MHD stability of two-dimensional plasma configurations under the isobaric constraint dP/dt = 0, which in ideal MHD is equivalent to conserving the pressure function P = P(A), where A denotes the magnetic flux. This constraint is satisfied for incompressible modes, such as Alfven waves, and for systems undergoing energy losses. The linear stability analysis leads to a Schroedinger equation, which can be investigated by standard quantum mechanics procedures. We present an application to a typical stretched magnetotail configuration. For a one-dimensional sheet equilibrium characteristic properties of tearing instability are rediscovered. However, the maximum growth rate scales with the 1/7 power of the resistivity, which implies much faster growth than for the standard tearing mode (assuming that the resistivity is small). The same basic eigen-mode is found also for weakly two-dimensional equilibria, even in the ideal MHD limit. In this case the growth rate scales with the 1/4 power of the normal magnetic field. The results of the linear stability analysis are confirmed qualitatively by nonlinear dynamic MHD simulations. These results suggest the interesting possibility that substorm onset, or the thinning in the late growth phase, is caused by the release of a thermodynamic constraint without the (immediate) necessity of releasing the ideal MHD constraint. In the nonlinear regime the resistive and ideal developments differ in that the ideal mode does not lead to neutral line formation without the further release of the ideal MHD constraint; instead a thin current sheet forms. The isobaric constraint is critically discussed. Under perhaps more realistic adiabatic conditions the ideal mode appears to be stable but could be driven by external perturbations and thus generate the thin current sheet in the late growth phase, before a nonideal instability sets in.

  2. New Constraints on Quantum Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical relationships between physical theories are discussed. It is explained how a lower rank theory imposes constraints on an acceptable structure of its higher rank theory. This principle is applied to the case of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory of massive particles. It is proved that the Dirac equation is consistent with these constraints whereas the Klein-Gordon equation, as well as all other second order quan- tum equations are inconsistent with the Schrödinger equation. This series of arguments undermines the theoretical structure of the Standard Model.

  3. Templated hydrogels for combination devices: therapeutic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Maryam; Vaughan, Asa D; Zhang, Jeney; Venkatesh, Sid; Byrne, Mark E

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imprinting provides a rational design strategy for the development of controlled release drug delivery systems. We demonstrate that imprinting a network results in macromolecular memory for the template molecule, indicated by the two or more times greater partitioning into these networks as compared to non-imprinted networks. Partitioning of drug into networks synthesized from multiple functional monomers was 8 times greater than networks synthesized from single monomers. One-dimensional permeation studies showed that the gel with maximum incorporated chemical functionality had the lowest diffusion coefficient, which was at least an order of magnitude lower than all other gels studied. All imprinted networks had significantly lower diffusion coefficients than non-imprinted networks, in spite of comparable mesh sizes and equilibrium polymer volume fractions in the swollen state. This work also demonstrates molecular imprinting using a "living/controlled" polymerization strategy to enhance template loading/affinity and delay release in weakly crosslinked gels. Recognition studies revealed more than a 50% increase in template loading and dynamic template release studies showed that imprinting via "living" polymerization extends or delays the template release profile by two-fold over that of imprinting via conventional free-radical polymerization techniques and four-fold over the control network. The imprinted gel and imprinted gel prepared via "living/controlled" polymerization release profiles were less Fickian and moved toward zero-order release with profile coefficients of 0.68 and 0.70, respectively.

  4. Attempted nonenzymatic template-directed oligomerizations on a polyadenylic acid template: implications for the nature of the first genetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribling, R.; Miller, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    Previous attempts to produce nonenzymatic template-directed oligomerizations of activated pyrimidines on polypurine templates have been unsuccessful. The only efficient reactions are those where the template is composed primarily of pyrimidines, especially cytosine. Because molecular evolution requires that a synthesized daughter polynucleotide be capable of acting as a template for the synthesis of the original polynucleotide, the one-way replication achieved thus far is inadequate to initiate an evolving system. Several uracil analogs were used in this investigation in order to search for possible replacements for uracil. The monomers used in this investigation were the imidazolides of UMP, xanthosine 5'-monophosphate, the bis-monophosphates of the acyclic nucleosides of uracil, and 2,4-quinazolinedione. The concentrations of various salts, buffers, pH, and temperature were among the different variables investigated in attempts to find conditions that would permit template-directed oligomerizations. Although the different monomers in this study demonstrated varying abilities to form very short oligomers, we were unable to detect any enhancement of this oligomerization that could be attributed to the poly(A) template. Although special conditions might be found that would allow purine-rich templates to work, these reactions cannot be considered robust. The results of our experiments suggest that pyrimidines were not part of the original replicating system on the primitive Earth. It has already been shown that ribose is an unlikely component of the first replicating systems, and we now suggest that phosphate was absent as well. This is due to the low solubility of phosphate in the present ocean (3 x 10(-6) M), as well as the difficulty of prebiotic activation of phosphates.

  5. Engineering Plasmonic Nanocrystal Coupling through Template-Assisted Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greybush, Nicholas J.

    The construction of materials from nanocrystal building blocks represents a powerful new paradigm for materials design. Just as nature's materials orchestrate intricate combinations of atoms from the library of the periodic table, nanocrystal "metamaterials" integrate individual nanocrystals into larger architectures with emergent collective properties. The individual nanocrystal "meta-atoms" that make up these materials are themselves each a nanoscale atomic system with tailorable size, shape, and elemental composition, enabling the creation of hierarchical materials with predesigned structure at multiple length scales. However, an improved fundamental understanding of the interactions among individual nanocrystals is needed in order to translate this structural control into enhanced functionality. The ability to form precise arrangements of nanocrystals and measure their collective properties is therefore essential for the continued development of nanocrystal metamaterials. In this dissertation, we utilize template-assisted self-assembly and spatially-resolved spectroscopy to form and characterize individual nanocrystal oligomers. At the intersection of "top-down" and "bottom-up" nanoscale patterning schemes, template-assisted self-assembly combines the design freedom of lithography with the chemical control of colloidal synthesis to achieve unique nanocrystal configurations. Here, we employ shape-selective templates to assemble new plasmonic structures, including heterodimers of Au nanorods and upconversion phosphors, a series of hexagonally-packed Au nanocrystal oligomers, and triangular formations of Au nanorods. Through experimental analysis and numerical simulation, we elucidate the means through which inter-nanocrystal coupling imparts collective optical properties to the plasmonic assemblies. Our self-assembly and measurement strategy offers a versatile platform for exploring optical interactions in a wide range of material systems and application areas.

  6. Templates as a method for implementing data provenance in decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcin, Vasa; Fairweather, Elliot; Danger, Roxana; Corrigan, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Decision support systems are used as a method of promoting consistent guideline-based diagnosis supporting clinical reasoning at point of care. However, despite the availability of numerous commercial products, the wider acceptance of these systems has been hampered by concerns about diagnostic performance and a perceived lack of transparency in the process of generating clinical recommendations. This resonates with the Learning Health System paradigm that promotes data-driven medicine relying on routine data capture and transformation, which also stresses the need for trust in an evidence-based system. Data provenance is a way of automatically capturing the trace of a research task and its resulting data, thereby facilitating trust and the principles of reproducible research. While computational domains have started to embrace this technology through provenance-enabled execution middlewares, traditionally non-computational disciplines, such as medical research, that do not rely on a single software platform, are still struggling with its adoption. In order to address these issues, we introduce provenance templates - abstract provenance fragments representing meaningful domain actions. Templates can be used to generate a model-driven service interface for domain software tools to routinely capture the provenance of their data and tasks. This paper specifies the requirements for a Decision Support tool based on the Learning Health System, introduces the theoretical model for provenance templates and demonstrates the resulting architecture. Our methods were tested and validated on the provenance infrastructure for a Diagnostic Decision Support System that was developed as part of the EU FP7 TRANSFoRm project. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Perturbative unitarity constraints on the NMSSM Higgs Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betre, Kassahun; El Hedri, Sonia; Walker, Devin G. E.

    2018-03-01

    We place perturbative unitarity constraints on both the dimensionful and dimensionless parameters in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) Higgs Sector. These constraints, plus the requirement that the singlino and/or Higgsino constitutes at least part of the observed dark matter relic abundance, generate upper bounds on the Higgs, neutralino and chargino mass spectrum. Requiring higher-order corrections to be no more than 41% of the tree-level value, we obtain an upper bound of 20 TeV for the heavy Higgses and 12 TeV for the charginos and neutralinos outside defined fine-tuned regions. If the corrections are no more than 20% of the tree-level value, the bounds are 7 TeV for the heavy Higgses and 5 TeV for the charginos and neutralinos. In all, by using the NMSSM as a template, we describe a method which replaces naturalness arguments with more rigorous perturbative unitarity arguments to get a better understanding of when new physics will appear.

  8. Constraint Propagation of $C^2$-adjusted Formulation II -- Another Recipe for Robust BSSN Evolution System

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchiya, Takuya; Shinkai, Hisa-aki

    2011-01-01

    To obtain an evolution system robust against the violation of constraints, we present a new set of evolution systems based on the so-called Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) equations. The idea is to add functional derivatives of the norm of constraints, $C^2$, to the evolution equations, which was proposed by Fiske (2004) and was applied to the ADM formulation in our previous study. We derive the constraint propagation equations, discuss the behavior of constraint damping, and present the results of numerical tests using the gauge-wave and polarized Gowdy wave spacetimes. The construction of the $C^2$-adjusted system is straightforward. However, in BSSN, there are two kinetic constraints and three algebraic constraints; thus, the definition of $C^2$ is a matter of concern. By analyzing constraint propagation equations, we conclude that $C^2$ should include all the constraints, which is also confirmed numerically. By tuning the parameters, the lifetime of the simulations can be increased to 2-10 times...

  9. A template-dependent dislocation mechanism potentiates K65R reverse transcriptase mutation development in subtype C variants of HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Coutsinos

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have suggested that the K65R reverse transcriptase (RT mutation develops more readily in subtype C than subtype B HIV-1. We recently showed that this discrepancy lies partly in the subtype C template coding sequence that predisposes RT to pause at the site of K65R mutagenesis. However, the mechanism underlying this observation and the elevated rates of K65R development remained unknown. Here, we report that DNA synthesis performed with subtype C templates consistently produced more K65R-containing transcripts than subtype B templates, regardless of the subtype-origin of the RT enzymes employed. These findings confirm that the mechanism involved is template-specific and RT-independent. In addition, a pattern of DNA synthesis characteristic of site-specific primer/template slippage and dislocation was only observed with the subtype C sequence. Analysis of RNA secondary structure suggested that the latter was unlikely to impact on K65R development between subtypes and that Streisinger strand slippage during DNA synthesis at the homopolymeric nucleotide stretch of the subtype C K65 region might occur, resulting in misalignment of the primer and template. Consequently, slippage would lead to a deletion of the middle adenine of codon K65 and the production of a -1 frameshift mutation, which upon dislocation and realignment of the primer and template, would lead to development of the K65R mutation. These findings provide additional mechanistic evidence for the facilitated development of the K65R mutation in subtype C HIV-1.

  10. Constraints for the thawing and freezing potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Anna; Saka, Shogo; Tanigawa, Takuma

    2018-01-01

    We study the accelerating present universe in terms of the time evolution of the equation of state w(z) (redshift z) due to thawing and freezing scalar potentials in the quintessence model. The values of dw/da and d^2w/da^2 at a scale factor of a = 1 are associated with two parameters of each potential. For five types of scalar potentials, the scalar fields Q and w as functions of time t and/or z are numerically calculated under the fixed boundary condition of w(z=0)=-1+Δ. The observational constraint w_obs (Planck Collaboration, arXiv:1502.01590) is imposed to test whether the numerical w(z) is in w_obs. Some solutions show thawing features in the freezing potentials. Mutually exclusive allowed regions in the dw/da vs. d^2w/da^2 diagram are obtained in order to identify the likely scalar potential and even the potential parameters for future observational tests.

  11. Template-Directed Biopolymerization: Tape-Copying Turing Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajeet K.; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2012-10-01

    DNA, RNA and proteins are among the most important macromolecules in a living cell. These molecules are polymerized by molecular machines. These natural nano-machines polymerize such macromolecules, adding one monomer at a time, using another linear polymer as the corresponding template. The machine utilizes input chemical energy to move along the template which also serves as a track for the movements of the machine. In the Alan Turing year 2012, it is worth pointing out that these machines are "tape-copying Turing machines". We review the operational mechanisms of the polymerizer machines and their collective behavior from the perspective of statistical physics, emphasizing their common features in spite of the crucial differences in their biological functions. We also draw the attention of the physics community to another class of modular machines that carry out a different type of template-directed polymerization. We hope this review will inspire new kinetic models for these modular machines.

  12. Electroless Fabrication of Cobalt Alloys Nanowires within Alumina Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Dadvand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of nanowire fabrication based on electroless deposition process is described. The method is novel compared to the current electroless procedure used in making nanowires as it involves growing nanowires from the bottom up. The length of the nanowires was controlled at will simply by adjusting the deposition time. The nanowires were fabricated within the nanopores of an alumina template. It was accomplished by coating one side of the template by a thin layer of palladium in order to activate the electroless deposition within the nanopores from bottom up. However, prior to electroless deposition process, the template was pretreated with a suitable wetting agent in order to facilitate the penetration of the plating solution through the pores. As well, the electroless deposition process combined with oblique metal evaporation process within a prestructured silicon wafer was used in order to fabricate long nanowires along one side of the grooves within the wafer.

  13. Computer-Aided Template for Model Reuse, Development and Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    A template-based approach for model development is presented in this work. Based on a model decomposition technique, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool , which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps......, as well as the guidance through the steps providing additional information and comments. The application of the tool is highlighted with a multiscale modeling case study involving a catalytic membrane fixed bed reactor. The modeling templates for reactor as well as particle scales have been developed...... . For the particle scale, two alternative mechanisms to describe the diffusion inside catalyst pellets are available: a Fickian diffusion model and a dusty gas model . Moreover, the effects of isothermal and non-isothermal catalyst are also considered during the model development process. Thereby, any number...

  14. Template-mediated ontogenesis: A novel approach to mesomorphic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.E.; Anderson, M.T.; Odinek, J.; Newcomer, P.

    1996-07-01

    In this report the authors describe the methods they have developed for producing stable periodic mesoporous silica gels, thin films of mesoporous silica for sensor applications, a route to nonaqueous synthesis, and the use of various additives in controlling the pore size and structure of these materials. Mesoporous silica is formed by templating silica precursors around micelles of cationic quaternary ammonium surfactants. During the synthesis these micelles undergo a phase transition to a hexagonal, lamellar or cubic liquid crystalline state, thus imposing periodic order on the amorphous silica which occupies the interface of the hydrophilic cationic headgroups of the surfactants. The product of the bulk wet synthesis is a gel composed of micron size silica/surfactant particles, each of which consists of one or more crystalline domains of silica condensed around the surfactant template. The wet gel can then be washed and pyrolyzed to remove the surfactant template, yielding the periodic mesoporous silica product.

  15. Anticipatory Eye Movements in Interleaving Templates of Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matessa, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Performance modeling has been made easier by architectures which package psychological theory for reuse at useful levels of abstraction. CPM-GOMS uses templates of behavior to package at a task level (e.g., mouse move-click, typing) predictions of lower-level cognitive, perceptual, and motor resource use. CPM-GOMS also has a theory for interleaving resource use between templates. One example of interleaving is anticipatory eye movements. This paper describes the use of ACT-Stitch, a framework for translating CPM-GOMS templates and interleaving theory into ACT-R, to model anticipatory eye movements in skilled behavior. The anticipatory eye movements explain performance in a well-practiced perceptual/motor task, and the interleaving theory is supported with results from an eye-tracking experiment.

  16. Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    -cultural field study of think-aloud testing done by usability vendor companies in the three countries. The result was a grounded theory of cultural variations in the production of a usability problem list. Study 2 was a follow-up, ethnographic interview study of how the companies typically perform usability......The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross...... tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research...

  17. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Pan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  18. In vitro transcription of a torsionally constrained template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas; Nielsen, Peter E

    2002-01-01

    of torsionally constrained DNA by free RNAP. We asked whether or not a newly synthesized RNA chain would limit transcription elongation. For this purpose we developed a method to immobilize covalently closed circular DNA to streptavidin-coated beads via a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-biotin conjugate in principle...... mimicking a SAR/MAR attachment. We used this construct as a torsionally constrained template for transcription of the beta-lactamase gene by Escherichia coli RNAP and found that RNA synthesis displays similar characteristics in terms of rate of elongation whether or not the template is torsionally...... constrained. We conclude that transcription of a natural bacterial gene may proceed with high efficiency despite the fact that newly synthesized RNA is entangled around the template in the narrow confines of torsionally constrained supercoiled DNA....

  19. Fabrication of Gold Nanochains with Octreotide Acetate Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We described a facile method for assembly gold nanochains by using octreotide acetate as template in aqueous environment. In acidic solution, octreotide acetate was conferred positive charges and its structure changed to chain-like. The monodisperse negative gold nanoparticles were bound to the surface of octreotide acetate template by electrostatic attraction and the interaction of gold nanoparticles with amino acid residues (tryptophan and lysine. The fabricated gold nanostructure presented chain-like observed by transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of gold nanochains was examined by tetrazolium dye-based microtitration (MTT assay, which demonstrated significantly less toxicity than that of octreotide acetate alone. The MTT assay also reflected the combinative action between the gold nanoparticles with octreotide acetate. Our work lays the groundwork for developing octreotide acetate-templated nanomaterials that can be used as a building block for the creation of nanomaterials. Meanwhile, the harmfulless gold nanochains have great application prospects in the biomedical filed.

  20. Biological Constraints on Literacy Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    Investigates some of the biological constraints that shape the process of literacy acquisition. Explores the possibility of isolating processing components of reading which correspond to computational units of equivalent size in the neural architecture. Suggests that the process of literacy acquisition is largely constrained by a specific…

  1. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  2. Intertemporal consumption and credit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    There is continuing controversy over the importance of credit constraints. This paper investigates whether total household expenditure and debt is affected by an exogenous increase in access to credit provided by a credit market reform that enabled Danish house owners to use housing equity...

  3. Conjoined Constraints and Phonological Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bonilha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993, research on phonological acquisition has explored the explanatory potential of constraint theories. This study, also based on Optimality Theory, attempts to analyze the acquisition of CVVC syllable structure by Brazilian Portuguese children and addresses the issue of Local Conjunction (Smolensky, 1995, 1997 in research that deals with problems of phonological acquisition.

  4. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  5. Constraint-Based Scheduling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Monte; Eskey, Megan; Stock, Todd; Taylor, Will; Kanefsky, Bob; Drascher, Ellen; Deale, Michael; Daun, Brian; Davis, Gene

    1995-01-01

    Report describes continuing development of software for constraint-based scheduling system implemented eventually on massively parallel computer. Based on machine learning as means of improving scheduling. Designed to learn when to change search strategy by analyzing search progress and learning general conditions under which resource bottleneck occurs.

  6. Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.

  7. Unidirectional alignment of block copolymer templated porous films using solvent vapor annealing with soft shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhe; Cavicchi, Kevin; Vogt, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    Porous films templated by block copolymers (BCPs) have been extensively investigated due to their potential numerous applications such as sorbents and nanolithography. However, in many cases, their performance critically depends on their nanostructural alignment and orientation. Achieving unidirectional alignment of these nanostructures over macroscopic dimensions is still challenging especially for BCPs with very high χ and Tg. Here, we illustrate a new method based on solvent vapor annealing with soft shear (SVA-SS), where a crosslinked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) cap is simply adhered to the polymer films during SVA, to fabricate macroscopically aligned cylindrical structured mesoporous films using poly(styrene-block-N,N,-dimethyl-n-octadecylamine p-styrenesulfonate) (PS-b-PSS-DMODA) as the soft-template and phenolic resin as the precursor. The evolution of structures through the SVA-SS, thermal annealing and carbonization is determined by grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Highly ordered mesoporous carbon films with S>0.8 can be obtained by this method. Potential applicability of this method to nanostructures besides cylinders, such as spheres and gyroid will be discussed.

  8. Computer-aided modelling template: Concept and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    decomposition technique which identifies generic steps and workflow involved, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool, which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps and guidance through the steps providing additional......Modelling is an important enabling technology in modern chemical engineering applications. A template-based approach is presented in this work to facilitate the construction and documentation of the models and enable their maintenance for reuse in a wider application range. Based on a model...

  9. An Empirical Ultraviolet Iron Spectrum Template Applicable to Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Iron emission is often a severe contaminant in optical-ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies. Its presence complicates emission line studies. A viable solution, already successfully applied at optical wavelengths, is to use an empirical iron emission template. We have generated FeII and Fe......III templates for ultraviolet active galaxy spectra based on HST archival 1100 - 3100 A spectra of IZw1. Their application allows fitting and subtraction of the iron emission in active galaxy spectra. This work has shown that in particular CIII] lambda 1909 can be heavily contaminated by other line emission...

  10. Template-Assisted Formation of Nanostructured Dopamine-Modified Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine-modified alginate and gelatin were prepared. The polymers were characterized and the properties of their aqueous solutions were investigated. Aqueous solutions of dopamine-modified alginate and gelatin with a concentration exceeding 20 mg/mL naturally formed gels after 16 h. Although polydopamine itself was not used for template-assisted nanostructure formation, the modified polymers could be used with dopamine. Mixing with dopamine allowed the precise shape of the template to be maintained in the resulting material, allowing nanopatterned surfaces and nanotubes to be prepared.

  11. A Bayesian Generative Model for Surface Template Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D surfaces are important geometric models for many objects of interest in image analysis and Computational Anatomy. In this paper, we describe a Bayesian inference scheme for estimating a template surface from a set of observed surface data. In order to achieve this, we use the geodesic shooting approach to construct a statistical model for the generation and the observations of random surfaces. We develop a mode approximation EM algorithm to infer the maximum a posteriori estimation of initial momentum μ, which determines the template surface. Experimental results of caudate, thalamus, and hippocampus data are presented.

  12. Creativity from Constraints in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of constraints in limiting and enhancing creativity in engineering design. Based on a review of literature relating constraints to creativity, the paper presents a longitudinal participatory study from Coloplast A/S, a major international producer of disposable...... medical equipment. At Coloplast, constraints played a fundamental role and the observations show the important, dual role of constraints in terms of being a limitation and a prerequisite for creativity. Too few or too many constraints had a negative impact on creativity, whereas the formulation, rationale...... and ownership of formal constraints played a crucial role in defining their influence on creativity – along with the tacit constraints held by the designers. The designers were found to be highly constraint focused, and four main creative strategies for constraint manipulation were observed: blackboxing...

  13. Planck 2013 results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Heavens, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result fNLlocal = 2.7 ± 5.8, fNLequil = -42 ± 75, and fNLorth = -25 ± 39 (68% CL statistical). Non-Gaussianity is detected in the data; using skew-Cℓ statistics we find a nonzero bispectrum from residual point sources, and the integrated-Sachs-Wolfe-lensing bispectrum at a level expected in the ΛCDM scenario. The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are confirmed by skew-Cℓ, wavelet bispectrum and Minkowski functional estimators. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, three-dimensional reconstructions of the Planck CMB bispectrum and thus derive constraints on early-Universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general single-field models of inflation, excited initial states (non-Bunch-Davies vacua), and directionally-dependent vector models. We provide an initial survey of scale-dependent feature and resonance models. These results bound both general single-field and multi-field model parameter ranges, such as the speed of sound, cs ≥ 0.02 (95% CL), in an effective field theory parametrization, and the curvaton decay fraction rD ≥ 0.15 (95% CL). The Planck data significantly limit the viable parameter space of the ekpyrotic/cyclic scenarios. The amplitude of the four-point function in the local model τNL< 2800 (95% CL). Taken together, these constraints represent the highest precision tests to date of physical mechanisms for the origin of cosmic structure.

  14. Solvothermal removal of the organic template from L{sub 3} ('sponge') templated silica monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabbs, Daniel M. [Princeton University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); Mulders, Norbert [University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Aksay, Ilhan A. [Princeton University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)], E-mail: iaksay@princeton.EDU

    2006-10-15

    We compare the methods of continuous solvent (Soxhlet) and supercritical solvent extractions for the removal of the organic template from nanostructured silica monoliths. Our monoliths are formed by templating the L{sub 3} liquid crystal phase of cetylpyridinium chloride in aqueous solutions with tetramethoxy silane. The monoliths that result from both Soxhlet and supercritical extraction methods are mechanically robust, optically clear, and free of cracks. The Soxhlet method compares favorably with supercritical solvent extraction in that equivalent L{sub 3}-templated silica can be synthesized without the use of specialized reactor hardware or higher temperatures and high pressures, while avoiding noxious byproducts. The comparative effectiveness of various solvents in the Soxhlet process is related to the Hildebrand solubility parameter, determined by the effective surface area of the extracted silica.

  15. Detection of cancerous masses in mammograms by template matching: optimization of template brightness distribution by means of evolutionary algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bator, Marcin; Nieniewski, Mariusz

    2012-02-01

    Optimization of brightness distribution in the template used for detection of cancerous masses in mammograms by means of correlation coefficient is presented. This optimization is performed by the evolutionary algorithm using an auxiliary mass classifier. Brightness along the radius of the circularly symmetric template is coded indirectly by its second derivative. The fitness function is defined as the area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for the mass classifier. The ROC and AUC are obtained for a teaching set of regions of interest (ROIs), for which it is known whether a ROI is true-positive (TP) or false-positive (F). The teaching set is obtained by running the mass detector using a template with a predetermined brightness. Subsequently, the evolutionary algorithm optimizes the template by classifying masses in the teaching set. The optimal template (OT) can be used for detection of masses in mammograms with unknown ROIs. The approach was tested on the training and testing sets of the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). The free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) obtained with the new mass detector seems superior to the FROC for the hemispherical template (HT). Exemplary results are the following: in the case of the training set in the DDSM, the true-positive fraction (TPF) = 0.82 for the OT and 0.79 for the HT; in the case of the testing set, TPF = 0.79 for the OT and 0.72 for the HT. These values were obtained for disease cases, and the false-positive per image (FPI) = 2.

  16. Investigation of Terminology Coverage in Radiology Reporting Templates and Free‐text Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA is improving reporting practices by developing an online library of clear and consistent report templates. To compare term occurrences in free‐text radiology reports and RSNA reporting templates, the Wilcoxon signed‐rank test method was applied to investigate how much of the content of conventional narrative reports is covered by the terms included in the RSNA reporting templates. The results show that the RSNA reporting templates cover most terms that appear in actual radiology reports. The Wilcoxon test may be helpful in evaluatingexisting templates and guiding the enhancement of reporting templates.

  17. Project Scheduling Under Resource Constraints: Application of the Cumulative Global Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Trojet, Mariem; H'Mida, Fehmi; Lopez, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper concerns project scheduling under resource constraints. The objective is to find a solution that minimizes the project makespan, while respecting the precedence constraints and the resource constraints. The problem under consideration is modelled as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP). It is implemented under the constraint programming language CHIP V5. For modelling the resource constraints, we are particularly interested in the application of the cumul...

  18. Canard explosion of limit cycles in templator models of self-replication mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøns, Morten

    2011-04-01

    Templators are differential equation models for self-replicating chemical systems. Beutel and Peacock-López [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 125104 (2007)], 10.1063/1.2716396 have numerically analyzed a model for a cross-catalytic self-replicating system and found two cases of canard explosion, that is, a substantial change of amplitude of a limit cycle over a very short parameter interval. We show how the model can be reduced to a two-dimensional system and how canard theory for slow-fast equations can be applied to yield analytic information about the canard explosion. In particular, simple expressions for the parameter value where the canard explosion occurs are obtained. The connection to mixed-mode oscillations also observed in the model is briefly discussed.

  19. Secret-Key Agreement with Public Discussion subject to an Amplitude Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2016-04-06

    This paper considers the problem of secret-key agreement with public discussion subject to a peak power constraint A on the channel input. The optimal input distribution is proved to be discrete with finite support. To overcome the computationally heavy search for the optimal discrete distribution, several suboptimal schemes are proposed and shown numerically to perform close to the capacity. Moreover, lower and upper bounds for the secret-key capacity are provided and used to prove that the secret-key capacity converges for asymptotic high values of A, to the secret-key capacity with an average power constraint A2. Finally, when the amplitude constraint A is small (A ! 0), the secret-key capacity is proved to be asymptotically equal to the capacity of the legitimate user with an amplitude constraint A and no secrecy constraint.

  20. Nanomolar determination of Pb (II ions by selective templated electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazloum-Ardakani Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole modified electrode, prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of methyl red as a dopant, was templated with respect to Pb2+ ion and applied for potentiometric and voltammetric detection of this ion. The templating process improved the analytical response characteristics of the electrode, specially their selectivity, with respect to Pb2+ ion. The improvement depends on both the incorporated ligand (dopant and the templating process, with the latter being more vital. The potentiometric response of the electrode was linear within the Pb2+ concentration range of 2.0×10-6 to 5.0×10-2 M with a near-Nernstian slope of 28.6 mV decade-1 and a detection limit of 7.0 ×10-7 M. The electrode was also used for preconcentration differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV and results showed that peak currents for the incorporated lead species were dependent on the metal ion concentration in the range of 1.0×10-8 to 1.0×10-3 M. The detection limit of DPASV method was 3.5 ×10-9 M. The selectivity of the electrode with respect to some transition metal ions was investigated. The modified-templated electrode was used for the successful assay of lead in two standard reference material samples.

  1. organic template free synthesis of zsm11 from kaolinite clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    hydrocarbon, etc. Accordingly, this work present successful synthesis of zeolite ZSM11 from kaolinite clay, seeded with. NaY type zeolite and aged for 3-11 days, in an organic template free condition. The used kaolinite clays were sourced from two different mines in Nigeria, namely; Kankara and Onibode. They were both ...

  2. Ultrafast coherence transfer in DNA-templated silver nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling; Bogh, Sidsel Ammitzbøll; Carro, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    DNA-templated silver nanoclusters of a few tens of atoms or less have come into prominence over the last several years due to very strong absorption and efficient emission. Applications in microscopy and sensing have already been realized, however little is known about the excited-state structure...

  3. Public Notification - Revised Total Coliform Rule Failure To Report Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a PWS fails to report their monitoring results for Total Coliform bacteria, it must issue a public notice to inform consumers of its water of that failure to report. This template can be used as a guide for preparing that public notice.

  4. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Rocha-Rodrigues, P.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Alameda, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Santos, J. L.; Araujo, J. P.; Teixeira, J. M.; Guerreiro, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores  +  anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS-NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (~1.55) is quite lower (~22%) than the commonly used Al2O3 handbook value (~1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates.

  5. Supported lipid bilayers as templates to design manganese oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) have been used as templates to synthesize these nanoparticles in a water- based medium at room ... Keywords. Manganese oxide; supported lipid bilayers; nanoparticles; organized assemblies. 1. Introduction .... before coating with two layers of the lipid DOMA,. DOMA+DPPC or ...

  6. Assessing ligand efficiencies using template-based molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Statistical modelling using artificial neural network (ANN: 2 = 0.922) and multiple linear regression method (MLR: 2 = 0.851) showed good correlation between the biological activity, binding affinity, and different ligand efficiencies of the compounds, which suggest the robustness of the template-based binding ...

  7. General Template for the FMEA Applications in Primary Food Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özilgen, Sibel; Özilgen, Mustafa

    Data on the hazards involved in the primary steps of processing cereals, fruit and vegetables, milk and milk products, meat and meat products, and fats and oils are compiled with a wide-ranging literature survey. After determining the common factors from these data, a general FMEA template is offered, and its use is explained with a case study on pasteurized milk production.

  8. Automatic capture of attention by conceptually generated working memory templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sol Z; Shen, Jenny; Shaw, Mark; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    Many theories of attention propose that the contents of working memory (WM) can act as an attentional template, which biases processing in favor of perceptually similar inputs. While support has been found for this claim, it is unclear how attentional templates are generated when searching real-world environments. We hypothesized that in naturalistic settings, attentional templates are commonly generated from conceptual knowledge, an idea consistent with sensorimotor models of knowledge representation. Participants performed a visual search task in the delay period of a WM task, where the item in memory was either a colored disk or a word associated with a color concept (e.g., "Rose," associated with red). During search, we manipulated whether a singleton distractor in the array matched the contents of WM. Overall, we found that search times were impaired in the presence of a memory-matching distractor. Furthermore, the degree of impairment did not differ based on the contents of WM. Put differently, regardless of whether participants were maintaining a perceptually colored disk identical to the singleton distractor, or whether they were simply maintaining a word associated with the color of the distractor, the magnitude of attentional capture was the same. Our results suggest that attentional templates can be generated from conceptual knowledge, in the physical absence of the visual feature.

  9. Making Legacy LMS adaptable using Policy and Policy templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesling, Arne; Herder, Eelco; De Coi, Juri; Abel, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    Koesling, A., Herder, E., De Coi, J., & Abel, F. (2008). Making Legacy LMS adaptable using Policy and Policy templates. In J. Baumeister & M. Atzmüller, Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Adaptivity and User Modeling in Interactive System, ABIS 2008 (pp. 35-40). October, 6-8, 2008, Würzburg,

  10. Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Faniel, S.

    2006-01-01

    A simple technique for fabricating single nanowires with well-defined position is presented. The process implies the use of a silicon nitride mask for selective electrochemical growth of the nanowires in a porous alumina template. We show that this method allows the realization of complex nanowire...

  11. Exploring Many-Core Design Templates for FPGAs and ASICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia Lebedev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a highly productive approach to hardware design based on a many-core microarchitectural template used to implement compute-bound applications expressed in a high-level data-parallel language such as OpenCL. The template is customized on a per-application basis via a range of high-level parameters such as the interconnect topology or processing element architecture. The key benefits of this approach are that it (i allows programmers to express parallelism through an API defined in a high-level programming language, (ii supports coarse-grained multithreading and fine-grained threading while permitting bit-level resource control, and (iii reduces the effort required to repurpose the system for different algorithms or different applications. We compare template-driven design to both full-custom and programmable approaches by studying implementations of a compute-bound data-parallel Bayesian graph inference algorithm across several candidate platforms. Specifically, we examine a range of template-based implementations on both FPGA and ASIC platforms and compare each against full custom designs. Throughout this study, we use a general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU implementation as a performance and area baseline. We show that our approach, similar in productivity to programmable approaches such as GPGPU applications, yields implementations with performance approaching that of full-custom designs on both FPGA and ASIC platforms.

  12. Polymerase chain reaction preparation of template for massively parallel pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Ross W; Sofía, Valenzuela A; Frampton, John

    2009-04-01

    Massively parallel pyrosequencing of DNA fragments immobilized on beads has been applied to genome survey sequencing and transcriptome analysis of a variety of eukaryotic organisms, including laboratory model species, agricultural crops and livestock, and species of interest to population biologists and ecologists. Preparation of sufficient high-quality template for sequencing has been an obstacle to sequence analysis of nucleic acids from tissues or cell types available in limited quantities. We report that the use of a biotinylated primer for polymerase chain reaction amplification allows removal of excess primer and poly(A) tract fragments from the sequencing templates, providing much higher yields of useful sequence information from pyrosequencing of amplified templates. This advance allows deep sequencing analysis of nucleic acids isolated from very small tissue samples. Massively parallel pyrosequencing is particularly useful for preliminary investigations of species that have not yet been the subject of significant genomic research, as genomic survey sequences and catalogs of expressed genes provide a means of linking the biology of less intensively studied species to that of more intensively studied model organisms. We obtained over 220 Mb of transcript DNA sequences from Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir., a conifer species native to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Comparison of the resulting assembled putative transcripts with similar data obtained by other sequencing methods from other conifers demonstrates the utility of the improved sequencing template preparation.

  13. A visual template-matching method for articulation angle measurement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, C

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available and proposed sensing methods are limited either in terms of commercial feasibility or measurement accuracy. This paper investigates a vision-based system consisting of a single tractor-mounted camera, a template-matching image processing algorithm...

  14. Binary gabor statistical features for palmprint template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Ruan, Qiuqi; Shao, X.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2012-01-01

    The biometric template protection system requires a highquality biometric channel and a well-designed error correction code (ECC). Due to the intra-class variations of biometric data, an efficient fixed-length binary feature extractor is required to provide a high-quality biometric channel so that

  15. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  16. Conformational studies of common protein templates in macromolecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryscio, David R; Fleming, Michael Q; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2012-08-01

    Unlike the molecular imprinting of small molecule templates, molecularly imprinted polymers specific to large templates (>1,500 Da), have achieved limited success to date. Conformational stability of these labile macromolecules is one of the main factors that prevent the direct extension of successful procedures from the small molecule regime. We continue our systematic investigation of the effect of common components in macromolecular MIPs on the conformation of protein templates. Circular dichroism was used to show that frequently employed monomers and crosslinkers induce significant changes in the secondary structures of lysozyme and bovine hemoglobin. The extent to which this change occurs, at ligand concentrations far below what are typically used reported work, is cause for concern and provides as rational explanation for the lack of success in this arena. This is because a change in the template structure prior to polymerization would lead to the binding sites formed during polymerization to be specific to this alternate conformation. Subsequent studies with the macromolecule in its native state and the crosslinked network would not be successful. Using this information as a guide, we offer suggestions as to where work in macromolecular imprinted polymers should focus going forward in order for these antibody mimics to reach their vast potential as a new class of biomedical diagnostic devices.

  17. Synthesis of zeolite-templated carbons for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen storage has been a key bottle-neck in the actualization of hydrogen as an energy carrier. The new field of hydrogen storage in templated carbonaceous materials has excited many researchers and considerable effort is being directed...

  18. A Comparison Between Craniofacial Templates of Iranian and Western Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Hosseinzadeh Nik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Templates are very useful tools for diagnosis of malocclusions. A number of templates have been provided for some populations in previous years. Since craniofacial characteristics of different ethnic groups are not the same, each population needs its own norms. The aim of this study was to provide orthodontic craniofacial templates for 8-16 year old Iranian boys and compare dentoskeletal features between Iranian and western populations. 3330 boys with the age range of 8-16 years were examined in Tehran, and 107 cases were finally chosen for the study and their lateral cephalograms were traced. Since there is no universal, consensus about the selection of one specific point or line for cephalometric superimposition, both the sella nasion (SN and basion nasion (Ba-N lines were chosen for this purpose. Based on both SN and Ba-N lines, a template was prepared for each age. Simple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the angles and the multivariant regression analysis for evaluation of landmark vectors. Posterior cranial base, maxillary and mandibular lengths, upper and lower anterior facial heights (N-ANS and ANS-Me and posterior facial height (S-Go are greater in Iranian population. But anterior cranial base, height and inclination of the incisors and molar height are similar in two populations.

  19. Involute Spur Gear Template Development by Parametric Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 3 (2), January, 2009. ISSN 1994-9057 (Print). ISSN 2070-0083 (Online). Involute Spur Gear Template Development by ... The third method and the most accurate system is the graphic ..... a three-dimensional part directly from a parametric solid modeled gear file.

  20. Battery Data MI Importer Template Quick Start Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Laurie H.

    2017-01-01

    In order to ensure the persistent availability and reliability of test data generated over the course of the project, the M-SHELLS Project has decided to store acquired test data, as well as associated pedigree information, in the Granta Materials Intelligence (MI) database. To facilitate that effort, an importer template and associated graphical user interface (GUI) software have been developed, with this guide providing the operating instructions for their use. The template and automation software GUI are contained in the BatteryDataImporter.xlsm Excel workbook, and are to be used to import M-SHELLS summary, or pedigree, data and the associated raw test data results into an importer template-based file, formatted in such a way as to be ready for immediate upload to the Test Data: Battery Performance table of the Granta MI database. The provided GUI enables the user to select the appropriate summary data file(s), with each file containing the required information to identify any associated raw test data file(s) to be processed. In addition to describing the setup and operation of the importer template and GUI software, this guide also provides instructions for uploading processed data to the database and for viewing the data following upload.

  1. Natural biopolymers : novel templates for the synthesis of nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonal Padalkar; J.R. Capadona; S.J. Rowan; C. Weder; Yu-Ho Won; Lia A. Stanciu; Robert J. Moon

    2010-01-01

    Biological systems such as proteins, viruses, and DNA have been most often reported to be used as templates for the synthesis of functional nanomaterials, but the properties of widely available biopolymers, such as cellulose, have been much less exploited for this purpose. Here, we report for the first time that cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) have the capacity to assist...

  2. Ordered nanoparticle arrays formed on engineered chaperonin protein templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, R. Andrew; Paavola, Chad D.; Howard, Jeanie; Chan, Suzanne L.; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Trent, Jonathan D.

    2002-01-01

    Traditional methods for fabricating nanoscale arrays are usually based on lithographic techniques. Alternative new approaches rely on the use of nanoscale templates made of synthetic or biological materials. Some proteins, for example, have been used to form ordered two-dimensional arrays. Here, we fabricated nanoscale ordered arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots by binding preformed nanoparticles onto crystalline protein templates made from genetically engineered hollow double-ring structures called chaperonins. Using structural information as a guide, a thermostable recombinant chaperonin subunit was modified to assemble into chaperonins with either 3 nm or 9 nm apical pores surrounded by chemically reactive thiols. These engineered chaperonins were crystallized into two-dimensional templates up to 20 microm in diameter. The periodic solvent-exposed thiols within these crystalline templates were used to size-selectively bind and organize either gold (1.4, 5 or 10nm) or CdSe-ZnS semiconductor (4.5 nm) quantum dots into arrays. The order within the arrays was defined by the lattice of the underlying protein crystal. By combining the self-assembling properties of chaperonins with mutations guided by structural modelling, we demonstrate that quantum dots can be manipulated using modified chaperonins and organized into arrays for use in next-generation electronic and photonic devices.

  3. Cu(I)/Cu(II) templated functional pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion, (ii) donor/acceptor forces, (iii) hydrogen bond- ing, (iv) π–π stacking, (v) electrostatic forces.13 Metal ions as templates has shown accessible pathways ..... 34 456; (e) Sauvage J P (ed.) 2001 Molecu- lar machines and motors; Structure and bonding; Berlin,. Germany: Springer. 7. (a) Kay E R, Leigh D A and Zerbetto F ...

  4. A computationally efficient approach for template matching-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Image registration using template matching is an important step in image processing. In this paper, a simple, robust and computationally efficient approach is presented. The proposed approach is based on the properties of a normalized covariance matrix. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that the image ...

  5. Enzyme Activity and Biomolecule Templating at Liquid and Solid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey W. Blanch

    2004-12-01

    There are two main components of this research program. The first involves studies of the adsorption and catalytic activity of proteins at fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces; the second employs biological macromolecules as templates at the solid-liquid interface for controlled crystallization of inorganic materials, to provide materials with specific functionality.

  6. Identification of inhibitors of checkpoint kinase 1 through template screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P; Klair, Suki; Burns, Samantha; Boxall, Kathy; Cherry, Michael; Fisher, Martin; Westwood, Isaac M; Walton, Michael I; McHardy, Tatiana; Cheung, Kwai-Ming J; Van Montfort, Rob; Williams, David; Aherne, G Wynne; Garrett, Michelle D; Reader, John; Collins, Ian

    2009-08-13

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is an oncology target of significant current interest. Inhibition of CHK1 abrogates DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints and sensitizes p53 deficient cancer cells to genotoxic therapies. Using template screening, a fragment-based approach to small molecule hit generation, we have identified multiple CHK1 inhibitor scaffolds suitable for further optimization. The sequential combination of in silico low molecular weight template selection, a high concentration biochemical assay and hit validation through protein-ligand X-ray crystallography provided 13 template hits from an initial in silico screening library of ca. 15000 compounds. The use of appropriate counter-screening to rule out nonspecific aggregation by test compounds was essential for optimum performance of the high concentration bioassay. One low molecular weight, weakly active purine template hit was progressed by iterative structure-based design to give submicromolar pyrazolopyridines with good ligand efficiency and appropriate CHK1-mediated cellular activity in HT29 colon cancer cells.

  7. Processing of Nanosensors Using a Sacrificial Template Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    A new microsensor fabrication approach has been demonstrated based upon the use of nanostructures as templates. The fundamental idea is that existing nanostructures, such as carbon nano tubes or biological structures, have a material structure that can be used advantageously in order to provide new sensor systems but lack the advantages of some materials to, for example, operate at high temperatures. The approach is to start with a template using nanostructures such as a carbon nanotube. This template can then be coated by an oxide material with higher temperature capabilities. Upon heating in air, the carbon nanotube template is burned off, leaving only the metal oxide nanostructure. The resulting structure has a combination of the crystal structure and surface morphology of the carbon nanotube, combined with the material durability and hightemperature- sensing properties of the metal oxide. Further, since the metal oxide nanocrystals are deposited on the carbon nanotube, after burn-off what is left is a metal oxide porous nanostructure. This makes both the interior and the exterior of this nano structured sensor available for gas species detection. This, in effect, increases the surface area available for sensing, which has been shown in the past to significantly increase sensor performance.

  8. Self-Imposed Creativity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation epitomizes three years of research guided by the research question: how can we conceptualize creative self-binding as a resource in art and design processes? Concretely, the dissertation seeks to offer insight into the puzzling observation that highly skilled creative...... practitioners sometimes freely and intentionally impose rigid rules, peculiar principles, and other kinds of creative obstructions on themselves as a means to spur momentum in the process and reach a distinctly original outcome. To investigate this the dissertation is composed of four papers (Part II) framed...... of analysis. Informed by the insight that constraints both enable and restrain creative agency, the dissertation’s main contention is that creative self- binding may profitably be conceptualized as the exercise of self-imposed creativity constraints. Thus, the dissertation marks an analytical move from vague...

  9. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... the energy units. However, aggregated flexibility should support normal grid operation. In this paper, we build on the flex-offer (FO) concept to model the inherent flexibility of a prosumer (e.g., a single flexible consumption device such as a clothes washer). An FO captures flexibility in both time...... and amount dimensions. We define the problem of aggregating FOs taking into account grid power constraints. We also propose two constraint-based aggregation techniques that efficiently aggregate FOs while retaining flexibility. We show through a comprehensive evaluation that our techniques, in contrast...

  10. A compendium of chameleon constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2016-11-01

    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f(R) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  11. Julius – a template based supplementary electronic health record system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Gunnar O

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EHR systems are widely used in hospitals and primary care centres but it is usually difficult to share information and to collect patient data for clinical research. This is partly due to the different proprietary information models and inconsistent data quality. Our objective was to provide a more flexible solution enabling the clinicians to define which data to be recorded and shared for both routine documentation and clinical studies. The data should be possible to reuse through a common set of variable definitions providing a consistent nomenclature and validation of data. Another objective was that the templates used for the data entry and presentation should be possible to use in combination with the existing EHR systems. Methods We have designed and developed a template based system (called Julius that was integrated with existing EHR systems. The system is driven by the medical domain knowledge defined by clinicians in the form of templates and variable definitions stored in a common data repository. The system architecture consists of three layers. The presentation layer is purely web-based, which facilitates integration with existing EHR products. The domain layer consists of the template design system, a variable/clinical concept definition system, the transformation and validation logic all implemented in Java. The data source layer utilizes an object relational mapping tool and a relational database. Results The Julius system has been implemented, tested and deployed to three health care units in Stockholm, Sweden. The initial responses from the pilot users were positive. The template system facilitates patient data collection in many ways. The experience of using the template system suggests that enabling the clinicians to be in control of the system, is a good way to add supplementary functionality to the present EHR systems. Conclusion The approach of the template system in combination with various local EHR

  12. Managing Restaurant Tables using Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Alfio; Brown, Kenneth N.; Beck, J. Christopher

    Restaurant table management can have significant impact on both profitability and the customer experience. The core of the issue is a complex dynamic combinatorial problem. We show how to model the problem as constraint satisfaction, with extensions which generate flexible seating plans and which maintain stability when changes occur. We describe an implemented system which provides advice to users in real time. The system is currently being evaluated in a restaurant environment.

  13. Public investment under fiscal constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Missale; emanuele bacchiocchi; elisa borghi

    2009-01-01

    EU New Member States must comply with the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) and the investment requirements implied by the Lisbon Agenda. However, the SGP rules may result in underinvestment or distortions in the allocation of public expenditure. This paper provides new evidence on the effects of debt sustainability and SGP fiscal constraints on government expenditure in fixed capital, education and health in OECD countries by estimating government expenditure reaction functions to public debt ...

  14. Constraint-based feature validation

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, M.H.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The feature modeling paradigm combines geometric and functional product information in one model. In an ideal product development environment, multiple views of a product in terms of features coexist. Feature validation concerns the validity of the feature information in all these views, focusing on validity specification and maintenance. This thesis presents a feature validation scheme based on constraints. It enables flexible and expressive feature validity maintenance. The scheme ensures t...

  15. Memory Constraint Online Multitask Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallanti, Giovanni; Cesa-Bianchi, Nicolò

    2012-01-01

    We investigate online kernel algorithms which simultaneously process multiple classification tasks while a fixed constraint is imposed on the size of their active sets. We focus in particular on the design of algorithms that can efficiently deal with problems where the number of tasks is extremely high and the task data are large scale. Two new projection-based algorithms are introduced to efficiently tackle those issues while presenting different trade offs on how the available memory is man...

  16. Physicians' responses to resource constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia A; Hull, Sara Chandros; DuVal, Gordon; Danis, Marion

    2005-03-28

    A common dilemma that confronts physicians in clinical practice is the allocation of scarce resources. Yet the strategies used by physicians in actual situations of resource constraint have not been studied. This study explores the strategies and rationales reported by physicians in situations of resource constraints encountered in practice. A national survey of US internists, oncologists, and intensive care specialists was performed by computer-assisted telephone interviews. As part of this survey, we asked physicians to tell us about a recent ethical dilemma encountered in practice. A subset of respondents reported difficulties regarding resource allocation. Transcripts of open-ended responses were coded for content based on consensus. Of the 600 physicians originally identified, 537 were eligible and 344 participated (response rate, 64%). Internists do not make allocation decisions alone but rather engage in negotiation in their resolution. Furthermore, these decisions are not made as dichotomous choices. Rather they often involve alternative solutions in the face of complexities of both the health care system and situations where limited resources must be allocated. Justice is not commonly the justification for rationing. Physicians' experiences in situations of resource constraints appear to be more complex than the normative literature on health care rationing assumes. In addition, reasoning about justice in health care seems to play only a small part in clinical decision making. Bridging this gap could be an important step in fostering fair allocation of resources in difficult cases.

  17. Analysis of Space Tourism Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnal, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Space tourism appears today as a new Eldorado in a relatively near future. Private operators are already proposing services for leisure trips in Low Earth Orbit, and some happy few even tested them. But are these exceptional events really marking the dawn of a new space age ? The constraints associated to the space tourism are severe : - the economical balance of space tourism is tricky; development costs of large manned - the technical definition of such large vehicles is challenging, mainly when considering - the physiological aptitude of passengers will have a major impact on the mission - the orbital environment will also lead to mission constraints on aspects such as radiation, However, these constraints never appear as show-stoppers and have to be dealt with pragmatically: - what are the recommendations one can make for future research in the field of space - which typical roadmap shall one consider to develop realistically this new market ? - what are the synergies with the conventional missions and with the existing infrastructure, - how can a phased development start soon ? The paper proposes hints aiming at improving the credibility of Space Tourism and describes the orientations to follow in order to solve the major hurdles found in such an exciting development.

  18. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Cañas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs, discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1×10−11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1|≤5.6×10−11μB, |Λ2|≤4.0×10−11μB, and |Λ3|≤3.1×10−11μB (90% C.L., irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.

  19. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yuhsin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2012-08-01

    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  20. On The Parameters of Geometric Constraints for Cracked Plates under Tension - Three-Dimensional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graba, M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of selected parameters of the geometric constraints for cracked plates subjected to tension. The results of three-dimensional numerical calculations were used to assess the distribution of these parameters around the crack front and their changes along the crack front. The study also involved considering the influence of the external load on the averaged values of the parameters of the geometric constraints as well as the relationship between the material constants and the level of the geometric constraints contributing to the actual fracture toughness for certain geometries.

  1. Comparison of Selected Formulations for Multibody System Dynamics with Redundant Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pękal Marcin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares selected optimization-based methods for the analysis of multibody systems with redundant constraints. The following numerical schemes are examined: direct integration method, Udwadia-Kalaba formulation, two types of least-squares block solution method and Udwadia-Phohomsiri formulation. In order to compare efficiency of the algorithms, a series of simulations is performed on two exemplary McPherson struts. In the first variant, the mechanism has no redundant constraints whereas the other is overconstrained. Three constraint stabilization schemes are also compared in terms of integration errors.

  2. BioAssay templates for the semantic web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Clark

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Annotation of bioassay protocols using semantic web vocabulary is a way to make experiment descriptions machine-readable. Protocols are communicated using concise scientific English, which precludes most kinds of analysis by software algorithms. Given the availability of a sufficiently expressive ontology, some or all of the pertinent information can be captured by asserting a series of facts, expressed as semantic web triples (subject, predicate, object. With appropriate annotation, assays can be searched, clustered, tagged and evaluated in a multitude of ways, analogous to other segments of drug discovery informatics. The BioAssay Ontology (BAO has been previously designed for this express purpose, and provides a layered hierarchy of meaningful terms which can be linked to. Currently the biggest challenge is the issue of content creation: scientists cannot be expected to use the BAO effectively without having access to software tools that make it straightforward to use the vocabulary in a canonical way. We have sought to remove this barrier by: (1 defining a BioAssay Template (BAT data model; (2 creating a software tool for experts to create or modify templates to suit their needs; and (3 designing a common assay template (CAT to leverage the most value from the BAO terms. The CAT was carefully assembled by biologists in order to find a balance between the maximum amount of information captured vs. low degrees of freedom in order to keep the user experience as simple as possible. The data format that we use for describing templates and corresponding annotations is the native format of the semantic web (RDF triples, and we demonstrate some of the ways that generated content can be meaningfully queried using the SPARQL language. We have made all of these materials available as open source (http://github.com/cdd/bioassay-template, in order to encourage community input and use within diverse projects, including but not limited to our own

  3. A new route of synthesizing perovskite nanotubes by templating approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballah, Anisah Shafiqah; Osman, Nafisah; Jani, Abdul Mutalib Md

    2017-09-01

    A perovskite oxide for example Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) has attracted growing attention due to its high catalytic activity and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Recent research of BSCF is more comprehensively based on a remarkable trajectory of innovation, in particular with regards to the synthesis of perovskite structures in one-dimensional (1-D) nanometric scales as they promote not only to increase an active electrode area for the oxygen reduction reaction, but also allow the tailoring of electrode's architecture. Nevertheless, achieving the desired 1-D structure by a conventional method such as hydrothermal, solvothermal, or sonochemical are far from satisfactory. Herein, the aim of this work is to synthesize the BSCF perovskite nanotubes via soft templating approach, particularly using anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) as a template, focusing on the morphology, composition and structural properties were demonstrated. After the AAO template was anodized at 80 V, the fabricated template was clamped between apair of spectroscopic cells containing BSCF sol and deionized water (with a hole of both sides) for 24 hours. After that, the sample was removed from the cells followed by heat treatment process. The FESEM images showed that BSCF nanotubes were successfully achieved, with the diameter of the nanotubes' approximately 80 nm. The EDX result also confirmed the nominal stoichiometry of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ. Meanwhile, the XRD pattern confirmed a single crystalline phase of BSCF nanotubes was successfully obtained and congruent to a cubic perovskite structure of BSCF. Possible formation mechanism,as well as the schematic illustration of BSCF nanotubes inside the template was also discussed in this paper.

  4. Using soft constraints to guide users in flexible business process management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansen, Christian; Borch, Signe Ellegård

    2008-01-01

    Current Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) allow designers to specify processes in highly expressive languages supporting numerous control flow constructs, exceptions, complex predicates, etc., but process specifications are expressed in terms of hard constraints, and this leads to an unf......Current Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) allow designers to specify processes in highly expressive languages supporting numerous control flow constructs, exceptions, complex predicates, etc., but process specifications are expressed in terms of hard constraints, and this leads...... to an unfortunate trade off: information about preferred practices must either be abandoned or promoted to hard constraints. If abandoned, the BPMS cannot guide its users; if promoted to hard constraints, it becomes a hindrance when unanticipated deviations occur. Soft constraints can make this trade-off less...... painful. Soft constraints specify what rules can be violated and by how much. With soft constraints, the BPMS knows what deviations it can permit, and it can guide the user through the process. The BPMS should allow designers to easily specify soft goals and allow its users to immediately see...

  5. A mathematical model and numerical method for thermoelectric DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liwei; Guilbeau, Eric J.; Nestorova, Gergana; Dai, Weizhong

    2014-05-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are single base pair variations within the genome that are important indicators of genetic predisposition towards specific diseases. This study explores the feasibility of SNP detection using a thermoelectric sequencing method that measures the heat released when DNA polymerase inserts a deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate into a DNA strand. We propose a three-dimensional mathematical model that governs the DNA sequencing device with a reaction zone that contains DNA template/primer complex immobilized to the surface of the lower channel wall. The model is then solved numerically. Concentrations of reactants and the temperature distribution are obtained. Results indicate that when the nucleoside is complementary to the next base in the DNA template, polymerization occurs lengthening the complementary polymer and releasing thermal energy with a measurable temperature change, implying that the thermoelectric conceptual device for sequencing DNA may be feasible for identifying specific genes in individuals.

  6. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  7. Relationship between protein structure and geometrical constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Hansen, Jan; Brunak, Søren

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate to what extent the structure of proteins can be deduced from incomplete knowledge of disulfide bridges, surface assignments, secondary structure assignments, and additional distance constraints. A cost function taking such constraints into account was used to obtain protein structures...... using a simple minimization algorithm. For small proteins, the approximate structure could be obtained using one additional distance constraint for each amino acid in the protein. We also studied the effect of using predicted secondary structure and surface assignments. The constraints used...

  8. TEMPLATE POLYMERIZATION OF N-VINYLIMIDAZOLE ALONG POLY(METHACRYLIC ACID) IN WATER .2. KINETICS OF THE TEMPLATE POLYMERIZATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDEGRAMPEL, HT; TAN, YY; CHALLA, G

    1991-01-01

    The template polymerization of N-vinylimidazole (VIm) along poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) in water at 50-degrees-C with 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane).2HCl (AAP) as initiator was studied by using variable initiator and monomer concentrations at constant [PMAA]/[VIm]0. From the order in [VIm] it was

  9. Organizational Constraints on Corporate Public Relations Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Catalogs various internal constraints under which many public relations practitioners work, including constraints on (1) access to management; (2) information collection; (3) dissemination of timely, accurate information; and (4) the public relations mission. Reports that most practitioners see organizational constraints as more of a problem for…

  10. Reliance on constraints means detection of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Runeson, S.; Andersson, I.E.K.

    2001-01-01

    We argue four points. First, perception always relies on environmental constraints, not only in special cases. Second, constraints are taken advantage of by detecting information granted by the constraints rather than by internalizing them. Third, apparent motion phenomena reveal reliance on

  11. A general treatment of dynamic integrity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brock, EO

    This paper introduces a general, set-theoretic model for expressing dynamic integrity constraints, i.e., integrity constraints on the state changes that are allowed in a given state space. In a managerial context, such dynamic integrity constraints can be seen as representations of "real world"

  12. Supertasks and Numeral Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rizza, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Physical supertasks are completed, infinite sequences of events or interactions that occur within a finite amount of time. Examples thereof have been constructed to show that infinite physical systems may violate conservation laws. It is shown in this paper that this conclusion may be critically sensitive to a selection of numeral system. Weaker numeral systems generate physical reports whose inaccuracy simulates the violation of a conservation law. Stronger numeral systems can confirm this e...

  13. Supertasks and numeral systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Davide

    2016-10-01

    Physical supertasks are completed, infinite sequences of events or interactions that occur within a finite amount of time. Examples thereof have been constructed to show that infinite physical systems may violate conservation laws. It is shown in this paper that this conclusion may be critically sensitive to a selection of numeral system. Weaker numeral systems generate physical reports whose inaccuracy simulates the violation of a conservation law. Stronger numeral systems can confirm this effect by allowing a direct computation of the quantities conserved. The supertasks presented in [2], [4] are used to illustrate this phenomenon from the point of view of the new numeral system introduced in [6].

  14. Numerical methods using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Lindfield, George

    2012-01-01

    Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use

  15. Analytical template protection performance and maximum key size given a Gaussian-modeled biometric source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; Breebaart, Jeroen; Buhan, I.R.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Vijaya Kumar, B.V.K.; Prabhakar, Salil; Ross, Arun A.

    2010-01-01

    Template protection techniques are used within biometric systems in order to protect the stored biometric template against privacy and security threats. A great portion of template protection techniques are based on extracting a key from or binding a key to a biometric sample. The achieved

  16. Multi-template tensor-based morphometry: application to analysis of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    In this paper methods for using multiple templates in tensor-based morphometry (TBM) are presented and compared to the conventional single-template approach. TBM analysis requires non-rigid registrations which are often subject to registration errors. When using multiple templates and, therefore,...

  17. Multi-template synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon spheres with potential application in supercapacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Weizheng; Lin, Zhixing; Tong, Gangsheng; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Yan, Deyue; Mai, Yiyong; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    A new and simple multi-template approach towards hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) materials was reported. HPC spheres were prepared by using hierarchical silica capsules (HSCs) as the hard template and triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as the soft template. Three types of pores were tunably

  18. Pitfall of the Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation within template protection and a remedy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; de Groot, K.T.J.; Chen, C.; Breebaart, J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2009-01-01

    One of the requirements of a biometric template protection system is that the protected template ideally should not leak any information about the biometric sample or its derivatives. In the literature, several proposed template protection techniques are based on binary vectors. Hence, they require

  19. A constraint solving approach to model reduction by tropical equilibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sylvain; Fages, François; Radulescu, Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    Model reduction is a central topic in systems biology and dynamical systems theory, for reducing the complexity of detailed models, finding important parameters, and developing multi-scale models for instance. While singular perturbation theory is a standard mathematical tool to analyze the different time scales of a dynamical system and decompose the system accordingly, tropical methods provide a simple algebraic framework to perform these analyses systematically in polynomial systems. The crux of these methods is in the computation of tropical equilibrations. In this paper we show that constraint-based methods, using reified constraints for expressing the equilibration conditions, make it possible to numerically solve non-linear tropical equilibration problems, out of reach of standard computation methods. We illustrate this approach first with the detailed reduction of a simple biochemical mechanism, the Michaelis-Menten enzymatic reaction model, and second, with large-scale performance figures obtained on the http://biomodels.net repository.

  20. Space group constraints on weak indices in topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjas, Dániel; de Juan, Fernando; Lu, Yuan-Ming

    2017-07-01

    Lattice translation symmetry gives rise to a large class of "weak" topological insulators (TIs), characterized by translation-protected gapless surface states and dislocation bound states. In this work we show that space group symmetries lead to constraints on the weak topological indices that define these phases. In particular, we show that screw rotation symmetry enforces the Hall conductivity in planes perpendicular to the screw axis to be quantized in multiples of the screw rank, which generally applies to interacting systems. We further show that certain 3D weak indices associated with quantum spin Hall effects (class AII) are forbidden by the Bravais lattice and by glide or even-fold screw symmetries. These results put strong constraints on weak TI candidates in the experimental and numerical search for topological materials, based on the crystal structure alone.

  1. A neurodynamic approach to convex optimization problems with general constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sitian; Liu, Yadong; Xue, Xiaoping; Wang, Fuqiang

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a neurodynamic approach with a recurrent neural network for solving convex optimization problems with general constraint. It is proved that for any initial point, the state of the proposed neural network reaches the constraint set in finite time, and converges to an optimal solution of the convex optimization problem finally. In contrast to the existing related neural networks, the convergence rate of the state of the proposed neural network can be calculated quantitatively via the Łojasiewicz exponent under some mild assumptions. As applications, we estimate explicitly some Łojasiewicz exponents to show the convergence rate of the state of the proposed neural network for solving convex quadratic optimization problems. And some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed neural network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. QPO Constraints on Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman

    2005-01-01

    The kilohertz frequencies of QPOs from accreting neutron star systems imply that they are generated in regions of strong gravity, close to the star. This suggests that observations of the QPOs can be used to constrain the properties of neutron stars themselves, and in particular to inform us about the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear densities. Here we discuss some relatively model-insensitive constraints that emerge from the kilohertz QPOs, as well as recent developments that may hint at phenomena related to unstable circular orbits outside neutron stars.

  3. Varieties of the generality constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Clapp

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction by Evans (1982, the generality constraint (GC has been invoked by various philosophers for different purposes. Our purpose here is, first, to clarify what precisely the GC states by way of an interpretive framework, the GC Schema, and second, to demonstrate in terms of this framework some problems that arise if one invokes the GC (or systematicity without clearly specifying an appropriate interpretation. By utilizing the GC Schema these sorts of problems can be avoided, and we thus propose it as a tool to facilitate argumentation that appeals to the GC.

  4. Direct energy functional minimization under orthogonality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Valéry; VandeVondele, Joost; Hutter, Jürg; Niklasson, Anders M. N.

    2008-02-01

    The direct energy functional minimization problem in electronic structure theory, where the single-particle orbitals are optimized under the constraint of orthogonality, is explored. We present an orbital transformation based on an efficient expansion of the inverse factorization of the overlap matrix that keeps orbitals orthonormal. The orbital transformation maps the orthogonality constrained energy functional to an approximate unconstrained functional, which is correct to some order in a neighborhood of an orthogonal but approximate solution. A conjugate gradient scheme can then be used to find the ground state orbitals from the minimization of a sequence of transformed unconstrained electronic energy functionals. The technique provides an efficient, robust, and numerically stable approach to direct total energy minimization in first principles electronic structure theory based on tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, or density functional theory. For sparse problems, where both the orbitals and the effective single-particle Hamiltonians have sparse matrix representations, the effort scales linearly with the number of basis functions N in each iteration. For problems where only the overlap and Hamiltonian matrices are sparse the computational cost scales as O(M2N ), where M is the number of occupied orbitals. We report a single point density functional energy calculation of a DNA decamer hydrated with 4003 water molecules under periodic boundary conditions. The DNA fragment containing a cis-syn thymine dimer is composed of 634 atoms and the whole system contains a total of 12 661 atoms and 103 333 spherical Gaussian basis functions.

  5. The effect of a new communication template on anticipated willingness to initiate or resume allergen immunotherapy: an internet-based patient survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Moises A; Cox, Linda; Casale, Thomas B; Mösges, Ralph; Pfaar, Oliver; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Sastre, Joaquin; Khaitov, Musa; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A patient's knowledge of his/her allergic condition and treatment is a key factor in adherence and effectiveness. To assess patients' understanding of allergy and acceptance of allergen immunotherapy on the basis of (i) information given by their physician at the time of prescription and (ii) a new communication template viewed some months later, we performed an Internet-based survey of patient panels in France, Germany, Spain, the USA and Russia. The survey participants were either recent "early abandoners" (having discontinued allergen immunotherapy before the end of the prescribed course) or "non-starters" (having decided not to initiate a course of allergen immunotherapy recommended by their physician). All participants completed an on-line questionnaire immediately before and immediately after viewing the new communication template. The study's main objectives were to validate the new communication template and to assess its impact on anticipated willingness to initiate or resume allergen immunotherapy. We surveyed a total of 261 patients (France: 57; Germany: 51; Spain: 52; USA: 51; Russia: 50), comprising 127 "early abandoners" and 134 "non-starters". The mean time since symptom onset and selection for the study was 14.5 years. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy had been prescribed in 60 % of cases. Twenty-eight percent of the participants did not know for which allergy they were being treated. Early abandoners reported a perception of low effectiveness (39 %) and complained about expense (39 %) and practical constraints (32 %). Twenty-two percent of the non-starters feared side effects. The communication template was considered to be clear (by 92 % of the patients), convincing (by 75 %) and reassuring (by 89 %); 80 % of the participants felt better informed afterwards, and 67 % stated that viewing the communication template would have made them more likely to continue or initiate allergen immunotherapy (overall willingness score: 5.65 out of 10

  6. Script identification from images using cluster-based templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Kelly, P.M.; Thomas, T.R.

    1998-12-01

    A computer-implemented method identifies a script used to create a document. A set of training documents for each script to be identified is scanned into the computer to store a series of exemplary images representing each script. Pixels forming the exemplary images are electronically processed to define a set of textual symbols corresponding to the exemplary images. Each textual symbol is assigned to a cluster of textual symbols that most closely represents the textual symbol. The cluster of textual symbols is processed to form a representative electronic template for each cluster. A document having a script to be identified is scanned into the computer to form one or more document images representing the script to be identified. Pixels forming the document images are electronically processed to define a set of document textual symbols corresponding to the document images. The set of document textual symbols is compared to the electronic templates to identify the script. 17 figs.

  7. Quantum interference device made by DNA templating of superconducting nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, David S; Pekker, David; Goldbart, Paul M; Bezryadin, Alexey

    2005-06-17

    The application of single molecules as templates for nanodevices is a promising direction for nanotechnology. We used a pair of suspended DNA molecules as templates for superconducting two-nanowire devices. Because the resulting wires are very thin, comparable to the DNA molecules themselves, they are susceptible to thermal fluctuations typical for one-dimensional superconductors and exhibit a nonzero resistance over a broad temperature range. We observed resistance oscillations in these two-nanowire structures that are different from the usual Little-Parks oscillations. Here, we provide a quantitative explanation for the observed quantum interference phenomenon, which takes into account strong phase gradients created in the leads by the applied magnetic field.

  8. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    This work focuses on the development of a computer-aided modeling framework. The framework is a knowledge-based system that is built on a generic modeling language and structured on workflows for different modeling tasks. The overall objective is to support model developers and users to generate...... and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be made faster, cheaper and more efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework, a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific models is presented....... The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene...

  9. Template based parallel checkpointing in a massively parallel computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Inglett, Todd Alan [Rochester, MN

    2009-01-13

    A method and apparatus for a template based parallel checkpoint save for a massively parallel super computer system using a parallel variation of the rsync protocol, and network broadcast. In preferred embodiments, the checkpoint data for each node is compared to a template checkpoint file that resides in the storage and that was previously produced. Embodiments herein greatly decrease the amount of data that must be transmitted and stored for faster checkpointing and increased efficiency of the computer system. Embodiments are directed to a parallel computer system with nodes arranged in a cluster with a high speed interconnect that can perform broadcast communication. The checkpoint contains a set of actual small data blocks with their corresponding checksums from all nodes in the system. The data blocks may be compressed using conventional non-lossy data compression algorithms to further reduce the overall checkpoint size.

  10. Interstitial irradiation of rectal carcinoma with rectal template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Kinji; Tanaka, Ken; Nakanishi, Makoto; Inoue, Takehiro (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1984-06-01

    Using Iridium-192 wires through a rectal template after Syed, interstitial brachytherapy was conducted in a patient with inoperable adenocarcinoma of the rectum. A 67-year-old man with constipation and change in the stool caliber underwent external radiotherapy (4,000cGy/4W) to the whole pelvis including the perineum, followed by interstitial implant using a template, at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Marked tumor regression, marked circumferential fibrosis and a remarkable decline of CEA titers (pre-RT: 35.8ng/ml, post-RT: 6.2ng/ml) were observed until 7 months post-RT. The domestic production of Iridium-192 wires has made possible the intergrated use of brachytherapy in the perineal region in Japan.

  11. Double-sided porous silicon as template for metal deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumpf, Klemens; Granitzer, Petra [Institute of Physics, Karl-Franzens-University Graz (Austria); Poelt, Peter; Albu, Mihaela [Institute for Electron Microscopy, University of Technology Graz (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    Mesoporous silicon, achieved by etching of a highly n-doped wafer is used as template for electrochemical metal deposition. The fabrication of porous silicon samples with a porous layer on each side is performed in a double tank electrolytic cell in applying a pulsed current with a frequency of typically 0.1 Hz. Ferromagnetic metals such as Ni and Co are deposited into the pores of the matrices, either the same metal on both sides of the sample, a different metal on each side or an alloy of both. As substrate material also ultrathin silicon wafers with an average thickness of 60 {mu}m are used to achieve a thickness as small as possible of the remaining bulk silicon in between the two porous layers. These fragile templates are also filled with transition metals and investigated magnetically. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Rapid earthquake detection through GPU-Based template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dawei; Lee, En-Jui; Chen, Po

    2017-12-01

    The template-matching algorithm (TMA) has been widely adopted for improving the reliability of earthquake detection. The TMA is based on calculating the normalized cross-correlation coefficient (NCC) between a collection of selected template waveforms and the continuous waveform recordings of seismic instruments. In realistic applications, the computational cost of the TMA is much higher than that of traditional techniques. In this study, we provide an analysis of the TMA and show how the GPU architecture provides an almost ideal environment for accelerating the TMA and NCC-based pattern recognition algorithms in general. So far, our best-performing GPU code has achieved a speedup factor of more than 800 with respect to a common sequential CPU code. We demonstrate the performance of our GPU code using seismic waveform recordings from the ML 6.6 Meinong earthquake sequence in Taiwan.

  13. Fabrication of Nanostructures Using Self-Assembled Peptides as Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self-organize into nanostruc......This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self......-organize into nanostructures (nanotubes, nanofibers or nanospheres) under very mild conditions; some of its properties make them excellent candidates to be use as, for instance, dry-etch masks in a reactive ion etching process for the rapid fabrication of silicon micro and nanowires. Here, the methods used to exploit...

  14. Numerical Modelling of Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of numerical water quality models. Numeric water quality modeling can be divided into three steps: Hydrodynamic modeling for the determination of stream flow and water levels. Modelling of transport and dispersion of a conservative dissol...... dissolved substance. Modeling of chemical and biological turnover of substances....

  15. Numerical Verification of Industrial Numerical Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montan Sethy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Several approximations occur during a numerical simulation: physical effects mapy be discarded, continuous functions replaced by discretized ones and real numbers replaced by finite-precision representations. The use of the floating point arithmetic generates round-off errors at each arithmetical expression and some mathematical properties are lost. The aim of the numerical verification activity at EDF R&D is to study the effect of the round-off error propagation on the results of a numerical simulation. It is indeed crucial to perform a numerical verification of industrial codes such as developped at EDF R&D even more for code running in HPC environments. This paper presents some recent studies around the numerical verification at EDF R&D. Le résultat d’un code de simulation numérique subit plusieurs approximations effectuées lors de la modélisation mathématique du problème physique, de la discrétisation du modèle mathématique et de la résolution numérique en arithmétique flottante. L’utilisation de l’arithmétique flottante génère en effet des erreurs d’arrondi lors de chaque opération flottante et des propriétés mathématiques sont perdues. Il existe à EDF R&D une activité transverse de vérification numérique consistant à étudier l’effet de la propagation des erreurs d’arrondi sur les résultats des simulations. Il est en effet important de vérifier numériquement des codes industriels et ce d’autant plus s’ils sont éxécutés dans environnements de calcul haute performance. Ce papier présente des études récentes autour de la vérification numérique à EDF R&D.

  16. Numerical Transducer Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda

    This thesis describes the development of a numerical model of the propagation of sound waves in fluids with viscous and thermal losses, with application to the simulation of acoustic transducers, in particular condenser microphones for measurement. The theoretical basis is presented, numerical...... with very close surfaces, as found in condenser microphones, where the membrane has a backplate very close behind. This improvement could be useful for many other problems where the BEM is applied. The numerical implementation that includes both viscous and thermal effects is then worked out. Some numerical...... that are allowable in this case: linear variations, absence of flow, harmonic time variation, thermodynamical equilibrium and physical dimensions much larger than the molecular mean free path. A formulation of the BEM is also developed with an improvement designed to cope with the numerical difficulty associated...

  17. Facile template-free hydrothermal synthesis and microstrain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. ZnO nanorods were synthesized at low temperature by hydrothermally heating 0⋅1 M solution of. ZnCl2 for 5, 10 and 15 h at a pH of 10. No template, seeded substrate, catalyst and autoclave were employed for the synthesis of ZnO nanorods. The effect of heating durations on the morphology and crystal ...

  18. A Framework for Analyzing Biometric Template Aging and Renewal Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    biometrics that has a paucity of research is template aging and the adult age-progression, particularly facial aging. This dissertation presents a...growth. The transformation formula models a growth pattern and ratios of expansion on the craniofacial regions from adolescence to adult [RaC06a...based facial recognition technologies. Both algorithms/SDKs are camera independent, webcam capable and offer a set of programming samples and

  19. Facile template-free hydrothermal synthesis and microstrain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO nanorods were synthesized at low temperature by hydrothermally heating 0.1 M solution of ZnCl2 for 5, 10 and 15 h at a pH of 10. No template, seeded substrate, catalyst and autoclave were employed for the synthesis of ZnO nanorods. The effect of heating durations on the morphology and crystal orientation of the ...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of diblock copolymer templated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcora, Pinar

    2005-07-01

    Templating ordered assemblies of magnetic oxide nanoparticles within self-assembled diblock copolymers of varying morphologies is an important problem with a wide applicability such as in electromagnetics, optical devices, metal catalysts, medicine and biology. In this thesis, the effects of different polymer structures on particle ordering and resultant magnetic properties have been investigated using various microstructure and magnetic characterization tools. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of norbornene and functionalized norbornene monomers has been used to synthesize diblock copolymers of narrow polydispersities using Grubbs' catalyst. These block copolymers can be used as templates to form inorganic nanoparticles. In this research, the structural and physical understanding of the inorganic-copolymer system was studied by small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering techniques and transmission electron microscopy. Synthesis of gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles has been achieved within novel block copolymers of (norbornene)-b-(deuterated norbornene dicarboxylic) acid and (norbornene methanol-(norbornene dicarboxylic acid). The polymer morphologies were controlled by varying the volume fractions of the constituent blocks. The pure norbornene based diblock copolymer morphologies were demonstrated by electron microscopy for the first tune. Spherical, cylindrical and lamellar morphologies of these novel diblock copolymers were reported. The block ratios of the synthesized polymers were determined using gel permeation chromatography-light scattering, elemental analysis and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Solution phase doping and submersion of thin films in metal salt solutions were employed as metal doping methods and the observed nanoparticle structures were compared to those of the undoped copolymer morphologies. This project reports on the types of templating structures and dispersion of the nanoparticles. The effects of particle, interactions on the microphase

  1. Template preparation for rapid PCR in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca M. Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of DNA for PCR is time-consuming and involves many reagents. The aim of this work was to optimise a rapid and easy PCR methodology without previous DNA isolation. Different strains of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum were used. Protoplasts were generated using lytic enzymes under high incubation temperatures using different methodologies to obtain the template. A rapid (10 minute methodology was successful for smaller amplicons (<750 bp.

  2. Recycling of surfactant template in mesoporous MCM-41 synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J. Y.; Twaiq, F.; Ngu, L. H.

    2017-06-01

    The recycling of surfactant template is investigated through the reuse of the surfactant template in the mesoporous MCM-41 synthesis process. In the synthesis of MCM-41, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) solution in water was utilized as the silica source while hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solution in ethyl alcohol was used as a surfactant template. The synthesized gel is formed thoroughly by mixing the two solutions under acid conditions with a pH value of 0.5 for 1 hour and kept for crystallization for 48 hours. The as-synthesized MCM-41 powder is recovered by filtration while the filtrate (mother liquor) was then reused for the second synthesis cycle. The synthesis procedure was repeated till no further solid product was formed. The synthesized gel was not produced in the unifying solution in the fifth cycle of MCM-41 synthesis. The quality of the calcined MCM-41 powder produced in each synthesis cycle was evaluated by calculating the amount of MCM-41 produced and the surface area of the powder product. The result showed that 1.28, 0.37, 1.64, 1.90 and 0.037 g were obtained in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th synthesis cycle, respectively. The surface area of the powder produced was found to be 1170, 916, 728, and 508 m2/g for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th respectively. The concentration of the surfactant template has reached value lower than the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and remained constant after the 4th cycle. There was no further formation of gel due to low availability in the interaction between silicate anions and surfactant cations when the amount of TEOS was fixed for every synthesis cycle.

  3. Shot Noise Thermometry for Thermal Characterization of Templated Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Sayer, Robert A; Kim, Sunkook; Franklin, Aaron D; Mohammadi, Saeed; Fisher, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) thermometer that operates on the principles of electrical shot noise is reported. Shot noise thermometry is a self-calibrating measurement technique that relates statistical fluctuations in dc current across a device to temperature. A structure consisting of vertical, top, and bottom-contacted single-walled carbon nanotubes in a porous anodic alumina template was fabricated and used to measure shot noise. Frequencies between 60 and 100 kHz were observed to preclude sig...

  4. Standardized ultrasound templates for diagnosing appendicitis reduce annual imaging costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Andrew B; Sales, Stephen; Nielsen, Jason W; Adler, Brent; Bates, David Gregory; Kenney, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound is preferred over computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing appendicitis in children to avoid undue radiation exposure. We previously reported our experience in instituting a standardized appendicitis ultrasound template, which decreased CT rates by 67.3%. In this analysis, we demonstrate the ongoing cost savings associated with using this template. Retrospective chart review for the time period preceding template implementation (June 2012-September 2012) was combined with prospective review through December 2015 for all patients in the emergency department receiving diagnostic imaging for appendicitis. The type of imaging was recorded, and imaging rates and ultrasound test statistics were calculated. Estimated annual imaging costs based on pretemplate ultrasound and CT utilization rates were compared with post-template annual costs to calculate annual and cumulative savings. In the pretemplate period, ultrasound and CT rates were 80.2% and 44.3%, respectively, resulting in a combined annual cost of $300,527.70. Similar calculations were performed for each succeeding year, accounting for changes in patient volume. Using pretemplate rates, our projected 2015 imaging cost was $371,402.86; however, our ultrasound rate had increased to 98.3%, whereas the CT rate declined to 9.6%, yielding an annual estimated cost of $224,853.00 and a savings of $146,549.86. Since implementation, annual savings have steadily increased for a cumulative cost savings of $336,683.83. Standardizing ultrasound reports for appendicitis not only reduces the use of CT scans and the associated radiation exposure but also decreases annual imaging costs despite increased numbers of imaging studies. Continued cost reduction may be possible by using diagnostic algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. SnapDock-template-based docking by Geometric Hashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrin, Michael; Wolfson, Haim J

    2017-07-15

    A highly efficient template-based protein-protein docking algorithm, nicknamed SnapDock, is presented. It employs a Geometric Hashing-based structural alignment scheme to align the target proteins to the interfaces of non-redundant protein-protein interface libraries. Docking of a pair of proteins utilizing the 22 600 interface PIFACE library is performed in gmail.com or wolfson@tau.ac.il.

  6. Customized Digital Case Presentation Template in Microsoft Word 2007

    OpenAIRE

    P G Makhija; Anup Belludi; Amit Bhardwaj; Virag Bhatia; Madhur Navlani; Geetika Tomar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction : In today′s era of digital orthodontics, digital communication and presentation skills require regular updating. Case presentation and patient communication require an effort to manipulate digital records to be put in the unique digital case presentation format which is custom-made to fulfill one′s own or institutional requirement. These digital templates can easily be made in Microsoft Word 2007 and then can be printed on suitable paper for permanent records. Problem: This m...

  7. Metal-organic framework templated electrodeposition of functional gold nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Worrall, Stephen D.; Bissett, Mark A.; Hill, Patrick I.; Rooney, Aidan. P.; Haigh, Sarah J.; Attfield, Martin P.; Dryfe, Robert A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing a pair of quick, scalable electrochemical processes, the permanently porous MOF HKUST-1 was electrochemically grown on a copper electrode and this HKUST-1-coated electrode was used to template electrodeposition of a gold nanostructure within the pore network of the MOF. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a proportion of the gold nanostructures exhibit structural features replicating the pore space of this ~1.4 nm maximum pore diameter MOF, as well as regions that are...

  8. Multifunctional Graphene/Platinum/Nafion Hybrids via Ice Templating

    KAUST Repository

    Estevez, Luis

    2011-04-27

    We report the synthesis of multifunctional hybrids in both films and bulk form, combining electrical and ionic conductivity with porosity and catalytic activity. The hybrids are synthesized by a two-step process: (a) ice templation of an aqueous suspension comprised of Nafion, graphite oxide, and chloroplatinic acid to form a microcellular porous network and (b) mild reduction in hydrazine or monosodium citrate which leads to graphene-supported Pt nanoparticles on a Nafion scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Developmental constraint of insect audition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; Strauss, Johannes

    2006-12-12

    Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  10. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  11. Chitosan as template for the synthesis of ceria nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifontes, A.B., E-mail: asifonte@ivic.gob.ve [Centro de Quimica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez, G.; Ochoa, J.L. [Centro de Ingenieria, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Tovar, L.M.; Zoltan, T. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Canizales, E. [PDVSA, Intevep, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles with cubic fluorite structure were prepared using chitosan as template, cerium nitrate as a starting material and sodium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. Calcinated powders at 350 {sup o}C contain agglomerated particles with average particle size of {approx}4 nm, very high porosity and foam-like morphology formed by open and close pores. Highlights: {yields} Pure CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can take place using chitosan as template. {yields} A porous material was obtained. {yields} Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra have been observed in cerium oxide nanocrystallites. -- Abstract: Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}), nanoparticles were prepared using chitosan as template, cerium nitrate as a starting material and sodium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. The resultant ceria-chitosan spheres were calcined at 350 {sup o}C. The synthesized powders were characterized by, XRD, HRTEM, UV-vis, FTIR, and TG-DTA. The average size of the nanoparticles obtained was {approx}4 nm and BET specific surface area {approx}105 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra have been observed in cerium oxide nanocrystallites. The band-gap was found to be 4.5 eV. The blueshifts are well explained for diameters down to less than a few nanometers by the change in the electronic band structure.

  12. TEMPLATE-ASSISTED FABRICATION AND DIELECTROPHORETIC MANIPULATION OF PZT MICROTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR KOVAĽ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscopic high aspect ratio ferroelectric tube structures of a diverse range of compositions with tailored physical properties can be used as key components in miniaturized flexible electronics, nano- and micro-electro-mechanical systems, nonvolatile FeRAM memories, and tunable photonic applications. They are usually produced through advanced “bottom-up” or “topdown” fabrication techniques. In this study, a template wetting approach is employed for fabrication of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT microtubes. The method is based on repeated infiltration of precursor solution into macroporous silicon (Si templates at a sub-atmospheric pressure. Prior to crystallization at 750°C, free-standing tubes of a 2-μm outer diameter, extending to over 30 μm in length were released from the Si template using a selective isotropic-pulsed XeF2 reactive ion etching. To facilitate rapid electrical characterization and enable future integration process, directed positioning and aligning of the PZT tubes was performed by dielectrophoresis. The electric field-assisted technique involves an alternating electric voltage that is applied through pre-patterned microelectrodes to a colloidal suspension of PZT tubes dispersed in isopropyl alcohol. The most efficient biasing for the assembly of tubes across the electrode gap of 12 μm was a square wave signal of 5 Vrms and 10 Hz. By varying the applied frequency in between 1 and 10 Hz, an enhancement in tube alignment was obtained.

  13. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K. [Mahatma Gandhi University Regional Research Center in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam-686666, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}⋅8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  14. Physical controls on directed virus assembly at nanoscale chemical templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, C L; Chung, S; Chatterji, A; Lin, T; Johnson, J E; Hok, S; Perkins, J; De Yoreo, J

    2006-05-10

    Viruses are attractive building blocks for nanoscale heterostructures, but little is understood about the physical principles governing their directed assembly. In-situ force microscopy was used to investigate organization of Cowpea Mosaic Virus engineered to bind specifically and reversibly at nanoscale chemical templates with sub-30nm features. Morphological evolution and assembly kinetics were measured as virus flux and inter-viral potential were varied. The resulting morphologies were similar to those of atomic-scale epitaxial systems, but the underlying thermodynamics was analogous to that of colloidal systems in confined geometries. The 1D templates biased the location of initial cluster formation, introduced asymmetric sticking probabilities, and drove 1D and 2D condensation at subcritical volume fractions. The growth kinetics followed a t{sup 1/2} law controlled by the slow diffusion of viruses. The lateral expansion of virus clusters that initially form on the 1D templates following introduction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) into the solution suggests a significant role for weak interaction.

  15. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10-90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content.

  16. Telomerase RNA is more than a DNA template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christopher J; Zakian, Virginia A

    2016-08-02

    The addition of telomeric DNA to chromosome ends is an essential cellular activity that compensates for the loss of genomic DNA that is due to the inability of the conventional DNA replication apparatus to duplicate the entire chromosome. The telomerase reverse transcriptase and its associated RNA bind to the very end of the telomere via a sequence in the RNA and specific protein-protein interactions. Telomerase RNA also provides the template for addition of new telomeric repeats by the reverse-transcriptase protein subunit. In addition to the template, there are 3 other conserved regions in telomerase RNA that are essential for normal telomerase activity. Here we briefly review the conserved core regions of telomerase RNA and then focus on a recent study in fission yeast that determined the function of another conserved region in telomerase RNA called the Stem Terminus Element (STE). (1) The STE is distant from the templating core of telomerase in both the linear and RNA secondary structure, but, nonetheless, affects the fidelity of telomere sequence addition and, in turn, the ability of telomere binding proteins to bind and protect chromosome ends. We will discuss possible mechanisms of STE action and the suitability of the STE as an anti-cancer target.

  17. Secure Minutiae-Based Fingerprint Templates Using Random Triangle Hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe; Jin Teoh, Andrew Beng; Ong, Thian Song; Tee, Connie

    Due to privacy concern on the widespread use of biometric authentication systems, biometric template protection has gained great attention in the biometric research recently. It is a challenging task to design a biometric template protection scheme which is anonymous, revocable and noninvertible while maintaining acceptable performance. Many methods have been proposed to resolve this problem, and cancelable biometrics is one of them. In this paper, we propose a scheme coined as Random Triangle Hashing which follows the concept of cancelable biometrics in the fingerprint domain. In this method, re-alignment of fingerprints is not required as all the minutiae are translated into a pre-defined 2 dimensional space based on a reference minutia. After that, the proposed Random Triangle hashing method is used to enforce the one-way property (non-invertibility) of the biometric template. The proposed method is resistant to minor translation error and rotation distortion. Finally, the hash vectors are converted into bit-strings to be stored in the database. The proposed method is evaluated using the public database FVC2004 DB1. An EER of less than 1% is achieved by using the proposed method.

  18. Expected net gain data of low-template DNA analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gittelson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-template DNA analyses are affected by stochastic effects which can produce a configuration of peaks in the electropherogram (EPG that is different from the genotype of the DNA׳s donor. A probabilistic and decision-theoretic model can quantify the expected net gain (ENG of performing a DNA analysis by the difference between the expected value of information (EVOI and the cost of performing the analysis. This article presents data on the ENG of performing DNA analyses of low-template DNA for a single amplification, two replicate amplifications, and for a second replicate amplification given the result of a first analysis. The data were obtained using amplification kits AmpFlSTR Identifiler Plus and Promega׳s PowerPlex 16 HS, an ABI 3130xl genetic sequencer, and Applied Biosystem׳s GeneMapper ID-X software. These data are supplementary to an original research article investigating whether a forensic DNA analyst should perform a single DNA analysis or two replicate analyses from a decision-theoretic point of view, entitled “Low-template DNA: a single DNA analysis or two replicates?” (Gittelson et al., 2016 [1].

  19. Faster rates with less catalyst in template-directed reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Baird, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    We have recently shown that the polycytidylic acid-directed polymerization of guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) is amenable to kinetic study and that rate determinations as a function of 2-MeImpG concentration can reveal much mechanistic detail (Kanavarioti et al. 1993). Here we report kinetic data which show that, once the reaction has been initiated by the formation of dimers, the elongation of dimers to form longer oligomers is accelerated by decreasing polycytidylate (poly(C)) concentration from 0.05 to 0.002 M. This result is consistent with the previously proposed mechanism. The increase in the observed pseudo-first order rate constant for formation of the trimer, k3', and the corresponding constant for formation of oligomers longer than the trimer, ki' (ki' is independent of oligomer length for i > or = 4), with decreasing template concentration for a given monomer concentration is attributed to an increase in template occupancy as template concentration is reduced.

  20. Templates for Fabricating Nanowire/Nanoconduit-Based Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Holt, Todd; Welker, David

    2006-01-01

    An effort is underway to develop processes for making templates that could be used as deposition molds and etching masks in the fabrication of devices containing arrays of nanowires and/or nanoconduits. Highly-ordered, optical-fiber arrays consisting of dissimilar polymers comprise the template technology. The selective removal of the fiber cores in specific solvents creates the porous templates to be filled with a "top-down" deposition process such as electrochemical deposition, sputter deposition, molecular beam epitaxy, and the like. Typically, the fiber bundles consist of polystyrene (PS) fiber cores, which are clad with varying thickness poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). When arranged in hexagonal, close-packed configuration and pulled, the fibers form highly-ordered arrays comprised of PS fiber cores surrounded by a continuous matrix of PMMA. The ratio of PMMA cladding thickness to PS core diameter determines the spacing between PS fiber cores and typically ranges from 3:1 to 1:1. Essentially, the simultaneous heating and drawing or pulling in the longitudinal direction of polymer-fiber arrays fuses the fibers together.

  1. Templating for hierarchical structure control in carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrettl, Stephen; Schulte, Bjoern; Frauenrath, Holger

    2016-12-07

    Carbon-based materials show a remarkable variety of physical properties. For this reason, they have recently been explored for many advanced applications and emerging technologies. In the absence of actual "chemical" functionalities in these materials, tailoring these physical properties requires control on all levels of the structural hierarchy, from the atomic structure (carbon connectivity, defects, impurities), to the supramolecular level (domain orientations), nanoscopic length scale (domain sizes, porosity), microscopic structure (morphology), and macroscopic aspects (shape, surface chemistry). When preparing carbon materials, all these features can be tailored through the use of hard, soft, or molecular templates. Based on such templating approaches or through their combination, tremendous progress towards hierarchically structured carbon materials has recently been accomplished. Novel carbon nanomaterials such as brick-walled carbon tubes, carbon nanotube forests, coral-like carbon monoliths, or functional carbon nanosheets have become available, some of which exhibit unusual combinations of electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties. This review aims to discuss how the different templating approaches allow the control of structure formation on various length scales, how hierarchical structure formation can be realized, and which challenges remain, such as the detailed control over the carbon connectivity or the surface chemistry.

  2. Looking sharp: Becoming a search template boosts precision and stability in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Ouslis, Natasha E; Wilson, Daryl E; Pratt, Jay

    2017-08-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) plays a central role in visual cognition, and current work suggests that there is a special state in VWM for items that are the goal of visual searches. However, whether the quality of memory for target templates differs from memory for other items in VWM is currently unknown. In this study, we measured the precision and stability of memory for search templates and accessory items to determine whether search templates receive representational priority in VWM. Memory for search templates exhibited increased precision and probability of recall, whereas accessory items were remembered less often. Additionally, while memory for Templates showed benefits when instances of the Template appeared in search, this benefit was not consistently observed for Accessory items when they appeared in search. Our results show that becoming a search template can substantially affect the quality of a representation in VWM.

  3. Comparison of post-Newtonian templates for extreme mass ratio inspirals

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, Vijay; Choudhary, Ashok; Iyer, Bala R

    2013-01-01

    Extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs), the inspirals of compact objects into supermassive black holes, are important gravitational wave sources for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). We study the performance of various post-Newtonian (PN) template families relative to the high precision numerical waveforms in the context of EMRI parameter estimation with LISA. Expressions for the time domain waveforms TaylorT1, TaylorT2, TaylorT3, TaylorT4 and TaylorEt are derived up to 22PN order, i.e $\\mathcal{O}(v^{44})$ ($v$ is the characteristic velocity of the binary) beyond the Newtonian term, for a test particle in a circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. The phase difference between the above 22PN waveform families and numerical waveforms are evaluated during two-year inspirals for two prototypical EMRI systems with mass ratios $10^{-4}$ and $10^{-5}$. We find that the dephases (in radians) for TaylorT1 and TaylorT2, respectively, are about $10^{-9}$ ($10^{-2}$) and $10^{-9}$ ($10^{-3}$) for mas...

  4. A Filter-Filled Function Method for Global Optimization with Box Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongxia; Tian, Zhiyuan; Gu, Yunxia

    2017-09-01

    A single parameter filled function for solving global optimization problems with box constraints is proposed and its properties are investigated. The filter technique avoids the difficulty of selecting the penalty parameter and has a good numerical results in the local optimization algorithm. The filter is introduced and combined with the filled function to form the filter-filled function algorithm in this paper. The numerical results illustrate that the algorithm is reliable and effective.

  5. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  6. Numerical problems in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Devraj

    2015-01-01

    Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept

  7. Covariant Hamiltonian tetrad approach to numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2017-12-01

    A Hamiltonian approach to the equations of general relativity is proposed using the powerful mathematical language of multivector-valued differential forms. In the approach, the gravitational coordinates are the 12 spatial components of the line interval (the vierbein) including their antisymmetric parts, and their 12 conjugate momenta. A feature of the proposed formalism is that it allows Lorentz gauge freedoms to be imposed on the Lorentz connections rather than on the vierbein, which may facilitate numerical integration in some challenging problems. The 40 Hamilton's equations comprise 12 +12 =24 equations of motion, ten constraint equations (first class constraints, which must be arranged on the initial hypersurface of constant time, but which are guaranteed thereafter by conservation laws), and six identities (second class constraints). The six identities define a trace-free spatial tensor that is the gravitational analog of the magnetic field of electromagnetism. If the gravitational magnetic field is promoted to an independent field satisfying its own equation of motion, then the system becomes the Wahlquist-Estabrook-Buchman-Bardeen (WEBB) system, which is known to be strongly hyperbolic. Some other approaches, including Arnowitt-Deser-Misner, Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura, WEBB, and loop quantum gravity, are translated into the language of multivector-valued forms, bringing out their underlying mathematical structure.

  8. Dopamine-Imprinted Polymers: Template-Monomer Interactions, Analysis of Template Removal and Application to Solid Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Szutowski

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A dopamine-imprinted polymer (MIP was prepared in aqueous methanolsolution at 60oC by free-radical cross-linking polymerization of methacrylic acid in thepresence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and dopamine hydrochlorideas the template molecule. Its ability to isolate dopamine was evaluated as the basis of asolid phase extraction procedure and compared with that of a non-imprinted polymer(NIP. The binding of dopamine was 84.1% and 29.1% for MIP and NIP, respectively.Various reported post-polymerization treatments to reduce template bleeding wereexamined. In our case the lowest bleeding was achieved after applying a combinedprocedure: continuous extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus (CE, followed by microwave-assisted extraction (ME to a level of 0.061 μg/mL. A simplified model of the template-monomer complexes allowed rationalization of monomer choice based on the heats ofcomplex formation at a PM3 level of theory.

  9. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroney, O. J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  10. Atom mapping with constraint programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Nahar, Feras; Schnorr, Norah; Backofen, Rolf; Stadler, Peter F; Flamm, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Chemical reactions are rearrangements of chemical bonds. Each atom in an educt molecule thus appears again in a specific position of one of the reaction products. This bijection between educt and product atoms is not reported by chemical reaction databases, however, so that the "Atom Mapping Problem" of finding this bijection is left as an important computational task for many practical applications in computational chemistry and systems biology. Elementary chemical reactions feature a cyclic imaginary transition state (ITS) that imposes additional restrictions on the bijection between educt and product atoms that are not taken into account by previous approaches. We demonstrate that Constraint Programming is well-suited to solving the Atom Mapping Problem in this setting. The performance of our approach is evaluated for a manually curated subset of chemical reactions from the KEGG database featuring various ITS cycle layouts and reaction mechanisms.

  11. Constraint Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolo, Alain

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge process (i.e., the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process conditioned to start and end at fixed points) constraints to have a fixed area under its path. We present both anticipative (in this case, we need the knowledge of the future of the path) and non-anticipative versions of the stochastic process. We obtain the anticipative description thanks to the theory of generalized Gaussian bridges while the non-anticipative representation comes from the theory of stochastic control. For this last representation, a stochastic differential equation is derived which leads to an effective Langevin equation. Finally, we extend our theoretical findings to linear bridge processes.

  12. Optical flow computation using extended constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C

    1996-01-01

    Several approaches for optical flow estimation use partial differential equations to model changes in image brightness throughout time. A commonly used equation is the so-called optical flow constraint (OFC), which assumes that the image brightness is stationary with respect to time. More recently, a different constraint referred to as the extended optical flow constraint (EOFC) has been introduced, which also contains the divergence of the flow field of image brightness. There is no agreement in the literature about which of these constraints provides the best estimation of the velocity field. Two new solutions for optical flow computation are proposed, which are based on an approximation of the constraint equations. The two techniques have been used with both EOFC and OFC constraint equations. Results achieved by using these solutions have been compared with several well-known computational methods for optical flow estimation in different motion conditions. Estimation errors have also been measured and compared for different types of motion.

  13. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂φ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinni...

  14. Planck 2015 results. XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Münchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background(CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity(NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators - separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal - we obtain consistent values for the local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result from temperature alone fNL^local=2.5+\\-5.7, fNL^equil=-16+\\-70 and fNL^ortho=-34+\\-33(68%CL). Combining temperature and polarization data we obtain fNL^local=0.8+\\-5.0, fNL^equil=-4+\\-43 and fNL^ortho=-26+\\-21 (68%CL). The results are based on cross-validation of these estimators on simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are consistent with Minkowski functionals based measurements. The effect of time-domain de-glitching systematics on the bispectrum is negligible. In spite of these test outcomes we conservatively label the results including polarization da...

  15. Planck 2013 Results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Heavens, A.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result fNL^local= 2.7+/-5.8, fNL^equil= -42+/-75, and fNL^ortho= -25+\\-39 (68% CL statistical). NG is detected in the data; using skew-C_l statistics we find a nonzero bispectrum from residual point sources, and the ISW-lensing bispectrum at a level expected in the LambdaCDM scenario. The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are confirmed by skew-C_l, wavelet bispectrum and Minkowski functional estimators. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, 3-dimensional...

  16. Introduction to numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, F B

    1987-01-01

    Well-known, respected introduction, updated to integrate concepts and procedures associated with computers. Computation, approximation, interpolation, numerical differentiation and integration, smoothing of data, other topics in lucid presentation. Includes 150 additional problems in this edition. Bibliography.

  17. Introductory numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2006-01-01

    Written for undergraduates who require a familiarity with the principles behind numerical analysis, this classical treatment encompasses finite differences, least squares theory, and harmonic analysis. Over 70 examples and 280 exercises. 1967 edition.

  18. Exploring Mayan Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jeff D.; Powers, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an exploration activity involving Mayan numerals, which can be adapted by teachers at various levels to help students better understand the concept of place value and appreciate contributions to mathematics made by an indigenous Central American culture.

  19. Relationship between protein structure and geometrical constraints.

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, O.; Hansen, J.; Brunak, S.; Bohr, J.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate to what extent the structure of proteins can be deduced from incomplete knowledge of disulfide bridges, surface assignments, secondary structure assignments, and additional distance constraints. A cost function taking such constraints into account was used to obtain protein structures using a simple minimization algorithm. For small proteins, the approximate structure could be obtained using one additional distance constraint for each amino acid in the protein. We also studied the...

  20. Numerical computations with GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Kindratenko, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together research on numerical methods adapted for Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). It explains recent efforts to adapt classic numerical methods, including solution of linear equations and FFT, for massively parallel GPU architectures. This volume consolidates recent research and adaptations, covering widely used methods that are at the core of many scientific and engineering computations. Each chapter is written by authors working on a specific group of methods; these leading experts provide mathematical background, parallel algorithms and implementation details leading to

  1. Numerical transducer modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda, Vicente

    1999-01-01

    Numerical modelling is of importance for the design, improvement and study of acoustic transducers such as microphones and accelerometers. Techniques like the boundary element method and the finite element method are the most common supplement to the traditional empirical and analytical approaches...... errors and instabilities in the computations of numerical solutions. An investigation to deal with this narrow-gap problem has been carried out....

  2. Constrained Optimization Based on Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm and Adaptive Constraint-Handling Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Cai, Zixing; Zhou, Yuren

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach to deal with numerical and engineering constrained optimization problems, which incorporates a hybrid evolutionary algorithm and an adaptive constraint-handling technique, is presented in this paper. The hybrid evolutionary algorithm simultaneously uses simplex crossover and two...... mutation operators to generate the offspring population. Additionally, the adaptive constraint-handling technique consists of three main situations. In detail, at each situation, one constraint-handling mechanism is designed based on current population state. Experiments on 13 benchmark test functions...... and four well-known constrained design problems verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. The experimental results show that integrating the hybrid evolutionary algorithm with the adaptive constraint-handling technique is beneficial, and the proposed method achieves competitive...

  3. Culture and National Well-Being: Should Societies Emphasize Freedom or Constraint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jesse R; Boski, Pawel; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history and within numerous disciplines, there exists a perennial debate about how societies should best be organized. Should they emphasize individual freedom and autonomy or security and constraint? Contrary to proponents who tout the benefits of one over the other, we demonstrate across 32 nations that both freedom and constraint exhibit a curvilinear relationship with many indicators of societal well-being. Relative to moderate nations, very permissive and very constrained nations exhibit worse psychosocial outcomes (lower happiness, greater dysthymia, higher suicide rates), worse health outcomes (lower life expectancy, greater mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and diabetes) and poorer economic and political outcomes (lower gross domestic product per capita, greater risk for political instability). This supports the notion that a balance between freedom and constraint results in the best national outcomes. Accordingly, it is time to shift the debate away from either constraint or freedom and focus on both in moderation.

  4. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  5. Pressures and constraints on general management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R

    1989-03-01

    A discussion of pressures and constraints on general management is not straightforward. Pressures and constraints can be seen both as external influences and as individually determined. This dual origin is important so that general managers can help themselves, and be helped, to be more in control of their jobs and their environment. Drawing on the findings from the Templeton tracer study of DGMs and from the Templeton DGMs' group, the paper considers a range of possible pressures and constraints on DGMs. It argues that an effective general manager will know which pressures and constraints are external and which are self-imposed and will know which can and should be changed.

  6. Toward an automaton Constraint for Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the idea of using finite automata to implement new constraints for local search (this is already a successful technique in constraint-based global search. We show how it is possible to maintain incrementally the violations of a constraint and its decision variables from an automaton that describes a ground checker for that constraint. We establish the practicality of our approach idea on real-life personnel rostering problems, and show that it is competitive with the approach of [Pralong, 2007].

  7. Extending models for two-dimensional constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2009-01-01

    for models of two-dimensional constraints and as examples we apply it to the hard-square constraint and the no isolated bits (n.i.b) constraint. The iterative scaling can ensure that the entropy of the extension is optimized and that the entropy is increased compared to the initial model defined on 2 times 2...... elements. Application to a simple stationary model with hidden states is also outlined. For the n.i.b constraint, the initial model is based on elements defined by blocks of (1 times 2) binary symbols....

  8. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.

    2004-01-01

    and program reactive systems. This note provides a comprehensive introduction to the background for and central notions from the theory of tccp. Furthermore, it surveys recent results on a particular tccp calculus, ntcc, and it provides a classification of the expressive power of various tccp languages.......A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  9. Constraints and flexibility in mammalian social behaviour: introduction and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappeler, Peter M.; Barrett, Louise; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Clutton-Brock, Tim H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue presenting the latest developments in research on the interplay between flexibility and constraint in social behaviour, using comparative datasets, long-term field studies and experimental data from both field and laboratory studies of mammals. We first explain our focus on mammals and outline the main components of their social systems, focusing on variation within- and among-species in numerous aspects of social organization, mating system and social structure. We then review the current state of primarily ultimate explanations of this diversity in social behaviour. We approach the question of how and why the balance between behavioural flexibility and continuity is achieved by discussing the genetic, developmental, ecological and social constraints on hypothetically unlimited behavioural flexibility. We introduce the other contributions to this Theme Issue against this background and conclude that constraints are often crucial to the evolution and expression of behavioural flexibility. In exploring these issues, the enduring relevance of Tinbergen's seminal paper ‘On aims and methods in ethology’, with its advocacy of an integrative, four-pronged approach to studying behaviour becomes apparent: an exceptionally fitting tribute on the 50th anniversary of its publication. PMID:23569286

  10. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2017-08-17

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example in reservoir analysis, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a boundary condition for the whole area. Since certain rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elastic and anisotropic parameters (facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel confidence map based approach to utilize the facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such a confidence map using Bayesian theory, in which the confidence map is updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. The numerical examples show that the proposed method can reduce the trade-offs and also can improve the resolution of the inverted elastic and anisotropic properties.

  11. Multiobjective Interaction Programming Problem with Interaction Constraint for Two Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends an existing cooperative multi-objective interaction programming problem with interaction constraint for two players (or two agents. First, we define an s-optimal joint solution with weight vector to multi-objective interaction programming problem with interaction constraint for two players and get some properties of it. It is proved that the s-optimal joint solution with weight vector to the multi-objective interaction programming problem can be obtained by solving a corresponding mathematical programming problem. Then, we define another s-optimal joint solution with weight value to multi-objective interaction programming problem with interaction constraint for two players and get some of its properties. It is proved that the s-optimal joint solution with weight vector to multi-objective interaction programming problem can be obtained by solving a corresponding mathematical programming problem. Finally, we build a pricing multi-objective interaction programming model for a bi-level supply chain. Numerical results show that the interaction programming pricing model is better than Stackelberg pricing model and the joint pricing model.

  12. Planck 2015 results. XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Münchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators - separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal - we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result from temperature alone ƒlocalNL = 2.5 ± 5.7, ƒequilNL= -16 ± 70, , and ƒorthoNL = -34 ± 32 (68% CL, statistical). Combining temperature and polarization data we obtain ƒlocalNL = 0.8 ± 5.0, ƒequilNL= -4 ± 43, and ƒorthoNL = -26 ± 21 (68% CL, statistical). The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are consistent with estimators based on measuring the Minkowski functionals of the CMB. The effect of time-domain de-glitching systematics on the bispectrum is negligible. In spite of these test outcomes we conservatively label the results including polarization data as preliminary, owing to a known mismatch of the noise model in simulations and the data. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, three-dimensional reconstructions of the Planck CMB bispectrum and derive constraints on early universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general single-field models of inflation, axion inflation, initial state modifications, models producing parity-violating tensor bispectra, and directionally dependent vector models. We present a wide survey of scale-dependent feature and resonance models, accounting for the "look elsewhere" effect in estimating the statistical significance of features. We also look for isocurvature NG, and find no signal, but we obtain constraints that improve significantly with the inclusion of polarization. The primordial

  13. Design and Fabrication of a Precision Template for Spine Surgery Using Selective Laser Melting (SLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Yimeng; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Changhui; Yang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zimian; Lin, Hui; Zhen, Yongqiang; Liao, Suixiang

    2016-07-22

    In order to meet the clinical requirements of spine surgery, this paper proposes the fabrication of the customized template for spine surgery through computer-aided design. A 3D metal printing-selective laser melting (SLM) technique was employed to directly fabricate the 316L stainless steel template, and the metal template with tiny locating holes was used as an auxiliary tool to insert spinal screws inside the patient's body. To guarantee accurate fabrication of the template for cervical vertebra operation, the contact face was placed upwards to improve the joint quality between the template and the cervical vertebra. The joint surface of the printed template had a roughness of Ra = 13 ± 2 μm. After abrasive blasting, the surface roughness was Ra = 7 ± 0.5 μm. The surgical metal template was bound with the 3D-printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic model. The micro-hardness values determined at the cross-sections of SLM-processed samples varied from HV0.3 250 to HV0.3 280, and the measured tensile strength was in the range of 450 MPa to 560 MPa, which showed that the template had requisite strength. Finally, the metal template was clinically used in the patient's surgical operation, and the screws were inserted precisely as the result of using the auxiliary template. The geometrical parameters of the template hole (e.g., diameter and wall thickness) were optimized, and measures were taken to optimize the key geometrical units (e.g., hole units) in metal 3D printing. Compared to the traditional technology of screw insertion, the use of the surgical metal template enabled the screws to be inserted more easily and accurately during spinal surgery. However, the design of the high-quality template should fully take into account the clinical demands of surgeons, as well as the advice of the designing engineers and operating technicians.

  14. Design and Fabrication of a Precision Template for Spine Surgery Using Selective Laser Melting (SLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the clinical requirements of spine surgery, this paper proposes the fabrication of the customized template for spine surgery through computer-aided design. A 3D metal printing-selective laser melting (SLM technique was employed to directly fabricate the 316L stainless steel template, and the metal template with tiny locating holes was used as an auxiliary tool to insert spinal screws inside the patient’s body. To guarantee accurate fabrication of the template for cervical vertebra operation, the contact face was placed upwards to improve the joint quality between the template and the cervical vertebra. The joint surface of the printed template had a roughness of Ra = 13 ± 2 μm. After abrasive blasting, the surface roughness was Ra = 7 ± 0.5 μm. The surgical metal template was bound with the 3D-printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS plastic model. The micro-hardness values determined at the cross-sections of SLM-processed samples varied from HV0.3 250 to HV0.3 280, and the measured tensile strength was in the range of 450 MPa to 560 MPa, which showed that the template had requisite strength. Finally, the metal template was clinically used in the patient’s surgical operation, and the screws were inserted precisely as the result of using the auxiliary template. The geometrical parameters of the template hole (e.g., diameter and wall thickness were optimized, and measures were taken to optimize the key geometrical units (e.g., hole units in metal 3D printing. Compared to the traditional technology of screw insertion, the use of the surgical metal template enabled the screws to be inserted more easily and accurately during spinal surgery. However, the design of the high-quality template should fully take into account the clinical demands of surgeons, as well as the advice of the designing engineers and operating technicians.

  15. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Liquid as template for next generation micro devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmet, Jerome; Haquette, Henri; Laux, Edith; Keppner, Herbert [HES-SO ARC, Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquees, La Chaux de Fonds (Switzerland); Gorodyska, Ganna; Textor, Marcus [ETHZ, BioInterfaceGroup, Zuerich (Switzerland); Durante, Guido Spinola; Portuondo-Campa, Erwin; Knapp, Helmut [CSEM Centre Suisse d' Electronique et de Microtechnique SA, Alpnach (Switzerland); Bitterli, Roland; Noell, Wilfried, E-mail: Jerome.Charmet@he-arc.c [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Microengineering, Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems laboratory, Rue Jaquet Droz 1, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2009-08-01

    Liquids have fascinated generations of scientists and engineers. Since ancient Greece, the perfect natural shape of liquids has been used to create optical systems. Nowadays, the natural shape of liquid is used in the fabrication of microlens arrays that rely on the melting of glass or photoresist to generate high quality lenses. However shrinkage normally associated to the liquid to solid phase transition will affect the initial shape and quality of the liquid structure. In this contribution, a novel fabrication technique that enables the encapsulation and replication of liquid templates without affecting their natural shape is presented. The SOLID (SOlid on LIquid Deposition) process allows for a transparent solid film to be deposited and grown onto a liquid template (droplet, film, line) in a way that the liquid shapes the overgrowing solid layer. The resulting configuration of the SOLID devices is chemically and mechanically stable and is the base of a huge variety of new micro-nano systems in the field of microfluidics, biomedical devices and micro-optics among others. The SOLID process enables in a one step process the encapsulation of liquid microlenses, fluidics channels, drug reservoir or any naturally driven liquid structure. The phenomenon and solid-liquid interface resulting from the SOLID process is new and still unexploited. The solid layer used for the SOLID process chosen in this paper is poly-para-xylylene called Parylene, a transparent biocompatible polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties. Moreover, as the solid layer is growing over a liquid template, atomically smooth surfaces channels can be obtained. The polymerization of Parylene does not exert stress and does not change the shape of the liquid; this latter aspect is particularly interesting for manufacturing naturally driven liquid structures. In this paper the authors explore the limits of this new method by testing different designs of SOLID encapsulated structures and

  17. Surface smoothing and template partitioning for cranial implant CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-june; Dean, David

    2005-04-01

    Employing patient-specific prefabricated implants can be an effective treatment for large cranial defects (i.e., > 25 cm2). We have previously demonstrated the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software that starts with the patient"s 3D head CT-scan. A template is accurately matched to the pre-detected skull defect margin. For unilateral cranial defects the template is derived from a left-to-right mirrored skull image. However, two problems arise: (1) slice edge artifacts generated during isosurface polygonalization are inherited by the final implant; and (2) partitioning (i.e., cookie-cutting) the implant surface from the mirrored skull image usually results in curvature discontinuities across the interface between the patient"s defect and the implant. To solve these problems, we introduce a novel space curve-to-surface partitioning algorithm following a ray-casting surface re-sampling and smoothing procedure. Specifically, the ray-cast re-sampling is followed by bilinear interpolation and low-pass filtering. The resulting surface has a highly regular grid-like topological structure of quadrilaterally arranged triangles. Then, we replace the regions to be partitioned with predefined sets of triangular elements thereby cutting the template surface to accurately fit the defect margin at high resolution and without surface curvature discontinuities. Comparisons of the CAD implants for five patients against the manually generated implant that the patient actually received show an average implant-patient gap of 0.45mm for the former and 2.96mm for the latter. Also, average maximum normalized curvature of interfacing surfaces was found to be smoother, 0.043, for the former than the latter, 0.097. This indicates that the CAD implants would provide a significantly better fit.

  18. Stampless fabrication of sheet bars using disposable templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, V. P.; Safonov, S. V.; Smolentsev, E. V.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    The article is devoted to the new method of small-scale fabrication of sheet bars. The procedure is performed by using disposable overlay templates, or those associated with a sheet, which parameters are obtained directly from the drawing. The proposed method used as a substitution of die cutting enables to intensify the preparatory technological process, which is particularly effective when launching the market-oriented items into production. It significantly increases the competitiveness of mechanical engineering and creates the conditions for technical support of present-day flexible production systems.

  19. DNA origami as a nanoscale template for protein assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzyk, Anton; Laitinen, Kimmo T [Nanoscience Center, Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PO Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Toermae, Paeivi [Department of Applied Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 5100, FIN-02015 (Finland)], E-mail: paivi.torma@hut.fi

    2009-06-10

    We describe two general approaches to the utilization of DNA origami structures for the assembly of materials. In one approach, DNA origami is used as a prefabricated template for subsequent assembly of materials. In the other, materials are assembled simultaneously with the DNA origami, i.e. the DNA origami technique is used to drive the assembly of materials. Fabrication of complex protein structures is demonstrated by these two approaches. The latter approach has the potential to be extended to the assembly of multiple materials with single attachment chemistry.

  20. Synthesis of Biocompatible Hydroxyapatite Using Chitosan Oligosaccharide as a Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA was synthesized by using chitosan oligosaccharide (COS as a template. These HA samples were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The biocompatibility of HA samples was evaluated via cell viability, cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase staining of MG-63 cell lines. The results show that HA synthesized in the presence of COS was favorable to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MG-63 cells. These hydroxyapatites are potentially attractive biomaterials for bone tissue engineering applications.

  1. Black silicon maskless templates for carbon nanotube forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We present here a proof of concept for a novel fabrication method of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, utilizing black silicon nanograss (a forest of silicon nanometer-sized spikes created with reactive ion etching) coated with titanium tungsten diffusion barrier as a template. The method...... allows maskless definition of carbon nanotube forests with control of their density, nanotube diameter and height. Four nanograss reactive ion etching recipes are investigated and their wafer-to-wafer repeatability, wafer uniformity, and density control is discussed. Evaluation of carbon nanotube forests...

  2. Modelling Template for the Development of the Process Flowsheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    provides building blocks for the templates (generic models previously developed); 3) computer aided methods and tools, that include procedures to perform model translation, model analysis, model verification/validation, model solution and model documentation. In this work, the integrated use of all three......Models are playing important roles in design and analysis of chemicals/bio-chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Model-based methods and tools have the potential to decrease the number of experiments, which can be expensive and time consuming, and point to candidates...

  3. Filtering Algorithms for Global Chance Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hnich, B.; Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.; Prestwich, S.

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Constraint Satisfaction Problems (SCSPs) are a powerful modeling framework for problems under uncertainty. To solve them is a PSPACE task. The only complete solution approach to date — scenario-based stochastic constraint programming — compiles SCSPs down into classical CSPs. This allows

  4. Integrity Constraints in Trust Management (Extended Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Winsborough, William H.; Ahn, G-J.

    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust managementstyle authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then we address the fact that not all participants in a trust

  5. Cosmological Constraints from Gravitational Lens Time Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dan; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2009-11-01

    Future large ensembles of time delay (TD) lenses have the potential to provide interesting cosmological constraints complementary to those of other methods. In a flat universe with constant w including a Planck prior, The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope TD measurements for ~4000 lenses should constrain the local Hubble constant h to ~0.007 (~1%), Ω de to ~0.005, and w to ~0.026 (all 1σ precisions). Similar constraints could be obtained by a dedicated gravitational lens observatory (OMEGA) which would obtain precise TD and mass model measurements for ~100 well-studied lenses. We compare these constraints (as well as those for a more general cosmology) to the "optimistic Stage IV" constraints expected from weak lensing, supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and cluster counts, as calculated by the Dark Energy Task Force. TDs yield a modest constraint on a time-varying w(z), with the best constraint on w(z) at the "pivot redshift" of z ≈ 0.31. Our Fisher matrix calculation is provided to allow TD constraints to be easily compared to and combined with constraints from other experiments. We also show how cosmological constraining power varies as a function of numbers of lenses, lens model uncertainty, TD precision, redshift precision, and the ratio of four-image to two-image lenses.

  6. Efficient sizing of structures under stress constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Z.; Abdalla, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Optimisation algorithms used to automatically size structural members commonly involve stress constraints to avoid material failure. Therefore the cost of optimisation grows rapidly as the number of structural members is increased due to the corresponding increase in the number of constraints. In

  7. A model for strategy in constraint solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van Wijk (Jack)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe use of constraints for the definition of graphical user interfaces has been recognized as a great concept. However, often many valuations of the variables will satisfy the constraints, and which particular valuation matches best with the expectation of the user cannot be decided

  8. Supernova constraints on neutrino mass and mixing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article I review the constraints on neutrino mass and mixing coming from type-II supernovae. The bounds obtained on these parameters from shock reheating, -process nucleosynthesis and from SN1987A are discussed. Given the current constraints on neutrino mass and mixing the effect of oscillations of neutrinos ...

  9. Missed opportunities and caretaker constraints to childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite concerted support to vaccination programmes, coverage remains low. While health service reasons for this are known, there is little information on caretaker constraints to vaccination in Africa. Objective: To establish the prevalence of missed vaccination opportunities and caretaker constraints to ...

  10. Climate Change Adaptation Constraints among Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean ranks of the constraints significantly differ from one another with the three topmost constraints being unreliable water source, lack of information on climate change and limited income. But for crop diversification, poor extension services and lack of credit are factors that cut across all the identified adaptation ...

  11. Constraints on three flavor neutrino mixing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 54; Issue 1. Constraints on three flavor neutrino ... We summarize the constraints on three flavor neutrino mixing coming from data. We first map out the allowed region in ... Mohan Narayan1. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India ...

  12. Domain General Constraints on Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Erik D.

    2011-01-01

    All theories of language development suggest that learning is constrained. However, theories differ on whether these constraints arise from language-specific processes or have domain-general origins such as the characteristics of human perception and information processing. The current experiments explored constraints on statistical learning of…

  13. Network Design with Node Degree Balance Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    This presentation discusses an extension to the network design model where there in addition to the flow conservation constraints also are constraints that require design conservation. This means that the number of arcs entering and leaving a node must be the same. As will be shown the model has...

  14. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin

    2001-01-01

    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  15. VOCABULARY CONSTRAINT ON READING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucu Sutarsyah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify and describe the vocabulary in reading materials and to seek if the texts are useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. Some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the texts are dominated by low frequency words which compose 16.97% of the words in the texts. In terms of high frequency words occurring in the texts, function words dominate the texts. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts being used have very limited number of words from GSL (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only comprises 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words constitute account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also impede the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  16. Following the cognitive work analysis train of thought: exploring the constraints of modal shift to rail transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; McIlroy, Rich C; Harvey, Catherine; Blainey, Simon; Hickford, Adrian; Preston, John M; Ryan, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental concerns show that transport is responsible for almost a quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions, and it is also the fastest growing sector. Modal shift towards public transport could help slow down, or even reverse, this trend. There appear to be a number of constraints that are preventing this from happening. This paper explores the constraints to modal shift to rail transport from the perspective of cognitive work analysis, specifically the abstraction hierarchy, the contextual activity template and social organisational and cooperation analyses. Whilst these analyses may not present any new barriers, they do show how the constraints are interlinked in an explicit manner. These interrelations are important for two reasons. First, in consideration of constraint removal, one must anticipate the likely effects on the remainder of the system. Second, by linking functions and situations, new concepts of travel may be identified and explored. The purpose of this study was to use a semi-structured approach to identifying constraints to modal shift from a variety of perspectives. It is argued that cognitive work analysis offers a new way of thinking about the modal shift problem and helps to generate new insights into potential solutions.

  17. Optimum beamforming subject to multiple linear constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, A. K.

    1980-09-01

    Optimum beamformers with a single look direction constraint can suffer from signal suppression problems when the optimum weights are calculated from the inverse of the signal-plus-noise cross-spectral matrix. Signal suppression occurs when the beam steer direction does not exactly correspond to the signal direction and this can occur if the number of fixed beams is small. The use of multiple linear constraints upon the optimum weights reduces this signal suppression. Multiple directional constraints can lead to ill-conditioned equations. However, it is shown that the limiting solutions of multiple directional constraints are multiple derivative contraints and these do not lead to ill-conditioned equations. The ability of various derivative constraints to prevent signal suppression is analyzed quantitatively.

  18. The construction of MRI brain/head templates for Chinese children from 7 to 16 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanze Xie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Population-specific brain templates that provide detailed brain information are beneficial to both structural and functional neuroimaging research. However, age-specific MRI templates have not been constructed for Chinese or any Asian developmental populations. This study developed novel T1-weighted average brain and head templates for Chinese children from 7 to 16 years of age in two-year increments using high quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and well-validated image analysis techniques. A total of 138 Chinese children (51 F/87 M were included in this study. The internally and externally validated registrations show that these Chinese age-specific templates fit Chinese children's MR images significantly better than age-specific templates created from U.S. children, or adult templates based on either Chinese or North American adults. It implies that age-inappropriate (e.g., the Chinese56 template, the US20–24 template and nationality-inappropriate brain templates (e.g., U.S. children's templates, the US20–24 template do not provide optimal reference MRIs for processing MR brain images of Chinese pediatric populations. Thus, our age-specific MRI templates are the first of the kind and should be useful in neuroimaging studies with children from Chinese or other Asian populations. These templates can also serve as the foundations for the construction of more comprehensive sets of nationality-specific templates for Asian developmental populations. These templates are available for use in our database.

  19. Introduction to Numerical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonover, Joseph A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-14

    These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.

  20. Template security analysis of multimodal biometric frameworks based on fingerprint and hand geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are automatic tools used to provide authentication during various applications of modern computing. In this work, three different design frameworks for multimodal biometric systems based on fingerprint and hand geometry modalities are proposed. An analysis is also presented to diagnose various types of template security issues in the proposed system. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is applied with five decision parameters on all the designs and framework 1 is found to be better in terms of template data security, templates fusion and computational efficiency. It is noticed that template data security before storage in database is a challenging task. An important observation is that a template may be secured at feature fusion level and an indexing technique may be used to improve the size of secured templates.

  1. Efficiency, comprehensiveness and cost-effectiveness when comparing dictation and electronic templates for operative reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Mark R; Dexter, Paul R; Graham, Marilyn F; Hui, Siu L; McDonald, Clement J

    2005-01-01

    Surgeons typically document operative events using dictation services. Dictated reports are frequently incomplete or delayed. Electronic note templates could potentially improve this process. Using a study design of alternating four week blocks, we compared the timeliness and comprehensiveness of operative notes created through the use of electronic templates versus dictation services for five surgical procedures. Templates resulted in dramatically faster times to the presence of a verified operative report in the medical record compared to dictation services (mean 28 v. 22,440 minutes). Templates increased overall compliance with national standards for operative note documentation and avoided transcription costs. Documentation with templates took slightly more time than dictation (mean 6.77 v. 5.96 minutes; P=0.036), not including the additional time necessary to subsequently verify dictated reports. We conclude that electronic note templates can improve the timeliness and comprehensiveness of operative documentation, while decreasing transcription costs and requiring minimal additional effort on the part of surgeons.

  2. Syed-Neblett interstitial template in locally advanced gynecological malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampuero, F.; Doss, L.L.; Khan, M.; Skipper, B.; Hilgers, R.D.

    1983-12-01

    Twenty-eight patients with locally advanced malignancies of the cervix and vagina were treated with a combination of external radiation therapy and after loading Syed-Neblett iridium template. There were 22 patients with squamous cell cancer and two patients with adenocarcinomas of the cervix. Four patients with squamous cell cancer of the vagina were treated with this method. Only patients with locally advanced disease (cervical lesion >4 cm in diameter) and poor vagnal anatomy were selected for this modality of therapy. In this series the incidence of distant failures of 39% seems to confirm the significance of local volume of disease as a prognostic indicator; despite a local control rate of 59%, only 33% of the patients are alive from 25-51 months. Complications occurred in 12 patients (42%). Six patients (22%) developed severe rectal stricture or rectovaginal fistula necessitating diverting sigmoid colostomy; five patients (18%) developed hemorrhagic proctitis with diarrhea and tenesmus; one patient developed vaginal vault necrosis. Complications occurred 7 to 24 months following therapy. Six of the 12 patients developing complications are dead of disease. On the basis of this study and because of the low cure rate and high incidence of complications, the value of the Syed-Neblett template in locally advanced gynecologic malignancies should be reconsidered.

  3. Fire Protection Engineering Design Brief Template. Hydrogen Refueling Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Groth, Katrina M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Building a hydrogen infrastructure system is critical to supporting the development of alternate- fuel vehicles. This report provides a methodology for implementing a performance-based design of an outdoor hydrogen refueling station that does not meet specific prescriptive requirements in NFPA 2, The Hydrogen Technologies Code . Performance-based designs are a code-compliant alternative to meeting prescriptive requirements. Compliance is demonstrated by comparing a prescriptive-based fueling station design with a performance-based design approach using Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) methods and hydrogen risk assessment tools. This template utilizes the Sandia-developed QRA tool, Hydrogen Risk Analysis Models (HyRAM), which combines reduced-order deterministic models that characterize hydrogen release and flame behavior with probabilistic risk models to quantify risk values. Each project is unique and this template is not intended to account for site-specific characteristics. Instead, example content and a methodology are provided for a representative hydrogen refueling site which can be built upon for new hydrogen applications.

  4. DNA template dependent accuracy variation of nucleotide selection in transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Mellenius

    Full Text Available It has been commonly assumed that the effect of erroneous transcription of DNA genes into messenger RNAs on peptide sequence errors are masked by much more frequent errors of mRNA translation to protein. We present a theoretical model of transcriptional accuracy. It uses experimentally estimated standard free energies of double-stranded DNA and RNA/DNA hybrids and predicts a DNA template dependent transcriptional accuracy variation spanning several orders of magnitude. The model also identifies high-error as well a high-accuracy transcription motifs. The source of the large accuracy span is the context dependent variation of the stacking free energy of pairs of correct and incorrect base pairs in the ever moving transcription bubble. Our model predictions have direct experimental support from recent single molecule based identifications of transcriptional errors in the C. elegans transcriptome. Our conclusions challenge the general view that amino acid substitution errors in proteins are mainly caused by translational errors. It suggests instead that transcriptional error hotspots are the dominating source of peptide sequence errors in some DNA template contexts, while mRNA translation is the major cause of protein errors in other contexts.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of free-template zeolite T from kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Sazmal E.; Yusslee, Eddy F.; Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Sarkar, Shaheen M.; Patuwan, Siti Z.

    2017-12-01

    Free-template zeolite T crystals were synthesized via hydrothermal synthesis by utilizing the activated kaolin as silica and alumina source, with the molar composition of 1 SiO2: 0.04 Al2O3: 0.26 Na2O: 0.09 K2O: 14 H2O. Observation of the formation of free-template zeolite crystals were done at temperature 90°C, 100 °C and 110 °C respectively. It was therefore determined that during the 120 h of the synthesis at 90 °C, zeolite T nucleated and formed a first competitive phase with zeolite L. As temperature increases to 100 °C, zeolite T presented itself as a major phase in the system at time 168 h. Subsequently, development of Zeolite T with second competitive phase of zeolite W was observed at temperature 110 °C. In this study, XRD and SEM instruments were used to monitor the behavior of zeolite T crystals with respect of temperature and time. By using natural resource of kaolin clay as a starting material, this paper hence aims to provide new findings in synthesis of zeolite T using low energy consumption and low production cost.

  6. Microscopic and magnetic properties of template assisted electrodeposited iron nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irshad, M. I., E-mail: imrancssp@gmail.com; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Yar, A., E-mail: asfandyarhargan@gmail.com [Department of Fundamental & Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia); Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Abdullah, M. Z., E-mail: zaki-abdullah@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Nanowires of magnetic materials such as Iron, nickel, cobalt, and alloys of them are one of the most widely investigated structures because of their possible applications in high density magnetic recording media, sensor elements, and building blocks in biological transport systems. In this work, Iron nanowires have been prepared by electrodeposition technique using Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. The electrolyte used consisted of FeSO{sub 4.}6H{sub 2}O buffered with H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and acidized by dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. FESEM analysis shows that the asdeposited nanowires are parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. To fabricate the working electrode, a thin film of copper (∼ 220 nm thick) was coated on back side of AAO template by e-beam evaporation system to create electrical contact with the external circuit. The TEM results show that electrodeposited nanowires have diameter around 100 nm and are polycrystalline in structure. Magnetic properties show the existence of anisotropy for in and out of plane configuration. These nanowires have potential applications in magnetic data storage, catalysis and magnetic sensor applications.

  7. Functional Nanomaterials based on Nanoporous Block Copolymer Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kon

    2011-03-01

    Nanoporous templates have been widely used for the development of new functional nanostructured materials suitable for electronics, optics, magnetism, and energy storage materials. We have prepared nanoporous templates by using thin films of mixtures of polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS- b -PMMA) and PMMA homopolymers. These nanoporous films were found to be very effective for the separation of human Rhinovirus type 14, major pathogen of a common cold in humans. We found that when the pore size was effectively controlled down to 6 nm, a long-term constant in vitro release of BSA and hGH was achieved without their denaturation up to 2 months. The long-term constant delivery based on this membrane for protein drugs within the therapeutic range can be highly appreciated for the patients with hormone-deficiency. Work done in collaboration with Seung Yun Yang, Pohang University of Science and Technology. This work was supported by the National Creative Research Initiative Program supported by NRF.

  8. Template-based education toolkit for mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golagani, Santosh Chandana; Esfahanian, Moosa; Akopian, David

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays mobile phones are the most widely used portable devices which evolve very fast adding new features and improving user experiences. The latest generation of hand-held devices called smartphones is equipped with superior memory, cameras and rich multimedia features, empowering people to use their mobile phones not only as a communication tool but also for entertainment purposes. With many young students showing interest in learning mobile application development one should introduce novel learning methods which may adapt to fast technology changes and introduce students to application development. Mobile phones become a common device, and engineering community incorporates phones in various solutions. Overcoming the limitations of conventional undergraduate electrical engineering (EE) education this paper explores the concept of template-based based education in mobile phone programming. The concept is based on developing small exercise templates which students can manipulate and revise for quick hands-on introduction to the application development and integration. Android platform is used as a popular open source environment for application development. The exercises relate to image processing topics typically studied by many students. The goal is to enable conventional course enhancements by incorporating in them short hands-on learning modules.

  9. Biosynthesis of amorphous mesoporous aluminophosphates using yeast cells as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifontes, Ángela B., E-mail: asifonte@ivic.gob.ve [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); González, Gema [Centro de Ingeniería de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Tovar, Leidy M.; Méndez, Franklin J. [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gomes, Maria E. [Centro de Ingeniería de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Cañizales, Edgar [Área de Análisis Químico Inorgánico, PDVSA, INTEVEP, Los Teques 1070-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Villalobos, Hector [Centro de Microbiología y Biología Celular, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Brito, Joaquin L. [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Amorphous aluminophosphates can take place using yeast as template. ► A mesoporous material was obtained. ► The specific surface area after calcinations ranged between 176 and 214 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: In this study aluminophosphates have been synthesized from aluminum isopropoxide and phosphoric acid solutions using yeast cells as template. The physicochemical characterization was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis; X-ray diffraction; Fourier transform infrared; N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms; scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy and potentiometric titration with N-butylamine for determination of: thermal stability; crystalline structure; textural properties; morphology and surface acidity, respectively. The calcined powders consisted of an intimate mixture of amorphous and crystallized AlPO particles with sizes between 23 and 30 nm. The average pore size observed is 13–16 nm and the specific surface area after calcinations (at 650 °C) ranged between 176 and 214 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}.

  10. Templated synthesis of DNA nanotubes with controlled, predetermined lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Pik Kwan; Altvater, Florian; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2010-08-04

    We report a DNA-templated approach to construct nanotubes with controlled lengths and narrow molecular weight distribution, allowing the deliberate variation of this length. This approach relies on the facile and modular assembly of a DNA guide strand of precise length that contains single-stranded gaps repeating at every 50 nm. This is followed by positioning triangular DNA "rungs" on each of these single-stranded gaps and adding identical linking strands to the two other sides of the triangles to close the DNA nanotubes. The length of the guide strand can be deliberately changed. We show the use of this approach to produce nanotubes with lengths of 1 microm or 500 nm and narrow length distributions. This is in contrast to nontemplated approaches, which lead to long and polydisperse nanotubes. We also demonstrate the encapsulation of 20 nm gold nanoparticles within these well-defined nanotubes to form finite lines of gold nanoparticles with longitudinal plasmon coupling, with a number of potential nanophotonic applications. This guiding strand approach is a useful tool in the creation of DNA nanostructures, in this case allowing the use of a simple template generated by a minimal number of DNA strands to program the length and molecular weight distribution of assemblies, as well as to organize any number of DNA-labeled nano-objects into finite structures.

  11. Templated sequence insertion polymorphisms in the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Aplan, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including 1) target-site duplication (TSD), 2) polyadenylation 10-30 nucleotides downstream of a “cryptic” polyadenylation signal, and 3) preference for insertion at a 5’-TTTT/A-3’ sequence. In contrast, class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double-strand break via insertion of a DNA “patch” that is derived from a distant genomic region. Survey of a large number of normal human volunteers demonstrates that most individuals have 25-30 TSIPs, and that these TSIPs track with specific geographic regions. Similar to other forms of human polymorphism, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases.

  12. Templated Control of Au nanospheres in Silica Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, J W; Vanamu, G; Zaidi, S H

    2007-03-15

    The formation of regularly-spaced metal nanostructures in selectively-placed insulating nanowires is an important step toward realization of a wide range of nano-scale electronic and opto-electronic devices. Here we report templated synthesis of Au nanospheres embedded in silica nanowires, with nanospheres consistently spaced with a period equal to three times their diameter. Under appropriate conditions, nanowires form exclusively on Si nanostructures because of enhanced local oxidation and reduced melting temperatures relative to templates with larger dimensions. We explain the spacing of the nanospheres with a general model based on a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, in which an Au/Si alloy dendrite remains liquid in the nanotube until a critical Si concentration is achieved locally by silicon oxide-generated nanowire growth. Additional Si oxidation then locally reduces the surface energy of the Au-rich alloy by creating a new surface with minimum area inside of the nanotube. The isolated liquid domain subsequently evolves to become an Au nanosphere, and the process is repeated.

  13. Nitrite-Templated Synthesis of Lanthanide-Containing [2]Rotaxanes for Anion Sensing**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Matthew J; Blackburn, Octavia A; Lang, Thomas; Faulkner, Stephen; Beer, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    The first anion-templated synthesis of a lanthanide-containing interlocked molecule is demonstrated by utilizing a nitrite anion to template initial pseudorotaxane formation. Subsequent stoppering of the interpenetrated assembly allows for the preparation of a lanthanide-functionalized [2]rotaxane in high yield. Following removal of the nitrite anion template, the europium [2]rotaxane host is demonstrated to recognize and sense fluoride selectively. PMID:24989322

  14. Computational Resources to Filter Gravitational Wave Data with P-approximant Templates

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Edward K.

    2002-01-01

    The prior knowledge of the gravitational waveform from compact binary systems makes matched filtering an attractive detection strategy. This detection method involves the filtering of the detector output with a set of theoretical waveforms or templates. One of the most important factors in this strategy is knowing how many templates are needed in order to reduce the loss of possible signals. In this study we calculate the number of templates and computational power needed for a one-step searc...

  15. Rancang Bangun E-commerce Template Untuk Aplikasi Content and Management Electronic Mall (Came-mall)

    OpenAIRE

    Maulana, Kamal; Sugiharto, Aris; Wibawa, Helmie Arif

    2012-01-01

    Kebanyakan e-commerce di Indonesia masih berorientasi ke pasar regional. Sehingga e-commerce tersebut masih menggunakan bahasa Indonesia. Adanya e-commerce template memudahkan pembuatan sebuah e-commerce. Namun, kebanyakan e-commerce template menggunakan bahasa Inggris sebagai default. Dibutuhkan aplikasi pembuat e-commerce yang menggunakan bahasa Indonesia dan memiliki fungsi-fungsi yang hanya dibutuhkan oleh pengguna pemula. Came-mall adalah salah satu aplikasi e-commerce template yang meng...

  16. Fiber-reinforced materials: finite elements for the treatment of the inextensibility constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auricchio, Ferdinando; Scalet, Giulia; Wriggers, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The present paper proposes a numerical framework for the analysis of problems involving fiber-reinforced anisotropic materials. Specifically, isotropic linear elastic solids, reinforced by a single family of inextensible fibers, are considered. The kinematic constraint equation of inextensibility in the fiber direction leads to the presence of an undetermined fiber stress in the constitutive equations. To avoid locking-phenomena in the numerical solution due to the presence of the constraint, mixed finite elements based on the Lagrange multiplier, perturbed Lagrangian, and penalty method are proposed. Several boundary-value problems under plane strain conditions are solved and numerical results are compared to analytical solutions, whenever the derivation is possible. The performed simulations allow to assess the performance of the proposed finite elements and to discuss several features of the developed formulations concerning the effective approximation for the displacement and fiber stress fields, mesh convergence, and sensitivity to penalty parameters.

  17. Numerical Methods in Linguistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Numerical Methods in Linguistics - An Introduction to Glottochronology. Raamesh Gowri Raghavan. General Article Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 17-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. The legibility of numerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    , there is no additional help from the surrounding numbers or from the structure of the text. It is therefore essential that one number not be mistaken for another. In spite of this, there is very little relevant research on numeral legibility. In this talk I will review existing knowledge and present the findings...

  19. Numerical analysis using Sage

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    2015-01-01

    This is the first numerical analysis text to use Sage for the implementation of algorithms and can be used in a one-semester course for undergraduates in mathematics, math education, computer science/information technology, engineering, and physical sciences. The primary aim of this text is to simplify understanding of the theories and ideas from a numerical analysis/numerical methods course via a modern programming language like Sage. Aside from the presentation of fundamental theoretical notions of numerical analysis throughout the text, each chapter concludes with several exercises that are oriented to real-world application.  Answers may be verified using Sage.  The presented code, written in core components of Sage, are backward compatible, i.e., easily applicable to other software systems such as Mathematica®.  Sage is  open source software and uses Python-like syntax. Previous Python programming experience is not a requirement for the reader, though familiarity with any programming language is a p...

  20. Status of numerical relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerical relativity; gravitational waves; black hole; neutron star. ... and stellar collapse, emphasizing the well-developed current status of such implementations that enable simulations for several astrophysical phenomena. Some of our latest results for simulation of binary neutron star mergers are briefly presented.