WorldWideScience

Sample records for template numerical constraints

  1. Numerical Control Device for Preparation Nano-Carbon Granule Coating Superhydrophobic Template and Its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, G. R.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    It is one of the ways for changing surface property by fabricating superhydrophibic coating with the help of template that is made of depositing nano-carbon particles of fuel flame on substrate such as pure copper or aluminium alloy. In the process of making template, it is difficult to keep the deposition layer uniformed. In this work, the problem was solved by manufacturing a set of numerical control equipment. It has been proved by application test that the deposition layer was uniformed by means of this facility. The contact angle is more than 150°. A new way has been developed for making superhydrohibic template.

  2. Numerical bifurcation analysis of conformal formulations of the Einstein constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, M.; Kungurtsev, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Einstein constraint equations have been the subject of study for more than 50 years. The introduction of the conformal method in the 1970s as a parametrization of initial data for the Einstein equations led to increased interest in the development of a complete solution theory for the constraints, with the theory for constant mean curvature (CMC) spatial slices and closed manifolds completely developed by 1995. The first general non-CMC existence result was establish by Holst et al. in 2008, with extensions to rough data by Holst et al. in 2009, and to vacuum spacetimes by Maxwell in 2009. The non-CMC theory remains mostly open; moreover, recent work of Maxwell on specific symmetry models sheds light on fundamental nonuniqueness problems with the conformal method as a parametrization in non-CMC settings. In parallel with these mathematical developments, computational physicists have uncovered surprising behavior in numerical solutions to the extended conformal thin sandwich formulation of the Einstein constraints. In particular, numerical evidence suggests the existence of multiple solutions with a quadratic fold, and a recent analysis of a simplified model supports this conclusion. In this article, we examine this apparent bifurcation phenomena in a methodical way, using modern techniques in bifurcation theory and in numerical homotopy methods. We first review the evidence for the presence of bifurcation in the Hamiltonian constraint in the time-symmetric case. We give a brief introduction to the mathematical framework for analyzing bifurcation phenomena, and then develop the main ideas behind the construction of numerical homotopy, or path-following, methods in the analysis of bifurcation phenomena. We then apply the continuation software package AUTO to this problem, and verify the presence of the fold with homotopy-based numerical methods. We discuss these results and their physical significance, which lead to some interesting remaining questions to

  3. Matched filtering of numerical relativity templates of spinning binary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishnav, Birjoo; Hinder, Ian; Herrmann, Frank; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made towards the solution of the binary-black-hole problem in numerical relativity. The waveforms produced by numerical relativity will play a role in gravitational wave detection as either test beds for analytic template banks or as template banks themselves. As the parameter space explored by numerical relativity expands, the importance of quantifying the effect that each parameter has on first the detection of gravitational waves and then the parameter estimation of their sources increases. In light of this, we present a study of equal-mass, spinning binary-black-hole evolutions through matched filtering techniques commonly used in data analysis. We study how the match between two numerical waveforms varies with numerical resolution, initial angular momentum of the black holes, and the inclination angle between the source and the detector. This study is limited by the fact that the spinning black-hole binaries are oriented axially and the waveforms only contain approximately two and a half orbits before merger. We find that for detection purposes, spinning black holes require the inclusion of the higher harmonics in addition to the dominant mode, a condition that becomes more important as the black-hole spins increase. In addition, we conduct a preliminary investigation of how well a template of fixed spin and inclination angle can detect target templates of arbitrary but nonprecessing spin and inclination for the axial case considered here

  4. The Design of a Templated C++ Small Vector Class for Numerical Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a templated C++ class for vectors. The vector class is templated both for vector length and vector component type; the vector length is fixed at template instantiation time. The vector implementation is such that for a vector of N components of type T, the total number of bytes required by the vector is equal to N * size of (T), where size of is the built-in C operator. The property of having a size no bigger than that required by the components themselves is key in many numerical computing applications, where one may allocate very large arrays of small, fixed-length vectors. In addition to the design trade-offs motivating our fixed-length vector design choice, we review some of the C++ template features essential to an efficient, succinct implementation. In particular, we highlight some of the standard C++ features, such as partial template specialization, that are not supported by all compilers currently. This report provides an inventory listing the relevant support currently provided by some key compilers, as well as test code one can use to verify compiler capabilities.

  5. Appointment Template Redesign in a Women's Health Clinic Using Clinical Constraints to Improve Service Quality and Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Verduzco, S

    2015-01-01

    Patient wait time is a critical element of access to care that has long been recognized as a major problem in modern outpatient health care delivery systems. It impacts patient and medical staff productivity, stress, quality and efficiency of medical care, as well as health-care cost and availability. This study was conducted in a Women's Health Clinic. The objective was to improve clinic service quality by redesigning patient appointment template using the clinical constraints. The proposed scheduling template consisted of two key elements: the redesign of appointment types and the determination of the length of time slots using defined constraints. The re-classification technique was used for the redesign of appointment visit types to capture service variation for scheduling purposes. Then, the appointment length was determined by incorporating clinic constraints or goals, such as patient wait time, physician idle time, overtime, finish time, lunch hours, when the last appointment was scheduled, and the desired number of appointment slots, to converge the optimal length of appointment slots for each visit type. The redesigned template was implemented and the results indicated a 73% reduction in average patient waiting from the reported 40 to 11 minutes. The patient no-show rate was reduced by 4% from 24% to 20%. The morning section on average finished about 11:50 am. The clinic day was finished around 4:45 pm. Provider average idle time was estimated to be about 5 minutes, which can be used for charting/documenting patients. This study provided an alternative method of redesigning appointment scheduling templates using only the clinical constraints rather than the traditional way that required an objective function. This paper also documented the employed methods step by step in a real clinic setting. The implementation results concluded a significant improvement on patient wait time and no-show rate.

  6. Plan Critiquing and Look-Ahead Constraint Reasoning for Active Templates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    .... Second, we developed a template-based natural language user interface to allow mission planners to input mission plan details in a format that is understandable to both the machine and human operator...

  7. Mechanical constraint and release generates long, ordered horizontal pores in anodic alumina templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolger, Ciara T; Petkov, Nikolay; Holmes, Justin D; Fois, Giovanni; Cross, Graham L W; Sassiat, Nicolas; Burke, Micheál; Quinn, Aidan J

    2012-01-01

    We describe the formation of long, highly ordered arrays of planar oriented anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) pores during plane parallel anodization of thin aluminum ‘finger’ microstructures fabricated on thermally oxidized silicon substrates and capped with a silicon oxide layer. The pore morphology was found to be strongly influenced by mechanical constraint imposed by the oxide layers surrounding the Al fingers. Tractions induced by the SiO 2 substrate and capping layer led to frustrated volume expansion and restricted oxide flow along the interface, with extrusion of oxide into the primary pore volume, leading to the formation of dendritic pore structures and meandering pore growth. However, partial relief of the constraint by a delaminating interfacial fracture, with its tip closely following the anodization front, led to pore growth that was highly ordered with regular, hexagonally packed arrays of straight horizontal pores up to 3 µm long. Detailed characterization of both straight and dendritic planar pores over a range of formation conditions using advanced microscopy techniques is reported, including volume reconstruction, enabling high quality 3D visualization of pore formation. (paper)

  8. Numerical difficulties associated with using equality constraints to achieve multi-level decomposition in structural optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thareja, R.; Haftka, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    There has been recent interest in multidisciplinary multilevel optimization applied to large engineering systems. The usual approach is to divide the system into a hierarchy of subsystems with ever increasing detail in the analysis focus. Equality constraints are usually placed on various design quantities at every successive level to ensure consistency between levels. In many previous applications these equality constraints were eliminated by reducing the number of design variables. In complex systems this may not be possible and these equality constraints may have to be retained in the optimization process. In this paper the impact of such a retention is examined for a simple portal frame problem. It is shown that the equality constraints introduce numerical difficulties, and that the numerical solution becomes very sensitive to optimization parameters for a wide range of optimization algorithms.

  9. Comparison of high-accuracy numerical simulations of black-hole binaries with stationary-phase post-Newtonian template waveforms for initial and advanced LIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, Michael; Brown, Duncan A; Pekowsky, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of stationary-phase approximated post-Newtonian waveforms currently used by ground-based gravitational-wave detectors to search for the coalescence of binary black holes by comparing them to an accurate waveform obtained from numerical simulation of an equal-mass non-spinning binary black hole inspiral, merger and ringdown. We perform this study for the initial- and advanced-LIGO detectors. We find that overlaps between the templates and signal can be improved by integrating the match filter to higher frequencies than used currently. We propose simple analytic frequency cutoffs for both initial and advanced LIGO, which achieve nearly optimal matches, and can easily be extended to unequal-mass, spinning systems. We also find that templates that include terms in the phase evolution up to 3.5 post-Newtonian (pN) order are nearly always better, and rarely significantly worse, than 2.0 pN templates currently in use. For initial LIGO we recommend a strategy using templates that include a recently introduced pseudo-4.0 pN term in the low-mass (M ≤ 35 M o-dot ) region, and 3.5 pN templates allowing unphysical values of the symmetric reduced mass η above this. This strategy always achieves overlaps within 0.3% of the optimum, for the data used here. For advanced LIGO we recommend a strategy using 3.5 pN templates up to M = 12 M o-dot , 2.0 pN templates up to M = 21 M o-dot , pseudo-4.0 pN templates up to 65 M o-dot , and 3.5 pN templates with unphysical η for higher masses. This strategy always achieves overlaps within 0.7% of the optimum for advanced LIGO.

  10. Ptychographic overlap constraint errors and the limits of their numerical recovery using conjugate gradient descent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ashish; McNulty, Ian; Shpyrko, Oleg G

    2014-01-27

    Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging is a form of scanning microscopy that does not require optics to image a sample. A series of scanned coherent diffraction patterns recorded from multiple overlapping illuminated regions on the sample are inverted numerically to retrieve its image. The technique recovers the phase lost by detecting the diffraction patterns by using experimentally known constraints, in this case the measured diffraction intensities and the assumed scan positions on the sample. The spatial resolution of the recovered image of the sample is limited by the angular extent over which the diffraction patterns are recorded and how well these constraints are known. Here, we explore how reconstruction quality degrades with uncertainties in the scan positions. We show experimentally that large errors in the assumed scan positions on the sample can be numerically determined and corrected using conjugate gradient descent methods. We also explore in simulations the limits, based on the signal to noise of the diffraction patterns and amount of overlap between adjacent scan positions, of just how large these errors can be and still be rendered tractable by this method.

  11. A Broadly Adaptive Array of Dose-Constraint Templates for Planning of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Advanced T-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, R.M.-C.; Leung, S.-F.; Kam, M.K.-M.; Cheung, K.-Y.; Kwan, W.-H.; Yu, K.-H.; Chiu, K.-W.; Cheung, M.L.-M.; Chan, A.T.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate adaptive dose-constraint templates in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning for advanced T-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Method and Materials: Dose-volume histograms of clinically approved plans for 20 patients with advanced T-stage NPC were analyzed, and the pattern of distribution in relation to the degree of overlap between targets and organs at risk (OARs) was explored. An adaptive dose constraint template (ADCT) was developed based on the degree of overlap. Another set of 10 patients with advanced T-stage NPC was selected for validation. Results of the manual arm optimization protocol and the ADCT optimization protocol were compared with respect to dose optimization time, conformity indices, multiple-dose end points, tumor control probability, and normal tissue complication probability. Results: For the ADCT protocol, average time required to achieve an acceptable plan was 9 minutes, with one optimization compared with 94 minutes with more than two optimizations of the manual arm protocol. Target coverage was similar between the manual arm and ADCT plans. A more desirable dose distribution in the region of overlap between planning target volume and OARs was achieved in the ADCT plan. Dose end points of OARs were similar between the manual arm and ADCT plans. Conclusions: With the developed ADCT, IMRT treatment planning becomes more efficient and less dependent on the planner's experience on dose optimization. The developed ADCT is applicable to a wide range of advanced T-stage NPC treatment and has the potential to be applied in a broader context to IMRT planning for other cancer sites

  12. Torque balance, Taylor's constraint and torsional oscillations in a numerical model of the geodynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumberry, Mathieu; Bloxham, Jeremy

    2003-11-01

    Theoretical considerations and observations suggest that, to a first approximation, the Earth's dynamo is in a quasi-Taylor state, where the axial Lorentz torque on cylindrical surfaces co-axial with the rotation axis vanishes, except for the part involved in torsional oscillations. The latter are rigid azimuthal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces which oscillate with typical periods of decades. We present a solution of a numerical model of the geodynamo in which rigid accelerations of cylinder surfaces are observed. The underlying dynamic state in the model is not a Taylor state because the Reynolds stresses and viscous torque remain large and provide an effective way to balance a large Lorentz torque. This is a consequence of the limited parameter regime which can be attained numerically. Nevertheless, departures in the torque equilibrium are primarily counterbalanced by rigid accelerations of cylindrical surfaces, which, in turn, excite rigid azimuthal oscillations of the surfaces. We show that the azimuthal motion is indeed quasi-rigid, though the torsional oscillations that are produced in the model probably differ from those in the Earth's core because of the large influence of the Reynolds stresses on their dynamics. We also show that the continual excitation of rigid cylindrical accelerations is produced by the advection of the non-axisymmetric structure of the fields by a mean differential rotation of the cylindrical surfaces which produces disconnections and reconnections and continual fluctuations in the Lorentz torque and Reynolds stresses. We propose that the torque balance in Earth's core may evolve in a similar chaotic fashion, except that the influence of the Reynolds stresses is probably weaker. If this is the case, the Lorentz torque on a cylindrical surface is continually fluctuating, even though its time-averaged value vanishes and satisfies Taylor's constraint. Rigid accelerations of cylindrical surfaces are continually excited by the

  13. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  14. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han; Yang, Yongliang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  15. Numerical Solution of Mixed Problems of the Theory of Elasticity with One-Sided Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Stankevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application features of the finite element technologies to solve the problems of elasticity with one-sided constraints. On the one hand, the area of this study is determined by the fact that many critical parts and assemblies of mechanical and power engineering constructions have a significant contact within some given surface. To assess the strength and the life of these parts and assemblies, reliable stress-strain state data are demandable. Data on the stress-strain state can be obtained using the contemporary mathematical modeling means, e.g., finite element technology.To solve the problems of the theory of elasticity with one-sided constraints, a method of finite elements in a traditional classical form can be used, but it is necessary to consider some of its shortcomings. The most significant one is an approximation of the tensile stress and strain, as well as a considerably lower order of convergence of the approximation for stresses and strains as compared to displacements. Improving the accuracy through increasing a density of the finite element models and/or the transition to more complex approximations is not always optimal, because increasing a dimension of the discrete problem leads to a significant computational cost and demand for expensive computing resources.One of the alternatives in numerical analysis of contact problems of the elasticity theory is to use the mixed variational formulations of the finite element method in which stresses and/or strains appear in the resolving equations along with displacements as equal unknown. A major positive factor when using the mixed formulations of the finite element method is reduction of the approximation error of stress and strain, which leads to a more accurate assessment of the stress-strain state in comparison with the classical approach of the finite element method in the form of the method of displacements.Besides, mixed schemes of the finite element method

  16. Constraints on martian lobate debris apron evolution and rheology from numerical modeling of ice flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Reid A.; Nimmo, Francis; Miyamoto, Hideaki

    2011-07-01

    Radar observations in the Deuteronilus Mensae region by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have constrained the thickness and dust concentration found within mid-latitude ice deposits, providing an opportunity to more accurately estimate the rheology of ice responsible for the formation of lobate debris aprons based on their apparent age of ˜100 Myr. We developed a numerical model simulating ice flow under martian conditions using results from ice deformation experiments, theory of ice grain growth based on terrestrial ice cores, and observational constraints from radar profiles and laser altimetry. By varying the ice grain size, the ice temperature, the subsurface slope, and the initial ice volume we determine the combination of parameters that best reproduce the observed LDA lengths and thicknesses over a period of time comparable to the apparent ages of LDA surfaces (90-300 Myr). We find that an ice temperature of 205 K, an ice grain size of 5 mm, and a flat subsurface slope give reasonable ages for many LDAs in the northern mid-latitudes of Mars. Assuming that the ice grain size is limited by the grain boundary pinning effect of incorporated dust, these results limit the dust volume concentration to less than 4%. However, assuming all LDAs were emplaced by a single event, we find that there is no single combination of grain size, temperature, and subsurface slope which can give realistic ages for all LDAs, suggesting that some or all of these variables are spatially heterogeneous. Based on our model we conclude that the majority of northern mid-latitude LDAs are composed of clean (⩽4 vol%), coarse (⩾1 mm) grained ice, but regional differences in either the amount of dust mixed in with the ice, or in the presence of a basal slope below the LDA ice must be invoked. Alternatively, the ice temperature and/or timing of ice deposition may vary significantly between different mid-latitude regions. Either eventuality can be tested with future observations.

  17. Constraints on Lobate Debris Apron Evolution and Rheology from Numerical Modeling of Ice Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, R.; Nimmo, F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent radar observations of mid-latitude lobate debris aprons (LDAs) have confirmed the presence of ice within these deposits. Radar observations in Deuteronilus Mensae have constrained the concentration of dust found within the ice deposits to <30% by volume based on the strength of the returned signal. In addition to constraining the dust fraction, these radar observations can measure the ice thickness - providing an opportunity to more accurately estimate the flow behavior of ice responsible for the formation of LDAs. In order to further constrain the age and rheology of LDA ice, we developed a numerical model simulating ice flow under Martian conditions using results from ice deformation experiments, theory of ice grain growth based on terrestrial ice cores, and observational constraints from radar profiles and laser altimetry. This finite difference model calculates the LDA profile shape as it flows over time assuming no basal slip. In our model, the ice rheology is determined by the concentration of dust which influences the ice grain size by pinning the ice grain boundaries and halting ice grain growth. By varying the dust fraction (and therefore the ice grain size), the ice temperature, the subsurface slope, and the initial ice volume we are able to determine the combination of parameters that best reproduce the observed LDA lengths and thicknesses over a period of time comparable to crater age dates of LDA surfaces (90 - 300 My, see figure). Based on simulations using different combinations of ice temperature, ice grain size, and basal slope, we find that an ice temperature of 205 K, a dust volume fraction of 0.5% (resulting in an ice grain size of 5 mm), and a flat subsurface slope give reasonable model LDA ages for many LDAs in the northern mid-latitudes of Mars. However, we find that there is no single combination of dust fraction, temperature, and subsurface slope which can give realistic ages for all LDAs suggesting that all or some of these

  18. A numerical approach to weak Pareto solutions to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinka, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 7 (2006), s. 14-17 ISSN 1335-3632. [ISCAM 2006. International Conference in Applied Mathematics for undergraduate and graduate students. Bratislava, 07.04.2006-08.04.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : equilibrium problems with complementarity constraints * multiobjective optimization * variational analysis Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  19. A numerical study of crack tip constraint in ductile single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapnil D.; Narasimhan, R.; Mishra, R. K.

    In this work, the effect of crack tip constraint on near-tip stress and deformation fields in a ductile FCC single crystal is studied under mode I, plane strain conditions. To this end, modified boundary layer simulations within crystal plasticity framework are performed, neglecting elastic anisotropy. The first and second terms of the isotropic elastic crack tip field, which are governed by the stress intensity factor K and T-stress, are prescribed as remote boundary conditions and solutions pertaining to different levels of T-stress are generated. It is found that the near-tip deformation field, especially, the development of kink or slip shear bands, is sensitive to the constraint level. The stress distribution and the size and shape of the plastic zone near the crack tip are also strongly influenced by the level of T-stress, with progressive loss of crack tip constraint occurring as T-stress becomes more negative. A family of near-tip fields is obtained which are characterized by two terms (such as K and T or J and a constraint parameter Q) as in isotropic plastic solids.

  20. Construction of optimal 3-node plate bending triangles by templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippa, C. A.; Militello, C.

    A finite element template is a parametrized algebraic form that reduces to specific finite elements by setting numerical values to the free parameters. The present study concerns Kirchhoff Plate-Bending Triangles (KPT) with 3 nodes and 9 degrees of freedom. A 37-parameter template is constructed using the Assumed Natural Deviatoric Strain (ANDES). Specialization of this template includes well known elements such as DKT and HCT. The question addressed here is: can these parameters be selected to produce high performance elements? The study is carried out by staged application of constraints on the free parameters. The first stage produces element families satisfying invariance and aspect ratio insensitivity conditions. Application of energy balance constraints produces specific elements. The performance of such elements in benchmark tests is presently under study.

  1. Constraints on the rheology of the partially molten mantle from numerical models of laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, J. F.; Alisic Jewell, L.; Rhebergen, S.; Katz, R. F.; Wells, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    One of the fundamental components in any dynamical model of melt transport is the rheology of partially molten rock. This rheology is poorly understood, and one way in which a better understanding can be obtained is by comparing the results of laboratory deformation experiments to numerical models. Here we present a comparison between numerical models and the laboratory setup of Qi et al. 2013 (EPSL), where a cylinder of partially molten rock containing rigid spherical inclusions was placed under torsion. We have replicated this setup in a finite element model which solves the partial differential equations describing the mechanical process of compaction. These computationally-demanding 3D simulations are only possible due to the recent development of a new preconditioning method for the equations of magma dynamics. The experiments show a distinct pattern of melt-rich and melt-depleted regions around the inclusions. In our numerical models, the pattern of melt varies with key rheological parameters, such as the ratio of bulk to shear viscosity, and the porosity- and strain-rate-dependence of the shear viscosity. These observed melt patterns therefore have the potential to constrain rheological properties. While there are many similarities between the experiments and the numerical models, there are also important differences, which highlight the need for better models of the physics of two-phase mantle/magma dynamics. In particular, the laboratory experiments display more pervasive melt-rich bands than is seen in our numerics.

  2. Optimality conditions for the numerical solution of optimization problems with PDE constraints :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilo Valentin, Miguel Alejandro; Ridzal, Denis

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical framework for the numerical solution of partial di erential equation (PDE) constrained optimization problems is presented in this report. This theoretical framework embodies the fundamental infrastructure required to e ciently implement and solve this class of problems. Detail derivations of the optimality conditions required to accurately solve several parameter identi cation and optimal control problems are also provided in this report. This will allow the reader to further understand how the theoretical abstraction presented in this report translates to the application.

  3. Radiation Hydrodynamical Turbulence in Protoplanetary Disks: Numerical Models and Observational Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Mario; Nelson, Richard P.; Turner, Neal J.; Bertrang, Gesa H.-M.; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Lyra, Wladimir; Teague, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Planets are born in protostellar disks, which are now observed with enough resolution to address questions about internal gas flows. Magnetic forces are possibly drivers of the flows, but ionization state estimates suggest that much of the gas mass decouples from magnetic fields. Thus, hydrodynamical instabilities could play a major role. We investigate disk dynamics under conditions typical for a T Tauri system, using global 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with embedded particles and a resolution of 70 cells per scale height. Stellar irradiation heating is included with realistic dust opacities. The disk starts in joint radiative balance and hydrostatic equilibrium. The vertical shear instability (VSI) develops into turbulence that persists up to at least 1600 inner orbits (143 outer orbits). Turbulent speeds are a few percent of the local sound speed at the midplane, increasing to 20%, or 100 m s-1, in the corona. These are consistent with recent upper limits on turbulent speeds from optically thin and thick molecular line observations of TW Hya and HD 163296. The predominantly vertical motions induced by the VSI efficiently lift particles upward. Grains 0.1 and 1 mm in size achieve scale heights greater than expected in isotropic turbulence. We conclude that while kinematic constraints from molecular line emission do not directly discriminate between magnetic and nonmagnetic disk models, the small dust scale heights measured in HL Tau and HD 163296 favor turbulent magnetic models, which reach lower ratios of the vertical kinetic energy density to the accretion stress.

  4. Experimental validation of a numerical 3-D finite model applied to wind turbines design under vibration constraints: TREVISE platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Takwa; Jelassi, Sana; Darcherif, Abdel Moumen; Berriri, Hanen; Mimouni, Med Faouzi

    2018-04-01

    With the advancement of wind turbines towards complex structures, the requirement of trusty structural models has become more apparent. Hence, the vibration characteristics of the wind turbine components, like the blades and the tower, have to be extracted under vibration constraints. Although extracting the modal properties of blades is a simple task, calculating precise modal data for the whole wind turbine coupled to its tower/foundation is still a perplexing task. In this framework, this paper focuses on the investigation of the structural modeling approach of modern commercial micro-turbines. Thus, the structural model a complex designed wind turbine, which is Rutland 504, is established based on both experimental and numerical methods. A three-dimensional (3-D) numerical model of the structure was set up based on the finite volume method (FVM) using the academic finite element analysis software ANSYS. To validate the created model, experimental vibration tests were carried out using the vibration test system of TREVISE platform at ECAM-EPMI. The tests were based on the experimental modal analysis (EMA) technique, which is one of the most efficient techniques for identifying structures parameters. Indeed, the poles and residues of the frequency response functions (FRF), between input and output spectra, were calculated to extract the mode shapes and the natural frequencies of the structure. Based on the obtained modal parameters, the numerical designed model was up-dated.

  5. Are computer numerical control (CNC)-manufactured patient-specific metal templates available for posterior thoracic pedicle screw insertion? Feasibility and accuracy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxue; Tang, Lei; Ye, Qiang; Huang, Wenhua; Li, Jianyi

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and safe posterior thoracic pedicle insertion (PTPI) remains a challenge. Patient-specific drill templates (PDTs) created by rapid prototyping (RP) can assist in posterior thoracic pedicle insertion, but pose biocompatibility risks. The aims of this study were to develop alternative PDTs with computer numerical control (CNC) and assess their feasibility and accuracy in assisting PTPI. Preoperative CT images of 31 cadaveric thoracic vertebras were obtained and then the optimal pedicle screw trajectories were planned. The PDTs with optimal screw trajectories were randomly assigned to be designed and manufactured by CNC or RP in each vertebra. With the guide of the CNC- or RP-manufactured PDTs, the appropriate screws were inserted into the pedicles. Postoperative CT scans were performed to analyze any deviations at entry point and midpoint of the pedicles. The CNC group was found to be significant manufacture-time-shortening, and cost-decreasing, when compared with the RP group (P  0.05). The screw positions were grade 0 in 90.3% and grade 1 in 9.7% of the cases in the CNC group and grade 0 in 93.5% and grade 1 in 6.5% of the cases in the RP group (P = 0.641). CNC-manufactured PDTs are viable for assisting in PTPI with good feasibility and accuracy.

  6. Report Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    To ensure consistent reporting of life cycle assessment (LCA), we provide a report template. The report includes elements of an LCA study as recommended but the ILCD Handbook. Illustrative case study reported according to this template is presented in Chap. 39 ....

  7. Welding template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Venue, R.J. of.

    1976-01-01

    A welding template is described which is used to weld strip material into a cellular grid structure for the accommodation of fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. On a base plate the template carries a multitude of cylindrical pins whose upper half is narrower than the bottom half and only one of which is attached to the base plate. The others are arrested in a hexagonal array by oblong webs clamped together by chuck jaws which can be secured by means of screws. The parts are ground very accurately. The template according to the invention is very easy to make. (UWI) [de

  8. Synthesis of 5/7-, 5/8- and 5/9-bicyclic lactam templates as constraints for external beta-turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Heather M E; Hitchcock, Peter B; Young, Douglas W

    2005-06-21

    The 5/7-, 5/8- and 5/9-bicyclic lactams 3, 17, 5 and 6 have been synthesised as single diastereoisomers by a route involving ring closing olefin metathesis. The X-ray crystal structure of the amino acid hydrochloride has been carried out and compared to that of the saturated external beta-turn constraint 18.

  9. Topics in numerical relativity : the periodic standing-wave approximation, the stability of constraints in free evolution, and the spin of dynamical black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robert

    This thesis concerns numerical relativity, the attempt to study Einstein's theory of gravitation using numerical discretization. The goal of the field, the study of gravitational dynamics in cases where symmetry reduction or perturbation theory are not possible, finally seems to be coming to fruition, at least for the archetypal problem of the inspiral and coalescence of binary black hole systems. This thesis presents three episodes that each bear some relationship to this story.Chapters 2 and 3 present previously published work in collaboration with Richard Price and others on the so-called periodic standing-wave (PSW) approximation for binary inspiral. The approximation is to balance outgoing radiation with incoming radiation, stabilizing the orbit and making the problem stationary in a rotating frame. Chapters 2 and 3 apply the method to the problem of co-orbiting charges coupled to a nonlinear scalar field in three dimensions.Chapters 4, 5, and 6 concern the stability of constraint fields in conventional numerical relativity simulations. Chapter 4 (also previously published work, in collaboration with the Caltech numerical relativity group, along with Michael Holst and Lawrence Kidder) presents a method for immediately correcting violations of constraints after they have arisen. Chapters 5 and 6 present methods to ``damp' away constraint violations dynamically in two specific contexts. Chapter 5 (previously published work in collaboration with the Caltech numerical relativity group and Lawrence Kidder) presents a first-order linearly degenerate symmetric hyperbolic representation of Einstein's equations in generalized harmonic gauge. A representation is presented that stabilizes all constraints, including those that appear when the system is written in first-order form. Chapter 6 presents a generalization of the Kidder-Scheel-Teukolsky evolution systems that provides much-improved stability. This is investigated with numerical simulations of a single black hole

  10. Experimental and numerical analysis of in- and out- of plane constraint effects on fracture parameters: Aluminium alloy 2024

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Hutař, Pavel; García, T.; Canteli, A.

    7 2013, č. 7 (2013), s. 53-64 ISSN 1802-680X Grant - others:Interní podpora AV ČR(CZ) M100411204 Keywords : LELM * stress intensity tensor * constraint * aluminium alloy * plane strain * plane stress Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  11. Numerical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boumaza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.

  12. Perl Template Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Chamberlain, Darren; Cross, David; Torkington, Nathan; Diaz, tatiana Apandi

    2004-01-01

    Among the many different approaches to "templating" with Perl--such as Embperl, Mason, HTML::Template, and hundreds of other lesser known systems--the Template Toolkit is widely recognized as one of the most versatile. Like other templating systems, the Template Toolkit allows programmers to embed Perl code and custom macros into HTML documents in order to create customized documents on the fly. But unlike the others, the Template Toolkit is as facile at producing HTML as it is at producing XML, PDF, or any other output format. And because it has its own simple templating language, templates

  13. Numerical investigation of 3-D constraint effects on brittle fracture in SE(B) and C(T) specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, M.; Dodds, R.H. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This investigation employs 3-D nonlinear finite element analyses to conduct an extensive parametric evaluation of crack front stress triaxiality for deep notch SE(B) and C(T) specimens and shallow notch SE(B) specimens, with and without side grooves. Crack front conditions are characterized in terms of J-Q trajectories and the constraint scaling model for cleavage fracture toughness proposed previously by Dodds and Anderson. The 3-D computational results imply that a significantly less strict size/deformation limit, relative to the limits indicated by previous plane-strain computations, is needed to maintain small-scale yielding conditions at fracture by a stress- controlled, cleavage mechanism in deep notch SE(B) and C(T) specimens. Additional new results made available from the 3-D analyses also include revised η-plastic factors for use in experimental studies to convert measured work quantities to thickness average and maximum (local) J-values over the crack front

  14. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  15. Bad-good constraints on a polarity correspondence account for the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) and markedness association of response codes (MARC) effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leth-Steensen, Craig; Citta, Richie

    2016-01-01

    Performance in numerical classification tasks involving either parity or magnitude judgements is quicker when small numbers are mapped onto a left-sided response and large numbers onto a right-sided response than for the opposite mapping (i.e., the spatial-numerical association of response codes or SNARC effect). Recent research by Gevers et al. [Gevers, W., Santens, S., Dhooge, E., Chen, Q., Van den Bossche, L., Fias, W., & Verguts, T. (2010). Verbal-spatial and visuospatial coding of number-space interactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139, 180-190] suggests that this effect also arises for vocal "left" and "right" responding, indicating that verbal-spatial coding has a role to play in determining it. Another presumably verbal-based, spatial-numerical mapping phenomenon is the linguistic markedness association of response codes (MARC) effect whereby responding in parity tasks is quicker when odd numbers are mapped onto left-sided responses and even numbers onto right-sided responses. A recent account of both the SNARC and MARC effects is based on the polarity correspondence principle [Proctor, R. W., & Cho, Y. S. (2006). Polarity correspondence: A general principle for performance of speeded binary classification tasks. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 416-442]. This account assumes that stimulus and response alternatives are coded along any number of dimensions in terms of - and + polarities with quicker responding when the polarity codes for the stimulus and the response correspond. In the present study, even-odd parity judgements were made using either "left" and "right" or "bad" and "good" vocal responses. Results indicated that a SNARC effect was indeed present for the former type of vocal responding, providing further evidence for the sufficiency of the verbal-spatial coding account for this effect. However, the decided lack of an analogous SNARC-like effect in the results for the latter type of vocal responding provides an important

  16. Distance Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodirsky, Manuel; Dalmau, Victor; Martin, Barnaby; Pinsker, Michael

    We study the complexity of constraint satisfaction problems for templates Γ that are first-order definable in ({ Z}; {suc}), the integers with the successor relation. Assuming a widely believed conjecture from finite domain constraint satisfaction (we require the tractability conjecture by Bulatov, Jeavons and Krokhin in the special case of transitive finite templates), we provide a full classification for the case that Γ is locally finite (i.e., the Gaifman graph of Γ has finite degree). We show that one of the following is true: The structure Γ is homomorphically equivalent to a structure with a certain majority polymorphism (which we call modular median) and CSP(Γ) can be solved in polynomial time, or Γ is homomorphically equivalent to a finite transitive structure, or CSP(Γ) is NP-complete.

  17. Programmable imprint lithography template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Gregory F [Oakland, CA; Talin, Albert A [Livermore, CA

    2006-10-31

    A template for imprint lithography (IL) that reduces significantly template production costs by allowing the same template to be re-used for several technology generations. The template is composed of an array of spaced-apart moveable and individually addressable rods or plungers. Thus, the template can be configured to provide a desired pattern by programming the array of plungers such that certain of the plungers are in an "up" or actuated configuration. This arrangement of "up" and "down" plungers forms a pattern composed of protruding and recessed features which can then be impressed onto a polymer film coated substrate by applying a pressure to the template impressing the programmed configuration into the polymer film. The pattern impressed into the polymer film will be reproduced on the substrate by subsequent processing.

  18. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  19. Templating mesoporous zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Kustova, Marina

    2008-01-01

    The application of templating methods to produce zeolite materials with hierarchical bi- or trimodal pore size distributions is reviewed with emphasis on mesoporous materials. Hierarchical zeolite materials are categorized into three distinctly different types of materials: hierarchical zeolite...... crystals, nanosized zeolite crystals, and supported zeolite crystals. For the pure zeolite materials in the first two categories, the additional meso- or macroporosity can be classified as being either intracrystalline or intercrystalline, whereas for supported zeolite materials, the additional porosity...... originates almost exclusively from the support material. The methods for introducing mesopores into zeolite materials are discussed and categorized. In general, mesopores can be templated in zeolite materials by use of solid templating, supramolecular templating, or indirect templating...

  20. Elliptical tiling method to generate a 2-dimensional set of templates for gravitational wave search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Porter, Edward K.

    2003-01-01

    Searching for a signal depending on unknown parameters in a noisy background with matched filtering techniques always requires an analysis of the data with several templates in parallel in order to ensure a proper match between the filter and the real waveform. The key feature of such an implementation is the design of the filter bank which must be small to limit the computational cost while keeping the detection efficiency as high as possible. This paper presents a geometrical method that allows one to cover the corresponding physical parameter space by a set of ellipses, each of them being associated with a given template. After the description of the main characteristics of the algorithm, the method is applied in the field of gravitational wave (GW) data analysis, for the search of damped sine signals. Such waveforms are expected to be produced during the deexcitation phase of black holes - the so-called 'ringdown' signals - and are also encountered in some numerically computed supernova signals. First, the number of templates N computed by the method is similar to its analytical estimation, despite the overlaps between neighbor templates and the border effects. Moreover, N is small enough to test for the first time the performances of the set of templates for different choices of the minimal match MM, the parameter used to define the maximal allowed loss of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to the mismatch between real signals and templates. The main result of this analysis is that the fraction of SNR recovered is on average much higher than MM, which dramatically decreases the mean percentage of false dismissals. Indeed, it goes well below its estimated value of 1-MM 3 used as input of the algorithm. Thus, as this feature should be common to any tiling algorithm, it seems possible to reduce the constraint on the value of MM - and indeed the number of templates and the computing power - without losing as many events as expected on average. This should be of great

  1. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...... results show that constraint differentiation substantially reduces search and considerably improves the performance of OFMC, enabling its application to a wider class of problems....

  2. images_template

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website template go here. It will not change their names or locations, but will hopefully help to organize them. Oh, but for a directory structure...

  3. Biometric Template Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nagar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.

  4. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  5. Joomla! 3 template essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Frankowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Using this hands-on, step-by step tutorial filled with practical examples, the readers will be able to create beautiful templates and themes for your websites that will make them stand out from others.This book is written for all of you who wish to create your own unique templates for Joomla! 3.x. This book can be used by Joomla! administrators or visual designers (with no programming experience) or those of you who are used to working with common web developer tools like HTML/CSS editors for coding purposes. You would need basic knowledge of Joomla! and some knowledge of CSS and HTML.

  6. Animated pose templates for modeling and detecting human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Benjamin Z; Nie, Bruce X; Liu, Zicheng; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents animated pose templates (APTs) for detecting short-term, long-term, and contextual actions from cluttered scenes in videos. Each pose template consists of two components: 1) a shape template with deformable parts represented in an And-node whose appearances are represented by the Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features, and 2) a motion template specifying the motion of the parts by the Histogram of Optical-Flows (HOF) features. A shape template may have more than one motion template represented by an Or-node. Therefore, each action is defined as a mixture (Or-node) of pose templates in an And-Or tree structure. While this pose template is suitable for detecting short-term action snippets in two to five frames, we extend it in two ways: 1) For long-term actions, we animate the pose templates by adding temporal constraints in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and 2) for contextual actions, we treat contextual objects as additional parts of the pose templates and add constraints that encode spatial correlations between parts. To train the model, we manually annotate part locations on several keyframes of each video and cluster them into pose templates using EM. This leaves the unknown parameters for our learning algorithm in two groups: 1) latent variables for the unannotated frames including pose-IDs and part locations, 2) model parameters shared by all training samples such as weights for HOG and HOF features, canonical part locations of each pose, coefficients penalizing pose-transition and part-deformation. To learn these parameters, we introduce a semi-supervised structural SVM algorithm that iterates between two steps: 1) learning (updating) model parameters using labeled data by solving a structural SVM optimization, and 2) imputing missing variables (i.e., detecting actions on unlabeled frames) with parameters learned from the previous step and progressively accepting high-score frames as newly labeled examples. This algorithm belongs to a

  7. gel template method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TiO2 nanotubes have been synthesized by sol–gel template method using alumina membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, UV absorption spectrum and X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the structure, morphology and optical ...

  8. Biometric template revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Craig M.

    2004-08-01

    Biometric are a powerful technology for identifying humans both locally and at a distance. In order to perform identification or verification biometric systems capture an image of some biometric of a user or subject. The image is then converted mathematical to representation of the person call a template. Since we know that every human in the world is different each human will have different biometric images (different fingerprints, or faces, etc.). This is what makes biometrics useful for identification. However unlike a credit card number or a password to can be given to a person and later revoked if it is compromised and biometric is with the person for life. The problem then is to develop biometric templates witch can be easily revoked and reissued which are also unique to the user and can be easily used for identification and verification. In this paper we develop and present a method to generate a set of templates which are fully unique to the individual and also revocable. By using bases set compression algorithms in an n-dimensional orthogonal space we can represent a give biometric image in an infinite number of equally valued and unique ways. The verification and biometric matching system would be presented with a given template and revocation code. The code will then representing where in the sequence of n-dimensional vectors to start the recognition.

  9. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  10. Generating XML schemas for DICOM structured reporting templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luyin; Lee, Kwok Pun; Hu, Jingkun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a methodology to transform programmatically structured reporting (SR) templates defined by the Digital Imaging and Communications for Medicine (DICOM) standard into an XML schema representation. Such schemas can be used in the creation and validation of XML-encoded SR documents that use templates. Templates are a means to put additional constraints on an SR document to promote common formats for specific reporting applications or domains. As the use of templates becomes more widespread in the production of SR documents, it is important to ensure validity of such documents. The work described in this paper is an extension of the authors' previous work on XML schema representation for DICOM SR. Therefore, this paper inherits and partially modifies the structure defined in the earlier work.

  11. Manufacturing ontology through templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diciuc Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry contains a high volume of knowhow and of high value, much of it being held by key persons in the company. The passing of this know-how is the basis of manufacturing ontology. Among other methods like advanced filtering and algorithm based decision making, one way of handling the manufacturing ontology is via templates. The current paper tackles this approach and highlights the advantages concluding with some recommendations.

  12. Constraints on the formation and properties of a Martian lobate debris apron: Insights from high-resolution topography, SHARAD radar data, and a numerical ice flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Reid; Holt, John

    2016-03-01

    Lobate debris aprons (LDAs) are midlatitude deposits of debris-covered ice formed during one or more periods of glaciation during the Amazonian period. However, little is known about the climate conditions that led to LDA formation. We explore a hypothesis in which a single, extended period of precipitation of ice on the steep slopes of Euripus Mons (45°S, 105°E—east of the Hellas Basin) produced a flowing ice deposit which was protected from subsequent ablation to produce the LDA found at this location. We test this hypothesis with a numerical ice flow model using an ice rheology based on low-temperature ice deformation experiments. The model simulates ice accumulation and flow for the northern and southern lobes of the Euripus Mons LDA using basal topography constrained by data from the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) and a range of ice viscosities (determined by ice temperature and ice grain size). Simulations for the northern lobe of the Euripus LDA produce good fits to the surface topography. Assuming an LDA age of ˜60 Myr and an expected temperature range of 200 to 204 K (for various obliquities) gives an ice grain size of ≈2 mm. Simulations of the southern section produce poor fits to surface topography and result in much faster flow timescales unless multiple ice deposition events or higher ice viscosities are considered.

  13. Controls on Mississippi Valley-Type Zn-Pb mineralization in Behabad district, Central Iran: Constraints from spatial and numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Mohammad; Maghsoudi, Abbas

    2018-04-01

    The Behabad district, located in the central Iranian microcontinent, contains numerous epigenetic stratabound carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb ore bodies. The mineralizations formed as fault, fracture and karst fillings in the Permian-Triassic formations, especially in Middle Triassic dolostones, and comprise mainly non-sulfides zinc ores. These are all interpreted as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) base metal deposits. From an economic geological point of view, it is imperative to recognize the processes that have plausibly controlled the emplacement of MVT Zn-Pb mineralization in the Behabad district. To address the foregoing issue, analyses of the spatial distribution of mineral deposits comprising fry and fractal techniques and analysis of the spatial association of mineral deposits with geological features using distance distribution analysis were applied to assess the regional-scale processes that could have operated in the distribution of MVT Zn-Pb deposits in the district. The obtained results based on these analytical techniques show the main trends of the occurrences are NW-SE and NE-SW, which are parallel or subparallel to the major northwest and northeast trending faults, supporting the idea that these particular faults could have acted as the main conduits for transport of mineral-bearing fluids. The results of these analyses also suggest that Permian-Triassic brittle carbonate sedimentary rocks have served as the lithological controls on MVT mineralization in the Behabad district as they are spatially and temporally associated with mineralization.

  14. Constraints on the Lithospheric Strength at Volcanic Rifted Margins from the Geometry of Seaward Dipping Reflectors Using Analytic and Numerical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X.; Buck, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) are found at many rifted margins. Drilling indicates SDRs are interbedded layers of basalts and sediments. Multi-channel seismic reflection data show SDRs with various width (2 100 km), thickness (1 15 km) and dip angles (0 30). Recent studies use analytic thin plate models (AtPM) to describe plate deflections under volcanic loads. They reproduce a wide range of SDRs structures without detachment faulting. These models assume that the solidified dikes provide downward loads at the rifting center. Meanwhile, erupted lava flows and sediments fill in the flexural depression and further load the lithosphere. Because the strength of the lithosphere controls the amount and wavelength of bending, the geometries of SDRs provide a window into the strength of the lithosphere during continental rifting. We attempt to provide a quantitative mapping between the SDR geometry and the lithospheric strength and thickness during rifting. To do this, we first derive analytic solutions to two observables that are functions of effective elastic thickness (Te). One observable (Xf) is the horizontal distance for SDRs to evolve from flat layers to the maximum bent layers. Another observable is the ratio between the thickness and the tangent of the maximum slope of SDRs at Xf. We then extend the AtPM to numerical thin plate models (NtPM) with spatially restricted lava flows. AtPM and NtPM show a stable and small relative difference in terms of the two observables with different values of Te. This provides a mapping of Te between NtPM and AtPM models. We also employ a fully two-dimensional thermal-mechanical treatment with elasto-visco-plastic rheology to simulate SDRs formation. These models show that brittle yielding due to bending can reduce the Te of the lithosphere by as much as 50% of the actual brittle lithospheric thickness. Quantification of effects of plastic deformation on bending allow us to use Te to link SDRs geometries to brittle lithospheric

  15. A Deformable Template Model, with Special Reference to Elliptical Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Pedersen, Jan; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2002-01-01

    This paper suggests a high-level continuous image model for planar star-shaped objects. Under this model, a planar object is a stochastic deformation of a star-shaped template. The residual process, describing the difference between the radius-vector function of the template and the object...

  16. Solar constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate tests of the theory of stellar structure and evolution are available from the Sun's observations. The solar constraints are reviewed, with a special attention to the recent progress in observing global solar oscillations. Each constraint is sensitive to a given region of the Sun. The present solar models (standard, low Z, mixed) are discussed with respect to neutrino flux, low and high degree five-minute oscillations and low degree internal gravity modes. It appears that actually there do not exist solar models able to fully account for all the observed quantities. (Auth.)

  17. Soft templated mesoporous carbons: Tuning the porosity for the adsorption of large organic pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Libbrecht, Wannes; Verberckmoes, An; Thybaut, Joris; Van Der Voort, Pascal; De Clercq, Jeriffa

    2017-01-01

    Mesoporous carbons have been the subject of various studies, both fundamental and applied. Fundamental studies revealed numerous synthesis routes which can adjust material characteristics as specific surface area, pore volume, pore size or morphology and elemental composition. The indirect synthesis or hard template method was developed first. An extensive collection of template materials exist, which can be impregnated with carbon precursors to provide various hard templated mesoporous carbo...

  18. Template Generation and Selection Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Broersma, Haitze J.; Heysters, P.M.; Badaway, W.; Ismail, Y.

    The availability of high-level design entry tooling is crucial for the viability of any reconfigurable SoC architecture. This paper presents a template generation method to extract functional equivalent structures, i.e. templates, from a control data flow graph. By inspecting the graph the algorithm

  19. A light meson translatable template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgower, C.E.; Peaslee, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Recently surveyed (mass)2 values for I = 0, JPC = 2++ light mesons can be assembled into repeating patterns of 4 states, dubbed 'templates'. Within error, both internal and external template spacings approximate simple multiples of Δm2 ≅ 0.35 GeV2. Hopefully, this feature will be useful in predicting the positions of higher isoscalar 2++ states

  20. Multi-atlas labeling with population-specific template and non-local patch-based label fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonov, Vladimir; Coupé, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed

    We propose a new method combining a population-specific nonlinear template atlas approach with non-local patch-based structure segmentation for whole brain segmentation into individual structures. This way, we benefit from the efficient intensity-driven segmentation of the non-local means framework...... and from the global shape constraints imposed by the nonlinear template matching....

  1. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-08-01

    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.

  2. The constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    There are considerable incentives for the use of nuclear in preference to other sources for base load electricity generation in most of the developed world. These are economic, strategic, environmental and climatic. However, there are two potential constraints which could hinder the development of nuclear power to its full economic potential. These are public opinion and financial regulations which distort the nuclear economic advantage. The concerns of the anti-nuclear lobby are over safety, (especially following the Chernobyl accident), the management of radioactive waste, the potential effects of large scale exposure of the population to radiation and weapons proliferation. These are discussed. The financial constraint is over two factors, the availability of funds and the perception of cost, both of which are discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template......Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...

  4. In vitro transcription of a torsionally constrained template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas; Nielsen, Peter E

    2002-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) and the DNA template must rotate relative to each other during transcription elongation. In the cell, however, the components of the transcription apparatus may be subject to rotary constraints. For instance, the DNA is divided into topological domains that are delineated...... of torsionally constrained DNA by free RNAP. We asked whether or not a newly synthesized RNA chain would limit transcription elongation. For this purpose we developed a method to immobilize covalently closed circular DNA to streptavidin-coated beads via a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-biotin conjugate in principle...... constrained. We conclude that transcription of a natural bacterial gene may proceed with high efficiency despite the fact that newly synthesized RNA is entangled around the template in the narrow confines of torsionally constrained supercoiled DNA....

  5. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  6. Influence of porewidening duration on the template assisted growth of graphitic carbon nitride nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchitra, S. M.; Udayashankar, N. K.

    2018-01-01

    Porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes with a highly ordered pore arrangement are typically used as ideal templates for the synthesis of numerous nanostructured materials. Highly ordered templates gained significant attraction due to the fact that they are readily fabricated through self-organised simple anodization process. In this paper, the effect of different pore-widening treatments on the quality of the pores of the AAO templates prepared with different electrolytes were inspected. Results confirmed that, without altering the interpore distance different pore dimensions and diameters of the AAO templates can be easily achieved by chemical pore widening process at room temperature. Also, graphitic carbon nitride nanorods of different dimension have been fabricated from AAO template after porewidening process. These nanostructures are widely used in case of metal free visible light driven photo catalysis, photo degradation of organic pollutants, photo electric conversion and water splitting applications.

  7. Planck 2013 Results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG).Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordiallocal, equilateral, an...

  8. Generalized Pauli constraints in small atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Christian; Altunbulak, Murat; Knecht, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    investigations have found evidence that these constraints are exactly saturated in several physically relevant systems, e.g., in a certain electronic state of the beryllium atom. It has been suggested that, in such cases, the constraints, rather than the details of the Hamiltonian, dictate the system......'s qualitative behavior. Here, we revisit this question with state-of-the-art numerical methods for small atoms. We find that the constraints are, in fact, not exactly saturated, but that they lie much closer to the surface defined by the constraints than the geometry of the problem would suggest. While...

  9. Design reflowable digital book template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, Didik Dwi; Widiyaningtyas, Triyanna; Arifin, M. Zainal; Wahyu Sakti G., I.

    2017-09-01

    Electronic books (e-books or digital books) increasingly in demand and continue to grow in the form of future books. One of the standard format electronic books that potential is EPUB (electronic publication) published by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). This digital book has major advantages are able to provide interactive and reflowable content, which are not found in another book format, such as PDF. Reflowable content allows the book can be accessed through a variety of reader device, like desktop and mobile with a fit and comfort view. However, because the generating process of an EPUB digital book is not as easy a PDF, so this format is less popular. Therefore, in order to help overcome the existing problems, this paper develops digital reflowable text book templates to support electronic learning, especially in Indonesia. This template can be used by anyone to produce a standard digital book quickly and easily without requiring additional specialized knowledge.

  10. Titanium template for scaphoid reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, M; Schaefer, D J; Schumacher, R; Müller-Gerbl, M; Honigmann, P

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of a non-united scaphoid with a humpback deformity involves resection of the non-union followed by bone grafting and fixation of the fragments. Intraoperative control of the reconstruction is difficult owing to the complex three-dimensional shape of the scaphoid and the other carpal bones overlying the scaphoid on lateral radiographs. We developed a titanium template that fits exactly to the surfaces of the proximal and distal scaphoid poles to define their position relative to each other after resection of the non-union. The templates were designed on three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions and manufactured using selective laser melting technology. Ten conserved human wrists were used to simulate the reconstruction. The achieved precision measured as the deviation of the surface of the reconstructed scaphoid from its virtual counterpart was good in five cases (maximal difference 1.5 mm), moderate in one case (maximal difference 3 mm) and inadequate in four cases (difference more than 3 mm). The main problems were attributed to the template design and can be avoided by improved pre-operative planning, as shown in a clinical case. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Data assimilation with inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, W. C.

    If values of variables in a numerical model are limited to specified ranges, these restrictions should be enforced when data are assimilated. The simplest option is to assimilate without regard for constraints and then to correct any violations without worrying about additional corrections implied by correlated errors. This paper addresses the incorporation of inequality constraints into the standard variational framework of optimal interpolation with emphasis on our limited knowledge of the underlying probability distributions. Simple examples involving only two or three variables are used to illustrate graphically how active constraints can be treated as error-free data when background errors obey a truncated multi-normal distribution. Using Lagrange multipliers, the formalism is expanded to encompass the active constraints. Two algorithms are presented, both relying on a solution ignoring the inequality constraints to discover violations to be enforced. While explicitly enforcing a subset can, via correlations, correct the others, pragmatism based on our poor knowledge of the underlying probability distributions suggests the expedient of enforcing them all explicitly to avoid the computationally expensive task of determining the minimum active set. If additional violations are encountered with these solutions, the process can be repeated. Simple examples are used to illustrate the algorithms and to examine the nature of the corrections implied by correlated errors.

  12. Functional Programming with C++ Template Metaprograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkoláb, Zoltán

    Template metaprogramming is an emerging new direction of generative programming. With the clever definitions of templates we can force the C++ compiler to execute algorithms at compilation time. Among the application areas of template metaprograms are the expression templates, static interface checking, code optimization with adaption, language embedding and active libraries. However, as template metaprogramming was not an original design goal, the C++ language is not capable of elegant expression of metaprograms. The complicated syntax leads to the creation of code that is hard to write, understand and maintain. Although template metaprogramming has a strong relationship with functional programming, this is not reflected in the language syntax and existing libraries. In this paper we give a short and incomplete introduction to C++ templates and the basics of template metaprogramming. We will enlight the role of template metaprograms, and some important and widely used idioms. We give an overview of the possible application areas as well as debugging and profiling techniques. We suggest a pure functional style programming interface for C++ template metaprograms in the form of embedded Haskell code which is transformed to standard compliant C++ source.

  13. I - Template Metaprogramming for Massively Parallel Scientific Computing - Expression Templates

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  14. Broadband infrared metamaterial absorber based on anodic aluminum oxide template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingfan; Qu, Shaobo; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Yang, Shen; Pang, Yongqiang

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a broadband infrared metamaterial absorber is proposed based on trapezoid-shaped anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Unlike traditional metamaterial absorber constructed from metal-dielectric-metal sandwich structure, our proposed absorber is composed of trapezoid-shaped AAO template with metallic nanowires inside. The infrared absorption efficiency is numerically calculated and the mechanism analysis is given in the paper. Owing to the superposition of multiple resonances produced by the nanowires with different heights, the infrared metamatrial absorber can keep high absorption efficiency during broad working wavelength band from 3.4 μm to 6.1 μm. In addition, the resonance wavelength is associated with the height of nanowires, which indicates that the resonance wavelength can be modulated flexibly through changing the heights of nanowires. This kind of design can also be adapted to other wavelength regions.

  15. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go eKawamura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanowires (NWs have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  16. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-11-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  17. Learning templates for artistic portrait lighting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowu; Jin, Xin; Wu, Hongyu; Zhao, Qinping

    2015-02-01

    Lighting is a key factor in creating impressive artistic portraits. In this paper, we propose to analyze portrait lighting by learning templates of lighting styles. Inspired by the experience of artists, we first define several novel features that describe the local contrasts in various face regions. The most informative features are then selected with a stepwise feature pursuit algorithm to derive the templates of various lighting styles. After that, the matching scores that measure the similarity between a testing portrait and those templates are calculated for lighting style classification. Furthermore, we train a regression model by the subjective scores and the feature responses of a template to predict the score of a portrait lighting quality. Based on the templates, a novel face illumination descriptor is defined to measure the difference between two portrait lightings. Experimental results show that the learned templates can well describe the lighting styles, whereas the proposed approach can assess the lighting quality of artistic portraits as human being does.

  18. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance, and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production o...

  19. Templated Dry Printing of Conductive Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, David Alexander

    Printed electronics can lower the cost and increase the ubiquity of electrical components such as batteries, sensors, and telemetry systems. Unfortunately, the advance of printed electronics has been held back by the limited minimum resolution, aspect ratio, and feature fidelity of present printing techniques such as gravure, screen printing and inkjet printing. Templated dry printing offers a solution to these problems by patterning nanoparticle inks into templates before drying. This dissertation shows advancements in two varieties of templated dry nanoprinting. The first, advective micromolding in vapor-permeable templates (AMPT) is a microfluidic approach that uses evaporation-driven mold filling to create submicron features with a 1:1 aspect ratio. We will discuss submicron surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made through this process, and the refinement process in the template manufacturing process necessary to make these devices. We also present modeling techniques that can be applied to future AMPT templates. We conclude with a modified templated dry printing that improves throughput and isolated feature patterning by transferring dry-templated features with laser ablation. This method utilizes surface energy-defined templates to pattern features via doctor blade coating. Patterned and dried features can be transferred to a polymer substrate with an Nd:YAG MOPA fiber laser, and printed features can be smaller than the laser beam width.

  20. Toward making the constraint hypersurface an attractor in free evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiske, David R.

    2004-01-01

    When constructing numerical solutions to systems of evolution equations subject to a constraint, one must decide what role the constraint equations will play in the evolution system. In one popular choice, known as free evolution, a simulation is treated as a Cauchy problem, with the initial data constructed to satisfy the constraint equations. This initial data are then evolved via the evolution equations with no further enforcement of the constraint equations. The evolution, however, via the discretized evolution equations introduce constraint violating modes at the level of truncation error, and these constraint violating modes will behave in a formalism dependent way. This paper presents a generic method for incorporating the constraint equations into the evolution equations so that the off-constraint dynamics are biased toward the constraint satisfying solutions

  1. Re-usable templates for documenting the elaboration and architectural design of the CMS software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellisch, J.P.; Tuura, L.

    2001-01-01

    Modern standards and definitions of deliverables for software development are provided by various standards like PSS-05, CMMI, ECSS, Volere, Rational Unified process or SPICE (ISO 15504). Modern document templates and the corresponding documents are based on atomic shells that cross-link, and can be subsequently assembled into a set of complete documents; views of the information in the shells. This makes the information easy to maintain, and enables selective views of the documentation. The authors will present a catalogue of document templates that has been developed in the context of the CMS CAFE forum, as well as their cross-linkage, using UML as the modelling language. The templates allow for documenting the elaboration and architectural design phases of software development. They can be used as the basis for establishing and documenting architecture, while establishing trace-ability to use-cases, requirements, constraints, and important technological choices in a maintainable manner

  2. Statistical inference for template aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckers, Michael E.

    2006-04-01

    A change in classification error rates for a biometric device is often referred to as template aging. Here we offer two methods for determining whether the effect of time is statistically significant. The first of these is the use of a generalized linear model to determine if these error rates change linearly over time. This approach generalizes previous work assessing the impact of covariates using generalized linear models. The second approach uses of likelihood ratio tests methodology. The focus here is on statistical methods for estimation not the underlying cause of the change in error rates over time. These methodologies are applied to data from the National Institutes of Standards and Technology Biometric Score Set Release 1. The results of these applications are discussed.

  3. A Template for Design Personas:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Hansen, Kira Storgaard; Stage, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The persona method is gaining widespread use and support. Many researchers have reported from single cases and from novel domains on how they have used the method. However, the way companies and design groups describe personas has not been the focus of attention. This paper analyses 47 descriptions...... from 13 companies and compares these to an analysis of recommendations from 11 templates from literature. Furthermore, 28 interviews with Danish practitioners with experience in using personas are analyzed for content on persona descriptions. The study finds that a Danish persona style has developed...... that is different from the recommendations in the lack of marketing and business related information and the absence of goals as differentiator for personas. Furthermore, the inspiration and knowledge on personas originates from co-workers and seminars and not much from literature. This indicates that the community...

  4. Screening for templates that promote crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Horst, J.H. ter; Verdoes, D.; Jansens, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Situ Product Recovery (ISPR) applied in fermentation processes leads to improved yield and productivity of these processes. In principle, ISPR can be achieved using Template Induced Crystallization (TIC), which is one possible ISPR technique. With TIC, templates are added to the solution as a

  5. 2D vector-cyclic deformable templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette; Conradsen, Knut

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the theory of deformable templates is a vector cycle in 2D is described. The deformable template model originated in (Grenander, 1983) and was further investigated in (Grenander et al., 1991). A template vector distribution is induced by parameter distribution from transformation...... matrices applied to the vector cycle. An approximation in the parameter distribution is introduced. The main advantage by using the deformable template model is the ability to simulate a wide range of objects trained by e.g. their biological variations, and thereby improve restoration, segmentation...... and probabillity measurement. The case study concerns estimation of meat percent in pork carcasses. Given two cross-sectional images - one at the front and one near the ham of the carcass - the areas of lean and fat and a muscle in the lean area are measured automatically by the deformable templates....

  6. [The template principle: paradigm of modern genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge-Vechtomov, S G

    2013-01-01

    The idea of continuity in living systems, which was initially developed in mid-19th century, reached its peak in 1928 thanks to N.K. Koltsov, who proposed the template principle in chromosome reproduction. The determination of genetic functions of nucleic acids and the advent of molecular genetics led to F. Crick's statement of the central dogma of molecular biology in 1958. This dogma became a contemporary version of the template principle (templates of the first order). The discovery of "protein inheritance" underlay the notion of steric or conformational templates (second order) for reproducing conformation in a number of proteins. The template principle supplemented by this notion claims to be the main paradigm of modern genetics.

  7. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang

    2015-05-04

    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  8. Optimizing preventive maintenance with maintenance templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, I.J.

    1996-01-01

    Rising operating costs has caused maintenance professionals to rethink their strategy for preventive maintenance (PM) programs. Maintenance Templates are pre-engineered PM task recommendations for a component type based on application of the component. Development of the maintenance template considers the dominant failure cause of the component and the type of preventive maintenance that can predict or prevent the failure from occurring. Maintenance template development also attempts to replace fixed frequency tasks with condition monitoring tasks such as vibration analysis or thermography. For those components that have fixed frequency PM intervals, consideration is given to the maintenance drivers such as criticality, environment and usage. This helps to maximize the PM frequency intervals and maximize the component availability. Maintenance Templates have been used at PECO Energy's Limerick Generating Station during the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Process to optimize their PM program. This paper describes the development and uses of the maintenance templates

  9. Conformational sampling in template-free protein loop structure modeling: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaohang

    2013-01-01

    Accurately modeling protein loops is an important step to predict three-dimensional structures as well as to understand functions of many proteins. Because of their high flexibility, modeling the three-dimensional structures of loops is difficult and is usually treated as a "mini protein folding problem" under geometric constraints. In the past decade, there has been remarkable progress in template-free loop structure modeling due to advances of computational methods as well as stably increasing number of known structures available in PDB. This mini review provides an overview on the recent computational approaches for loop structure modeling. In particular, we focus on the approaches of sampling loop conformation space, which is a critical step to obtain high resolution models in template-free methods. We review the potential energy functions for loop modeling, loop buildup mechanisms to satisfy geometric constraints, and loop conformation sampling algorithms. The recent loop modeling results are also summarized.

  10. CONFORMATIONAL SAMPLING IN TEMPLATE-FREE PROTEIN LOOP STRUCTURE MODELING: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohang Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurately modeling protein loops is an important step to predict three-dimensional structures as well as to understand functions of many proteins. Because of their high flexibility, modeling the three-dimensional structures of loops is difficult and is usually treated as a “mini protein folding problem” under geometric constraints. In the past decade, there has been remarkable progress in template-free loop structure modeling due to advances of computational methods as well as stably increasing number of known structures available in PDB. This mini review provides an overview on the recent computational approaches for loop structure modeling. In particular, we focus on the approaches of sampling loop conformation space, which is a critical step to obtain high resolution models in template-free methods. We review the potential energy functions for loop modeling, loop buildup mechanisms to satisfy geometric constraints, and loop conformation sampling algorithms. The recent loop modeling results are also summarized.

  11. Numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piran, T.

    1982-01-01

    There are many recent developments in numerical relativity, but there remain important unsolved theoretical and practical problems. The author reviews existing numerical approaches to solution of the exact Einstein equations. A framework for classification and comparison of different numerical schemes is presented. Recent numerical codes are compared using this framework. The discussion focuses on new developments and on currently open questions, excluding a review of numerical techniques. (Auth.)

  12. Conformational Sampling in Template-Free Protein Loop Structure Modeling: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yaohang

    2013-01-01

    Accurately modeling protein loops is an important step to predict three-dimensional structures as well as to understand functions of many proteins. Because of their high flexibility, modeling the three-dimensional structures of loops is difficult and is usually treated as a “mini protein folding problem” under geometric constraints. In the past decade, there has been remarkable progress in template-free loop structure modeling due to advances of computational methods as well as stably increas...

  13. Model quality assessment using distance constraints from alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paluszewski, Martin; Karplus, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    that model which is closest to the true structure. In this article, we present a new approach for addressing the MQA problem. It is based on distance constraints extracted from alignments to templates of known structure, and is implemented in the Undertaker program for protein structure prediction. One novel...... feature is that we extract noncontact constraints as well as contact constraints. We describe how the distance constraint extraction is done and we show how they can be used to address the MQA problem. We have compared our method on CASP7 targets and the results show that our method is at least comparable...... with the best MQA methods that were assessed at CASP7. We also propose a new evaluation measure, Kendall's tau, that is more interpretable than conventional measures used for evaluating MQA methods (Pearson's r and Spearman's rho). We show clear examples where Kendall's tau agrees much more with our intuition...

  14. Rate in template-directed polymer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takuya

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the temporal efficiency of template-directed polymer synthesis, such as DNA replication and transcription, under a given template string. To weigh the synthesis speed and accuracy on the same scale, we propose a template-directed synthesis (TDS) rate, which contains an expression analogous to that for the Shannon entropy. Increasing the synthesis speed accelerates the TDS rate, but the TDS rate is lowered if the produced sequences are diversified. We apply the TDS rate to some production system models and investigate how the balance between the speed and the accuracy is affected by changes in the system conditions.

  15. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis ...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  16. Generalized Pauli constraints in small atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Christian; Altunbulak, Murat; Knecht, Stefan; Lopes, Alexandre; Whitfield, James D.; Christandl, Matthias; Gross, David; Reiher, Markus

    2018-05-01

    The natural occupation numbers of fermionic systems are subject to nontrivial constraints, which include and extend the original Pauli principle. A recent mathematical breakthrough has clarified their mathematical structure and has opened up the possibility of a systematic analysis. Early investigations have found evidence that these constraints are exactly saturated in several physically relevant systems, e.g., in a certain electronic state of the beryllium atom. It has been suggested that, in such cases, the constraints, rather than the details of the Hamiltonian, dictate the system's qualitative behavior. Here, we revisit this question with state-of-the-art numerical methods for small atoms. We find that the constraints are, in fact, not exactly saturated, but that they lie much closer to the surface defined by the constraints than the geometry of the problem would suggest. While the results seem incompatible with the statement that the generalized Pauli constraints drive the behavior of these systems, they suggest that the qualitatively correct wave-function expansions can in some systems already be obtained on the basis of a limited number of Slater determinants, which is in line with numerical evidence from quantum chemistry.

  17. Financing Constraints and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Kerr; Ramana Nanda

    2009-01-01

    Financing constraints are one of the biggest concerns impacting potential entrepreneurs around the world. Given the important role that entrepreneurship is believed to play in the process of economic growth, alleviating financing constraints for would-be entrepreneurs is also an important goal for policymakers worldwide. We review two major streams of research examining the relevance of financing constraints for entrepreneurship. We then introduce a framework that provides a unified perspecti...

  18. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  19. Latin hypercube sampling with inequality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iooss, B.; Petelet, M.; Asserin, O.; Loredo, A.

    2010-01-01

    In some studies requiring predictive and CPU-time consuming numerical models, the sampling design of the model input variables has to be chosen with caution. For this purpose, Latin hypercube sampling has a long history and has shown its robustness capabilities. In this paper we propose and discuss a new algorithm to build a Latin hypercube sample (LHS) taking into account inequality constraints between the sampled variables. This technique, called constrained Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS), consists in doing permutations on an initial LHS to honor the desired monotonic constraints. The relevance of this approach is shown on a real example concerning the numerical welding simulation, where the inequality constraints are caused by the physical decreasing of some material properties in function of the temperature. (authors)

  20. Dose constraints, what are they now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of a source-related dose constraint was first introduced in ICPR publication 60. The idea was to provide a number that individual exposures from a single, specific source should not exceed, and below which optimisation of protection should take place. Dose constraints were applied to occupational and public exposures from practices. In order to simplify and clarify the ICRP's recommendations, the latest draft, RPO5, presents dose constraints again, and with the same meaning as in publication 60. However, the dose constraints are now applied in all situations, not just practices. This new approach does provide simplification, in that a single concept is applied to all types of exposures (normal situations, accident situations, and existing situations). However, the approach and numerical values that are selected by regulatory authorities for the application of the concept, particularly in normal situations which are also subject to dose limits, will be crucial to the implementation of the system of radiological protection. (author)

  1. Template for safety reports with descriptive example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This report provides a template for future safety reports on long-term safety in support of important decisions and permit applications in connection with the construction of a deep repository system. The template aims at providing a uniform structure for describing long-term safety, after the repository has been closed and sealed. The availability of such a structure will simplify both preparation and review of the safety reports, and make it possible to follow how safety assessments are influenced by the progressively more detailed body of data that emerges. A separate section containing 'descriptive examples' has been appended to the template. This section illustrates what the different chapters of the template should contain. 279 refs

  2. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang; Wonka, Peter; Ghanem, Bernard; Jiang, Caigui

    2015-01-01

    Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed

  3. Nucleic Acid Templated Reactions for Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pisa, Margherita; Seitz, Oliver

    2017-06-21

    Nucleic acid directed bioorthogonal reactions offer the fascinating opportunity to unveil and redirect a plethora of intracellular mechanisms. Nano- to picomolar amounts of specific RNA molecules serve as templates and catalyze the selective formation of molecules that 1) exert biological effects, or 2) provide measurable signals for RNA detection. Turnover of reactants on the template is a valuable asset when concentrations of RNA templates are low. The idea is to use RNA-templated reactions to fully control the biodistribution of drugs and to push the detection limits of DNA or RNA analytes to extraordinary sensitivities. Herein we review recent and instructive examples of conditional synthesis or release of compounds for in cellulo protein interference and intracellular nucleic acid imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  4. Template for safety reports with descriptive example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report provides a template for future safety reports on long-term safety in support of important decisions and permit applications in connection with the construction of a deep repository system. The template aims at providing a uniform structure for describing long-term safety, after the repository has been closed and sealed. The availability of such a structure will simplify both preparation and review of the safety reports, and make it possible to follow how safety assessments are influenced by the progressively more detailed body of data that emerges. A separate section containing `descriptive examples` has been appended to the template. This section illustrates what the different chapters of the template should contain. 279 refs.

  5. Social engineering attack examples, templates and scenarios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, Francois

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available that are representative of real-world examples, whilst still being general enough to encompass several different real-world examples. The proposed social engineering attack templates cover all three types of communication, namely bidirectional communication...

  6. Template analysis for the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Uta [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The MAGIC telescopes are two 17-m-diameter Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes located on the Canary island of La Palma. They record the Cherenkov light from air showers induced by very high energy photons. The current data analysis uses a parametrization of the two shower images (including Hillas parameters) to determine the characteristics of the primary particle. I am implementing an advanced analysis method that compares shower images on a pixel basis with template images based on Monte Carlo simulations. To reduce the simulation effort the templates contain only pure shower images that are convolved with the telescope response later in the analysis. The primary particle parameters are reconstructed by maximizing the likelihood of the template. By using all the information available in the shower images, the performance of MAGIC is expected to improve. In this presentation I will explain the general idea of a template-based analysis and show the first results of the implementation.

  7. Surgical Templates for Dental Implant Positioning; Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prosthodontics; however, designing an implant‑supported prosthesis with function .... template where a provisional fixed restoration bridges the implant site. Pesun and ... in single implant therapy or short‑span implant‑supported prostheses.

  8. Templates for Linear Algebra Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Z.; Day, D.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Gu, M.; Ruhe, A.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    1995-01-01

    The increasing availability of advanced-architecture computers is having a very signicant eect on all spheres of scientic computation, including algorithm research and software development in numerical linear algebra. Linear algebra {in particular, the solution of linear systems of equations and

  9. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Khabaza, I M

    1960-01-01

    Numerical Analysis is an elementary introduction to numerical analysis, its applications, limitations, and pitfalls. Methods suitable for digital computers are emphasized, but some desk computations are also described. Topics covered range from the use of digital computers in numerical work to errors in computations using desk machines, finite difference methods, and numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the importance of digital computers in numerical analysis, followed by a discussion on errors in comput

  10. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This book is composed of two parts: First part describes basics in numerical relativity, that is, the formulations and methods for a solution of Einstein's equation and general relativistic matter field equations. This part will be helpful for beginners of numerical relativity who would like to understand the content of numerical relativity and its background. The second part focuses on the application of numerical relativity. A wide variety of scientific numerical results are introduced focusing in particular on the merger of binary neutron stars and black holes.

  11. Multi-template polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Elena; Kubista, Mikael; Rensing, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    PCR is a formidable and potent technology that serves as an indispensable tool in a wide range of biological disciplines. However, due to the ease of use and often lack of rigorous standards many PCR applications can lead to highly variable, inaccurate, and ultimately meaningless results. Thus, rigorous method validation must precede its broad adoption to any new application. Multi-template samples possess particular features, which make their PCR analysis prone to artifacts and biases: multiple homologous templates present in copy numbers that vary within several orders of magnitude. Such conditions are a breeding ground for chimeras and heteroduplexes. Differences in template amplification efficiencies and template competition for reaction compounds undermine correct preservation of the original template ratio. In addition, the presence of inhibitors aggravates all of the above-mentioned problems. Inhibitors might also have ambivalent effects on the different templates within the same sample. Yet, no standard approaches exist for monitoring inhibitory effects in multitemplate PCR, which is crucial for establishing compatibility between samples.

  12. Multi-template polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kalle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PCR is a formidable and potent technology that serves as an indispensable tool in a wide range of biological disciplines. However, due to the ease of use and often lack of rigorous standards many PCR applications can lead to highly variable, inaccurate, and ultimately meaningless results. Thus, rigorous method validation must precede its broad adoption to any new application. Multi-template samples possess particular features, which make their PCR analysis prone to artifacts and biases: multiple homologous templates present in copy numbers that vary within several orders of magnitude. Such conditions are a breeding ground for chimeras and heteroduplexes. Differences in template amplification efficiencies and template competition for reaction compounds undermine correct preservation of the original template ratio. In addition, the presence of inhibitors aggravates all of the above-mentioned problems. Inhibitors might also have ambivalent effects on the different templates within the same sample. Yet, no standard approaches exist for monitoring inhibitory effects in multitemplate PCR, which is crucial for establishing compatibility between samples.

  13. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  14. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  15. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  16. Constraint-based reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gotlieb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  17. New template family for the detection of gravitational waves from comparable-mass black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Edward K.

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the phasing of the comparable-mass waveform as we approach the last stable orbit for a system, various resummation methods have been used to improve the standard post-Newtonian waveforms. In this work we present a new family of templates for the detection of gravitational waves from the inspiral of two comparable-mass black hole binaries. These new adiabatic templates are based on reexpressing the derivative of the binding energy and the gravitational wave flux functions in terms of shifted Chebyshev polynomials. The Chebyshev polynomials are a useful tool in numerical methods as they display the fastest convergence of any of the orthogonal polynomials. In this case they are also particularly useful as they eliminate one of the features that plagues the post-Newtonian expansion. The Chebyshev binding energy now has information at all post-Newtonian orders, compared to the post-Newtonian templates which only have information at full integer orders. In this work, we compare both the post-Newtonian and Chebyshev templates against a fiducially exact waveform. This waveform is constructed from a hybrid method of using the test-mass results combined with the mass dependent parts of the post-Newtonian expansions for the binding energy and flux functions. Our results show that the Chebyshev templates achieve extremely high fitting factors at all post-Newtonian orders and provide excellent parameter extraction. We also show that this new template family has a faster Cauchy convergence, gives a better prediction of the position of the last stable orbit and in general recovers higher Signal-to-Noise ratios than the post-Newtonian templates

  18. Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

  19. Hindi Numerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, William

    In most languages encountered by linguists, the numerals, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular numeral system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…

  20. Resources, constraints and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Schröder, A.

    2018-01-01

    Human and financial resources as well as organisational capabilities are needed to overcome the manifold constraints social innovators are facing. To unlock the potential of social innovation for the whole society new (social) innovation friendly environments and new governance structures

  1. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-01-01

    . The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application

  2. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, G Shanker

    2006-01-01

    About the Book: This book provides an introduction to Numerical Analysis for the students of Mathematics and Engineering. The book is designed in accordance with the common core syllabus of Numerical Analysis of Universities of Andhra Pradesh and also the syllabus prescribed in most of the Indian Universities. Salient features: Approximate and Numerical Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equation Interpolation of Functions Numerical Differentiation and Integration and Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations The last three chapters deal with Curve Fitting, Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors of a Matrix and Regression Analysis. Each chapter is supplemented with a number of worked-out examples as well as number of problems to be solved by the students. This would help in the better understanding of the subject. Contents: Errors Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations Finite Differences Interpolation with Equal Intervals Interpolation with Unequal Int...

  3. Planck 2015 results: XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators – separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal – we obtain consiste...

  4. Dynamics and causality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Manoelito M. de

    2001-04-01

    The physical meaning and the geometrical interpretation of causality implementation in classical field theories are discussed. Causality in field theory are kinematical constraints dynamically implemented via solutions of the field equation, but in a limit of zero-distance from the field sources part of these constraints carries a dynamical content that explains old problems of classical electrodynamics away with deep implications to the nature of physicals interactions. (author)

  5. Template-based automatic extraction of the joint space of foot bones from CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunbi; Kim, Taeho; Park, Jinah

    2016-03-01

    Clean bone segmentation is critical in studying the joint anatomy for measuring the spacing between the bones. However, separation of the coupled bones in CT images is sometimes difficult due to ambiguous gray values coming from the noise and the heterogeneity of bone materials as well as narrowing of the joint space. For fine reconstruction of the individual local boundaries, manual operation is a common practice where the segmentation remains to be a bottleneck. In this paper, we present an automatic method for extracting the joint space by applying graph cut on Markov random field model to the region of interest (ROI) which is identified by a template of 3D bone structures. The template includes encoded articular surface which identifies the tight region of the high-intensity bone boundaries together with the fuzzy joint area of interest. The localized shape information from the template model within the ROI effectively separates the bones nearby. By narrowing the ROI down to the region including two types of tissue, the object extraction problem was reduced to binary segmentation and solved via graph cut. Based on the shape of a joint space marked by the template, the hard constraint was set by the initial seeds which were automatically generated from thresholding and morphological operations. The performance and the robustness of the proposed method are evaluated on 12 volumes of ankle CT data, where each volume includes a set of 4 tarsal bones (calcaneus, talus, navicular and cuboid).

  6. Selection of new constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.

    2003-01-01

    The selected new constraints should be consistent with the scale of concern i.e. be expressed roughly as fractions or multiples of the average annual background. They should take into account risk considerations and include the values of the currents limits, constraints and other action levels. The recommendation is to select four leading values for the new constraints: 500 mSv ( single event or in a decade) as a maximum value, 0.01 mSv/year as a minimum value; and two intermediate values: 20 mSv/year and 0.3 mSv/year. This new set of dose constraints, representing basic minimum standards of protection for the individuals taking into account the specificity of the exposure situations are thus coherent with the current values which can be found in ICRP Publications. A few warning need however to be noticed: There is no more multi sources limit set by ICRP. The coherence between the proposed value of dose constraint (20 mSv/year) and the current occupational dose limit of 20 mSv/year is valid only if the workers are exposed to one single source. When there is more than one source, it will be necessary to apportion. The value of 1000 mSv lifetimes used for relocation can be expressed into annual dose, which gives approximately 10 mSv/year and is coherent with the proposed dose constraint. (N.C.)

  7. A Hybrid Approach to Protect Palmprint Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric template protection is indispensable to protect personal privacy in large-scale deployment of biometric systems. Accuracy, changeability, and security are three critical requirements for template protection algorithms. However, existing template protection algorithms cannot satisfy all these requirements well. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that combines random projection and fuzzy vault to improve the performances at these three points. Heterogeneous space is designed for combining random projection and fuzzy vault properly in the hybrid scheme. New chaff point generation method is also proposed to enhance the security of the heterogeneous vault. Theoretical analyses of proposed hybrid approach in terms of accuracy, changeability, and security are given in this paper. Palmprint database based experimental results well support the theoretical analyses and demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed hybrid approach.

  8. Fabricating hydroxyapatite nanorods using a biomacromolecule template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Aiping; Lu Yan; Si Yunfeng; Dai Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with various aspect ratios are synthesized by means of low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of a N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) template. The synthesized HAps were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results reveal that HAps are rod-like monocrystals, where the size and morphology can be tailored by varying synthesis conditions, such as pH, hydrothermal synthesis temperature and the ratio of PO 4 3- to the quaternary ammonium in HTCC. The mechanism of HTCC template on HAp nanorod preparation is analyzed.

  9. Frabicating hydroxyapatite nanorods using a biomacromolecule template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aiping; Lu, Yan; Si, Yunfeng; Dai, Sheng

    2011-02-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with various aspect ratios are synthesized by means of low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of a N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) template. The synthesized HAps were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results reveal that HAps are rod-like monocrystals, where the size and morphology can be tailored by varying synthesis conditions, such as pH, hydrothermal synthesis temperature and the ratio of PO43- to the quaternary ammonium in HTCC. The mechanism of HTCC template on HAp nanorod preparation is analyzed.

  10. Misconceptions and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, M.; Mahon, R.

    2005-01-01

    In theory, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to a wide variety of invertebrate pests. However, in practice, the approach has been successfully applied to only a few major pests. Chapters in this volume address possible reasons for this discrepancy, e.g. Klassen, Lance and McInnis, and Robinson and Hendrichs. The shortfall between theory and practice is partly due to the persistence of some common misconceptions, but it is mainly due to one constraint, or a combination of constraints, that are biological, financial, social or political in nature. This chapter's goal is to dispel some major misconceptions, and view the constraints as challenges to overcome, seeing them as opportunities to exploit. Some of the common misconceptions include: (1) released insects retain residual radiation, (2) females must be monogamous, (3) released males must be fully sterile, (4) eradication is the only goal, (5) the SIT is too sophisticated for developing countries, and (6) the SIT is not a component of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) strategy. The more obvious constraints are the perceived high costs of the SIT, and the low competitiveness of released sterile males. The perceived high up-front costs of the SIT, their visibility, and the lack of private investment (compared with alternative suppression measures) emerge as serious constraints. Failure to appreciate the true nature of genetic approaches, such as the SIT, may pose a significant constraint to the wider adoption of the SIT and other genetically-based tactics, e.g. transgenic genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Lack of support for the necessary underpinning strategic research also appears to be an important constraint. Hence the case for extensive strategic research in ecology, population dynamics, genetics, and insect behaviour and nutrition is a compelling one. Raising the competitiveness of released sterile males remains the major research objective of the SIT. (author)

  11. Constrained evolution in numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew William

    The strongest potential source of gravitational radiation for current and future detectors is the merger of binary black holes. Full numerical simulation of such mergers can provide realistic signal predictions and enhance the probability of detection. Numerical simulation of the Einstein equations, however, is fraught with difficulty. Stability even in static test cases of single black holes has proven elusive. Common to unstable simulations is the growth of constraint violations. This work examines the effect of controlling the growth of constraint violations by solving the constraints periodically during a simulation, an approach called constrained evolution. The effects of constrained evolution are contrasted with the results of unconstrained evolution, evolution where the constraints are not solved during the course of a simulation. Two different formulations of the Einstein equations are examined: the standard ADM formulation and the generalized Frittelli-Reula formulation. In most cases constrained evolution vastly improves the stability of a simulation at minimal computational cost when compared with unconstrained evolution. However, in the more demanding test cases examined, constrained evolution fails to produce simulations with long-term stability in spite of producing improvements in simulation lifetime when compared with unconstrained evolution. Constrained evolution is also examined in conjunction with a wide variety of promising numerical techniques, including mesh refinement and overlapping Cartesian and spherical computational grids. Constrained evolution in boosted black hole spacetimes is investigated using overlapping grids. Constrained evolution proves to be central to the host of innovations required in carrying out such intensive simulations.

  12. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, L Ridgway

    2011-01-01

    Computational science is fundamentally changing how technological questions are addressed. The design of aircraft, automobiles, and even racing sailboats is now done by computational simulation. The mathematical foundation of this new approach is numerical analysis, which studies algorithms for computing expressions defined with real numbers. Emphasizing the theory behind the computation, this book provides a rigorous and self-contained introduction to numerical analysis and presents the advanced mathematics that underpin industrial software, including complete details that are missing from most textbooks. Using an inquiry-based learning approach, Numerical Analysis is written in a narrative style, provides historical background, and includes many of the proofs and technical details in exercises. Students will be able to go beyond an elementary understanding of numerical simulation and develop deep insights into the foundations of the subject. They will no longer have to accept the mathematical gaps that ex...

  13. Ring power balance observing plasma stability constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.B.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Ring power balance is performed for an E-ring stabilized tandem mirror reactor, taking into account constraints imposed by plasma stability. The two most important criteria are the stability of the core interchange and hot electron interchange modes. The former determines the ring thickness, the latter determines the minimum hot electron temperature; both quantities are important for power balance. The combination of the hot electron interchange constraint and the fact that the barrier density is low places the operating point on the synchrotron dominated branch of power balance. The reference case considered here requires a reasonable 34 MW of heating power deposited in the rings. We also have examined the sensitivity of the required ring power on uncertainties in the numerical coefficients of the stability constraints. We have found that the heating power is strongly affected

  14. A method for computing the stationary points of a function subject to linear equality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uko, U.L.

    1989-09-01

    We give a new method for the numerical calculation of stationary points of a function when it is subject to equality constraints. An application to the solution of linear equations is given, together with a numerical example. (author). 5 refs

  15. Constraint Soup - Interpreting Natural Language Architectural Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, R.A.; Vries, de B.; Beetz, J.

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate mass customization in the building industry, an automated method is needed to check the validity of user-created designs. This check requires that numerous complex building codes and regulations, as well as architects’ demands are formalized and captured by non-programming domain

  16. Photon signature analysis using template matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.A., E-mail: d.a.bradley@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Hashim, S., E-mail: suhairul@utm.my [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Saripan, M.I. [Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wells, K. [Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Dunn, W.L. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, 3002 Rathbone Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    We describe an approach to detect improvised explosive devices (IEDs) by using a template matching procedure. This approach relies on the signature due to backstreaming {gamma} photons from various targets. In this work we have simulated cylindrical targets of aluminum, iron, copper, water and ammonium nitrate (nitrogen-rich fertilizer). We simulate 3.5 MeV source photons distributed on a plane inside a shielded area using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP{sup TM}) code version 5 (V5). The 3.5 MeV source gamma rays yield 511 keV peaks due to pair production and scattered gamma rays. In this work, we simulate capture of those photons that backstream, after impinging on the target element, toward a NaI detector. The captured backstreamed photons are expected to produce a unique spectrum that will become part of a simple signal processing recognition system based on the template matching method. Different elements were simulated using different sets of random numbers in the Monte Carlo simulation. To date, the sum of absolute differences (SAD) method has been used to match the template. In the examples investigated, template matching was found to detect all elements correctly.

  17. Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregar, Kathleen C.; Winans, Randall E.; Botto, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method for incorporating diverse Varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

  18. Binary palmprint representation for feature template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Ruan, Qiuqi; Shao, X.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2012-01-01

    The major challenge of biometric template protection comes from the intraclass variations of biometric data. The helper data scheme aims to solve this problem by employing the Error Correction Codes (ECC). However, many reported biometric binary features from the same user reach bit error rate (BER)

  19. A lightweight approach for biometric template protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah

    2009-05-01

    Privacy and security are vital concerns for practical biometric systems. The concept of cancelable or revocable biometrics has been proposed as a solution for biometric template security. Revocable biometric means that biometric templates are no longer fixed over time and could be revoked in the same way as lost or stolen credit cards are. In this paper, we describe a novel and an efficient approach to biometric template protection that meets the revocability property. This scheme can be incorporated into any biometric verification scheme while maintaining, if not improving, the accuracy of the original biometric system. However, we shall demonstrate the result of applying such transforms on face biometric templates and compare the efficiency of our approach with that of the well-known random projection techniques. We shall also present the results of experimental work on recognition accuracy before and after applying the proposed transform on feature vectors that are generated by wavelet transforms. These results are based on experiments conducted on a number of well-known face image databases, e.g. Yale and ORL databases.

  20. Iris Template Protection Based on Local Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics have been widely studied in recent years, and they are increasingly employed in real-world applications. Meanwhile, a number of potential threats to the privacy of biometric data arise. Iris template protection demands that the privacy of iris data should be protected when performing iris recognition. According to the international standard ISO/IEC 24745, iris template protection should satisfy the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. However, existing works about iris template protection demonstrate that it is difficult to satisfy the three privacy requirements simultaneously while supporting effective iris recognition. In this paper, we propose an iris template protection method based on local ranking. Specifically, the iris data are first XORed (Exclusive OR operation with an application-specific string; next, we divide the results into blocks and then partition the blocks into groups. The blocks in each group are ranked according to their decimal values, and original blocks are transformed to their rank values for storage. We also extend the basic method to support the shifting strategy and masking strategy, which are two important strategies for iris recognition. We demonstrate that the proposed method satisfies the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. Experimental results on typical iris datasets (i.e., CASIA-IrisV3-Interval, CASIA-IrisV4-Lamp, UBIRIS-V1-S1, and MMU-V1 show that the proposed method could maintain the recognition performance while protecting the privacy of iris data.

  1. Optimization problems with equilibrium constraints and their numerical solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočvara, Michal; Outrata, Jiří

    Roč. 101 , č. 1 (2004), s. 119-149 ISSN 0025-5610 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1075005 Grant - others:BMBF(DE) 03ZOM3ER Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : optimization problems * MPEC * MPCC Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.016, year: 2004

  2. Occupational dose constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The revision process of the international radiological protection regulations has resulted in the adoption of new concepts, such as practice, intervention, avoidable and restriction of dose (dose constraint). The latter deserving of special mention since it may involve reducing a priori of the dose limits established both for the public and to individuals occupationally exposed, values that can be further reduced, depending on the application of the principle of optimization. This article aims to present, with clarity, from the criteria adopted to define dose constraint values to the public, a methodology to establish the dose constraint values for occupationally exposed individuals, as well as an example of the application of this methodology to the practice of industrial radiography

  3. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what......Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...

  4. Least Squares Problems with Absolute Quadratic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schöne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes linear least squares problems with absolute quadratic constraints. We develop a generalized theory following Bookstein's conic-fitting and Fitzgibbon's direct ellipse-specific fitting. Under simple preconditions, it can be shown that a minimum always exists and can be determined by a generalized eigenvalue problem. This problem is numerically reduced to an eigenvalue problem by multiplications of Givens' rotations. Finally, four applications of this approach are presented.

  5. Review of Research on Template Methods in Preparation of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadian Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanomaterials have been widely used in various fields, such as photonics, catalysis, and adsorption, because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, their production methods are of utmost importance. Compared with traditional synthetic methods, the template method can effectively control the morphology, particle size, and structure during the preparation of nanomaterials, which is an effective method for their synthesis. The key for the template method is to choose different templates, which are divided into hard template and soft template according to their different structures. In this paper, the effects of different types of templates on the morphology of nanomaterials during their preparation are investigated from two aspects: hard template and soft template, combined with the mechanism of action.

  6. Emergency department documentation templates: variability in template selection and association with physical examination and test ordering in dizziness presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurer William J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical documentation systems, such as templates, have been associated with process utilization. The T-System emergency department (ED templates are widely used but lacking are analyses of the templates association with processes. This system is also unique because of the many different template options available, and thus the selection of the template may also be important. We aimed to describe the selection of templates in ED dizziness presentations and to investigate the association between items on templates and process utilization. Methods Dizziness visits were captured from a population-based study of EDs that use documentation templates. Two relevant process outcomes were assessed: head computerized tomography (CT scan and nystagmus examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of each outcome for patients who did or did not receive a relevant-item template. Propensity scores were also used to adjust for selection effects. Results The final cohort was 1,485 visits. Thirty-one different templates were used. Use of a template with a head CT item was associated with an increase in the adjusted probability of head CT utilization from 12.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-16.6% to 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.9%. The adjusted probability of documentation of a nystagmus assessment increased from 12.0% (95%CI, 8.8%-16.2% when a nystagmus-item template was not used to 95.0% (95% CI, 92.8%-96.6% when a nystagmus-item template was used. The associations remained significant after propensity score adjustments. Conclusions Providers use many different templates in dizziness presentations. Important differences exist in the various templates and the template that is used likely impacts process utilization, even though selection may be arbitrary. The optimal design and selection of templates may offer a feasible and effective opportunity to improve care delivery.

  7. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, C

    2012-01-01

    Numerical analysis has witnessed many significant developments in the 20th century. This book brings together 16 papers dealing with historical developments, survey papers and papers on recent trends in selected areas of numerical analysis, such as: approximation and interpolation, solution of linear systems and eigenvalue problems, iterative methods, quadrature rules, solution of ordinary-, partial- and integral equations. The papers are reprinted from the 7-volume project of the Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics on '/homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html<

  8. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  9. Short template switch events explain mutation clusters in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löytynoja, Ari; Goldman, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Resequencing efforts are uncovering the extent of genetic variation in humans and provide data to study the evolutionary processes shaping our genome. One recurring puzzle in both intra- and inter-species studies is the high frequency of complex mutations comprising multiple nearby base substitutions or insertion-deletions. We devised a generalized mutation model of template switching during replication that extends existing models of genome rearrangement and used this to study the role of template switch events in the origin of short mutation clusters. Applied to the human genome, our model detects thousands of template switch events during the evolution of human and chimp from their common ancestor and hundreds of events between two independently sequenced human genomes. Although many of these are consistent with a template switch mechanism previously proposed for bacteria, our model also identifies new types of mutations that create short inversions, some flanked by paired inverted repeats. The local template switch process can create numerous complex mutation patterns, including hairpin loop structures, and explains multinucleotide mutations and compensatory substitutions without invoking positive selection, speculative mechanisms, or implausible coincidence. Clustered sequence differences are challenging for current mapping and variant calling methods, and we show that many erroneous variant annotations exist in human reference data. Local template switch events may have been neglected as an explanation for complex mutations because of biases in commonly used analyses. Incorporation of our model into reference-based analysis pipelines and comparisons of de novo assembled genomes will lead to improved understanding of genome variation and evolution. © 2017 Löytynoja and Goldman; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maijenburg, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the

  11. Business Process Variability : A Tool for Declarative Template Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulanov, P.; Groefsema, H.; Aiello, M.

    2012-01-01

    To lower both implementation time and cost, many Business Process Management tools use process templates to implement highly recurring processes. However, in order for such templates to be used, a process has to adhere substantially to the template. Therefore, current practice for processes which

  12. Synthesis of Hybrid Conducting Nanowire Using AAO Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-28

    oxide and alujminum oxide in anodized aluminum oxide ( AAO ) template with various aspect ratio and...than 3 nm. 2. Experimentals Anodized aluminum oxide ( AAO ) template was prepared from 99.999% purity aluminum foil by performing the following...to prepare uniform dimension of nanomaterials is to use anodized alumina membrane as template. The work emphasized self-organized arrangement of

  13. Constraints on Dbar uplifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwis, S.P. de

    2016-01-01

    We discuss constraints on KKLT/KKLMMT and LVS scenarios that use anti-branes to get an uplift to a deSitter vacuum, coming from requiring the validity of an effective field theory description of the physics. We find these are not always satisfied or are hard to satisfy.

  14. Ecosystems emerging. 5: Constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patten, B. C.; Straškraba, Milan; Jorgensen, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 222, č. 16 (2011), s. 2945-2972 ISSN 0304-3800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : constraint * epistemic * ontic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304380011002274

  15. Constraints and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Biskjær, Michael Mose; Lundqvist, Caroline Emilie

    2017-01-01

    groups of students building three models each. We studied groups building with traditional plastic bricks and also using a digital environment. The building tasks students undertake, and our subsequent analysis, are informed by the role constraints and ambiguity play in creative processes. Based...

  16. Light-assisted, templated self-assembly using a photonic-crystal slab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquay, Eric; Martínez, Luis Javier; Mejia, Camilo A; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-05-08

    We experimentally demonstrate the technique of light-assisted, templated self-assembly (LATS). We excite a guided-resonance mode of a photonic-crystal slab with 1.55 μm laser light to create an array of optical traps. We demonstrate assembly of a square lattice of 520 nm diameter polystyrene particles spaced by 860 nm. Our results demonstrate how LATS can be used to fabricate reconfigurable structures with symmetries different from traditional colloidal self-assembly, which is limited by free energetic constraints.

  17. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  18. Minimal investment risk of a portfolio optimization problem with budget and investment concentration constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, the minimal investment risk for a portfolio optimization problem with imposed budget and investment concentration constraints is considered using replica analysis. Since the minimal investment risk is influenced by the investment concentration constraint (as well as the budget constraint), it is intuitive that the minimal investment risk for the problem with an investment concentration constraint can be larger than that without the constraint (that is, with only the budget constraint). Moreover, a numerical experiment shows the effectiveness of our proposed analysis. In contrast, the standard operations research approach failed to identify accurately the minimal investment risk of the portfolio optimization problem.

  19. Implementation of standard testbeds for numerical relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuc, M C [Department of Physics and Physical Science, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755 (United States); Husa, S [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Alic, D [Department of Physics, University of the Balearic Islands, Cra Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hinder, I [Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lechner, C [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics (WIAS), Mohrenstrasse 39, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Schnetter, E [Center for Computation and Technology, 216 Johnston Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Szilagyi, B; Dorband, N; Pollney, D; Winicour, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Muehlenberg 1, 14076 Golm (Germany); Zlochower, Y [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, 78 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2008-06-21

    We discuss results that have been obtained from the implementation of the initial round of testbeds for numerical relativity which was proposed in the first paper of the Apples with Apples Alliance. We present benchmark results for various codes which provide templates for analyzing the testbeds and to draw conclusions about various features of the codes. This allows us to sharpen the initial test specifications, design a new test and add theoretical insight.

  20. A Ground Systems Template for Remote Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel R.; Truskowski, Walter; Starr, Richard D.; Clark, Pamela E.; Evans, Larry G.

    2002-10-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing using gamma and X-ray spectrometers requires particular attention to the design and development of reliable systems. These systems must ensure the scientific requirements of the mission within the challenging technical constraints of operating instrumentation in space. The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft included X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers (XGRS), whose mission was to map the elemental chemistry of the 433 Eros asteroid. A remote sensing system template, similar to a blackboard systems approach used in artificial intelligence, was identified in which the spacecraft, instrument, and ground system was designed and developed to monitor and adapt to evolving mission requirements in a complicated operational setting. Systems were developed for ground tracking of instrument calibration, instrument health, data quality, orbital geometry, solar flux as well as models of the asteroid's surface characteristics, requiring an intensive human effort. In the future, missions such as the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) program will have to rely heavily on automation to collectively encounter and sample asteroids in the outer asteroid belt. Using similar instrumentation, ANTS will require information similar to data collected by the NEAR X-ray/Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XGRS) ground system for science and operations management. The NEAR XGRS systems will be studied to identify the equivalent subsystems that may be automated for ANTS. The effort will also investigate the possibility of applying blackboard style approaches to automated decision making required for ANTS.

  1. A ground systems template for remote sensing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel R.; Truskowski, Walter; Starr, Richard D.; Clark, Pamela E.; Evans, Larry G.

    2002-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing using gamma and X-ray spectrometers requires particular attention to the design and development of reliable systems. These systems must ensure the scientific requirements of the mission within the challenging technical constraints of operating instrumentation in space. The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft included X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers (XGRS), whose mission was to map the elemental chemistry of the 433 Eros asteroid. A remote sensing system template, similar to a blackboard systems approach used in artificial intelligence, was identified in which the spacecraft, instrument, and ground system was designed and developed to monitor and adapt to evolving mission requirements in a complicated operational setting. Systems were developed for ground tracking of instrument calibration, instrument health, data quality, orbital geometry, solar flux as well as models of the asteroid's surface characteristics, requiring an intensive human effort. In the future, missions such as the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) program will have to rely heavily on automation to collectively encounter and sample asteroids in the outer asteroid belt. Using similar instrumentation, ANTS will require information similar to data collected by the NEAR X-ray/Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XGRS) ground system for science and operations management. The NEAR XGRS systems will be studied to identify the equivalent subsystems that may be automated for ANTS. The effort will also investigate the possibility of applying blackboard style approaches to automated decision making required for ANTS

  2. Fabricating hydroxyapatite nanorods using a biomacromolecule template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Aiping, E-mail: apzhu@yzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Lu Yan; Si Yunfeng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Dai Sheng [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2011-02-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with various aspect ratios are synthesized by means of low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of a N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) template. The synthesized HAps were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results reveal that HAps are rod-like monocrystals, where the size and morphology can be tailored by varying synthesis conditions, such as pH, hydrothermal synthesis temperature and the ratio of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} to the quaternary ammonium in HTCC. The mechanism of HTCC template on HAp nanorod preparation is analyzed.

  3. A template for integrated community sustainability planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Christopher; Hanna, Kevin; Dale, Ann

    2009-08-01

    This article describes a template for implementing an integrated community sustainability plan. The template emphasizes community engagement and outlines the components of a basic framework for integrating ecological, social and economic dynamics into a community plan. The framework is a series of steps that support a sustainable community development process. While it reflects the Canadian experience, the tools and techniques have applied value for a range of environmental planning contexts around the world. The research is case study based and draws from a diverse range of communities representing many types of infrastructure, demographics and ecological and geographical contexts. A critical path for moving local governments to sustainable community development is the creation and implementation of integrated planning approaches. To be effective and to be implemented, a requisite shift to sustainability requires active community engagement processes, political will, and a commitment to political and administrative accountability, and measurement.

  4. Numerical algorithms in secondary creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijoo, R.A.; Taroco, E.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of stationary creep is presented as well as its variational formulation, when weak constraints are established, capable of assuring one single solution. A second, so-called elasto-creep problem, is further analysed, together with its variational formulation. It is shown that its stationary solution coincides with that of the stationary creep and the advantages of this formulation with respect to the former one is emphasized. Some numerical applications showing the efficiency of the method propesed are finally presented [pt

  5. CPU and GPU (Cuda Template Matching Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Borcovas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Image processing, computer vision or other complicated opticalinformation processing algorithms require large resources. It isoften desired to execute algorithms in real time. It is hard tofulfill such requirements with single CPU processor. NVidiaproposed CUDA technology enables programmer to use theGPU resources in the computer. Current research was madewith Intel Pentium Dual-Core T4500 2.3 GHz processor with4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU I, NVidia GeForce GT320M CUDAcompliable graphics card (GPU I and Intel Core I5-2500K3.3 GHz processor with 4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU II, NVidiaGeForce GTX 560 CUDA compatible graphic card (GPU II.Additional libraries as OpenCV 2.1 and OpenCV 2.4.0 CUDAcompliable were used for the testing. Main test were made withstandard function MatchTemplate from the OpenCV libraries.The algorithm uses a main image and a template. An influenceof these factors was tested. Main image and template have beenresized and the algorithm computing time and performancein Gtpix/s have been measured. According to the informationobtained from the research GPU computing using the hardwarementioned earlier is till 24 times faster when it is processing abig amount of information. When the images are small the performanceof CPU and GPU are not significantly different. Thechoice of the template size makes influence on calculating withCPU. Difference in the computing time between the GPUs canbe explained by the number of cores which they have.

  6. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T

    1993-01-01

    In GR13 we heard many reports on recent. progress as well as future plans of detection of gravitational waves. According to these reports (see the report of the workshop on the detection of gravitational waves by Paik in this volume), it is highly probable that the sensitivity of detectors such as laser interferometers and ultra low temperature resonant bars will reach the level of h ~ 10—21 by 1998. in this level we may expect the detection of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as coalescing binary neutron stars once a year or so. Therefore the progress in numerical relativity is urgently required to predict the wave pattern and amplitude of the gravitational waves from realistic astrophysical sources. The time left for numerical relativists is only six years or so although there are so many difficulties in principle as well as in practice.

  7. A flexible, bolaamphiphilic template for mesoporous silicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Alexander K L; Heinroth, Falk; Ward, Antony J; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2013-08-28

    A novel symmetrical bolaamphiphile, containing two N-methylimidazolium head-groups bridged by a 32-methylene linker, was synthesized and characterized. A variety of mesoporous silicas was prepared using the bolaamphiphile as a "soft template". The effects of absolute surfactant concentration and synthesis conditions upon the morphologies of these silicas were investigated. For a given surfactant concentration, particle morphology; pore size; and pore ordering were modified through control of the template to silica-precursor ratio and synthesis conditions. Observed morphologies included: lenticular core-shell nanoparticles and decorticated globules, truncated hexagonal plates, and sheets. In all cases the mesopores are aligned along the shortest axis of the nanomaterial. Decorticated materials displayed surface areas of up to 1200 m(2) g(-1) and pore diameters (D(BJH)) of 24-28 Å. Small-angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed that the majority of the materials has elliptical pores arranged in rectangular lattices (c2mm). Adoption of this symmetry group is a result of the template aggregate deformation from a regular hexagonal phase of cylindrical rods to a ribbon phase under the synthetic conditions.

  8. New organically templated photoluminescence iodocuprates(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Qin; Zhao Jinjing; Zhao Tianqi; Jin Juan; Yu Jiehui; Xu Jiqing

    2011-01-01

    Two types of organic cyclic aliphatic diamine molecules piperazine (pip) and 1,3-bis(4-piperidyl)propane (bpp) were used, respectively, to react with an inorganic mixture of CuI and KI in the acidic CH 3 OH solutions under the solvothermal conditions, generating finally three new organically templated iodocuprates as 2-D layered [(Hpip)Cu 3 I 4 ] 1, 1-D chained [tmpip][Cu 2 I 4 ] 2 (tmpip=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylpiperazinium) and dinuclear [H 2 bpp] 2 [Cu 2 I 5 ] I.2H 2 O 3. Note that the templating agent tmpip 2+ in compound 2 originated from the in situ N-alkylation reaction between the pip molecule and the methanol solvent. The photoluminescence analysis indicates that the title compounds emit the different lights: yellow for 1, blue for 2 and yellow-green for 3, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The solvothermal self-assemblies of CuI, KI and pip/bpp in acidic CH 3 OH solutions created three iodocuprates 2-D layered [(Hpip)Cu 3 I 4 ] 1, 1-D chained [tmpip][Cu 2 I 4 ] 2 and dinuclear [H 2 bpp] 2 [Cu 2 I 5 ] I.2H 2 O 3. Highlights: → A new layered iodocuprate(I) with 20-membered rings was hydrothermally prepared. → A simple approach to prepare the new organic templating agent was reported. → Photoluminescence analysis indicates the emission for iodocuprate(I) is associated with the Cu...Cu interactions.

  9. Sacrificial template method of fabricating a nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong [Berkeley, CA; He, Rongrui [Berkeley, CA; Goldberger, Joshua [Berkeley, CA; Fan, Rong [El Cerrito, CA; Wu, Yi-Ying [Albany, CA; Li, Deyu [Albany, CA; Majumdar, Arun [Orinda, CA

    2007-05-01

    Methods of fabricating uniform nanotubes are described in which nanotubes were synthesized as sheaths over nanowire templates, such as using a chemical vapor deposition process. For example, single-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are utilized as templates over which gallium nitride (GaN) is epitaxially grown. The ZnO templates are then removed, such as by thermal reduction and evaporation. The completed single-crystalline GaN nanotubes preferably have inner diameters ranging from 30 nm to 200 nm, and wall thicknesses between 5 and 50 nm. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that the resultant nanotubes are single-crystalline with a wurtzite structure, and are oriented along the direction. The present invention exemplifies single-crystalline nanotubes of materials with a non-layered crystal structure. Similar "epitaxial-casting" approaches could be used to produce arrays and single-crystalline nanotubes of other solid materials and semiconductors. Furthermore, the fabrication of multi-sheath nanotubes are described as well as nanotubes having multiple longitudinal segments.

  10. Graphical constraints: a graphical user interface for constraint problems

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Nelson Manuel Marques

    2015-01-01

    A constraint satisfaction problem is a classical artificial intelligence paradigm characterized by a set of variables (each variable with an associated domain of possible values), and a set of constraints that specify relations among subsets of these variables. Solutions are assignments of values to all variables that satisfy all the constraints. Many real world problems may be modelled by means of constraints. The range of problems that can use this representation is very diverse and embrace...

  11. Constraint-based scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  12. Development of Total Knee Replacement Digital Templating Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Siti Fairuz; Sulaiman, Riza; Thian Seng, Lee; Mohd. Kassim, Abdul Yazid; Abdullah, Suhail; Yusof, Shahril; Omar, Masbah; Abdul Hamid, Hamzaini

    In this study, by taking full advantage of digital X-ray and computer technology, we have developed a semi-automated procedure to template knee implants, by making use of digital templating method. Using this approach, a software system called OrthoKneeTMhas been designed and developed. The system is to be utilities as a study in the Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology in medical faculty, UKM (FPUKM). OrthoKneeTMtemplating process employs uses a technique similar to those used by many surgeons, using acetate templates over X-ray films. Using template technique makes it easy to template various implant from every Implant manufacturers who have with a comprehensive database of templates. The templating functionality includes, template (knee) and manufactures templates (Smith & Nephew; and Zimmer). From an image of patient x-ray OrthoKneeTMtemplates help in quickly and easily reads to the approximate template size needed. The visual templating features then allow us quickly review multiple template sizes against the X-ray and thus obtain the nearly precise view of the implant size required. The system can assist by templating on one patient image and will generate reports that can accompany patient notes. The software system was implemented in Visual basic 6.0 Pro using the object-oriented techniques to manage the graphics and objects. The approaches for image scaling will be discussed. Several of measurement in orthopedic diagnosis process have been studied and added in this software as measurement tools features using mathematic theorem and equations. The study compared the results of the semi-automated (using digital templating) method to the conventional method to demonstrate the accuracy of the system.

  13. Analytic family of post-merger template waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Nagar, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Building on the analytical description of the post-merger (ringdown) waveform of coalescing, nonprecessing, spinning binary black holes introduced by Damour and Nagar [Phys. Rev. D 90, 024054 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.024054], we propose an analytic, closed form, time-domain, representation of the ℓ=m =2 gravitational radiation mode emitted after merger. This expression is given as a function of the component masses and dimensionless spins (m1 ,2,χ1 ,2) of the two inspiraling objects, as well as of the mass MBH and (complex) frequency σ1 of the fundamental quasinormal mode of the remnant black hole. Our proposed template is obtained by fitting the post-merger waveform part of several publicly available numerical relativity simulations from the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) catalog and then suitably interpolating over (symmetric) mass ratio and spins. We show that this analytic expression accurately reproduces (˜0.01 rad ) the phasing of the post-merger data of other data sets not used in its construction. This is notably the case of the spin-aligned run SXS:BBH:0305, whose intrinsic parameters are consistent with the 90% credible intervals reported in the parameter-estimation followup of GW150914 by B.P. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.241102]. Using SXS waveforms as "experimental" data, we further show that our template could be used on the actual GW150914 data to perform a new measure of the complex frequency of the fundamental quasinormal mode so as to exploit the complete (high signal-to-noise-ratio) post-merger waveform. We assess the usefulness of our proposed template by analyzing, in a realistic setting, SXS full inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms and constructing posterior probability distribution functions for the central frequency damping time of the first overtone of the fundamental quasinormal mode as well as for the physical parameters of the systems. We also briefly explore the possibility

  14. Quantum centipedes with strong global constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    A centipede made of N quantum walkers on a one-dimensional lattice is considered. The distance between two consecutive legs is either one or two lattice spacings, and a global constraint is imposed: the maximal distance between the first and last leg is N  +  1. This is the strongest global constraint compatible with walking. For an initial value of the wave function corresponding to a localized configuration at the origin, the probability law of the first leg of the centipede can be expressed in closed form in terms of Bessel functions. The dispersion relation and the group velocities are worked out exactly. Their maximal group velocity goes to zero when N goes to infinity, which is in contrast with the behaviour of group velocities of quantum centipedes without global constraint, which were recently shown by Krapivsky, Luck and Mallick to give rise to ballistic spreading of extremal wave-front at non-zero velocity in the large-N limit. The corresponding Hamiltonians are implemented numerically, based on a block structure of the space of configurations corresponding to compositions of the integer N. The growth of the maximal group velocity when the strong constraint is gradually relaxed is explored, and observed to be linear in the density of gaps allowed in the configurations. Heuristic arguments are presented to infer that the large-N limit of the globally constrained model can yield finite group velocities provided the allowed number of gaps is a finite fraction of N.

  15. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint. This pr...

  16. Deepening Contractions and Collateral Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Ravn, Søren Hove; Santoro, Emiliano

    and occasionally non-binding credit constraints. Easier credit access increases the likelihood that constraints become slack in the face of expansionary shocks, while contractionary shocks are further amplified due to tighter constraints. As a result, busts gradually become deeper than booms. Based...

  17. Biometric templates selection and update using quality measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    To deal with severe variation in recording conditions, most biometric systems acquire multiple biometric samples, at the enrolment stage, for the same person and then extract their individual biometric feature vectors and store them in the gallery in the form of biometric template(s), labelled with the person's identity. The number of samples/templates and the choice of the most appropriate templates influence the performance of the system. The desired biometric template(s) selection technique must aim to control the run time and storage requirements while improving the recognition accuracy of the biometric system. This paper is devoted to elaborating on and discussing a new two stages approach for biometric templates selection and update. This approach uses a quality-based clustering, followed by a special criterion for the selection of an ultimate set of biometric templates from the various clusters. This approach is developed to select adaptively a specific number of templates for each individual. The number of biometric templates depends mainly on the performance of each individual (i.e. gallery size should be optimised to meet the needs of each target individual). These experiments have been conducted on two face image databases and their results will demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed quality-guided approach.

  18. An efficient method for minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function subject to a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function over a region defined by a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint, and two-sided bounds on the variables (box constraints. Such problems are interesting from both theoretical and practical point of view because they arise in some mathematical programming problems as well as in various practical problems such as problems of production planning and scheduling, allocation of resources, decision making, facility location problems, and so forth. Polynomial algorithms are proposed for solving problems of this form and their convergence is proved. Some examples and results of numerical experiments are also presented.

  19. Ab initio and template-based prediction of multi-class distance maps by two-dimensional recursive neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Alberto JM

    2009-01-01

    predictions on the CASP7 targets using a pre-CASP7 PDB, and find that both predictors are state-of-the-art, with the template-based one far outperforming the best CASP7 systems if templates with sequence identity to the query of 10% or better are available. Although this is not the main focus of this paper we also report on reconstructions of Cα traces based on both ab initio and template-based 4-class map predictions, showing that the latter are generally more accurate even when homology is dubious. Conclusion Accurate predictions of multi-class maps may provide valuable constraints for improved ab initio and template-based prediction of protein structures, naturally incorporate multiple templates, and yield state-of-the-art binary maps. Predictions of protein structures and 8 Å contact maps based on the multi-class distance map predictors described in this paper are freely available to academic users at the url http://distill.ucd.ie/.

  20. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jacques, Ian

    1987-01-01

    This book is primarily intended for undergraduates in mathematics, the physical sciences and engineering. It introduces students to most of the techniques forming the core component of courses in numerical analysis. The text is divided into eight chapters which are largely self-contained. However, with a subject as intricately woven as mathematics, there is inevitably some interdependence between them. The level of difficulty varies and, although emphasis is firmly placed on the methods themselves rather than their analysis, we have not hesitated to include theoretical material when we consider it to be sufficiently interesting. However, it should be possible to omit those parts that do seem daunting while still being able to follow the worked examples and to tackle the exercises accompanying each section. Familiarity with the basic results of analysis and linear algebra is assumed since these are normally taught in first courses on mathematical methods. For reference purposes a list of theorems used in the t...

  1. The Contextualization of Archetypes: Clinical Template Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rune; Ulriksen, Gro-Hilde; Ellingsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a status report from a large-scale openEHR-based EPR project from the North Norway Regional Health Authority. It concerns the standardization of a regional ICT portfolio and the ongoing development of a new process oriented EPR systems encouraged by the unfolding of a national repository for openEHR archetypes. Subject of interest; the contextualization of clinical templates is governed over multiple national boundaries which is complex due to the dependency of clinical resources. From the outset of this, we are interested in how local, regional, and national organizers maneuver to standardize while applying OpenEHR technology.

  2. Automatic target detection using binary template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Dong-San; Sun, Sun-Gu; Park, HyunWook

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a new automatic target detection (ATD) algorithm to detect targets such as battle tanks and armored personal carriers in ground-to-ground scenarios. Whereas most ATD algorithms were developed for forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images, we have developed an ATD algorithm for charge-coupled device (CCD) images, which have superior quality to FLIR images in daylight. The proposed algorithm uses fast binary template matching with an adaptive binarization, which is robust to various light conditions in CCD images and saves computation time. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good detection performance.

  3. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-12-10

    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  4. Searching for genomic constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lio` , P [Cambridge, Univ. (United Kingdom). Genetics Dept.; Ruffo, S [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria. Dipt. di Energetica ` S. Stecco`

    1998-01-01

    The authors have analyzed general properties of very long DNA sequences belonging to simple and complex organisms, by using different correlation methods. They have distinguished those base compositional rules that concern the entire genome which they call `genomic constraints` from the rules that depend on the `external natural selection` acting on single genes, i. e. protein-centered constraints. They show that G + C content, purine / pyrimidine distributions and biological complexity of the organism are the most important factors which determine base compositional rules and genome complexity. Three main facts are here reported: bacteria with high G + C content have more restrictions on base composition than those with low G + C content; at constant G + C content more complex organisms, ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes (e.g. human) display an increase of repeats 10-20 nucleotides long, which are also partly responsible for long-range correlations; work selection of length 3 to 10 is stronger in human and in bacteria for two distinct reasons. With respect to previous studies, they have also compared the genomic sequence of the archeon Methanococcus jannaschii with those of bacteria and eukaryotes: it shows sometimes an intermediate statistical behaviour.

  5. Searching for genomic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lio', P.; Ruffo, S.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have analyzed general properties of very long DNA sequences belonging to simple and complex organisms, by using different correlation methods. They have distinguished those base compositional rules that concern the entire genome which they call 'genomic constraints' from the rules that depend on the 'external natural selection' acting on single genes, i. e. protein-centered constraints. They show that G + C content, purine / pyrimidine distributions and biological complexity of the organism are the most important factors which determine base compositional rules and genome complexity. Three main facts are here reported: bacteria with high G + C content have more restrictions on base composition than those with low G + C content; at constant G + C content more complex organisms, ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes (e.g. human) display an increase of repeats 10-20 nucleotides long, which are also partly responsible for long-range correlations; work selection of length 3 to 10 is stronger in human and in bacteria for two distinct reasons. With respect to previous studies, they have also compared the genomic sequence of the archeon Methanococcus jannaschii with those of bacteria and eukaryotes: it shows sometimes an intermediate statistical behaviour

  6. iTemplate: A template-based eye movement data analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naiqi G; Lee, Kang

    2018-02-08

    Current eye movement data analysis methods rely on defining areas of interest (AOIs). Due to the fact that AOIs are created and modified manually, variances in their size, shape, and location are unavoidable. These variances affect not only the consistency of the AOI definitions, but also the validity of the eye movement analyses based on the AOIs. To reduce the variances in AOI creation and modification and achieve a procedure to process eye movement data with high precision and efficiency, we propose a template-based eye movement data analysis method. Using a linear transformation algorithm, this method registers the eye movement data from each individual stimulus to a template. Thus, users only need to create one set of AOIs for the template in order to analyze eye movement data, rather than creating a unique set of AOIs for all individual stimuli. This change greatly reduces the error caused by the variance from manually created AOIs and boosts the efficiency of the data analysis. Furthermore, this method can help researchers prepare eye movement data for some advanced analysis approaches, such as iMap. We have developed software (iTemplate) with a graphic user interface to make this analysis method available to researchers.

  7. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    OpenAIRE

    Maijenburg, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the formation of different types of nanostructures. Throughout this thesis, three different nanostructures were made: nanowires (Chapters 2 to 6), nanotubes (Chapters 2 and 5) and nanocubes (Chapters 7 and ...

  8. Improving your target-template alignment with MODalign

    OpenAIRE

    Barbato, Alessandro; Benkert, Pascal; Schwede, Torsten; Tramontano, Anna; Kosinski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Summary: MODalign is an interactive web-based tool aimed at helping protein structure modelers to inspect and manually modify the alignment between the sequences of a target protein and of its template(s). It interactively computes, displays and, upon modification of the target-template alignment, updates the multiple sequence alignments of the two protein families, their conservation score, secondary structure and solvent accessibility values, and local quality scores of the implied three-di...

  9. Template synthesis of indium nanowires using anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Kitai, Adrian H

    2008-09-01

    Indium nanowires with diameters approximately 300 nm have been synthesized by a hydraulic pressure technique using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The indium melt is injected into the AAO template and solidified to form nanostructures. The nanowires are dense, continuous and uniformly run through the entire approximately 60 microm thickness of the AAO template. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the nanowires are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation. SEM is performed to characterize the morphology of the nanowires.

  10. Fast Template-based Shape Analysis using Diffeomorphic Iterative Centroid

    OpenAIRE

    Cury , Claire; Glaunès , Joan Alexis; Chupin , Marie; Colliot , Olivier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A common approach for the analysis of anatomical variability relies on the estimation of a representative template of the population, followed by the study of this population based on the parameters of the deformations going from the template to the population. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping framework is widely used for shape analysis of anatomical structures, but computing a template with such framework is computationally expensive. In this paper w...

  11. Gamma Radiation-Induced Template Polymerization Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    Gamma radiation induced copolymerization of acrylamide sodiumacrylate (AM-AANa) in the presence and absence of the polymer additive was studied at low monomer concentration(1.4M/l). The results showed that the exponents of the dose rate for the polymerization rate was found to be 1.3 and 1.4 in the absence and in the presence of the polymer additive respectively. The molecular weight of the formed polymer increased by addition of the polymer to the system. In the presence of the polymer the comonomers polymerize on the added polymer. In the absence of the added polymer the comonomers polymerize according to the copolymerization process at the initial stage of the copolymerization. While at high conversion the residual comonomers polymerize on the formed macromolecular chains of the produced polymer. These studies showed that the copolymerization in the presence of added polymer is completely template copolymerization while in the absence of the polymer the copolymerization process is only template process with a high conversion

  12. Random template placement and prior information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roever, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In signal detection problems, one is usually faced with the task of searching a parameter space for peaks in the likelihood function which indicate the presence of a signal. Random searches have proven to be very efficient as well as easy to implement, compared e.g. to searches along regular grids in parameter space. Knowledge of the parameterised shape of the signal searched for adds structure to the parameter space, i.e., there are usually regions requiring to be densely searched while in other regions a coarser search is sufficient. On the other hand, prior information identifies the regions in which a search will actually be promising or may likely be in vain. Defining specific figures of merit allows one to combine both template metric and prior distribution and devise optimal sampling schemes over the parameter space. We show an example related to the gravitational wave signal from a binary inspiral event. Here the template metric and prior information are particularly contradictory, since signals from low-mass systems tolerate the least mismatch in parameter space while high-mass systems are far more likely, as they imply a greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence are detectable to greater distances. The derived sampling strategy is implemented in a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm where it improves convergence.

  13. Fluid discrimination based on rock physics templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Yin, Xingyao; Li, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir fluid discrimination is an indispensable part of seismic exploration. Reliable fluid discrimination helps to decrease the risk of exploration and to increase the success ratio of drilling. There are many kinds of fluid indicators that are used in fluid discriminations, most of which are single indicators. But single indicators do not always work well under complicated reservoir conditions. Therefore, combined fluid indicators are needed to increase accuracies of discriminations. In this paper, we have proposed an alternative strategy for the combination of fluid indicators. An alternative fluid indicator, the rock physics template-based indicator (RPTI) has been derived to combine the advantages of two single indicators. The RPTI is more sensitive to the contents of fluid than traditional indicators. The combination is implemented based on the characteristic of the fluid trend in the rock physics template, which means few subjective factors are involved. We also propose an inversion method to assure the accuracy of the RPTI input data. The RPTI profile is an intuitionistic interpretation of fluid content. Real data tests demonstrate the applicability and validity. (paper)

  14. Sonographic templates of newborn perforator stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Lyanne; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

    2006-07-01

    Many paediatric strokes occur in the perinatal period. Improvement in neuroimaging has increased detection in newborns with neurological symptoms. To define sonographic templates of neonatal stroke in the territory of perforators of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) and the anterior (ACA), middle (MCA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries. In 24 neonates with perforator stroke, we retrospectively studied antenatal and perinatal events. Brain sonography was performed with an 8.5-MHz probe. Only hyperechoic lesions in the thalamus and/or striatum and/or centrum semiovale were included. MRI was obtained using a 1.5-T machine. We detected 28 perforator strokes in 24 infants (6 preterm): 5 MCA medial striate, 8 MCA lateral striate, 3 MCA centrum semiovale, 4 ACA Heubner's, 5 PCA thalamic arteries, 1 AChA, and 2 hypothalamic perforators. We attributed clinical seizures to stroke in two infants only. Catheter-related embolism (certain in three, possible in six others) and birth trauma (two) were probable causes. Specific conditions were found in six others. Only one infant (in nine evaluated) had an increased prothrombotic risk (fII mutation). In describing the lesions, we focused on the templates of infarction as seen in a parasagittal US sweep. Infarcts were confirmed by MRI in 21 patients. Our study showed that infarct topography can be evaluated reliably with brain sonography. This is important given the asymptomatic character of most lesions.

  15. Biocompatibility of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencoglu, Maria F. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Spurri, Amanda [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Franko, Mitchell [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, Jihua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Hensley, Dale K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Heldt, Caryn L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Saha, Dipendu [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2014-08-21

    We report that soft-templated mesoporous carbon is morphologically a non-nano type of carbon. It is a relatively newer variety of biomaterial, which has already demonstrated its successful role in drug delivery applications. To investigate the toxicity and biocompatibility, we introduced three types of mesoporous carbons with varying synthesis conditions and pore textural properties. We compared the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pore width and performed cytotoxicity experiments with HeLa cells, cell viability studies with fibroblast cells and hemocomapatibility studies. Cytotoxicity tests reveal that two of the carbons are not cytotoxic, with cell survival over 90%. The mesoporous carbon with the highest surface area showed slight toxicity (~70% cell survival) at the highest carbon concentration of 500 μg/mL. Fibroblast cell viability assays suggested high and constant viability of over 98% after 3 days with no apparent relation with materials property and good visible cell-carbon compatibility. No hemolysis (<1%) was confirmed for all the carbon materials. Protein adsorption experiments with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen revealed a lower protein binding capacity of 0.2–0.6 mg/m2 and 2–4 mg/m2 for BSA and fibrinogen, respectively, with lower binding associated with an increase in surface area. The results of this study confirm the biocompatibility of soft-templated mesoporous carbons.

  16. Microporous silica prepared by organic templating: relationship between the molecular template and pore structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Cao, Guozhong; Kale, Rahul P.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Lu, Yunfeng; Prabakar, S.

    1999-01-01

    Microporous silica materials with a controlled pore size and a narrow pore size distribution have been prepared by sol-gel processing using an organic-templating approach. Microporous networks were formed by pyrolytic removal of organic ligands (methacryloxypropyl groups) from organic/inorganic hybrid materials synthesized by copolymerization of 3-methacryloxypropylsilane (MPS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Molecular simulations and experimental measurements were conducted to examine the relationship between the microstructural characteristics of the porous silica (e.g., pore size, total pore volume, and pore connectivity) and the size and amount of organic template ligands added. Adsorption measurements suggest that the final porosity of the microporous silica is due to both primary pores (those present in the hybrid materials prior to pyrolysis) and secondary pores (those created by pyrolytic removal of organic templates). Primary pores were inaccessible to N(sub 2) at 77 K but accessible to CO(sub 2) at 195 K; secondary pores were accessible to both N(sub 2) (at 77 K) and CO(sub 2) (at 195 K) in adsorption measurements. Primary porosity decreases with the amount of organic ligands added because of the enhanced densification of MPS/TEOS hybrid materials as the mole fraction of trifunctional MPS moieties increases. pore volumes measured by nitrogen adsorption experiments at 77 K suggest that the secondary (template-derived) porosity exhibits a percolation behavior as the template concentration is increased. Gas permeation experiments indicate that the secondary pores are approximately 5(angstrom) in diameter, consistent with predictions based on molecular simulations

  17. Fabrication of high quality ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kai; Du Kai; Chen Jing; Zhou Lan; Zhang Lin; Fang Yu

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates has been studied with oxalic acid as electrolyte. The morphology of the as-prepared templates has been characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The pores distributed orderly and uniformly with the diameter ranging from 40 nm to 70 nm. The experimental results indicate that electrolyte concentration, oxidation voltage, oxidation temperature and oxidation time affect the structure of AAO templates. Ordered porous AAO templates can be derived without annealing and finishing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the aluminum oxide film is mainly composed of amorphous Al 2 O 3 . (authors)

  18. Template for Conceptual Model Construction: Model Review and Corps Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Jim E; O'Neil, L. J

    2007-01-01

    .... The template will expedite conceptual model construction by providing users with model parameters and potential model components, building on a study team's knowledge and experience, and promoting...

  19. Light Weight Biomorphous Cellular Ceramics from Cellulose Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Yee, Bo-Moon; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Bimorphous ceramics are a new class of materials that can be fabricated from the cellulose templates derived from natural biopolymers. These biopolymers are abundantly available in nature and are produced by the photosynthesis process. The wood cellulose derived carbon templates have three- dimensional interconnectivity. A wide variety of non-oxide and oxide based ceramics have been fabricated by template conversion using infiltration and reaction-based processes. The cellular anatomy of the cellulose templates plays a key role in determining the processing parameters (pyrolysis, infiltration conditions, etc.) and resulting ceramic materials. The processing approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the biomorphous cellular ceramics (silicon carbide and oxide based) have been discussed.

  20. Constraints on the braneworld from compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe, R.G. [Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa, ISEL, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, CFTP, Lisboa (Portugal); Paret, D.M. [Universidad de la Habana, Departamento de Fisica General, Facultad de Fisica, La Habana (Cuba); Martinez, A.P. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    According to the braneworld idea, ordinary matter is confined on a three-dimensional space (brane) that is embedded in a higher-dimensional space-time where gravity propagates. In this work, after reviewing the limits coming from general relativity, finiteness of pressure and causality on the brane, we derive observational constraints on the braneworld parameters from the existence of stable compact stars. The analysis is carried out by solving numerically the brane-modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, using different representative equations of state to describe matter in the star interior. The cases of normal dense matter, pure quark matter and hybrid matter are considered. (orig.)

  1. Mean-Reverting Portfolio With Budget Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziping; Palomar, Daniel P.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the mean-reverting portfolio design problem arising from statistical arbitrage in the financial markets. We first propose a general problem formulation aimed at finding a portfolio of underlying component assets by optimizing a mean-reversion criterion characterizing the mean-reversion strength, taking into consideration the variance of the portfolio and an investment budget constraint. Then several specific problems are considered based on the general formulation, and efficient algorithms are proposed. Numerical results on both synthetic and market data show that our proposed mean-reverting portfolio design methods can generate consistent profits and outperform the traditional design methods and the benchmark methods in the literature.

  2. Supergravity constraints on monojets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, S.

    1986-01-01

    In the standard model, supplemented by N = 1 minimal supergravity, all the supersymmetric particle masses can be expressed in terms of a few unknown parameters. The resulting mass relations, and the laboratory and the cosmological bounds on these superpartner masses are used to put constraints on the supersymmetric origin of the CERN monojets. The latest MAC data at PEP excludes the scalar quarks, of masses up to 45 GeV, as the origin of these monojets. The cosmological bounds, for a stable photino, excludes the mass range necessary for the light gluino-heavy squark production interpretation. These difficulties can be avoided by going beyond the minimal supergravity theory. Irrespective of the monojets, the importance of the stable γ as the source of the cosmological dark matter is emphasized

  3. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...... temporal ccp by developing a process calculus called ntcc. The ntcc calculus generalizes the tcc model, the latter being a temporal ccp model for deterministic and synchronouss timed reactive systems. The calculus is built upon few basic ideas but it captures several aspects of timed systems. As tcc, ntcc...... structures, robotic devises, multi-agent systems and music applications. The calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. The denotation is proven to be fully-abstract for a substantial fragment...

  4. Transportation package design using numerical optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.C.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since the design of transportation packages involves a complex coupling of structural, thermal and radiation shielding analyses and must follow very strict design constraints, numerical optimization provides the potential for more efficient container designs. In numerical optimization, the requirements of the design problem are mathematically formulated through the use of an objective function and constraints. The objective function(s), e.g., package weight, cost, volume, or combination thereof, is the function to be minimized or maximized by altering a set of design variables that define the package's shape and dimensions. Constraints are limitations on the performance of the system, such as resisting structural and thermal accident environments. Two constraints defined for an example wire mesh composite Type B package are: 1) deformation in the containment vessel seal region remains small enough throughout the 10 CFR-71 accident conditions to meet containment criteria, and 2) the elastomeric seal region remains below its operational temperature limit to guarantee seal integrity in the fire environment. The first constraint of a minimum energy absorbing layer thickness is evaluated with finite element analyses of the proposed dynamic crush accident criteria. The second constraint is evaluated with a 1-D transient thermal finite difference code parametrized for variable composite layer thicknesses, and is integrated with the optimization process. (J.P.N.)

  5. Soft-Template-Synthesized Mesoporous Carbon for Oral Drug Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Warren, Kaitlyn E [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Template-synthesized mesoporous carbons were successfully used in in vitro investigations of controlled delivery of three model drugs, captopril, furosemide, and ranitidine hydrochloride. Captopril and furosemide exhibited desorption kinetics over 30 40 h, and ranitidine HCl had a complete release time of 5 10 h. As evident from the slow release kinetics, we contend that our mesoporous carbon is an improved drug-delivery medium compared to state-of-the-art porous silica-based substrates. The mesoporous carbons, synthesized from phloroglucinol and lignin, a synthetic and a sustainable precursor, respectively, exhibit BET surface area of 200 400 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.2 0.6 cm3 g-1. The phloroglucinol-based carbon has narrower pore widths and higher pore volume than the lignin-derived counterpart and maintains a longer release time. Numerical modeling of the release kinetics data reveals that the diffusivities of all the drugs from lignin-based carbon media are of equivalent magnitude (10-22 to 10-24 m2 s-1). However, a tailored reduction of pore width in the sorbent reduces the diffusivity of smaller drug molecules (captopril) by an order of magnitude. Thus, engineered pore morphology in our synthesized carbon sorbent, along with its potential to tailor the chemistry of its interaction with sorbet, can be exploited for optimal delivery system of a preferred drug within its therapeutic level and below the level of toxicity.

  6. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  7. Social Constraints on Animate Vision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breazeal, Cynthia; Edsinger, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Scassellati, Brian

    2000-01-01

    .... In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy...

  8. Modifier constraint in alkali borophosphate glasses using topological constraint theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zeng, Huidan, E-mail: hdzeng@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Jiang, Qi [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Donghui [Unifrax Corporation, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States); Chen, Guorong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Polymer Program, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Chen, Jianding [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, composition-dependent properties of glasses have been successfully predicted using the topological constraint theory. The constraints of the glass network are derived from two main parts: network formers and network modifiers. The constraints of the network formers can be calculated on the basis of the topological structure of the glass. However, the latter cannot be accurately calculated in this way, because of the existing of ionic bonds. In this paper, the constraints of the modifier ions in phosphate glasses were thoroughly investigated using the topological constraint theory. The results show that the constraints of the modifier ions are gradually increased with the addition of alkali oxides. Furthermore, an improved topological constraint theory for borophosphate glasses is proposed by taking the composition-dependent constraints of the network modifiers into consideration. The proposed theory is subsequently evaluated by analyzing the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature in alkali borophosphate glasses. This method is supposed to be extended to other similar glass systems containing alkali ions.

  9. Spin glasses and nonlinear constraints in portfolio optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrecut, M., E-mail: mircea.andrecut@gmail.com

    2014-01-17

    We discuss the portfolio optimization problem with the obligatory deposits constraint. Recently it has been shown that as a consequence of this nonlinear constraint, the solution consists of an exponentially large number of optimal portfolios, completely different from each other, and extremely sensitive to any changes in the input parameters of the problem, making the concept of rational decision making questionable. Here we reformulate the problem using a quadratic obligatory deposits constraint, and we show that from the physics point of view, finding an optimal portfolio amounts to calculating the mean-field magnetizations of a random Ising model with the constraint of a constant magnetization norm. We show that the model reduces to an eigenproblem, with 2N solutions, where N is the number of assets defining the portfolio. Also, in order to illustrate our results, we present a detailed numerical example of a portfolio of several risky common stocks traded on the Nasdaq Market.

  10. Spin glasses and nonlinear constraints in portfolio optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrecut, M.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the portfolio optimization problem with the obligatory deposits constraint. Recently it has been shown that as a consequence of this nonlinear constraint, the solution consists of an exponentially large number of optimal portfolios, completely different from each other, and extremely sensitive to any changes in the input parameters of the problem, making the concept of rational decision making questionable. Here we reformulate the problem using a quadratic obligatory deposits constraint, and we show that from the physics point of view, finding an optimal portfolio amounts to calculating the mean-field magnetizations of a random Ising model with the constraint of a constant magnetization norm. We show that the model reduces to an eigenproblem, with 2N solutions, where N is the number of assets defining the portfolio. Also, in order to illustrate our results, we present a detailed numerical example of a portfolio of several risky common stocks traded on the Nasdaq Market.

  11. Model(ing) Law: The ICTY, the International Criminal Justice Template, and Reconciliation in the Former Yugoslavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2013-01-01

    My project uses the case study of the ICTY and reconciliation in the Balkans to address the larger topic of the capacity of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) as transitional justice mechanisms. I argue that the ICTY operates under the (flawed) received wisdom of the IMT at Nuremberg, what I...... term the international criminal justice template. This template accords three transitional justice functions for ICTs beyond (and in conjunction with) their central judicial aim of adjudicating cases: as (1) articulators of progressive criminal law (2) historians and (3) reconcilers or storytellers. My...... and the development of international law and society studies, in order to better theorize and understand the structural and theoretical constraints governing the establishment of legitimacy for international criminal courts....

  12. Swinging control of two-pendulum system under energy constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananyevskiy, M.S.; Fradkov, A.L.; Nijmeijer, H.; Leonov, G.; Nijmeijer, H.; Pogromsky, A.; Fradkov, A.

    2009-01-01

    A method for control of mechanical systems under phase constraints, applicable to energy control of Hamiltonian systems is proposed. The constrained energy control problem for two pendulums by a single control action is studied both analytically and numerically. It is shown that for a proper choice

  13. Control of mechnical systems with constraints: two pendulums case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anayevskiy, M.S.; Fradkov, A.L.; Nijmeijer, H.; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2008-01-01

    A method for control of mechanical systems under phase constraints, applicable to energy control of Hamiltonian systems is proposed. The constrained energy control problem for two pendulums by a single control action is studied both analytically and numerically. It is shown that for a proper choice

  14. Nanoporous alumina as templates for multifunctional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, C. T.; Leitao, D. C.; Proenca, M. P.; Ventura, J.; Pereira, A. M.; Araujo, J. P.

    2014-09-01

    Due to its manufacturing and size tailoring ease, porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates are an elegant physical-chemical nanopatterning approach and an emergent alternative to more sophisticated and expensive methods currently used in nanofabrication. In this review, we will describe the ground work on the fabrication methods of PAA membranes and PAA-based nanostructures. We will present the specificities of the electrochemical growth processes of multifunctional nanomaterials with diversified shapes (e.g., nanowires and nanotubes), and the fabrication techniques used to grow ordered nanohole arrays. We will then focus on the fabrication, properties and applications of magnetic nanostructures grown on PAA and illustrate their dependence on internal (diameter, interpore distance, length, composition) and external (temperature and applied magnetic field intensity and direction) parameters. Finally, the most outstanding experimental findings on PAA-grown nanostructures and their trends for technological applications (sensors, energy harvesting, metamaterials, and biotechnology) will be addressed.

  15. Business planning: a template for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Judy

    2002-01-01

    Because managing a laboratory, or any health-care entity, is as much a business as a service, it is important for you to have a good grasp on how you can take opportunities from idea conception to implementation to assessment/revision. Regardless of the size of your proposed project, you need to consider a number of factors, among them: your history and what opportunities you can seize from your strengths and weaknesses; the overall business climate; anticipated costs; staff involvement; how you will market your project; and what measures to use to determine your success. Above all else, you need to set goals, both ultimate and intermediate, to instill focus, incentive, and a sense of achievement. The next time someone on your staff says, "Why don't we try that?," refer to this Template Topic. It can serve as a tool to help you determine whether you should try "that" and be the compass that helps guide your efforts.

  16. Radiation Templates of Spent Fuel in Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier, Peter

    2018-05-07

    BNL and INL propose to perform a scoping study, using heavily collimated gamma and fast neutron detectors, to obtain passive radiation templates of dry storage casks containing spent fuel. The goal is to demonstrate sufficient spatial resolution and sensitivity to detect a missing fuel assembly. Such measurements, combined with detailed modeling and decay corrections should provide confidence that the cask contents have not been altered, despite loss of continuity of knowledge (CoK). The concept relies on the leakage of high energy gammas and neutrons through the shielding of the casks. Tests will emphasize organic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination, but baseline comparisons will be made to high purity germanium (HPGe) and collimated moderated 3He detectors deployed in the same locations. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) detectors and data acquisition electronics will be used with custom-built collimators and shielding.

  17. Using archetypes for defining CDA templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner, David; Moreno, Alberto; Maldonado, José A; Robles, Montserrat; Parra, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    While HL7 CDA is a widely adopted standard for the documentation of clinical information, the archetype approach proposed by CEN/ISO 13606 and openEHR is gaining recognition as a means of describing domain models and medical knowledge. This paper describes our efforts in combining both standards. Using archetypes as an alternative for defining CDA templates permit new possibilities all based on the formal nature of archetypes and their ability to merge into the same artifact medical knowledge and technical requirements for semantic interoperability of electronic health records. We describe the process followed for the normalization of existing legacy data in a hospital environment, from the importation of the HL7 CDA model into an archetype editor, the definition of CDA archetypes and the application of those archetypes to obtain normalized CDA data instances.

  18. Colloid-templated multisectional porous polymeric fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jung Hun; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2008-10-07

    A fabrication method for porous polymeric fibers (PPFs) is reported. We show that a multisectional colloidal crystal can be assembled within a microcapillary by alternating dipping into colloidal solutions of varying size. Subsequent infiltration with curable polymer and washing with suitable solvents results in porous fibers with a cylindrical cross section. Along the length of the fiber, alternating sections of controlled length, pore size, and pore size distribution exist. These fibers present interesting materials for neural scaffolding, catalysis, and possibly photonics if produced with a high degree of crystallinity. The surface pores and bulk porosity of the fibers are characterized by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (vp-SEM). Careful analysis shows that the surface pores vary with the colloidal template diameter and polymer infiltration time.

  19. Time Series Analysis Using Geometric Template Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jordan; Mannor, Shie; Pineau, Joelle; Precup, Doina

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel framework for analyzing univariate time series data. At the heart of the approach is a versatile algorithm for measuring the similarity of two segments of time series called geometric template matching (GeTeM). First, we use GeTeM to compute a similarity measure for clustering and nearest-neighbor classification. Next, we present a semi-supervised learning algorithm that uses the similarity measure with hierarchical clustering in order to improve classification performance when unlabeled training data are available. Finally, we present a boosting framework called TDEBOOST, which uses an ensemble of GeTeM classifiers. TDEBOOST augments the traditional boosting approach with an additional step in which the features used as inputs to the classifier are adapted at each step to improve the training error. We empirically evaluate the proposed approaches on several datasets, such as accelerometer data collected from wearable sensors and ECG data.

  20. Substitution reactions of carbon nanotube template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi Pui; Chen, Ying; Gerald, John Fitz

    2006-05-01

    Substitution reactions between carbon nanotube (CNT) template and SiO with the formation of carbon rich silicon oxide nanowires (SiO-C-NWs) have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The reaction was carried out by thermal annealing at 1200°C for 1h of a mixture of silicon monoxide (SiO) and iron (II) phthalocyanine, FeC32N8H16 (FePc) powders. Multiwalled CNTs were produced first via pyrolysis of FePc at a lower temperature (1000°C ). SiO vapors reacted with the CNTs at higher temperatures to produce amorphous SiO-C-NWs with a uniform diameter and a length in tens of micrometers. The special bamboolike structure of the CNTs allows the reaction to start from the external surface of the tubes and transform each CNT into a solid nanowire section by section.

  1. Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slade, Susan C; Dionne, Clermont E; Underwood, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the reporting of exercise programs in all evaluative study designs and contains 7 categories: materials, provider, delivery, location, dosage, tailoring, and compliance. The CERT will encourage transparency, improve trial interpretation and replication, and facilitate implementation of effective exercise......BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions are often incompletely described in reports of clinical trials, hampering evaluation of results and replication and implementation into practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a standardized method for reporting exercise programs in clinical...... trials: the Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT). DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the EQUATOR Network's methodological framework, 137 exercise experts were invited to participate in a Delphi consensus study. A list of 41 items was identified from a meta-epidemiologic study of 73 systematic reviews...

  2. Seismological Constraints on Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    Earth is an open thermodynamic system radiating heat energy into space. A transition from geostatic earth models such as PREM to geodynamical models is needed. We discuss possible thermodynamic constraints on the variables that govern the distribution of forces and flows in the deep Earth. In this paper we assume that the temperature distribution is time-invariant, so that all flows vanish at steady state except for the heat flow Jq per unit area (Kuiken, 1994). Superscript 0 will refer to the steady state while x denotes the excited state of the system. We may write σ 0=(J{q}0ṡX{q}0)/T where Xq is the conjugate force corresponding to Jq, and σ is the rate of entropy production per unit volume. Consider now what happens after the occurrence of an earthquake at time t=0 and location (0,0,0). The earthquake introduces a stress drop Δ P(x,y,z) at all points of the system. Response flows are directed along the gradients toward the epicentral area, and the entropy production will increase with time as (Prigogine, 1947) σ x(t)=σ 0+α {1}/(t+β )+α {2}/(t+β )2+etc A seismological constraint on the parameters may be obtained from Omori's empirical relation N(t)=p/(t+q) where N(t) is the number of aftershocks at time t following the main shock. It may be assumed that p/q\\sim\\alpha_{1}/\\beta times a constant. Another useful constraint is the Mexican-hat geometry of the seismic transient as obtained e.g. from InSAR radar interferometry. For strike-slip events such as Landers the distribution of \\DeltaP is quadrantal, and an oval-shaped seismicity gap develops about the epicenter. A weak outer triggering maxiμm is found at a distance of about 17 fault lengths. Such patterns may be extracted from earthquake catalogs by statistical analysis (Lomnitz, 1996). Finally, the energy of the perturbation must be at least equal to the recovery energy. The total energy expended in an aftershock sequence can be found approximately by integrating the local contribution over

  3. Tailoring the porosity of hierarchical zeolites by carbon-templating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kake; Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Claus H.

    2008-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of hierarchical porous zeolite single crystal materials with a range of porosities made available by carbon-templating using differently-sized carbon particles as templates for the additional non-micropore porosity. The materials were...

  4. Proline-catalysed asymmetric ketol cyclizations: The template ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A modified template mechanism based on modelling studies of energy minimised complexes is presented for the asymmetric proline-catalysed cyclization of triketones 1, 2 and 3 to the 2S,3S-ketols. 1a, 2a and 3a respectively. The template model involves a three-point contact as favoured in enzyme– substrate ...

  5. A non-parametric 2D deformable template classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut

    2005-01-01

    feature space the ship-master will be able to interactively define a segmentation map, which is refined and optimized by the deformable template algorithms. The deformable templates are defined as two-dimensional vector-cycles. Local random transformations are applied to the vector-cycles, and stochastic...

  6. Graphene Emerges as a Versatile Template for Materials Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjie; Wu, Sida; Lv, Wei; Shao, Jiao-Jing; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2016-05-01

    Graphene and its derivatives are emerging as a class of novel but versatile templates for the controlled preparation and functionalization of materials. In this paper a conceptual review on graphene-based templates is given, highlighting their versatile roles in materials preparation. Graphene is capable of acting as a low-dimensional hard template, where its two-dimensional morphology directs the formation of novel nanostructures. Graphene oxide and other functionalized graphenes are amphiphilic and may be seen as soft templates for formatting the growth or inducing the controlled assembly of nanostructures. In addition, nanospaces in restacked graphene can be used for confining the growth of sheet-like nanostructures, and assemblies of interlinked graphenes can behave either as skeletons for the formation of composite materials or as sacrificial templates for novel materials with a controlled network structure. In summary, flexible graphene and its derivatives together with an increasing number of assembled structures show great potentials as templates for materials production. Many challenges remain, for example precise structural control of such novel templates and the removal of the non-functional remaining templates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Computer-Aided Template for Model Reuse, Development and Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    A template-based approach for model development is presented in this work. Based on a model decomposition technique, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool , which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps...

  8. BPFlexTemplate: A Business Process template generation tool based on similarity and flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Ilahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In large organizations with multiple organizational units, process variants emerge due to many aspects, including local management policies, resources or socio-technical limitations. Organizations then struggle to improve a business process which has no longer a single process model to redesign, implement and adjust. In this paper, we propose an approach to tackle these two challenges: decrease the proliferation of process variants in these organizations, and foresee, at the same time, the need of having flexible business processes that allow for a certain degree of adjustment. To validate our approach, we first conducted case studies where we collected six real-world business process variants from two organizational units of the same healthcare organization. We then proposed an algorithm to derive a template process model from all the variants, which includes common and flexible process elements. We implemented our approach in a software tool called BPFlexTemplate, and tested it with the elicited variants.

  9. Observational constraints on interstellar chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnewisser, G.

    1984-01-01

    The author points out presently existing observational constraints in the detection of interstellar molecular species and the limits they may cast on our knowledge of interstellar chemistry. The constraints which arise from the molecular side are summarised and some technical difficulties encountered in detecting new species are discussed. Some implications for our understanding of molecular formation processes are considered. (Auth.)

  10. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  11. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  12. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due to n...

  13. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...

  14. Self-ordering of small-diameter metal nanoparticles by dewetting on hexagonal mesh templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshot, Eric R; Zhao, Zhouzhou; Lu, Wei; Hart, A John

    2014-09-07

    Arrays of small-diameter nanoparticles with high spatial order are useful for chemical and biological sensors, data storage, synthesis of nanowires and nanotubes, and many other applications. We show that self-ordered metal nanoparticle arrays can be formed by dewetting of thin films on hexagonal mesh substrates made of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO). Upon heating, the metal (Fe) film dewets onto the interstitial sites (i.e., the node points) between pores on the top surface of the AAO. We investigated the particle morphology and dynamics of dewetting using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), and numerical simulations. Templated metal particles are more monodisperse and have higher local order than those formed by the same dewetting process on flat, nonporous alumina. The degree of order depends on the initial film thickness, and for the optimal thickness tested (nominally 2 nm), we achieved uniform coverage and high order of the particles, comparable to that of the AAO template itself. Computational modeling of dewetting on templates with various pore order and size shows that the order of AAO pores is primarily influential in determining particle position and spacing, while the variance in pore size is less impactful. Potential uses of these ordered nanoparticle arrays on porous materials include plasmonic sensors and spatially controlled catalysts.

  15. Kinetic Analysis for Macrocyclizations Involving Anionic Template at the Transition State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martí-Centelles

    2012-01-01

    competitive oligomerization/polymerization processes yielding undesired oligomeric/polymeric byproducts. The effect of anions has also been included in the kinetic models, as they can act as catalytic templates in the transition state reducing and stabilizing the transition state. The corresponding differential equation systems for each kinetic model can be solved numerically. Through a comprehensive analysis of these results, it is possible to obtain a better understanding of the different parameters that are involved in the macrocyclization reaction mechanism and to develop strategies for the optimization of the desired processes.

  16. Accuracy of templating the acetabular cup size in Total Hip Replacement using conventional acetate templates on digital radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Vignesh P; Perumal, Rajamani; Daniel, Alfred J; Poonnoose, Pradeep M

    2015-12-01

    Templating of the acetabular cup size in Total Hip Replacement (THR) is normally done using conventional radiographs. As these are being replaced by digital radiographs, it has become essential to create a technique of templating using digital films. We describe a technique that involves templating the digital films using the universally available acetate templates for THR without the use of special software. Preoperative digital radiographs of the pelvis were taken with a 30 mm diameter spherical metal ball strapped over the greater trochanter. Using standard acetate templates provided by the implant company on magnified digital radiographs, the size of the metal ball (X mm) and acetabular cup (Y mm) were determined. The size of the acetabular cup to be implanted was estimated using the formula 30*Y/X. The estimated size was compared with the actual size of the cup used at surgery. Using this technique, it was possible to accurately predict the acetabular cup size in 28/40 (70%) of the hips. When the accuracy to within one size was considered, templating was correct in 90% (36/40). When assessed by two independent observers, there was good intra-observer and inter-observer reliability with intra-class correlation coefficient values greater than 0.8. It was possible to accurately and reliably predict the size of the acetabular cup, using acetate templates on digital films, without any digital templates.

  17. Template polymerization of N-vinylimidazole along poly(methacrylic acid) in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grampel, Hendrik Theodorus van de

    1990-01-01

    Template polymerisaties zijn polymerisaties waarbij radicalen gedurende het grootste gedeelte van hun bestaan langs het template polymeer groeien. In het algemeen kan de template invloed hebben op de polymerisatiesnelheid, als ook op het molecuulgewicht en de tacticiteit van het bijgevormde

  18. A numerical method for complex structural dynamics in nuclear plant facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitner, W.

    1979-01-01

    The solution of dynamic problems is often connected with difficulties in setting up a system of equations of motion because of the constraint conditions of the system. Such constraint conditions may be of geometric nature as for example gaps or slidelines, they may be compatibility conditions or thermodynamic criteria for the energy balance of a system. The numerical method proposed in this paper for the treatment of a dynamic problem with constraint conditions requires only to set up the equations of motion without considering the constraints. This always leads to a relatively simple formulation. The constraint conditions themselves are included in the integration procedure by a numerical application of Gauss' principle. (orig.)

  19. Optimization with PDE constraints ESF networking program 'OPTPDE'

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book on PDE Constrained Optimization contains contributions on the mathematical analysis and numerical solution of constrained optimal control and optimization problems where a partial differential equation (PDE) or a system of PDEs appears as an essential part of the constraints. The appropriate treatment of such problems requires a fundamental understanding of the subtle interplay between optimization in function spaces and numerical discretization techniques and relies on advanced methodologies from the theory of PDEs and numerical analysis as well as scientific computing. The contributions reflect the work of the European Science Foundation Networking Programme ’Optimization with PDEs’ (OPTPDE).

  20. Path following control of planar snake robots using virtual holonomic constraints: theory and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour, Ehsan; Pettersen, Kristin Y; Liljebäck, Pål; Gravdahl, Jan T; Kelasidi, Eleni

    This paper considers path following control of planar snake robots using virtual holonomic constraints. In order to present a model-based path following control design for the snake robot, we first derive the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion of the system. Subsequently, we define geometric relations among the generalized coordinates of the system, using the method of virtual holonomic constraints. These appropriately defined constraints shape the geometry of a constraint manifold for the system, which is a submanifold of the configuration space of the robot. Furthermore, we show that the constraint manifold can be made invariant by a suitable choice of feedback. In particular, we analytically design a smooth feedback control law to exponentially stabilize the constraint manifold. We show that enforcing the appropriately defined virtual holonomic constraints for the configuration variables implies that the robot converges to and follows a desired geometric path. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical approach.

  1. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  2. Semiconductor nanowires and templates for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Xiang

    2009-07-15

    This thesis starts by developing a platform for the organized growth of nanowires directly on a planar substrate. For this, a method to fabricate horizontal porous alumina membranes is studied. The second part of the thesis focuses on the study of nanowires. It starts by the understanding of the growth mechanisms of germanium nanowires and follows by the structural and electrical properties at the single nanowire level. Horizontally aligned porous anodic alumina (PAA) was used as a template for the nanowire synthesis. Three PAA arrangements were studied: - high density membranes - micron-sized fingers - multi-contacts Membranes formed by a high density of nanopores were obtained by anodizing aluminum thin films. Metallic and semiconducting nanowires were synthesized into the PAA structures via DC deposition, pulsed electro-depostion and CVD growth. The presence of gold, copper, indium, nickel, tellurium, and silicon nanowires inside PAA templates was verified by SEM and EDX analysis. Further, room-temperature transport measurements showed that the pores are completely filled till the bottom of the pores. In this dissertation, single crystalline and core-shell germanium nanowires are synthesized using indium and bismuth as catalyst in a chemical vapor deposition procedure with germane (GeH{sub 4}) as growth precursor. A systematic growth study has been performed to obtain high aspect-ratio germanium nanowires. The influence of the growth conditions on the final morphology and the crystalline structure has been determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In the case of indium catalyzed germanium nanowires, two different structures were identified: single crystalline and crystalline core-amorphous shell. The preferential growth axis of both kinds of nanowires is along the [110] direction. The occurrence of the two morphologies was found to only depend on the nanowire dimension. In the case of bismuth

  3. MOCVD epitaxy of InAlN on different templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Lijun; Wei Tongbo; Yan Jianchang; Liu Zhe; Wang Junxi; Li Jinmin

    2011-01-01

    InAlN epilayers were grown on high quality GaN and AlN templates with the same growth parameters. Measurement results showed that two samples had the same In content of ∼ 16%, while the crystal quality and surface topography of the InAlN epilayer grown on the AlN template, with 282.3 (002) full width at half maximum (FWHM) of rocking curve, 313.5 (102) FWHM, surface roughness of 0.39 nm and V-pit density of 2.8 x 10 8 cm -2 , were better than that of the InAlN epilayer grown on the GaN template, 309.3, 339.1, 0.593 nm and 4.2 x 10 8 cm -2 . A primary conclusion was proposed that both the crystal quality and the surface topography of the InAlN epilayer grown on the AlN template were better than that of the InAlN epilayer grown on the GaN template. Therefore, the AlN template was a better choice than the GaN template for getting high quality InAlN epilayers. (semiconductor materials)

  4. Multimodal biometric approach for cancelable face template generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Padma Polash; Gavrilova, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Due to the rapid growth of biometric technology, template protection becomes crucial to secure integrity of the biometric security system and prevent unauthorized access. Cancelable biometrics is emerging as one of the best solutions to secure the biometric identification and verification system. We present a novel technique for robust cancelable template generation algorithm that takes advantage of the multimodal biometric using feature level fusion. Feature level fusion of different facial features is applied to generate the cancelable template. A proposed algorithm based on the multi-fold random projection and fuzzy communication scheme is used for this purpose. In cancelable template generation, one of the main difficulties is keeping interclass variance of the feature. We have found that interclass variations of the features that are lost during multi fold random projection can be recovered using fusion of different feature subsets and projecting in a new feature domain. Applying the multimodal technique in feature level, we enhance the interclass variability hence improving the performance of the system. We have tested the system for classifier fusion for different feature subset and different cancelable template fusion. Experiments have shown that cancelable template improves the performance of the biometric system compared with the original template.

  5. Linear-constraint wavefront control for exoplanet coronagraphic imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, He; Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Groff, Tyler Dean

    2017-01-01

    A coronagraph is a leading technology for achieving high-contrast imaging of exoplanets in a space telescope. It uses a system of several masks to modify the diffraction and achieve extremely high contrast in the image plane around target stars. However, coronagraphic imaging systems are very sensitive to optical aberrations, so wavefront correction using deformable mirrors (DMs) is necessary to avoid contrast degradation in the image plane. Electric field conjugation (EFC) and Stroke minimization (SM) are two primary high-contrast wavefront controllers explored in the past decade. EFC minimizes the average contrast in the search areas while regularizing the strength of the control inputs. Stroke minimization calculates the minimum DM commands under the constraint that a target average contrast is achieved. Recently in the High Contrast Imaging Lab at Princeton University (HCIL), a new linear-constraint wavefront controller based on stroke minimization was developed and demonstrated using numerical simulation. Instead of only constraining the average contrast over the entire search area, the new controller constrains the electric field of each single pixel using linear programming, which could led to significant increases in speed of the wavefront correction and also create more uniform dark holes. As a follow-up of this work, another linear-constraint controller modified from EFC is demonstrated theoretically and numerically and the lab verification of the linear-constraint controllers is reported. Based on the simulation and lab results, the pros and cons of linear-constraint controllers are carefully compared with EFC and stroke minimization.

  6. Durable diamond-like carbon templates for UV nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, L; Ramachandran, S; Nelson, C T; Overzet, L J; Goeckner, M; Lee, G; Hu, W; Lin, M; Willson, C G; Wu, W

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between resist and template during the separation process after nanoimprint lithography (NIL) can cause the formation of defects and damage to the templates and resist patterns. To alleviate these problems, fluorinated self-assembled monolayers (F-SAMs, i.e. tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2,tetrahydrooctyl trichlorosilane or FDTS) have been employed as template release coatings. However, we find that the FDTS coating undergoes irreversible degradation after only 10 cycles of UV nanoimprint processes with SU-8 resist. The degradation includes a 28% reduction in surface F atoms and significant increases in the surface roughness. In this paper, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were investigated as an alternative material not only for coating but also for direct fabrication of nanoimprint templates. DLC films deposited on quartz templates in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system are shown to have better chemical and physical stability than FDTS. After the same 10 cycles of UV nanoimprints, the surface composition as well as the roughness of DLC films were found to be unchanged. The adhesion energy between the DLC surface and SU-8 is found to be smaller than that of FDTS despite the slightly higher total surface energy of DLC. DLC templates with 40 nm features were fabricated using e-beam lithography followed by Cr lift-off and reactive ion etching. UV nanoimprinting using the directly patterned DLC templates in SU-8 resist demonstrates good pattern transfer fidelity and easy template-resist separation. These results indicate that DLC is a promising material for fabricating durable templates for UV nanoimprint lithography

  7. Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross...... tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research...

  8. Improved dielectric functions in metallic films obtained via template stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyuk Park, Jong; Nagpal, Prashant; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Norris, David J.

    2012-02-01

    We compare the dielectric functions of silver interfaces obtained via thermal evaporation with those obtained with template stripping. Ellipsometry measurements show that the smoother template-stripped surfaces exhibit effective dielectric functions with a more negative real component and a smaller imaginary component, implying higher conductivity and less energy loss, respectively. These results agree with the relation between dielectric function and surface roughness derived from combining the effective-medium model and the Drude-Lorentz model. The improvement in the effective dielectric properties shows that metallic films prepared via template stripping can be favorable for applications in electronics, nanophotonics, and plasmonics.

  9. POROUS MEMBRANE TEMPLATED SYNTHESIS OF POLYMER PILLARED LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-wei Niu; Dan Li; Zhen-zhong Yang

    2003-01-01

    The anodic porous alumina membranes with a definite pore diameter and aspect ratio were used as templates to synthesize polymer pillared layer structures. The pillared polymer was produced in the template membrane pores, and the layer on the template surfaces. Rigid cured epoxy resin, polystyrene and soft hydrogel were chosen to confirm the methodology. The pillars were in the form of either tubes or fibers, which were controlled by the alumina membrane pore surface wettability. The structural features were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy results.

  10. Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates for Nano wires Array Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok, K.Y.; Ng, I.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the process developed to fabricate anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) templates suitable for the fabrication of nano wire arrays. Anodization process has been used to fabricate the AAO templates with pore diameters ranging from 15 nm to 30 nm. Electrodeposition of parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were demonstrated using these fabricated AAO templates. The nano wires produced were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the orientations of the electrodeposited nickel nano wires were governed by the deposition current and electrolyte conditions. (author)

  11. Tailoring silver nanoparticle construction using dendrimer templated silica networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaojun; Kakkar, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the role of the internal environment of dendrimer templated silica networks in tailoring the construction of silver nanoparticle assemblies. Silica networks from which 3,5-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol based dendrimer templates have been completely removed, slowly wet with an aqueous solution of silver acetate. The latter then reacts with internal silica silanol groups, leading to chemisorption of silver ions, followed by the growth of silver oxide nanoparticles. Silica network constructed using generation 4 dendrimer contains residual dendrimer template, and mixes with aqueous silver acetate solution easily. Upon chemisorption, silver ions get photolytically reduced to silver metal under a stabilizing dendrimer environment, leading to the formation of silver metal nanoparticles

  12. Synthetic opal as a template for nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul A.; Heales, Lindsey; Barber, Richard L.; Turney, Terence W.

    2001-04-01

    Synthetic opal has been used as a template for making 3D inverse opals of silica, titania and silicone rubber. The materials are mesoporous with connected pores and channels and have better opalescence than the opal templates they replace. Thin films of synthetic opal have been grown onto glass substrates by spin coating and these have also been used as templates for making thin films of inverse opal and as masks for depositing metal nanodots. This method produced hexagonally patterned 50 nm gold dots on a flat graphite substrate.

  13. Surgical templates for dental implant positioning; current knowledge and clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zaheer Kola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants have been used in a variety of different forms for many years. Since the mid-20 th century, there has been an increase in interest in the implant process for the replacement of missing teeth. Branemark was one of the initial pioneers who applied scientifically based research techniques to develop an endosseous implant that forms an immobile connection with bone. The need for a dental implant to completely address multiple physical and biological factors imposes tremendous constraints on the surgical and handling protocol. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have serious shortcomings related to their bony union and the fact that their mechanical properties do not match those of bone. However, anatomic limitation and restorative demands encourage the surgeon to gain precision in planning and surgical positioning of dental implants. Ideal placement of the implant facilitates the establishment of favorable forces on the implants and the prosthetic component as well as ensures an aesthetic outcome. Therefore, it is advisable to establish a logical continuity between the planned restoration and the surgical phases, it is essential to use a transfer device that for sure increases the predictability of success. The surgical guide template is fabricated by a dental technician after the presurgical restorative appointments that primarily include determination of occlusal scheme and implant angulations. Here, authors genuinely attempted to review the evolution and clinical applicability of surgical templates used in the placement of dental implants.

  14. Open set recognition of aircraft in aerial imagery using synthetic template models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapst, Aleksander B.; Tran, Jonathan; Koch, Mark W.; Moya, Mary M.; Swahn, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Fast, accurate and robust automatic target recognition (ATR) in optical aerial imagery can provide game-changing advantages to military commanders and personnel. ATR algorithms must reject non-targets with a high degree of confidence in a world with an infinite number of possible input images. Furthermore, they must learn to recognize new targets without requiring massive data collections. Whereas most machine learning algorithms classify data in a closed set manner by mapping inputs to a fixed set of training classes, open set recognizers incorporate constraints that allow for inputs to be labelled as unknown. We have adapted two template-based open set recognizers to use computer generated synthetic images of military aircraft as training data, to provide a baseline for military-grade ATR: (1) a frequentist approach based on probabilistic fusion of extracted image features, and (2) an open set extension to the one-class support vector machine (SVM). These algorithms both use histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) as features as well as artificial augmentation of both real and synthetic image chips to take advantage of minimal training data. Our results show that open set recognizers trained with synthetic data and tested with real data can successfully discriminate real target inputs from non-targets. However, there is still a requirement for some knowledge of the real target in order to calibrate the relationship between synthetic template and target score distributions. We conclude by proposing algorithm modifications that may improve the ability of synthetic data to represent real data.

  15. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-08-04

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero {beta} function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as {tau} decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized.

  16. Template-assisted fabrication of protein nanocapsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, Shelley A.; Liang Jianyu; Kowalik, Timothy F.

    2009-01-01

    Bionanomaterials have recently begun to spark a great amount of interest and could potentially revolutionize biomedical research. Nanoparticles, nanocapsules, and nanotubular structures are becoming attractive options in drug and gene delivery. The size of the delivery vehicles greatly impacts cellular uptake and makes it highly desirable to precisely control the diameter and length of nanocarriers to make uniform nanoparticles at low cost. Carbon nanotubes have shown great potential within the field of drug and gene delivery. However, their insolubility and cytotoxicity could severely delay FDA approval. A desirable alternative would be to fabricate nanostructures from biomaterials such as proteins, peptides, or liposomes, which are already FDA approved. In this article we demonstrate the preparation of protein nanocapsules with both ends sealed using a template-assisted alternate immersion method combined with controlled cleaving. Glucose oxidase nanocapsules with controllable diameter, wall thickness, and length were fabricated and characterized with SEM and TEM. The biochemical activity of glucose oxidase in the form of nanocapsules after processing was confirmed using UV spectrometry. Our future work will explore proteins suitable for drug encapsulation and cellular uptake and will focus on optimizing the cleaving process to gain precise control over the length of the nanocapsules.

  17. Template-assisted fabrication of protein nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Shelley A.; Liang, Jianyu; Kowalik, Timothy F.

    2009-02-01

    Bionanomaterials have recently begun to spark a great amount of interest and could potentially revolutionize biomedical research. Nanoparticles, nanocapsules, and nanotubular structures are becoming attractive options in drug and gene delivery. The size of the delivery vehicles greatly impacts cellular uptake and makes it highly desirable to precisely control the diameter and length of nanocarriers to make uniform nanoparticles at low cost. Carbon nanotubes have shown great potential within the field of drug and gene delivery. However, their insolubility and cytotoxicity could severely delay FDA approval. A desirable alternative would be to fabricate nanostructures from biomaterials such as proteins, peptides, or liposomes, which are already FDA approved. In this article we demonstrate the preparation of protein nanocapsules with both ends sealed using a template-assisted alternate immersion method combined with controlled cleaving. Glucose oxidase nanocapsules with controllable diameter, wall thickness, and length were fabricated and characterized with SEM and TEM. The biochemical activity of glucose oxidase in the form of nanocapsules after processing was confirmed using UV spectrometry. Our future work will explore proteins suitable for drug encapsulation and cellular uptake and will focus on optimizing the cleaving process to gain precise control over the length of the nanocapsules.

  18. Cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qin; Guo Ying; Huang Duan

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of fingerprint identification technology, its security and privacy have been paid much attention. Only the security and privacy of biological information are insured, the biological technology can be better accepted and used by the public. In this paper, we propose a novel quantum bit (qbit)-based scheme to solve the security and privacy problem existing in the traditional fingerprint identification system. By exploiting the properties of quantm mechanics, our proposed scheme, cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme, can achieve the unconditional security guaranteed in an information-theoretical sense. Moreover, this novel quantum scheme can invalidate most of the attacks aimed at the fingerprint identification system. In addition, the proposed scheme is applicable to the requirement of remote communication with no need to worry about its security and privacy during the transmission. This is an absolute advantage when comparing with other traditional methods. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can effectively ensure the communication security and the privacy of users’ information for the fingerprint identification. (paper)

  19. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-01-01

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero β function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as τ decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized

  20. Preparation of micro/nanostructure TiO2 spheres by controlling pollen as hard template and soft template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohui; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xuehong; Song, Xiuqin; Chen, Rufen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, micro/nanostructure TiO2 spheres were synthesized by a sunflower pollen induced and self-assembly mineralization process, in which a titania precursor and pollen reacted in one-pot at normal pressure. In this paper, the bio-template advantage, as hard and soft template is fully demonstrated. The superiority of our synthesis is that we not only can control pollen as hard template, but also can control it as soft template only by changing reactions temperature. Under 80 degrees C of water bath, TiO2 microspheres which replicated the morphology of pollen were prepared by controlling pollen as hard template. Under 100 degrees C, hierarchical TiO2 spheres with complicated morphology, different from pollen template, were synthesized by using pollen as soft template. At the same time, judicious choice of the amount of pollen affords the synthesis of hierarchical structures spheres with adjustable morphology and crystal structure. The morphology can be tuned from microspheres constructed from TiO2 nanorods to nanospheres constructed from TiO2 nanoparticles, and the crystal structure can be tuned from rutile to anatase. More over this anatase phase can be keep better even at high temperature of 1000 degrees C. The as-prepared micro/nano structure photocatalysts not only have high photocatalytic activities, but also have good separability and reuse performance.

  1. Machine tongues. X. Constraint languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, D.

    Constraint languages and programming environments will help the designer produce a lucid description of a problem domain, and then of particular situations and problems in it. Early versions of these languages were given descriptions of real world domain constraints, like the operation of electrical and mechanical parts. More recently, the author has automated a vocabulary for describing musical jazz phrases, using constraint language as a jazz improviser. General constraint languages will handle all of these domains. Once the model is in place, the system will connect built-in code fragments and algorithms to answer questions about situations; that is, to help solve problems. Bugs will surface not in code, but in designs themselves. 15 references.

  2. Fluid convection, constraint and causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Complexity—nonlinear dynamics for my purposes in this essay—is rich with metaphysical and epistemological implications but is receiving sustained philosophical analysis only recently. I will explore some of the subtleties of causation and constraint in Rayleigh–Bénard convection as an example of a complex phenomenon, and extract some lessons for further philosophical reflection on top-down constraint and causation particularly with respect to causal foundationalism. PMID:23386955

  3. Detecting gravitational waves from test-mass bodies orbiting a Kerr black hole with P-approximant templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Edward K

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we apply post-Newtonian (T-approximants) and resummed post-Newtonian (P-approximants) to the case of a test particle in equatorial orbit around a Kerr black hole. We compare the two approximants by measuring their effectualness (i.e., larger overlaps with the exact signal) and faithfulness (i.e., smaller biases while measuring the parameters of the signal) with the exact (numerical) waveforms. We find that in the case of prograde orbits, T-approximant templates obtain an effectualness of ∼0.99 for spins q ≤ 0.75. For 0.75 0.99 for all spins up to q = 0.95. The bias in the estimation of parameters is much lower in the case of P-approximants than T-approximants. We find that P-approximants are both effectual and faithful and should be more effective than T-approximants as a detection template family when q > 0. For q < 0, both T- and P-approximants perform equally well so that either of them could be used as a detection template family. However, for parameter estimation, the P-approximant templates still outperform the T-approximants

  4. Electrical constraints on electronic components: syntheses of the ETTC'97 and RADECS 97 congress activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carel, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of systems and their hardening against electromagnetic (IEMN, lightning, strong radio and radar fields..) and radiative environments impose severe manufacturing constraints in competition with other functional constraints, like thermal constraints and weight, and operational constraints (maintenance, availability). This paper is a summary of the main topics discussed during the ETTC and RADECS 1997 congresses. The outstanding facts concern: the non-disturbance of components (hyper-frequency EMC and high fields), the non-destruction of components (hardening against electromagnetic pulses), the civil domain, the numerical simulations, the integrity of electronic card signals, and the reliability of components. (J.S.)

  5. Finger multibiometric cryptosystems: fusion strategy and template security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jialiang; Li, Qiong; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Niu, Xiamu

    2014-03-01

    We address two critical issues in the design of a finger multibiometric system, i.e., fusion strategy and template security. First, three fusion strategies (feature-level, score-level, and decision-level fusions) with the corresponding template protection technique are proposed as the finger multibiometric cryptosystems to protect multiple finger biometric templates of fingerprint, finger vein, finger knuckle print, and finger shape modalities. Second, we theoretically analyze different fusion strategies for finger multibiometric cryptosystems with respect to their impact on security and recognition accuracy. Finally, the performance of finger multibiometric cryptosystems at different fusion levels is investigated on a merged finger multimodal biometric database. The comparative results suggest that the proposed finger multibiometric cryptosystem at feature-level fusion outperforms other approaches in terms of verification performance and template security.

  6. View-Invariant Gait Recognition Through Genetic Template Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Ebenezer R. H. P.; Elias, Susan; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Easwarakumar, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    Template-based model-free approach provides by far the most successful solution to the gait recognition problem in literature. Recent work discusses how isolating the head and leg portion of the template increase the performance of a gait recognition system making it robust against covariates like clothing and carrying conditions. However, most involve a manual definition of the boundaries. The method we propose, the genetic template segmentation (GTS), employs the genetic algorithm to automate the boundary selection process. This method was tested on the GEI, GEnI and AEI templates. GEI seems to exhibit the best result when segmented with our approach. Experimental results depict that our approach significantly outperforms the existing implementations of view-invariant gait recognition.

  7. Creation of structured documentation templates using Natural Language Processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vipul; Turchin, Alexander; Morin, Laura; Chang, Frank; Li, Qi; Hongsermeier, Tonya

    2006-01-01

    Structured Clinical Documentation is a fundamental component of the healthcare enterprise, linking both clinical (e.g., electronic health record, clinical decision support) and administrative functions (e.g., evaluation and management coding, billing). One of the challenges in creating good quality documentation templates has been the inability to address specialized clinical disciplines and adapt to local clinical practices. A one-size-fits-all approach leads to poor adoption and inefficiencies in the documentation process. On the other hand, the cost associated with manual generation of documentation templates is significant. Consequently there is a need for at least partial automation of the template generation process. We propose an approach and methodology for the creation of structured documentation templates for diabetes using Natural Language Processing (NLP).

  8. Template matching techniques in computer vision theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brunelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The detection and recognition of objects in images is a key research topic in the computer vision community.  Within this area, face recognition and interpretation has attracted increasing attention owing to the possibility of unveiling human perception mechanisms, and for the development of practical biometric systems. This book and the accompanying website, focus on template matching, a subset of object recognition techniques of wide applicability, which has proved to be particularly effective for face recognition applications. Using examples from face processing tasks throughout the book to illustrate more general object recognition approaches, Roberto Brunelli: examines the basics of digital image formation, highlighting points critical to the task of template matching;presents basic and  advanced template matching techniques, targeting grey-level images, shapes and point sets;discusses recent pattern classification paradigms from a template matching perspective;illustrates the development of a real fac...

  9. Three-dimensional metallic opals fabricated by double templating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Qingfeng; Nukala, Pavan; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Wong, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We report a simple and cost-effective double templating method for fabricating large-area three-dimensional metallic photonic crystals of controlled thickness. A self-assembled polystyrene opal was used as the first template to fabricate a silica inverse opal on a gold-coated glass substrate via sol-gel processing. Gold was subsequently infiltrated to the pores of the silica inverse opal using electrochemical deposition. A high-quality three-dimensional gold photonic crystal was obtained after removal of the secondary template (silica inverse opal). The effects of template sphere size and deposition current density on the gold growth rate, and the resulting morphology and growth mechanism of the gold opal, were investigated.

  10. GPP Webinar: Solar Procurement Templates and Tools for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar on solar procurement for Higher Education which features various tools and templates that schools can use to shape and manage the solar procurement process to a successful outcome.

  11. Surfactant-assisted sacrificial template-mediated synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopyand photoluminescence studies. Influence of surfactant and solvents on morphology and luminescence of the final product in sacrificial template-assisted method has been investigated in detail.

  12. Excel Template For Processing Examination Results For Higher

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria. ... examination result processing template for all the Postgraduate ... Though the last two parameters of the IF function are optional,.

  13. Fumigant Management Plan Templates - Phase 2 Files Listed by Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    FMP templates are in PDF and Word formats for each type of soil fumigant pesticide, with samples of filled out plans. Types are by active ingredient chemical: Chloropicrin, dazomet, dimethyl disulfide, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide.

  14. A Survey On Various Web Template Detection And Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Mary Varghese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In todays digital world reliance on the World Wide Web as a source of information is extensive. Users increasingly rely on web based search engines to provide accurate search results on a wide range of topics that interest them. The search engines in turn parse the vast repository of web pages searching for relevant information. However majority of web portals are designed using web templates which are designed to provide consistent look and feel to end users. The presence of these templates however can influence search results leading to inaccurate results being delivered to the users. Therefore to improve the accuracy and reliability of search results identification and removal of web templates from the actual content is essential. A wide range of approaches are commonly employed to achieve this and this paper focuses on the study of the various approaches of template detection and extraction that can be applied across homogenous as well as heterogeneous web pages.

  15. Laparotomy operative note template constructed through a modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lolonya; Churley-Strom, Ruth; Singal, Bonita; O'Leary, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    An operative note is indispensable to physician documentation and decision-making; however, there are no accepted standards for operative note content. Our aim was to use a modified Delphi consensus-building method to construct a uniform operative note template for laparotomy. Using Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requirements, literature review, and feedback from 15 medical malpractice defense attorneys, we compiled a draft operative note template of 31 elements. We surveyed 37 Association of Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics/Solvay scholars asking for their input on inclusion of each item as essential content of the operative note. Two iterations of the survey were required to reach a predetermined 75% level of consensus. Nine elements were eliminated from the template: 6 original and 3 expert-suggested elements. We provide an operative note template that was compiled through a Delphi process.

  16. Synthesis of Porous Carbon Monoliths Using Hard Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, Olaf; Danneberg, Nina; Dräger, Matti; Erlitz, Marcel; Taubert, Michael

    2016-03-21

    The preparation of porous carbon monoliths with a defined shape via template-assisted routes is reported. Monoliths made from porous concrete and zeolite were each used as the template. The porous concrete-derived carbon monoliths exhibited high gravimetric specific surface areas up to 2000 m²·g -1 . The pore system comprised macro-, meso-, and micropores. These pores were hierarchically arranged. The pore system was created by the complex interplay of the actions of both the template and the activating agent as well. On the other hand, zeolite-made template shapes allowed for the preparation of microporous carbon monoliths with a high volumetric specific surface area. This feature could be beneficial if carbon monoliths must be integrated into technical systems under space-limited conditions.

  17. Classical and Nonclassical Estrogen Receptor Action on Chromatin Templates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeen, Steven

    2000-01-01

    .... Using newly-developed approaches, I investigated mechanisms of estrogen/estrogen receptor action on chromatin templates in vitro in order to better understand the role of chromatin in steroid-regulated gene expression...

  18. Improving your target-template alignment with MODalign.

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Alessandro

    2012-02-04

    SUMMARY: MODalign is an interactive web-based tool aimed at helping protein structure modelers to inspect and manually modify the alignment between the sequences of a target protein and of its template(s). It interactively computes, displays and, upon modification of the target-template alignment, updates the multiple sequence alignments of the two protein families, their conservation score, secondary structure and solvent accessibility values, and local quality scores of the implied three-dimensional model(s). Although it has been designed to simplify the target-template alignment step in modeling, it is suitable for all cases where a sequence alignment needs to be inspected in the context of other biological information. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Freely available on the web at http://modorama.biocomputing.it/modalign. Website implemented in HTML and JavaScript with all major browsers supported. CONTACT: jan.kosinski@uniroma1.it.

  19. Improving your target-template alignment with MODalign.

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Alessandro; Benkert, Pascal; Schwede, Torsten; Tramontano, Anna; Kosinski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    , upon modification of the target-template alignment, updates the multiple sequence alignments of the two protein families, their conservation score, secondary structure and solvent accessibility values, and local quality scores of the implied three

  20. Ordered Nanomaterials Thin Films via Supported Anodized Alumina Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eES-SOUNI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supported anodized alumina template films with highly ordered porosity are best suited for fabricating large area ordered nanostructures with tunable dimensions and aspect ratios. In this paper we first discuss important issues for the generation of such templates, including required properties of the Al/Ti/Au/Ti thin film heterostructure on a substrate for high quality templates. We then show examples of anisotropic nanostructure films consisting of noble metals using these templates, discuss briefly their optical properties and their applications to molecular detection using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Finally we briefly address the possibility to make nanocomposite films, exemplary shown on a plasmonic-thermochromic nanocomposite of VO2-capped Au-nanorods.

  1. Involute Spur Gear Template Development by Parametric Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    cylindrical coordinate systems to create the involute curve profile. Since spur gear ... Template gear development using parametric method means that the dimensions control the ... and rapid prototyping of interlocking gears. Excel is a common ...

  2. A concatenated coding scheme for biometric template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Xu, H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptography may mitigate the privacy problem in biometric recognition systems. However, cryptography technologies lack error-tolerance and biometric samples cannot be reproduced exactly, rising the robustness problem. The biometric template protection system needs a good feature extraction

  3. Facile template-free hydrothermal synthesis and microstrain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2009), solar cells (Yuan et al 2011), transparent elec- trodes (Kim et al ... increasing the peak width, intensity and shifting the 2θ peak position. ... Facile template-free hydrothermal synthesis and microstrain measurement of ZnO nanorods. 399.

  4. The need of appropriate brain SPECT templates for SPM comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbelli, S.; Altrinetti, V.; Piccardo, A.; Rodriguez, G.; Brugnolo, A.; Nobili, F.; Mignone, A.; Pupi, A.; Koulibaly, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is used worldwide to compare brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. The default template within the SPM package used for SPECT image normalization includes images of a group of healthy subjects studied with 99m TcHMPAO. Since [ 99m Tc] HMPAO and [ 99m Tc] ECD have shown to distribute differently in SPECT studies, we formulated the hypothesis that comparing set of [ 99m Tc]ECD data normalized by means of a [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template may lead to incorrect results. A customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template was built with SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of 22 neurologically healthy women. Then, two sets of subjects, i.e. a group of patients with very early Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and a matched control group, studied by means of [ 99m Tc]ECD SPECT, were chosen for comparisons. The same statistical approach (t-test between eAD patients and controls and correlation analysis between brain SPECT and a cognitive score) was applied twice, i.e. after normalization with either the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template or the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template. In the comparison between eAD and controls, a cluster of difference in the posterior-cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres was only highlighted when using the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template, but was missed when using the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template. In the correlation between brain perfusion and a cognitive score, the significant cluster was more significant and far more extended, also including the right superior temporal gyrus, using the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template than using the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template. These data suggest the need of customized, radiopharmaceutical-matched SPECT templates to be used within the SPM package. The present customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template is now freely available on the web. (authors)

  5. Efficiency of template banks for binary black-hole detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokelaer, Thomas; Babak, Stas; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of matched filtering theory, which is the most promising method for the detection of gravitational waves emitted by coalescing binaries, we report on the ability of a template bank to catch a simulated binary black-hole gravitational wave signal. If we suppose that the incoming signal waveform is known a priori, then both the (simulated) signal and the templates can be based on the same physical model and therefore the template bank can be optimal in the sense of Wiener filtering. This turns out to be true for the case of neutron star binaries but not necessarily for the black-hole case. When the templates and the signal are based on different physical models the detection bank may still remain efficient. Nonetheless, it might be a judicious choice to use a phenomenological template family such as the so-called BCV templates to catch all the different physical models. In the first part of that report, we illustrate in a non-exhaustive study, by using Monte Carlo simulations, the efficiency of a template bank based on the stationary phase approximation and show how it catches simulated signals based on the same physical model but fails to catch signals built using other models (Pade, EOB, ...) especially in the case of high mass binaries. In the second part, we construct a BCV-template bank and test its validity by injecting simulated signals based on different physical models such as the PN-approximants, Pade-approximant and the effective one-body method. We show that it is suitable for a search pipeline since it gives a match higher than 95% for all the different physical models. The range of individual mass which has been used is [3-20]M o-dot

  6. The Utility of Template Analysis in Qualitative Psychology Research

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Joanna; McCluskey, Serena; Turley, Emma L.; King, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Thematic analysis is widely used in qualitative psychology research, and in this article, we present a particular style of thematic analysis known as Template Analysis. We outline the technique and consider its epistemological position, then describe three case studies of research projects which employed Template Analysis to illustrate the diverse ways it can be used. Our first case study illustrates how the technique was employed in data analysis undertaken by a team of researchers in a larg...

  7. Review of Research on Template Methods in Preparation of Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Yadian Xie; Duygu Kocaefe; Chunying Chen; Yasar Kocaefe

    2016-01-01

    The nanomaterials have been widely used in various fields, such as photonics, catalysis, and adsorption, because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, their production methods are of utmost importance. Compared with traditional synthetic methods, the template method can effectively control the morphology, particle size, and structure during the preparation of nanomaterials, which is an effective method for their synthesis. The key for the template method is to choose di...

  8. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be made faster, cheaper and more efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework, a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific models is presented....... The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene...

  9. Fabrication of porous zirconia using filter paper template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yuhua; Wei Pan

    2005-01-01

    In this work, porous zirconia ceramic was synthesized using filter papers as a template. Special attention is paid to whether the structural of the filter paper can be transferred to the zirconia structure. Microstructure of so synthesized porous zirconia was observed with SEM and the phase was determined by XRD. The surface area and the pore were investigated with an automatic volumetric sorption analyzer. It has been found that the morphology of the template transmit to the porous zirconia quite well. (orig.)

  10. A TEMPLATE FOR ONLINE HOMEWORK: FRANKENSTEIN'S MONSTER OR ROBO TA?

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlgran, Roger A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the programming procedures required to implement online homework and evaluates the application of these procedures based on use in the author's course. The description of the procedures utilizes a template showing two representative applications from the author's introductory econometrics course. In one, the students are to collect and record data and in the other, students are to perform econometric analysis on the data. The web address for the template is arec.arizona.e...

  11. Diffeomorphic Iterative Centroid Methods for Template Estimation on Large Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Cury , Claire; Glaunès , Joan Alexis; Colliot , Olivier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A common approach for analysis of anatomical variability relies on the stimation of a template representative of the population. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping is an attractive framework for that purpose. However, template estimation using LDDMM is computationally expensive, which is a limitation for the study of large datasets. This paper presents an iterative method which quickly provides a centroid of the population in the shape space. This centr...

  12. Constraint propagation of C2-adjusted formulation: Another recipe for robust ADM evolution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Takuya; Yoneda, Gen; Shinkai, Hisa-aki

    2011-01-01

    With a purpose of constructing a robust evolution system against numerical instability for integrating the Einstein equations, we propose a new formulation by adjusting the ADM evolution equations with constraints. We apply an adjusting method proposed by Fiske (2004) which uses the norm of the constraints, C 2 . One of the advantages of this method is that the effective signature of adjusted terms (Lagrange multipliers) for constraint-damping evolution is predetermined. We demonstrate this fact by showing the eigenvalues of constraint propagation equations. We also perform numerical tests of this adjusted evolution system using polarized Gowdy-wave propagation, which show robust evolutions against the violation of the constraints than that of the standard ADM formulation.

  13. II - Template Metaprogramming for Massively Parallel Scientific Computing - Vectorization with Expression Templates

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  14. III - Template Metaprogramming for massively parallel scientific computing - Templates for Iteration; Thread-level Parallelism

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  15. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  16. Formation of novel morphologies of aragonite induced by inorganic template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Nan, Zhaodong

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Glass-slices were used as a template to induce formation and assembly of aragonite. Different morphologies, such as hemisphere, twinborn hemisphere and flower-shaped particles, were produced by direction of the glass-slices. Highlights: → Glass-slices were used as a template to induce formation and assembly of aragonite. → Hemisphere, twinborn hemisphere and flower-shaped particles were produced by direction of the glass-slices. → Planes were always appeared in these as-synthesized samples. → Thermodynamic theory was applied to explain the production of the aragonite. -- Abstract: A glass-slice was used as a template to induce formation and assembly of aragonite. Thermodynamic theory was applied to explain the production of the aragonite. Transformation of three-dimensional nucleation to template-based two-dimensional surface nucleation caused the production of aragonite. Hemisphere, twinborn hemisphere and flower-shaped particles were produced by direction of the glass-slices. Planes were always appeared in these as-synthesized samples because the nucleation and the growth of these samples were adsorbed at the surfaces of the glass-slices. The formation mechanism of the as-formed sample was proposed. Compared with organic template, the present study provides a facile method to apply inorganic template to prepare functional materials.

  17. Silver nanowires-templated metal oxide for broadband Schottky photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Kim, Joondong, E-mail: joonkim@inu.ac.kr [Photoelectric and Energy Device Application Lab (PEDAL) and Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, 119 Academy Rd. Yeonsu, Incheon 406772 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyeong-Ho [Applied Device and Material Lab., Device Technology Division, Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center (KANC), Suwon 443270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-04

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs)-templated transparent metal oxide layer was applied for Si Schottky junction device, which remarked the record fastest photoresponse of 3.4 μs. Self-operating AgNWs-templated Schottky photodetector showed broad wavelength photodetection with high responsivity (42.4 A W{sup −1}) and detectivity (2.75 × 10{sup 15} Jones). AgNWs-templated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) showed band-to-band excitation due to the internal photoemission, resulting in significant carrier collection performances. Functional metal oxide layer was formed by AgNWs-templated from ITO structure. The grown ITO above AgNWs has a cylindrical shape and acts as a thermal protector of AgNWs for high temperature environment without any deformation. We developed thermal stable AgNWs-templated transparent oxide devices and demonstrated the working mechanism of AgNWs-templated Schottky devices. We may propose the high potential of hybrid transparent layer design for various photoelectric applications, including solar cells.

  18. A Novel Surgical Template Design in Staged Dental Implant Rehabilitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Patras

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The philosophy of a gradual transition to an implant retained prosthesis in cases of full-mouth or extensive rehabilitation usually involves a staged treatment concept. In this therapeutic approach, the placement of implants may sometimes be divided into phases. During a subsequent surgical phase of treatment, the pre-existing implants can serve as anchors for the surgical template. Those modified surgical templates help in the precise transferring of restorative information into the surgical field and guide the optimal three-dimensional implant positioning. Methods: This article highlights the rationale of implant-retained surgical templates and illustrates them through the presentation of two clinical cases. The templates are duplicates of the provisional restorations and are secured to the existing implants through the utilization of implant mounts. Results: This template design in such staged procedures provided stability in the surgical field and enhanced the accuracy in implant positioning based upon the planned restoration, thus ensuring predictable treatment outcomes.Conclusions: Successful rehabilitation lies in the correct sequence of surgical and prosthetic procedures. Whenever a staged approach of implant placement is planned, the clinician can effectively use the initially placed implants as anchors for the surgical template during the second phase of implant surgery.

  19. Constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murren, Courtney J; Auld, Josh R.; Callahan, Hilary S

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generally regarded as a key mechanism for enabling organisms to survive in the face of environmental change. Because no organism is infinitely or ideally plastic, theory suggests that there must be limits (for example, the lack of ability to produce...... an optimal trait) to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, or that plasticity may have inherent significant costs. Yet numerous experimental studies have not detected widespread costs. Explicitly differentiating plasticity costs from phenotype costs, we re-evaluate fundamental questions of the limits...... to the evolution of plasticity and of generalists vs specialists. We advocate for the view that relaxed selection and variable selection intensities are likely more important constraints to the evolution of plasticity than the costs of plasticity. Some forms of plasticity, such as learning, may be inherently...

  20. Cosmological Constraints on Mirror Matter Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallemacq, Quentin; Ciarcelluti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Up-to-date estimates of the cosmological parameters are presented as a result of numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure, considering a flat Universe in which the dark matter is made entirely or partly of mirror matter, and the primordial perturbations are scalar adiabatic and in linear regime. A statistical analysis using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method allows to obtain constraints of the cosmological parameters. As a result, we show that a Universe with pure mirror dark matter is statistically equivalent to the case of an admixture with cold dark matter. The upper limits for the ratio of the temperatures of ordinary and mirror sectors are around 0.3 for both the cosmological models, which show the presence of a dominant fraction of mirror matter, 0.06≲Ω_m_i_r_r_o_rh"2≲0.12.

  1. Heat exchanger networks design with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amidpur, M.; Zoghi, A.; Nasiri, N.

    2000-01-01

    So far there have been two approaches to the problem of heat recovery system design where stream matching constraints exist. The first approach involves mathematical techniques for solving the combinational problem taking due recognition of the constraints. These methodologies are now efficient, still suffer from the problem of taking a significant amount of control and direction away from the designer. The second approach based upon so called pinch technology and involves the use of adaptation of standard problem table algorithm. Unfortunately, the proposed methodologies are not very easy to understand, therefore they fail to provide the insight and generally associated with these approaches. Here, a new pinch based methodology is presented. In this method, we modified the traditional numerical targeting procedure-problem table algorithm which is stream cascade table. Unconstrained groups are established by using of artificial intelligence method such that they have minimum utility consumption among different alternatives. Each group is an individual network, therefore, traditional optimization, used in pinch technology, should be employed. By transferring energy between groups heat recovery can be maximized, then each group designs individually and finally networks combine together. One of the advantages of using this method is simple targeting and easy networks-design. Besides the approach has the potential using of new network design methods such as dual temperature approach, flexible pinch design, pseudo pinch design. It is hoped that this methodology provides insight easy network design

  2. Speed-up Template Matching through Integral Image based Weak Classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, t.; Toet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Template matching is a widely used pattern recognition method, especially in industrial inspection. However, the computational costs of traditional template matching increase dramatically with both template-and scene imagesize. This makes traditional template matching less useful for many (e.g.

  3. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  4. Using soft constraints to guide users in flexible business process management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansen, Christian; Borch, Signe Ellegård

    2008-01-01

    Current Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) allow designers to specify processes in highly expressive languages supporting numerous control flow constructs, exceptions, complex predicates, etc., but process specifications are expressed in terms of hard constraints, and this leads...... to an unfortunate trade off: information about preferred practices must either be abandoned or promoted to hard constraints. If abandoned, the BPMS cannot guide its users; if promoted to hard constraints, it becomes a hindrance when unanticipated deviations occur. Soft constraints can make this trade-off less...... painful. Soft constraints specify what rules can be violated and by how much. With soft constraints, the BPMS knows what deviations it can permit, and it can guide the user through the process. The BPMS should allow designers to easily specify soft goals and allow its users to immediately see...

  5. Integration of numerical analysis tools for automated numerical optimization of a transportation package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkowski, W.R.; Eldred, M.S.; Harding, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of state-of-the-art numerical analysis tools to determine the optimal design of a radioactive material (RAM) transportation container is investigated. The design of a RAM package's components involves a complex coupling of structural, thermal, and radioactive shielding analyses. The final design must adhere to very strict design constraints. The current technique used by cask designers is uncoupled and involves designing each component separately with respect to its driving constraint. With the use of numerical optimization schemes, the complex couplings can be considered directly, and the performance of the integrated package can be maximized with respect to the analysis conditions. This can lead to more efficient package designs. Thermal and structural accident conditions are analyzed in the shape optimization of a simplified cask design. In this paper, details of the integration of numerical analysis tools, development of a process model, nonsmoothness difficulties with the optimization of the cask, and preliminary results are discussed

  6. Modular constraints on conformal field theories with currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Lee, Sungjay; Song, Jaewon

    2017-12-01

    We study constraints coming from the modular invariance of the partition function of two-dimensional conformal field theories. We constrain the spectrum of CFTs in the presence of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic currents using the semi-definite programming. In particular, we find the bounds on the twist gap for the non-current primaries depend dramatically on the presence of holomorphic currents, showing numerous kinks and peaks. Various rational CFTs are realized at the numerical boundary of the twist gap, saturating the upper limits on the degeneracies. Such theories include Wess-Zumino-Witten models for the Deligne's exceptional series, the Monster CFT and the Baby Monster CFT. We also study modular constraints imposed by W -algebras of various type and observe that the bounds on the gap depend on the choice of W -algebra in the small central charge region.

  7. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  8. Nucleon Edm from Atomic Systems and Constraints on Supersymmetry Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Sachiko; Nihei, Takeshi; Fujita, Takehisa

    2005-01-01

    The nucleon EDM is shown to be directly related to the EDM of atomic systems. From the observed EDM values of the atomic Hg system, the neutron EDM can be extracted, which gives a very stringent constraint on the supersymmetry parameters. It is also shown that the measurement of Nitrogen and Thallium atomic systems should provide important information on the flavor dependence of the quark EDM. We perform numerical analyses on the EDM of neutron, proton and electron in the minimal supersymmetr...

  9. Fatigue Crack Propagation Simulation in Plane Stress Constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes; Spinelli, Dirceu

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, structural and materials engineers develop structures and materials properties using finite element method. This work presents a numerical determination of fatigue crack opening and closure stress intensity factors of a C(T) specimen. Two different standard variable spectrum loadings...... are utilized, Mini-Falstaff and Wisper. The effects in two-dimensional (2D) small scale yielding models of fatigue crack growth were studied considering plane stress constraint....

  10. Black hole constraints on the running-mass inflation model

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Samuel M; Grivell, Ian J; Liddle, Andrew R

    2000-01-01

    The running-mass inflation model, which has strong motivation from particle physics, predicts density perturbations whose spectral index is strongly scale-dependent. For a large part of parameter space the spectrum rises sharply to short scales. In this paper we compute the production of primordial black holes, using both analytic and numerical calculation of the density perturbation spectra. Observational constraints from black hole production are shown to exclude a large region of otherwise...

  11. Controlling macro- and mesostructures with hierarchical porosity through combined hard and soft templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovich, Nicholas D; Stein, Andreas

    2013-05-07

    Rigid, porous objects and surfactants serve as powerful templates for the formation of mesoporous and macroporous materials. When both types of template are combined in a single synthesis, materials with intricate architectures and hierarchical porosity can be obtained. In this tutorial review, we explain how to conduct syntheses with both soft and hard templates; moreover, we describe methods to control the final structure present in the templated material. Much of the foundation for multiple templating lies in the study of materials made with only one type of template. To establish a foundation in this area, a description of hard and soft templating is given, delving into the templates available and the steps required for effective templating. This leads into an extended discussion about materials templated with both hard and soft templates. Through the use of recent examples in the literature, we aim to show the diversity of structures possible through multiple templating and the advantages these structures can provide for a wide range of applications. An emphasis is placed on how various factors-such as the type of template, type of precursor, heat-treatment temperature, confinement within a small space, and template-template interactions-impact morphology.

  12. A facile template method to synthesize significantly improved LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 using corn stalk as a bio-template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guiyang; Kong, Xin; Sun, Hongyan; Wang, Baosen; Yi, Zhongzhou; Wang, Quanbiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to simplify the template method for the synthesis of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, a facile template method using plant stalks as bio-templates has been introduced. Based on this method, LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 spinel with a significantly improved electrochemical performance has been synthesized using corn stalk as a template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared pectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been used to investigate the phase composition and micro-morphologies of the products. Charge-discharge measurements in lithium cells, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have been used to study the electrochemical performance of the products. The results indicate that the templated product exhibits higher crystallinity than that of non-templated product. Both of the templated product and the non-templated product are combination of the ordered space group P4 3 32 and the disordered Fd-3 m. The specific BET surface area of the templated product is about twice larger than that of the non-templated product. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of the templated product including specific capacity, cycling stability and rate capability are significantly improved as compared with the non-templated product, due to its higher crystallinity, larger Li + diffusion coefficient and lower charge transfer resistance

  13. From scores to face templates: a model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pranab; Sarkar, Sudeep; Kasturi, Rangachar

    2007-12-01

    Regeneration of templates from match scores has security and privacy implications related to any biometric authentication system. We propose a novel paradigm to reconstruct face templates from match scores using a linear approach. It proceeds by first modeling the behavior of the given face recognition algorithm by an affine transformation. The goal of the modeling is to approximate the distances computed by a face recognition algorithm between two faces by distances between points, representing these faces, in an affine space. Given this space, templates from an independent image set (break-in) are matched only once with the enrolled template of the targeted subject and match scores are recorded. These scores are then used to embed the targeted subject in the approximating affine (non-orthogonal) space. Given the coordinates of the targeted subject in the affine space, the original template of the targeted subject is reconstructed using the inverse of the affine transformation. We demonstrate our ideas using three, fundamentally different, face recognition algorithms: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Mahalanobis cosine distance measure, Bayesian intra-extrapersonal classifier (BIC), and a feature-based commercial algorithm. To demonstrate the independence of the break-in set with the gallery set, we select face templates from two different databases: Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) and Facial Recognition Technology (FERET) Database (FERET). With an operational point set at 1 percent False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and 99 percent True Acceptance Rate (TAR) for 1,196 enrollments (FERET gallery), we show that at most 600 attempts (score computations) are required to achieve a 73 percent chance of breaking in as a randomly chosen target subject for the commercial face recognition system. With similar operational set up, we achieve a 72 percent and 100 percent chance of breaking in for the Bayesian and PCA based face recognition systems, respectively. With

  14. A new template matching method based on contour information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiying; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Qingxiao; Li, Sicong

    2014-11-01

    Template matching is a significant approach in machine vision due to its effectiveness and robustness. However, most of the template matching methods are so time consuming that they can't be used to many real time applications. The closed contour matching method is a popular kind of template matching methods. This paper presents a new closed contour template matching method which is suitable for two dimensional objects. Coarse-to-fine searching strategy is used to improve the matching efficiency and a partial computation elimination scheme is proposed to further speed up the searching process. The method consists of offline model construction and online matching. In the process of model construction, triples and distance image are obtained from the template image. A certain number of triples which are composed by three points are created from the contour information that is extracted from the template image. The rule to select the three points is that the template contour is divided equally into three parts by these points. The distance image is obtained here by distance transform. Each point on the distance image represents the nearest distance between current point and the points on the template contour. During the process of matching, triples of the searching image are created with the same rule as the triples of the model. Through the similarity that is invariant to rotation, translation and scaling between triangles, the triples corresponding to the triples of the model are found. Then we can obtain the initial RST (rotation, translation and scaling) parameters mapping the searching contour to the template contour. In order to speed up the searching process, the points on the searching contour are sampled to reduce the number of the triples. To verify the RST parameters, the searching contour is projected into the distance image, and the mean distance can be computed rapidly by simple operations of addition and multiplication. In the fine searching process

  15. Numerical Optimization in Microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg

    2017-01-01

    Numerical modelling can illuminate the working mechanism and limitations of microfluidic devices. Such insights are useful in their own right, but one can take advantage of numerical modelling in a systematic way using numerical optimization. In this chapter we will discuss when and how numerical...... optimization is best used....

  16. Methods of numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piran, T.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical Relativity is an alternative to analytical methods for obtaining solutions for Einstein equations. Numerical methods are particularly useful for studying generation of gravitational radiation by potential strong sources. The author reviews the analytical background, the numerical analysis aspects and techniques and some of the difficulties involved in numerical relativity. (Auth.)

  17. The Utility of Template Analysis in Qualitative Psychology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Joanna; McCluskey, Serena; Turley, Emma; King, Nigel

    2015-04-03

    Thematic analysis is widely used in qualitative psychology research, and in this article, we present a particular style of thematic analysis known as Template Analysis. We outline the technique and consider its epistemological position, then describe three case studies of research projects which employed Template Analysis to illustrate the diverse ways it can be used. Our first case study illustrates how the technique was employed in data analysis undertaken by a team of researchers in a large-scale qualitative research project. Our second example demonstrates how a qualitative study that set out to build on mainstream theory made use of the a priori themes (themes determined in advance of coding) permitted in Template Analysis. Our final case study shows how Template Analysis can be used from an interpretative phenomenological stance. We highlight the distinctive features of this style of thematic analysis, discuss the kind of research where it may be particularly appropriate, and consider possible limitations of the technique. We conclude that Template Analysis is a flexible form of thematic analysis with real utility in qualitative psychology research.

  18. Assessing usefulness and researcher satisfaction with consent form templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elaine L; Teller, Alan; Aguirre, Alejandra N; Jackson, Jhia; Meyer, Dodi

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to improve the research consenting process by developing and evaluating simplified consent forms. Four templates written at the eighth-tenth grade reading level were developed and trialed by a group of experts in clinical research, health literacy, national regulatory requirements, and end users. Researchers from protocols which had received expedited review were surveyed at 2 time points regarding their use and assessment of the templates. At baseline 18/86 (20.9%) responding researchers had heard of the templates and 5 (5.8%) reported that they had used them; 2 years later, 54.2% (32/59) had heard of the templates and 87.5% (28/32) had used them ( p Consent form templates may be one mechanism to improve patient comprehension of research protocols as well as efficiency of the review process, but require considerable time for development and implementation, and one key to their success is involvement and support from the IRB and technical staff.

  19. 3-Dimensional printing guide template assisted percutaneous vertebroplasty: Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lin, JiSheng; Yang, Yong; Xu, JunChuan; Fei, Qi

    2018-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is currently considered as an effective treatment for pain caused by acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture. Recently, puncture-related complications are increasingly reported. It's important to find a precise technique to reduce the puncture-related complications. We report a case and discussed the novel surgical technique with step-by-step operating procedures, to introduce the precise PVP assisted by a 3-dimensional printing guide template. Based on the preoperative CT scan and infrared scan data, a well-designed individual guide template could be established in a 3-dimensional reconstruction software and printed out by a 3-dimensional printer. In real operation, by matching the guide template to patient's back skin, cement needles' insertion orientation and depth were easily established. Only 14 times C-arm fluoroscopy with HDF mode (total exposure dose was 4.5 mSv) were required during the procedure. The operation took only 17 min. Cement distribution in the vertebral body was very good without any puncture-related complications. Pain was significantly relieved after surgery. In conclusion, the novel precise 3-dimensional printing guide template system may allow (1) comprehensive visualization of the fractured vertebral body and the individual surgical planning, (2) the perfect fitting between skin and guide template to ensure the puncture stability and accuracy, and (3) increased puncture precision and decreased puncture-related complications, surgical time and radiation exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering Plasmonic Nanocrystal Coupling through Template-Assisted Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greybush, Nicholas J.

    The construction of materials from nanocrystal building blocks represents a powerful new paradigm for materials design. Just as nature's materials orchestrate intricate combinations of atoms from the library of the periodic table, nanocrystal "metamaterials" integrate individual nanocrystals into larger architectures with emergent collective properties. The individual nanocrystal "meta-atoms" that make up these materials are themselves each a nanoscale atomic system with tailorable size, shape, and elemental composition, enabling the creation of hierarchical materials with predesigned structure at multiple length scales. However, an improved fundamental understanding of the interactions among individual nanocrystals is needed in order to translate this structural control into enhanced functionality. The ability to form precise arrangements of nanocrystals and measure their collective properties is therefore essential for the continued development of nanocrystal metamaterials. In this dissertation, we utilize template-assisted self-assembly and spatially-resolved spectroscopy to form and characterize individual nanocrystal oligomers. At the intersection of "top-down" and "bottom-up" nanoscale patterning schemes, template-assisted self-assembly combines the design freedom of lithography with the chemical control of colloidal synthesis to achieve unique nanocrystal configurations. Here, we employ shape-selective templates to assemble new plasmonic structures, including heterodimers of Au nanorods and upconversion phosphors, a series of hexagonally-packed Au nanocrystal oligomers, and triangular formations of Au nanorods. Through experimental analysis and numerical simulation, we elucidate the means through which inter-nanocrystal coupling imparts collective optical properties to the plasmonic assemblies. Our self-assembly and measurement strategy offers a versatile platform for exploring optical interactions in a wide range of material systems and application areas.

  1. Constraint elimination in dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Likins, P. W.

    1989-01-01

    Large space structures (LSSs) and other dynamical systems of current interest are often extremely complex assemblies of rigid and flexible bodies subjected to kinematical constraints. A formulation is presented for the governing equations of constrained multibody systems via the application of singular value decomposition (SVD). The resulting equations of motion are shown to be of minimum dimension.

  2. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  3. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  4. Intertemporal consumption and credit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    There is continuing controversy over the importance of credit constraints. This paper investigates whether total household expenditure and debt is affected by an exogenous increase in access to credit provided by a credit market reform that enabled Danish house owners to use housing equity...

  5. Financial Constraints: Explaining Your Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Jennifer

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of educating library patrons about the library's finances and the impact of budget constraints and the escalating cost of serials on materials acquisition. Steps that can be taken in educating patrons by interpreting and publicizing financial information are suggested. (MES)

  6. Implementation Support of Security Design Patterns Using Test Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Yoshizawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Security patterns are intended to support software developers as the patterns encapsulate security expert knowledge. However, these patterns may be inappropriately applied because most developers are not security experts, leading to threats and vulnerabilities. Here we propose a support method for security design patterns in the implementation phase of software development. Our method creates a test template from a security design pattern, consisting of an “aspect test template” to observe the internal processing and a “test case template”. Providing design information creates a test from the test template with a tool. Because our test template is reusable, it can easily perform a test to validate a security design pattern. In an experiment involving four students majoring in information sciences, we confirm that our method can realize an effective test, verify pattern applications, and support pattern implementation.

  7. Electrochemically grown metallic nanocomb structures on nanoporous alumina templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Savas; Atar, Erdem

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical growth of metallic nanocomb structures on anodized alumina templates is described. Nanocombs originate from the orderly growth and merger of very thin (d=15±5 nm) metallic nanowires which do not completely fill much larger pores (d∼100 nm) in the alumina template (t≤3 μm). Instead, the nanowires prefer growing along the inner corners of the hexagonal pores, coalescing into a highly ordered structure as they emerge, resulting a metallic form reminiscent of the topology of the original template. We disclose here the typical processing conditions and the microstructure of this previously unknown material as observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. It is shown that Au nanocombs have an anomalous EDX spectra and can emit electrons at a field of ∼1 kV/cm.

  8. Electroless Fabrication of Cobalt Alloys Nanowires within Alumina Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Dadvand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of nanowire fabrication based on electroless deposition process is described. The method is novel compared to the current electroless procedure used in making nanowires as it involves growing nanowires from the bottom up. The length of the nanowires was controlled at will simply by adjusting the deposition time. The nanowires were fabricated within the nanopores of an alumina template. It was accomplished by coating one side of the template by a thin layer of palladium in order to activate the electroless deposition within the nanopores from bottom up. However, prior to electroless deposition process, the template was pretreated with a suitable wetting agent in order to facilitate the penetration of the plating solution through the pores. As well, the electroless deposition process combined with oblique metal evaporation process within a prestructured silicon wafer was used in order to fabricate long nanowires along one side of the grooves within the wafer.

  9. Conducting polymer nanostructures: template synthesis and applications in energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lijia; Qiu, Hao; Dou, Chunmeng; Li, Yun; Pu, Lin; Xu, Jianbin; Shi, Yi

    2010-07-02

    Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  10. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Pan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  11. Uranyl Sulfate Nanotubules Templated by N-phenylglycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg I. Siidra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, structure, and infrared spectroscopy properties of the new organically templated uranyl sulfate Na(phgH+7[(UO26(SO410](H2O3.5 (1, obtained at room temperature by evaporation from aqueous solution, are reported. Its structure contains unique uranyl sulfate [(UO26(SO410]8− nanotubules templated by protonated N-phenylglycine (C6H5NH2CH2COOH+. Their internal diameter is 1.4 nm. Each of the nanotubules is built from uranyl sulfate rings sharing common SO4 tetrahedra. The template plays an important role in the formation of the complex structure of 1. The aromatic rings are stacked parallel to each other due to the effect of π–π interaction with their side chains extending into the gaps between the nanotubules.

  12. Template measurement for plutonium pit based on neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Changfan; Gong Jian; Liu Suping; Hu Guangchun; Xiang Yongchun

    2012-01-01

    Template measurement for plutonium pit extracts characteristic data from-ray spectrum and the neutron counts emitted by plutonium. The characteristic data of the suspicious object are compared with data of the declared plutonium pit to verify if they are of the same type. In this paper, neural networks are enhanced as the comparison algorithm for template measurement of plutonium pit. Two kinds of neural networks are created, i.e. the BP and LVQ neural networks. They are applied in different aspects for the template measurement and identification. BP neural network is used for classification for different types of plutonium pits, which is often used for management of nuclear materials. LVQ neural network is used for comparison of inspected objects to the declared one, which is usually applied in the field of nuclear disarmament and verification. (authors)

  13. Transportation package design using numerical optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.C.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The design of structures and engineering systems has always been an iterative process whose complexity was dependent upon the boundary conditions, constraints and available analytical tools. Transportation packaging design is no exception with structural, thermal and radiation shielding constraints based on regulatory hypothetical accident conditions. Transportation packaging design is often accomplished by a group of specialists, each designing a single component based on one or more simple criteria, pooling results with the group, evaluating the open-quotes pooledclose quotes design, and then reiterating the entire process until a satisfactory design is reached. The manual iterative methods used by the designer/analyst can be summarized in the following steps: design the part, analyze the part, interpret the analysis results, modify the part, and re-analyze the part. The inefficiency of this design practice and the frequently conservative result suggests the need for a more structured design methodology, which can simultaneously consider all of the design constraints. Numerical optimization is a structured design methodology whose maturity in development has allowed it to become a primary design tool in many industries. The purpose of this overview is twofold: first, to outline the theory and basic elements of numerical optimization; and second, to show how numerical optimization can be applied to the transportation packaging industry and used to increase efficiency and safety of radioactive and hazardous material transportation packages. A more extensive review of numerical optimization and its applications to radioactive material transportation package design was performed previously by the authors (Witkowski and Harding 1992). A proof-of-concept Type B package design is also presented as a simplified example of potential improvements achievable using numerical optimization in the design process

  14. Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.

  15. Self-organized template formation for quantum dot ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzel, Richard; Mano, Takaaki; Wolter, Joachim H.

    2004-01-01

    Ordered arrays of quantum dots (QDs) are created by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering of (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum wire (QWR) superlattice (SL) templates on exactly oriented GaAs (100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The well-defined one-dimensional arrays of (In,Ga)As QDs formed on top of these templates due to local strain recognition are of excellent structural and optical quality up to room temperature. The QD arrays thus allow for fundamental studies and device operation principles based on single- and multiple carrier- and photon-, and coherent quantum interference effects

  16. An Empirical Ultraviolet Iron Spectrum Template Applicable to Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Iron emission is often a severe contaminant in optical-ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies. Its presence complicates emission line studies. A viable solution, already successfully applied at optical wavelengths, is to use an empirical iron emission template. We have generated FeII and Fe......III templates for ultraviolet active galaxy spectra based on HST archival 1100 - 3100 A spectra of IZw1. Their application allows fitting and subtraction of the iron emission in active galaxy spectra. This work has shown that in particular CIII] lambda 1909 can be heavily contaminated by other line emission...

  17. Design of Cancelable Palmprint Templates Based on Look Up Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Li, Hengjian; Dong, Jiwen

    2018-03-01

    A novel cancelable palmprint templates generation scheme is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the Gabor filter and chaotic matrix are used to extract palmprint features. It is then arranged into a row vector and divided into equal size blocks. These blocks are converted to corresponding decimals and mapped to look up tables, forming final cancelable palmprint features based on the selected check bits. Finally, collaborative representation based classification with regularized least square is used for classification. Experimental results on the Hong Kong PolyU Palmprint Database verify that the proposed cancelable templates can achieve very high performance and security levels. Meanwhile, it can also satisfy the needs of real-time applications.

  18. The Surface Imprinted Polystyrene Beads Prepared via Emulsion Templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Xiang CHENG; Guang Ling PEI; Ling Gang ZENG; Li Yong ZHANG; Chao LIU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the surface imprinted cross-linked polystyrene beads were prepared via suspension polymerization with styrene (St), divinylbezene (DVB), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA1788), the mixture of Span 85 and xylene or the mixture of Span 85 and paraffin as monomer, cross-linking agent, dispersion stabilizer and templates, respectively. The results indicate that there are dense cavities on the surface of beads, and the diameter and density of cavity are related with the composition and amount of emulsion template. The forming mechanism of cavity from thermodynamics and dynamics was proposed.

  19. Caprine Butchery and Bone Modification Templates: A step towards standardisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Popkin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Widely accepted zooarchaeological procedure for recording butchery marks and other types of bone modification involves two processes: Drawing the bone showing the exact location and orientation of the modification and recording all of the information about the bone and its modification into an electronic database. No recording templates have ever been published, however, resulting in individual zooarchaeologists repeating the effort of developing their own templates or drawings for each bone in an assemblage showing a modification. Both of these tasks are time consuming and lead to inconsistencies in recording and quantification methods. To help alleviate this problem a series of caprine (sheep and goat bone templates have been created. These templates show every bone in a goat skeleton, apart from the skull, from six views at life-size when printed on A4 paper. They have intentionally been produced with a minimum of detail (without shading or stippling etc. so that the recorded butchery marks and bone modifications will be clearly visible. Because the skeletal morphology of sheep and goats is so similar these templates may be used interchangeably for either species. They may also be used for many other artiodactyl species such as cattle and deer as no scale has been indicated. The study of butchery marks and bone modification has the potential to provide zooarchaeologists with information about taphonomy, site formation processes, burial/ritual practices, human behaviour, ancient technologies and possibly ethnicity amongst other things, but only if the recording of these bone modifications is undertaken in a standardised fashion across the field. While much effort has been directed towards standardising the recognition and classification of various bone modifications, the recording of these modifications regularly occurs in various ways. Using standardised recording templates will save valuable time and help to alleviate problems of data

  20. Computer-aided modelling template: Concept and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    decomposition technique which identifies generic steps and workflow involved, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool, which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps and guidance through the steps providing additional......Modelling is an important enabling technology in modern chemical engineering applications. A template-based approach is presented in this work to facilitate the construction and documentation of the models and enable their maintenance for reuse in a wider application range. Based on a model...

  1. Creativity from Constraints in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of constraints in limiting and enhancing creativity in engineering design. Based on a review of literature relating constraints to creativity, the paper presents a longitudinal participatory study from Coloplast A/S, a major international producer of disposable...... and ownership of formal constraints played a crucial role in defining their influence on creativity – along with the tacit constraints held by the designers. The designers were found to be highly constraint focused, and four main creative strategies for constraint manipulation were observed: blackboxing...

  2. A compendium of chameleon constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f ( R ) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  3. A compendium of chameleon constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, Clare [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Sakstein, Jeremy, E-mail: clare.burrage@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: jeremy.sakstein@port.ac.uk [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 S. 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f ( R ) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  4. Self-Imposed Creativity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation epitomizes three years of research guided by the research question: how can we conceptualize creative self-binding as a resource in art and design processes? Concretely, the dissertation seeks to offer insight into the puzzling observation that highly skilled creative...... practitioners sometimes freely and intentionally impose rigid rules, peculiar principles, and other kinds of creative obstructions on themselves as a means to spur momentum in the process and reach a distinctly original outcome. To investigate this the dissertation is composed of four papers (Part II) framed...... of analysis. Informed by the insight that constraints both enable and restrain creative agency, the dissertation’s main contention is that creative self- binding may profitably be conceptualized as the exercise of self-imposed creativity constraints. Thus, the dissertation marks an analytical move from vague...

  5. Unitarity constraints on trimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    When the neutrino mass eigenstate ν 2 is trimaximally mixed, the mixing matrix is called trimaximal. The middle column of the trimaximal mixing matrix is identical to tribimaximal mixing and the other two columns are subject to unitarity constraints. This corresponds to a mixing matrix with four independent parameters in the most general case. Apart from the two Majorana phases, the mixing matrix has only one free parameter in the CP conserving limit. Trimaximality results in interesting interplay between mixing angles and CP violation. A notion of maximal CP violation naturally emerges here: CP violation is maximal for maximal 2-3 mixing. Similarly, there is a natural constraint on the deviation from maximal 2-3 mixing which takes its maximal value in the CP conserving limit.

  6. Macroscopic constraints on string unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.R.

    1989-03-01

    The comparison of sting theory with experiment requires a huge extrapolation from the microscopic distances, of order of the Planck length, up to the macroscopic laboratory distances. The quantum effects give rise to large corrections to the macroscopic predictions of sting unification. I discus the model-independent constraints on the gravitational sector of string theory due to the inevitable existence of universal Fradkin-Tseytlin dilatons. 9 refs

  7. Financial Constraints and Franchising Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Kai-Uwe Kuhn; Francine Lafontaine; Ying Fan

    2013-01-01

    We study how the financial constraints of agents affect the behavior of principals in the context of franchising. We develop an empirical model of franchising starting with a principal-agent framework that emphasizes the role of franchisees' collateral from an incentive perspective. We estimate the determinants of chains' entry (into franchising) and growth decisions using data on franchised chains and data on local macroeconomic conditions. In particular, we use collateralizable housing weal...

  8. Tuning calcium carbonate growth through physical confinement and templating with amyloid-like polypeptide aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Martin Francis

    that this methodology does not extend to three-dimensional confined systems, as the water has no method of escape. Through the addition of an insoluble hydroscopic polymer to our microreactors, amorphous calcium carbonate of controllable sizes can be grown. However, crystalline calcium carbonate cannot be grown without some type of templating. Studies of calcium carbonate templating have predominantly been performed on SAMs or in poorly characterized gels or protein films. The use of ordered protein or polypeptide aggregates for templating permits both geometry and charge surface density to be varied. We have studied the kinetics and final morphology of ordered aggregates of poly-L-glutamic acid and a copolymer of glutamic acid and alanine through experiments and simulations. Electrostatics, not structure, of the monomer appeared to be the dominating factor in the aggregation, as pH and salt concentration changes led to dramatic changes in the kinetics. Examining our experimental with existing models provided inconsistent results, so we developed a new model that yielded physically realistic rate constants, while generating better fits with longer lag phases and faster growths. However, despite the similarity of aggregation conditions, the two polypeptides yielded vastly different morphologies, with the PEA forming typical amyloid-like fibrils and PE forming larger, twisted lamellar aggregates. Templating with these aggregates also yielded dramatically different patterns. Polycrystalline rhombohedral calcite with smooth faces and edges grew on PEA fibrils, with minimal templating in evidence. However, on PE, numerous calcite crystals with triangular projections tracked the surface of the aggregate. The PE lamellae are characterized by extensive beta-sheet structure. In this conformation, the glutamic acid spacings on the surface of the aggregates can mimic the spacings of the carboxylates in the calcite lattice. In addition, the high negative charge density on the

  9. Analysis of Space Tourism Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnal, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Space tourism appears today as a new Eldorado in a relatively near future. Private operators are already proposing services for leisure trips in Low Earth Orbit, and some happy few even tested them. But are these exceptional events really marking the dawn of a new space age ? The constraints associated to the space tourism are severe : - the economical balance of space tourism is tricky; development costs of large manned - the technical definition of such large vehicles is challenging, mainly when considering - the physiological aptitude of passengers will have a major impact on the mission - the orbital environment will also lead to mission constraints on aspects such as radiation, However, these constraints never appear as show-stoppers and have to be dealt with pragmatically: - what are the recommendations one can make for future research in the field of space - which typical roadmap shall one consider to develop realistically this new market ? - what are the synergies with the conventional missions and with the existing infrastructure, - how can a phased development start soon ? The paper proposes hints aiming at improving the credibility of Space Tourism and describes the orientations to follow in order to solve the major hurdles found in such an exciting development.

  10. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yuhsin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2012-08-01

    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  11. Isocurvature constraints on portal couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Nurmi, Sami; Vaskonen, Ville [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O.Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.kainulainen@jyu.fi, E-mail: sami.t.nurmi@jyu.fi, E-mail: tommi.tenkanen@helsinki.fi, E-mail: kimmo.i.tuominen@helsinki.fi, E-mail: ville.vaskonen@jyu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-06-01

    We consider portal models which are ultraweakly coupled with the Standard Model, and confront them with observational constraints on dark matter abundance and isocurvature perturbations. We assume the hidden sector to contain a real singlet scalar s and a sterile neutrino ψ coupled to s via a pseudoscalar Yukawa term. During inflation, a primordial condensate consisting of the singlet scalar s is generated, and its contribution to the isocurvature perturbations is imprinted onto the dark matter abundance. We compute the total dark matter abundance including the contributions from condensate decay and nonthermal production from the Standard Model sector. We then use the Planck limit on isocurvature perturbations to derive a novel constraint connecting dark matter mass and the singlet self coupling with the scale of inflation: m {sub DM}/GeV ∼< 0.2λ{sub s}{sup 3/8} ( H {sub *}/10{sup 11} GeV){sup −3/2}. This constraint is relevant in most portal models ultraweakly coupled with the Standard Model and containing light singlet scalar fields.

  12. General constraints on the effect of gas flows in the chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The basic equations for the chemical evolution of galaxies in which the 'simple' closed box model is modified to allow any form of inflow or outflow are examined. It is found that there are quite general limiting constraints on the effects that such flows can have. Some implications for the actual chemical evolution of galaxies are discussed, and the constraints should also be useful in understanding the behaviour of detailed numerical models of galactic chemical evolution involving gas flows. (author)

  13. Research in constraint-based layout, visualization, CAD, and related topics : a bibliographical survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hower, Walter; Graf, Winfried H.

    1995-01-01

    The present work compiles numerous papers in the area of computer-aided design, graphics, layout configuration, and user interfaces in general. There is nearly no conference on graphics, multimedia, and user interfaces that does not include a section on constraint-based graphics; on the other hand most conferences on constraint processing favour applications in graphics. This work of bibliographical pointers may serve as a basis for a detailed and comprehensive survey of this important and ch...

  14. An integral constraint for the evolution of the galaxy two-point correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peebles, P.J.E.; Groth, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Under some conditions an integral over the galaxy two-point correlation function, xi(x,t), evolves with the expansion of the universe in a simple manner easily computed from linear perturbation theory.This provides a useful constraint on the possible evolution of xi(x,t) itself. We test the integral constraint with both an analytic model and numerical N-body simulations for the evolution of irregularities in an expanding universe. Some applications are discussed. (orig.) [de

  15. Synchronization of linearly coupled unified chaotic systems based on linear balanced feedback scheme with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-H.; Chen, C.-S.; Lee, C.-I

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the synchronization of unidirectional and bidirectional coupled unified chaotic systems. A balanced coupling coefficient control method is presented for global asymptotic synchronization using the Lyapunov stability theorem and a minimum scheme with no constraints/constraints. By using the result of the above analysis, the balanced coupling coefficients are then designed to achieve the chaos synchronization of linearly coupled unified chaotic systems. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed chaos synchronization scheme are verified via numerical simulations.

  16. Exploring Many-Core Design Templates for FPGAs and ASICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia Lebedev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a highly productive approach to hardware design based on a many-core microarchitectural template used to implement compute-bound applications expressed in a high-level data-parallel language such as OpenCL. The template is customized on a per-application basis via a range of high-level parameters such as the interconnect topology or processing element architecture. The key benefits of this approach are that it (i allows programmers to express parallelism through an API defined in a high-level programming language, (ii supports coarse-grained multithreading and fine-grained threading while permitting bit-level resource control, and (iii reduces the effort required to repurpose the system for different algorithms or different applications. We compare template-driven design to both full-custom and programmable approaches by studying implementations of a compute-bound data-parallel Bayesian graph inference algorithm across several candidate platforms. Specifically, we examine a range of template-based implementations on both FPGA and ASIC platforms and compare each against full custom designs. Throughout this study, we use a general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU implementation as a performance and area baseline. We show that our approach, similar in productivity to programmable approaches such as GPGPU applications, yields implementations with performance approaching that of full-custom designs on both FPGA and ASIC platforms.

  17. Synthesis of zeolite-templated carbons for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available in this field. Of the various nanocasting strategies for carbonaceous materials, hard templates such as zeolites have been of key research interest due to the many attractive properties associated with the resulting carbon replicas. Some of these properties are...

  18. Metal films with imprinted nanostructures by template stripping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Pors, Anders; Dreier, Jes

    We present a novel template stripping procedure for fabricating metal films with imprinted nanostructures. The basic idea is to deposit a gold film onto a nano-structured substrate and subsequently strip the film from the substrate surface thereby revealing imprinted nanostructures in the film...... result is a thin gold film with imprinted nano-cavities....

  19. Cu(I)/Cu(II) templated functional pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further, copper ions have shown promising template for ... ion-assisted synthesis of pseudorotaxanes, rotaxanes and their chemical or ... Two different approaches like threading and clipping methods are .... stoppers and the central complex, ligand exchange is fast, which ... verified by variable-concentration CVs. Figure 10.

  20. Template matching via densities on the roto-translation group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, E.; Loog, M.; Romeny, B. ter Haar; Duits, R.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a template matching method for the detection of 2D image objects that are characterized by orientation patterns. Our method is based on data representations via orientation scores, which are functions on the space of positions and orientations, and which are obtained via a wavelet-type

  1. People counting with stereo cameras : two template-based solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Englebienne, Gwenn; van Oosterhout, Tim; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    People counting is a challenging task with many applications. We propose a method with a fixed stereo camera that is based on projecting a template onto the depth image. The method was tested on a challenging outdoor dataset with good results and runs in real time.

  2. Binary gabor statistical features for palmprint template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Ruan, Qiuqi; Shao, X.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2012-01-01

    The biometric template protection system requires a highquality biometric channel and a well-designed error correction code (ECC). Due to the intra-class variations of biometric data, an efficient fixed-length binary feature extractor is required to provide a high-quality biometric channel so that

  3. Enzyme Activity and Biomolecule Templating at Liquid and Solid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey W. Blanch

    2004-12-01

    There are two main components of this research program. The first involves studies of the adsorption and catalytic activity of proteins at fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces; the second employs biological macromolecules as templates at the solid-liquid interface for controlled crystallization of inorganic materials, to provide materials with specific functionality.

  4. General Template for the FMEA Applications in Primary Food Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özilgen, Sibel; Özilgen, Mustafa

    Data on the hazards involved in the primary steps of processing cereals, fruit and vegetables, milk and milk products, meat and meat products, and fats and oils are compiled with a wide-ranging literature survey. After determining the common factors from these data, a general FMEA template is offered, and its use is explained with a case study on pasteurized milk production.

  5. Silica coated ionic liquid templated mesoporous silica nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of long chain pyridinium based ionic liquids 1-tetradecylpyridinium bromide, 1-hexadecylpyridinium bromide and 1-1-octadecylpyridinium bromide were used as templates to prepare silica coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles via condensation method under basic condition. The effects of alkyl chain length on ...

  6. Template Authoring Environment for the Automatic Generation of Narrative Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caropreso, Maria Fernanda; Inkpen, Diana; Keshtkar, Fazel; Khan, Shahzad

    2012-01-01

    Natural Language Generation (NLG) systems can make data accessible in an easily digestible textual form; but using such systems requires sophisticated linguistic and sometimes even programming knowledge. We have designed and implemented an environment for creating and modifying NLG templates that requires no programming knowledge, and can operate…

  7. Template-assisted growth of nano structured functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, K.K.; Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Khuan, N.I.; Suhaila Hani Ilias; Foo, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Template-assisted growth is an important nano electrochemical deposition technique for synthesizing one-dimensional (1-D) nano structures with uniformly well-controlled shapes and sizes. A good template with well-defined dimensions is imperative for realizing this task. Porous anodic alumina (PAA) has been a favorable candidate for this purpose as it can be tailor-made with precise pore geometries, such as pore length and diameter as well as inter-pore distances, via the anodization of pure aluminium. This paper reports the fabrication of PAA templates and electrochemical synthesis of functional nano structures in the form of nano wires using PAA templates as scaffolds. Axial heterostructure and homogeneous nano wires formed by engineering materials configuration via composition and/ or layer thickness variations were fabricated for different functionalities. X-ray diffraction and imaging techniques were used to alucidate the microstructures, morphologies and chemical compositions of the nano wires produced. Due to their large surface area-to-volume ratios, and therefore high sensitivities, these functional nano structures have useful applications as critical components in nano sensor devices and various areas of nano technology. Potential applications include as hydrogen gas sensors in nuclear power plant for monitoring structural integrity of reactor components and containment building, as well as environmental monitoring of air pollution and leakages of toxic gases and chemicals. (Author)

  8. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of nanoporous anodic alumina template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, K.

    2010-01-01

    Room temperature EIS characterization of nanoporous anodic alumina prepared at 40 V and 60 V has been done in 0.3 M oxalic acid solution. Rapid decrease in impedance was observed for the template prepared at 40 V. EIS study of porous anodic alumina template prepared in 0.3 M oxalic acid has been done in different electrolytes. Templates prepared in 0.3 M sulfuric acid solution were also characterized for comparison. Rapid decrease in the thickness of nonporous anodic film was observed with an increase of aggressiveness of electrolyte. Temperature based systematic study of EIS measurement has been done for porous anodic alumina template at different temperatures. Formation of micropores was observed in the nanoporous anodic alumina film formed on aluminum in 0.3 M oxalic acid solution which accelerates the dissolution rate with increase of measurement temperature. In addition to these, electropolishing behavior of pure aluminum has also been studied in different electrolytes and it was observed that electropolishing conditions prior to anodization are extremely important. (author)

  9. Hiding correlation-based Watermark templates using secret modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenauer, J.; Setyawan, I.; Lagendijk, R.

    2004-01-01

    A possible solution to the difficult problem of geometrical distortion of watermarked images in a blind watermarking scenario is to use a template grid in the autocorrelation function. However, the important drawback of this method is that the watermark itself can be estimated and subtracted, or the

  10. A visual template-matching method for articulation angle measurement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, C

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available and proposed sensing methods are limited either in terms of commercial feasibility or measurement accuracy. This paper investigates a vision-based system consisting of a single tractor-mounted camera, a template-matching image processing algorithm...

  11. Fabrication of mesoporous polymer monolith: a template-free approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Keisuke; Nandi, Mahasweta; Maruyama, Jun; Oka, Tatsuya; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2011-07-14

    Mesoporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) monolith has been fabricated by a template-free approach using the unique affinity of PAN towards a water/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture. A newly developed Thermally Induced Phase Separation Technique (TIPS) has been used to obtain the polymer monoliths and their microstructures have been controlled by optimizing the concentration and cooling temperature.

  12. Efficacy of a Template Creation Approach for Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the training and performance improvement approach, performance templates (P-T), and provides empirical evidence to support the efficacy of P-T. This approach involves a partnership among managers, trainers, and employees in the creation, use, and improvement of guides to affect the performance of critical tasks in the…

  13. Automatic capture of attention by conceptually generated working memory templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sol Z; Shen, Jenny; Shaw, Mark; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    Many theories of attention propose that the contents of working memory (WM) can act as an attentional template, which biases processing in favor of perceptually similar inputs. While support has been found for this claim, it is unclear how attentional templates are generated when searching real-world environments. We hypothesized that in naturalistic settings, attentional templates are commonly generated from conceptual knowledge, an idea consistent with sensorimotor models of knowledge representation. Participants performed a visual search task in the delay period of a WM task, where the item in memory was either a colored disk or a word associated with a color concept (e.g., "Rose," associated with red). During search, we manipulated whether a singleton distractor in the array matched the contents of WM. Overall, we found that search times were impaired in the presence of a memory-matching distractor. Furthermore, the degree of impairment did not differ based on the contents of WM. Put differently, regardless of whether participants were maintaining a perceptually colored disk identical to the singleton distractor, or whether they were simply maintaining a word associated with the color of the distractor, the magnitude of attentional capture was the same. Our results suggest that attentional templates can be generated from conceptual knowledge, in the physical absence of the visual feature.

  14. Cheating the Business Template: Filling in the Blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechenbier, Mahli Xuan

    2011-01-01

    Business professionals often use standard templates when composing documents, and teachers of business writing direct students to textbook examples to use as sample formats. Good instructors do want to provide their students with informative examples of what is expected, especially in an online course environment where students cannot raise their…

  15. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  16. Nanomolar determination of Pb (II ions by selective templated electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazloum-Ardakani Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole modified electrode, prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of methyl red as a dopant, was templated with respect to Pb2+ ion and applied for potentiometric and voltammetric detection of this ion. The templating process improved the analytical response characteristics of the electrode, specially their selectivity, with respect to Pb2+ ion. The improvement depends on both the incorporated ligand (dopant and the templating process, with the latter being more vital. The potentiometric response of the electrode was linear within the Pb2+ concentration range of 2.0×10-6 to 5.0×10-2 M with a near-Nernstian slope of 28.6 mV decade-1 and a detection limit of 7.0 ×10-7 M. The electrode was also used for preconcentration differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV and results showed that peak currents for the incorporated lead species were dependent on the metal ion concentration in the range of 1.0×10-8 to 1.0×10-3 M. The detection limit of DPASV method was 3.5 ×10-9 M. The selectivity of the electrode with respect to some transition metal ions was investigated. The modified-templated electrode was used for the successful assay of lead in two standard reference material samples.

  17. Synthesis of copper telluride nanowires using template-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anodized alu- minum oxide foil (AAO) acts as template and electrodeposi- tion is conducted in a ... the nanopores were perpendicular to the AAO membrane sur- face and were uniform in ... Aluminium oxide 0·02–0·2. 13, 21, 47. 60. 105. –.

  18. Minutia-pair spectral representations for fingerprint template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanko, T.; Skoric, B.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new fixed-length representation of fingerprint minutiae, for use in template protection. It is similar to the `spectral minutiae' representation of Xu et al. but is based on coordinate differences between pairs of minutiae. Our technique has the advantage that it does not discard the

  19. Metal-organic framework templated electrodeposition of functional gold nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrall, Stephen D.; Bissett, Mark A.; Hill, Patrick I.; Rooney, Aidan P.; Haigh, Sarah J.; Attfield, Martin P.; Dryfe, Robert A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrodeposition of anisotropic Au nanostructures templated by HKUST-1. • Au nanostructures replicate ∼1.4 nm pore spaces of HKUST-1. • Encapsulated Au nanostructures active as SERS substrate for 4-fluorothiophenol. - Abstract: Utilizing a pair of quick, scalable electrochemical processes, the permanently porous MOF HKUST-1 was electrochemically grown on a copper electrode and this HKUST-1-coated electrode was used to template electrodeposition of a gold nanostructure within the pore network of the MOF. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a proportion of the gold nanostructures exhibit structural features replicating the pore space of this ∼1.4 nm maximum pore diameter MOF, as well as regions that are larger in size. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the electrodeposited gold nanostructure, produced under certain conditions of synthesis and template removal, is sufficiently inter-grown and mechanically robust to retain the octahedral morphology of the HKUST-1 template crystals. The functionality of the gold nanostructure within the crystalline HKUST-1 was demonstrated through the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) detection of 4-fluorothiophenol at concentrations as low as 1 μM. The reported process is confirmed as a viable electrodeposition method for obtaining functional, accessible metal nanostructures encapsulated within MOF crystals.

  20. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Rocha-Rodrigues, P; Araujo, J P; Valdés-Bango, F; Alameda, J M; Teixeira, J M; Jorge, P A S; Santos, J L; Guerreiro, A

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores  +  anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS–NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell–Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (∼1.55) is quite lower (∼22%) than the commonly used Al 2 O 3 handbook value (∼1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates. (paper)

  1. Development of an adaptive sawmill- flow simulator template for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of an adaptive sawmill- flow simulator template for predicting results ... including: raw materials, personnel, equipment, product mix, product quality, orders ... Profitable sawing of small diameter logs requires high speed processing, use of ... performance measures due to changes in mill layout, raw material and ...

  2. Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Faniel, S.

    2006-01-01

    A simple technique for fabricating single nanowires with well-defined position is presented. The process implies the use of a silicon nitride mask for selective electrochemical growth of the nanowires in a porous alumina template. We show that this method allows the realization of complex nanowire...

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterisation of amine-templated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrothermal synthesis and characterisation of amine-templated metal phosphate framework. ... The complexes were thermally stable up to 3000C, after which the organic components starts decomposing. The solubility test in a wide spectrum of solvents (at room temperature) showed that the complexes were insoluble in ...

  4. Precision templates for gluing wire holding pieces to chamber frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Burgos, C; Cerrada, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the present report we describe the procedure which has been used in order to optimize the precision obtained when positioning forward backward muon chamber sensor wire planes of the L3 experiment at CERN. With templates produced at CIEMAT a precision of about 10 microns. In sizes of the order of 3 meters. has been achieved. (Author) 2 refs

  5. Precision templates for glueing wire holding pieces to chamber frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Burgos, C.; Cerrada, M.

    1995-09-01

    In the present report we describe the procedure which has been used in order to optimize the precision obtained when positioning forward backward muon chamber sensor wire planes of the L3 experiment at CERN. With templates produced at CIEMAT a precision of about 10 microns, in sizes of the order of 3 meters has been achieved

  6. Secret-Key Agreement with Public Discussion subject to an Amplitude Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen; Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of secret-key agreement with public discussion subject to a peak power constraint A on the channel input. The optimal input distribution is proved to be discrete with finite support. To overcome the computationally heavy search for the optimal discrete distribution, several suboptimal schemes are proposed and shown numerically to perform close to the capacity. Moreover, lower and upper bounds for the secret-key capacity are provided and used to prove that the secret-key capacity converges for asymptotic high values of A, to the secret-key capacity with an average power constraint A2. Finally, when the amplitude constraint A is small (A ! 0), the secret-key capacity is proved to be asymptotically equal to the capacity of the legitimate user with an amplitude constraint A and no secrecy constraint.

  7. Robust Model Predictive Control Using Linear Matrix Inequalities for the Treatment of Asymmetric Output Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos Matos Cavalca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main advantages of predictive control approaches is the capability of dealing explicitly with constraints on the manipulated and output variables. However, if the predictive control formulation does not consider model uncertainties, then the constraint satisfaction may be compromised. A solution for this inconvenience is to use robust model predictive control (RMPC strategies based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. However, LMI-based RMPC formulations typically consider only symmetric constraints. This paper proposes a method based on pseudoreferences to treat asymmetric output constraints in integrating SISO systems. Such technique guarantees robust constraint satisfaction and convergence of the state to the desired equilibrium point. A case study using numerical simulation indicates that satisfactory results can be achieved.

  8. Secret-Key Agreement with Public Discussion subject to an Amplitude Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2016-04-06

    This paper considers the problem of secret-key agreement with public discussion subject to a peak power constraint A on the channel input. The optimal input distribution is proved to be discrete with finite support. To overcome the computationally heavy search for the optimal discrete distribution, several suboptimal schemes are proposed and shown numerically to perform close to the capacity. Moreover, lower and upper bounds for the secret-key capacity are provided and used to prove that the secret-key capacity converges for asymptotic high values of A, to the secret-key capacity with an average power constraint A2. Finally, when the amplitude constraint A is small (A ! 0), the secret-key capacity is proved to be asymptotically equal to the capacity of the legitimate user with an amplitude constraint A and no secrecy constraint.

  9. Relaxations of semiring constraint satisfaction problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP) framework is a popular approach for the representation of partial constraint satisfaction problems. In this framework preferences can be associated with tuples of values of the variable domains...

  10. Julius – a template based supplementary electronic health record system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Gunnar O

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EHR systems are widely used in hospitals and primary care centres but it is usually difficult to share information and to collect patient data for clinical research. This is partly due to the different proprietary information models and inconsistent data quality. Our objective was to provide a more flexible solution enabling the clinicians to define which data to be recorded and shared for both routine documentation and clinical studies. The data should be possible to reuse through a common set of variable definitions providing a consistent nomenclature and validation of data. Another objective was that the templates used for the data entry and presentation should be possible to use in combination with the existing EHR systems. Methods We have designed and developed a template based system (called Julius that was integrated with existing EHR systems. The system is driven by the medical domain knowledge defined by clinicians in the form of templates and variable definitions stored in a common data repository. The system architecture consists of three layers. The presentation layer is purely web-based, which facilitates integration with existing EHR products. The domain layer consists of the template design system, a variable/clinical concept definition system, the transformation and validation logic all implemented in Java. The data source layer utilizes an object relational mapping tool and a relational database. Results The Julius system has been implemented, tested and deployed to three health care units in Stockholm, Sweden. The initial responses from the pilot users were positive. The template system facilitates patient data collection in many ways. The experience of using the template system suggests that enabling the clinicians to be in control of the system, is a good way to add supplementary functionality to the present EHR systems. Conclusion The approach of the template system in combination with various local EHR

  11. Polymeric Bicontinuous Microemulsions as Templates for Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brad Howard

    Ternary blends of two homopolymers and a diblock copolymer can self-assemble into interpenetrating, three dimensionally-continuous networks with a characteristic length scale of ˜ 100 nm. In this thesis, it is shown that these liquid phases, known as polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions (BμE), can be designed as versatile precursors to nanoporous materials having pores with uniform sizes of ˜ 100 nm. The model blends from which the porous materials are derived are composed of polyethylene (PE) and a sacrificial polyolefin. The liquid BμE structure is captured by crystallization of the PE, and a three-dimensionally continuous pore network with a narrow pore size distribution is generated by selective extraction of the sacrificial component. The original BμE structure is retained in the resultant nanoporous PE. This monolithic material is then used as a template in the synthesis of other nanoporous materials for which structural control at the nm scale has traditionally been difficult to achieve. These materials, which include a high-temperature ceramic, polymeric thermosets, and a conducting polymer, are produced by a simple nanocasting process, providing an inverse replica of the PE template. On account of the BμE structure of the template, the product materials also possess three-dimensionally continuous pore networks with narrow size distributions centered at ˜ 100 nm. The PE template is further used as a template for the production of hierarchically structured inorganic and polymeric materials by infiltration of mesostructured compounds into its pore network. In the former case, a hierarchically porous SiO2 material is demonstrated, simultaneously possessing two discrete, bicontinuous pore networks with sizes differing by over an order of magnitude. Finally, the templating procedures are extended to thin films supported on substrates and novel conductive polymer films are synthesized. The work described herein represents an unprecedented suite of

  12. Inverse planning for interstitial gynecologic template brachytherapy: truly anatomy-based planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, Etienne; Hsu, I-Chou; Pouliot, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Commercially available optimization schemes generally result in an undesirable dose distribution, because of the particular shapes of tumors extending laterally from the tandem. Dose distribution is therefore manually obtained by adjusting relative dwell time values until an acceptable solution is found. The objective of this work is to present the clinical application of an inverse planning dose optimization tool for the automatic determination of source dwell time values in the treatment of interstitial gynecologic templates. Methods and Materials: In cases where the tumor extends beyond the range of the tandem-ovoid applicator, catheters as well as the tandem are inserted into the paravaginal and parametrial region in an attempt to cover the tumor volume. CT scans of these patients are then used for CT-based dose planning. Dose distribution is obtained manually by varying the relative dwell times until adequate dose coverage is achieved. This manual planning is performed by an experienced physician. In parallel, our in-house inverse planning based on simulated annealing is used to automatically determine which of all possible dwell positions will become active and to calculate the dwell time values needed to fulfill dose constraints applied to the tumor volume and to each organ at risk. To compare the results of these planning methods, dose-volume histograms and isodose distributions were generated for the target and each organ at risk. Results: This procedure has been applied for the dose planning of 12 consecutive interstitial gynecologic templates cases. For all cases, once the anatomy was contoured, the routine of inverse planning based on simulated annealing found the solution to the dose constraints within 1 min of CPU time. In comparison, manual planning took more than 45 min. The inverse planning-generated plans showed improved protection to organs at risk for the same coverage compared to manual planning. Conclusion: This inverse planning tool

  13. Transmission and capacity pricing and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusco, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which discussed the following issues regarding the North American electric power industry: (1) capacity pricing transmission constraints, (2) nature of transmission constraints, (3) consequences of transmission constraints, and (4) prices as market evidence. Some solutions suggested for pricing constraints included the development of contingent contracts, back-up power in supply regions, and new line capacity construction. 8 tabs., 20 figs

  14. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  15. A new route of synthesizing perovskite nanotubes by templating approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballah, Anisah Shafiqah; Osman, Nafisah; Jani, Abdul Mutalib Md

    2017-09-01

    A perovskite oxide for example Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) has attracted growing attention due to its high catalytic activity and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Recent research of BSCF is more comprehensively based on a remarkable trajectory of innovation, in particular with regards to the synthesis of perovskite structures in one-dimensional (1-D) nanometric scales as they promote not only to increase an active electrode area for the oxygen reduction reaction, but also allow the tailoring of electrode's architecture. Nevertheless, achieving the desired 1-D structure by a conventional method such as hydrothermal, solvothermal, or sonochemical are far from satisfactory. Herein, the aim of this work is to synthesize the BSCF perovskite nanotubes via soft templating approach, particularly using anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) as a template, focusing on the morphology, composition and structural properties were demonstrated. After the AAO template was anodized at 80 V, the fabricated template was clamped between apair of spectroscopic cells containing BSCF sol and deionized water (with a hole of both sides) for 24 hours. After that, the sample was removed from the cells followed by heat treatment process. The FESEM images showed that BSCF nanotubes were successfully achieved, with the diameter of the nanotubes' approximately 80 nm. The EDX result also confirmed the nominal stoichiometry of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ. Meanwhile, the XRD pattern confirmed a single crystalline phase of BSCF nanotubes was successfully obtained and congruent to a cubic perovskite structure of BSCF. Possible formation mechanism,as well as the schematic illustration of BSCF nanotubes inside the template was also discussed in this paper.

  16. BioAssay templates for the semantic web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Clark

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Annotation of bioassay protocols using semantic web vocabulary is a way to make experiment descriptions machine-readable. Protocols are communicated using concise scientific English, which precludes most kinds of analysis by software algorithms. Given the availability of a sufficiently expressive ontology, some or all of the pertinent information can be captured by asserting a series of facts, expressed as semantic web triples (subject, predicate, object. With appropriate annotation, assays can be searched, clustered, tagged and evaluated in a multitude of ways, analogous to other segments of drug discovery informatics. The BioAssay Ontology (BAO has been previously designed for this express purpose, and provides a layered hierarchy of meaningful terms which can be linked to. Currently the biggest challenge is the issue of content creation: scientists cannot be expected to use the BAO effectively without having access to software tools that make it straightforward to use the vocabulary in a canonical way. We have sought to remove this barrier by: (1 defining a BioAssay Template (BAT data model; (2 creating a software tool for experts to create or modify templates to suit their needs; and (3 designing a common assay template (CAT to leverage the most value from the BAO terms. The CAT was carefully assembled by biologists in order to find a balance between the maximum amount of information captured vs. low degrees of freedom in order to keep the user experience as simple as possible. The data format that we use for describing templates and corresponding annotations is the native format of the semantic web (RDF triples, and we demonstrate some of the ways that generated content can be meaningfully queried using the SPARQL language. We have made all of these materials available as open source (http://github.com/cdd/bioassay-template, in order to encourage community input and use within diverse projects, including but not limited to our own

  17. Phase-Field Relaxation of Topology Optimization with Local Stress Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stainko, Roman; Burger, Martin

    2006-01-01

    inequality constraints. We discretize the problem by finite elements and solve the arising finite-dimensional programming problems by a primal-dual interior point method. Numerical experiments for problems with local stress constraints based on different criteria indicate the success and robustness......We introduce a new relaxation scheme for structural topology optimization problems with local stress constraints based on a phase-field method. In the basic formulation we have a PDE-constrained optimization problem, where the finite element and design analysis are solved simultaneously...

  18. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-dong; Alkhalifah, Tariq; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi; Sun, Bingbing

    2018-03-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Multiparameter elastic full waveform inversion with facies-based constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-dong; Alkhalifah, Tariq; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi; Sun, Bingbing

    2018-06-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize FWI beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a priori information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Stochastic optimization under risk constraint and utility functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seck, B.

    2008-09-01

    In a context of concurrence and emergence of energy markets, the production of electricity is affected by the new sources of risks which are the price variations on the energy markets. These new sources of risks generate a new risk: the market risk. In this research, the author explores the possibility of introducing constraints, expressed by measurements of risk, into the process of optimization of electricity production when financial contracts are signed on the energy market. The author makes the distinction between the engineering approach (taking the risk into account by risk measurements) and the economist approach (taking the risk into account by utility functions). After an overview of these both approaches in a static framework, he gives an economical formulation (a Maccheroni type one) for a static optimization problem under a risk constraint when the risk measurement is written under the form of an expected infimum like the variance, the 'conditional value at risk', and so on. The obtained results are then extended to a dynamic optimization framework under risk constraints. A numerical application of this approach is presented to solve a problem of electricity production management under a constraint of 'conditional value at risk' on a middle term

  1. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2018-03-20

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. The Ambiguous Role of Constraints in Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjær, Michael Mose; Onarheim, Balder; Wiltschnig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and constraints is often described in the literature either in rather imprecise, general concepts or in relation to very specific domains. Cross-domain and cross-disciplinary takes on how the handling of constraints influences creative activities are rare. In t......-disciplinary research into the ambiguous role of constraints in creativity....

  3. Learning and Parallelization Boost Constraint Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems are a powerful way to abstract and represent academic and real-world problems from both artificial intelligence and operations research. A constraint satisfaction problem is typically addressed by a sequential constraint solver running on a single processor. Rather than construct a new, parallel solver, this work…

  4. A general treatment of dynamic integrity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brock, EO

    This paper introduces a general, set-theoretic model for expressing dynamic integrity constraints, i.e., integrity constraints on the state changes that are allowed in a given state space. In a managerial context, such dynamic integrity constraints can be seen as representations of "real world"

  5. Numerical performance of the parabolized ADM formulation of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Hansen, Jakob; Khokhlov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper [Vasileios Paschalidis, Phys. Rev. D 78, 024002 (2008).], the first coauthor presented a new parabolic extension (PADM) of the standard 3+1 Arnowitt, Deser, Misner (ADM) formulation of the equations of general relativity. By parabolizing first-order ADM in a certain way, the PADM formulation turns it into a well-posed system which resembles the structure of mixed hyperbolic-second-order parabolic partial differential equations. The surface of constraints of PADM becomes a local attractor for all solutions and all possible well-posed gauge conditions. This paper describes a numerical implementation of PADM and studies its accuracy and stability in a series of standard numerical tests. Numerical properties of PADM are compared with those of standard ADM and its hyperbolic Kidder, Scheel, Teukolsky (KST) extension. The PADM scheme is numerically stable, convergent, and second-order accurate. The new formulation has better control of the constraint-violating modes than ADM and KST.

  6. Creating Shape Templates for Patient Specific Biventricular Modeling in Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kathleen; Farrar, Genevieve; Cowan, Brett R.; Suinesiaputra, Avan; Occleshaw, Christopher; Pontré, Beau; Perry, James; Hegde, Sanjeet; Marsden, Alison; Omens, Jeff; McCulloch, Andrew; Young, Alistair A.

    2018-01-01

    Survival rates for infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) are improving, resulting in a growing population of adults with CHD. However, the analysis of left and right ventricular function is very time-consuming owing to the variety of congenital morphologies. Efficient customization of patient geometry and function depends on high quality shape templates specifically designed for the application. In this paper, we combine a method for creating finite element shape templates with an interactive template customization to patient MRI examinations. This enables different templates to be chosen depending on patient morphology. To demonstrate this pipeline, a new biventricular template with 162 elements was created and tested in place of an existing 82-element template. The method was able to provide fast interactive biventricular analysis with 0.31 sec per edit response time. The new template was customized to 13 CHD patients with similar biventricular topology, showing improved performance over the previous template and good agreement with clinical indices. PMID:26736353

  7. Study on the unified constraint parameter for characterizing in-plane and out-of-plane constraint based on the equivalent plastic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Wang Guozhen; Xuan Fuzhen; Tu Shandong

    2013-01-01

    Background: Constraint can significantly alter the material's fracture toughness. Purpose: In order to increase accuracy of the structural integrity assessment. It needs to consider the effect of constraint on the fracture toughness of nuclear power materials and structures. A unified measure which can reflect both in-plane and out-of-plane constraint is needed. Methods: In this paper, the finite element numerical simulation method was used, a unified measure and characterization parameter of in-plane and out-of-plane constraint based on crack-tip equivalent plastic strain have been investigated. Results: The results show that the area surrounded by ε p isoline has a good relevance with the material's fracture toughness on different constraint conditions, so it may be a suitable parameter. Based on the area A PEEQ , a unified constraint characterization parameter √A p is defined. It was found that there exists a sole linear relation between the normalized fracture toughness J IC /J re f and √A p regardless of the in-plane, out-of-plane constraint and the selection of the p isolines. The sole J IC /J re f-√A p line exists for a certain material. For different materials, the slope of J IC /J re f-√A p reference line is different. The material whose slope is larger has a higher J IC /J re f and is more sensitive to constraint at the same magnitude of normalized unified parameter. Conclusions: The unified J IC /J re f -√A p reference line may be used to assess the safety of a cracked component with any constraint levels regardless of in-plane or out-of-plane constraint or both. (authors)

  8. TEMPLATE POLYMERIZATION OF N-VINYLIMIDAZOLE ALONG POLY(METHACRYLIC ACID) IN WATER .2. KINETICS OF THE TEMPLATE POLYMERIZATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDEGRAMPEL, HT; TAN, YY; CHALLA, G

    1991-01-01

    The template polymerization of N-vinylimidazole (VIm) along poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) in water at 50-degrees-C with 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane).2HCl (AAP) as initiator was studied by using variable initiator and monomer concentrations at constant [PMAA]/[VIm]0. From the order in [VIm] it was

  9. [Use of diagnostic templates at stages of prosthetics treatment with implant-retained restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvetadze, R Sh; Abramyan, S V; Ivanov, A A; Nubaryan, A P

    The comparative analysis of efficiency of various types of diagnostic templates for planning orthopedic treatment of 50 patients with partial or complete absence of teeth was performed. The patients were divided in 3 groups according to template manufacturing technique. All diagnostic templates made in accordance with clinical conditions allowed transfering digital data of the scheduled prosthetic construction for virtual implantation planning. Advantages and pitfalls of each template type are discussed.

  10. Multi-template synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon spheres with potential application in supercapacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Weizheng; Lin, Zhixing; Tong, Gangsheng; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Yan, Deyue; Mai, Yiyong; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    A new and simple multi-template approach towards hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) materials was reported. HPC spheres were prepared by using hierarchical silica capsules (HSCs) as the hard template and triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as the soft template. Three types of pores were tunably

  11. 78 FR 64925 - Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...] Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates AGENCY: United States Patent and... Patents Search Templates from the USPTO Web site. In 2006, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) implemented Patents Search Templates, which are United States Patent Classification (USPC...

  12. The Role of Morphology in Word Recognition of Hebrew as a Templatic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganyan, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Research on recognition of complex words has primarily focused on affixational complexity in concatenative languages. This dissertation investigates both templatic and affixational complexity in Hebrew, a templatic language, with particular focus on the role of the root and template morphemes in recognition. It also explores the role of morphology…

  13. Dosimetry study of three-dimensional print template-guided precision 125I seed implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The postplan and preplan dose parameters of 3D print template-guided seed implantation were nearly consistent. The dose parameters of template group superior to the traditional group. The seeds can be implanted accurately with 3D print template.

  14. Priming and the guidance by visual and categorical templates in visual search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, A.M.; Theeuwes, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Visual search is thought to be guided by top-down templates that are held in visual working memory. Previous studies have shown that a search-guiding template can be rapidly and strongly implemented from a visual cue, whereas templates are less effective when based on categorical cues. Direct visual

  15. Analytical template protection performance and maximum key size given a Gaussian-modeled biometric source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; Breebaart, Jeroen; Buhan, I.R.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Vijaya Kumar, B.V.K.; Prabhakar, Salil; Ross, Arun A.

    2010-01-01

    Template protection techniques are used within biometric systems in order to protect the stored biometric template against privacy and security threats. A great portion of template protection techniques are based on extracting a key from or binding a key to a biometric sample. The achieved

  16. Detecting lung cancer symptoms with analogic CNN algorithms based on a constrained diffusion template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Satoshi; Nishio, Yoshifumi; Ushida, Akio; Ueno, Junji; Kasem, I.; Nishitani, Hiromu; Rekeczky, C.; Roska, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this article, a new type of diffusion template and an analogic CNN algorithm using this diffusion template for detecting some lung cancer symptoms in X-ray films are proposed. The performance of the diffusion template is investigated and our CNN algorithm is verified to detect some key lung cancer symptoms, successfully. (author)

  17. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top......-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental...

  18. Constraint specialisation in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query–answer transformed version of a given set of clauses and a goal. The constraints from the model are then used to compute...... a specialised version of each clause. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. The specialisation procedure can be repeated to yield further specialisation. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraint theory...

  19. Nuclear energy and external constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattes, R.; Thiriet, L.

    1983-01-01

    The structural factors of this crisis probably predominate over factors arising out the economic situation, even if explanations vary in this respect. In this article devoted to nuclear energy, a possible means of Loosering external constraints the current international economic environment is firstly outlined; the context in which the policies of industrialized countries, and therefore that of France, must be developed. An examination of the possible role of energy policies in general and nuclear policies in particular as an instrument of economic policy in providing a partial solution to this crisis, will then enable to quantitatively evaluate the effects of such policies at a national level [fr

  20. Evaluation of constraint stabilization procedures for multibody dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Comparative numerical studies of four constraint treatment techniques for the simulation of general multibody dynamic systems are presented, and results are presented for the example of a classical crank mechanism and for a simplified version of the seven-link manipulator deployment problem. The staggered stabilization technique (Park, 1986) is found to yield improved accuracy and robustness over Baumgarte's (1972) technique, the singular decomposition technique (Walton and Steeves, 1969), and the penalty technique (Lotstedt, 1979). Furthermore, the staggered stabilization technique offers software modularity, and the only data each solution module needs to exchange with the other is a set of vectors plus a common module to generate the gradient matrix of the constraints, B.

  1. Fast and Elegant Numerical Linear Algebra Using the RcppEigen Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Bates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The RcppEigen package provides access from R (R Core Team 2012a to the Eigen (Guennebaud, Jacob, and others 2012 C++ template library for numerical linear algebra. Rcpp (Eddelbuettel and François 2011, 2012 classes and specializations of the C++ templated functions as and wrap from Rcpp provide the "glue" for passing objects from R to C++ and back. Several introductory examples are presented. This is followed by an in-depth discussion of various available approaches for solving least-squares problems, including rank-revealing methods, concluding with an empirical run-time comparison. Last but not least, sparse matrix methods are discussed.

  2. Numerical Determination of Crack Opening and Closure Stress Intensity Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes

    2009-01-01

    The present work shows the numerical determination of fatigue crack opening and closure stress intensity factors of a C(T) specimen under variable amplitude loading using a finite element method. A half compact tension C(T) specimen, assuming plane stress constraint was used by finite element...

  3. Numerical evaluation of a robust self-triggered MPC algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, F.D.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Allgöwer, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical examples demonstrating the efficacy of a recently proposed self-triggered model predictive control scheme for disturbed linear discrete-time systems with hard constraints on the input and state. In order to reduce the amount of communication between the controller and the

  4. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  5. Numerical methods using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Lindfield, George

    2012-01-01

    Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use

  6. Interstitial irradiation of rectal carcinoma with rectal template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Kinji; Tanaka, Ken; Nakanishi, Makoto; Inoue, Takehiro

    1984-01-01

    Using Iridium-192 wires through a rectal template after Syed, interstitial brachytherapy was conducted in a patient with inoperable adenocarcinoma of the rectum. 67-year-old man with constipation and change in the stool caliber underwent external radiotherapy (4,000cGy/4W) to the whole pelvis including the perineum, followed by interstitial implant using a template, at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Marked tumor regression, marked circumferential fibrosis and a remarkable decline of CEA titers (pre-RT: 35.8ng/ml, post-RT: 6.2ng/ml) were observed until 7 months post-RT. The domestic production of Iridium-192 wires has made possible the intergrated use of brachytherapy in the perineal region in Japan. (author)

  7. Highly tailorable thiol-ene based emulsion-templated monoliths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, J. P.; Kutter, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    The attractive surface properties of thiol-ene polymers combined with their ease of processing make them ideal substrates in many bioanalytical applications. We report the synthesis of highly tailorable emulsion-templated porous polymers and beads in microfluidic devices based on off-stoichiometr......The attractive surface properties of thiol-ene polymers combined with their ease of processing make them ideal substrates in many bioanalytical applications. We report the synthesis of highly tailorable emulsion-templated porous polymers and beads in microfluidic devices based on off......-stoichiometry thiolene chemistry. The method allows monolith synthesis and anchoring inside thiol-ene microchannels in a single step. Variations in the monomer stoichiometric ratios and/or amount of porogen used allow for the creation of extremely varied polymer morphologies, from foam-like materials to dense networks...

  8. Template aging in eye movement-driven biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Holland, Corey D.; Karpov, Alex

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a template aging study of eye movement biometrics, considering three distinct biometric techniques on multiple stimuli and eye tracking systems. Short-to-midterm aging effects are examined over two-weeks, on a highresolution eye tracking system, and seven-months, on a low-resolution eye tracking system. We find that, in all cases, aging effects are evident as early as two weeks after initial template collection, with an average 28% (±19%) increase in equal error rates and 34% (±12%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. At seven months, we observe an average 18% (±8%) increase in equal error rates and 44% (±20%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. The comparative results at two-weeks and seven-months suggests that there is little difference in aging effects between the two intervals; however, whether the rate of decay increases more drastically in the long-term remains to be seen.

  9. Synthesis of platinum nanowheels using a bicellar template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yujiang; Dorin, Rachel M; Garcia, Robert M; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Wang, Haorong; Li, Peng; Qiu, Yan; van Swol, Frank; Miller, James E; Shelnutt, John A

    2008-09-24

    Disk-like surfactant bicelles provide a unique meso-structured reaction environment for templating the wet-chemical reduction of platinum(II) salt by ascorbic acid to produce platinum nanowheels. The Pt wheels are 496 +/-55 nm in diameter and possess thickened centers and radial dendritic nanosheets (about 2-nm in thickness) culminating in flared dendritic rims. The structural features of the platinum wheels arise from confined growth of platinum within the bilayer that is also limited at edges of the bicelles. The size of CTAB/FC7 bicelles is observed to evolve with the addition of Pt(II) complex and ascorbic acid. Synthetic control is demonstrated by varying the reaction parameters including metal salt concentration, temperature, and total surfactant concentration. This study opens up opportunities for the use of other inhomogeneous soft templates for synthesizing metals, metal alloys, and possibly semiconductors with complex nanostructures.

  10. A Template Analysis of Writing Self-Efficacy Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kim M; Rieger, Kendra L; McMillan, Diana E

    2017-08-01

    This investigation reviews the item content of writing selfefficacy (WSE) measures developed for undergraduate students. Bandura's self-efficacy theory and a writing theory by Flower and Hayes informed the a priori themes used to develop a template of WSE categories critical to the concept. Articles describing WSE measures were identified through Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar (1984-2015). A template analysis method was used to analyze 182 individual items present on 11 WSE instruments. A nursing perspective was applied. The analysis identified 16 categories influencing WSE as well as gaps in current measurement items. The theoretical examination of WSE is the first step toward the development of a WSE measure specific to the nursing context and contributes to nursing education by advancing the measurement of WSE.

  11. Template assisted synthesis and optical properties of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Petru; Lasalvia, Vincenzo

    2009-03-01

    A hybrid nanofabrication method (interference lithography + self assembly) was explored for the fabrication of arrays of gold nanoparticles. To ensure the uniformity of the nanoparticles, a template assisted synthesis was used in which the gold is electrodeposited in the pores of anodized aluminum membranes. The spacing between the pores and their ordering is controlled in the first fabrication step of the template in which laser lithography and metal deposition are used to produce aluminum films with controlled strain profiles. The diameter of the pores produced after anodizing the aluminum film in acidic solution determines the diameter of the gold particles, while their aspect ratio is controlled through the deposition time. Optical absorbance spectroscopy is used to evaluate the ability to tune the nanoparticles plasmon resonance spectra through control over their size and aspect ratio.

  12. A PBOM configuration and management method based on templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Qiao, Lihong; Qie, Yifan

    2018-03-01

    The design of Process Bill of Materials (PBOM) holds a hinge position in the process of product development. The requirements of PBOM configuration design and management for complex products are analysed in this paper, which include the reuse technique of configuration procedure and urgent management need of huge quantity of product family PBOM data. Based on the analysis, the function framework of PBOM configuration and management has been established. Configuration templates and modules are defined in the framework to support the customization and the reuse of configuration process. The configuration process of a detection sensor PBOM is shown as an illustration case in the end. The rapid and agile PBOM configuration and management can be achieved utilizing template-based method, which has a vital significance to improve the development efficiency for complex products.

  13. Template based parallel checkpointing in a massively parallel computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Inglett, Todd Alan [Rochester, MN

    2009-01-13

    A method and apparatus for a template based parallel checkpoint save for a massively parallel super computer system using a parallel variation of the rsync protocol, and network broadcast. In preferred embodiments, the checkpoint data for each node is compared to a template checkpoint file that resides in the storage and that was previously produced. Embodiments herein greatly decrease the amount of data that must be transmitted and stored for faster checkpointing and increased efficiency of the computer system. Embodiments are directed to a parallel computer system with nodes arranged in a cluster with a high speed interconnect that can perform broadcast communication. The checkpoint contains a set of actual small data blocks with their corresponding checksums from all nodes in the system. The data blocks may be compressed using conventional non-lossy data compression algorithms to further reduce the overall checkpoint size.

  14. Crosslinked Aspartic Acids as Helix-Nucleating Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Qi-Song; Geng, Hao; Tian, Yuan; Cheng, Min; Jiang, Yan-Hong; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Niu, Xiao-Gang; Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Ya-Ou; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Wu, Yun-Dong; Xu, Nai-Han; Li, Zi-Gang

    2016-09-19

    Described is a facile helix-nucleating template based on a tethered aspartic acid at the N-terminus [terminal aspartic acid (TD)]. The nucleating effect of the template is subtly influenced by the substituent at the end of the side-chain-end tether as indicated by circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance, and molecular dynamics simulations. Unlike most nucleating strategies, the N-terminal amine is preserved, thus enabling further modification. Peptidomimetic estrogen receptor modulators (PERMs) constructed using this strategy show improved therapeutic properties. The current strategy can be regarded as a good complement to existing helix-stabilizing methods. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Modelling Template for the Development of the Process Flowsheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Models are playing important roles in design and analysis of chemicals/bio-chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Model-based methods and tools have the potential to decrease the number of experiments, which can be expensive and time consuming, and point to candidates...... in connection to other modelling tools within the modelling framework are forming a user-friendly system, which will make the model development process easier and faster and provide the way for unified and consistent model documentation. The modeller can use the template for their specific problem or to extend...... models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be faster, cheaper and very efficient. The developed modelling framework involves three main parts: 1) a modelling tool, that includes algorithms for model generation; 2) a template library, which...

  16. Controlling the anodizing conditions in preparation of an nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, Azadeh; Abolfazl, Seyed; Sadjadi, Seyed

    2014-12-01

    Porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template is commonly used in the synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanowires and nanorods, due to its simple fabrication process. Controlling the anodizing conditions is important because of their direct influence on the size of AAO template pores; it affects the size of nanostructures that are fabricated in AAO template. In present study, several alumina templates were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical anodization in different conditions, such as the time of first process, its voltage, and electrolyte concentration. The effect of these factors on pore diameters of AAO templates was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  17. Multifunctional Graphene/Platinum/Nafion Hybrids via Ice Templating

    KAUST Repository

    Estevez, Luis; Kelarakis, Antonios; Gong, Qianming; Da’ as, Eman H.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis of multifunctional hybrids in both films and bulk form, combining electrical and ionic conductivity with porosity and catalytic activity. The hybrids are synthesized by a two-step process: (a) ice templation of an aqueous suspension comprised of Nafion, graphite oxide, and chloroplatinic acid to form a microcellular porous network and (b) mild reduction in hydrazine or monosodium citrate which leads to graphene-supported Pt nanoparticles on a Nafion scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Smart Contract Templates: essential requirements and design options

    OpenAIRE

    Clack, Christopher D.; Bakshi, Vikram A.; Braine, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Smart Contract Templates support legally-enforceable smart contracts, using operational parameters to connect legal agreements to standardised code. In this paper, we explore the design landscape of potential formats for storage and transmission of smart legal agreements. We identify essential requirements and describe a number of key design options, from which we envisage future development of standardised formats for defining and manipulating smart legal agreements. This provides a prelimin...

  19. Smart Contract Templates: foundations, design landscape and research directions

    OpenAIRE

    Clack, Christopher D.; Bakshi, Vikram A.; Braine, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this position paper, we consider some foundational topics regarding smart contracts (such as terminology, automation, enforceability, and semantics) and define a smart contract as an automatable and enforceable agreement. We explore a simple semantic framework for smart contracts, covering both operational and non-operational aspects, and describe templates and agreements for legally-enforceable smart contracts, based on legal documents. Building upon the Ricardian Contract, we identify op...

  20. Soft-Template Construction of 3D Macroporous Polypyrrole Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaohua; Wang, Faxing; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Zhikun; Mai, Yiyong; Feng, Xinliang

    2017-04-01

    A bottom-up approach toward 3D hierarchical macroporous polypyrrole aerogels is demonstrated via soft template-directed synthesis and self-assembly of ultrathin polypyrrole nanosheets in solution, which present interconnected macropores, ultrathin walls, and large specific surface areas, thereby exhibiting a high capacity, satisfactory rate capability, and excellent cycling stability for Na-ion storage. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Lijia; Qiu, Hao; Dou, Chunmeng; Li, Yun; Pu, Lin; Xu, Jianbin; Shi, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template met...

  2. Template Synthesis of Nanostructured Polymeric Membranes by Inkjet Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Hunter, Aaron; Benavides, Sherwood; Summe, Mark J; Gao, Feng; Phillip, William A

    2016-02-10

    The fabrication of functional nanomaterials with complex structures has been serving great scientific and practical interests, but current fabrication and patterning methods are generally costly and laborious. Here, we introduce a versatile, reliable, and rapid method for fabricating nanostructured polymeric materials. The novel method is based on a combination of inkjet printing and template synthesis, and its utility and advantages in the fabrication of polymeric nanomaterials is demonstrated through three examples: the generation of polymeric nanotubes, nanowires, and thin films. Layer-by-layer-assembled nanotubes can be synthesized in a polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) membrane by printing poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(styrenesulfonate) sequentially. This sequential deposition of polyelectrolyte ink enables control over the surface charge within the nanotubes. By a simple change of the printing conditions, polymeric nanotubes or nanowires were prepared by printing poly(vinyl alcohol) in a PCTE template. In this case, the high-throughput nature of the method enables functional nanomaterials to be generated in under 3 min. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inkjet printing paired with template synthesis can be used to generate patterns comprised of chemically distinct nanomaterials. Thin polymeric films of layer-by-layer-assembled poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(styrenesulfonate) are printed on a PCTE membrane. Track-etched membranes covered with the deposited thin films reject ions and can potentially be utilized as nanofiltration membranes. When the fabrication of these different classes of nanostructured materials is demonstrated, the advantages of pairing template synthesis with inkjet printing, which include fast and reliable deposition, judicious use of the deposited materials, and the ability to design chemically patterned surfaces, are highlighted.

  3. Fabrication of Nanostructures Using Self-Assembled Peptides as Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    the advantages of diphenylalanine are explained step by step offering new alternatives to fabricate nanostructures in a simple and rapid way. The chapter is complemented with techniques to manipulate the self-assembled diphenylalanine nanostructures without changing its properties during the manipulation process.......This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self...

  4. Template preparation for rapid PCR in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca M. Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of DNA for PCR is time-consuming and involves many reagents. The aim of this work was to optimise a rapid and easy PCR methodology without previous DNA isolation. Different strains of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum were used. Protoplasts were generated using lytic enzymes under high incubation temperatures using different methodologies to obtain the template. A rapid (10 minute methodology was successful for smaller amplicons (<750 bp.

  5. Developing the Service Template: From measurement to agendas for improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, CS; Saunders, M

    2007-01-01

    Traditional survey based measures of service quality are argued to be problematic when reflecting individual services and turning measurement into action. This paper reviews developments to an alternative measurement approach, the Service Template Process and offers an extension to it. The extended process appears able to measure service users’ and deliverers’ perceptions of service quality independently. It also enables participants to jointly agree an agenda for quality improvement. The e...

  6. Recycling of surfactant template in mesoporous MCM-41 synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J. Y.; Twaiq, F.; Ngu, L. H.

    2017-06-01

    The recycling of surfactant template is investigated through the reuse of the surfactant template in the mesoporous MCM-41 synthesis process. In the synthesis of MCM-41, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) solution in water was utilized as the silica source while hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solution in ethyl alcohol was used as a surfactant template. The synthesized gel is formed thoroughly by mixing the two solutions under acid conditions with a pH value of 0.5 for 1 hour and kept for crystallization for 48 hours. The as-synthesized MCM-41 powder is recovered by filtration while the filtrate (mother liquor) was then reused for the second synthesis cycle. The synthesis procedure was repeated till no further solid product was formed. The synthesized gel was not produced in the unifying solution in the fifth cycle of MCM-41 synthesis. The quality of the calcined MCM-41 powder produced in each synthesis cycle was evaluated by calculating the amount of MCM-41 produced and the surface area of the powder product. The result showed that 1.28, 0.37, 1.64, 1.90 and 0.037 g were obtained in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th synthesis cycle, respectively. The surface area of the powder produced was found to be 1170, 916, 728, and 508 m2/g for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th respectively. The concentration of the surfactant template has reached value lower than the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and remained constant after the 4th cycle. There was no further formation of gel due to low availability in the interaction between silicate anions and surfactant cations when the amount of TEOS was fixed for every synthesis cycle.

  7. Optical properties of template synthesized nanowalled ZnS microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Chakarvarti, S. K.

    2007-12-01

    Electrodeposition is a versatile technique combining low processing cost with ambient conditions that can be used to prepare metallic, polymeric and semiconducting nano/micro structures. In the present work, track-etch membranes (TEMs) of makrofol (KG) have been used as templates for synthesis of ZnS nanowalled microtubules using electrodeposition technique. The morphology of the microtubules was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Size effects on the band gap of tubules have also been studied by UV-visible spectrophotometer.

  8. Object-based target templates guide attention during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2018-05-03

    During visual search, attention is believed to be controlled in a strictly feature-based fashion, without any guidance by object-based target representations. To challenge this received view, we measured electrophysiological markers of attentional selection (N2pc component) and working memory (sustained posterior contralateral negativity; SPCN) in search tasks where two possible targets were defined by feature conjunctions (e.g., blue circles and green squares). Critically, some search displays also contained nontargets with two target features (incorrect conjunction objects, e.g., blue squares). Because feature-based guidance cannot distinguish these objects from targets, any selective bias for targets will reflect object-based attentional control. In Experiment 1, where search displays always contained only one object with target-matching features, targets and incorrect conjunction objects elicited identical N2pc and SPCN components, demonstrating that attentional guidance was entirely feature-based. In Experiment 2, where targets and incorrect conjunction objects could appear in the same display, clear evidence for object-based attentional control was found. The target N2pc became larger than the N2pc to incorrect conjunction objects from 250 ms poststimulus, and only targets elicited SPCN components. This demonstrates that after an initial feature-based guidance phase, object-based templates are activated when they are required to distinguish target and nontarget objects. These templates modulate visual processing and control access to working memory, and their activation may coincide with the start of feature integration processes. Results also suggest that while multiple feature templates can be activated concurrently, only a single object-based target template can guide attention at any given time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Grammatical Templates: Improving Text Difficulty Evaluation for Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuhan; Andersen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Language students are most engaged while reading texts at an appropriate difficulty level. However, existing methods of evaluating text difficulty focus mainly on vocabulary and do not prioritize grammatical features, hence they do not work well for language learners with limited knowledge of grammar. In this paper, we introduce grammatical templates, the expert-identified units of grammar that students learn from class, as an important feature of text difficulty evaluation. Experimental clas...

  10. Multifunctional Graphene/Platinum/Nafion Hybrids via Ice Templating

    KAUST Repository

    Estevez, Luis

    2011-04-27

    We report the synthesis of multifunctional hybrids in both films and bulk form, combining electrical and ionic conductivity with porosity and catalytic activity. The hybrids are synthesized by a two-step process: (a) ice templation of an aqueous suspension comprised of Nafion, graphite oxide, and chloroplatinic acid to form a microcellular porous network and (b) mild reduction in hydrazine or monosodium citrate which leads to graphene-supported Pt nanoparticles on a Nafion scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Home Automation : Smart home technology and template house design

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zeya

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, home automation’s general knowledge, technology information and each component will be introduced to the reader in the first half of the whole thesis. In the second half, thesis includes the Home Automation template design and market competitiveness analysis. The author assumes that the reader is going to spend lots of money to have a smart home. In this situation, the author introduces the home automation to the reader at each component. So the reader in this thesis actu...

  12. Standardized ultrasound templates for diagnosing appendicitis reduce annual imaging costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Andrew B; Sales, Stephen; Nielsen, Jason W; Adler, Brent; Bates, David Gregory; Kenney, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound is preferred over computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing appendicitis in children to avoid undue radiation exposure. We previously reported our experience in instituting a standardized appendicitis ultrasound template, which decreased CT rates by 67.3%. In this analysis, we demonstrate the ongoing cost savings associated with using this template. Retrospective chart review for the time period preceding template implementation (June 2012-September 2012) was combined with prospective review through December 2015 for all patients in the emergency department receiving diagnostic imaging for appendicitis. The type of imaging was recorded, and imaging rates and ultrasound test statistics were calculated. Estimated annual imaging costs based on pretemplate ultrasound and CT utilization rates were compared with post-template annual costs to calculate annual and cumulative savings. In the pretemplate period, ultrasound and CT rates were 80.2% and 44.3%, respectively, resulting in a combined annual cost of $300,527.70. Similar calculations were performed for each succeeding year, accounting for changes in patient volume. Using pretemplate rates, our projected 2015 imaging cost was $371,402.86; however, our ultrasound rate had increased to 98.3%, whereas the CT rate declined to 9.6%, yielding an annual estimated cost of $224,853.00 and a savings of $146,549.86. Since implementation, annual savings have steadily increased for a cumulative cost savings of $336,683.83. Standardizing ultrasound reports for appendicitis not only reduces the use of CT scans and the associated radiation exposure but also decreases annual imaging costs despite increased numbers of imaging studies. Continued cost reduction may be possible by using diagnostic algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermomechanical constraints and constitutive formulations in thermoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate three classes of constraints in a thermoelastic body: (i a deformation-temperature constraint, (ii a deformation-entropy constraint, and (iii a deformation-energy constraint. These constraints are obtained as limits of unconstrained thermoelastic materials and we show that constraints (ii and (iii are equivalent. By using a limiting procedure, we show that for the constraint (i, the entropy plays the role of a Lagrange multiplier while for (ii and (iii, the absolute temperature plays the role of Lagrange multiplier. We further demonstrate that the governing equations for materials subject to constraint (i are identical to those of an unconstrained material whose internal energy is an affine function of the entropy, while those for materials subject to constraints (ii and (iii are identical to those of an unstrained material whose Helmholtz potential is affine in the absolute temperature. Finally, we model the thermoelastic response of a peroxide-cured vulcanizate of natural rubber and show that imposing the constraint in which the volume change depends only on the internal energy leads to very good predictions (compared to experimental results of the stress and temperature response under isothermal and isentropic conditions.

  14. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K. [Mahatma Gandhi University Regional Research Center in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam-686666, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}⋅8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  15. Template matching for auditing hospital cost and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Jeffrey H; Rosenbaum, Paul R; Ross, Richard N; Ludwig, Justin M; Wang, Wei; Niknam, Bijan A; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Saynisch, Philip A; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Kelz, Rachel R; Fleisher, Lee A

    2014-10-01

    Develop an improved method for auditing hospital cost and quality. Medicare claims in general, gynecologic and urologic surgery, and orthopedics from Illinois, Texas, and New York between 2004 and 2006. A template of 300 representative patients was constructed and then used to match 300 patients at hospitals that had a minimum of 500 patients over a 3-year study period. From each of 217 hospitals we chose 300 patients most resembling the template using multivariate matching. The matching algorithm found close matches on procedures and patient characteristics, far more balanced than measured covariates would be in a randomized clinical trial. These matched samples displayed little to no differences across hospitals in common patient characteristics yet found large and statistically significant hospital variation in mortality, complications, failure-to-rescue, readmissions, length of stay, ICU days, cost, and surgical procedure length. Similar patients at different hospitals had substantially different outcomes. The template-matched sample can produce fair, directly standardized audits that evaluate hospitals on patients with similar characteristics, thereby making benchmarking more believable. Through examining matched samples of individual patients, administrators can better detect poor performance at their hospitals and better understand why these problems are occurring. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. No Need for Templates in the Auditory Enhancement Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagno, Samuele; Semal, Catherine; Demany, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The audibility of a target tone in a multitone background masker is enhanced by the presentation of a precursor sound consisting of the masker alone. There is evidence that precursor-induced neural adaptation plays a role in this perceptual enhancement. However, the precursor may also be strategically used by listeners as a spectral template of the following masker to better segregate it from the target. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by measuring the audibility of a target tone in a multitone masker after the presentation of precursors which, in some conditions, were made dissimilar to the masker by gating their components asynchronously. The precursor and the following sound were presented either to the same ear or to opposite ears. In either case, we found no significant difference in the amount of enhancement produced by synchronous and asynchronous precursors. In a second experiment, listeners had to judge whether a synchronous multitone complex contained exactly the same tones as a preceding precursor complex or had one tone less. In this experiment, listeners performed significantly better with synchronous than with asynchronous precursors, showing that asynchronous precursors were poorer perceptual templates of the synchronous multitone complexes. Overall, our findings indicate that precursor-induced auditory enhancement cannot be fully explained by the strategic use of the precursor as a template of the following masker. Our results are consistent with an explanation of enhancement based on selective neural adaptation taking place at a central locus of the auditory system.

  17. International developments in openEHR archetypes and templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Heather

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are a complex knowledge domain. The ability to design EHRs to cope with the changing nature of health knowledge, and to be shareable, has been elusive. A recent pilot study1 tested the applicability of the CEN 13606 as an electronic health record standard. Using openEHR archetypes and tools2, 650 clinical content specifi cations (archetypes) were created (e.g. for blood pressure) and re-used across all clinical specialties and contexts. Groups of archetypes were aggregated in templates to support clinical information gathering or viewing (e.g. 80 separate archetypes make up the routine antenatal visit record). Over 60 templates were created for use in the emergency department, antenatal care and delivery of an infant, and paediatric hearing loss assessment. The primary goal is to define a logical clinical record architecture for the NHS but potentially, with archetypes as the keystone, shareable EHRs will also be attainable. Archetype and template development work is ongoing, with associated evaluation occurring in parallel.

  18. Stochastic model of template-directed elongation processes in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilstra, Maria J; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L

    2010-10-01

    We present a novel modular, stochastic model for biological template-based linear chain elongation processes. In this model, elongation complexes (ECs; DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, or ribosomes associated with nascent chains) that span a finite number of template units step along the template, one after another, with semaphore constructs preventing overtaking. The central elongation module is readily extended with modules that represent initiation and termination processes. The model was used to explore the effect of EC span on motor velocity and dispersion, and the effect of initiation activator and repressor binding kinetics on the overall elongation dynamics. The results demonstrate that (1) motors that move smoothly are able to travel at a greater velocity and closer together than motors that move more erratically, and (2) the rate at which completed chains are released is proportional to the occupancy or vacancy of activator or repressor binding sites only when initiation or activator/repressor dissociation is slow in comparison with elongation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Template based rodent brain extraction and atlas mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin Huang; Jiaqi Zhang; Zhiping Lin; Su Huang; Yuping Duan; Zhongkang Lu

    2016-08-01

    Accurate rodent brain extraction is the basic step for many translational studies using MR imaging. This paper presents a template based approach with multi-expert refinement to automatic rodent brain extraction. We first build the brain appearance model based on the learning exemplars. Together with the template matching, we encode the rodent brain position into the search space to reliably locate the rodent brain and estimate the rough segmentation. With the initial mask, a level-set segmentation and a mask-based template learning are implemented further to the brain region. The multi-expert fusion is used to generate a new mask. We finally combine the region growing based on the histogram distribution learning to delineate the final brain mask. A high-resolution rodent atlas is used to illustrate that the segmented low resolution anatomic image can be well mapped to the atlas. Tested on a public data set, all brains are located reliably and we achieve the mean Jaccard similarity score at 94.99% for brain segmentation, which is a statistically significant improvement compared to two other rodent brain extraction methods.

  20. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite particles in catanionic mixed surfactants template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tari, Nesa Esmaeilian; Kashani Motlagh, Mohammad M.; Sohrabi, Beheshteh

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ►The mixture of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with different ratio were used as the template for synthesizing HAP particles. ► The overall morphology of the obtained powders at anionic-rich region (SDS:CTAB, 99:1) solution is rod like with high regularity. ► In the presence of cationic rich region (SDS:CTAB, 1:99) the resulted particles was sheet like. ► The resulted HAP nano particles in the presence of SDS were rod like but their morphology was less oriented than anionic-rich region. - Abstract: Different morphologies of nano hydroxyapatite particles, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 (HAP) are prepared by precipitation method using CaCl 2 and H 3 PO 4 (water phase) and the mixture of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic one sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as template. The mixture of these surfactants in two regions of cationic-rich and anionic-rich form the various aggregations as template. The results show that by changing the ratio of cationic to anionic surfactant in the mixture the morphology of the nano HAP can be controlled. The nano structure of products is studied by the means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With this system we could synthesize nano particles of hydroxyapatite with high crystallinity and least agglomeration.

  1. TEMPLATE-ASSISTED FABRICATION AND DIELECTROPHORETIC MANIPULATION OF PZT MICROTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR KOVAĽ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscopic high aspect ratio ferroelectric tube structures of a diverse range of compositions with tailored physical properties can be used as key components in miniaturized flexible electronics, nano- and micro-electro-mechanical systems, nonvolatile FeRAM memories, and tunable photonic applications. They are usually produced through advanced “bottom-up” or “topdown” fabrication techniques. In this study, a template wetting approach is employed for fabrication of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT microtubes. The method is based on repeated infiltration of precursor solution into macroporous silicon (Si templates at a sub-atmospheric pressure. Prior to crystallization at 750°C, free-standing tubes of a 2-μm outer diameter, extending to over 30 μm in length were released from the Si template using a selective isotropic-pulsed XeF2 reactive ion etching. To facilitate rapid electrical characterization and enable future integration process, directed positioning and aligning of the PZT tubes was performed by dielectrophoresis. The electric field-assisted technique involves an alternating electric voltage that is applied through pre-patterned microelectrodes to a colloidal suspension of PZT tubes dispersed in isopropyl alcohol. The most efficient biasing for the assembly of tubes across the electrode gap of 12 μm was a square wave signal of 5 Vrms and 10 Hz. By varying the applied frequency in between 1 and 10 Hz, an enhancement in tube alignment was obtained.

  2. No Need for Templates in the Auditory Enhancement Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Carcagno

    Full Text Available The audibility of a target tone in a multitone background masker is enhanced by the presentation of a precursor sound consisting of the masker alone. There is evidence that precursor-induced neural adaptation plays a role in this perceptual enhancement. However, the precursor may also be strategically used by listeners as a spectral template of the following masker to better segregate it from the target. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by measuring the audibility of a target tone in a multitone masker after the presentation of precursors which, in some conditions, were made dissimilar to the masker by gating their components asynchronously. The precursor and the following sound were presented either to the same ear or to opposite ears. In either case, we found no significant difference in the amount of enhancement produced by synchronous and asynchronous precursors. In a second experiment, listeners had to judge whether a synchronous multitone complex contained exactly the same tones as a preceding precursor complex or had one tone less. In this experiment, listeners performed significantly better with synchronous than with asynchronous precursors, showing that asynchronous precursors were poorer perceptual templates of the synchronous multitone complexes. Overall, our findings indicate that precursor-induced auditory enhancement cannot be fully explained by the strategic use of the precursor as a template of the following masker. Our results are consistent with an explanation of enhancement based on selective neural adaptation taking place at a central locus of the auditory system.

  3. Chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission of biometric templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Zhang Jiashu; Tian Lei

    2007-01-01

    The large-scale proliferation of biometric verification systems creates a demand for effective and reliable security and privacy of its data. Like passwords and PIN codes, biometric data is also not secret and if it is compromised, the integrity of the whole verification system could be at high risk. To address these issues, this paper presents a novel chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission scheme of biometric data. Encryption and data hiding techniques are used to improve the security and secrecy of the transmitted templates. Secret keys are generated by the biometric image and used as the parameter value and initial condition of the chaotic map, and each transaction session has different secret keys to protect from the attacks. Two chaotic maps are incorporated for the encryption to resolve the finite word length effect and to improve the system's resistance against attacks. Encryption is applied on the biometric templates before hiding into the cover/host images to make them secure, and then templates are hidden into the cover image. Experimental results show that the security, performance, and accuracy of the presented scheme are encouraging comparable with other methods found in the current literature

  4. Chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission of biometric templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram [Research Group for Biometrics and Security, Sichuan Province Key Lab of Signal and Information Processing, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China)]. E-mail: khurram.khan@scientist.com; Zhang Jiashu [Research Group for Biometrics and Security, Sichuan Province Key Lab of Signal and Information Processing, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); Tian Lei [Research Group for Biometrics and Security, Sichuan Province Key Lab of Signal and Information Processing, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2007-06-15

    The large-scale proliferation of biometric verification systems creates a demand for effective and reliable security and privacy of its data. Like passwords and PIN codes, biometric data is also not secret and if it is compromised, the integrity of the whole verification system could be at high risk. To address these issues, this paper presents a novel chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission scheme of biometric data. Encryption and data hiding techniques are used to improve the security and secrecy of the transmitted templates. Secret keys are generated by the biometric image and used as the parameter value and initial condition of the chaotic map, and each transaction session has different secret keys to protect from the attacks. Two chaotic maps are incorporated for the encryption to resolve the finite word length effect and to improve the system's resistance against attacks. Encryption is applied on the biometric templates before hiding into the cover/host images to make them secure, and then templates are hidden into the cover image. Experimental results show that the security, performance, and accuracy of the presented scheme are encouraging comparable with other methods found in the current literature.

  5. Size and Crystallinity in Protein-Templated Inorganic Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, Craig C.; Uchida, Masaki; Reichhardt, Courtney; Harrington, Richard; Kang, Sebyung; Klem, Michael T.; Parise, John B.; Douglas, Trevor (SBU); (Montana)

    2010-12-01

    Protein cages such as ferritins and virus capsids have been used as containers to synthesize a wide variety of protein-templated inorganic nanoparticles. While identification of the inorganic crystal phase has been successful in some cases, very little is known about the detailed nanoscale structure of the inorganic component. We have used pair distribution function analysis of total X-ray scattering to measure the crystalline domain size in nanoparticles of ferrihydrite, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CoPt, and FePt grown inside 24-meric ferritin cages from H. sapiens and P. furiosus. The material properties of these protein-templated nanoparticles are influenced by processes at a variety of length scales: the chemistry of the material determines the precise arrangement of atoms at very short distances, while the interior volume of the protein cage constrains the maximum nanoparticle size attainable. At intermediate length scales, the size of coherent crystalline domains appears to be constrained by the arrangement of crystal nucleation sites on the interior of the cage. On the basis of these observations, some potential synthetic strategies for the control of crystalline domain size in protein-templated nanoparticles are suggested.

  6. Physical controls on directed virus assembly at nanoscale chemical templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, C L; Chung, S; Chatterji, A; Lin, T; Johnson, J E; Hok, S; Perkins, J; De Yoreo, J

    2006-01-01

    Viruses are attractive building blocks for nanoscale heterostructures, but little is understood about the physical principles governing their directed assembly. In-situ force microscopy was used to investigate organization of Cowpea Mosaic Virus engineered to bind specifically and reversibly at nanoscale chemical templates with sub-30nm features. Morphological evolution and assembly kinetics were measured as virus flux and inter-viral potential were varied. The resulting morphologies were similar to those of atomic-scale epitaxial systems, but the underlying thermodynamics was analogous to that of colloidal systems in confined geometries. The 1D templates biased the location of initial cluster formation, introduced asymmetric sticking probabilities, and drove 1D and 2D condensation at subcritical volume fractions. The growth kinetics followed a t 1/2 law controlled by the slow diffusion of viruses. The lateral expansion of virus clusters that initially form on the 1D templates following introduction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) into the solution suggests a significant role for weak interaction

  7. Numerical optimization of circulation control airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, T. C.; Kidwell, G. H., Jr.; Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    A numerical procedure for optimizing circulation control airfoils, which consists of the coupling of an optimization scheme with a viscous potential flow analysis for blowing jet, is presented. The desired airfoil is defined by a combination of three baseline shapes (cambered ellipse, and cambered ellipse with drooped and spiralled trailing edges). The coefficients of these shapes are used as design variables in the optimization process. Under the constraints of lift augmentation and lift-to-drag ratios, the optimal airfoils are found to lie between those of cambered ellipse and the drooped trailing edge, towards the latter as the angle of attack increases. Results agree qualitatively with available experimental data.

  8. Numerical method for partial equilibrium flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.; Cloutman, L.D.; Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545)

    1981-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for chemically reactive fluid flow in which equilibrium and nonequilibrium reactions occur simultaneously. The equilibrium constraints on the species concentrations are established by a quadratic iterative procedure. If the equilibrium reactions are uncoupled and of second or lower order, the procedure converges in a single step. In general, convergence is most rapid when the reactions are weakly coupled. This can frequently be achieved by a judicious choice of the independent reactions. In typical transient calculations, satisfactory accuracy has been achieved with about five iterations per time step

  9. A template bank to search for gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries: II. Phenomenological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokelaer, T

    2007-01-01

    Matched filtering is used to search for gravitational waves emitted by inspiralling compact binaries in data from ground-based interferometers. One of the key aspects of the detection process is the deployment of a set of templates, also called a template bank, to cover the astrophysically interesting region of the parameter space. In a companion paper, we described the template bank algorithm used in the analysis of Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) data to search for signals from non-spinning binaries made of neutron star and/or stellar-mass black holes; this template bank is based upon physical template families. In this paper, we describe the phenomenological template bank that was used to search for gravitational waves from non-spinning black hole binaries (from stellar mass formation) in the second, third and fourth LIGO science runs. We briefly explain the design of the bank, whose templates are based on a phenomenological detection template family. We show that this template bank gives matches greater than 95% with the physical template families that are expected to be captured by the phenomenological templates

  10. Looking sharp: Becoming a search template boosts precision and stability in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Ouslis, Natasha E; Wilson, Daryl E; Pratt, Jay

    2017-08-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) plays a central role in visual cognition, and current work suggests that there is a special state in VWM for items that are the goal of visual searches. However, whether the quality of memory for target templates differs from memory for other items in VWM is currently unknown. In this study, we measured the precision and stability of memory for search templates and accessory items to determine whether search templates receive representational priority in VWM. Memory for search templates exhibited increased precision and probability of recall, whereas accessory items were remembered less often. Additionally, while memory for Templates showed benefits when instances of the Template appeared in search, this benefit was not consistently observed for Accessory items when they appeared in search. Our results show that becoming a search template can substantially affect the quality of a representation in VWM.

  11. From physical dose constraints to equivalent uniform dose constraints in inverse radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieke, Christian; Bortfeld, Thomas; Niemierko, Andrzej; Nill, Simeon

    2003-01-01

    Optimization algorithms in inverse radiotherapy planning need information about the desired dose distribution. Usually the planner defines physical dose constraints for each structure of the treatment plan, either in form of minimum and maximum doses or as dose-volume constraints. The concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) was designed to describe dose distributions with a higher clinical relevance. In this paper, we present a method to consider the EUD as an optimization constraint by using the method of projections onto convex sets (POCS). In each iteration of the optimization loop, for the actual dose distribution of an organ that violates an EUD constraint a new dose distribution is calculated that satisfies the EUD constraint, leading to voxel-based physical dose constraints. The new dose distribution is found by projecting the current one onto the convex set of all dose distributions fulfilling the EUD constraint. The algorithm is easy to integrate into existing inverse planning systems, and it allows the planner to choose between physical and EUD constraints separately for each structure. A clinical case of a head and neck tumor is optimized using three different sets of constraints: physical constraints for all structures, physical constraints for the target and EUD constraints for the organs at risk, and EUD constraints for all structures. The results show that the POCS method converges stable and given EUD constraints are reached closely

  12. Metric approach to quantum constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Hughston, Lane P; Gustavsson, Anna C T

    2009-01-01

    A framework for deriving equations of motion for constrained quantum systems is introduced and a procedure for its implementation is outlined. In special cases, the proposed new method, which takes advantage of the fact that the space of pure states in quantum mechanics has both a symplectic structure and a metric structure, reduces to a quantum analogue of the Dirac theory of constraints in classical mechanics. Explicit examples involving spin-1/2 particles are worked out in detail: in the first example, our approach coincides with a quantum version of the Dirac formalism, while the second example illustrates how a situation that cannot be treated by Dirac's approach can nevertheless be dealt with in the present scheme.

  13. Planck 2013 Results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Heavens, A.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result fNL^local= 2.7+/-5.8, fNL^equil= -42+/-75, and fNL^ortho= -25+\\-39 (68% CL statistical). NG is detected in the data; using skew-C_l statistics we find a nonzero bispectrum from residual point sources, and the ISW-lensing bispectrum at a level expected in the LambdaCDM scenario. The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are confirmed by skew-C_l, wavelet bispectrum and Minkowski functional estimators. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, 3-dimensional...

  14. Planck 2015 results. XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Münchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background(CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity(NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators - separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal - we obtain consistent values for the local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result from temperature alone fNL^local=2.5+\\-5.7, fNL^equil=-16+\\-70 and fNL^ortho=-34+\\-33(68%CL). Combining temperature and polarization data we obtain fNL^local=0.8+\\-5.0, fNL^equil=-4+\\-43 and fNL^ortho=-26+\\-21 (68%CL). The results are based on cross-validation of these estimators on simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are consistent with Minkowski functionals based measurements. The effect of time-domain de-glitching systematics on the bispectrum is negligible. In spite of these test outcomes we conservatively label the results including polarization da...

  15. Cosmographic Constraints and Cosmic Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Capozziello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reproducing dark energy effects is reviewed here with particular interest devoted to cosmography. We summarize some of the most relevant cosmological models, based on the assumption that the corresponding barotropic equations of state evolve as the universe expands, giving rise to the accelerated expansion. We describe in detail the ΛCDM (Λ-Cold Dark Matter and ωCDM models, considering also some specific examples, e.g., Chevallier–Polarsky–Linder, the Chaplygin gas and the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati cosmological model. Finally, we consider the cosmological consequences of f(R and f(T gravities and their impact on the framework of cosmography. Keeping these considerations in mind, we point out the model-independent procedure related to cosmography, showing how to match the series of cosmological observables to the free parameters of each model. We critically discuss the role played by cosmography, as a selection criterion to check whether a particular model passes or does not present cosmological constraints. In so doing, we find out cosmological bounds by fitting the luminosity distance expansion of the redshift, z, adopting the recent Union 2.1 dataset of supernovae, combined with the baryonic acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background measurements. We perform cosmographic analyses, imposing different priors on the Hubble rate present value. In addition, we compare our results with recent PLANCK limits, showing that the ΛCDM and ωCDM models seem to be the favorite with respect to other dark energy models. However, we show that cosmographic constraints on f(R and f(T cannot discriminate between extensions of General Relativity and dark energy models, leading to a disadvantageous degeneracy problem.

  16. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂φ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinni...

  17. Constraint Embedding for Multibody System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a constraint embedding approach for the handling of local closure constraints in multibody system dynamics. The approach uses spatial operator techniques to eliminate local-loop constraints from the system and effectively convert the system into tree-topology systems. This approach allows the direct derivation of recursive O(N) techniques for solving the system dynamics and avoiding the expensive steps that would otherwise be required for handling the closedchain dynamics. The approach is very effective for systems where the constraints are confined to small-subgraphs within the system topology. The paper provides background on the spatial operator O(N) algorithms, the extensions for handling embedded constraints, and concludes with some examples of such constraints.

  18. Use of dose constraints in public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tageldein, Amged

    2015-02-01

    An overview of the dose constraints in public exposures has been carried out in this project. The establishment, development and the application of the concept of dose constraints are reviewed with regards to public exposure. The role of dose constraints in the process of optimization of radiation protection was described and has been showed that the concept of the dose constraints along with many other concept of radiation protection is widely applied in the optimization of exposure to radiation. From the beginning of the establishment of dose constraints as a concept in radiation protection, the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published a number of documents that provides detailed application related to radiation protection and safety of public exposure from ionizing radiation. This work provides an overview of such publications and related documents with special emphasis on optimization of public exposure using dose constraints. (au)

  19. Causality constraints in conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Thomas; Jain, Sachin; Kundu, Sandipan [Department of Physics, Cornell University,Ithaca, New York (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂ϕ){sup 4} coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinning operators.

  20. Template for success: using a resident-designed sign-out template in the handover of patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Clancy J; Sindell, Sarah L; Koehler, Richard P

    2011-01-01

    Report our implementation of a standardized handover process in a general surgery residency program. The standardized handover process, sign-out template, method of implementation, and continuous quality improvement process were designed by general surgery residents with support of faculty and senior hospital administration using standard work principles and business models of the Virginia Mason Production System and the Toyota Production System. Nonprofit, tertiary referral teaching hospital. General surgery residents, residency faculty, patient care providers, and hospital administration. After instruction in quality improvement initiatives, a team of general surgery residents designed a sign-out process using an electronic template and standard procedures. The initial implementation phase resulted in 73% compliance. Using resident-driven continuous quality improvement processes, real-time feedback enabled residents to modify and improve this process, eventually attaining 100% compliance and acceptance by residents. The creation of a standardized template and protocol for patient handovers might eliminate communication failures. Encouraging residents to participate in this process can establish the groundwork for successful implementation of a standardized handover process. Integrating a continuous quality-improvement process into such an initiative can promote active participation of busy general surgery residents and lead to successful implementation of standard procedures. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Constraint-based Word Segmentation for Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Bo, Li

    2014-01-01

    -hoc and statistically based methods. In this paper, we show experiments of implementing different approaches to CWSP in the framework of CHR Grammars [Christiansen, 2005] that provides a constraint solving approach to language analysis. CHR Grammars are based upon Constraint Handling Rules, CHR [Frühwirth, 1998, 2009......], which is a declarative, high-level programming language for specification and implementation of constraint solvers....

  2. Stability Constraints for Robust Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G. S. Ottoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for the robust stabilization of systems controlled by MPC strategies. Uncertain SISO linear systems with box-bounded parametric uncertainties are considered. The proposed approach delivers some constraints on the control inputs which impose sufficient conditions for the convergence of the system output. These stability constraints can be included in the set of constraints dealt with by existing MPC design strategies, in this way leading to the “robustification” of the MPC.

  3. Some cosmological constraints on gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    In these lectures, a review is made of various constraints cosmology may place on gauge theories. Particular emphasis is placed on those constraints obtainable from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, with only brief mention made of Big Bang Baryosynthesis. There is also a considerable discussion of astrophysical constraints on masses and lifetimes of neutrinos with specific mention of the 'missing mass (light)' problem of galactic dynamics. (orig./HSI)

  4. Teaching Thermal Hydraulics & Numerical Methods: An Introductory Control Volume Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, D.S.

    2004-10-03

    This paper covers the basics of the implementation of the control volume method in the context of the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM)(T/H) code using the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. This primer uses the advection equation as a template. The discussion will cover the basic equations of the control volume portion of the course in the primer, which includes the advection equation, numerical methods, along with the implementation of the various equations via FORTRAN into computer programs and the final result for a three equation HEM code and its validation.

  5. Compact tokamak reactors part 2 (numerical results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.C.; Wootton, A.J.; Ross, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe a numerical optimization scheme for fusion reactors. The particular application described is to find the smallest copper coil spherical tokamak, although the numerical scheme is sufficiently general to allow many other problems to be solved. The solution to the steady state energy balance is found by first selecting the fixed variables. The range of all remaining variables is then selected, except for the temperature. Within the specified ranges, the temperature which satisfies the power balance is then found. Tests are applied to determine that remaining constraints are satisfied, and the acceptable results then stored. Results are presented for a range of auxiliary current drive efficiencies and different scaling relationships; for the range of variables chosen the machine encompassing volume increases or remains approximately unchanged as the aspect ratio is reduced

  6. Production Team Maintenance: Systemic Constraints Impacting Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Terry

    1997-01-01

    .... Identified constraints included: integrating the PTM positioning strategy into the AMC corporate strategic planning process, manpower modeling simulator limitations, labor force authorizations and decentralization...

  7. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  8. Toward an automaton Constraint for Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the idea of using finite automata to implement new constraints for local search (this is already a successful technique in constraint-based global search. We show how it is possible to maintain incrementally the violations of a constraint and its decision variables from an automaton that describes a ground checker for that constraint. We establish the practicality of our approach idea on real-life personnel rostering problems, and show that it is competitive with the approach of [Pralong, 2007].

  9. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.

    2004-01-01

    and program reactive systems. This note provides a comprehensive introduction to the background for and central notions from the theory of tccp. Furthermore, it surveys recent results on a particular tccp calculus, ntcc, and it provides a classification of the expressive power of various tccp languages.......A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  10. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  11. Numerical problems in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Devraj

    2015-01-01

    Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept

  12. Constraints on the dark matter annihilation from Fermi-LAT observation of M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhengwei; Yuan, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Huang, Xiaoyuan [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, Garching, D-85748 Germany (Germany); Xu, Yupeng, E-mail: lizw@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: huangxiaoyuan@gmail.com, E-mail: yuanq@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuyp@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-ray is a good probe of dark matter (DM) particles in the Universe. We search for the DM annihilation signals in the direction of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using 7.5 year Fermi-LAT pass 8 data. Similar to Pshirkov et al. (2016), we find that there is residual excess emission from the direction of M31 if only the galactic disk as traced by the far infrared emission is considered. Adding a point-like source will improve the fitting effectively, although additional slight improvements can be found if an extended component such as a uniform disk or two bubbles is added instead. Taking the far infrared disk plus a point source as the background model, we search for the DM annihilation signals in the data. We find that there is strong degeneracy between the emission from the galaxy and that from 10s GeV mass DM annihilation in the main halo with quark final state. However, the required DM annihilation cross section is about 10{sup −25}–10{sup −24} cm{sup 3}s{sup −1}, orders of magnitude larger than the constraints from observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, indicating a non-DM origin of the emission. If DM subhalos are taken into account, the degeneracy is broken. When considering the enhancement from DM subhalos, the constraints on DM model parameters are comparable to (or slightly weaker than) those from the population of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We also discuss the inverse Compton scattering component from DM annihilation induced electrons/positrons. For the first time we include an energy dependent template of the inverse Compton emission (i.e., a template cube) in the data analysis to take into account the effect of diffusion of charged particles. We find a significant improvement of the constraints in the high mass range of DM particles after considering the inverse Compton emission.

  13. Constrained Optimization Based on Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm and Adaptive Constraint-Handling Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Cai, Zixing; Zhou, Yuren

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach to deal with numerical and engineering constrained optimization problems, which incorporates a hybrid evolutionary algorithm and an adaptive constraint-handling technique, is presented in this paper. The hybrid evolutionary algorithm simultaneously uses simplex crossover and two...... mutation operators to generate the offspring population. Additionally, the adaptive constraint-handling technique consists of three main situations. In detail, at each situation, one constraint-handling mechanism is designed based on current population state. Experiments on 13 benchmark test functions...... and four well-known constrained design problems verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. The experimental results show that integrating the hybrid evolutionary algorithm with the adaptive constraint-handling technique is beneficial, and the proposed method achieves competitive...

  14. Culture and National Well-Being: Should Societies Emphasize Freedom or Constraint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jesse R; Boski, Pawel; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history and within numerous disciplines, there exists a perennial debate about how societies should best be organized. Should they emphasize individual freedom and autonomy or security and constraint? Contrary to proponents who tout the benefits of one over the other, we demonstrate across 32 nations that both freedom and constraint exhibit a curvilinear relationship with many indicators of societal well-being. Relative to moderate nations, very permissive and very constrained nations exhibit worse psychosocial outcomes (lower happiness, greater dysthymia, higher suicide rates), worse health outcomes (lower life expectancy, greater mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and diabetes) and poorer economic and political outcomes (lower gross domestic product per capita, greater risk for political instability). This supports the notion that a balance between freedom and constraint results in the best national outcomes. Accordingly, it is time to shift the debate away from either constraint or freedom and focus on both in moderation.

  15. Culture and National Well-Being: Should Societies Emphasize Freedom or Constraint?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse R Harrington

    Full Text Available Throughout history and within numerous disciplines, there exists a perennial debate about how societies should best be organized. Should they emphasize individual freedom and autonomy or security and constraint? Contrary to proponents who tout the benefits of one over the other, we demonstrate across 32 nations that both freedom and constraint exhibit a curvilinear relationship with many indicators of societal well-being. Relative to moderate nations, very permissive and very constrained nations exhibit worse psychosocial outcomes (lower happiness, greater dysthymia, higher suicide rates, worse health outcomes (lower life expectancy, greater mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and diabetes and poorer economic and political outcomes (lower gross domestic product per capita, greater risk for political instability. This supports the notion that a balance between freedom and constraint results in the best national outcomes. Accordingly, it is time to shift the debate away from either constraint or freedom and focus on both in moderation.

  16. Reliability based topology optimization for continuum structures with local failure constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yangjun; Zhou, Mingdong; Wang, Michael Yu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an effective method for stress constrained topology optimization problems under load and material uncertainties. Based on the Performance Measure Approach (PMA), the optimization problem is formulated as to minimize the objective function under a large number of (stress......-related) target performance constraints. In order to overcome the stress singularity phenomenon caused by the combined stress and reliability constraints, a reduction strategy on target reliability index is proposed and utilized together with the ε-relaxation approach. Meanwhile, an enhanced aggregation method...... is employed to aggregate the selected active constraints using a general K–S function, which avoids expensive computational cost from the large-scale nature of local failure constraints. Several numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity of the present method....

  17. An Alternating Direction Method for Convex Quadratic Second-Order Cone Programming with Bounded Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewen Mu

    2015-01-01

    quadratic programming over second-order cones and a bounded set. At each iteration, we only need to compute the metric projection onto the second-order cones and the projection onto the bound set. The result of convergence is given. Numerical results demonstrate that our method is efficient for the convex quadratic second-order cone programming problems with bounded constraints.

  18. Equilibrium problems with complementarity constraints: case study with applications to oligopolistic markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mordukhovich, B. S.; Outrata, Jiří; Červinka, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2007), s. 479-494 ISSN 0233-1934 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : equilibrium problems with complementarity constraints * multiobjective optimization * necessary optimality conditions * numerical methods * oligopolistic market s Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.408, year: 2007

  19. Assessment of realizability constraints in v2-f turbulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveningsson, A.; Davidson, L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of the realizability constraint in v 2 -f turbulence models is assessed by computing a stator vane passage flow. In this flow the stagnation region is large and it is shown that the time scale bound suggested by [Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 17 (1995) 89] is well suited to prevent unphysical growth of turbulence kinetic energy. However, this constraint causes numerical instabilities when used in the equation for the relaxation parameter, f. It is also shown that the standard use of the realizability constraint in the v 2 -f model is inconsistent and some modifications are suggested. These changes of the v 2 -f model are examined and shown to have negligible effect on the overall performance of the v 2 -f model. In this work two different versions of the v 2 -f model are investigated and the results obtained are compared with experimental data. The model on a form similar to that originally suggested by Durbin (e.g. [AIAA J. 33 (1995) 659]) produced the overall best agreement with stator vane heat transfer data

  20. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2017-08-17

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example in reservoir analysis, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a boundary condition for the whole area. Since certain rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elastic and anisotropic parameters (facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel confidence map based approach to utilize the facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such a confidence map using Bayesian theory, in which the confidence map is updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. The numerical examples show that the proposed method can reduce the trade-offs and also can improve the resolution of the inverted elastic and anisotropic properties.