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Sample records for template dna samples

  1. Forensic genetic SNP typing of low-template DNA and highly degraded DNA from crime case samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Morling, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Heterozygote imbalances leading to allele drop-outs and disproportionally large stutters leading to allele drop-ins are known stochastic phenomena related to STR typing of low-template DNA (LtDNA). The large stutters and the many drop-ins in typical STR stutter positions are artifacts from the PCR...

  2. DNA Sampling Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...

  3. Expected net gain data of low-template DNA analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gittelson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-template DNA analyses are affected by stochastic effects which can produce a configuration of peaks in the electropherogram (EPG that is different from the genotype of the DNA׳s donor. A probabilistic and decision-theoretic model can quantify the expected net gain (ENG of performing a DNA analysis by the difference between the expected value of information (EVOI and the cost of performing the analysis. This article presents data on the ENG of performing DNA analyses of low-template DNA for a single amplification, two replicate amplifications, and for a second replicate amplification given the result of a first analysis. The data were obtained using amplification kits AmpFlSTR Identifiler Plus and Promega׳s PowerPlex 16 HS, an ABI 3130xl genetic sequencer, and Applied Biosystem׳s GeneMapper ID-X software. These data are supplementary to an original research article investigating whether a forensic DNA analyst should perform a single DNA analysis or two replicate analyses from a decision-theoretic point of view, entitled “Low-template DNA: a single DNA analysis or two replicates?” (Gittelson et al., 2016 [1].

  4. Exonuclease III footprinting on immobilized DNA templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalny, Patrizia; Thomm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    DNA footprinting is a widely used method to locate the binding sites of protein on the DNA. It is based on the observation that a protein bound to DNA protects it from degradation by an enzyme or chemical reagent.Exonuclease III is a suitable probe to analyze the boundaries of a protein when it is necessary to eliminate any excess unbound DNA from the reaction to avoid background problems. In combination with biotin-labeled DNA that is bound to streptavidin-coated magnetic particles, information on the precise position of a DNA bound protein is available within a few hours. The position of the archaeal RNA polymerase at different stages of transcription in the Pyrococcus furiosus in vitro transcription system was analyzed by this method.

  5. Templating gold nanorods with liquid crystalline DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Luciano; Annesi, Ferdinanda; Placido, Tiziana; Comparelli, Roberto; Bruno, Vincenzo; Pane, Alfredo; Palermo, Giovanna; Curri, Maria Lucia; Umeton, Cesare; Bartolino, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A liquid crystalline, negatively charged, whole-genome DNA is exploited to organize positively charged gold nanorods (GNRs) by means of electrostatic interaction. A mesoscopic alignment of the composite system along a preferred direction is obtained by casting a droplet of the DNA-nanorods solution onto an untreated glass substrate. Gel electrophoresis analysis enables evaluating the effective electric charge of the system, thus minimizing the DNA fragmentation. Polarized optical microscopy, combined with transmission and scanning electron microscopy, shows that, up to 20% in weight of GNR solution, the system exhibits both a long range order, induced by the liquid crystalline phase of the DNA, and a nanoscale organization, due to the DNA self-assembly. These evidences are confirmed by a polarized spectral analysis, which also points out that the optical properties of GNRs strongly depend on the polarization of the impinging probe light. The capability to organize plasmonic nanoparticles by means of DNA material represents a significant advance towards the realization of life science inspired optical materials.

  6. DNA origami as a nanoscale template for protein assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzyk, Anton; Laitinen, Kimmo T [Nanoscience Center, Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PO Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Toermae, Paeivi [Department of Applied Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 5100, FIN-02015 (Finland)], E-mail: paivi.torma@hut.fi

    2009-06-10

    We describe two general approaches to the utilization of DNA origami structures for the assembly of materials. In one approach, DNA origami is used as a prefabricated template for subsequent assembly of materials. In the other, materials are assembled simultaneously with the DNA origami, i.e. the DNA origami technique is used to drive the assembly of materials. Fabrication of complex protein structures is demonstrated by these two approaches. The latter approach has the potential to be extended to the assembly of multiple materials with single attachment chemistry.

  7. Ultrafast coherence transfer in DNA-templated silver nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling; Bogh, Sidsel Ammitzbøll; Carro, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    DNA-templated silver nanoclusters of a few tens of atoms or less have come into prominence over the last several years due to very strong absorption and efficient emission. Applications in microscopy and sensing have already been realized, however little is known about the excited-state structure...

  8. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10-90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content.

  9. Templated synthesis of DNA nanotubes with controlled, predetermined lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Pik Kwan; Altvater, Florian; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2010-08-04

    We report a DNA-templated approach to construct nanotubes with controlled lengths and narrow molecular weight distribution, allowing the deliberate variation of this length. This approach relies on the facile and modular assembly of a DNA guide strand of precise length that contains single-stranded gaps repeating at every 50 nm. This is followed by positioning triangular DNA "rungs" on each of these single-stranded gaps and adding identical linking strands to the two other sides of the triangles to close the DNA nanotubes. The length of the guide strand can be deliberately changed. We show the use of this approach to produce nanotubes with lengths of 1 microm or 500 nm and narrow length distributions. This is in contrast to nontemplated approaches, which lead to long and polydisperse nanotubes. We also demonstrate the encapsulation of 20 nm gold nanoparticles within these well-defined nanotubes to form finite lines of gold nanoparticles with longitudinal plasmon coupling, with a number of potential nanophotonic applications. This guiding strand approach is a useful tool in the creation of DNA nanostructures, in this case allowing the use of a simple template generated by a minimal number of DNA strands to program the length and molecular weight distribution of assemblies, as well as to organize any number of DNA-labeled nano-objects into finite structures.

  10. Quantum interference device made by DNA templating of superconducting nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, David S; Pekker, David; Goldbart, Paul M; Bezryadin, Alexey

    2005-06-17

    The application of single molecules as templates for nanodevices is a promising direction for nanotechnology. We used a pair of suspended DNA molecules as templates for superconducting two-nanowire devices. Because the resulting wires are very thin, comparable to the DNA molecules themselves, they are susceptible to thermal fluctuations typical for one-dimensional superconductors and exhibit a nonzero resistance over a broad temperature range. We observed resistance oscillations in these two-nanowire structures that are different from the usual Little-Parks oscillations. Here, we provide a quantitative explanation for the observed quantum interference phenomenon, which takes into account strong phase gradients created in the leads by the applied magnetic field.

  11. Telomerase RNA is more than a DNA template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christopher J; Zakian, Virginia A

    2016-08-02

    The addition of telomeric DNA to chromosome ends is an essential cellular activity that compensates for the loss of genomic DNA that is due to the inability of the conventional DNA replication apparatus to duplicate the entire chromosome. The telomerase reverse transcriptase and its associated RNA bind to the very end of the telomere via a sequence in the RNA and specific protein-protein interactions. Telomerase RNA also provides the template for addition of new telomeric repeats by the reverse-transcriptase protein subunit. In addition to the template, there are 3 other conserved regions in telomerase RNA that are essential for normal telomerase activity. Here we briefly review the conserved core regions of telomerase RNA and then focus on a recent study in fission yeast that determined the function of another conserved region in telomerase RNA called the Stem Terminus Element (STE). (1) The STE is distant from the templating core of telomerase in both the linear and RNA secondary structure, but, nonetheless, affects the fidelity of telomere sequence addition and, in turn, the ability of telomere binding proteins to bind and protect chromosome ends. We will discuss possible mechanisms of STE action and the suitability of the STE as an anti-cancer target.

  12. DNA template dependent accuracy variation of nucleotide selection in transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Mellenius

    Full Text Available It has been commonly assumed that the effect of erroneous transcription of DNA genes into messenger RNAs on peptide sequence errors are masked by much more frequent errors of mRNA translation to protein. We present a theoretical model of transcriptional accuracy. It uses experimentally estimated standard free energies of double-stranded DNA and RNA/DNA hybrids and predicts a DNA template dependent transcriptional accuracy variation spanning several orders of magnitude. The model also identifies high-error as well a high-accuracy transcription motifs. The source of the large accuracy span is the context dependent variation of the stacking free energy of pairs of correct and incorrect base pairs in the ever moving transcription bubble. Our model predictions have direct experimental support from recent single molecule based identifications of transcriptional errors in the C. elegans transcriptome. Our conclusions challenge the general view that amino acid substitution errors in proteins are mainly caused by translational errors. It suggests instead that transcriptional error hotspots are the dominating source of peptide sequence errors in some DNA template contexts, while mRNA translation is the major cause of protein errors in other contexts.

  13. Precise organization of metal nanoparticles on DNA origami template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Song, Chen; Wang, Zhen-Gang; Li, Na; Ding, Baoquan

    2014-05-15

    Nanoscale assemblies of metal nanoparticles in one dimension (1D) to three dimensions (3D) can exhibit novel phenomena that are not observed in the amorphous state. Bottom-up assembly technique is expected to overcome the resolution limit of top-down method and casts a new light on the nanofabrication field. DNA origami, which is mainly used to construct discrete and addressable nanostructures, can be utilized to assemble functional colloidal nanoparticles into delicate geometries with interesting properties. This review aims to summarize the methods that use DNA origami structures as templates to precisely organize metal nanoparticles, such as gold nanospheres (AuNSs) gold nanorods (AuNRs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The potential applications and the perspective are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. DNA/RNA Detection Using DNA-Templated Few-Atom Silver Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chih Yeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA-templated few-atom silver nanoclusters (DNA/Ag NCs are a new class of organic/inorganic composite nanomaterials whose fluorescence emission can be tuned throughout the visible and near-IR range by simply programming the template sequences. Compared to organic dyes, DNA/Ag NCs can be brighter and more photostable. Compared to quantum dots, DNA/Ag NCs are smaller, less prone to blinking on long timescales, and do not have a toxic core. The preparation of DNA/Ag NCs is simple and there is no need to remove excess precursors as these precursors are non-fluorescent. Our recent discovery of the fluorogenic and color switching properties of DNA/Ag NCs have led to the invention of new molecular probes, termed NanoCluster Beacons (NCBs, for DNA detection, with the capability to differentiate single-nucleotide polymorphisms by emission colors. NCBs are inexpensive, easy to prepare, and compatible with commercial DNA synthesizers. Many other groups have also explored and taken advantage of the environment sensitivities of DNA/Ag NCs in creating new tools for DNA/RNA detection and single-nucleotide polymorphism identification. In this review, we summarize the recent trends in the use of DNA/Ag NCs for developing DNA/RNA sensors.

  15. RNA/DNA hybrid binding affinity determines telomerase template-translocation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaodong; Xie, Mingyi; Brown, Andrew F; Bley, Christopher J; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Chen, Julian J-L

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome termini from an intrinsic RNA template. The processive synthesis of DNA repeats relies on a unique, yet poorly understood, mechanism whereby the telomerase RNA template translocates and realigns with the DNA primer after synthesizing each repeat. Here, we provide evidence that binding of the realigned RNA/DNA hybrid by the active site is an essential step for template translocation. Employing a template-free human telomerase system, we demonstrate that the telomerase active site directly binds to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates for DNA polymerization. In telomerase processivity mutants, the template-translocation efficiency correlates with the affinity for the RNA/DNA hybrid substrate. Furthermore, the active site is unoccupied during template translocation as a 5 bp extrinsic RNA/DNA hybrid effectively reduces the processivity of the template-containing telomerase. This suggests that strand separation and template realignment occur outside the active site, preceding the binding of realigned hybrid to the active site. Our results provide new insights into the ancient RNA/DNA hybrid binding ability of telomerase and its role in template translocation. PMID:21989387

  16. Temperature Dependence and Thermodynamics of Klenow Polymerase Binding to Primed-Template DNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Datta, Kausiki; Wowor, Andy J; Richard, Allison J; LiCata, Vince J

    2006-01-01

    DNA binding of Klenow polymerase has been characterized with respect to temperature to delineate the thermodynamic driving forces involved in the interaction of this polymerase with primed-template DNA...

  17. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system.

  18. Base motif recognition and design of DNA templates for fluorescent silver clusters by machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Stacy M; Bogdanov, Petko; Debord, Mark; Singh, Ambuj; Gwinn, Elisabeth

    2014-09-03

    Discriminative base motifs within DNA templates for fluorescent silver clusters are identified using methods that combine large experimental data sets with machine learning tools for pattern recognition. Combining the discovery of certain multibase motifs important for determining fluorescence brightness with a generative algorithm, the probability of selecting DNA templates that stabilize fluorescent silver clusters is increased by a factor of >3. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Precise Coating of a Wide Range of DNA Templates by a Protein Polymer with a DNA Binding Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Garcia, Armando; Estrich, Nicole A.; Werten, Marc W.T.; Maarel, van der Johan R.C.; Labean, Thomas H.; Wolf, de Frits A.; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Vries, de Renko

    2017-01-01

    Emerging DNA-based nanotechnologies would benefit from the ability to modulate the properties (e.g., solubility, melting temperature, chemical stability) of diverse DNA templates (single molecules or origami nanostructures) through controlled, self-assembling coatings. We here introduce a DNA

  20. [Synthesis of Circular DNA Templates with T4 RNA Ligase for Rolling Circle Amplification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhabutdinova, A R; Maksimova, M A; Garafutdinov, R R

    2017-01-01

    Currently, isothermal methods of nucleic acid amplification have been well established; in particular, rolling circle amplification is of great interest. In this approach, circular ssDNA molecules have been used as a target that can be obtained by the intramolecular template-dependent ligation of an oligonucleotide C-probe. Here, a new method of synthesizing small circular DNA molecules via the cyclization of ssDNA based on T4 RNA ligase has been proposed. Circular ssDNA is further used as the template for the rolling circle amplification. The maximum yield of the cyclization products was observed in the presence of 5-10% polyethylene glycol 4000, and the optimum DNA length for the cyclization constituted 50 nucleotides. This highly sensitive method was shown to detect less than 10^(2) circular DNA molecules. The method reliability was proved based on artificially destroyed dsDNA, which suggests its implementation for analyzing any significantly fragmented dsDNA.

  1. DNA template strand sequencing of single-cells maps genomic rearrangements at high resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconer, Ester; Hills, Mark; Naumann, Ulrike; Poon, Steven S. S.; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Sanders, Ashley D.; Zhao, Yongjun; Hirst, Martin; Lansdorp, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    DNA rearrangements such as sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are sensitive indicators of genomic stress and instability, but they are typically masked by single-cell sequencing techniques. We developed Strand-seq to independently sequence parental DNA template strands from single cells, making it

  2. qPCR-based mitochondrial DNA quantification: Influence of template DNA fragmentation on accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Christopher B., E-mail: Christopher.jackson@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Gallati, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.gallati@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Schaller, Andre, E-mail: andre.schaller@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR accurately determines fragmentation state of any given DNA sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR demonstrates different preservation of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR provides a diagnostic tool to validate the integrity of bioptic material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR excludes degradation-induced erroneous quantification. -- Abstract: Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by relative comparison of a nuclear to a mitochondrial locus. Quantitative abnormal mtDNA content is indicative of mitochondrial disorders and mostly confines in a tissue-specific manner. Thus handling of degradation-prone bioptic material is inevitable. We established a serial qPCR assay based on increasing amplicon size to measure degradation status of any DNA sample. Using this approach we can exclude erroneous mtDNA quantification due to degraded samples (e.g. long post-exicision time, autolytic processus, freeze-thaw cycles) and ensure abnormal DNA content measurements (e.g. depletion) in non-degraded patient material. By preparation of degraded DNA under controlled conditions using sonification and DNaseI digestion we show that erroneous quantification is due to the different preservation qualities of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome. This disparate degradation of the two genomes results in over- or underestimation of mtDNA copy number in degraded samples. Moreover, as analysis of defined archival tissue would allow to precise the molecular pathomechanism of mitochondrial disorders presenting with abnormal mtDNA content, we compared fresh frozen (FF) with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) skeletal muscle tissue of the same sample. By extrapolation of measured decay constants for nuclear DNA ({lambda}{sub nDNA}) and mtDNA ({lambda}{sub mtDNA}) we present an approach to possibly correct measurements in

  3. DNA-templated antibody conjugation for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tianqiang

    2016-01-01

    conjugation strategy. Recently, a site-selective antibody conjugation method called “DNA-templated protein conjugation (DTPC)” was developed by our group. The site-selective covalently attachment of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to proteins was achieved by using a metal-affinity DNA probe and DNA...... compared to native saporin with IC50 values of responsive curve, which is superior to the native saporin. The third project was a versatile doxorubicin (Dox) delivery system that utilizing site-selective cetuximab-DNA conjugates for co-delivery of Dox and cetuximab...... conjugation offer a high degree of modularity where a variety of two or more protein conjugates can be applied on a joint template. We believe that these studies will be of great interest for further applications and the design strategies presented may inspire the development of more advanced targeted...

  4. Minimalist Approach to Complexity: Templating the Assembly of DNA Tile Structures with Sequentially Grown Input Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kai Lin; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2016-07-26

    Given its highly predictable self-assembly properties, DNA has proven to be an excellent template toward the design of functional materials. Prominent examples include the remarkable complexity provided by DNA origami and single-stranded tile (SST) assemblies, which require hundreds of unique component strands. However, in many cases, the majority of the DNA assembly is purely structural, and only a small "working area" needs to be aperiodic. On the other hand, extended lattices formed by DNA tile motifs require only a few strands; but they suffer from lack of size control and limited periodic patterning. To overcome these limitations, we adopt a templation strategy, where an input strand of DNA dictates the size and patterning of resultant DNA tile structures. To prepare these templating input strands, a sequential growth technique developed in our lab is used, whereby extended DNA strands of defined sequence and length may be generated simply by controlling their order of addition. With these, we demonstrate the periodic patterning of size-controlled double-crossover (DX) and triple-crossover (TX) tile structures, as well as intentionally designed aperiodicity of a DX tile structure. As such, we are able to prepare size-controlled DNA structures featuring aperiodicity only where necessary with exceptional economy and efficiency.

  5. On the origin of DNA genomes: evolution of the division of labor between template and catalyst in model replicator systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuto Takeuchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The division of labor between template and catalyst is a fundamental property of all living systems: DNA stores genetic information whereas proteins function as catalysts. The RNA world hypothesis, however, posits that, at the earlier stages of evolution, RNA acted as both template and catalyst. Why would such division of labor evolve in the RNA world? We investigated the evolution of DNA-like molecules, i.e. molecules that can function only as template, in minimal computational models of RNA replicator systems. In the models, RNA can function as both template-directed polymerase and template, whereas DNA can function only as template. Two classes of models were explored. In the surface models, replicators are attached to surfaces with finite diffusion. In the compartment models, replicators are compartmentalized by vesicle-like boundaries. Both models displayed the evolution of DNA and the ensuing division of labor between templates and catalysts. In the surface model, DNA provides the advantage of greater resistance against parasitic templates. However, this advantage is at least partially offset by the disadvantage of slower multiplication due to the increased complexity of the replication cycle. In the compartment model, DNA can significantly delay the intra-compartment evolution of RNA towards catalytic deterioration. These results are explained in terms of the trade-off between template and catalyst that is inherent in RNA-only replication cycles: DNA releases RNA from this trade-off by making it unnecessary for RNA to serve as template and so rendering the system more resistant against evolving parasitism. Our analysis of these simple models suggests that the lack of catalytic activity in DNA by itself can generate a sufficient selective advantage for RNA replicator systems to produce DNA. Given the widespread notion that DNA evolved owing to its superior chemical properties as a template, this study offers a novel insight into the

  6. Enhanced low-template DNA analysis conditions and investigation of allele dropout patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedell, Ronny; Dufva, Charlotte; Ansell, Ricky; Mostad, Petter; Hedman, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Forensic DNA analysis applying PCR enables profiling of minute biological samples. Enhanced analysis conditions can be applied to further push the limit of detection, coming with the risk of visualising artefacts and allele imbalances. We have evaluated the consecutive increase of PCR cycles from 30 to 35 to investigate the limitations of low-template (LT) DNA analysis, applying the short tandem repeat (STR) analysis kit PowerPlex ESX 16. Mock crime scene DNA extracts of four different quantities (from around 8-84 pg) were tested. All PCR products were analysed using 5, 10 and 20 capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection seconds. Bayesian models describing allele dropout patterns, allele peak heights and heterozygote balance were developed to assess the overall improvements in EPG quality with altered PCR/CE settings. The models were also used to evaluate the impact of amplicon length, STR marker and fluorescent label on the risk for allele dropout. The allele dropout probability decreased for each PCR cycle increment from 30 to 33 PCR cycles. Irrespective of DNA amount, the dropout probability was not affected by further increasing the number of PCR cycles. For the 42 and 84 pg samples, mainly complete DNA profiles were generated applying 32 PCR cycles. For the 8 and 17 pg samples, the allele dropouts decreased from 100% using 30 cycles to about 75% and 20%, respectively. The results for 33, 34 and 35 PCR cycles indicated that heterozygote balance and stutter ratio were mainly affected by DNA amount, and not directly by PCR cycle number and CE injection settings. We found 32 and 33 PCR cycles with 10 CE injection seconds to be optimal, as 34 and 35 PCR cycles did not improve allele detection and also included CE saturation problems. We find allele dropout probability differences between several STR markers. Markers labelled with the fluorescent dyes CXR-ET (red in electropherogram) and TMR-ET (shown as black) generally have higher dropout risks compared with those

  7. Supramolecular ssDNA templated porphyrin and metalloporphyrin nanoassemblies with tunable helicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Gevorg; Leonard, Brian M; Kubelka, Jan; Balaz, Milan

    2014-02-10

    Free-base and nickel porphyrin-diaminopurine conjugates were formed by hydrogen-bond directed assembly on single-stranded oligothymidine templates of different lengths into helical multiporphyrin nanoassemblies with highly modular structural and chiroptical properties. Large red-shifts of the Soret band in the UV/Vis spectroscopy confirmed strong electronic coupling among assembled porphyrin-diaminopurine units. Slow annealing rates yielded preferentially right-handed nanostructures, whereas fast annealing yielded left-handed nanostructures. Time-dependent DFT simulations of UV/Vis and CD spectra for model porphyrin clusters templated on the canonical B-DNA and its enantiomeric form, were employed to confirm the origin of observed chiroptical properties and to assign the helicity of porphyrin nanoassemblies. Molar CD and CD anisotropy g factors of dialyzed templated porphyrin nanoassemblies showed very high chiroptical anisotropy. The DNA-templated porphyrin nanoassemblies displayed high thermal and pH stability. The structure and handedness of all assemblies was preserved at temperatures up to +85 °C and pH between 3 and 12. High-resolution transition electron microscopy confirmed formation of DNA-templated nickel(II) porphyrin nanoassemblies and their self-assembly into helical fibrils with micrometer lengths. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Insights into the Determination of the Templating Nucleotide at the Initiation of φ29 DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Prado, Alicia; Lázaro, José M; Longás, Elisa; Villar, Laurentino; de Vega, Miguel; Salas, Margarita

    2015-11-06

    Bacteriophage φ29 from Bacillus subtilis starts replication of its terminal protein (TP)-DNA by a protein-priming mechanism. To start replication, the DNA polymerase forms a heterodimer with a free TP that recognizes the replication origins, placed at both 5' ends of the linear chromosome, and initiates replication using as primer the OH-group of Ser-232 of the TP. The initiation of φ29 TP-DNA replication mainly occurs opposite the second nucleotide at the 3' end of the template. Earlier analyses of the template position that directs the initiation reaction were performed using single-stranded and double-stranded oligonucleotides containing the replication origin sequence without the parental TP. Here, we show that the parental TP has no influence in the determination of the nucleotide used as template in the initiation reaction. Previous studies showed that the priming domain of the primer TP determines the template position used for initiation. The results obtained here using mutant TPs at the priming loop where Ser-232 is located indicate that the aromatic residue Phe-230 is one of the determinants that allows the positioning of the penultimate nucleotide at the polymerization active site to direct insertion of the initiator dAMP during the initiation reaction. The role of Phe-230 in limiting the internalization of the template strand in the polymerization active site is discussed. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fuyi [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Yao, Yao; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Dengyang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Gao, Fenglei, E-mail: jsxzgfl@sina.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Wang, Po, E-mail: wangpo@jsnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2017-05-29

    Novel hybridization proximity-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly strategy has been proposed for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles as signal label. The DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles were characterized with atomic force microscopic and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The highly efficient electrocatalysis by DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles for NaBH{sub 4} oxidation produced an intense detection signal. The label-free electrochemical method achieved the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with a linear range from 10{sup −15} to 10{sup −11} g mL{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.43 × 10{sup −15} g mL{sup −1}. Through introducing a supersandwich reaction to increase the DNA length, the electrochemical signal was further amplified, leading to a detection limit of 0.52 × 10{sup −16} g mL{sup −1}. And it rendered satisfactory analytical performance for the determination of CEA in serum samples. Furthermore, it exhibited good reproducibility and stability; meanwhile, it also showed excellent specificity due to the specific recognition of antigen by antibody. Therefore, the DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles based signal amplification approach has great potential in clinical applications and is also suitable for quantification of biomarkers at ultralow level. - Graphical abstract: A novel label-free and enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay based on proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assemblies for recycling of the CEA. - Highlights: • A novel enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of CEA. • The signal amplification was based on catalytic DNA hairpin assembly and DNA-template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles. • The biosensor could detect CEA down to 0.52 × 10{sup −16} g mL{sup −1} level with a dynamic range spanning 5 orders of magnitude.

  10. RNAs nonspecifically inhibit RNA polymerase II by preventing binding to the DNA template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Dave A.; Kaplan, Craig D.; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Murakami, Kenji; Andrews, Philip C.; Engelke, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Many RNAs are known to act as regulators of transcription in eukaryotes, including certain small RNAs that directly inhibit RNA polymerases both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We have examined the potential for a variety of RNAs to directly inhibit transcription by yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and find that unstructured RNAs are potent inhibitors of purified yeast Pol II. Inhibition by RNA is achieved by blocking binding of the DNA template and requires binding of the RNA to Pol II prior to open complex formation. RNA is not able to displace a DNA template that is already stably bound to Pol II, nor can RNA inhibit elongating Pol II. Unstructured RNAs are more potent inhibitors than highly structured RNAs and can also block specific transcription initiation in the presence of basal transcription factors. Crosslinking studies with ultraviolet light show that unstructured RNA is most closely associated with the two large subunits of Pol II that comprise the template binding cleft, but the RNA has contacts in a basic residue channel behind the back wall of the active site. These results are distinct from previous observations of specific inhibition by small, structured RNAs in that they demonstrate a sensitivity of the holoenzyme to inhibition by unstructured RNA products that bind to a surface outside the DNA cleft. These results are discussed in terms of the need to prevent inhibition by RNAs, either though sequestration of nascent RNA or preemptive interaction of Pol II with the DNA template. PMID:24614752

  11. Temperature dependent excited state relaxation of a red emitting DNA-templated silver nanocluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerretani, Cecilia; Carro-Temboury, Miguel R.; Krause, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The nanosecond excited state temporal and spectral relaxation of a purified, red-emitting DNA-templated silver nanocluster (DNA–AgNC) was characterized as a function of temperature. The findings are explained by introducing a phenomenological electronic structure diagram. The reproducibility...

  12. RNAs nonspecifically inhibit RNA polymerase II by preventing binding to the DNA template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Dave A; Kaplan, Craig D; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Murakami, Kenji; Andrews, Philip C; Engelke, David R

    2014-05-01

    Many RNAs are known to act as regulators of transcription in eukaryotes, including certain small RNAs that directly inhibit RNA polymerases both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We have examined the potential for a variety of RNAs to directly inhibit transcription by yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and find that unstructured RNAs are potent inhibitors of purified yeast Pol II. Inhibition by RNA is achieved by blocking binding of the DNA template and requires binding of the RNA to Pol II prior to open complex formation. RNA is not able to displace a DNA template that is already stably bound to Pol II, nor can RNA inhibit elongating Pol II. Unstructured RNAs are more potent inhibitors than highly structured RNAs and can also block specific transcription initiation in the presence of basal transcription factors. Crosslinking studies with ultraviolet light show that unstructured RNA is most closely associated with the two large subunits of Pol II that comprise the template binding cleft, but the RNA has contacts in a basic residue channel behind the back wall of the active site. These results are distinct from previous observations of specific inhibition by small, structured RNAs in that they demonstrate a sensitivity of the holoenzyme to inhibition by unstructured RNA products that bind to a surface outside the DNA cleft. These results are discussed in terms of the need to prevent inhibition by RNAs, either though sequestration of nascent RNA or preemptive interaction of Pol II with the DNA template.

  13. Quantification of damage in DNA recovered from highly degraded samples – a case study on DNA in faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveson J Paige

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poorly preserved biological tissues have become an important source of DNA for a wide range of zoological studies. Measuring the quality of DNA obtained from these samples is often desired; however, there are no widely used techniques available for quantifying damage in highly degraded DNA samples. We present a general method that can be used to determine the frequency of polymerase blocking DNA damage in specific gene-regions in such samples. The approach uses quantitative PCR to measure the amount of DNA present at several fragment sizes within a sample. According to a model of random degradation the amount of available template will decline exponentially with increasing fragment size in damaged samples, and the frequency of DNA damage (λ can be estimated by determining the rate of decline. Results The method is illustrated through the analysis of DNA extracted from sea lion faecal samples. Faeces contain a complex mixture of DNA from several sources and different components are expected to be differentially degraded. We estimated the frequency of DNA damage in both predator and prey DNA within individual faecal samples. The distribution of fragment lengths for each target fit well with the assumption of a random degradation process and, in keeping with our expectations, the estimated frequency of damage was always less in predator DNA than in prey DNA within the same sample (mean λpredator = 0.0106 per nucleotide; mean λprey = 0.0176 per nucleotide. This study is the first to explicitly define the amount of template damage in any DNA extracted from faeces and the first to quantify the amount of predator and prey DNA present within individual faecal samples. Conclusion We present an approach for characterizing mixed, highly degraded PCR templates such as those often encountered in ecological studies using non-invasive samples as a source of DNA, wildlife forensics investigations and ancient DNA research. This method will

  14. Autoclave method for rapid preparation of bacterial PCR-template DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmon, Keith E; Steadman, Dewey D; Durkin, Sarah; Baldwin, Amy; Jeffrey, Wade H; Sheridan, Peter; Horton, Rene; Shields, Malcolm S

    2004-02-01

    An autoclave method for preparing bacterial DNA for PCR template is presented, it eliminates the use of detergents, organic solvents, and mechanical cellular disruption approaches, thereby significantly reducing processing time and costs while increasing reproducibility. Bacteria are lysed by rapid heating and depressurization in an autoclave. The lysate, cleared by microcentrifugation, was either used directly in the PCR reaction, or concentrated by ultrafiltration. This approach was compared with seven established methods of DNA template preparation from four bacterial sources which included boiling Triton X-100 and SDS, bead beating, lysozyme/proteinase K, and CTAB lysis method components. Bacteria examined were Enterococcus and Escherichia coli, a natural marine bacterial community and an Antarctic cyanobacterial-mat. DNAs were tested for their suitability as PCR templates by repetitive element random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The autoclave method produced PCR amplifiable template comparable or superior to the other methods, with greater reproducibility, much shorter processing time, and at a significantly lower cost.

  15. Fluorescent detection of copper(II) based on DNA-templated click chemistry and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifen; Shen, Qinpeng; Zhao, Peng; Xiang, Bingbing; Nie, Zhou; Huang, Yan; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2013-12-15

    A novel DNA-templated click chemistry strategy for homogenous fluorescent detection of Cu(2+) has been developed based on click ligation-dependent DNA structure switch and the selective quenching ability of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet. The clickable duplex probe consists of two DNA strands with alkyne and azide group, respectively, and Cu(+)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction can chemically ligate these two strands. Toehold sequence displacement was consequently exploited to achieve DNA structure transformation bearing fluorescent tag FAM. Cu(2+)-induced chemical ligation caused the probe transfer to hybrid structure with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) tail, while only duplex structure was obtained without Cu(2+). This structural difference can be probed by GO-based fluorescence detection due to the preferential binding of GO to ssDNA. Under the optimum conditions, this sensor can sensitively and specifically detect Cu(2+) with a low detection limit of 58 nM and a linear range of 0.1-10 μM. This new strategy is highly sensitive and selective for Cu(2+) detection because of the great specificity of click chemistry and super-quenching ability of GO. Moreover, with the aid of high efficient DNA templated synthesis, the detection process requires only about half an hour which is much quicker than previous click-chemistry-based Cu(2+) sensors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Automated Sample Preparation System for Large-Scale DNA Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Andre; Willis, Thomas D.; Federspiel, Nancy A.; Davis, Ronald W.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies, both in the form of high lane-density gels and automated capillary systems, will lead to an increased requirement for sample preparation systems that operate at low cost and high throughput. As part of the development of a fully automated sequencing system, we have developed an automated subsystem capable of producing 10,000 sequence-ready ssDNA templates per day from libraries of M13 plaques at a cost of $0.29 per sample. This Front End has been in high throughput operation since June, 1997 and has produced > 400,000 high-quality DNA templates. PMID:10330125

  17. A fast algorithm for the construction of universal footprinting templates in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James W; Fox, Keith R; Niblo, Graham A

    2006-03-01

    We introduce and give a complete description of a new graph to be used for DNA sequencing questions. This graph has the advantage over the classical de Bruijn graph that it fully accounts for the double stranded nature of DNA, rather than dealing with single strands. Technically, our graph may be thought of as the quotient of the de Bruijn graph under the natural involution of sending a DNA strand to its complementary strand. However, this involution has fixed points, and this complicates the structure of the quotient graph which we have therefore modified herein. As an application and motivating example, we give an efficient algorithm for constructing universal footprinting templates for n-mers. This problem may be formulated as the task of finding a shortest possible segment of DNA which contains every possible sequence of base pairs of some fixed length n. Previous work by Kwan et al has attacked this problem from a numerical point of view and generated minimal length universal footprinting templates for n = 2, 3, 5, 7, together with unsubstantiated candidates for the case n = 4. We show that their candidates for n = 4 are indeed minimal length universal footprinting templates.

  18. Immunophenotype Discovery, Hierarchical Organization, and Template-based Classification of Flow Cytometry Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariful Azad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe algorithms for discovering immunophenotypes from large collections of flow cytometry (FC samples, and using them to organize the samples into a hierarchy based on phenotypic similarity. The hierarchical organization is helpful for effective and robust cytometry data mining, including the creation of collections of cell populations characteristic of different classes of samples, robust classification, and anomaly detection. We summarize a set of samples belonging to a biological class or category with a statistically derived template for the class. Whereas individual samples are represented in terms of their cell populations (clusters, a template consists of generic meta-populations (a group of homogeneous cell populations obtained from the samples in a class that describe key phenotypes shared among all those samples. We organize an FC data collection in a hierarchical data structure that supports the identification of immunophenotypes relevant to clinical diagnosis. A robust template-based classification scheme is also developed, but our primary focus is in the discovery of phenotypic signatures and inter-sample relationships in an FC data collection. This collective analysis approach is more efficient and robust since templates describe phenotypic signatures common to cell populations in several samples, while ignoring noise and small sample-specific variations.We have applied the template-base scheme to analyze several data setsincluding one representing a healthy immune system, and one of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AMLsamples. The last task is challenging due to the phenotypic heterogeneity of the severalsubtypes of AML. However, we identified thirteen immunophenotypes corresponding to subtypes of AML, and were able to distinguish Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia from other subtypes of AML.

  19. Nonenzymatic synthesis of RNA and DNA oligomers on hexitol nucleic acid templates: the importance of the A structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, I. A.; Politis, P. K.; Van Aerschot, A.; Busson, R.; Herdewijn, P.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Dolan, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Hexitol nucleic acid (HNA) is an analogue of DNA containing the standard nucleoside bases, but with a phosphorylated 1,5-anhydrohexitol backbone. HNA oligomers form duplexes having the nucleic acid A structure with complementary DNA or RNA oligomers. The HNA decacytidylate oligomer is an efficient template for the oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoroimidazolides of guanosine or deoxyguanosine. Comparison of the oligomerization efficiencies on HNA, RNA, and DNA decacytidylate templates under various conditions suggests strongly that only nucleic acid double helices with the A structure support efficient template-directed synthesis when 5'-phosphoroimidazolides of nucleosides are used as substrates.

  20. Examining multi-component DNA-templated nanostructures as imaging agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Hamsa

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the leading non-invasive tool for disease imaging and diagnosis. Although MRI exhibits high spatial resolution for anatomical features, the contrast resolution is low. Imaging agents serve as an aid to distinguish different types of tissues within images. Gadolinium chelates, which are considered first generation designs, can be toxic to health, while ultra-small, superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) have low tissue-targeting efficiency and rapid bio-distribution, resulting to an inadequate detection of the MRI signal and enhancement of image contrast. In order to improve the utility of MRI agents, the challenge in composition and structure needs to be addressed. One-dimensional (1D), superparamagnetic nanostructures have been reported to enhance magnetic and in vivo properties and therefore has a potential to improve contrast enhancement in MRI images. In this dissertation, the structure of 1D, multi-component NP chains, scaffolded on DNA, were pre-clinically examined as potential MRI agents. First, research was focused on characterizing and understanding the mechanism of proton relaxation for DNA-templated NP chains using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Proton relaxation and transverse relaxivity were higher in multi-component NP chains compared to disperse NPs, indicating the arrangement of NPs on a 1D structure improved proton relaxation sensitivity. Second, in vitro evaluation for potential issues in toxicity and contrast efficiency in tissue environments using a 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanner was performed. Cell uptake of DNA-templated NP chains was enhanced after encapsulating the nanostructure with layers of polyelectrolytes and targeting ligands. Compared to dispersed NPs, DNA-templated NP chains improved MRI contrast in both the epithelial basement membrane and colon cancer tumors scaffolds. The last part of the project was focused on developing a novel MRI agent that detects changes in DNA methylation

  1. Engineering cellulosic bioreactors by template assisted DNA shuffling and in vitro recombination (TADSir).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Leroy K

    2014-10-01

    The current study focuses on development of a bioreactor engineering strategy based on exploitation of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Chimeric A. thaliana glycosyl hydrolase (GH) gene libraries were assembled using a novel directed evolution strategy (TADSir: template assisted DNA shuffling and in vitro recombination) that promotes DNA recombination by reassembly of DNA fragments on unique gene templates. TADSir was modeled using a set of algorithms designed to simulate DNA interactions based on nearest neighbor base stacking interactions and Gibb's free energy differences between helical coil and folded DNA states. The algorithms allow for target gene prediction and for in silica analysis of chimeric gene library composition. Further, the study investigated utilization of A. thaliana GH sequence space for bioreactor design by evolving 20 A. thaliana genes representing the GH1, GH3, GH5, GH9 and GH10 gene families. Notably, TADSir achieved streamlined engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and spinach mesophyll protoplast bioreactors capable of processing CM cellulose, Avicel and xylan. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. DNA-templated synthesis of ZnO thin layers and nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Petia; Weitz, R Thomas; Gerstel, Peter; Srot, Vesna; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A; Burghard, Marko; Bill, Joachim

    2009-09-09

    In this paper, we report a novel synthetic approach towards electrically conductive ZnO nanowires close to ambient conditions using lambda-DNA as a template. Initially, the suitability of DNA to assemble ZnO nanocrystals into thin coatings was investigated. The ZnO nanowires formed on stretched and aligned lambda-DNA molecules were prepared via chemical bath deposition (CBD) of zinc acetate in methanol solution in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). After 10 deposition cycles, the nanowires exceed 10 microm in length and the height can be varied from 12 to around 40 nm. The nanocrystalline structure of the ZnO wires was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The electrical conductivity was found to be of the order of several Omega cm at room temperature in two terminal measurements.

  3. Mechanism of sequence-specific template binding by the DNA primase of bacteriophage T7

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seung-Joo

    2010-03-28

    DNA primases catalyze the synthesis of the oligoribonucleotides required for the initiation of lagging strand DNA synthesis. Biochemical studies have elucidated the mechanism for the sequence-specific synthesis of primers. However, the physical interactions of the primase with the DNA template to explain the basis of specificity have not been demonstrated. Using a combination of surface plasmon resonance and biochemical assays, we show that T7 DNA primase has only a slightly higher affinity for DNA containing the primase recognition sequence (5\\'-TGGTC-3\\') than for DNA lacking the recognition site. However, this binding is drastically enhanced by the presence of the cognate Nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs), Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Cytosine triphosphate (CTP) that are incorporated into the primer, pppACCA. Formation of the dimer, pppAC, the initial step of sequence-specific primer synthesis, is not sufficient for the stable binding. Preformed primers exhibit significantly less selective binding than that observed with ATP and CTP. Alterations in subdomains of the primase result in loss of selective DNA binding. We present a model in which conformational changes induced during primer synthesis facilitate contact between the zinc-binding domain and the polymerase domain. The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Increasing the Morphological Stability of DNA-Templated Nanostructures with Surface Hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lermusiaux, Laurent; Bidault, Sébastien

    2015-11-11

    DNA has been extensively used as a versatile template to assemble inorganic nanoparticles into complex architectures; thanks to its programmability, stability, and long persistence length. But the geometry of self-assembled nanostructures depends on a complex combination of attractive and repulsive forces that can override the shape of a molecular scaffold. In this report, an approach to increase the morphological stability of DNA-templated gold nanoparticle (AuNP) groupings against electrostatic interactions is demonstrated by introducing hydrophobicity on the particle surface. Using single nanostructure spectroscopy, the nanometer-scale distortions of 40 nm diameter AuNP dimers are compared with different hydrophilic, amphiphilic, neutral, and negatively charged surface chemistries, when modifying the local ionic strength. It is observed that, with most ligands, a majority of studied nanostructures deform freely from a stretched geometry to touching particles when increasing the salt concentration while hydrophobicity strongly limits the dimer distortions. Furthermore, an amphiphilic surface chemistry provides DNA-linked AuNP dimers with a high long-term stability against internal aggregation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Reverse transcriptase template switching: a SMART approach for full-length cDNA library construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y Y; Machleder, E M; Chenchik, A; Li, R; Siebert, P D

    2001-04-01

    Here, we describe a fast, simple method for constructing full-length cDNA libraries using SMART technology. This novel procedure uses the template-switching activity of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) reverse transcriptase to synthesize and anchor first-strand cDNA in one step. Following reverse transcription, three cycles of PCR are performed using a modified oligo(dT) primer and an anchor primer to enrich the cDNA population for full-length sequences. Starting with 1 microgram human skeletal muscle poly(A)+ RNA, a cDNA library was constructed that contained 3 x 10(6) independent clones with an average insert size of 2 kb. Sequence analysis of 172 randomly selected clones showed that 77% of cDNA clones corresponding to known genes contained intact open reading frames. The average length of complete open reading frames was 2.4 kb. Furthermore, 86% of the full-length clones retained longer 5' UTR sequences than the longest 5' end deposited in the GenBank database. cDNA libraries generated using this method will be useful for accelerating the collection of mRNA 5' end sequence information, which is currently very limited in GenBank.

  6. One-pot synthesized DNA-templated Ag/Pt bimetallic nanoclusters as peroxidase mimics for colorimetric detection of thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Zheng, Ai-Xian; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Long; He, Yu; Li, Juan; Yang, Huang-Hao; Chen, Guonan

    2014-11-07

    We developed a facile one-step approach to synthesize DNA-templated Ag/Pt bimetallic nanoclusters (DNA-Ag/Pt NCs), which possess highly-efficient peroxidase-like catalytic activity. With this finding, an aptamer based sandwich-type strategy is employed to design a label-free colorimetric aptasensor for the protein detection with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  7. Highly Sensitive GMO Detection Using Real-Time PCR with a Large Amount of DNA Template: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Hatano, Shuko; Nagatomi, Yasuaki; Futo, Satoshi; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2017-08-28

    Current genetically modified organism (GMO) detection methods allow for sensitive detection. However, a further increase in sensitivity will enable more efficient testing for large grain samples and reliable testing for processed foods. In this study, we investigated real-time PCR-based GMO detection methods using a large amount of DNA template. We selected target sequences that are commonly introduced into many kinds of GM crops, i.e., 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator. This makes the newly developed method applicable to a wide range of GMOs, including some unauthorized ones. The estimated LOD of the new method was 0.005% of GM maize events; to the best of our knowledge, this method is the most sensitive among the GM maize detection methods for which the LOD was evaluated in terms of GMO content. A 10-fold increase in the DNA amount as compared with the amount used under common testing conditions gave an approximately 10-fold reduction in the LOD without PCR inhibition. Our method is applicable to various analytical samples, including processed foods. The use of other primers and fluorescence probes would permit highly sensitive detection of various recombinant DNA sequences besides the 35S promoter and NOS terminator.

  8. Coherent Exciton Delocalization in a Two-State DNA-Templated Dye Aggregate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Brittany L; Kellis, Donald L; Patten, Lance K; Davis, Paul H; Lee, Jeunghoon; Graugnard, Elton; Yurke, Bernard; Knowlton, William B

    2017-09-21

    Coherent exciton delocalization in dye aggregate systems gives rise to a variety of intriguing optical phenomena, including J- and H-aggregate behavior and Davydov splitting. Systems that exhibit coherent exciton delocalization at room temperature are of interest for the development of artificial light-harvesting devices, colorimetric detection schemes, and quantum computers. Here, we report on a simple dye system templated by DNA that exhibits tunable optical properties. At low salt and DNA concentrations, a DNA duplex with two internally functionalized Cy5 dyes (i.e., dimer) persists and displays predominantly J-aggregate behavior. Increasing the salt and/or DNA concentrations was found to promote coupling between two of the DNA duplexes via branch migration, thus forming a four-armed junction (i.e., tetramer) with H-aggregate behavior. This H-tetramer aggregate exhibits a surprisingly large Davydov splitting in its absorbance spectrum that produces a visible color change of the solution from cyan to violet and gives clear evidence of coherent exciton delocalization.

  9. Conditional targeting of Ispd using paired Cas9 nickase and a single DNA template in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Yiu-fai Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 technology is a highly promising genome editing tool in the mouse, potentially overcoming the costs and time required for more traditional gene targeting methods in embryonic stem (ES cells. Recently, compared to the wildtype nuclease, paired Cas9 nickase (Cas9n combined with single guide RNA (sgRNA molecules has been found to enhance the specificity of genome editing while reducing off-target effects. Paired Cas9n has been shown to be as efficient as Cas9 for generating insertion and deletion (indel mutations by non-homologous end joining and targeted deletion in the genome. However, an efficient and reliable approach to the insertion of loxP sites flanking critical exon(s to create a conditional allele of a target gene remains an elusive goal. In this study, we microinjected Cas9n RNA with sgRNAs together with a single DNA template encoding two loxP sites flanking (floxing exon 2 of the isoprenoid synthase containing domain (Ispd into the pronucleus and cytoplasm of C57BL/6NCr one-cell stage zygotes. After surgical transfer, one F0 mouse expressing a conditional allele was produced (at a frequency of ∼8% of live pups born. The floxed allele was transmitted through the germline to F1 progeny, and could be successfully recombined using Cre recombinase. This study indicates that conditional targeting can be accomplished effectively using paired Cas9n and a single DNA template.

  10. Interaction of YOYO-3 with different DNA templates to form H-aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria J; Orte, Angel; Martin-Domingo, Maria C; Castello, F; Talavera, Eva M; Alvarez-Pez, Jose M

    2014-06-12

    Homodimeric cyanine dyes are DNA intercalators that display a large enhancement of fluorescence emission when bound to double-stranded DNA. However, other different interaction modes are possible, such as H-type molecular aggregates of the dye, templated by the nucleic acid. In this paper, we study in depth the formation of nonfluorescent H-aggregates of the cyanine homodimer YOYO-3 with two different DNA templates using absorption and both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. First, a nonfluorescent YOYO-3 H-aggregate complex was found to form in single-stranded polycytidine chains, resulting in the appearance of a new absorption band at approximately 500 nm. The specific interaction of cytosine bases suggests the involvement of the C-rich i-motif in facilitating the formation of the H-aggregate complex. Second, the interaction of YOYO-3 with double-stranded poly(A·T) tracts also led to the appearance of a new absorption band at approximately 500 nm, and hence of a different type of H-aggregate. We found that the aggregate is formed mainly in double-stranded regions with consecutive adenine bases in the same strand (and thymine bases in the complementary strand). These poly(A·T) tracts provide narrow minor grooves and enhanced electrostatic negative potential to promote the aggregation of the negatively charged cyanine. As the YOYO-3 H-aggregates are nonfluorescent, our results provide an important basis to quantitatively understand the fluorescence emission of this cyanine dye in the presence of DNA strands.

  11. The interplay of primer-template DNA phosphorylation status and single-stranded DNA binding proteins in directing clamp loaders to the appropriate polarity of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayner, Jaclyn N; Douma, Lauren G; Bloom, Linda B

    2014-01-01

    Sliding clamps are loaded onto DNA by clamp loaders to serve the critical role of coordinating various enzymes on DNA. Clamp loaders must quickly and efficiently load clamps at primer/template (p/t) junctions containing a duplex region with a free 3'OH (3'DNA), but it is unclear how clamp loaders target these sites. To measure the Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae clamp loader specificity toward 3'DNA, fluorescent β and PCNA clamps were used to measure clamp closing triggered by DNA substrates of differing polarity, testing the role of both the 5'phosphate (5'P) and the presence of single-stranded binding proteins (SSBs). SSBs inhibit clamp loading by both clamp loaders on the incorrect polarity of DNA (5'DNA). The 5'P groups contribute selectivity to differing degrees for the two clamp loaders, suggesting variations in the mechanism by which clamp loaders target 3'DNA. Interestingly, the χ subunit of the E. coli clamp loader is not required for SSB to inhibit clamp loading on phosphorylated 5'DNA, showing that χ·SSB interactions are dispensable. These studies highlight a common role for SSBs in directing clamp loaders to 3'DNA, as well as uncover nuances in the mechanisms by which SSBs perform this vital role. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Leaf tissue sampling and DNA extraction protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semagn, Kassa

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomists must be familiar with a number of issues in collecting and transporting samples using freezing methods (liquid nitrogen and dry ice), desiccants (silica gel and blotter paper), and preservatives (CTAB, ethanol, and isopropanol), with each method having its own merits and limitations. For most molecular studies, a reasonably good quality and quantity of DNA is required, which can only be obtained using standard DNA extraction protocols. There are many DNA extraction protocols that vary from simple and quick ones that yield low-quality DNA but good enough for routine analyses to the laborious and time-consuming standard methods that usually produce high quality and quantities of DNA. The protocol to be chosen will depend on the quality and quantity of DNA needed, the nature of samples, and the presence of natural substances that may interfere with the extraction and subsequent analysis. The protocol described in this chapter has been tested for extracting DNA from eight species and provided very good quality and quantity of DNA for different applications, including those genotyping methods that use restriction enzymes.

  13. A Dynamic Combinatorial Approach for Identifying Side Groups that Stabilize DNA-Templated Supramolecular Self-Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Paolantoni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA-templated self-assembly is an emerging strategy for generating functional supramolecular systems, which requires the identification of potent multi-point binding ligands. In this line, we recently showed that bis-functionalized guanidinium compounds can interact with ssDNA and generate a supramolecular complex through the recognition of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA. In order to probe the importance of secondary interactions and to identify side groups that stabilize these DNA-templated self-assemblies, we report herein the implementation of a dynamic combinatorial approach. We used an in situ fragment assembly process based on reductive amination and tested various side groups, including amino acids. The results reveal that aromatic and cationic side groups participate in secondary supramolecular interactions that stabilize the complexes formed with ssDNA.

  14. Target guided synthesis using DNA nano-templates for selectively assembling a G-quadruplex binding c-MYC inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Deepanjan; Saha, Puja; Das, Tania; Dash, Jyotirmayee

    2017-07-01

    The development of small molecules is essential to modulate the cellular functions of biological targets in living system. Target Guided Synthesis (TGS) approaches have been used for the identification of potent small molecules for biological targets. We herein demonstrate an innovative example of TGS using DNA nano-templates that promote Huisgen cycloaddition from an array of azide and alkyne fragments. A G-quadruplex and a control duplex DNA nano-template have been prepared by assembling the DNA structures on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles. The DNA nano-templates facilitate the regioselective formation of 1,4-substituted triazole products, which are easily isolated by magnetic decantation. The G-quadruplex nano-template can be easily recovered and reused for five reaction cycles. The major triazole product, generated by the G-quadruplex inhibits c-MYC expression by directly targeting the c-MYC promoter G-quadruplex. This work highlights that the nano-TGS approach may serve as a valuable strategy to generate target-selective ligands for drug discovery.

  15. Electrostatic sampling of trace DNA from clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Martin; Defaux, Priscille Merciani; Utz, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    During acts of physical aggression, offenders frequently come into contact with clothes of the victim, thereby leaving traces of DNA-bearing biological material on the garments. Since tape-lifting and swabbing, the currently established methods for non-destructive trace DNA sampling from clothing, both have their shortcomings in collection efficiency and handling, we thought about a new collection method for these challenging samples. Testing two readily available electrostatic devices for their potential to sample biological material from garments made of different fabrics, we found one of them, the electrostatic dust print lifter (DPL), to perform comparable to well-established sampling with wet cotton swabs. In simulated aggression scenarios, we had the same success rate for the establishment of single aggressor profiles, suitable for database submission, with both the DPL and wet swabbing. However, we lost a substantial amount of information with electrostatic sampling, since almost no mixed aggressor-victim profiles suitable for database entry could be established, compared to conventional swabbing. This study serves as a proof of principle for electrostatic DNA sampling from items of clothing. The technique still requires optimization before it might be used in real casework. But we are confident that in the future it could be an efficient and convenient contribution to the toolbox of forensic practitioners.

  16. DNA-Templated Fabrication of Arbitrary-Structured Porous Carbon Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-11

    graphene / copper sample out of the CVD chamber, its WCA was found to be only 44°. The WCA quickly reached ca. 60° within 20 minutes, after which the rate...the WCA measured on a graphene / copper sample. The sample was taken out of the CVD chamber at time 0. The three photographs show the water drops... graphene and graphite) to improve the area selectivity of DNA-mediate CVD reaction. We hypothesized that the absence of dangling bonds on

  17. Digital Droplet Multiple Displacement Amplification (ddMDA for Whole Genome Sequencing of Limited DNA Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoung Rhee

    Full Text Available Multiple displacement amplification (MDA is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently, the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet, ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology.

  18. HaloTag mediated artificial cellulosome assembly on a rolling circle amplification DNA template for efficient cellulose hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing; Chen, Wilfred

    2016-05-10

    We report here the generation of four-component artificial cellulosomes onto a DNA scaffold using the self-labeling HaloTag for DNA conjugation. The resulting structures exhibited significantly improved cellulosome assembly as well as cellulose hydrolysis over compatible structures generated using protein scaffolds. Cellulose hydrolysis was further enhanced by 2-fold using the more complex cellulosome structures assembled onto DNA templates generated by rolling circle amplification (RCA). The flexibility to insert additional hybridization sites in a multiplexing manner using RCA should enable the assembly of a larger array of cellulases to better mimic the enzyme diversity of naturally occurring cellulosomes.

  19. Rapid and sensitive diagnosis of fungal keratitis with direct PCR without template DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G; Zhai, H; Yuan, Q; Sun, S; Liu, T; Xie, L

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed at developing a direct PCR assay without template DNA extraction for the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of infectious keratitis. Eighty corneal scrapings from 67 consecutive patients with clinically suspected infectious keratitis were analysed prospectively. Direct PCR was performed with all scrapings, with specific primers for fungi, bacteria, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and Acanthamoeba simultaneously. The results were compared with those obtained from culture, smear, and confocal microscopy. Discrepant results were resolved according to the therapeutic effects of the corresponding antimicrobial drugs. The lowest detection limit of direct PCR was ten copies of each pathogen. Sixty-six scrapings yielded positive results with direct PCR, giving a total positive detection rate of 82.5% (66/80). For 34 patients with high suspicion of fungal keratitis, the positive detection rate of direct PCR was 84.8% (39/46). This rate increased to 91.2% (31/34) when repeated scrapings were excluded, and was significantly higher than the rates obtained with culture (35.3%, 12/34) and smear (64.7%, 22/34) (p keratitis with direct PCR and culture were 98.0% and 47.1% (p keratitis, and it is expected to have an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of infectious keratitis in the future. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  20. Assembly-driven activation of the AIM2 foreign-dsDNA sensor provides a polymerization template for downstream ASC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Seamus R.; Matyszewski, Mariusz; Yu, Xiong; Delannoy, Michael; Egelman, Edward H.; Sohn, Jungsan

    2015-07-01

    AIM2 recognizes foreign dsDNA and assembles into the inflammasome, a filamentous supramolecular signalling platform required to launch innate immune responses. We show here that the pyrin domain of AIM2 (AIM2PYD) drives both filament formation and dsDNA binding. In addition, the dsDNA-binding domain of AIM2 also oligomerizes and assists in filament formation. The ability to oligomerize is critical for binding dsDNA, and in turn permits the size of dsDNA to regulate the assembly of the AIM2 polymers. The AIM2PYD oligomers define the filamentous structure, and the helical symmetry of the AIM2PYD filament is consistent with the filament assembled by the PYD of the downstream adaptor ASC. Our results suggest that the role of AIM2PYD is not autoinhibitory, but generating a structural template by coupling ligand binding and oligomerization is a key signal transduction mechanism in the AIM2 inflammasome.

  1. Fluorescence Regulation of Copper Nanoclusters via DNA Template Manipulation toward Design of a High Signal-to-Noise Ratio Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junyao; Fu, Wenxin; Bao, Jianchun; Wang, Zhaoyin; Dai, Zhihui

    2018-02-28

    Because of bioaccumulation of food chain and disability of biodegradation, concentration of toxic mercury ions (Hg 2+ ) in the environment dramatically varies from picomolar to micromolar, indicating the importance of well-performed Hg 2+ analytical methods. Herein, reticular DNA is constructed by introducing thymine (T)-Hg 2+ -T nodes in poly(T) DNA, and copper nanoclusters (CuNCs) with aggregate morphology are prepared using this reticular DNA as a template. Intriguingly, the prepared CuNCs exhibit enhanced fluorescence. Meanwhile, the reticular DNA reveals evident resistance to enzyme digestion, further clarifying the fluorescence enhancement of CuNCs. Relying on the dual function of DNA manipulation, a high signal-to-noise ratio biosensor is designed. This analytical approach can quantify Hg 2+ in a very wide range (50 pM to 500 μM) with an ultralow detection limit (16 pM). Besides, depending on the specific interaction between Hg 2+ and reduced l-glutathione (GSH), this biosensor is able to evaluate the inhibition of GSH toward Hg 2+ . In addition, pollution of Hg 2+ in three lakes is tested using this method, and the obtained results are in accord with those from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In general, this work provides an alternative way to regulate the properties of DNA-templated nanomaterials and indicates the applicability of this way by fabricating an advanced biosensor.

  2. New Insights into Transcription Fidelity: Thermal Stability of Non-Canonical Structures in Template DNA Regulates Transcriptional Arrest, Pause, and Slippage: e90580

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hisae Tateishi-Karimata; Noburu Isono; Naoki Sugimoto

    2014-01-01

      The thermal stability and topology of non-canonical structures of G-quadruplexes and hairpins in template DNA were investigated, and the effect of non-canonical structures on transcription fidelity...

  3. New insights into transcription fidelity: thermal stability of non-canonical structures in template DNA regulates transcriptional arrest, pause, and slippage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Isono, Noburu; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The thermal stability and topology of non-canonical structures of G-quadruplexes and hairpins in template DNA were investigated, and the effect of non-canonical structures on transcription fidelity...

  4. A protocol for collecting environmental DNA samples from streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie J. Carim; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Taylor M. Wilcox; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is DNA that has been released by an organism into its environment, such that the DNA can be found in air, water, or soil. In aquatic systems, eDNA has been shown to provide a sampling approach that is more sensitive for detecting target organisms faster, and less expensively than previous approaches. However, eDNA needs to be sampled in a...

  5. Comparing different post-mortem human samples as DNA sources for downstream genotyping and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calacal, Gayvelline C; Apaga, Dame Loveliness T; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Jimenez, Joseph Andrew D; Lagat, Ludivino J; Villacorta, Renato Pio F; Lim, Maria Cecilia F; Fortun, Raquel D R; Datar, Francisco A; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A

    2015-11-01

    PowerPlex(®)21 and PowerPlexY(®)23 systems and analyzed using the AB3500 Genetic Analyzer and the GeneMapper(®) ID-X v.1.2 software. PCR inhibitors were consistently detected in bone marrow, muscle tissue, rib and vertebra samples. Amplifiable DNA was obtained in a majority of the samples analyzed. DNA recovery from 0.1g biological material was adequate for successful genotyping of most of the non-bone and bone samples. Complete DNA profiles were generated from bone marrow, femur, metatarsal and patella with 0.1 ng DNA template. Using 0.5 ng DNA template resulted in increased allele recovery and improved intra- and inter-locus peak balance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Construction of energy transfer pathways self-assembled from DNA-templated stacks of anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaura, Rika; Yui, Hiroharu; Someya, Yuu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi

    2014-01-05

    We describe optical properties of anthracene stacks formed from single-component self-assembly of thymidylic acid-appended anthracene 2,6-bis[5-(3'-thymidylic acid)pentyloxy] anthracene (TACT) and the binary self-assembly of TACT and complementary 20-meric oligoadenylic acid (TACT/dA20) in an aqueous buffer. UV-Vis and emission spectra for the single-component self-assembly of TACT and the binary self-assembly of TACT/dA20 were very consistent with stacked acene moieties in both self-assemblies. Interestingly, time-resolved fluorescence spectra from anthracene stacks exhibited very different features of the single-component and binary self-assemblies. In the single-component self-assembly of TACT, a dynamic Stokes shift (DSS) and relatively short fluorescence lifetime (τ=0.35ns) observed at around 450nm suggested that the anthracene moieties were flexible. Moreover, a broad emission at 530nm suggested the formation of an excited dimer (excimer). In the binary self-assembly of TACT/dA20, we detected a broad, red-shifted emission component at 534nm with a lifetime (τ=0.4ns) shorter than that observed in the TACT single-component self-assembly. Combining these results with the emission spectrum of the binary self-assembly of TACT/5'-HEX dA20, we concluded that the energy transfer pathway was constructed by columnar anthracene stacks formed from the DNA-templated self-assembly of TACT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA-based species identification for faecal samples: An application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... control, faecal DNA from a domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) was used to monitor the possible contamination during the procedure of DNA extraction and PCR. RESULTS. DNA extraction and PCR. In this study, valid total DNA of 291 samples was collected from 384 faeces samples. According to the.

  8. Archaeal DNA Polymerase-B as a DNA Template Guardian: Links between Polymerases and Base/Alternative Excision Repair Enzymes in Handling the Deaminated Bases Uracil and Hypoxanthine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Abellón-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Archaea repair of uracil and hypoxanthine, which arise by deamination of cytosine and adenine, respectively, is initiated by three enzymes: Uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UDG, which recognises uracil; Endonuclease V (EndoV, which recognises hypoxanthine; and Endonuclease Q (EndoQ, (which recognises both uracil and hypoxanthine. Two archaeal DNA polymerases, Pol-B and Pol-D, are inhibited by deaminated bases in template strands, a feature unique to this domain. Thus the three repair enzymes and the two polymerases show overlapping specificity for uracil and hypoxanthine. Here it is demonstrated that binding of Pol-D to primer-templates containing deaminated bases inhibits the activity of UDG, EndoV, and EndoQ. Similarly Pol-B almost completely turns off EndoQ, extending earlier work that demonstrated that Pol-B reduces catalysis by UDG and EndoV. Pol-B was observed to be a more potent inhibitor of the enzymes compared to Pol-D. Although Pol-D is directly inhibited by template strand uracil, the presence of Pol-B further suppresses any residual activity of Pol-D, to near-zero levels. The results are compatible with Pol-D acting as the replicative polymerase and Pol-B functioning primarily as a guardian preventing deaminated base-induced DNA mutations.

  9. The mitochondrial DNA helicase TWINKLE can assemble on a closed circular template and support initiation of DNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jemt, E.; Farge, G.A.; Backstrom, S.; Holmlund, T.; Gustafsson, C. M.; Falkenberg, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA replication is performed by a simple machinery, containing the TWINKLE DNA helicase, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ. In addition, mitochondrial RNA polymerase is required for primer formation at the origins of DNA replication. TWINKLE

  10. Infrared laser ablation sample transfer of tissue DNA for genomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kelin; Donnarumma, Fabrizio; Herke, Scott W; Herke, Patrick F; Murray, Kermit K

    2017-07-01

    Infrared (IR) laser ablation was used to remove material from tissue sections mounted on microscope slides, with subsequent capture in a solvent-containing microcentrifuge tube. Experiments conducted with a 3200-bp double-stranded plasmid DNA template demonstrated IR-laser ablation transfer of intact DNA. The transfer efficiency and the molecular integrity of the captured DNA were evaluated using Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, and fluorimetric analysis. The plasmid DNA was reproducibly transferred with an efficiency of 59 ± 3% at laser fluences of between 10 and 20 kJ/m(2) at a wavelength of 3 μm. IR laser ablation sample transfer was then used to ablate and capture DNA from 50-μm-thick rat brain and kidney tissue sections. DNA was extracted from the captured material using five commercial DNA extraction kits that employed significantly divergent methodologies, with all kits recovering sufficient DNA for successful amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Four sets of primers were employed, targeting one region of the CYP 11b2 gene (376 bp) and three different regions of the Snn1g gene (298, 168, and 281 bp). The PCR results were not consistently reliable when using unpurified ablation samples; however, after extraction, all samples produced PCR products of the expected size. This work expands the sampling capabilities of IR laser ablation, demonstrating that DNA can be isolated from tissue samples for genomic assays. Due to the small size of the ablation regions (1 mm(2)), this technique will be useful for sampling discrete cell populations from tissue sections. Graphical abstract Infrared laser ablation transfer of intact DNA from a tissue section.

  11. A facile, sensitive, and highly specific trinitrophenol assay based on target-induced synergetic effects of acid induction and electron transfer towards DNA-templated copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyin; Chang, Jiafu; Hou, Ting; Ge, Lei; Li, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Reliable, selective and sensitive approaches for trinitrophenol (TNP) detection are highly desirable with respect to national security and environmental protection. Herein, a simple and novel fluorescent strategy for highly sensitive and specific TNP assay has been successfully developed, which is based on the quenching of the fluorescent poly(thymine)-templated copper nanoclusters (DNA-CuNCs), through the synergetic effects of acid induction and electron transfer. Upon the addition of TNP, donor-acceptor complexes between the electron-deficient nitro-groups in TNP and the electron-donating DNA templates are formed, resulting in the close proximity between TNP and CuNCs. Moreover, the acidity of TNP contributes to the pH decrease of the system. These factors combine to dramatically quench the fluorescence of DNA-CuNCs, providing a "signal-off" strategy for TNP sensing. The as-proposed strategy demonstrates high sensitivity for TNP assay, and a detection limit of 0.03μM is obtained, which is lower than those reported by using organic fluorescent materials. More significantly, this approach shows outstanding selectivity over a number of TNP analogues, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), 3-nitrophenol (NP), nitrobenzene (NB), phenol (BP), and toluene (BT). Compared with previous studies, this method does not need complex DNA sequence design, fluorescent dye labeling, or sophisticated organic reactions, rendering the strategy with additional advantages of simplicity and cost-effectiveness. In addition, the as-proposed strategy has been adopted for the detection of TNP in natural water samples, indicating its great potential to be applied in the fields of public safety and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Divalent ions attenuate DNA synthesis by human DNA polymerase α by changing the structure of the template/primer or by perturbing the polymerase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinbo; Baranovskiy, Andrey G; Tahirov, Emin T; Tahirov, Tahir H; Pavlov, Youri I

    2016-07-01

    DNA polymerases (pols) are sophisticated protein machines operating in the replication, repair and recombination of genetic material in the complex environment of the cell. DNA pol reactions require at least two divalent metal ions for the phosphodiester bond formation. We explore two understudied roles of metals in pol transactions with emphasis on polα, a crucial enzyme in the initiation of DNA synthesis. We present evidence that the combination of many factors, including the structure of the template/primer, the identity of the metal, the metal turnover in the pol active site, and the influence of the concentration of nucleoside triphosphates, affect DNA pol synthesis. On the poly-dT70 template, the increase of Mg(2+) concentration within the range typically used for pol reactions led to the severe loss of the ability of pol to extend DNA primers and led to a decline in DNA product sizes when extending RNA primers, simulating the effect of "counting" of the number of nucleotides in nascent primers by polα. We suggest that a high Mg(2+) concentration promotes the dynamic formation of unconventional DNA structure(s), thus limiting the apparent processivity of the enzyme. Next, we found that Zn(2+) supported robust polα reactions when the concentration of nucleotides was above the concentration of ions; however, there was only one nucleotide incorporation by the Klenow fragment of DNA pol I. Zn(2+) drastically inhibited polα, but had no effect on Klenow, when Mg(2+) was also present. It is possible that Zn(2+) perturbs metal-mediated transactions in pol active site, for example affecting the step of pyrophosphate removal at the end of each pol cycle necessary for continuation of polymerization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Constructing of DNA vectors with controlled nanosize and single dispersion by block copolymer coating gold nanoparticles as template assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junbo, E-mail: Lijunbo@haust.edu.cn [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics (China); Wu, Wenlan [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Medicine (China); Gao, Jiayu; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Huiyun; Liang, Lijuan [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics (China)

    2017-03-15

    Synthesized vectors with nanoscale size and stable colloid dispersion are highly desirable for improving gene delivery efficiency. Here, a core-shell template particle was constructed with polyethylene glycol-b-poly1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine) (PEG-b-PAMPImB) coating gold nanoparticles (PEG-b-PAMPImB-@-Au NPs) for loading DNA and delivering in vitro. Data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest that these nanoplexes, by forming an electrostatic complex with DNA at the inner PAMPImB shell, offer steric protection for the outer PEG corona leading to single dispersion and small size. Notably, higher colloid stability and lower cytotoxicity were achieved with these nanoplexes when compared with PAMPImB monolayer-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and intracellular trafficking TEM further indicate that the nanoplexes can translocate across the cell membrane and partly enter the nucleus for high efficient expression. Thus, template assembly represents a promising approach to control the size and colloid stability of gene vectors and ensure safety and efficiency of DNA delivery.

  14. Constructing of DNA vectors with controlled nanosize and single dispersion by block copolymer coating gold nanoparticles as template assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junbo; Wu, Wenlan; Gao, Jiayu; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Huiyun; Liang, Lijuan

    2017-03-01

    Synthesized vectors with nanoscale size and stable colloid dispersion are highly desirable for improving gene delivery efficiency. Here, a core-shell template particle was constructed with polyethylene glycol- b-poly1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine) (PEG- b-PAMPImB) coating gold nanoparticles (PEG- b-PAMPImB-@-Au NPs) for loading DNA and delivering in vitro. Data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest that these nanoplexes, by forming an electrostatic complex with DNA at the inner PAMPImB shell, offer steric protection for the outer PEG corona leading to single dispersion and small size. Notably, higher colloid stability and lower cytotoxicity were achieved with these nanoplexes when compared with PAMPImB monolayer-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and intracellular trafficking TEM further indicate that the nanoplexes can translocate across the cell membrane and partly enter the nucleus for high efficient expression. Thus, template assembly represents a promising approach to control the size and colloid stability of gene vectors and ensure safety and efficiency of DNA delivery.

  15. Determination of DNA profiling of siwak and toothbrush samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: DNA profiling is an integral part of forensic work. Enough and good samples for DNA quantification and profiling are mandatory. Aim of the study: To quantify and profile DNA from siwak and toothbrushes and study the effect of time on this process. Methodology: The present study included DNA profiling from ...

  16. "Bis-Click" Ligation of DNA: Template-Controlled Assembly, Circularisation and Functionalisation with Bifunctional and Trifunctional Azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haozhe; Seela, Frank

    2017-03-08

    Ligation and circularisation of oligonucleotides containing terminal triple bonds was performed with bifunctional or trifunctional azides. Both reactions are high yielding. Template-assisted bis-click ligation of two individual non-complementary oligonucleotide strands was accomplished to yield heterodimers exclusively. In this context, the template fulfils two functions: it accelerates the ligation reaction and controls product assembly (heterodimer vs. homodimer formation). Intermolecular bis-click circularisation of one oligonucleotide strand took place without template assistance. For construction of oligonucleotides with terminal triple bonds in the nucleobase side chain, 7- or 5-functionalised 7-deaza-dA and dU residues were used. These oligonucleotides are directly accessible by solid-phase synthesis. When trifunctional azides were employed instead of bifunctional linkers, functionalisation of the remaining azido group was performed with small molecules such as 1-ethynyl pyrene, biotin propargyl amide or with ethynylated oligonucleotides. By this means, branched DNA was constructed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. DNABind: a hybrid algorithm for structure-based prediction of DNA-binding residues by combining machine learning- and template-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Hu, Jianjun

    2013-11-01

    Accurate prediction of DNA-binding residues has become a problem of increasing importance in structural bioinformatics. Here, we presented DNABind, a novel hybrid algorithm for identifying these crucial residues by exploiting the complementarity between machine learning- and template-based methods. Our machine learning-based method was based on the probabilistic combination of a structure-based and a sequence-based predictor, both of which were implemented using support vector machines algorithms. The former included our well-designed structural features, such as solvent accessibility, local geometry, topological features, and relative positions, which can effectively quantify the difference between DNA-binding and nonbinding residues. The latter combined evolutionary conservation features with three other sequence attributes. Our template-based method depended on structural alignment and utilized the template structure from known protein-DNA complexes to infer DNA-binding residues. We showed that the template method had excellent performance when reliable templates were found for the query proteins but tended to be strongly influenced by the template quality as well as the conformational changes upon DNA binding. In contrast, the machine learning approach yielded better performance when high-quality templates were not available (about 1/3 cases in our dataset) or the query protein was subject to intensive transformation changes upon DNA binding. Our extensive experiments indicated that the hybrid approach can distinctly improve the performance of the individual methods for both bound and unbound structures. DNABind also significantly outperformed the state-of-art algorithms by around 10% in terms of Matthews's correlation coefficient. The proposed methodology could also have wide application in various protein functional site annotations. DNABind is freely available at http://mleg.cse.sc.edu/DNABind/. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Characterization and Application of DNA-templated Silver Nanoclusters and Polarized Spectroscopy of Self-Assembled Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carro-Temboury, Miguel R.

    In this thesis two different systems are investigated envisioning their potential applications: DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) and ionic self-assembled (ISA) nanostructures based on azo-dyes. Mainly Visible-NIR spectroscopy was used to probe electronic transitions with absorbance...... due to their reduced cost, high achievable degree of supramolecular order, and potential application in molecular electronics. The degree of order is related to the performance of molecular devices. Ionic Self-Assembled (ISA) materials formed by surfactant chains and azo-dyes featuring long range...... of the azo-dyes. An absorption band in the visible spectrum was measured using the tilted plate method and the stretched polymer-film method. Adapting the theory from the literature and using computational tools, the average angle between absorption transition moment of the azo dyes and the normal...

  19. The Effects of Magnesium Ions on the Enzymatic Synthesis of Ligand-Bearing Artificial DNA by Template-Independent Polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Teruki; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2016-06-08

    A metal-mediated base pair, composed of two ligand-bearing nucleotides and a bridging metal ion, is one of the most promising components for developing DNA-based functional molecules. We have recently reported an enzymatic method to synthesize hydroxypyridone (H)-type ligand-bearing artificial DNA strands. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), a template-independent DNA polymerase, was found to oligomerize H nucleotides to afford ligand-bearing DNAs, which were subsequently hybridized through copper-mediated base pairing (H-Cu(II)-H). In this study, we investigated the effects of a metal cofactor, Mg(II) ion, on the TdT-catalyzed polymerization of H nucleotides. At a high Mg(II) concentration (10 mM), the reaction was halted after several H nucleotides were appended. In contrast, at lower Mg(II) concentrations, H nucleotides were further appended to the H-tailed product to afford longer ligand-bearing DNA strands. An electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that the binding affinity of TdT to the H-tailed DNAs depends on the Mg(II) concentration. In the presence of excess Mg(II) ions, TdT did not bind to the H-tailed strands; thus, further elongation was impeded. This is possibly because the interaction with Mg(II) ions caused folding of the H-tailed strands into unfavorable secondary structures. This finding provides an insight into the enzymatic synthesis of longer ligand-bearing DNA strands.

  20. Identification of Streptococcus parasanguinis DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfuz, Istiak; Cheng, Wei; White, Stefan J

    2013-11-22

    The use of buccal swabs in clinical and scientific studies is a very popular method of collecting DNA, due to its non-invasive nature of collection. However, contamination of the DNA sample may interfere with analysis. Here we report the finding of Streptococcus parasanguinis bacterial DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples, which led to preferential amplification of bacterial sequence with PCR primers designed against human sequence. Contamination of buccal-derived DNA with bacterial DNA can be significant, and may influence downstream genetic analysis. One needs to be aware of possible bacterial contamination when interpreting abnormal findings following PCR amplification of buccal swab DNA samples.

  1. Long-term frozen storage of urine samples: a trouble to get PCR results in Schistosoma spp. DNA detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Velasco Tirado, Virginia; Carranza Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Muro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis remains a serious worldwide public health problem. At present, a sensitive and specific assay for routine diagnosis of schistosome infection is not yet available. The potential for detecting schistosome-derived DNA by PCR-based methods in human clinical samples is currently being investigated as a diagnostic tool with potential application in routine schistosomiasis diagnosis. Collection of diagnostic samples such as stool or blood is usually difficult in some populations. However, urine is a biological sample that can be collected in a non-invasive method, easy to get from people of all ages and easy in management, but as a sample for PCR diagnosis is still not widely used. This could be due to the high variability in the reported efficiency of detection as a result of the high variation in urine samples' storage or conditions for handling and DNA preservation and extraction methods. We evaluate different commercial DNA extraction methods from a series of long-term frozen storage human urine samples from patients with parasitological confirmed schistosomiasis in order to assess the PCR effectiveness for Schistosoma spp. detection. Patients urine samples were frozen for 18 months up to 7 years until use. Results were compared with those obtained in PCR assays using fresh healthy human urine artificially contaminated with Schistosoma mansoni DNA and urine samples from mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni cercariae stored frozen for at least 12 months before use. PCR results in fresh human artificial urine samples using different DNA based extraction methods were much more effective than those obtained when long-term frozen human urine samples were used as the source of DNA template. Long-term frozen human urine samples are probably not a good source for DNA extraction for use as a template in PCR detection of Schistosoma spp., regardless of the DNA method of extraction used.

  2. Long-term frozen storage of urine samples: a trouble to get PCR results in Schistosoma spp. DNA detection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernández-Soto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human schistosomiasis remains a serious worldwide public health problem. At present, a sensitive and specific assay for routine diagnosis of schistosome infection is not yet available. The potential for detecting schistosome-derived DNA by PCR-based methods in human clinical samples is currently being investigated as a diagnostic tool with potential application in routine schistosomiasis diagnosis. Collection of diagnostic samples such as stool or blood is usually difficult in some populations. However, urine is a biological sample that can be collected in a non-invasive method, easy to get from people of all ages and easy in management, but as a sample for PCR diagnosis is still not widely used. This could be due to the high variability in the reported efficiency of detection as a result of the high variation in urine samples' storage or conditions for handling and DNA preservation and extraction methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluate different commercial DNA extraction methods from a series of long-term frozen storage human urine samples from patients with parasitological confirmed schistosomiasis in order to assess the PCR effectiveness for Schistosoma spp. detection. Patients urine samples were frozen for 18 months up to 7 years until use. Results were compared with those obtained in PCR assays using fresh healthy human urine artificially contaminated with Schistosoma mansoni DNA and urine samples from mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni cercariae stored frozen for at least 12 months before use. PCR results in fresh human artificial urine samples using different DNA based extraction methods were much more effective than those obtained when long-term frozen human urine samples were used as the source of DNA template. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term frozen human urine samples are probably not a good source for DNA extraction for use as a template in PCR detection of Schistosoma spp., regardless of the DNA

  3. Regionalized GC content of template DNA as a predictor of PCR success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benita, Yair; Oosting, Ronald S; Lok, Martin C; Wise, Michael J; Humphery-Smith, Ian

    2003-08-15

    A set of 1438 human exons was subjected to nested PCR. The initial success rate using a standard PCR protocol required for ligation-independent cloning was 83.4%. Logistic regression analysis was conducted on 27 primer- and template-related characteristics, of which most could be ignored apart from those related to the GC content of the template. Overall GC content of the template was a good predictor for PCR success; however, specificity and sensitivity values for predicted outcome were improved to 84.3 and 94.8%, respectively, when regionalized GC content was employed. This represented a significant improvement in predictability with respect to GC content alone (P sliding window of 21 bp across the target sequence. Fine-tuning of PCR conditions is not practicable for all target sequences whenever a large number of genes of different lengths and GC content are to be amplified in parallel, particularly if total open reading frame or domain coverage is essential for recombinant protein synthesis. Thus, the present method is proposed as a means of grouping subsets of genes possessing potentially difficult target sequences so that PCR conditions can be optimized separately in order to obtain improved outcomes.

  4. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  5. A mutation in the catalytic subunit of yeast telomerase alters primer-template alignment while promoting processivity and protein-DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairley, Robin C B; Guillaume, Gina; Vega, Leticia R; Friedman, Katherine L

    2011-12-15

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that is required for maintenance of linear chromosome ends (telomeres). In yeast, the Est2 protein reverse transcribes a short template region of the TLC1 RNA using the chromosome terminus to prime replication. Yeast telomeres contain heterogeneous G(1-3)T sequences that arise from incomplete reverse transcription of the TLC1 template and alignment of the DNA primer at multiple sites within the template region. We have previously described mutations in the essential N-terminal TEN domain of Est2p that alter telomere sequences. Here, we demonstrate that one of these mutants, glutamic acid 76 to lysine (est2-LT(E76K)), restricts possible alignments between the DNA primer and the TLC1 template. In addition, this mutant exhibits increased processivity in vivo. Within the context of the telomerase enzyme, the Est2p TEN domain is thought to contribute to enzyme processivity by mediating an anchor-site interaction with the DNA primer. We show that binding of the purified TEN domain (residues 1-161) to telomeric DNA is enhanced by the E76K mutation. These results support the idea that the anchor-site interaction contributes to telomerase processivity and suggest a role for the anchor site of yeast telomerase in mediating primer-template alignment within the active site.

  6. The sequence of the RNA primer and the DNA template influence the initiation of plus-strand DNA synthesis in hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Kathleen M; Loeb, Daniel D

    2007-07-13

    For hepadnaviruses, the RNA primer for plus-strand DNA synthesis is generated by the final RNase H cleavage of the pregenomic RNA at an 11 nt sequence called DR1 during the synthesis of minus-strand DNA. This RNA primer initiates synthesis at one of two distinct sites on the minus-strand DNA template, resulting in two different end products; duplex linear DNA or relaxed circular DNA. Duplex linear DNA is made when initiation of synthesis occurs at DR1. Relaxed circular DNA, the major product, is made when the RNA primer translocates to the sequence complementary to DR1, called DR2 before initiation of DNA synthesis. We studied the mechanism that determines the site of the final RNase H cleavage in hepatitis B virus (HBV). We showed that the sites of the final RNase H cleavage are always a fixed number of nucleotides from the 5' end of the pregenomic RNA. This finding is similar to what was found previously for duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), and suggests that all hepadnaviruses use a similar mechanism. Also, we studied the role of complementarity between the RNA primer and the acceptor site at DR2 in HBV. By increasing the complementarity, we were able to increase the level of priming at DR2 over that seen in the wild-type virus. This finding suggests that the level of initiation of plus-strand DNA synthesis at DR2 is sub-maximal for wild-type HBV. Finally, we studied the role of the sequence at the 5' end of the RNA primer that is outside of the DR sequence. We found that substitutions or insertions in this region affected the level of priming at DR1 and DR2.

  7. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, Tom

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological dam...

  8. Single Molecule Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Photosensitized Singlet Oxygen Behavior on a DNA Origami Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmig, Sarah Wendelboe; Rotaru, Alexandru; Arian, Dumitru

    2010-01-01

    DNA origami, the folding of a long single-stranded DNA sequence (scaffold strand) by hundreds of short synthetic oligonucleotides (staple strands) into parallel aligned helices, is a highly efficient method to form advanced self-assembled DNA-architectures. Since molecules and various materials can...... be conjugated to each of the short staple strands, the origami method offers a unique possibility of arranging molecules and materials in well-defined positions on a structured surface. Here we combine the action of light with AFM and DNA nanostructures to study the production of singlet oxygen from a single...... photosensitizer molecule conjugated to a selected DNA origami staple strand on an origami structure. We demonstrate a distance-dependent oxidation of organic moieties incorporated in specific positions on DNA origami by singlet oxygen produced from a single photosensitizer located at the center of each origami....

  9. An improved DNA isolation technique for PCR detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, S A; Alba Soto, C D; Cazorla, S I; Tayeldin, M L; Cuello, S; Lasala, M B; Tekiel, V S; González Cappa, S M

    2013-05-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode that causes severe infections in immunocompromised patients. The low parasitic burden of chronically infected patients makes diagnosis difficult to achieve by conventional methods. Here, an in-house (IH) method for the isolation of parasite DNA from stools and a PCR assay for the molecular diagnosis of S. stercoralis were optimized. DNA yield and purity improved with the IH method which included a step of incubation of stool samples with a glycine-SDS buffer and mechanical disruption prior to DNA extraction. For the PCR assay, the addition of bovine serum albumin was required to neutralize inhibitors present in stool. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR using DNA as template, isolated with the IH method, was superior to the commercial one. This study demonstrates that a combined method that adds the step of glycine-SDS buffer incubation plus mechanical disruption prior to DNA isolation with the commercial kit increased PCR sensitivity to levels of the IH method. Finally, our assay was tested on 17 clinical samples. With the IH method for DNA isolation, a S. stercoralis specific band was detected by PCR in the first stool sample in all patients (17/17), while with the commercial kit, our S. stercoralis-specific band was only observed in 7 samples. The superior efficiency of the IH and combined methods over the commercial kit was demonstrated when applied to clinical samples with low parasitic burden. These results show that the DNA extraction procedure is a key to increase sensitivity of the S. stercoralis PCR assay in stool samples. The method developed here could help to improve the molecular diagnosis of S. stercoralis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Extended minus-strand DNA as template for R-U5-mediated second-strand transfer in recombinational rescue of primer binding site-modified retroviral vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J G; Lund, Anders Henrik; Dybkaer, K

    1998-01-01

    -through of the mutated PBS during minus-strand synthesis, and subsequent second-strand transfer mediated by the R-U5 complementarity of the plus strand and the extended minus-strand DNA acceptor template. Mechanisms for R-U5-mediated second-strand transfer and its possible role in retrovirus replication and evolution......We have previously demonstrated recombinational rescue of primer binding site (PBS)-impaired Akv murine leukemia virus-based vectors involving initial priming on endogenous viral sequences and template switching during cDNA synthesis to obtain PBS complementarity in second-strand transfer...

  11. A label-free fluorescent assay for deoxyribonuclease I activity based on DNA-templated silver nanocluster/graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Yeol; Park, Ki Soo; Jung, Yun Kyung; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2017-07-15

    A novel label-free system for the sensitive fluorescent detection of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) activity has been developed by utilizing DNA-templated silver nanocluster/graphene oxide (DNA-AgNC/GO) nanocomposite. AgNC is first synthesized around C-rich template DNA and the resulting DNA-AgNC binds to GO through the interaction between the extension DNA and GO. The resulting DNA-AgNC/GO would show quite reduced fluorescence signal because the fluorescence from DNA-AgNCs is quenched by GO. In the presence of DNase I, however, it degrades the DNA strand within DNA/RNA hybrid duplex probe employed in this study, consequently releasing RNA which is complementary to the extension DNA. The released free RNA then extracts DNA-AgNC from GO by hybridizing with the extension DNA bound to GO. This process would restore the quenched fluorescence, emitting highly enhanced fluorescence signal. By employing this assay principle, DNase I activity was reliably identified with a detection limit of 0.10U/ml which is lower than those from previous fluorescence-based methods. Finally, the practical capability of this assay system was successfully demonstrated by its use to determine DNase I activity in bovine urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Probing Electron-Induced Bond Cleavage at the Single-Molecule Level Using DNA Origami Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Adrian Clemens; Bald, Ilko; Rotaru, Alexandru

    2012-01-01

    Low-energy electrons (LEEs) play an important role in nanolithography, atmospheric chemistry, and DNA radiation damage. Previously, the cleavage of specific chemical bonds triggered by LEEs has been demonstrated in a variety of small organic molecules such as halogenated benzenes and DNA nucleoba...

  13. DNA origami templated self-assembly of discrete length single wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2013-01-28

    Constructing intricate geometric arrangements of components is one of the central challenges of nanotechnology. Here we report a convenient, versatile method to organize discrete length single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) into complex geometries using 2D DNA origami structures. First, a size exclusion HPLC purification protocol was used to isolate uniform length, SWNTs labelled with single stranded DNA (ssDNA). The nanotube-bound ssDNAs are composed of two domains: a SWNT binding domain and a linker binding domain. Although initially bound to the SWNTs, the linker domain is displaced from the surface by the addition of an external ssDNA linker strand. One portion of the linker strand is designed to form a double helix with the linker binding domain, compelling the DNA to project away from the SWNT surface. The remainder of the linker strand contains an ssDNA origami recognition sequence available for hybridization to a DNA origami nanostructure. Two different 2D DNA origami structures, a triangle and a rectangle, were used to organize the nanotubes. Several arrangements of nanotubes were constructed, with defined tube lengths and inter-tube angles. The uniform tube lengths and positional precision that this method affords may have applications in electronic device fabrication.

  14. Rapid cleanup of bacterial DNA from samples containing aerosol contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menking, Darrell E.; Kracke, Suzanne K.; Emanuel, Peter A.; Valdes, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an in vitro enzymatic, synthetic method used to amplify specific DNA sequences from organisms. Detection of DNA using gene probes allows for absolute identification not only of specific organisms, but also of genetic material in recombinant organisms. PCR is an exquisite biological method for detecting bacteria in aerosol samples. A major challenge facing detection of DNA from field samples is that they are almost sure to contain impurities, especially impurities that inhibit amplification through PCR. DNA is being extracted from air, sewage/stool samples, food, sputum, a water and sediment; however, multi- step, time consuming methods are required to isolate the DNA from the surrounding contamination. This research focuses on developing a method for rapid cleanup of DNA which combines extraction and purification of DNA while, at the same time, removing inhibitors from 'dirty samples' to produce purified, PCR-ready DNA. GeneReleaser produces PCR-ready DNA in a rapid five-minute protocol. GeneReleaser resin was able to clean up sample contain micrograms of typical aerosol and water contaminants. The advantages of using GR are that it is rapid, inexpensive, requires one-step, uses no hazardous material and produces PCR-ready DNA.

  15. Microcapillary reactors using solid-phase DNA sequencing for direct sample introduction into slab gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Bruch, R C; Soper, S A

    2000-05-01

    Solid-phase micro-reactors have been prepared in glass capillaries for DNA sequencing applications using slab gel electrophoresis, which consisted of a fused silica capillary (i.d. = 100 microns; o.d. = 365 microns; length = 15 cm; volume = 1.2 microL) that contained a covalently bound biotin molecule. With the addition of streptavidin to the capillary, an anchoring site was produced for the tethering of biotinylated DNA sequencing templates to the wall of the capillary. Using a four-lane, single dye primer chemistry sequencing strategy, the individual tracts were prepared in the capillaries using cycle sequencing (20 thermal cycles) on a PCR-generated lambda-bacteriophage template (about 1000 bp). The dye label in this case was a fluorescent tag that displayed emission properties in the near-IR and could be processed on an automated sequencer. The read length was found to be 589 bases, which was determined primarily by the fractionating power of the gel. It was also found that the tethering system was very stable to typical cycle sequencing conditions, with the amount of tethered DNA lost amounting to 40% after 120 thermal cycles. The ability to use dye terminator chemistry was also investigated by using a near-IR dye-labeled terminator (ddGTP). It was found that the quality of the ladder that was generated was comparable to that obtained in a conventional sample preparation format. However, ethanol precipitation was required before gel loading to remove excess terminator.

  16. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Analysis, and Indexing § 28.12 Collection of DNA samples. (a) The Bureau of Prisons shall collect a DNA sample from each individual in the custody of the Bureau of Prisons who is, or has been, convicted of— (1... in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, with units of state or local governments, and with private...

  17. The Effects of Magnesium Ions on the Enzymatic Synthesis of Ligand-Bearing Artificial DNA by Template-Independent Polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Takezawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A metal-mediated base pair, composed of two ligand-bearing nucleotides and a bridging metal ion, is one of the most promising components for developing DNA-based functional molecules. We have recently reported an enzymatic method to synthesize hydroxypyridone (H-type ligand-bearing artificial DNA strands. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT, a template-independent DNA polymerase, was found to oligomerize H nucleotides to afford ligand-bearing DNAs, which were subsequently hybridized through copper-mediated base pairing (H–CuII–H. In this study, we investigated the effects of a metal cofactor, MgII ion, on the TdT-catalyzed polymerization of H nucleotides. At a high MgII concentration (10 mM, the reaction was halted after several H nucleotides were appended. In contrast, at lower MgII concentrations, H nucleotides were further appended to the H-tailed product to afford longer ligand-bearing DNA strands. An electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that the binding affinity of TdT to the H-tailed DNAs depends on the MgII concentration. In the presence of excess MgII ions, TdT did not bind to the H-tailed strands; thus, further elongation was impeded. This is possibly because the interaction with MgII ions caused folding of the H-tailed strands into unfavorable secondary structures. This finding provides an insight into the enzymatic synthesis of longer ligand-bearing DNA strands.

  18. Deregulated origin licensing leads to chromosomal breaks by rereplication of a gapped DNA template

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neelsen, Kai J; Zanini, Isabella M Y; Mijic, Sofija; Herrador, Raquel; Zellweger, Ralph; Ray Chaudhuri, Arnab; Creavin, Kevin D; Blow, J Julian; Lopes, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    .... Investigating the consequences of Early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) depletion in human cells, previously associated with rereplication, we show by DNA fiber labeling that origin reactivation occurs rapidly, well before accumulation of cells...

  19. Identification of Streptococcus parasanguinis DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfuz, Istiak; Cheng, Wei; White, Stefan J

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of buccal swabs in clinical and scientific studies is a very popular method of collecting DNA, due to its non-invasive nature of collection. However, contamination of the DNA sample may interfere with analysis. Findings Here we report the finding of Streptococcus parasanguinis bacterial DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples, which led to preferential amplification of bacterial sequence with PCR primers designed against human sequence. Conclusion Contamination of buc...

  20. Detection of Adulteration in Italian Mozzarella Cheese Using Mitochondrial DNA Templates as Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Bonizzi; Vlatka Cubric Curik; Pietro Parma; Gian Franco Greppi; Giuseppe Enne; Maria Feligini

    2005-01-01

    Considering the importance of monitoring adulterations of genuine cheeses in the dairy industry, a polymerase chain reaction–based method was developed to detect bovine- specific mitochondrial DNA sequence in Italian water buffalo Mozzarella cheese. DNA was isolated from cheese matrix and governing liquid by organic extractions and kit purifications. Amplifications of a 134-bp fragment were performed with a bovine–specific set of primers designed on the sequence alignment of bovine and buffal...

  1. DNA identification of Salvia divinorum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Terence M; Bola, Gurpreet

    2013-01-01

    Salvia divinorum (diviner's sage) is a plant in the mint family that produces an hallucinogenic compound, salvinorin A. The plant is used, often by chewing or smoking, as a "recreational" drug source and is regulated or banned in several states and countries. We describe a simple DNA technique, polymerase chain reaction of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (rbcL) gene, that can distinguish S. divinorum leaf pieces from pieces of tobacco or cannabis. We have also found DNA sequences adjacent to the chloroplast leucine transfer RNA (trnL) gene that are specific to S. divinorum and distinguish it from other horticulturally popular Salvia species. We report some significant differences between the S. divinorum trnL sequences we determined and those now published in GenBank. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of Adulteration in Italian Mozzarella Cheese Using Mitochondrial DNA Templates as Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bonizzi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of monitoring adulterations of genuine cheeses in the dairy industry, a polymerase chain reaction–based method was developed to detect bovine- specific mitochondrial DNA sequence in Italian water buffalo Mozzarella cheese. DNA was isolated from cheese matrix and governing liquid by organic extractions and kit purifications. Amplifications of a 134-bp fragment were performed with a bovine–specific set of primers designed on the sequence alignment of bovine and buffalo mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I. The specificity of the primers was tested using DNA from the blood of two species (water buffalo and bovine, which are present together in adulterated Italian Mozzarella cheese. This method reliably detected a content of 0.5 % of bovin milk, making it suitable for routine fraud monitoring.

  3. Controlled assembly of SNAP-PNA-fluorophore systems on DNA templates to produce fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Zahra; Hanley, Quentin

    2014-10-15

    The SNAP protein is a widely used self-labeling tag that can be used for tracking protein localization and trafficking in living systems. A model system providing controlled alignment of SNAP-tag units can provide a new way to study clustering of fusion proteins. In this work, fluorescent SNAP-PNA conjugates were controllably assembled on DNA frameworks, forming dimers, trimers, and tetramers. Modification of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) with the O(6)-benzyl guanine (BG) group allowed the generation of site-selective covalent links between PNA and the SNAP protein. The modified BG-PNAs were labeled with fluorescent Atto dyes and subsequently chemo-selectively conjugated to SNAP protein. Efficient assembly into dimer and oligomer forms was verified via size exclusion chromatography (SEC), electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and fluorescence spectroscopy. DNA-directed assembly of homo- and heterodimers of SNAP-PNA constructs induced homo- and hetero-FRET, respectively. Longer DNA scaffolds controllably aligned similar fluorescent SNAP-PNA constructs into higher oligomers exhibiting homo-FRET. The combined SEC and homo-FRET studies indicated the 1:1 and saturated assemblies of SNAP-PNA-fluorophore:DNA formed preferentially in this system. This suggested a kinetic/stoichiometric model of assembly rather than binomially distributed products. These BG-PNA-fluorophore building blocks allow facile introduction of fluorophores and/or assembly directing moieties onto any protein containing SNAP. Template-directed assembly of PNA-modified SNAP proteins may be used to investigate clustering behavior both with and without fluorescent labels, which may find use in the study of assembly processes in cells.

  4. Extraction of human nuclear DNA from feces samples using the QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Nicholas; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2002-09-01

    The use of a QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (QIAGEN) for extracting human nuclear DNA from feces samples is reported. This method employs a stool lysis buffer and a unique matrix (InhibitEX tablet) to remove PCR inhibitory substances specific to feces samples. DNA extracted from various amounts of stool and from stool samples exposed to different environmental impacts was successfully amplified and typed using the Profiler Plus Amplification Kit and ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyser.

  5. Methods to maximise recovery of environmental DNA from water samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rheyda Hinlo

    Full Text Available The environmental DNA (eDNA method is a detection technique that is rapidly gaining credibility as a sensitive tool useful in the surveillance and monitoring of invasive and threatened species. Because eDNA analysis often deals with small quantities of short and degraded DNA fragments, methods that maximize eDNA recovery are required to increase detectability. In this study, we performed experiments at different stages of the eDNA analysis to show which combinations of methods give the best recovery rate for eDNA. Using Oriental weatherloach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus as a study species, we show that various combinations of DNA capture, preservation and extraction methods can significantly affect DNA yield. Filtration using cellulose nitrate filter paper preserved in ethanol or stored in a -20°C freezer and extracted with the Qiagen DNeasy kit outperformed other combinations in terms of cost and efficiency of DNA recovery. Our results support the recommendation to filter water samples within 24hours but if this is not possible, our results suggest that refrigeration may be a better option than freezing for short-term storage (i.e., 3-5 days. This information is useful in designing eDNA detection of low-density invasive or threatened species, where small variations in DNA recovery can signify the difference between detection success or failure.

  6. Methods to maximise recovery of environmental DNA from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinlo, Rheyda; Gleeson, Dianne; Lintermans, Mark; Furlan, Elise

    2017-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method is a detection technique that is rapidly gaining credibility as a sensitive tool useful in the surveillance and monitoring of invasive and threatened species. Because eDNA analysis often deals with small quantities of short and degraded DNA fragments, methods that maximize eDNA recovery are required to increase detectability. In this study, we performed experiments at different stages of the eDNA analysis to show which combinations of methods give the best recovery rate for eDNA. Using Oriental weatherloach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) as a study species, we show that various combinations of DNA capture, preservation and extraction methods can significantly affect DNA yield. Filtration using cellulose nitrate filter paper preserved in ethanol or stored in a -20°C freezer and extracted with the Qiagen DNeasy kit outperformed other combinations in terms of cost and efficiency of DNA recovery. Our results support the recommendation to filter water samples within 24hours but if this is not possible, our results suggest that refrigeration may be a better option than freezing for short-term storage (i.e., 3-5 days). This information is useful in designing eDNA detection of low-density invasive or threatened species, where small variations in DNA recovery can signify the difference between detection success or failure.

  7. Sample-to-answer acoustic detection of DNA in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, George; Palladino, Pasquale; Chronaki, Dimitra; Tsortos, Achilleas; Gizeli, Electra

    2017-07-13

    The present study demonstrates the sensitive and label-free acoustic detection of dsDNA amplicons produced from whole Salmonella Thyphimurium cells without employing any DNA extraction and/or purification step, in the presence of the lysed bacterial cells and in a hybridization-free assay. A sample-to-answer assay is also shown during DNA detection directly in milk.

  8. Encapsulation of DNA-templated chromophore assemblies within virus protein nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Escosura, Andres; Janssen, Pim G.A.; Schenning, Albertus P.H.J.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Nolte, Roeland J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A beneficial virus: The hierarchical self-assembly of a three-component system consisting of single-stranded DNA (oligothymines; Tq), chromophores (G), and virus coat proteins (CP) leads to the formation of micrometer-long nanotubes (see picture). Tuning the interaction between the three components

  9. DNA qualification workflow for next generation sequencing of histopathological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Simbolo

    Full Text Available Histopathological samples are a treasure-trove of DNA for clinical research. However, the quality of DNA can vary depending on the source or extraction method applied. Thus a standardized and cost-effective workflow for the qualification of DNA preparations is essential to guarantee interlaboratory reproducible results. The qualification process consists of the quantification of double strand DNA (dsDNA and the assessment of its suitability for downstream applications, such as high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We tested the two most frequently used instrumentations to define their role in this process: NanoDrop, based on UV spectroscopy, and Qubit 2.0, which uses fluorochromes specifically binding dsDNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR was used as the reference technique as it simultaneously assesses DNA concentration and suitability for PCR amplification. We used 17 genomic DNAs from 6 fresh-frozen (FF tissues, 6 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues, 3 cell lines, and 2 commercial preparations. Intra- and inter-operator variability was negligible, and intra-methodology variability was minimal, while consistent inter-methodology divergences were observed. In fact, NanoDrop measured DNA concentrations higher than Qubit and its consistency with dsDNA quantification by qPCR was limited to high molecular weight DNA from FF samples and cell lines, where total DNA and dsDNA quantity virtually coincide. In partially degraded DNA from FFPE samples, only Qubit proved highly reproducible and consistent with qPCR measurements. Multiplex PCR amplifying 191 regions of 46 cancer-related genes was designated the downstream application, using 40 ng dsDNA from FFPE samples calculated by Qubit. All but one sample produced amplicon libraries suitable for next-generation sequencing. NanoDrop UV-spectrum verified contamination of the unsuccessful sample. In conclusion, as qPCR has high costs and is labor intensive, an alternative effective standard

  10. Air-sampled Filter Analysis for Endotoxins and DNA Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Yona, Naama; Mazar, Yinon; Pardo, Michal; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-03-07

    Outdoor aerosol research commonly uses particulate matter sampled on filters. This procedure enables various characterizations of the collected particles to be performed in parallel. The purpose of the method presented here is to obtain a highly accurate and reliable analysis of the endotoxin and DNA content of bio-aerosols extracted from filters. The extraction of high molecular weight organic molecules, such as lipopolysaccharides, from sampled filters involves shaking the sample in a pyrogen-free water-based medium. The subsequent analysis is based on an enzymatic reaction that can be detected using a turbidimetric measurement. As a result of the high organic content on the sampled filters, the extraction of DNA from the samples is performed using a commercial DNA extraction kit that was originally designed for soils and modified to improve the DNA yield. The detection and quantification of specific microbial species using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) analysis are described and compared with other available methods.

  11. RNA polymerase II is released from the DNA template during transcription-coupled repair in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Yi-Ying; Hu, Jinchuan; Sancar, Aziz; Selby, Christopher P

    2018-02-16

    In mammalian cells, bulky DNA adducts located in the template but not the coding strand of genes block elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). The blocked RNAPII targets these transcription-blocking adducts to undergo more rapid excision repair than adducts located elsewhere in the genome. In excision repair, coupled incisions are made in the damaged DNA strand on both sides of the adduct. The fate of RNAPII in the course of this transcription-coupled repair (TCR) pathway is unclear. To address the fate of RNAPII, we used methods that control transcription to initiate a discrete "wave" of elongation complexes. Analyzing genome-wide transcription and repair by next-generation sequencing, we identified locations of elongation complexes and transcription-repair coupling events in genes throughout the genome. Using UV-exposed human skin fibroblasts, we found that, at the dose used, a single wave of elongation complexes was blocked within the first 25 kb of genes. TCR occurred where the elongation complexes were blocked, and repair was associated with the dissociation of these complexes. These results indicate that individual elongation complexes do not engage in multiple rounds of TCR with successive lesions. Our results are consistent with a model in which RNAPII is dissociated after the dual incision of the transcription-blocking lesion, perhaps by Cockayne syndrome group B translocase, or during the synthesis of a repair patch. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study w...

  13. Current developments in forensic interpretation of mixed DNA samples (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    HU, NA; CONG, BIN; LI, SHUJIN; MA, CHUNLING; FU, LIHONG; ZHANG, XIAOJING

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent improvements have provided contemporary forensic investigations with a variety of tools to improve the analysis of mixed DNA samples in criminal investigations, producing notable improvements in the analysis of complex trace samples in cases of sexual assult and homicide. Mixed DNA contains DNA from two or more contributors, compounding DNA analysis by combining DNA from one or more major contributors with small amounts of DNA from potentially numerous minor contributors. These samples are characterized by a high probability of drop-out or drop-in combined with elevated stutter, significantly increasing analysis complexity. At some loci, minor contributor alleles may be completely obscured due to amplification bias or over-amplification, creating the illusion of additional contributors. Thus, estimating the number of contributors and separating contributor genotypes at a given locus is significantly more difficult in mixed DNA samples, requiring the application of specialized protocols that have only recently been widely commercialized and standardized. Over the last decade, the accuracy and repeatability of mixed DNA analyses available to conventional forensic laboratories has greatly advanced in terms of laboratory technology, mathematical models and biostatistical software, generating more accurate, rapid and readily available data for legal proceedings and criminal cases. PMID:24748965

  14. Controls to validate plasma samples for cell free DNA quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallisgaard, Niels; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund

    2015-01-01

    , are diverging due to methodological differences with lack of standardisation and definition of sensitivity. The new biological information has not yet come into routine use. The present study presents external standardisation by spiking with non-human DNA fragments to control for loss of DNA during sample...

  15. Getting DNA copy numbers without control samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Estevez, Maria; Aramburu, Ander; Rubio, Angel

    2012-08-16

    The selection of the reference to scale the data in a copy number analysis has paramount importance to achieve accurate estimates. Usually this reference is generated using control samples included in the study. However, these control samples are not always available and in these cases, an artificial reference must be created. A proper generation of this signal is crucial in terms of both noise and bias.We propose NSA (Normality Search Algorithm), a scaling method that works with and without control samples. It is based on the assumption that genomic regions enriched in SNPs with identical copy numbers in both alleles are likely to be normal. These normal regions are predicted for each sample individually and used to calculate the final reference signal. NSA can be applied to any CN data regardless the microarray technology and preprocessing method. It also finds an optimal weighting of the samples minimizing possible batch effects. Five human datasets (a subset of HapMap samples, Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), Ovarian, Prostate and Lung Cancer experiments) have been analyzed. It is shown that using only tumoral samples, NSA is able to remove the bias in the copy number estimation, to reduce the noise and therefore, to increase the ability to detect copy number aberrations (CNAs). These improvements allow NSA to also detect recurrent aberrations more accurately than other state of the art methods. NSA provides a robust and accurate reference for scaling probe signals data to CN values without the need of control samples. It minimizes the problems of bias, noise and batch effects in the estimation of CNs. Therefore, NSA scaling approach helps to better detect recurrent CNAs than current methods. The automatic selection of references makes it useful to perform bulk analysis of many GEO or ArrayExpress experiments without the need of developing a parser to find the normal samples or possible batches within the data. The method is available in the open-source R package

  16. Getting DNA copy numbers without control samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz-Estevez Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of the reference to scale the data in a copy number analysis has paramount importance to achieve accurate estimates. Usually this reference is generated using control samples included in the study. However, these control samples are not always available and in these cases, an artificial reference must be created. A proper generation of this signal is crucial in terms of both noise and bias. We propose NSA (Normality Search Algorithm, a scaling method that works with and without control samples. It is based on the assumption that genomic regions enriched in SNPs with identical copy numbers in both alleles are likely to be normal. These normal regions are predicted for each sample individually and used to calculate the final reference signal. NSA can be applied to any CN data regardless the microarray technology and preprocessing method. It also finds an optimal weighting of the samples minimizing possible batch effects. Results Five human datasets (a subset of HapMap samples, Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM, Ovarian, Prostate and Lung Cancer experiments have been analyzed. It is shown that using only tumoral samples, NSA is able to remove the bias in the copy number estimation, to reduce the noise and therefore, to increase the ability to detect copy number aberrations (CNAs. These improvements allow NSA to also detect recurrent aberrations more accurately than other state of the art methods. Conclusions NSA provides a robust and accurate reference for scaling probe signals data to CN values without the need of control samples. It minimizes the problems of bias, noise and batch effects in the estimation of CNs. Therefore, NSA scaling approach helps to better detect recurrent CNAs than current methods. The automatic selection of references makes it useful to perform bulk analysis of many GEO or ArrayExpress experiments without the need of developing a parser to find the normal samples or possible batches within the

  17. Rapid extraction and preservation of genomic DNA from human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundaram, D; Kim, J-H; Yeo, W-H; Oh, K; Lee, K-H; Kim, M-H; Ryew, S-M; Ahn, S-G; Gao, D; Cangelosi, G A; Chung, J-H

    2013-02-01

    Simple and rapid extraction of human genomic DNA remains a bottleneck for genome analysis and disease diagnosis. Current methods using microfilters require cumbersome, multiple handling steps in part because salt conditions must be controlled for attraction and elution of DNA in porous silica. We report a novel extraction method of human genomic DNA from buccal swab and saliva samples. DNA is attracted onto a gold-coated microchip by an electric field and capillary action while the captured DNA is eluted by thermal heating at 70 °C. A prototype device was designed to handle four microchips, and a compatible protocol was developed. The extracted DNA using microchips was characterized by qPCR for different sample volumes, using different lengths of PCR amplicon, and nuclear and mitochondrial genes. In comparison with a commercial kit, an equivalent yield of DNA extraction was achieved with fewer steps. Room-temperature preservation for 1 month was demonstrated for captured DNA, facilitating straightforward collection, delivery, and handling of genomic DNA in an environment-friendly protocol.

  18. A fast analysis system for forensic DNA reference samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Johannes; Albinsson, Linda; Ansell, Carina; Tapper, Helene; Hansson, Oskar; Holgersson, Stig; Ansell, Ricky

    2008-06-01

    On January 1st, 2006, the Swedish legislation on obtaining DNA reference samples from suspects and the recording of DNA profiles in databases was changed. As a result the number of samples analysed at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science (SKL) increased from about 4500 in 2005 to more than 25,000 in 2006. To meet this challenge, SKL launched a new analysis system to create an unbroken chain, from sampling to incorporation of a profile in the national DNA database and subsequent automatic generation of digitally signed hit reports. The system integrates logistics, digital data transfer, new functions in LIMS (ForumDNA Version 4, Ida Infront AB) and laboratory automation. Buccal swab samples are secured on a FTA card attached to an identity form, which is barcoded with a unique sample ID. After sampling, the police officer sends a digital request to SKL. The sample is automatically registered in LIMS and processed on delivery. The resulting DNA profiles are automatically classified according to quality using a custom-made expert system. Building the evaluation around mathematical rules makes it reproducible, standardised and minimises manual work and clerk errors. All samples are run in duplicate and the two profiles are compared within LIMS before incorporation in the database. In the first year of operation, the median time for completion of an analysis was 3 days, measured from delivery of the sample to incorporation of the profile in the national DNA database. In spite of the dramatic increase in the number of reference samples there was no backlog.

  19. Method optimization for fecal sample collection and fecal DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathay, Conny; Hamot, Gael; Henry, Estelle; Georges, Laura; Bellora, Camille; Lebrun, Laura; de Witt, Brian; Ammerlaan, Wim; Buschart, Anna; Wilmes, Paul; Betsou, Fay

    2015-04-01

    This is the third in a series of publications presenting formal method validation for biospecimen processing in the context of accreditation in laboratories and biobanks. We report here optimization of a stool processing protocol validated for fitness-for-purpose in terms of downstream DNA-based analyses. Stool collection was initially optimized in terms of sample input quantity and supernatant volume using canine stool. Three DNA extraction methods (PerkinElmer MSM I®, Norgen Biotek All-In-One®, MoBio PowerMag®) and six collection container types were evaluated with human stool in terms of DNA quantity and quality, DNA yield, and its reproducibility by spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, and quantitative PCR, DNA purity, SPUD assay, and 16S rRNA gene sequence-based taxonomic signatures. The optimal MSM I protocol involves a 0.2 g stool sample and 1000 μL supernatant. The MSM I extraction was superior in terms of DNA quantity and quality when compared to the other two methods tested. Optimal results were obtained with plain Sarstedt tubes (without stabilizer, requiring immediate freezing and storage at -20°C or -80°C) and Genotek tubes (with stabilizer and RT storage) in terms of DNA yields (total, human, bacterial, and double-stranded) according to spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry, with low yield variability and good DNA purity. No inhibitors were identified at 25 ng/μL. The protocol was reproducible in terms of DNA yield among different stool aliquots. We validated a stool collection method suitable for downstream DNA metagenomic analysis. DNA extraction with the MSM I method using Genotek tubes was considered optimal, with simple logistics in terms of collection and shipment and offers the possibility of automation. Laboratories and biobanks should ensure protocol conditions are systematically recorded in the scope of accreditation.

  20. A DNA methylation fingerprint of 1628 human samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Agustin F.; Assenov, Yassen; Martin-Subero, Jose Ignacio; Balint, Balazs; Siebert, Reiner; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Hidalgo, Manuel; Tan, Aik-Choon; Galm, Oliver; Ferrer, Isidre; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse; Villanueva, Alberto; Carmona, Javier; Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Berdasco, Maria; Moreno, Victor; Capella, Gabriel; Monk, David; Ballestar, Esteban; Ropero, Santiago; Martinez, Ramon; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Prosper, Felipe; Agirre, Xabier; Fraga, Mario F.; Graña, Osvaldo; Perez-Jurado, Luis; Mora, Jaume; Puig, Susana; Prat, Jaime; Badimon, Lina; Puca, Annibale A.; Meltzer, Stephen J.; Lengauer, Thomas; Bridgewater, John; Bock, Christoph; Esteller, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Most of the studies characterizing DNA methylation patterns have been restricted to particular genomic loci in a limited number of human samples and pathological conditions. Herein, we present a compromise between an extremely comprehensive study of a human sample population with an intermediate level of resolution of CpGs at the genomic level. We obtained a DNA methylation fingerprint of 1628 human samples in which we interrogated 1505 CpG sites. The DNA methylation patterns revealed show this epigenetic mark to be critical in tissue-type definition and stemness, particularly around transcription start sites that are not within a CpG island. For disease, the generated DNA methylation fingerprints show that, during tumorigenesis, human cancer cells underwent a progressive gain of promoter CpG-island hypermethylation and a loss of CpG methylation in non-CpG-island promoters. Although transformed cells are those in which DNA methylation disruption is more obvious, we observed that other common human diseases, such as neurological and autoimmune disorders, had their own distinct DNA methylation profiles. Most importantly, we provide proof of principle that the DNA methylation fingerprints obtained might be useful for translational purposes by showing that we are able to identify the tumor type origin of cancers of unknown primary origin (CUPs). Thus, the DNA methylation patterns identified across the largest spectrum of samples, tissues, and diseases reported to date constitute a baseline for developing higher-resolution DNA methylation maps and provide important clues concerning the contribution of CpG methylation to tissue identity and its changes in the most prevalent human diseases. PMID:21613409

  1. Hairpin DNA-Templated Silver Nanoclusters as Novel Beacons in Strand Displacement Amplification for MicroRNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingpu; Li, Chao; Zhi, Xiao; Ramón, Gabriel Alfranca; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Chunlei; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-01-19

    MicroRNA (miRNA) biomarkers display great potential for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The development of rapid and specific methods for miRNA detection has become a hotspot. Herein, hairpin DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (AgNCs/HpDNA) were prepared and integrated into strand-displacement amplification (SDA) as a novel beacon for miRNA detection. The light-up platform was established based on guanine (G)-rich fluorescence enhancement that essentially converted the excitation/emission pair of AgNCs/HpDNAs from a shorter wavelength to a longer wavelength, and then achieved fluorescent enhancement at longer wavelength. On the basis of the validation of the method, the single and duplex detection were conducted in two plasma biomarkers (miR-16-5p and miR-19b-3p) for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. The probe (AgNCs/RED 16(7s)C) utilized for miR-16-5p detection adopted a better conformation with high specificity to recognize single-base mismatches by producing dramatically opposite signals (increase or decrease at 580 nm ex/640 nm em) while the probe (AgNCs/GRE 19b(5s)C) for miR-19b-3p generated dual signals (increase at 490 nm ex/570 nm em and decrease at 430 nm ex/530 nm em) with bright fluorescence in one reaction during the amplification, but unexpectedly was partially digested. This is for the first time to allow the generation of enhanced fluorescent AgNCs and the target recognition integrated into a single process, which offers great opportunity for specific miRNA detection in an easy and rapid way.

  2. Quality of DNA extracted from saliva samples collected with the Oragene™ DNA self-collection kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Ana P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large epidemiological studies in DNA biobanks have increasingly used less invasive methods for obtaining DNA samples, such as saliva collection. Although lower amounts of DNA are obtained as compared with blood collection, this method has been widely used because of its more simple logistics and increased response rate. The present study aimed to verify whether a storage time of 8 months decreases the quality of DNA from collected samples. Methods Saliva samples were collected with an OrageneTM DNA Self-Collection Kit from 4,110 subjects aged 14–15 years. The samples were processed in two aliquots with an 8-month interval between them. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were carried out in 20% of the samples by spectrophotometry and genotyping. Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were performed. Results The mean volume of saliva collected was 2.2 mL per subject, yielding on average 184.8 μg DNA per kit. Most samples showed a Ratio of OD differences (RAT between 1.6 and 1.8 in the qualitative evaluation. The evaluation of DNA quality by TaqMan®, High Resolution Melting (HRM, and restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR (RFLP-PCR showed a rate of success of up to 98% of the samples. The sample store time did not reduce either the quantity or quality of DNA extracted with the Oragene kit. Conclusion The study results showed that a storage period of 8 months at room temperature did not reduce the quality of the DNA obtained. In addition, the use of the Oragene kit during fieldwork in large population-based studies allows for DNA of high quantity and high quality.

  3. Optimal purification and sensitive quantification of DNA from fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Application of reliable, rapid and sensitive methods to laboratory diagnosis of zoonotic infections continues to challenge microbiological laboratories. The recovery of DNA from a swine fecal sample and a bacterial culture extracted by a conventional phenol-chloroform extraction method was compared...... to a rapid silica-membrane spin-column method (DNeasy Tissue or QIAamp Stool Kit, QIAGEN GmbH). Me two spin column methods yielded 3.5 and 2.7 mug of DNA, respectively, when the elution volume was 200 muL, compared to 1.3 and 1.5 mug of DNA, respectively, with the phenol-chloroform method. In addition......, the detection range of X-DNA of a spectrophotometric and a fluorometric (PicoGreen) method was compared. The PicoGreen showed a quantification limit of 1 ng/mL, consistent triplicate measurements, and finally a linear relationship between the concentrations of DNA standards and the fluorescence readings (R-2...

  4. Balancing sample accumulation and DNA degradation rates to optimize noninvasive genetic sampling of sympatric carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsinger, Robert C; Gese, Eric M; Dempsey, Steven J; Kluever, Bryan M; Johnson, Timothy R; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-07-01

    Noninvasive genetic sampling, or noninvasive DNA sampling (NDS), can be an effective monitoring approach for elusive, wide-ranging species at low densities. However, few studies have attempted to maximize sampling efficiency. We present a model for combining sample accumulation and DNA degradation to identify the most efficient (i.e. minimal cost per successful sample) NDS temporal design for capture-recapture analyses. We use scat accumulation and faecal DNA degradation rates for two sympatric carnivores, kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) and coyote (Canis latrans) across two seasons (summer and winter) in Utah, USA, to demonstrate implementation of this approach. We estimated scat accumulation rates by clearing and surveying transects for scats. We evaluated mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (nDNA) DNA amplification success for faecal DNA samples under natural field conditions for 20 fresh scats/species/season from <1-112 days. Mean accumulation rates were nearly three times greater for coyotes (0.076 scats/km/day) than foxes (0.029 scats/km/day) across seasons. Across species and seasons, mtDNA amplification success was ≥95% through day 21. Fox nDNA amplification success was ≥70% through day 21 across seasons. Coyote nDNA success was ≥70% through day 21 in winter, but declined to <50% by day 7 in summer. We identified a common temporal sampling frame of approximately 14 days that allowed species to be monitored simultaneously, further reducing time, survey effort and costs. Our results suggest that when conducting repeated surveys for capture-recapture analyses, overall cost-efficiency for NDS may be improved with a temporal design that balances field and laboratory costs along with deposition and degradation rates. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of samples comprising minute amounts of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Corina C G; Haned, Hinda; Yoo, Seong Yeon; Sijen, Titia

    2015-09-01

    Minute amounts of DNA representing only few diploid cells, may be interrogated using enhanced DNA profiling, which will be accompanied by stochastic amplification effects. Notwithstanding, a weight of evidence statistic may be calculated using current interpretation software. In this study, we profiled single donor, two- and three-person samples having only 3 pg to 12 pg of DNA per contributor using both standard and enhanced capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection settings. Likelihood ratios (LRs) were computed using LRmix Studio, compared for both types of profiles and examined in relation to the amount of DNA, drop-out level, number of detected alleles, peak heights and reproducibility of alleles. Especially for DNA profiles that were generated using enhanced CE, the obtained LRs could indicate strong evidence in favour of the prosecution (log10(LR)>6), also when the amount of DNA represented about half of a diploid cell equivalent in the amplification. These results illustrate that an assessment of the criminalistic relevance of a sample carrying minute amounts of DNA is essential prior to applying enhanced interrogation techniques and/or calculating a weight of evidence statistic. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid DNA analysis for automated processing and interpretation of low DNA content samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turingan, Rosemary S; Vasantgadkar, Sameer; Palombo, Luke; Hogan, Catherine; Jiang, Hua; Tan, Eugene; Selden, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of casework samples with low DNA content include those resulting from the transfer of epithelial cells from the skin to an object (e.g., cells on a water bottle, or brim of a cap), blood spatter stains, and small bone and tissue fragments. Low DNA content (LDC) samples are important in a wide range of settings, including disaster response teams to assist in victim identification and family reunification, military operations to identify friend or foe, criminal forensics to identify suspects and exonerate the innocent, and medical examiner and coroner offices to identify missing persons. Processing LDC samples requires experienced laboratory personnel, isolated workstations, and sophisticated equipment, requires transport time, and involves complex procedures. We present a rapid DNA analysis system designed specifically to generate STR profiles from LDC samples in field-forward settings by non-technical operators. By performing STR in the field, close to the site of collection, rapid DNA analysis has the potential to increase throughput and to provide actionable information in real time. A Low DNA Content BioChipSet (LDC BCS) was developed and manufactured by injection molding. It was designed to function in the fully integrated Accelerated Nuclear DNA Equipment (ANDE) instrument previously designed for analysis of buccal swab and other high DNA content samples (Investigative Genet. 4(1):1-15, 2013). The LDC BCS performs efficient DNA purification followed by microfluidic ultrafiltration of the purified DNA, maximizing the quantity of DNA available for subsequent amplification and electrophoretic separation and detection of amplified fragments. The system demonstrates accuracy, precision, resolution, signal strength, and peak height ratios appropriate for casework analysis. The LDC rapid DNA analysis system is effective for the generation of STR profiles from a wide range of sample types. The technology broadens the range of sample

  7. Engineering of DNA templated tri-functional nano-chain of Fecore–Aushell and a preliminary study for cancer cell labeling and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Mandal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Here DNA has been used as templating and self-assembling reagent to grow the chain like nanostructure. We have designed the composite in such a fashion that we obtained optical and magnetic properties together in a single biological material. Optical properties characterized by UV–visible absorption, Circular Dichroism (CD and their analysis show no denaturization of DNA. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM indicate formation of chain like structure of the nanoparticles. Particles were functionalized with folic acid for labeling and treatment of cancer cell.

  8. High Throughput Sample Preparation and Analysis for DNA Sequencing, PCR and Combinatorial Screening of Catalysis Based on Capillary Array Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yonghua [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Sample preparation has been one of the major bottlenecks for many high throughput analyses. The purpose of this research was to develop new sample preparation and integration approach for DNA sequencing, PCR based DNA analysis and combinatorial screening of homogeneous catalysis based on multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence or imaging UV absorption detection. The author first introduced a method to integrate the front-end tasks to DNA capillary-array sequencers. protocols for directly sequencing the plasmids from a single bacterial colony in fused-silica capillaries were developed. After the colony was picked, lysis was accomplished in situ in the plastic sample tube using either a thermocycler or heating block. Upon heating, the plasmids were released while chromsomal DNA and membrane proteins were denatured and precipitated to the bottom of the tube. After adding enzyme and Sanger reagents, the resulting solution was aspirated into the reaction capillaries by a syringe pump, and cycle sequencing was initiated. No deleterious effect upon the reaction efficiency, the on-line purification system, or the capillary electrophoresis separation was observed, even though the crude lysate was used as the template. Multiplexed on-line DNA sequencing data from 8 parallel channels allowed base calling up to 620 bp with an accuracy of 98%. The entire system can be automatically regenerated for repeated operation. For PCR based DNA analysis, they demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis with UV detection can be used for DNA analysis starting from clinical sample without purification. After PCR reaction using cheek cell, blood or HIV-1 gag DNA, the reaction mixtures was injected into the capillary either on-line or off-line by base stacking. The protocol was also applied to capillary array electrophoresis. The use of cheaper detection, and the elimination of purification of DNA sample before or after PCR reaction, will make this approach an

  9. Detection of Streptococcus mutans Genomic DNA in Human DNA Samples Extracted from Saliva and Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Deeley, Kathleen B.; Callahan, Nicholas F.; Noel, Jacqueline B.; Anjomshoaa, Ida; Carricato, Wendy M.; Schulhof, Louise P.; DeSensi, Rebecca S.; Gandhi, Pooja; Resick, Judith M.; Brandon, Carla A.; Rozhon, Christopher; Patir, Asli; Yildirim, Mine; Poletta, Fernando A.; Mereb, Juan C.; Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Wendell, Steven; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Iêda M.; Seymen, Figen; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W.; Modesto, Adriana; Marazita, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Caries is a multifactorial disease, and studies aiming to unravel the factors modulating its etiology must consider all known predisposing factors. One major factor is bacterial colonization, and Streptococcus mutans is the main microorganism associated with the initiation of the disease. In our studies, we have access to DNA samples extracted from human saliva and blood. In this report, we tested a real-time PCR assay developed to detect copies of genomic DNA from Streptococcus mutans in 1,424 DNA samples from humans. Our results suggest that we can determine the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in both DNA samples from caries-free and caries-affected individuals. However, we were not able to detect the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in any DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood, which suggests the assay may not be sensitive enough for this goal. Values of the threshold cycle of the real-time PCR reaction correlate with higher levels of caries experience in children, but this correlation could not be detected for adults. PMID:21731912

  10. Assessment of DNA Contamination in RNA Samples Based on Ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipetroudi, Seyyed Hamidreza; Nematzadeh, Ghorbanali; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Yamchi, Ahad; Kuhlmann, Markus

    2018-01-22

    One method extensively used for the quantification of gene expression changes and transcript abundances is reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). It provides accurate, sensitive, reliable, and reproducible results. Several factors can affect the sensitivity and specificity of RT-qPCR. Residual genomic DNA (gDNA) contaminating RNA samples is one of them. In gene expression analysis, non-specific amplification due to gDNA contamination will overestimate the abundance of transcript levels and can affect the RT-qPCR results. Generally, gDNA is detected by qRT-PCR using primer pairs annealing to intergenic regions or an intron of the gene of interest. Unfortunately, intron/exon annotations are not yet known for all genes from vertebrate, bacteria, protist, fungi, plant, and invertebrate metazoan species. Here we present a protocol for detection of gDNA contamination in RNA samples by using ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-based primers. The method is based on the unique features of rDNA: their multigene nature, highly conserved sequences, and high frequency in the genome. Also as a case study, a unique set of primers were designed based on the conserved region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in the Poaceae family. The universality of these primer pairs was tested by melt curve analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis. Although our method explains how rDNA-based primers can be applied for the gDNA contamination assay in the Poaceae family, it could be easily used to other prokaryote and eukaryote species.

  11. Filtration recovery of extracellular DNA from environmental water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    qPCR methods are able to analyze DNA from microbes within hours of collecting water samples, providing the promptest notification and public awareness possible when unsafe pathogenic levels are reached. Health risk, however, may be overestimated by the presence of extracellular ...

  12. Extra-bodily DNA sampling by the police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Jeremy

    2013-12-01

    Forensic investigators have statutory powers to take DNA samples directly from suspects' bodies in certain circumstances but sometimes the powers fall short, legally or practically Police may then look for samples that have become separated from their suspects for one reason or another. No jurisdiction currently bars or even regulates this practice, which is instead loosely governed by laws on property, consent and evidence. This article argues that this lack of regulation undermines the entire system of forensic procedure laws.

  13. Environmental DNA (eDNA sampling improves occurrence and detection estimates of invasive burmese pythons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E Hunter

    Full Text Available Environmental DNA (eDNA methods are used to detect DNA that is shed into the aquatic environment by cryptic or low density species. Applied in eDNA studies, occupancy models can be used to estimate occurrence and detection probabilities and thereby account for imperfect detection. However, occupancy terminology has been applied inconsistently in eDNA studies, and many have calculated occurrence probabilities while not considering the effects of imperfect detection. Low detection of invasive giant constrictors using visual surveys and traps has hampered the estimation of occupancy and detection estimates needed for population management in southern Florida, USA. Giant constrictor snakes pose a threat to native species and the ecological restoration of the Florida Everglades. To assist with detection, we developed species-specific eDNA assays using quantitative PCR (qPCR for the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus, Northern African python (P. sebae, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor, and the green (Eunectes murinus and yellow anaconda (E. notaeus. Burmese pythons, Northern African pythons, and boa constrictors are established and reproducing, while the green and yellow anaconda have the potential to become established. We validated the python and boa constrictor assays using laboratory trials and tested all species in 21 field locations distributed in eight southern Florida regions. Burmese python eDNA was detected in 37 of 63 field sampling events; however, the other species were not detected. Although eDNA was heterogeneously distributed in the environment, occupancy models were able to provide the first estimates of detection probabilities, which were greater than 91%. Burmese python eDNA was detected along the leading northern edge of the known population boundary. The development of informative detection tools and eDNA occupancy models can improve conservation efforts in southern Florida and support more extensive studies of invasive

  14. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling improves occurrence and detection estimates of invasive Burmese pythons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Smith, Brian J.; Hunter, Charles T.; Reed, Robert N.; Hart, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods are used to detect DNA that is shed into the aquatic environment by cryptic or low density species. Applied in eDNA studies, occupancy models can be used to estimate occurrence and detection probabilities and thereby account for imperfect detection. However, occupancy terminology has been applied inconsistently in eDNA studies, and many have calculated occurrence probabilities while not considering the effects of imperfect detection. Low detection of invasive giant constrictors using visual surveys and traps has hampered the estimation of occupancy and detection estimates needed for population management in southern Florida, USA. Giant constrictor snakes pose a threat to native species and the ecological restoration of the Florida Everglades. To assist with detection, we developed species-specific eDNA assays using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus), Northern African python (P. sebae), boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), and the green (Eunectes murinus) and yellow anaconda (E. notaeus). Burmese pythons, Northern African pythons, and boa constrictors are established and reproducing, while the green and yellow anaconda have the potential to become established. We validated the python and boa constrictor assays using laboratory trials and tested all species in 21 field locations distributed in eight southern Florida regions. Burmese python eDNA was detected in 37 of 63 field sampling events; however, the other species were not detected. Although eDNA was heterogeneously distributed in the environment, occupancy models were able to provide the first estimates of detection probabilities, which were greater than 91%. Burmese python eDNA was detected along the leading northern edge of the known population boundary. The development of informative detection tools and eDNA occupancy models can improve conservation efforts in southern Florida and support more extensive studies of invasive constrictors

  15. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling improves occurrence and detection estimates of invasive burmese pythons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E; Oyler-McCance, Sara J; Dorazio, Robert M; Fike, Jennifer A; Smith, Brian J; Hunter, Charles T; Reed, Robert N; Hart, Kristen M

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods are used to detect DNA that is shed into the aquatic environment by cryptic or low density species. Applied in eDNA studies, occupancy models can be used to estimate occurrence and detection probabilities and thereby account for imperfect detection. However, occupancy terminology has been applied inconsistently in eDNA studies, and many have calculated occurrence probabilities while not considering the effects of imperfect detection. Low detection of invasive giant constrictors using visual surveys and traps has hampered the estimation of occupancy and detection estimates needed for population management in southern Florida, USA. Giant constrictor snakes pose a threat to native species and the ecological restoration of the Florida Everglades. To assist with detection, we developed species-specific eDNA assays using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus), Northern African python (P. sebae), boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), and the green (Eunectes murinus) and yellow anaconda (E. notaeus). Burmese pythons, Northern African pythons, and boa constrictors are established and reproducing, while the green and yellow anaconda have the potential to become established. We validated the python and boa constrictor assays using laboratory trials and tested all species in 21 field locations distributed in eight southern Florida regions. Burmese python eDNA was detected in 37 of 63 field sampling events; however, the other species were not detected. Although eDNA was heterogeneously distributed in the environment, occupancy models were able to provide the first estimates of detection probabilities, which were greater than 91%. Burmese python eDNA was detected along the leading northern edge of the known population boundary. The development of informative detection tools and eDNA occupancy models can improve conservation efforts in southern Florida and support more extensive studies of invasive constrictors

  16. Improved methods of carnivore faecal sample preservation, DNA extraction and quantification for accurate genotyping of wild tigers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Patlolla Anuradha; Bhavanishankar, Maradani; Bhagavatula, Jyotsna; Harika, Katakam; Mahla, Ranjeet Singh; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasively collected samples allow a variety of genetic studies on endangered and elusive species. However due to low amplification success and high genotyping error rates fewer samples can be identified up to the individual level. Number of PCRs needed to obtain reliable genotypes also noticeably increase. We developed a quantitative PCR assay to measure and grade amplifiable nuclear DNA in feline faecal extracts. We determined DNA degradation in experimentally aged faecal samples and tested a suite of pre-PCR protocols to considerably improve DNA retrieval. Average DNA concentrations of Grade I, II and III extracts were 982pg/µl, 9.5pg/µl and 0.4pg/µl respectively. Nearly 10% of extracts had no amplifiable DNA. Microsatellite PCR success and allelic dropout rates were 92% and 1.5% in Grade I, 79% and 5% in Grade II, and 54% and 16% in Grade III respectively. Our results on experimentally aged faecal samples showed that ageing has a significant effect on quantity and quality of amplifiable DNA (p0.05). DNA concentrations of fresh tiger and leopard faecal extracts without addition of carrier RNA were 816.5pg/µl (±115.5) and 690.1pg/µl (±207.1), while concentrations with addition of carrier RNA were 49414.5pg/µl (±9370.6) and 20982.7pg/µl (±6835.8) respectively. Our results indicate that carnivore faecal samples should be collected as freshly as possible, are better preserved by two-step method and should be extracted with addition of carrier RNA. We recommend quantification of template DNA as this facilitates several downstream protocols.

  17. New insights into transcription fidelity: thermal stability of non-canonical structures in template DNA regulates transcriptional arrest, pause, and slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Isono, Noburu; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The thermal stability and topology of non-canonical structures of G-quadruplexes and hairpins in template DNA were investigated, and the effect of non-canonical structures on transcription fidelity was evaluated quantitatively. We designed ten template DNAs: A linear sequence that does not have significant higher-order structure, three sequences that form hairpin structures, and six sequences that form G-quadruplex structures with different stabilities. Templates with non-canonical structures induced the production of an arrested, a slipped, and a full-length transcript, whereas the linear sequence produced only a full-length transcript. The efficiency of production for run-off transcripts (full-length and slipped transcripts) from templates that formed the non-canonical structures was lower than that from the linear. G-quadruplex structures were more effective inhibitors of full-length product formation than were hairpin structure even when the stability of the G-quadruplex in an aqueous solution was the same as that of the hairpin. We considered that intra-polymerase conditions may differentially affect the stability of non-canonical structures. The values of transcription efficiencies of run-off or arrest transcripts were correlated with stabilities of non-canonical structures in the intra-polymerase condition mimicked by 20 wt% polyethylene glycol (PEG). Transcriptional arrest was induced when the stability of the G-quadruplex structure (-ΔG°37) in the presence of 20 wt% PEG was more than 8.2 kcal mol(-1). Thus, values of stability in the presence of 20 wt% PEG are an important indicator of transcription perturbation. Our results further our understanding of the impact of template structure on the transcription process and may guide logical design of transcription-regulating drugs.

  18. New insights into transcription fidelity: thermal stability of non-canonical structures in template DNA regulates transcriptional arrest, pause, and slippage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisae Tateishi-Karimata

    Full Text Available The thermal stability and topology of non-canonical structures of G-quadruplexes and hairpins in template DNA were investigated, and the effect of non-canonical structures on transcription fidelity was evaluated quantitatively. We designed ten template DNAs: A linear sequence that does not have significant higher-order structure, three sequences that form hairpin structures, and six sequences that form G-quadruplex structures with different stabilities. Templates with non-canonical structures induced the production of an arrested, a slipped, and a full-length transcript, whereas the linear sequence produced only a full-length transcript. The efficiency of production for run-off transcripts (full-length and slipped transcripts from templates that formed the non-canonical structures was lower than that from the linear. G-quadruplex structures were more effective inhibitors of full-length product formation than were hairpin structure even when the stability of the G-quadruplex in an aqueous solution was the same as that of the hairpin. We considered that intra-polymerase conditions may differentially affect the stability of non-canonical structures. The values of transcription efficiencies of run-off or arrest transcripts were correlated with stabilities of non-canonical structures in the intra-polymerase condition mimicked by 20 wt% polyethylene glycol (PEG. Transcriptional arrest was induced when the stability of the G-quadruplex structure (-ΔG°37 in the presence of 20 wt% PEG was more than 8.2 kcal mol(-1. Thus, values of stability in the presence of 20 wt% PEG are an important indicator of transcription perturbation. Our results further our understanding of the impact of template structure on the transcription process and may guide logical design of transcription-regulating drugs.

  19. Environmental DNA sampling protocol - filtering water to capture DNA from aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramie, Matthew B.; Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Strickler, Katherine M.

    2015-09-29

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is an effective method of determining the presence of aquatic organisms such as fish, amphibians, and other taxa. This publication is meant to guide researchers and managers in the collection, concentration, and preservation of eDNA samples from lentic and lotic systems. A sampling workflow diagram and three sampling protocols are included as well as a list of suggested supplies. Protocols include filter and pump assembly using: (1) a hand-driven vacuum pump, ideal for sample collection in remote sampling locations where no electricity is available and when equipment weight is a primary concern; (2) a peristaltic pump powered by a rechargeable battery-operated driver/drill, suitable for remote sampling locations when weight consideration is less of a concern; (3) a 120-volt alternating current (AC) powered peristaltic pump suitable for any location where 120-volt AC power is accessible, or for roadside sampling locations. Images and detailed descriptions are provided for each step in the sampling and preservation process.

  20. 28 CFR 28.13 - Analysis and indexing of DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analysis and indexing of DNA samples. 28.13 Section 28.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.13 Analysis and indexing of DNA samples. (a) The Federal Bureau of...

  1. Consent process for US-based family reference DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanis, Sara H; Snyder, Lindsey; Arnholt, Kelly; Mundorff, Amy Z

    2018-01-01

    DNA collection from family members of the missing is a tenet for missing persons' and mass fatality investigations. Procedures for consenting family members are disparate, depending on the context supporting the reason for sample collection. While guidelines and best practices have been developed for handling mass fatalities and for identification of the missing, these guidelines do not address standard consent practices for living family members of potential victims. We examined the relevant U.S. laws, international guidelines and best practices, sampled consent forms currently used for DNA collection of family members, and drafted model language for a consent form to communicate the required and recommended information. We modeled the consent form on biobank consenting practices and tested the consent language among students and the general population for constructive feedback and readability. We also asked respondents to consider the options for DNA collection and either hypothetically agree or disagree. The model language presented here highlights information important to relay in consent processes and can serve as a foundation for future consent practices in mass fatalities and missing persons' investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Report Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2017-01-01

    To ensure consistent reporting of life cycle assessment (LCA), we provide a report template. The report includes elements of an LCA study as recommended but the ILCD Handbook. Illustrative case study reported according to this template is presented in Chap. 39 ....

  3. Direct PCR amplification of DNA from human bloodstains, saliva, and touch samples collected with microFLOQ®swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Angie; Wiley, Rachel; Novroski, Nicole; Budowle, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that nylon flocked swabs outperform traditional fiber swabs in DNA recovery due to their innovative design and lack of internal absorbent core to entrap cellular materials. The microFLOQ ® Direct swab, a miniaturized version of the 4N6 FLOQSwab ® , has a small swab head that is treated with a lysing agent which allows for direct amplification and DNA profiling from sample collection to final result in less than two hours. Additionally, the microFLOQ ® system subsamples only a minute portion of a stain and preserves the vast majority of the sample for subsequent testing or re-analysis, if desired. The efficacy of direct amplification of DNA from dilute bloodstains, saliva stains, and touch samples was evaluated using microFLOQ ® Direct swabs and the GlobalFiler™ Express system. Comparisons were made to traditional methods to assess the robustness of this alternate workflow. Controlled studies with 1:19 and 1:99 dilutions of bloodstains and saliva stains consistently yielded higher STR peak heights than standard methods with 1ng input DNA from the same samples. Touch samples from common items yielded single source and mixed profiles that were consistent with primary users of the objects. With this novel methodology/workflow, no sample loss occurs and therefore more template DNA is available during amplification. This approach may have important implications for analysis of low quantity and/or degraded samples that plague forensic casework. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Saliva sampling in global clinical studies: the impact of low sampling volume on performance of DNA in downstream genotyping experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The collection of viable DNA samples is an essential element of any genetics research programme. Biological samples for DNA purification are now routinely collected in many studies with a variety of sampling methods available. Initial observation in this study suggested a reduced genotyping success rate of some saliva derived DNA samples when compared to blood derived DNA samples prompting further investigation. Methods Genotyping success rate was investigated to assess the suitability of using saliva samples in future safety and efficacy pharmacogenetics experiments. The Oragene® OG-300 DNA Self-Collection kit was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva from 1468 subjects enrolled in global clinical studies. Statistical analysis evaluated the impact of saliva sample volume of collection on the quality, yield, concentration and performance of saliva DNA in genotyping assays. Results Across 13 global clinical studies that utilized the Oragene® OG-300 DNA Self-Collection kit there was variability in the volume of saliva sample collection with ~31% of participants providing 0.5 mL of saliva, rather than the recommended 2 mL. While the majority of saliva DNA samples provided high quality genotype data, collection of 0.5 mL volumes of saliva contributed to DNA samples being significantly less likely to pass genotyping quality control standards. Assessment of DNA sample characteristics that may influence genotyping outcomes indicated that saliva sample volume, DNA purity and turbidity were independently associated with sample genotype pass rate, but that saliva collection volume had the greatest effect. Conclusion When employing saliva sampling to obtain DNA, it is important to encourage all study participants to provide sufficient sample to minimize potential loss of data in downstream genotyping experiments. PMID:23759220

  5. PNA binding to the non-template DNA strand interferes with transcription, suggesting a blockage mechanism mediated by R-loop formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotserkovskii, Boris P; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2015-11-01

    Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are artificial DNA mimics with superior nucleic acid binding capabilities. T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) transcription upon encountering PNA bound to the non-template DNA strand was studied in vitro. A characteristic pattern of blockage signals was observed, extending downstream from the PNA binding site, similar to that produced by G-rich homopurine-homopyrimidine (hPu-hPy) sequences and likely caused by R-loop formation. Since blocked transcription complexes in association with stable R-loops may interfere with replication and in some cases trigger apoptosis, targeted R-loop formation might be employed to inactivate selected cells, such as those in tumors, based upon their unique complement of expressed genes. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  7. A label-free and enzyme-free ultra-sensitive transcription factors biosensor using DNA-templated copper nanoparticles as fluorescent indicator and hairpin DNA cascade reaction as signal amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Liang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wang, Guangfeng

    2016-08-15

    Detection and quantification of specific protein with ultralow concentration play a crucial role in biotechnological applications and biomedical diagnostics. In this paper, a label-free and enzyme-free amplified fluorescent biosensor has been developed for transcription factors detection based on AT-rich double-stranded DNA-templated copper nanoparticles (ds DNA/Cu NPs) and hairpin DNA cascade reaction. This strategy was demonstrated by using nuclear factor-kappa B p50 (NF-κB p50) and specific recognition sequences as a model case. In this assay, a triplex consists of double-stranded DNA containing NF-κB p50 specifically binding sequences and a special design single-stranded DNA (Trigger) which is able to activate the hairpin DNA cascade amplifier (HDCA). In the presence of NF-κB p50, the triplex became unstable since the target bound to the recognition sequences with strong affinity. The selective binding event confirmed that the Trigger was successfully released from the triplex and initiated HDCA to yield the product which could effectively template the formation of fluorescent Cu NPs. The experimental results revealed that the advanced strategy was ultra-sensitive for detecting NF-κB p50 in the concentration range from 0.1 to 1000 pM with a detection limit of 0.096 pM. In addition, the relative standard deviation was 4.08% in 3 repetitive assays of 500 pM NF-κB p50, which indicated that the reproducibility of this strategy was acceptable. Besides desirable sensitivity, the developed biosensor also showed high selectivity, cost-effective, and simplified operations. In addition, the proposed biosensing platform is versatile. By conjugating with various specific recognition units, it could hold considerable potential to sensitive and selective detect various DNA-binding proteins and might find wide applications in biomedical fields. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Bacterial Contamination of Blood DNA Samples is Associated with Donor's Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Hong, Eun-Jung; Shim, Sung-Mi; Kim, Jun-Woo; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Cho, Yoon Shin; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial contamination often occurs in human blood DNA samples, possibly due to bacteremia or an inappropriate procedure during sample preparation. This study aimed at analyzing the clinical significance of bacterial DNA contamination in human blood DNA samples and to assess its influence on experimental data. DNA samples (N = 1359) were randomly selected from population-based cohort samples to determine bacterial DNA contamination by polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. Bacterial DNA contaminated samples (N = 150) were then assessed for experimental quality of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip data, compared with uncontaminated DNA samples (N = 1209). DNA sequencing data showed that a major source of bacterial contaminants was derived from Alcaligenes species. The occurrence of bacterial DNA contaminations was significantly associated with some clinical variables including a postprandial glucose level at 60 min, % body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio. It was also found that there was no difference of SNP call rates between bacterial DNA contaminated samples and uncontaminated DNA samples. This study showed that bacterial DNA contamination in human blood samples was related to donor's health condition, suggesting that the occurrence of bacterial DNA contamination may provide useful health information of blood donors and a potential tool for human disease genomics.

  9. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method: easyMag DNA extraction compared to QIAamp DNA stool mini kit extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten; Andersen, Lee O B; Petersen, Andreas M; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2014-01-21

    There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). In this study, a semi-automatic DNA extraction system (easyMag®, BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) and a manual one (QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) were tested on stool samples collected from 3 patients with Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) and 5 healthy individuals. DNA extracts obtained by the QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit yield a higher amount of DNA compared to DNA extracts obtained by easyMag® from the same fecal samples. Furthermore, DNA extracts obtained using easyMag® seemed to contain inhibitory compounds, since in order to perform a successful PCR-analysis, the sample should be diluted at least 10 times. DGGE performed on PCR from DNA extracted by QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit DNA was very successful. QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit DNA extracts are optimal for DGGE runs and this extraction method yields a higher amount of DNA compared to easyMag®.

  10. A Protocol for Collecting Environmental DNA Samples From Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Environmental DNA (eDNA) is DNA that has been released by an organism into its environment, such that the DNA can be found in air, water, or soil. In aquatic...

  11. Influence of pre-analytical procedures on genomic DNA integrity in blood samples: the SPIDIA experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malentacchi, F; Ciniselli, C M; Pazzagli, M; Verderio, P; Barraud, L; Hartmann, C C; Pizzamiglio, S; Weisbuch, S; Wyrich, R; Gelmini, S

    2015-02-02

    DNA integrity is a critical part of the definition of genomic DNA (gDNA) quality and can influence downstream molecular applications. Pre-analytical variables as sample storage and DNA extraction methods can influence the quality and quantity of isolated DNA and affect molecular test performances. The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of blood sample storage and DNA extraction procedures on gDNA integrity and gDNA fragmentation impact on a molecular test. 157 DNA samples deriving from the Pan European 1st SPIDIA DNA External Quality Assessment (EQA), aimed to investigate the influence of blood storage on gDNA quality and quantity, have been analyzed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and ImageJ imaging software. 157 DNA samples derived from the Pan European 1st SPIDIA DNA External Quality Assessment (EQA), which aimed to investigate the influence of blood storage on gDNA quality and quantity, have been analyzed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and ImageJ imaging software. Our results demonstrate that blood sample storage and DNA extraction procedures influence gDNA integrity and that the same blood sample which underwent a long range multiplex PCR based analytical test can provide different results if the adopted pre-analytical procedures are not standardized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinct energetics and closing pathways for DNA polymerase β with 8-oxoG template and different incoming nucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanli

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG is a common oxidative lesion frequently encountered by DNA polymerases such as the repair enzyme DNA polymerase β (pol β. To interpret in atomic and energetic detail how pol β processes 8-oxoG, we apply transition path sampling to delineate closing pathways of pol β 8-oxoG complexes with dCTP and dATP incoming nucleotides and compare the results to those of the nonlesioned G:dCTP and G:dATPanalogues. Results Our analyses show that the closing pathways of the 8-oxoG complexes are different from one another and from the nonlesioned analogues in terms of the individual transition states along each pathway, associated energies, and the stability of each pathway's closed state relative to the corresponding open state. In particular, the closed-to-open state stability difference in each system establishes a hierarchy of stability (from high to low as G:C > 8-oxoG:C > 8-oxoG:A > G:A, corresponding to -3, -2, 2, 9 kBT, respectively. This hierarchy of closed state stability parallels the experimentally observed processing efficiencies for the four pairs. Network models based on the calculated rate constants in each pathway indicate that the closed species are more populated than the open species for 8-oxoG:dCTP, whereas the opposite is true for 8-oxoG:dATP. Conclusion These results suggest that the lower insertion efficiency (larger Km for dATP compared to dCTP opposite 8-oxoG is caused by a less stable closed-form of pol β, destabilized by unfavorable interactions between Tyr271 and the mispair. This stability of the closed vs. open form can also explain the higher insertion efficiency for 8-oxoG:dATP compared to the nonlesioned G:dATP pair, which also has a higher overall conformational barrier. Our study offers atomic details of the complexes at different states, in addition to helping interpret the different insertion efficiencies of dATP and dCTP opposite 8-oxoG and G.

  13. Solution-based targeted genomic enrichment for precious DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shearer Aiden

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solution-based targeted genomic enrichment (TGE protocols permit selective sequencing of genomic regions of interest on a massively parallel scale. These protocols could be improved by: 1 modifying or eliminating time consuming steps; 2 increasing yield to reduce input DNA and excessive PCR cycling; and 3 enhancing reproducible. Results We developed a solution-based TGE method for downstream Illumina sequencing in a non-automated workflow, adding standard Illumina barcode indexes during the post-hybridization amplification to allow for sample pooling prior to sequencing. The method utilizes Agilent SureSelect baits, primers and hybridization reagents for the capture, off-the-shelf reagents for the library preparation steps, and adaptor oligonucleotides for Illumina paired-end sequencing purchased directly from an oligonucleotide manufacturing company. Conclusions This solution-based TGE method for Illumina sequencing is optimized for small- or medium-sized laboratories and addresses the weaknesses of standard protocols by reducing the amount of input DNA required, increasing capture yield, optimizing efficiency, and improving reproducibility.

  14. Machine learning approach for pooled DNA sample calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellicar, Andrew D; Rahman, Ashfaqur; Smith, Daniel V; Henshall, John M

    2015-07-09

    Despite ongoing reduction in genotyping costs, genomic studies involving large numbers of species with low economic value (such as Black Tiger prawns) remain cost prohibitive. In this scenario DNA pooling is an attractive option to reduce genotyping costs. However, genotyping of pooled samples comprising DNA from many individuals is challenging due to the presence of errors that exceed the allele frequency quantisation size and therefore cannot be simply corrected by clustering techniques. The solution to the calibration problem is a correction to the allele frequency to mitigate errors incurred in the measurement process. We highlight the limitations of the existing calibration solutions such as the fact they impose assumptions on the variation between allele frequencies 0, 0.5, and 1.0, and address a limited set of error types. We propose a novel machine learning method to address the limitations identified. The approach is tested on SNPs genotyped with the Sequenom iPLEX platform and compared to existing state of the art calibration methods. The new method is capable of reducing the mean square error in allele frequency to half that achievable with existing approaches. Furthermore for the first time we demonstrate the importance of carefully considering the choice of training data when using calibration approaches built from pooled data. This paper demonstrates that improvements in pooled allele frequency estimates result if the genotyping platform is characterised at allele frequencies other than the homozygous and heterozygous cases. Techniques capable of incorporating such information are described along with aspects of implementation.

  15. Rarity and Incomplete Sampling in DNA-Based Species Delimitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Dirk; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Krammer, Hans-Joachim; Eberle, Jonas; Fabrizi, Silvia; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-05-01

    DNA-based species delimitation may be compromised by limited sampling effort and species rarity, including "singleton" representatives of species, which hampers estimates of intra- versus interspecies evolutionary processes. In a case study of southern African chafers (beetles in the family Scarabaeidae), many species and subclades were poorly represented and 48.5% of species were singletons. Using cox1 sequences from >500 specimens and ∼100 species, the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) analysis as well as various other approaches for DNA-based species delimitation (Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), Poisson tree processes (PTP), Species Identifier, Statistical Parsimony), frequently produced poor results if analyzing a narrow target group only, but the performance improved when several subclades were combined. Hence, low sampling may be compensated for by "clade addition" of lineages outside of the focal group. Similar findings were obtained in reanalysis of published data sets of taxonomically poorly known species assemblages of insects from Madagascar. The low performance of undersampled trees is not due to high proportions of singletons per se, as shown in simulations (with 13%, 40% and 52% singletons). However, the GMYC method was highly sensitive to variable effective population size ([Formula: see text]), which was exacerbated by variable species abundances in the simulations. Hence, low sampling success and rarity of species affect the power of the GMYC method only if they reflect great differences in [Formula: see text] among species. Potential negative effects of skewed species abundances and prevalence of singletons are ultimately an issue about the variation in [Formula: see text] and the degree to which this is correlated with the census population size and sampling success. Clade addition beyond a limited study group can overcome poor sampling for the GMYC method in particular under variable [Formula: see text] This effect was less

  16. Evaluating manta ray mucus as an alternative DNA source for population genetics study: underwater-sampling, dry-storage and PCR success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kashiwagi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sharks and rays are increasingly being identified as high-risk species for extinction, prompting urgent assessments of their local or regional populations. Advanced genetic analyses can contribute relevant information on effective population size and connectivity among populations although acquiring sufficient regional sample sizes can be challenging. DNA is typically amplified from tissue samples which are collected by hand spears with modified biopsy punch tips. This technique is not always popular due mainly to a perception that invasive sampling might harm the rays, change their behaviour, or have a negative impact on tourism. To explore alternative methods, we evaluated the yields and PCR success of DNA template prepared from the manta ray mucus collected underwater and captured and stored on a Whatman FTA™ Elute card. The pilot study demonstrated that mucus can be effectively collected underwater using toothbrush. DNA stored on cards was found to be reliable for PCR-based population genetics studies. We successfully amplified mtDNA ND5, nuclear DNA RAG1, and microsatellite loci for all samples and confirmed sequences and genotypes being those of target species. As the yields of DNA with the tested method were low, further improvements are desirable for assays that may require larger amounts of DNA, such as population genomic studies using emerging next-gen sequencing.

  17. Evaluating manta ray mucus as an alternative DNA source for population genetics study: underwater-sampling, dry-storage and PCR success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Tom; Maxwell, Elisabeth A; Marshall, Andrea D; Christensen, Ana B

    2015-01-01

    Sharks and rays are increasingly being identified as high-risk species for extinction, prompting urgent assessments of their local or regional populations. Advanced genetic analyses can contribute relevant information on effective population size and connectivity among populations although acquiring sufficient regional sample sizes can be challenging. DNA is typically amplified from tissue samples which are collected by hand spears with modified biopsy punch tips. This technique is not always popular due mainly to a perception that invasive sampling might harm the rays, change their behaviour, or have a negative impact on tourism. To explore alternative methods, we evaluated the yields and PCR success of DNA template prepared from the manta ray mucus collected underwater and captured and stored on a Whatman FTA™ Elute card. The pilot study demonstrated that mucus can be effectively collected underwater using toothbrush. DNA stored on cards was found to be reliable for PCR-based population genetics studies. We successfully amplified mtDNA ND5, nuclear DNA RAG1, and microsatellite loci for all samples and confirmed sequences and genotypes being those of target species. As the yields of DNA with the tested method were low, further improvements are desirable for assays that may require larger amounts of DNA, such as population genomic studies using emerging next-gen sequencing.

  18. Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in Fecal Samples from Infected Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Gramley, William A.; Asghar, Ali; Frierson, Henry F.; Powell, Steven M

    1999-01-01

    Stool, gastric biopsy, and serum samples were collected from 22 subjects. DNA from stool was extracted, amplified, and hybridized with primers specific for the 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori. DNA from gastric biopsy specimens was analyzed similarly for comparison. Universal primers were used to confirm successful extraction of DNA from samples. Histologic, serologic, and DNA analyses were scored in a blinded fashion. Universal primer amplification verified successful DNA extraction from...

  19. Ancient DNA and Forensics Mutual Benefits a Practical Sampling and Laboratory Guide Through a Virtual Ancient DNA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cemper-Kiesslich

    2014-09-01

    In this review the authors give a general overview on the field of ancient DNA analysis focussing of the potentials and limits, fields of application, requirements for samples, laboratory setup, reaction design and equipment as well as a brief outlook on current developments, future perspectives and potential cross links with associated scientific disciplines. Key words: Human DNA, Ancient DNA, Forensic DNA typing, Molecular archaeology, Application.

  20. Characterization and application to the detection of single-stranded DNA binding protein of fluorescent DNA-templated copper/silver nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Guo-Yu; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2011-09-21

    A simple strategy for the preparation of strongly fluorescent and stable DNA-Cu/Ag NCs from reduction of AgNO(3) and Cu(NO(3))(2) by NaBH(4) in the presence of DNA having a sequence 5'-CCCTTAATCCCC-3' has been demonstrated. Fluorescence, absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) measurements have been applied to the characterization of the DNA-Cu/Ag NCs. The ESI-MS data reveal that each DNA-Cu/Ag NC contained 2 Ag and 1 Cu atoms. The interactions among DNA with the Ag and Cu atoms are further supported by the data of low-temperature fluorescence. In the presence of Cu(2+) ions, the reaction time is 1.5 h, which is much shorter than that (120 h) for the preparation of Ag-DNA NCs that are prepared in a mixture of AgNO(3), NaBH(4) and DNA without containing Cu(2+) ions. Relative to the DNA-Ag NCs, the DNA-Cu/Ag NCs have greater fluorescence (quantum yield 51.2% vs. 11.5%). The DNA-Cu/Ag NCs are highly sensitive and selective for the detection of single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB), with a linear range 1-50 nM and a limit of detection 0.2 nM at a signal-to-ratio of 3.

  1. Determination of DNA profiling of siwak and toothbrush samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nagy Alfadaly

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Abstract Background: DNA profiling is an integral part of forensic work. Enough and good sam- ples for DNA quantification and profiling are mandatory. Aim of the study: To quantify and profile DNA from siwak and toothbrushes and study the effect of time on this process. Methodology: The present study ...

  2. Templated Formation of Discrete RNA and DNA:RNA Hybrid G-Quadruplexes and Their Interactions with Targeting Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnat, Laureen; Dejeu, Jérôme; Bonnet, Hugues; Génnaro, Béatrice; Jarjayes, Olivier; Thomas, Fabrice; Lavergne, Thomas; Defrancq, Eric

    2016-02-24

    G-rich RNA and DNA oligonucleotides derived from the human telomeric sequence were assembled onto addressable cyclopeptide platforms through oxime ligations and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc) reactions. The resulting conjugates were able to fold into highly stable RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex (G4) architectures as demonstrated by UV, circular dichroism (CD), and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Whereas rationally designed parallel RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G4 topologies could be obtained, we could not force the formation of an antiparallel RNA G4 structure, thus supporting the idea that this topology is strongly disfavored. The binding affinities of four representative G4 ligands toward the discrete RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G4 topologies were compared to the one obtained with the corresponding DNA G4 structure. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding analysis suggests that the accessibility to G4 recognition elements is different among the three structures and supports the idea that G4 ligands might be shaped to achieve structure selectivity in a biological context. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Lyophyllization improves the extraction of PCR-quality community DNA from pig faecal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Raquel; Rubio, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Faeces are increasingly used as sources of DNA for genetic and ecological studies. Although multiple methods to preserve faecal samples prior to DNA extraction have been used (e.g. 70 % or absolute ethanol, freezing at -20ºC or in liquid nitrogen) no information is at present available in the literature on the use of lyophilized faeces. Accordingly, the yield and quality of the community DNA obtained by using four different commercial DNA extraction kits (QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit...

  4. Circular DNA by "Bis-Click" Ligation: Template-Independent Intramolecular Circularization of Oligonucleotides with Terminal Alkynyl Groups Utilizing Bifunctional Azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haozhe; Seela, Frank

    2016-01-22

    A highly effective and convenient "bis-click" strategy was developed for the template-independent circularization of single-stranded oligonucleotides by employing copper(I)-assisted azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Terminal triple bonds were incorporated at both ends of linear oligonucleotides. Alkynylated 7-deaza-2'-deoxyadenosine and 2'-deoxyuridine residues with different side chains were used in solid-phase synthesis with phosphoramidite chemistry. The bis-click ligation of linear 9- to 36-mer oligonucleotides with 1,4-bis(azidomethyl)benzene afforded circular DNA in a simple and selective way; azido modification of the oligonucleotide was not necessary. Short ethynyl side chains were compatible with the circularization of longer oligonucleotides, whereas octadiynyl residues were used for short 9-mers. Compared with linear duplexes, circular bis-click constructs exhibit a significantly increased duplex stability over their linear counterparts. The intramolecular bis-click ligation protocol is not limited to DNA, but may also be suitable for the construction of other macrocycles, such as circular RNAs, peptides, or polysaccharides. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A comparative study of extraction and purification methods for environmental DNA from soil and sludge samples

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Changhyun; Villatte, Francois; Kim, Byung-Gee; Schmid, Rolf D.

    2006-01-01

    An important prerequisite for a successful metagenome library construction is an efficient extraction procedure for DNA out of environmental samples. In this study we compared three indirect and four direct extraction methods, including a commercial kit, in terms of DNA yield, purity and time requirement. A special focus was set on methods which are appropriate for the extraction of environmental DNA (eDNA) from very limited sample sizes (0.1 g) to enable a highly parallel approach. Direct ex...

  6. Comparison of preprocessing methods and storage times for touch DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Tao; Ge, Jian-Ye; Dong, Ying-Qiang; Sun, Qi-Fan; Liu, Chao; Li, Cai-Xia

    2017-02-28

    To select appropriate preprocessing methods for different substrates by comparing the effects of four different preprocessing methods on touch DNA samples and to determine the effect of various storage times on the results of touch DNA sample analysis. Hand touch DNA samples were used to investigate the detection and inspection results of DNA on different substrates. Four preprocessing methods, including the direct cutting method, stubbing procedure, double swab technique, and vacuum cleaner method, were used in this study. DNA was extracted from mock samples with four different preprocessing methods. The best preprocess protocol determined from the study was further used to compare performance after various storage times. DNA extracted from all samples was quantified and amplified using standard procedures. The amounts of DNA and the number of alleles detected on the porous substrates were greater than those on the non-porous substrates. The performances of the four preprocessing methods varied with different substrates. The direct cutting method displayed advantages for porous substrates, and the vacuum cleaner method was advantageous for non-porous substrates. No significant degradation trend was observed as the storage times increased. Different substrates require the use of different preprocessing method in order to obtain the highest DNA amount and allele number from touch DNA samples. This study provides a theoretical basis for explorations of touch DNA samples and may be used as a reference when dealing with touch DNA samples in case work.

  7. The room temperature preservation of filtered environmental DNA samples and assimilation into a phenol–chloroform–isoamyl alcohol DNA extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Mark A; Olds, Brett P; Jerde, Christopher L; McVeigh, Margaret M; Lodge, David M

    2015-01-01

    Current research targeting filtered macrobial environmental DNA (eDNA) often relies upon cold ambient temperatures at various stages, including the transport of water samples from the field to the laboratory and the storage of water and/or filtered samples in the laboratory. This poses practical limitations for field collections in locations where refrigeration and frozen storage is difficult or where samples must be transported long distances for further processing and screening. This study demonstrates the successful preservation of eDNA at room temperature (20 °C) in two lysis buffers, CTAB and Longmire's, over a 2-week period of time. Moreover, the preserved eDNA samples were seamlessly integrated into a phenol–chloroform–isoamyl alcohol (PCI) DNA extraction protocol. The successful application of the eDNA extraction to multiple filter membrane types suggests the methods evaluated here may be broadly applied in future eDNA research. Our results also suggest that for many kinds of studies recently reported on macrobial eDNA, detection probabilities could have been increased, and at a lower cost, by utilizing the Longmire's preservation buffer with a PCI DNA extraction. PMID:24834966

  8. The room temperature preservation of filtered environmental DNA samples and assimilation into a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Mark A; Olds, Brett P; Jerde, Christopher L; McVeigh, Margaret M; Lodge, David M

    2015-01-01

    Current research targeting filtered macrobial environmental DNA (eDNA) often relies upon cold ambient temperatures at various stages, including the transport of water samples from the field to the laboratory and the storage of water and/or filtered samples in the laboratory. This poses practical limitations for field collections in locations where refrigeration and frozen storage is difficult or where samples must be transported long distances for further processing and screening. This study demonstrates the successful preservation of eDNA at room temperature (20 °C) in two lysis buffers, CTAB and Longmire's, over a 2-week period of time. Moreover, the preserved eDNA samples were seamlessly integrated into a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCI) DNA extraction protocol. The successful application of the eDNA extraction to multiple filter membrane types suggests the methods evaluated here may be broadly applied in future eDNA research. Our results also suggest that for many kinds of studies recently reported on macrobial eDNA, detection probabilities could have been increased, and at a lower cost, by utilizing the Longmire's preservation buffer with a PCI DNA extraction. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Development of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers with double templates for the rapid and selective determination of amphenicol antibiotics in water, blood, and egg samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shoulian; Li, Jianwen; Liu, Yong; Ma, Jinkui

    2016-11-18

    A magnetic mesoporous dual-template molecularly imprinted polymer (Fe3O4@mSiO2 @DMIP) with a specific recognition capability for chloramphenicol (CAP) and florfenicol (FF) was synthesised. CAP and FF were used as dual-template molecules, α-methacrylic acid and Fe3O4@mSiO2@-CHCH2 as dual functional monomers, and ethylene glycol dimethyl methacrylate as a crosslinking agent. For comparison, a magnetic mesoporous non-molecularly imprinted polymer (Fe3O4@mSiO2@NIP) was also prepared using the same synthesis procedure, but without the dual templates. The prepared polymers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and adsorption experiments. Results indicated that both the Fe3O4@mSiO2@DMIP and the Fe3O4@mSiO2 @NIP were microspherical nanoparticles, and the surface of the Fe3O4@mSiO2@DMIP was rougher than that of the Fe3O4@mSiO2@NIP. In addition, the prepared Fe3O4@mSiO2@DMIP possessed a higher adsorption capacity and better selectivity for CAP and FF than the Fe3O4@mSiO2@NIP. The maximum static adsorption capacities of the Fe3O4@mSiO2@ DMIP for CAP and FF were 146.5 and 190.1mgg-1, respectively, whereas those of the Fe3O4@mSiO2 @NIP were 50.0 and 44.0mgg-1, respectively. The obtained Fe3O4@mSiO2@DMIP particles were applied as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent for the rapid and selective extraction of CAP, FF, and thiamphenicol (TAP) in water, chicken blood and egg samples. The method of magnetic molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (M-MISPE) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV) was conducted to detect CAP, FF, and TAP. The limits of detection for CAP, FF, and TAP were 0.16, 0.08, and 0.08μgkg-1, respectively. The average recovery and precision values for the spiked water, chicken blood, and egg samples ranged from 88.3% to 99.1% and 2.7% to 7.9%, respectively. Given its rapidity, selectivity, and sensitivity, the developed method of M-MISPE coupled to HPLC

  10. The Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Based on SBA-15 for Selective Separation and Determination of Panax notoginseng Saponins Simultaneously in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghong Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The feasible, reliable and selective multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers (MT-MIPs based on SBA-15 (SBA-15@MT-MIPs for the selective separation and determination of the trace level of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 and notoginsenoside R1 (R1 simultaneously from biological samples were developed. The polymers were constructed by SBA-15 as support, Rb1, Rg1, R1 as multi-template, acrylamide (AM as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as cross-linker. The new synthetic SBA-15@MT-MIPs were satisfactorily applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for the separation and determination of trace Rb1, Rg1 and R1 in plasma samples. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs and quantitation (LOQs of the proposed method for Rb1, Rg1 and R1 were in the range of 0.63–0.75 ng·mL−1 and 2.1–2.5 ng·mL−1, respectively. The recoveries of R1, Rb1 and Rg1 were obtained between 93.4% and 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs in the range of 3.3–4.2%. All results show that the obtained SBA-15@MT-MIPs could be a promising prospect for the practical application in the selective separation and enrichment of trace Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS in the biological samples.

  11. Correcting for Sample Contamination in Genotype Calling of DNA Sequence Data

    OpenAIRE

    Flickinger, Matthew; Jun, Goo; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Kang, Hyun Min

    2015-01-01

    DNA sample contamination is a frequent problem in DNA sequencing studies and can result in genotyping errors and reduced power for association testing. We recently described methods to identify within-species DNA sample contamination based on sequencing read data, showed that our methods can reliably detect and estimate contamination levels as low as 1%, and suggested strategies to identify and remove contaminated samples from sequencing studies. Here we propose methods to model contamination...

  12. Detecting and Estimating Contamination of Human DNA Samples in Sequencing and Array-Based Genotype Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Goo; Flickinger, Matthew; Hetrick, Kurt N.; Romm, Jane M.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Kang, Hyun Min

    2012-01-01

    DNA sample contamination is a serious problem in DNA sequencing studies and may result in systematic genotype misclassification and false positive associations. Although methods exist to detect and filter out cross-species contamination, few methods to detect within-species sample contamination are available. In this paper, we describe methods to identify within-species DNA sample contamination based on (1) a combination of sequencing reads and array-based genotype data, (2) sequence reads al...

  13. Storage and shipping of tissue samples for DNA analyses: A case study on earthworms ?

    OpenAIRE

    Straube, Daniela; Juen, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, molecular analyses play an important role in studies of soil dwelling animals, for example in taxonomy, phylogeography or food web analyses. The quality of the DNA, used for later molecular analyses, is an important factor and depends on collection and preservation of samples prior to DNA extraction. Ideally, DNA samples are frozen immediately upon collection, but if samples are collected in the field, suitable preservation methods might be limited due to unavailability of resources...

  14. The effects of storage temperature and duration of blood samples on DNA and RNA qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lien-Hung; Lin, Pei-Hsien; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Wang, Liang-Jen; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou

    2017-01-01

    DNA and RNA samples from blood are the common examination target for non-invasive physical tests and/or biomedical studies. Since high-quality DNA and RNA samples guarantee the correctness of these tests and/or studies, we investigated the effects of storage temperature and storage duration of whole blood on DNA and RNA qualities. Subjects were enrolled to donate blood samples which were stored for different durations and at different temperatures, followed by the examinations on RNA quality, qPCR, DNA quality and DNA methylation. For RNA, we observed obvious quality decline with storage duration longer than 24 hours. Storage at low temperature does not keep RNA samples from degradation. And, storing whole blood samples in freezer dramatically damage RNA. For DNA, quality decline was not observed even with storage duration for 15 days. However, DNA methylation significantly altered with storage duration longer than three days. Storage duration within 24 hours is critical for collecting high-quality RNA samples for next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays (RIN≧8). If microarray assays are expected (RIN≧7), storage duration within 32 hours is acceptable. Although DNA is resistant within 15 days when kept in whole blood, DNA quantity dramatically decreases owing to WBC lysis. In addition, duration for more than three days significantly alter DNA methylation status, globally and locally. Our result provides a reference for dealing with blood samples.

  15. DNA damage during the G0/G1 phase triggers RNA-templated, Cockayne syndrome B-dependent homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Leizhen; Nakajima, Satoshi; Böhm, Stefanie; Bernstein, Kara A; Shen, Zhiyuan; Tsang, Michael; Levine, Arthur S; Lan, Li

    2015-07-07

    Damage repair mechanisms at transcriptionally active sites during the G0/G1 phase are largely unknown. To elucidate these mechanisms, we introduced genome site-specific oxidative DNA damage and determined the role of transcription in repair factor assembly. We find that KU and NBS1 are recruited to damage sites independent of transcription. However, assembly of RPA1, RAD51C, RAD51, and RAD52 at such sites is strictly governed by active transcription and requires both wild-type Cockayne syndrome protein B (CSB) function and the presence of RNA in the G0/G1 phase. We show that the ATPase activity of CSB is indispensable for loading and binding of the recombination factors. CSB counters radiation-induced DNA damage in both cells and zebrafish models. Taken together, our results have uncovered a novel, RNA-based recombination mechanism by which CSB protects genome stability from strand breaks at transcriptionally active sites and may provide insight into the clinical manifestations of Cockayne syndrome.

  16. Statistical model for degraded DNA samples and adjusted probabilities for allelic drop-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2012-01-01

    DNA samples found at a scene of crime or obtained from the debris of a mass disaster accident are often subject to degradation. When using the STR DNA technology, the DNA profile is observed via a so-called electropherogram (EPG), where the alleles are identified as signal peaks above a certain...

  17. Statistical model for degraded DNA samples and adjusted probabilities for allelic drop-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2012-01-01

    Abstract DNA samples found at a scene of crime or obtained from the debris of a mass disaster accident are often subject to degradation. When using the STR DNA technology, the DNA profile is observed via a so-called electropherogram (EPG), where the alleles are identified as signal peaks above...

  18. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Barar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods: Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8 with high intactness of DNA. Results: PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion: The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs.

  19. Accurate, Noninvasive Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA from Stool Samples: Potential Usefulness for Monitoring Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shuber, Anthony P.; Ascaño, Jennifer J.; Boynton, Kevin A.; Mitchell, Anastasia; Frierson, Henry F.; El-Rifai, Wa’el; Powell, Steven M

    2002-01-01

    A novel DNA assay demonstrating sensitive and accurate detection of Helicobacter pylori from stool samples is reported. Moreover, in three individuals tested for therapeutic response, the assay showed the disappearance of H. pylori DNA during treatment. Thus, this noninvasive molecular biology-based assay has the potential to be a powerful diagnostic tool given its ability to specifically identify H. pylori DNA.

  20. Comparing efficiency of American Fisheries Society standard snorkeling techniques to environmental DNA sampling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Roy M.; Bonar, Scott A.; Rees, Christopher B.; Amberg, Jon J.; Ladell, Bridget; Jackson, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging technique used to detect aquatic species through water sampling and the extraction of biological material for amplification. Our study compared the efficacy of eDNA methodology to American Fisheries Society (AFS) standard snorkeling surveys with regard to detecting the presence of rare fish species. Knowing which method is more efficient at detecting target species will help managers to determine the best way to sample when both traditional sampling methods and eDNA sampling are available. Our study site included three Navajo Nation streams that contained Navajo Nation Genetic Subunit Bluehead Suckers Catostomus discobolus and Zuni Bluehead Suckers C. discobolus yarrowi. We first divided the entire wetted area of streams into consecutive 100-m reaches and then systematically selected 10 reaches/stream for snorkel and eDNA surveys. Surface water samples were taken in 10-m sections within each 100-m reach, while fish presence was noted via snorkeling in each 10-m section. Quantitative PCR was run on each individual water sample in quadruplicate to test for the presence or absence of the target species. With eDNA sampling techniques, we were able to positively detect both species in two out of the three streams. Snorkeling resulted in positive detection of both species in all three streams. In streams where the target species were detected with eDNA sampling, snorkeling detected fish at 11–29 sites/stream, whereas eDNA detected fish at 3–12 sites/stream. Our results suggest that AFS standard snorkeling is more effective than eDNA for detecting target fish species. To improve our eDNA procedures, the amount of water collected and tested should be increased. Additionally, filtering water on-site may improve eDNA techniques for detecting fish. Future research should focus on standardization of eDNA sampling to provide a widely operational sampling tool.

  1. DNA Profiling of Convicted Offender Samples for the Combined DNA Index System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    The cornerstone of forensic chemistry is that a perpetrator inevitably leaves trace evidence at a crime scene. One important type of evidence is DNA, which has been instrumental in both the implication and exoneration of thousands of suspects in a wide range of crimes. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a network of DNA databases, provides…

  2. Paleoparasitological report on Ascaris aDNA from an ancient East Asian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seok Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ascaris DNA was extracted and sequenced from a medieval archaeological sample in Korea. While Ascaris eggs were confirmed to be of human origin by archaeological evidence, it was not possible to pinpoint the exact species due to close genetic relationships among them. Despite this shortcoming, this is the first Ascaris ancient DNA (aDNA report from a medieval Asian country and thus will expand the scope of Ascaris aDNA research.

  3. Comparison of KRAS Mutation Assessment in Tumor DNA and Circulating Free DNA in Plasma and Serum Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shethah R. Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing for mutations in the KRAS oncogene for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC is generally performed using DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue; however, access to specimens can be limited and analysis challenging. This study assessed the identification of KRAS mutations in circulating free DNA (cfDNA using a commercially available KRAS polymerase chain reaction (PCR kit. Matched plasma, serum and tumor samples were available from 71 patients with mCRC who had received prior therapy but whose disease progressed following therapy. Yields of cfDNA from plasma and serum samples were comparable. Analyses were successful in 70/71 plasma-extracted samples (specificity: 97%, sensitivity: 31% and 67/71 serum-extracted samples (specificity: 100%, sensitivity: 25%. This study demonstrates that KRAS mutations can be detected in cfDNA using a commercially available KRAS PCR kit, confirming cfDNA as a potential alternative source of tumor DNA in a diagnostic setting if access to archival tumor specimens is limited.

  4. Assessing impacts of DNA extraction methods on next generation sequencing of water and wastewater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Connie; Carbonero, Franck; Zhang, Wen

    2017-10-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is increasingly affordable and easier to perform. However, standard protocols prior to the sequencing step are only available for few selected sample types. Here we investigated the impact of DNA extraction methods on the consistency of NGS results. Four commercial DNA extraction kits (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, MO BIO Power Water Kit, and MO BIO Power Soil DNA Isolation Kit) were used on sample sources including lake water and wastewater, and sample types including planktonic and biofilm bacteria communities. Sampling locations included a lake water reservoir, a trickling filter, and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). Unique genera such as Gemmatimonadetes, Elusimicrobia, and Latescibacteria were found in multiple samples. The Stool Mini Kit was least efficient in terms of diversity in sampling results with freshwater lake samples, and surprisingly the Power Water Kit was the least efficient across all sample types examined. Detailed NGS beta diversity comparisons indicated that the Mini Kit and PowerSoil Kit are best suited for studies that extract DNA from a variety of water and wastewater samples. We ultimately recommend application of Mini Kit or PowerSoil Kit as an improvement to NGS protocols for these sampling environments. These results are a step toward achieving accurate comparability of complex samples from water and wastewater environments by applying a single DNA extraction method, further streamlining future investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA Nanoparticles for Improved Protein Synthesis In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinis, Robertas; Stonyte, Greta; Kiseliovas, Vaidotas; Zilionis, Rapolas; Studer, Sabine; Hilvert, Donald; Janulaitis, Arvydas; Mazutis, Linas

    2016-02-24

    The amplification and digital quantification of single DNA molecules are important in biomedicine and diagnostics. Beyond quantifying DNA molecules in a sample, the ability to express proteins from the amplified DNA would open even broader applications in synthetic biology, directed evolution, and proteomics. Herein, a microfluidic approach is reported for the production of condensed DNA nanoparticles that can serve as efficient templates for in vitro protein synthesis. Using phi29 DNA polymerase and a multiple displacement amplification reaction, single DNA molecules were converted into DNA nanoparticles containing up to about 10(4)  clonal gene copies of the starting template. DNA nanoparticle formation was triggered by accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate (produced during DNA synthesis) and magnesium ions from the buffer. Transcription-translation reactions performed in vitro showed that individual DNA nanoparticles can serve as efficient templates for protein synthesis in vitro. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA from archived tissue samples kept in formalin for forensic odontology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Mehrotra, Divya; Kowtal, Pradnya; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Sarin, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Samples used for DNA isolation to be used for forensic odontology studies are often limited. The possibility to use tissue samples stored in formalin for a prolonged period, which contains nucleic acids of questionable quality, opens exciting possibilities for genetic and molecular biology studies useful in speciality of forensic odontology. The present study defines substantial modification of existing protocols for total genomic isolation including mitochondrial DNA and proves the utility of such obtained mitochondrial DNA in microsatellite analyses. 50 dental tissue samples which were kept in neutral buffered formalin liquid bottles were taken for DNA isolation and subsequent analysis. For the isolation of total genomic DNA from tissue samples, a new protocol with substantial modifications from routine ones was adopted by us. Total genomic DNA from matched blood samples were extracted using standard phenol-chloroform extraction method. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Sequencing of such extracted DNA samples for mitochondrial D loop region were successful and the results were comparable with DNA extracted from normal sources of samples. The present study reports for the first time that nucleic acids extracted from human dental tissue samples under prolonged formalin fixation times can be used for forensic odontology studies using the described methodology.

  7. Sterile paper points as a bacterial DNA-contamination source in microbiome profiles of clinical samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, J.; Buijs, M.J.; Laine, M.L.; Wismeijer, D.; Loos, B.G.; Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives High throughput sequencing of bacterial DNA from clinical samples provides untargeted, open-ended information on the entire microbial community. The downside of this approach is the vulnerability to DNA contamination from other sources than the clinical sample. Here we describe

  8. DNA extraction methods and multiple sampling to improve molecular diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräunig, Patrícia; Portella, Luiza Pires; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Libardoni, Felipe; Sangioni, Luis Antonio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias

    2016-10-01

    Molecular detection of Sarcocystis spp. in tissue samples can be useful for experimental and diagnostic purposes. However, the parasite spreads unevenly through tissues, forming tissue cysts, and the cystic wall is an obstacle in DNA extraction protocols. Therefore, adequate sampling and effective disruption of the cysts are essential to improve the accuracy of DNA detection by PCR. The aims of this study were to evaluate the suitability of four protocols for DNA extraction from cysts of Sarcocystis spp. present in bovine myocardium samples or after their harvest in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution as well as determine the effects of single or multiple sampling on the accuracy of molecular diagnosis of sarcocystosis in cattle hearts. Cysts and myocardium samples from nine bovine hearts were randomly distributed to four DNA extraction protocols: kit, kit with modification, DNAzol, and cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Samples were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR as replicates of each heart (simplicate, duplicate, and triplicate), and the probability of a true positive diagnostic was calculated. Among the protocols tested, the kit with modification was determined to be the most suitable for DNA extraction from cysts in PBS solution (92.6 % of DNA detection by PCR); DNAzol resulted in higher DNA detection frequency from bovine myocardium samples (48.1 %). Multiple sampling improved the molecular diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. infection in cattle hearts, increasing at 22.2 % the rate of true positive diagnostic.

  9. Acetone facilitated DNA sampling from electrical tapes improves DNA recovery and enables latent fingerprints development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feine, Ilan; Shpitzen, Moshe; Geller, Boris; Salmon, Eran; Peleg, Tsach; Roth, Jonathan; Gafny, Ron

    2017-07-01

    Electrical tapes (ETs) are a common component of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) used by terrorists or criminal organizations and represent a valuable forensic resource for DNA and latent fingerprints recovery. However, DNA recovery rates are typically low and usually below the minimal amount required for amplification. In addition, most DNA extraction methods are destructive and do not allow further latent fingerprints development. In the present study a cell culture based touch DNA model was used to demonstrate a two-step acetone-water DNA recovery protocol from ETs. This protocol involves only the adhesive side of the ET and increases DNA recovery rates by up to 70%. In addition, we demonstrated partially successful latent fingerprints development from the non-sticky side of the ETs. Taken together, this protocol maximizes the forensic examination of ETs and is recommended for routine casework processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method: easyMag DNA extraction compared to QIAamp DNA stool mini kit extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson,Søren; Struve, Carsten; Andersen, Lee O B; Petersen, Andreas M.; Krogfelt, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Findin...

  11. A comparison of the efficiency of five different commercial DNA extraction kits for extraction of DNA from faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Shantelle; du Toit, Elloise; Kaba, Mamadou; Moodley, Clinton; Zar, Heather J; Nicol, Mark P

    2013-08-01

    Differences in the composition of the gut microbiota have been associated with a range of diseases using culture-independent methods. Reliable extraction of nucleic acid is a key step in identifying the composition of the faecal microbiota. Five widely used commercial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction kits (QIAsymphony® Virus/Bacteria Midi Kit (kit QS), ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep™ (kit Z), QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit (kit QA), Ultraclean® Fecal DNA Isolation Kit (kit U) and PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (kit P)) were evaluated, using human faecal samples. Yield, purity and integrity of total genomic DNA were compared spectrophotometrically and using gel electrophoresis. Three bacteria, commonly found in human faeces were quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and total bacterial diversity was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) as well as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The measurements of DNA yield and purity exhibited variations between the five kits tested in this study. Automated kit QS exhibited the best quality and highest quantity of DNA. All kits were shown to be reproducible with CV values≤0.46 for DNA extraction. qPCR results showed that all kits were uniformly efficient for extracting DNA from the selected target bacteria. DGGE and T-RFLP produced the highest diversity scores for DNA extracted using kit Z (H'=2.30 and 1.27) and kit QS (H'=2.16 and 0.94), which also extracted the highest DNA yields compared to the other kits assessed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating occupancy and abundance of stream amphibians using environmental DNA from filtered water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Arkle, Robert S.; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods for detecting aquatic species are advancing rapidly, but with little evaluation of field protocols or precision of resulting estimates. We compared sampling results from traditional field methods with eDNA methods for two amphibians in 13 streams in central Idaho, USA. We also evaluated three water collection protocols and the influence of sampling location, time of day, and distance from animals on eDNA concentration in the water. We found no difference in detection or amount of eDNA among water collection protocols. eDNA methods had slightly higher detection rates than traditional field methods, particularly when species occurred at low densities. eDNA concentration was positively related to field-measured density, biomass, and proportion of transects occupied. Precision of eDNA-based abundance estimates increased with the amount of eDNA in the water and the number of replicate subsamples collected. eDNA concentration did not vary significantly with sample location in the stream, time of day, or distance downstream from animals. Our results further advance the implementation of eDNA methods for monitoring aquatic vertebrates in stream habitats.

  13. Influence of Sampling Practices on the Appearance of DNA Image Histograms of Prostate Cells in FNAB Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbaset Buhmeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty‐one fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB of the prostate, diagnostically classified as definitely malignant, were studied. The Papanicolaou or H&E stained samples were destained and then stained for DNA with the Feulgen reaction. DNA cytometry was applied after different sampling rules. The histograms varied according to the sampling rule applied. Because free cells between cell groups were easier to measure than cells in the cell groups, two sampling rules were tested in all samples: (i cells in the cell groups were measured, and (ii free cells between cell groups were measured. Abnormal histograms were more common after the sampling rule based on free cells, suggesting that abnormal patterns are best revealed through the free cells in these samples. The conclusions were independent of the applied histogram interpretation method.

  14. Sources of pre-analytical variations in yield of DNA extracted from blood samples: analysis of 50,000 DNA samples in EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Caboux

    Full Text Available The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88% performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies.

  15. Error-Prone Translesion DNA Synthesis by Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase IV (DinB on Templates Containing 1,2-dihydro-2-oxoadenine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Hori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV is involved in bypass replication of damaged bases in DNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated continuously during normal metabolism and as a result of exogenous stress such as ionizing radiation. ROS induce various kinds of base damage in DNA. It is important to examine whether Pol IV is able to bypass oxidatively damaged bases. In this study, recombinant Pol IV was incubated with oligonucleotides containing thymine glycol (dTg, 5-formyluracil (5-fodU, 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-hmdU, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxodG and 1,2-dihydro-2-oxoadenine (2-oxodA. Primer extension assays revealed that Pol IV preferred to insert dATP opposite 5-fodU and 5-hmdU, while it inefficiently inserted nucleotides opposite dTg. Pol IV inserted dCTP and dATP opposite 8-oxodG, while the ability was low. It inserted dCTP more effectively than dTTP opposite 2-oxodA. Pol IV's ability to bypass these lesions decreased in the order: 2-oxodA > 5-fodU~5-hmdU > 8-oxodG > dTg. The fact that Pol IV preferred to insert dCTP opposite 2-oxodA suggests the mutagenic potential of 2-oxodA leading to A:T→G:C transitions. Hydrogen peroxide caused an ~2-fold increase in A:T→G:C mutations in E. coli, while the increase was significantly greater in E. coli overexpressing Pol IV. These results indicate that Pol IV may be involved in ROS-enhanced A:T→G:C mutations.

  16. Chemiluminescence analysis for HBV-DNA hybridization detection with magnetic nanoparticles based DNA extraction from positive whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nongyue; Wang, Fang; Ma, Chao; Li, Chuanyan; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yan; Zhang, Liming; Li, Zhiyang

    2013-02-01

    Molecular detection of HBV has a significant impact on prognosis and therapy of the disease. In this paper, a sensitive nucleic acid detection method of HBV was established taking advantage of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), chemiluminescence (CL) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HBV-DNA was extracted from hepatitis B positive human blood samples using MNPs adsorption method and biotin was labeled on the DNA segment after base insertion of bintin-dUTP in PCR. The biotinylated DNA segment was captured by amino probe immobilized on carboxyl MNPs and was detected by the chemiluminescence system of alkaline phosphatase catalyzing 3-(2'-spiroadamantane)-4-methoxy-4-(3"-phosphoryloxy) phenyl-1, 2-dioxetane. Different concentrations of HBV-DNA were detected under the optimized experiment conditions and the relevant CL intensity were obtained, which provided a novel research or clinic diagnosis method for the quantification detection of HBV-DNA.

  17. Forensic Analysis of Human DNA from Samples Contamined with Bioweapons Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    prepared from powdered media (BD Difco™), at 35g/L in sterile water where manganese sulphate (MnSO4) was added to yield 0.1mM. The flask was... IQ ™ kit (Promega). DNA IQ ™ resin (12μL/sample) was added to the samples. The tubes were vortexed to mix the resin and the DNA and left at room...temperature for at least five minutes. DNA IQ Lysis Buffer (700μL/sample) was then added, and samples were incubated at room temperature for fifteen

  18. Identification of Forensic Samples via Mitochondrial DNA in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Julie T.; Pilon, André M.

    2003-04-01

    A recent forensic approach for identification of unknown biological samples is mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify a 440 base pair hypervariable region of human mtDNA from a variety of "crime scene" samples (e.g., teeth, hair, nails, cigarettes, envelope flaps, toothbrushes, and chewing gum). Amplification is verified via agarose gel electrophoresis and then samples are subjected to cycle sequencing. Sequence alignments are made via the program CLUSTAL W, allowing students to compare samples and solve the "crime."

  19. Y-STR analysis on DNA mixture samples--results of a collaborative project of the ENFSI DNA Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parson, Walther; Niederstätter, Harald; Lindinger, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) DNA Working Group undertook a collaborative project on Y-STR typing of DNA mixture samples that were centrally prepared and thoroughly tested prior to the shipment. Four commercial Y-STR typing kits (Y-Filer, Applied Biosystems, Foster...... from the peak heights of the obtained Y-STR genotypes. Variation in quantity and quality of the shipped DNA can be excluded as reason for the observed differences because both samples and shipping conditions were found to be reproducible in an earlier study. The results suggest that in some cases...... a laboratory-specific optimization process is indicated to reach a comparable sensitivity for the analysis of minute amounts of DNA....

  20. DNA analysis of dust particles sampled from the Turin Shroud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcaccia Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Turin Shroud is traditionally considered the burial cloth in which the body of Jesus Christ was enveloped after his dead about 2000 years ago. Here we report the main findings from the analysis of genomic DNA extracted from dust particles, which were vacuumed from the backside of Turin Shroud corresponding to internal parts of the body image and the lateral edge used for its radiocarbon dating. Specific plant chloroplast DNA (cpDNA and human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA target regions were analyzed to identify plant taxonomic entities and human genetic lineages. Plant species native to the Mediterranean countries and widespread in the Middle East (Vavilov’s centers of origin V and IV, respectively were identified, in addition to others living in temperate and boreal regions of the northern hemisphere or having their primary center of origin and distribution in central and eastern Asia (mainly China, I or native only to the Americas. Since many of these species were introduced into Europe after the Marco Polo travels and Christopher Columbus voyages, our findings suggest a geographic scenario for which only some of the detected plant cpDNAs are compatible with the supposed origin and trail of the relic, whereas others are likely from a historical interval later than the Medieval period. As for human mtDNAs, our analyses allowed the detection of sequences from multiple subjects, which clustered into a number of western Eurasian haplogroups, including some known to be typical of western Europe (H1 and H3, the Near East (H13 and H33, the Arabian Peninsula (R0a and the Indian sub-continent (M56 and R8. Such mitogenome diversity could be due to contacts with subjects of different ethnic origins in recent centuries, but it is also compatible with the historic path followed by the Turin Shroud during its supposed 2000-year journey from the Near East. Furthermore it raises the possibility of an Indian manufacture of the linen cloth.

  1. Storage and shipping of tissue samples for DNA analyses: A case study on earthworms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Daniela; Juen, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, molecular analyses play an important role in studies of soil dwelling animals, for example in taxonomy, phylogeography or food web analyses. The quality of the DNA, used for later molecular analyses, is an important factor and depends on collection and preservation of samples prior to DNA extraction. Ideally, DNA samples are frozen immediately upon collection, but if samples are collected in the field, suitable preservation methods might be limited due to unavailability of resources or remote field sites. Moreover, shipping samples over long distances can cause loss of DNA quality e.g. by thawing or leaking of preservation liquid. In this study we use earthworms, a key organism in soil research, to compare three different DNA preservation methods – freezing at −20 °C, storing in 75% ethanol, and freeze drying. Samples were shipped from the United States of America to Austria. The DNA of the samples was extracted using two different extraction methods, peqGOLD™ and Chelex® 100. The DNA amplification success was determined by amplifying four DNA fragments of different length. The PCR amplification success is significantly influenced by preservation method and extraction method and differed significantly depending on the length of the DNA fragment. Freeze drying samples was the best preservation method when samples were extracted using the silica based extraction method peqGOLD™. For samples that were extracted with Chelex® 100, storage in ethanol was the best preservation method. However, the overall amplification success was significantly lower for the extraction procedure based on Chelex® 100. The detection of the small DNA fragments was higher and independent from the extraction method, while the amplification success was significantly reduced for the longer DNA fragments. We recommend freeze drying of DNA samples, especially when they have to be shipped for longer distances. No special packaging or declaration is needed for freeze dried

  2. Storage and shipping of tissue samples for DNA analyses: A case study on earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Daniela; Juen, Anita

    2013-07-01

    Nowadays, molecular analyses play an important role in studies of soil dwelling animals, for example in taxonomy, phylogeography or food web analyses. The quality of the DNA, used for later molecular analyses, is an important factor and depends on collection and preservation of samples prior to DNA extraction. Ideally, DNA samples are frozen immediately upon collection, but if samples are collected in the field, suitable preservation methods might be limited due to unavailability of resources or remote field sites. Moreover, shipping samples over long distances can cause loss of DNA quality e.g. by thawing or leaking of preservation liquid. In this study we use earthworms, a key organism in soil research, to compare three different DNA preservation methods - freezing at -20 °C, storing in 75% ethanol, and freeze drying. Samples were shipped from the United States of America to Austria. The DNA of the samples was extracted using two different extraction methods, peqGOLD™ and Chelex® 100. The DNA amplification success was determined by amplifying four DNA fragments of different length. The PCR amplification success is significantly influenced by preservation method and extraction method and differed significantly depending on the length of the DNA fragment. Freeze drying samples was the best preservation method when samples were extracted using the silica based extraction method peqGOLD™. For samples that were extracted with Chelex® 100, storage in ethanol was the best preservation method. However, the overall amplification success was significantly lower for the extraction procedure based on Chelex® 100. The detection of the small DNA fragments was higher and independent from the extraction method, while the amplification success was significantly reduced for the longer DNA fragments. We recommend freeze drying of DNA samples, especially when they have to be shipped for longer distances. No special packaging or declaration is needed for freeze dried

  3. Sterile paper points as a bacterial DNA-contamination source in microbiome profiles of clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Joyce; Buijs, Mark J; Laine, Marja L; Wismeijer, Daniël; Loos, Bruno G; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2013-12-01

    High throughput sequencing of bacterial DNA from clinical samples provides untargeted, open-ended information on the entire microbial community. The downside of this approach is the vulnerability to DNA contamination from other sources than the clinical sample. Here we describe contamination from sterile paper points (PPs) used in microbial sample collection. Peri-implant samples from 48 individuals were collected using sterile PPs. Control samples contained only PPs or DNA extraction blank controls. 16S rRNA gene libraries were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. 16S rRNA gene copy numbers were measured by quantitative PCR. Nearly half of the sequencing reads belonged to two OTUs classified as Enterococcus (25% of reads) or Exiguobacterium (21%), which are not typical oral microorganisms. Of 87 peri-implant samples, only 10 samples (11%) contained neither of the two OTUs. The relative abundance of both unusual OTUs correlated with each other (pDNA equivalent to 1.2 × 10(3) and 1.1 × 10(4) cells respectively, which was within the range of DNA in the clinical samples (average 1.8 × 10(7), SD 4.8 × 10(7), min 4.4 × 10(2), max 2.8 × 10(8)). The microbial profile from these PPs was dominated (>83% of reads) by the two unusual OTUs. Sterile PPs can contain contaminating bacterial DNA. The use of PPs as a sampling tool for microbial profiling of clinical samples by open-ended techniques such as sequencing or DGGE should be avoided. Clinicians working with PPs as sampling tools for bacterial DNA should consider using an alternative sampling tool, because sterile unused PPs can be a considerable source of foreign bacterial DNA. We recommend sterile curettes for collecting clinical samples for open-ended techniques, such as sequencing or DGGE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of a diverse marine fish fauna using environmental DNA from seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Kielgast, Jos; Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Møller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-01-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our

  5. Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Salih Kuk; Suleyman Yazar; Ulfet Cetinkaya

    2012-01-01

    Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative results. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples...

  6. Evaluating Ethanol-based Sample Preservation to Facilitate Use of DNA Barcoding in Routine Freshwater Biomonitoring Programs Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential in enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biom...

  7. DNA capture and next-generation sequencing can recover whole mitochondrial genomes from highly degraded samples for human identification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Brotherton, Paul M; Llamas, Bastien; Soubrier, Julien; Haak, Wolfgang; Cooper, Alan; Austin, Jeremy J

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typing can be a useful aid for identifying people from compromised samples when nuclear DNA is too damaged, degraded or below detection thresholds for routine short tandem repeat (STR)-based analysis...

  8. PE-Swab Direct STR Amplification of Forensic Touch DNA Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason Y

    2015-05-01

    The PE-Swab direct STR amplification workflow was developed to process low-level "touch DNA" samples. In this workflow, a forensic sample is first collected on a 4-mm PE-Swab (a novel sample collection device); two 2-mm punches containing collected samples are then generated from the PE-Swab and directly amplified for STR typing. Compared to the conventional STR workflow, which involves DNA extraction, purification, and elution volume reduction, the PE-Swab direct STR amplification workflow does not require sample preparation and takes DNA loss due to sample preparation, the PE-Swab workflow is more sensitive than the conventional STR workflow. The average peak height per sample obtained by the PE-swab workflow is 3 times higher than that from the conventional workflow with both low-level single source and two-contributor mixture samples tested in this study. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Comparison of ten different DNA extraction procedures with respect to their suitability for environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Ramona; Böllmann, Jörg; Krahl, Kathrin; Bryant, Isaac Mbir; Martienssen, Marion

    2017-12-01

    DNA extraction for molecular biological applications usually requires target optimized extraction procedures depending on the origin of the samples. For environmental samples, a range of different procedures has been developed. We compared the applicability and efficiency of ten selected DNA extraction methods published in recent literature using four different environmental samples namely: activated sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant, river sediment, anaerobic digestion sludge and nitrifying enrichment culture. We assessed the suitability of the extraction procedures based on both DNA yield and quality. DNA quantification was performed by both ultra violet (UV) spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectrophotometry after staining with PicoGreen. In our study, DNA yields based on UV measurement were overestimated in most cases while DNA yields from fluorescence measurements correlated well with the sample load on agarose gels of crude DNA. The quality of the DNA extracts was determined by gel electrophoresis of crude DNA and PCR products from 16S rDNA with the universal primer set 27f/1525r. It was observed that gel electrophoresis of crude DNA was not always suitable to evaluate DNA integrity and purity since interfering background substances (e.g. humic substances) were not visible. Therefore, we strongly recommend examining the DNA quality of both crude DNA and 16S rDNA PCR products by gel electrophoresis when a new extraction method is established. Summarizing, we found four out of ten extraction procedures being applicable to all tested samples without noticeable restrictions. The procedure G (according to the standard method 432_10401 of the Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety) had the broadest application range over procedure J (published by Wilson, 2001). These were followed by procedures F (Singka et al., 2012) and A (Bourrain et al., 1999). All four extraction procedures delivered reliable and reproducible crude

  10. Impact of Sample Type and DNA Isolation Procedure on Genomic Inference of Microbiome Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Bergmark, Lasse; Munk, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    was dependent on inherent specimen properties as well as DNA extraction method. We further show that bead beating or enzymatic treatment can increase the extraction of DNA from Gram-positive bacteria. Final DNA quantities could be increased by isolating DNA from a larger volume of cell lysate than...... resistance from different reservoirs. Here, we compare in a stepwise approach a total of eight commercially available DNA extraction kits and 16 procedures based on these for three specimentypes (human feces, pig feces, and hospital sewage). We assess DNA extraction using spike-in controls and different...... types of beads for bead beating, facilitating cell lysis. We evaluate DNA concentration, purity, and stability and microbial community composition using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and for selected samples using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Our results suggest that inferred community composition...

  11. Permanganate-assisted removal of PCR inhibitors during the DNA Chelex extraction from stained denim samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrlea, Sorina; Puiu, Mihaela; Răducan, Adina; Oancea, Dumitru

    2017-03-01

    In this study, it was demonstrated that the DNA Chelex extraction combined with the permanganate assisted-oxidation is highly efficient in removing the PCR inhibitors often found in clothing materials, such as phthalocyanine. The extraction assays were conducted in saliva, blood and epithelial cells samples mixed with three oxidation-resistant dye copper(II) α-phthalocyanine, copper(II) β-phthalocyanine and tetrasulfonated copper(II) β-phthalocyanine. After DNA amplification, all samples were able to provide full DNA profiles. The permanganate/Chelex system was tested further on denim-stained samples and displayed the same ability to remove the PCR inhibitors from the commercial textile materials.

  12. Convex Lens-Induced Nanoscale Templating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Daniel; Michaud, Francois; McFaul, Christopher; Mahsid, Sara; Reisner, Walter; Leslie, Sabrina

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate a new platform, ``Convex Lens-Induced Nanoscale Templating'' (CLINT), for dynamic manipulation and trapping of single DNA molecules. In the CLINT technique, the curved surface of a convex lens is used to deform a flexible coverslip above a substrate containing embedded nanotopography, creating a nanoscale gap that can be adjusted during an experiment to confine molecules within the embedded nanostructures. Critically, CLINT has the capability of actively transforming a macroscale flow-cell into a nanofluidic device without need for high-temperature direct bonding, leading to ease of sample loading and greater accessibility of the surface. Moreover, as DNA molecules present in the gap will be driven into the embedded topography from above, CLINT eliminates the need for the high pressures or electric fields necessitated by direct bonded nanofluidic devices for loading DNA in the confined structures. To demonstrate the versatility of CLINT, we confine DNA to nanogroove structures, demonstrating DNA nanochannel-based stretching. Using ionic strengths that are in line with typical biological buffers, we have successfully extended DNA in sub 30nm nanochannels, achieving high stretching (90%) that is in good agreement with Odijk deflection theory.

  13. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in sera samples of mice experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Langoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii DNA in blood can help to diagnose the disease in its acute phase; however, it must be considered that hemoglobin, present in blood, can inhibit polymerase activity, making impracticable the detection of DNA in samples. Mice were experimentally infected via oral route with ME49 and BTU2 strains cysts and RH strain tachyzoites; polymerase chain reaction was used to detect T. gondii DNA in mice sera 18, 24, 48, 96, and 192 hours post infection (PI. Toxoplama gondii DNA was detected in only one animal infected with BTU2 strain, genotype III (isolated from a dog with neurological signs 18 hours PI. The agent's DNA was not detected in any sample of the other experimental groups. New studies must be carried out to verify the technique sensitivity in researches on this agent's genetic material using sera samples of acute-phase toxoplasmosis patients, especially in cases of immunosuppression.

  14. Perl Template Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Chamberlain, Darren; Cross, David; Torkington, Nathan; Diaz, tatiana Apandi

    2004-01-01

    Among the many different approaches to "templating" with Perl--such as Embperl, Mason, HTML::Template, and hundreds of other lesser known systems--the Template Toolkit is widely recognized as one of the most versatile. Like other templating systems, the Template Toolkit allows programmers to embed Perl code and custom macros into HTML documents in order to create customized documents on the fly. But unlike the others, the Template Toolkit is as facile at producing HTML as it is at producing XML, PDF, or any other output format. And because it has its own simple templating language, templates

  15. DNA damage in preserved specimens and tissue samples: a molecular assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantin Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extraction of genetic information from preserved tissue samples or museum specimens is a fundamental component of many fields of research, including the Barcode of Life initiative, forensic investigations, biological studies using scat sample analysis, and cancer research utilizing formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Efforts to obtain genetic information from these sources are often hampered by an inability to amplify the desired DNA as a consequence of DNA damage. Previous studies have described techniques for improved DNA extraction from such samples or focused on the effect of damaging agents – such as light, oxygen or formaldehyde – on free nucleotides. We present ongoing work to characterize lesions in DNA samples extracted from preserved specimens. The extracted DNA is digested to single nucleosides with a combination of DNase I, Snake Venom Phosphodiesterase, and Antarctic Phosphatase and then analyzed by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. We present data for moth specimens that were preserved dried and pinned with no additional preservative and for frog tissue samples that were preserved in either ethanol, or formaldehyde, or fixed in formaldehyde and then preserved in ethanol. These preservation methods represent the most common methods of preserving animal specimens in museum collections. We observe changes in the nucleoside content of these samples over time, especially a loss of deoxyguanosine. We characterize the fragmentation state of the DNA and aim to identify abundant nucleoside lesions. Finally, simple models are introduced to describe the DNA fragmentation based on nicks and double-strand breaks.

  16. The impact of DNA contamination of bone samples in forensic case analysis and anthropological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Heinrich, Anke; Freudenberg, Mechthild; Gebühr, Michael; Schwark, Thorsten

    2008-05-01

    Contamination precautions and quality control are great issues when human bones are investigated genetically. This is especially true for historical samples with only minute amounts of usually highly degraded DNA. But also in forensic routine analysis, sometimes DNA has to be isolated from bones in equally bad conditions, e.g. from burned victims. In such cases, there are several eventualities to contaminate the sample with foreign DNA, for example caused by the recovery of the bones, by trace investigation on a crime scene, or - of course - during handling in the lab. We present the investigation of artificially contaminated historical bone samples which contained no original DNA. Three different kind of contamination were studied: (1) touching of the samples, (2) application of saliva, and (3) application of pure DNA. The samples were genetically investigated without and with the employment of a defined cleaning protocol of the bones. The results show that pure DNA can usually not be removed from the bones and that saliva is a similar thread for subsequent DNA analysis. After the cleaning procedure about 70% of saliva contaminated samples still yielded reproducible STR profiles implicating severe problems for the investigation of highly degraded bone fragments. Simple touching of the specimens seems not to be a real problem for genetic investigations since the obtained signals were not reproducible.

  17. Use of a Filter Cartridge for Filtration of Water Samples and Extraction of Environmental DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miya, Masaki; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Oka, Shin-Ichiro; Sato, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sado, Tetsuya; Doi, Hideyuki

    2016-11-25

    Recent studies demonstrated the use of environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes to be appropriate as a non-invasive monitoring tool. Most of these studies employed disk fiber filters to collect eDNA from water samples, although a number of microbial studies in aquatic environments have employed filter cartridges, because the cartridge has the advantage of accommodating large water volumes and of overall ease of use. Here we provide a protocol for filtration of water samples using the filter cartridge and extraction of eDNA from the filter without having to cut open the housing. The main portions of this protocol consists of 1) filtration of water samples (water volumes ≤4 L or >4 L); (2) extraction of DNA on the filter using a roller shaker placed in a preheated incubator; and (3) purification of DNA using a commercial kit. With the use of this and previously-used protocols, we perform metabarcoding analysis of eDNA taken from a huge aquarium tank (7,500 m3) with known species composition, and show the number of detected species per library from the two protocols as the representative results. This protocol has been developed for metabarcoding eDNA from fishes, but is also applicable to eDNA from other organisms.

  18. Evaluation of an automated protocol for efficient and reliable DNA extraction of dietary samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinger, Corinna; Staudacher, Karin; Sint, Daniela; Thalinger, Bettina; Oehm, Johannes; Juen, Anita; Traugott, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Molecular techniques have become an important tool to empirically assess feeding interactions. The increased usage of next-generation sequencing approaches has stressed the need of fast DNA extraction that does not compromise DNA quality. Dietary samples here pose a particular challenge, as these demand high-quality DNA extraction procedures for obtaining the minute quantities of short-fragmented food DNA. Automatic high-throughput procedures significantly decrease time and costs and allow for standardization of extracting total DNA. However, these approaches have not yet been evaluated for dietary samples. We tested the efficiency of an automatic DNA extraction platform and a traditional CTAB protocol, employing a variety of dietary samples including invertebrate whole-body extracts as well as invertebrate and vertebrate gut content samples and feces. Extraction efficacy was quantified using the proportions of successful PCR amplifications of both total and prey DNA, and cost was estimated in terms of time and material expense. For extraction of total DNA, the automated platform performed better for both invertebrate and vertebrate samples. This was also true for prey detection in vertebrate samples. For the dietary analysis in invertebrates, there is still room for improvement when using the high-throughput system for optimal DNA yields. Overall, the automated DNA extraction system turned out as a promising alternative to labor-intensive, low-throughput manual extraction methods such as CTAB. It is opening up the opportunity for an extensive use of this cost-efficient and innovative methodology at low contamination risk also in trophic ecology.

  19. 76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in 2012... of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for...

  20. Repurposing environmental DNA samples: Detecting the western pearlshell (Margaritifera falcata) as a proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph C. Dysthe; Torrey Rodgers; Thomas W. Franklin; Kellie J. Carim; Michael K. Young; Kevin S. McKelvey; Karen E. Mock; Michael K. Schwartz

    2018-01-01

    Information on the distribution of multiple species in a common landscape is fundamental to effective conservation and management. However, distribution data are expensive to obtain and often limited to high-profile species in a system. A recently developed technique, environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling, has been shown to be more sensitive than traditional detection...

  1. Adaptation of image cytometry methodology for DNA ploidy analysis of cervical epithelium samples: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Eliza Motta Duarte

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Image cytometry of the cervical specimens revealed DNA aneuploidy, most probably resulting from chromosomal alterations and appearing as precancerous lesions in 65% of the cases. The adaptations implemented in this study, enabled the DNA-image cytometry to become more accessible, enhancing its extended use as an adjuvant strategy for the early screening of the cervical epithelium samples during routine analyses.

  2. Elimination of bioweapons agents from forensic samples during extraction of human DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbers, Jason; Wilkinson, Della; Hause, Christine C; Smith, Myron L; Zaidi, Mohsin A; Laframboise, Denis; Wright, Kathryn E

    2014-11-01

    Collection of DNA for genetic profiling is a powerful means for the identification of individuals responsible for crimes and terrorist acts. Biologic hazards, such as bacteria, endospores, toxins, and viruses, could contaminate sites of terrorist activities and thus could be present in samples collected for profiling. The fate of these hazards during DNA isolation has not been thoroughly examined. Our goals were to determine whether the DNA extraction process used by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police eliminates or neutralizes these agents and if not, to establish methods that render samples safe without compromising the human DNA. Our results show that bacteria, viruses, and toxins were reduced to undetectable levels during DNA extraction, but endospores remained viable. Filtration of samples after DNA isolation eliminated viable spores from the samples but left DNA intact. We also demonstrated that contamination of samples with some bacteria, endospores, and toxins for longer than 1 h compromised the ability to complete genetic profiling. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. DNA-based species identification for faecal samples: An application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noninvasive methods using genetic markers have been suggested as ways to overcome difficulties associated with documenting the presence of elusive species. We presented and assessed the casework of species identification based on faecal samples of terrestrial mammals in well-known Mountain Huangshan Scenic ...

  4. LAMP assay for rapid diagnosis of cow DNA in goat milk and meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, R; Sengar, G S; Singh, U; Kumar, S; Raja, T V; Alex, R; Alyethodi, R R; Prakash, B

    2017-01-01

    Animal species detection is one of the crucial steps for consumer's food analysis. In the present study we developed an in-house built loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of adulterated cow DNA in goat milk/meat samples. The cow milk/tissue DNA in goat milk/meat samples were identified in the developed LAMP assay by either naked eye visualizing with SYBR Green I dyes or by detecting the typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. This test can detect up to minimum 5% level of cow components admixed in goat milk/meat samples and can be completed within 1 h 40 min starting from DNA extraction from milk/meat samples and can be performed in a water bath. Developed LAMP methodology is simple; rapid and sensitive techniques that can detect adulterant like cow components in goat milk/meat are more accurate than other existing DNA based technologies.

  5. Optimised sample preparation of synovial fluid for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, J.; Nietfeld, L.; Dreses-Werringloe..., U.; Koehler, L.; Wollenhaupt, J.; Zeidler, H.; Hammer, M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To optimise sample preparation of synovial fluid for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
METHODS—Serial dilutions of purified CT elementary bodies in synovial fluid were prepared. The synovial fluid pellet was processed by eight different methods of sample preparation. Then samples were analysed by CT specific PCR. The sensitivity of PCR was the basis of ranking of the eight different methods.
RESULTS—Highest sensitivity was achieved by methods including an additional step of DNA isolation. Additional extraction of protein and polysaccharides by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) increased sensitivity. Addition of hyaluronidase did not increase sensitivity of QIAEX-DNA extraction but was necessary, however, before phenol-chloroform-DNA extraction.
CONCLUSIONS—The method of synovial fluid sample preparation significantly influences the sensitivity of subsequent PCR. Additional DNA isolation and extraction of PCR inhibitors by CTAB led to higher sensitivity.

 Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis; polymerase chain reaction; synovial fluid PMID:10343525

  6. The near-quantitative sampling of genomic DNA from various food-borne Eubacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irwin, Peter; Nguyen, Ly; He, Yiping; Paoli, George; Gehring, Andrew; Chen, Chin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    The disruption of the bacterial cell wall plays an important part in achieving quantitative extraction of DNA from Eubacteria essential for accurate analyses of genetic material recovered from environmental samples...

  7. Sensitive DIP-STR markers for the analysis of unbalanced mixtures from "touch" DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldoni, Fabio; Castella, Vincent; Grosjean, Frederic; Hall, Diana

    2017-05-01

    Casework samples collected for forensic DNA analysis can produce genomic mixtures in which the DNA of the alleged offender is masked by high quantities of DNA coming from the victim. DIP-STRs are novel genetic markers specifically developed to enable the target analysis of a DNA of interest in the presence of exceeding quantities of a second DNA (up to 1000-fold). The genotyping system, which is based on allele-specific amplifications of haplotypes formed by a deletion/insertion polymorphism (DIP) and a short tandem repeat (STR), combines the capacity of targeting the DNA of an individual with a strong identification power. Finally, DIP-STRs are autosomal markers therefore they can be applied to any combination of major and minor DNA. In this study we aimed to assess the ability of DIP-STRs to detect the minor contributor on challenging "touch" DNA samples simulated with representative crime-associated substrates and to compare their performance to commonly used male-specific markers (Y-STRs). As part of a comprehensive study on the relative DNA contribution of two persons handling the same object, we selected 71 unbalanced contact traces of which 14 comprised a male minor DNA contributor mixed to a female major DNA contributor. Using a set of six DIP-STRs, one to four markers were found to be informative for the minor DNA detection across traces. When compared to Y-STRs (14 traces), the DIP-STRs showed similar sensitivity in detecting the minor DNA across substrate materials with a similar occurrence of allele drop-out. Conversely, because of the sex combination of the two users of the object, 57 remaining traces could only be investigated by DIP-STRs. Of these, 30 minor DNA contributors could be detected by all informative markers while 12 traces showed events of allele drop-out. Finally, 15 traces showed no amplification of the minor DNA. These last 15 samples were mostly characterized by a combination of short handling time of the object, low DNA recovery and

  8. Assessing genetic polymorphisms using DNA extracted from cells present in saliva samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoda Zsofia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technical advances following the Human Genome Project revealed that high-quality and -quantity DNA may be obtained from whole saliva samples. However, usability of previously collected samples and the effects of environmental conditions on the samples during collection have not been assessed in detail. In five studies we document the effects of sample volume, handling and storage conditions, type of collection device, and oral sampling location, on quantity, quality, and genetic assessment of DNA extracted from cells present in saliva. Methods Saliva samples were collected from ten adults in each study. Saliva volumes from .10-1.0 ml, different saliva collection devices, sampling locations in the mouth, room temperature storage, and multiple freeze-thaw cycles were tested. One representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT rs4680 and one representative variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region were selected for genetic analyses. Results The smallest tested whole saliva volume of .10 ml yielded, on average, 1.43 ± .77 μg DNA and gave accurate genotype calls in both genetic analyses. The usage of collection devices reduced the amount of DNA extracted from the saliva filtrates compared to the whole saliva sample, as 54-92% of the DNA was retained on the device. An "adhered cell" extraction enabled recovery of this DNA and provided good quality and quantity DNA. The DNA from both the saliva filtrates and the adhered cell recovery provided accurate genotype calls. The effects of storage at room temperature (up to 5 days, repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 6 cycles, and oral sampling location on DNA extraction and on genetic analysis from saliva were negligible. Conclusions Whole saliva samples with volumes of at least .10 ml were sufficient to extract good quality and quantity DNA. Using

  9. Assessing genetic polymorphisms using DNA extracted from cells present in saliva samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Technical advances following the Human Genome Project revealed that high-quality and -quantity DNA may be obtained from whole saliva samples. However, usability of previously collected samples and the effects of environmental conditions on the samples during collection have not been assessed in detail. In five studies we document the effects of sample volume, handling and storage conditions, type of collection device, and oral sampling location, on quantity, quality, and genetic assessment of DNA extracted from cells present in saliva. Methods Saliva samples were collected from ten adults in each study. Saliva volumes from .10-1.0 ml, different saliva collection devices, sampling locations in the mouth, room temperature storage, and multiple freeze-thaw cycles were tested. One representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT rs4680) and one representative variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region) were selected for genetic analyses. Results The smallest tested whole saliva volume of .10 ml yielded, on average, 1.43 ± .77 μg DNA and gave accurate genotype calls in both genetic analyses. The usage of collection devices reduced the amount of DNA extracted from the saliva filtrates compared to the whole saliva sample, as 54-92% of the DNA was retained on the device. An "adhered cell" extraction enabled recovery of this DNA and provided good quality and quantity DNA. The DNA from both the saliva filtrates and the adhered cell recovery provided accurate genotype calls. The effects of storage at room temperature (up to 5 days), repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 6 cycles), and oral sampling location on DNA extraction and on genetic analysis from saliva were negligible. Conclusions Whole saliva samples with volumes of at least .10 ml were sufficient to extract good quality and quantity DNA. Using 10 ng of DNA per

  10. Polymerase chain reaction preparation of template for massively parallel pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Ross W; Sofía, Valenzuela A; Frampton, John

    2009-04-01

    Massively parallel pyrosequencing of DNA fragments immobilized on beads has been applied to genome survey sequencing and transcriptome analysis of a variety of eukaryotic organisms, including laboratory model species, agricultural crops and livestock, and species of interest to population biologists and ecologists. Preparation of sufficient high-quality template for sequencing has been an obstacle to sequence analysis of nucleic acids from tissues or cell types available in limited quantities. We report that the use of a biotinylated primer for polymerase chain reaction amplification allows removal of excess primer and poly(A) tract fragments from the sequencing templates, providing much higher yields of useful sequence information from pyrosequencing of amplified templates. This advance allows deep sequencing analysis of nucleic acids isolated from very small tissue samples. Massively parallel pyrosequencing is particularly useful for preliminary investigations of species that have not yet been the subject of significant genomic research, as genomic survey sequences and catalogs of expressed genes provide a means of linking the biology of less intensively studied species to that of more intensively studied model organisms. We obtained over 220 Mb of transcript DNA sequences from Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir., a conifer species native to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Comparison of the resulting assembled putative transcripts with similar data obtained by other sequencing methods from other conifers demonstrates the utility of the improved sequencing template preparation.

  11. A Microbiome DNA Enrichment Method for Next-Generation Sequencing Sample Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Erbay; Feehery, George R; Langhorst, Bradley W; Stewart, Fiona J; Dimalanta, Eileen T; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Slatko, Barton; Gardner, Andrew F; McFarland, James; Sumner, Christine; Davis, Theodore B

    2016-07-01

    "Microbiome" is used to describe the communities of microorganisms and their genes in a particular environment, including communities in association with a eukaryotic host or part of a host. One challenge in microbiome analysis concerns the presence of host DNA in samples. Removal of host DNA before sequencing results in greater sequence depth of the intended microbiome target population. This unit describes a novel method of microbial DNA enrichment in which methylated host DNA such as human genomic DNA is selectively bound and separated from microbial DNA before next-generation sequencing (NGS) library construction. This microbiome enrichment technique yields a higher fraction of microbial sequencing reads and improved read quality resulting in a reduced cost of downstream data generation and analysis. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Rapid Detection of miRNA Using Nucleic Acids-templated AgNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Pratik

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ubiquitous RNA molecules (20-24nt) that negatively regulate target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Due to their roles in a variety of biological processes, the levels of miRNAs are dynamically changed in response to cellular and environmental signals....../AgNCs). I have showed that rapid, simple, sensitive and specific miRNA detection is possible. Two aspects of my research are 1) the implication of DNA secondary structure on the photoluminescence properties of DNA/AgNCs, 2) the development of a novel tool for miRNA detection in complex biological samples....... In the former, I revealed that the mismatched secondary structures of DNA-templates are important for the rapid formation of bright red fluorescence. Further, I suggest that the chromatic properties of DNA/AgNCs are modulated not only by sequence but also by secondary structure of DNA-templates. Moreover...

  13. Automated Device for Asynchronous Extraction of RNA, DNA, or Protein Biomarkers from Surrogate Patient Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitting, Anna L; Bordelon, Hali; Baglia, Mark L; Davis, Keersten M; Creecy, Amy E; Short, Philip A; Albert, Laura E; Karhade, Aditya V; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R; Adams, Nicholas M

    2016-12-01

    Many biomarker-based diagnostic methods are inhibited by nontarget molecules in patient samples, necessitating biomarker extraction before detection. We have developed a simple device that purifies RNA, DNA, or protein biomarkers from complex biological samples without robotics or fluid pumping. The device design is based on functionalized magnetic beads, which capture biomarkers and remove background biomolecules by magnetically transferring the beads through processing solutions arrayed within small-diameter tubing. The process was automated by wrapping the tubing around a disc-like cassette and rotating it past a magnet using a programmable motor. This device recovered biomarkers at ~80% of the operator-dependent extraction method published previously. The device was validated by extracting biomarkers from a panel of surrogate patient samples containing clinically relevant concentrations of (1) influenza A RNA in nasal swabs, (2) Escherichia coli DNA in urine, (3) Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in sputum, and (4) Plasmodium falciparum protein and DNA in blood. The device successfully extracted each biomarker type from samples representing low levels of clinically relevant infectivity (i.e., 7.3 copies/µL of influenza A RNA, 405 copies/µL of E. coli DNA, 0.22 copies/µL of TB DNA, 167 copies/µL of malaria parasite DNA, and 2.7 pM of malaria parasite protein). © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  14. A stabilizing reagent prevents cell-free DNA contamination by cellular DNA in plasma during blood sample storage and shipping as determined by digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S E; Lechner, J M; Williams, T; Fernando, M R

    2013-10-01

    To study the ability of a stabilizing reagent to prevent cellular DNA contamination of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma during whole blood sample storage and shipping. Samples were drawn from healthy donors into K₃EDTA and Cell-Free DNA BCTs (BCT) and stored at room temperature (RT). Aliquots were removed at specified time points and cfDNA was purified from the plasma. A Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) assay that amplifies a short β-actin gene fragment (136 bp) was used to measure the total plasma cfDNA (pDNA) concentration while a longer β-actin fragment (420 bp) was used to quantify genomic DNA (gDNA). In a follow-up experiment, blood samples drawn into the same types of tubes were shipped round trip by overnight air before cfDNA was isolated and analyzed. Blood stored in K₃EDTA tubes at RT showed increases in pDNA and gDNA concentrations over time. However, both pDNA and gDNA levels remained stable in BCT for at least seven days. On day 14, there was a 4.5-fold increase in pDNA in BCT as compared to >200-fold increase in K₃EDTA tubes. Likewise, gDNA increased DNA BCTs prevent gDNA contamination that may occur due to nucleated cell disruption during sample storage and shipping. This novel blood collection tube provides a method for obtaining stable cfDNA samples for rare target detection and accurate analysis while mitigating the threat of gDNA contamination. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  16. Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Salih; Yazar, Suleyman; Cetinkaya, Ulfet

    2012-12-01

    Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative results. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT), +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using primers that target the β-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month.

  17. Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Kuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative results. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT, +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification was performed using primers that target the β-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month.

  18. High frequency of parvovirus B19 DNA in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Anders; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is now a routine analysis and serves as a diagnostic marker as well as a complement or alternative to B19 serology. The clinical significance of a positive B19 DNA finding is however dependent on the type of tissue or body fluid...... analysed and of the immune status of the patient. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the clinical significance of B19 DNA positivity in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients. STUDY DESIGN: Parvovirus B19 DNA was analysed in paired bone marrow and serum samples by nested PCR technique. Serum was also analysed....... However, B19 DNA was detected by PCR in 13 of 50 (26%) bone marrow samples from these patients indicating a high frequency of persistent infection compared with previous reports of patient groups and healthy controls. In the study, 22 patients had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 7 of these RA patients were...

  19. [Investigation of BK and JC virus DNA positivities by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the clinical samples of patients with high risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Seyyal; Fidan, Kibriya; Bozdayı, Gülendam; Dalgıç, Aydın; Fidan, Işıl; Sucak, Gülsan; Müderris, Tuba

    2011-04-01

    Human polyomaviruses, namely BK (BKV) and JC (JCV) viruses are small DNA viruses that cause latent infections worldwide. Primary infections are usually acquired in the early periods of life and are generally asymptomatic. However BKV/JCV infections may cause severe clinical conditions in immunosuppressive patients such as bone marrow and solid organ transplantation or cancer patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the presence of BKV and JCV nucleic acids by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the clinical samples of patients with high risk. A total of 268 (62 blood, 206 urine) samples obtained from 115 immunocompromised patients hospitalized in Gazi University Hospital between July 2007 to January 2009, were included to the study. Viral nucleic acids were extracted from the samples with High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit (Roche, Germany). By using amplification mix (TIB Molbiol GmbH, Germany) that included primers targeting 174 (JCV) and 219 (BKV) base pair fragments of the small t antigen, and hybridization probes (Roche, Germany), nucleic acids were amplified with LightCycler (Roche Applied Science, Germany) system. As a result, total polyomavirus DNA positivity rate was found as 33.2% (89/268). When BKV and JCV DNA positivities were evaluated according to the samples, 25.2% (53/206) of urine samples yielded positive results for BKV, 14.5% (30/206) for JCV and 2.4% (5/206) for both BKV and JCV. Only one of the blood samples (1/62; 1.6%) were found positive by means of BKV DNA, while none of the blood samples were positive for JCV DNA. The distribution of BKV and JCV DNA positivity rates according to the inpatient clinics were as follows, respectively; 24.3% and 9.5% for pediatric nephrology, 9.6% and 8.2% for renal transplantation unit, 13.5% and 18.9% for adult nephrology, 30.8% and 15.4% for bone marrow transplantation unit, 22.9% and 8.6% for pediatric clinics. In samples from pediatric hematology patients, BKV

  20. Direct PCR amplification of forensic touch and other challenging DNA samples: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Sarah E; Bathrick, Abigail S

    2018-01-01

    DNA evidence sample processing typically involves DNA extraction, quantification, and STR amplification; however, DNA loss can occur at both the DNA extraction and quantification steps, which is not ideal for forensic evidence containing low levels of DNA. Direct PCR amplification of forensic unknown samples has been suggested as a means to circumvent extraction and quantification, thereby retaining the DNA typically lost during those procedures. Direct PCR amplification is a method in which a sample is added directly to an amplification reaction without being subjected to prior DNA extraction, purification, or quantification. It allows for maximum quantities of DNA to be targeted, minimizes opportunities for error and contamination, and reduces the time and monetary resources required to process samples, although data analysis may take longer as the increased DNA detection sensitivity of direct PCR may lead to more instances of complex mixtures. ISO 17025 accredited laboratories have successfully implemented direct PCR for limited purposes (e.g., high-throughput databanking analysis), and recent studies indicate that direct PCR can be an effective method for processing low-yield evidence samples. Despite its benefits, direct PCR has yet to be widely implemented across laboratories for the processing of evidentiary items. While forensic DNA laboratories are always interested in new methods that will maximize the quantity and quality of genetic information obtained from evidentiary items, there is often a lag between the advent of useful methodologies and their integration into laboratories. Delayed implementation of direct PCR of evidentiary items can be attributed to a variety of factors, including regulatory guidelines that prevent laboratories from omitting the quantification step when processing forensic unknown samples, as is the case in the United States, and, more broadly, a reluctance to validate a technique that is not widely used for evidence samples. The

  1. Comparison of seven methods for extraction of bacterial DNA from fecal and cecal samples of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Janina; Patron, Kevin; Legrand-Frossi, Christine; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Merlin, Christophe; Alauzet, Corentine; Lozniewski, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of bacterial DNA from fecal samples of mice is commonly performed in experimental studies. Although DNA extraction is a critical step in various molecular approaches, the efficiency of methods that may be used for DNA extraction from mice fecal samples has never been evaluated. We compared the efficiencies of six widely used commercial kits (MasterPure™ Gram Positive DNA Purification Kit, QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit; NucliSENS® easyMAG®, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep™, FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Feces and FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil) and a non-commercial method for DNA isolation from mice feces and cecal contents. DNA quantity and quality were assessed by fluorometry, spectrophotometry, gel electrophoresis and qPCR. Cell lysis efficiencies were evaluated by qPCR targeting three relevant bacteria in spiked specimens. For both feces and intestinal contents, the most efficient extraction method was the FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of DNA extraction kits for molecular diagnosis of human Blastocystis subtypes from fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hisao; Dogruman-Al, Funda; Dogruman-Ai, Funda; Turk, Songul; Kustimur, Semra; Balaban, Neriman; Sultan, Nedim

    2011-10-01

    Blastocystis sp. is now recognized as one of the most common intestinal parasite in human fecal examinations. Recently, PCR-based diagnostic methods of Blastocystis infection using direct DNA extraction from fresh fecal samples with commercially available kits are reported. Several kits have been developed, but little has been done in comparing the detective sensitivity between PCR methods using the commercial kits. In this study, we compared the detective sensitivity among five commercially available kits (MagNA Pure LC DNA Isolation Kit I, Roche; QuickGene SP Kit DNA, FujiFilm; NucleoSpin Plant II, Macherey-Nagel; QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, Qiagen; ZR Fecal DNA Kit, Zymo Research) and fecal culture method. In a preliminary test, the DNA isolated with two kits (FujiFilm and Macherey-Nagel) showed negative PCR, while the other three kits showed positive PCR. Then, DNA from 50 clinical samples that was Blastocystis-positive in the examination of fecal culture method were isolated with the three kits and 1.1 kbp SSU rRNA gene was detected with PCR. The positive rates of the three kits (Roche, Qiagen, and Zymo Research) were 10, 48 and 94%, respectively. The present study indicated that there is different detective sensitivity among the commercial kits, and fecal culture method is superior in detection rate and cost performance than DNA-elution kits for diagnosis of Blastocystis sp. subtypes.

  3. Conserved primers for DNA barcoding historical and modern samples from New Zealand and Antarctic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Selina; Waugh, John; Millar, Craig D; Lambert, David M

    2010-05-01

    Our ability to DNA barcode the birds of the world is based on the effective amplification and sequencing of a 648 base pair (bp) region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COI or cox1) gene. For many geographic regions the large numbers of vouchered specimens necessary for the construction of a DNA barcoding database have already been collected and are available in museums and other institutions. However, many of these specimens are old (>20 years) and are stored as either fixed study skins or dried skeletons. DNA extracted from such historical samples is typically degraded and, generally, only short DNA fragments can be recovered from such specimens making the recovery of the barcoding region as a single fragment difficult. We report two sets of conserved primers that allow the amplification of the entire DNA barcoding region in either three or five overlapping fragments. These primer sets allow the recovery of DNA barcodes from valuable historical specimens that in many cases are unique in that they are unable or unlikely to be collected again. We also report three new primers that in combination allow the effective amplification from modern samples of the entire DNA barcoding region as a single DNA fragment for 17 orders of Southern Hemisphere birds. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Targeted sampling of cementum for recovery of nuclear DNA from human teeth and the impact of common decontamination measures

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Denice; Kaidonis, John; Townsend, Grant; Hughes, Toby; Austin, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Teeth are a valuable source of DNA for identification of fragmented and degraded human remains. While the value of dental pulp as a source of DNA is well established, the quantity and presentation of DNA in the hard dental tissues has not been extensively studied. Without this knowledge common decontamination, sampling and DNA extraction techniques may be suboptimal. Targeted sampling of specific dental tissues could maximise DNA profiling success, while minimising the need for lab...

  5. Elimination of unaltered DNA in mixed clinical samples via nuclease-assisted minor-allele enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Liu, Yibin; Fontana, Rachel; Makrigiorgos, Alexander; Mamon, Harvey; Kulke, Matthew H; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2016-11-02

    Presence of excess unaltered, wild-type (WT) DNA providing no information of biological or clinical value often masks rare alterations containing diagnostic or therapeutic clues in cancer, prenatal diagnosis, infectious diseases or organ transplantation. With the surge of high-throughput technologies there is a growing demand for removing unaltered DNA over large pools-of-sequences. Here we present nuclease-assisted minor-allele enrichment with probe-overlap (NaME-PrO), a single-step approach with broad genome coverage that can remove WT-DNA from numerous sequences simultaneously, prior to genomic analysis. NaME-PrO employs a double-strand-DNA-specific nuclease and overlapping oligonucleotide-probes interrogating WT-DNA targets and guiding nuclease digestion to these sites. Mutation-containing DNA creates probe-DNA mismatches that inhibit digestion, thus subsequent DNA-amplification magnifies DNA-alterations at all selected targets. We demonstrate several-hundred-fold mutation enrichment in diverse human samples on multiple clinically relevant targets including tumor samples and circulating DNA in 50-plex reactions. Enrichment enables routine mutation detection at 0.01% abundance while by adjusting conditions it is possible to sequence mutations down to 0.00003% abundance, or to scan tumor-suppressor genes for rare mutations. NaME-PrO introduces a simple and highly parallel process to remove un-informative DNA sequences and unmask clinically and biologically useful alterations. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Post-coital vaginal sampling with nylon flocked swabs improves DNA typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Corina C G; Wiebosch, Danielle C; Kloosterman, Ate D; Sijen, Titia

    2010-02-01

    In the examination of sexual assault cases, DNA typing of vaginal samples mostly occurs after differential DNA extraction. Notwithstanding the differential extraction method, the DNA profiles from the seminal fraction often show the male alleles at low-level in combination with female alleles. This unfavorable ratio male to female DNA is due to a limited amount of sperm cells and an overwhelming quantity of female cells. In this study, we compared standard cotton and nylon flocked swabs for post-coital vaginal sampling. Twelve couples donated 88 vaginal swabs - 44 cotton, 44 nylon flocked - which were taken with a time since intercourse (TSI) up to 84 h. These vaginal swabs were sorted into categories on the basis of the TSI and submitted to (1) microscopic examination for the presence of male cells, (2) presumptive tests for the detection of seminal fluid and (3) DNA typing. Cellular elution was found to be 6-fold more efficient from the nylon flocked swabs. This makes microscopic analysis less time consuming as the higher cell yield and better cell morphology simplify detection of male cells. Both swab types reveal similar results regarding presumptive tests and male DNA typing. Positive presumptive tests (RSID-semen and PSA) were obtained up to 60 h TSI and male autosomal profiles up to 72 h TSI. Interestingly, over 50% of the samples negative for both presumptive tests resulted in informative male STR profiles. After differential extraction, less DNA was left on the nylon flocked swabs and more male DNA was isolated. Our results imply that the use of nylon flocked swabs for vaginal sampling will improve microscopic analysis and DNA typing in the medical forensic investigation of sexual assault cases.

  7. Comparison of Automated and Manual DNA Isolation Methods for DNA Methylation Analysis of Biopsy, Fresh Frozen, and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Colorectal Cancer Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Wichmann, Barnabás; Patai, Árpád V; Barták, Barbara K; Nagy, Zsófia B; Furi, István; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2015-12-01

    Automated DNA isolation can decrease hands-on time in routine pathology. Our aim was to apply automated DNA isolation and perform DNA methylation analyses. DNA isolation was performed manually from fresh frozen (CRC = 10, normal = 10) specimens and colonic biopsies (CRC = 10, healthy = 10) with QIAamp DNA Mini Kit and from FFPE blocks (CRC = 10, normal = 10) with QIAamp DNA FFPET Kit. Automated DNA isolation was performed with MagNA Pure DNA and Viral NA SV kit on MagNA Pure 96 system. DNA methylation of MAL, SFRP1, and SFRP2 were analyzed with methylation-specific high-resolution melting analysis. Yield of automatically isolated samples was equal in fresh frozens and significantly lower compared to manually isolated biopsy and FFPE samples. OD260/280 of fresh frozen and biopsy samples were similar after both isolations, automated isolation resulted in lower purity in FFPE samples. Both protocols resulted in similar OD260/230 from fresh frozens, automated isolation method was superior in biopsies and manual protocol in FFPE samples. DNA methylation of biopsies, fresh frozen samples were highly similar after both methods, results of automatically and manually isolated FFPE samples were different. Automated DNA isolation from fresh frozen samples can be suitable for high-throughput laboratories. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  8. Species-specific identification from incomplete sampling: applying DNA barcodes to monitoring invasive solanum plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling-through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application.

  9. Species-specific identification from incomplete sampling: applying DNA barcodes to monitoring invasive solanum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaohong; Zhu, Shuifang; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Lianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling-through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application.

  10. Detection of a diverse marine fish fauna using environmental DNA from seawater samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Francis Thomsen

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus. Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental

  11. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for polymerase chain reaction amplification of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) fecal DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, M I; Bertin, A; Squeo, F A; Cortés, A; Gouin, N

    2015-01-23

    Feces-based population genetic studies have become increasingly popular. However, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rates from fecal material vary depending on the species, populations, loci, and extraction protocols. Here, we assessed the PCR amplification success of three microsatellite markers and a segment of the mitochondrial control region of DNA extracted from field-collected feces of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) using two protocols - Qiagen DNA Stool Kit and 2 cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (2CTAB/PCI) method. Chelex resin treatment to remove inhibitors was also tested. Our results show that the mitochondrial locus was the most difficult to amplify. PCR success rates improved for all markers after Chelex treatment of extracted DNA, and 2CTAB/PCI method (95.83%) appeared to perform slightly better than stool kit (91.67%) for the nuclear markers. Amplification success was significantly influenced by the extraction method, Chelex treatment, and locus (P 0.89), but they decreased slightly after treatment for amplification of nuclear markers and markedly after treatment for amplification of the mitochondrial control region. Thus, we showed that Chelex treatment gives high PCR success, especially for nuclear markers, and adequate DNA extraction rates can be achieved from L. guanicoe feces even from non-fresh fecal material. Although not significant, 2CTAB/PCI method tended to provide higher successful amplification rates on a whole set of samples, suggesting that the method could be particularly useful when using small sample sizes.

  12. Significant finding of Bordetella holmesii DNA in nasopharyngeal samples from French patients with suspected pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Debruyne, Monique; Gibaud, Sophie Anne; Guillot, Sophie; Guiso, Nicole

    2011-12-01

    Pertussis is routinely diagnosed with real-time PCR based on insertion sequence IS481, which is not specific for Bordetella pertussis. We conducted a retrospective study using real-time PCRs specific for Bordetella pertussis and for Bordetella holmesii on 177 samples positive for IS481 PCR. Bordetella holmesii DNA was detected in 20.3% samples collected from adolescents and adults.

  13. Detection of a diverse marine fish fauna using environmental DNA from seawater samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Kielgast, Jos; Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    2012-01-01

    eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species......Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly...... for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from 1/2-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain...

  14. An Improved Method for High Quality Metagenomics DNA Extraction from Human and Environmental Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bag, Satyabrata; Saha, Bipasa; Mehta, Ojasvi

    2016-01-01

    and quantity from culturable and uncultured microbial species living in that environment. Proper lysis of heterogeneous community microbial cells without damaging their genomes is a major challenge. In this study, we have developed an improved method for extraction of community DNA from different environmental......To explore the natural microbial community of any ecosystems by high-resolution molecular approaches including next generation sequencing, it is extremely important to develop a sensitive and reproducible DNA extraction method that facilitate isolation of microbial DNA of sufficient purity...... and human origin samples. We introduced a combination of physical, chemical and mechanical lysis methods for proper lysis of microbial inhabitants. The community microbial DNA was precipitated by using salt and organic solvent. Both the quality and quantity of isolated DNA was compared with the existing...

  15. Novel circular DNA viruses in stool samples of wild-living chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkova, Olga; Victoria, Joseph; Li, Yingying; Keele, Brandon F; Sanz, Crickette; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Peeters, Martine; Travis, Dominic; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Wilson, Michael L; Pusey, Anne E; Hahn, Beatrice H; Delwart, Eric L

    2010-01-01

    Viral particles in stool samples from wild-living chimpanzees were analysed using random PCR amplification and sequencing. Sequences encoding proteins distantly related to the replicase protein of single-stranded circular DNA viruses were identified. Inverse PCR was used to amplify and sequence multiple small circular DNA viral genomes. The viral genomes were related in size and genome organization to vertebrate circoviruses and plant geminiviruses but with a different location for the stem-loop structure involved in rolling circle DNA replication. The replicase genes of these viruses were most closely related to those of the much smaller (approximately 1 kb) plant nanovirus circular DNA chromosomes. Because the viruses have characteristics of both animal and plant viruses, we named them chimpanzee stool-associated circular viruses (ChiSCV). Further metagenomic studies of animal samples will greatly increase our knowledge of viral diversity and evolution.

  16. Biases during DNA extraction affect bacterial and archaeal community profile of anaerobic digestion samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarain, Ashira; Mukhuba, Mashudu; Adeleke, Rasheed; Moeletsi, Mokhele

    2017-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste for biogas production has received much attention in recent years due to the increasing need for renewable energy and environmentally friendly waste management systems. Identification of the microbial community involved in AD aids in better understanding and optimising of the process. The choice of DNA extraction method is an integral step in any molecular biodiversity study. In the present study, potential biases introduced by DNA extraction methods were examined by comparing quality, quantity and representability of DNA extracted from AD samples using various extraction methods. In spite of the non-kit based method (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) yielding the largest quantity of DNA (approximately 44 µg DNA per gram dry weight), the extracted DNA contained PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, the quantity of extracted DNA was not proportional to species diversity. Diversity, determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), was strongly linked to the type of extraction method used. The spin-column filter-based kit that incorporated mechanical and chemical lysis (Macherey-Nagel kit) gave the best results in terms of bacterial and archaeal diversity (Shannon-Wiener indices: average 2.5 and 2.6, respectively). Furthermore, this kit was the most effective at lysing hard-to-lyse bacterial and archaeal cells. The choice of DNA extraction method significantly influences the reliability and comparability of results obtained during AD microbial ecology investigations. Moreover, the careful selection of the DNA extraction method is of particular importance when analysing AD samples since these samples are rich in PCR inhibitors and hard-to-lyse cells such as archaea and gram-positive bacteria.

  17. DNA extraction from aged skeletal samples for STR typing by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huel, René; Amory, Sylvain; Bilić, Ana; Vidović, Stojko; Jasaragić, Edin; Parsons, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    STR analysis of DNA extracted from skeletal samples can play an important role in the identification of missing persons. Here we present a method for the extraction of DNA from skeletal samples involving complete demineralization and digestion of the sample, followed by purification by silica binding. This method, together with the multiplex STR typing approach also presented, has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA profiles from degraded, aged skeletal remains from a wide range of environmental contexts. The methodological steps presented include bone decontamination and grinding, DNA extraction, repurification in the case of highly inhibited samples, quantification, STR multiplex amplification, and profile reporting guidelines. However, the conditions applied for amplification and the criteria for allele calling and profile submission must be based on the results of each laboratory's internal validation experiments involving the type of samples relevant to the project at hand. The methods presented here have permitted large-scale DNA-based identification of persons missing from mass disasters and armed conflict.

  18. Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples Correlate with Trawl Catches of Subarctic, Deepwater Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Møller, Peter Rask; Sigsgaard, Eva Egelyng; Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Jørgensen, Ole Ankjær; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    Remote polar and deepwater fish faunas are under pressure from ongoing climate change and increasing fishing effort. However, these fish communities are difficult to monitor for logistic and financial reasons. Currently, monitoring of marine fishes largely relies on invasive techniques such as bottom trawling, and on official reporting of global catches, which can be unreliable. Thus, there is need for alternative and non-invasive techniques for qualitative and quantitative oceanic fish surveys. Here we report environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding of seawater samples from continental slope depths in Southwest Greenland. We collected seawater samples at depths of 188-918 m and compared seawater eDNA to catch data from trawling. We used Illumina sequencing of PCR products to demonstrate that eDNA reads show equivalence to fishing catch data obtained from trawling. Twenty-six families were found with both trawling and eDNA, while three families were found only with eDNA and two families were found only with trawling. Key commercial fish species for Greenland were the most abundant species in both eDNA reads and biomass catch, and interpolation of eDNA abundances between sampling sites showed good correspondence with catch sizes. Environmental DNA sequence reads from the fish assemblages correlated with biomass and abundance data obtained from trawling. Interestingly, the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) showed high abundance of eDNA reads despite only a single specimen being caught, demonstrating the relevance of the eDNA approach for large species that can probably avoid bottom trawls in most cases. Quantitative detection of marine fish using eDNA remains to be tested further to ascertain whether this technique is able to yield credible results for routine application in fisheries. Nevertheless, our study demonstrates that eDNA reads can be used as a qualitative and quantitative proxy for marine fish assemblages in deepwater oceanic habitats. This relates

  19. Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples Correlate with Trawl Catches of Subarctic, Deepwater Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Francis Thomsen

    Full Text Available Remote polar and deepwater fish faunas are under pressure from ongoing climate change and increasing fishing effort. However, these fish communities are difficult to monitor for logistic and financial reasons. Currently, monitoring of marine fishes largely relies on invasive techniques such as bottom trawling, and on official reporting of global catches, which can be unreliable. Thus, there is need for alternative and non-invasive techniques for qualitative and quantitative oceanic fish surveys. Here we report environmental DNA (eDNA metabarcoding of seawater samples from continental slope depths in Southwest Greenland. We collected seawater samples at depths of 188-918 m and compared seawater eDNA to catch data from trawling. We used Illumina sequencing of PCR products to demonstrate that eDNA reads show equivalence to fishing catch data obtained from trawling. Twenty-six families were found with both trawling and eDNA, while three families were found only with eDNA and two families were found only with trawling. Key commercial fish species for Greenland were the most abundant species in both eDNA reads and biomass catch, and interpolation of eDNA abundances between sampling sites showed good correspondence with catch sizes. Environmental DNA sequence reads from the fish assemblages correlated with biomass and abundance data obtained from trawling. Interestingly, the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus showed high abundance of eDNA reads despite only a single specimen being caught, demonstrating the relevance of the eDNA approach for large species that can probably avoid bottom trawls in most cases. Quantitative detection of marine fish using eDNA remains to be tested further to ascertain whether this technique is able to yield credible results for routine application in fisheries. Nevertheless, our study demonstrates that eDNA reads can be used as a qualitative and quantitative proxy for marine fish assemblages in deepwater oceanic

  20. Study of DNA damage with a new system for irradiation of samples in a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: mrgual@instec.c [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, InSTEC, Avenida Salvador Allende y Luaces, Quinta de Los Molinos, Plaza de la Revolucion, Havana, AP 6163 (Cuba); Milian, Felix M. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, UESC (Brazil); Deppman, Airton [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Sao Paulo, IF-USP, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, no. 187, Ciudade Universitaria, Butanta, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Coelho, Paulo R.P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, we report results of a quantitative analysis of the effects of neutrons on DNA, and, specifically, the production of simple and double breaks of plasmid DNA in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of free-radical scavengers. The radiation damage to DNA was evaluated by electrophoresis through agarose gels. The neutron and gamma doses were measured separately with thermoluminescent detectors. In this work, we have also demonstrated usefulness of a new system for positioning and removing samples in channel BH3 of the IEA-R1 reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil) without necessity of interrupting the reactor operation.

  1. Ancient mitochondrial DNA from Malaysian hair samples: some indications of Southeast Asian population movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaut, François-X; Bellatti, M; Lahr, Marta Mirazon

    2006-01-01

    The late Pleistocene and early Holocene population history of Southeast Asia is not well-known. Our study provides new data on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula, and through an extensive comparison to the known mtDNA diversity in Southeast and East Asia, provides some new insights into the origins and historical geography of certain mtDNA lineages in the region. We extracted DNA from hair samples (dating back 100 years) preserved in the Duckworth Collection and belonging to two Peninsular Malaysian individuals identified as "Negrito." Ancient DNA was analyzed by sequencing hypervariable region I (HVS-I) of the mtDNA control region and the mtDNA region V length polymorphism. The results show that the maternal lineages of these individuals belong to a recently defined haplogroup B sub-branch called B4c2. A comparison of mitochondrial haplotypes and haplogroups with those of 10,349 East Asian individuals indicates their very restricted geographical distribution (southwestern China, Southeast Asia Peninsula, and Indonesia). Recalculation of the B4c2 age across all of East Asia ( approximately 13,000 years) and in different subregions/populations suggests its rapid diffusion in Southeast Asia between the end of the Last Glacial Maximum and the Neolithic expansion of the Holocene.

  2. Collecting, archiving and processing DNA from wildlife samples using FTA® databasing paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgoyne LA

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods involving the analysis of nucleic acids have become widespread in the fields of traditional biology and ecology, however the storage and transport of samples collected in the field to the laboratory in such a manner to allow purification of intact nucleic acids can prove problematical. Results FTA® databasing paper is widely used in human forensic analysis for the storage of biological samples and for purification of nucleic acids. The possible uses of FTA® databasing paper in the purification of DNA from samples of wildlife origin were examined, with particular reference to problems expected due to the nature of samples of wildlife origin. The processing of blood and tissue samples, the possibility of excess DNA in blood samples due to nucleated erythrocytes, and the analysis of degraded samples were all examined, as was the question of long term storage of blood samples on FTA® paper. Examples of the end use of the purified DNA are given for all protocols and the rationale behind the processing procedures is also explained to allow the end user to adjust the protocols as required. Conclusions FTA® paper is eminently suitable for collection of, and purification of nucleic acids from, biological samples from a wide range of wildlife species. This technology makes the collection and storage of such samples much simpler.

  3. Computational analyses of ancient pathogen DNA from herbarium samples: challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro eYoshida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of DNA sequencing technology to the study of ancient DNA has enabled the reconstruction of past epidemics from genomes of historically important plant-associated microbes. Recently, the genome sequences of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans were analyzed from 19th century herbarium specimens. These herbarium samples originated from infected potatoes collected during and after the Irish potato famine. Herbaria have therefore great potential to help elucidate past epidemics of crops, date the emergence of pathogens, and inform about past pathogen population dynamics. DNA preservation in herbarium samples was unexpectedly good, raising the possibility of a whole new research area in plant and microbial genomics. However, the recovered DNA can be extremely fragmented resulting in specific challenges in reconstructing genome sequences. Here we review some of the challenges in computational analyses of ancient DNA from herbarium samples. We also applied the recently developed linkage method to haplotype reconstruction of diploid or polyploid genomes from fragmented ancient DNA.

  4. [DNA Extraction of Cast-off Cells of Fingerprints from 502 Glue Fumigated Contact Samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-wen; Leng, Xue-feng; Wang, Shou-yu

    2015-12-01

    To establish a method of fingerprint position, sample transfer and fingerprint DNA extraction in contact samples. Sixty-six cases were visualized by 502 glue fingerprint fumigation. Two methods, ordinary wipe and acetone wipe, were used to transfer cast-off cells of fingerprints from testing samples, respectively. DNA was extracted and purified by ultramicro magnetic bead kit. The data was resolved on genetic analysis after amplification. In 33 samples, 30 samples got better STR analysis by acetone wipe method. The peak range was 1,000-4,000 RFU and peak shapes were equable. It was hard to get ideal STR typing by ordinary wipe method. The samples are visualized by 502 glue fingerprint fumigation and the case-off cells are transferred by acetone wipe method. The method shows better STR analysis result, which might be a better method for forensic science practice.

  5. Increased DNA amplification success of non-invasive genetic samples by successful removal of inhibitors from faecal samples collected in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Louise; Darden, Safi K.; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2011-01-01

    extracted from faeces is problematic because of high concentrations of inhibitors. Here we present a method for increasing the successful application of donor DNA extracted from faecal samples through inhibitor reduction. After standard extraction with a DNA stool kit we used a ‘Concentrated Chelex......The use of non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS) is becoming increasingly important in the study of wild animal populations. Obtaining DNA from faecal samples is of particular interest because faeces can be collected without deploying sample capture devices. However, PCR amplification of DNA...

  6. Study of microtip-based extraction and purification of DNA from human samples for portable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotouhi, Gareth

    DNA sample preparation is essential for genetic analysis. However, rapid and easy-to-use methods are a major challenge to obtaining genetic information. Furthermore, DNA sample preparation technology must follow the growing need for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. The current use of centrifuges, large robots, and laboratory-intensive protocols has to be minimized to meet the global challenge of limited access healthcare by bringing the lab to patients through POC devices. To address these challenges, a novel extraction method of genomic DNA from human samples is presented by using heat-cured polyethyleneimine-coated microtips generating a high electric field. The microtip extraction method is based on recent work using an electric field and capillary action integrated into an automated device. The main challenges to the method are: (1) to obtain a stable microtip surface for the controlled capture and release of DNA and (2) to improve the recovery of DNA from samples with a high concentration of inhibitors, such as human samples. The present study addresses these challenges by investigating the heat curing of polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated on the surface of the microtip. Heat-cured PEI-coated microtips are shown to control the capture and release of DNA. Protocols are developed for the extraction and purification of DNA from human samples. Heat-cured PEI-coated microtip methods of DNA sample preparation are used to extract genomic DNA from human samples. It is discovered through experiment that heat curing of a PEI layer on a gold-coated surface below 150°C could inhibit the signal of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Below 150°C, the PEI layer is not completely cured and dissolved off the gold-coated surface. Dissolved PEI binds with DNA to inhibit PCR. Heat curing of a PEI layer above 150°C on a gold-coated surface prevents inhibition to PCR and gel electrophoresis. In comparison to gold-coated microtips, the 225°C-cured PEI-coated microtips improve the

  7. DNA extraction in Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia spp. eggs in dogs stool samples applying thermal shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alejandro; Melo, Angélica; Romero, Fernando; Hidalgo, Víctor; Villanueva, José; Fonseca-Salamanca, Flery

    2018-02-01

    The extraction of DNA in taeniid eggs shows complications attached to the composition of stool samples and the high resistance of eggs to degradation. The objective of this study was to test a method of DNA extraction in taeniid eggs by applying a thermal shock to facilitate the chemical-enzymatic degradation of these elements. A group of six tubes containing 1 ml of dog stool sample was spiked with eggs of Echinococcus granulosus and another group of six with Taenia pisiformis. Samples were floated with supersaturated sugar solution and centrifuged. The upper portion of each tube (500 μl) was aspirated and deposited in 1.5 ml tubes. Three tubes from each group were incubated at -20 °C and then at 90 °C, the remaining three from each group, incubated at room temperature. Proteinase K and lysis buffer were added to each tube and incubated for 12 h at 58 °C. The lysis effect was evaluated by microscopy at 3, 6 and 12 h and integrity by electrophoresis in 1% agarose gels. With the same experimental scheme, the thermal shock effect was evaluated in extractions of 1, 2, 3 and 4 eggs of each species and the DNA was quantified. Additionally, the protocol was applied in samples of 4 dogs diagnosed with natural infection by Taeniidae worms. Finally, all the extractions were tested by PCR amplification. Both E. granulosus and T. pisiformis eggs showed a similar response in the tests. In samples without treatment, the lysis effect was poor and showed no differences over time, but in those subjected to thermal shock, eggs degradation increased with time. In both treatments, there was no DNA loss integrity. The protocol applied to limited amounts of eggs yielded PCR products in 100% of the samples exposed to thermal shock, allowing PCR amplifications up to 1 egg. In non-exposed samples, the results were not replicable. However, DNA quantification showed low values in both treatments. In turn, DNA extractions with thermal shock in infected dog samples

  8. Limitations and recommendations for successful DNA extraction from forensic soil samples: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer M; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Soil is commonly used in forensic casework to provide discriminatory power to link a suspect to a crime scene. Standard analyses examine the intrinsic properties of soils, including mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour; however, soils can also support a vast amount of organisms, which can be examined using DNA fingerprinting techniques. Many previous genetic analyses have relied on patterns of fragment length variation produced by amplification of unidentified taxa in the soil extract. In contrast, the development of advanced DNA sequencing technologies now provides the ability to generate a detailed picture of soil microbial communities and the taxa present, allowing for improved discrimination between samples. However, DNA must be efficiently extracted from the complex soil matrix to achieve accurate and reproducible DNA sequencing results, and extraction efficacy is highly dependent on the soil type and method used. As a result, a consideration of soil properties is important when estimating the likelihood of successful DNA extraction. This would include a basic understanding of soil components, their interactions with DNA molecules and the factors that affect such interactions. This review highlights some important considerations required prior to DNA extraction and discusses the use of common chemical reagents in soil DNA extraction protocols to achieve maximum efficacy. Together, the information presented here is designed to facilitate informed decisions about the most appropriate sampling and extraction methodology, relevant both to the soil type and the details of a specific forensic case, to ensure sufficient DNA yield and enable successful analysis. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detecting and estimating contamination of human DNA samples in sequencing and array-based genotype data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Goo; Flickinger, Matthew; Hetrick, Kurt N; Romm, Jane M; Doheny, Kimberly F; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Boehnke, Michael; Kang, Hyun Min

    2012-11-02

    DNA sample contamination is a serious problem in DNA sequencing studies and may result in systematic genotype misclassification and false positive associations. Although methods exist to detect and filter out cross-species contamination, few methods to detect within-species sample contamination are available. In this paper, we describe methods to identify within-species DNA sample contamination based on (1) a combination of sequencing reads and array-based genotype data, (2) sequence reads alone, and (3) array-based genotype data alone. Analysis of sequencing reads allows contamination detection after sequence data is generated but prior to variant calling; analysis of array-based genotype data allows contamination detection prior to generation of costly sequence data. Through a combination of analysis of in silico and experimentally contaminated samples, we show that our methods can reliably detect and estimate levels of contamination as low as 1%. We evaluate the impact of DNA contamination on genotype accuracy and propose effective strategies to screen for and prevent DNA contamination in sequencing studies. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of PCV-2 DNA in stool samples from infants vaccinated with RotaTeq®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esona, Mathew D; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Yen, Catherine; Parashar, Umesh D; Gentsch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D; LaRussa, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Rotarix® and RotaTeq® vaccines have led to a dramatic reduction in rotavirus disease worldwide. However, the detection of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1) and 2 (PCV-2) DNA in these vaccines raised some safety concerns. Studies examining shedding of rotavirus in stool from rotavirus vaccine recipients have been performed but no published data exist regarding the shedding of PCV virus in stools of vaccinees. The goal of this study was to determine if PCV-1 and/or PCV-2 is shed in the feces of infants vaccinated with RotaTeq®. Using multiple PCR assays for detection of PCV DNA, we tested for PCV-1 and PCV-2 in 826 stool swab samples collected serially during the first 9 d after vaccination from 102 children vaccinated with RotaTeq®. Since the vaccine is recommended and uptake is high, we did not have samples from unvaccinated infants. A total of 235 (28.5%) samples from 59 vaccine recipients were positive for PCV-2 DNA by one or more assays used in this study. PCV-1 DNA was not detected in RotaTeq® or any of the stool swab extracts. Twenty-two of the 102 vaccine recipients (21.6%) shed RotaTeq® vaccine strain and 10 of these vaccinees (9.8%) were shedding both PCV DNA and rotavirus vaccine RNA. PCV DNA was detected up to 9 d post vaccination and was most frequently detected in the first 5 d after vaccination. This study demonstrated shedding of PCV-2 DNA by RotaTeq® vaccinees but we did not find evidence that this DNA was associated with viable PCV. Findings from this study support the continued use of current rotavirus vaccines. PMID:24104203

  11. High-quality mtDNA control region sequences from 680 individuals sampled across the Netherlands to establish a national forensic mtDNA reference database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Chaitanya (Lakshmi); M. van Oven (Mannis); S. Brauer (Silke); B. Zimmermann (Bettina); G. Huber (Gabriela); C. Xavier (Catarina); W. Parson (Walther); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for maternal lineage identification often marks the last resort when investigating forensic and missing-person cases involving highly degraded biological materials. As with all comparative DNA testing, a match between evidence and reference sample

  12. Database extraction strategies for low-template evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleka, Øyvind; Dørum, Guro; Haned, Hinda; Gill, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Often in forensic cases, the profile of at least one of the contributors to a DNA evidence sample is unknown and a database search is needed to discover possible perpetrators. In this article we consider two types of search strategies to extract suspects from a database using methods based on probability arguments. The performance of the proposed match scores is demonstrated by carrying out a study of each match score relative to the level of allele drop-out in the crime sample, simulating low-template DNA. The efficiency was measured by random man simulation and we compared the performance using the SGM Plus kit and the ESX 17 kit for the Norwegian population, demonstrating that the latter has greatly enhanced power to discover perpetrators of crime in large national DNA databases. The code for the database extraction strategies will be prepared for release in the R-package forensim. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. LAMP assay for rapid diagnosis of cow DNA in goat milk and meat samples

    OpenAIRE

    Deb, R.; Sengar, G. S.; Singh, U.; Kumar, S.; Raja, T. V.; Alex, R.; Alyethodi, R. R.; Prakash, B.

    2017-01-01

    Animal species detection is one of the crucial steps for consumer’s food analysis. In the present study we developed an in-house built loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of adulterated cow DNA in goat milk/meat samples. The cow milk/tissue DNA in goat milk/meat samples were identified in the developed LAMP assay by either naked eye visualizing with SYBR Green I dyes or by detecting the typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. This test can detect up ...

  14. Determining the optimal forensic DNA analysis procedure following investigation of sample quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedell, Ronny; Hedman, Johannes; Mostad, Petter

    2017-07-17

    Crime scene traces of various types are routinely sent to forensic laboratories for analysis, generally with the aim of addressing questions about the source of the trace. The laboratory may choose to analyse the samples in different ways depending on the type and quality of the sample, the importance of the case and the cost and performance of the available analysis methods. Theoretically well-founded guidelines for the choice of analysis method are, however, lacking in most situations. In this paper, it is shown how such guidelines can be created using Bayesian decision theory. The theory is applied to forensic DNA analysis, showing how the information from the initial qPCR analysis can be utilized. It is assumed the alternatives for analysis are using a standard short tandem repeat (STR) DNA analysis assay, using the standard assay and a complementary assay, or the analysis may be cancelled following quantification. The decision is based on information about the DNA amount and level of DNA degradation of the forensic sample, as well as case circumstances and the cost for analysis. Semi-continuous electropherogram models are used for simulation of DNA profiles and for computation of likelihood ratios. It is shown how tables and graphs, prepared beforehand, can be used to quickly find the optimal decision in forensic casework.

  15. Genetic identification of missing persons: DNA analysis of human remains and compromised samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Cubero, M J; Saiz, M; Martinez-Gonzalez, L J; Alvarez, J C; Eisenberg, A J; Budowle, B; Lorente, J A

    2012-01-01

    Human identification has made great strides over the past 2 decades due to the advent of DNA typing. Forensic DNA typing provides genetic data from a variety of materials and individuals, and is applied to many important issues that confront society. Part of the success of DNA typing is the generation of DNA databases to help identify missing persons and to develop investigative leads to assist law enforcement. DNA databases house DNA profiles from convicted felons (and in some jurisdictions arrestees), forensic evidence, human remains, and direct and family reference samples of missing persons. These databases are essential tools, which are becoming quite large (for example the US Database contains 10 million profiles). The scientific, governmental and private communities continue to work together to standardize genetic markers for more effective worldwide data sharing, to develop and validate robust DNA typing kits that contain the reagents necessary to type core identity genetic markers, to develop technologies that facilitate a number of analytical processes and to develop policies to make human identity testing more effective. Indeed, DNA typing is integral to resolving a number of serious criminal and civil concerns, such as solving missing person cases and identifying victims of mass disasters and children who may have been victims of human trafficking, and provides information for historical studies. As more refined capabilities are still required, novel approaches are being sought, such as genetic testing by next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry, chip arrays and pyrosequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms offer the potential to analyze severely compromised biological samples, to determine the facial phenotype of decomposed human remains and to predict the bioancestry of individuals, a new focus in analyzing this type of markers. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The molecular characterization of a depurinated trial DNA sample can be a model to understand the reliability of the results in forensic genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Paolo; Previderè, Carlo; Sorçaburu-Cigliero, Solange; Marrubini, Giorgio; Alù, Milena; Barbaro, Anna M; Carnevali, Eugenia; Carracedo, Angel; Casarino, Lucia; Consoloni, Lara; Corato, Silvia; Domenici, Ranieri; Fabbri, Matteo; Giardina, Emiliano; Grignani, Pierangela; Baldassarra, Stefania Lonero; Moratti, Marco; Nicolin, Vanessa; Pelotti, Susi; Piccinini, Andrea; Pitacco, Paola; Plizza, Laura; Resta, Nicoletta; Ricci, Ugo; Robino, Carlo; Salvaderi, Luca; Scarnicci, Francesca; Schneider, Peter M; Seidita, Gregorio; Trizzino, Lucia; Turchi, Chiara; Turrina, Stefania; Vatta, Paolo; Vecchiotti, Carla; Verzeletti, Andrea; De Stefano, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    genotypes was found to be higher for participants carrying out a limited number of amplifications, insufficient to define the correct genotypes from damaged DNA samples such as the TS. Finally, from a dataset containing about 4500 amplicons, the frequency of PCR artifacts (allele dropout, allele drop-in, and allelic imbalance) was calculated for each kit showing that the new chemistry of the kits is not able to overcome the concern of template-related factors. The results of this collaborative exercise emphasize the advantages of using a standardized degraded DNA sample in the definition of which analytical parameters are critical for the outcome of the STR profiles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Divergence between samples of chimpanzee and human DNA sequences is 5%, counting indels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Roy J.

    2002-01-01

    Five chimpanzee bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences (described in GenBank) have been compared with the best matching regions of the human genome sequence to assay the amount and kind of DNA divergence. The conclusion is the old saw that we share 98.5% of our DNA sequence with chimpanzee is probably in error. For this sample, a better estimate would be that 95% of the base pairs are exactly shared between chimpanzee and human DNA. In this sample of 779 kb, the divergence due to base substitution is 1.4%, and there is an additional 3.4% difference due to the presence of indels. The gaps in alignment are present in about equal amounts in the chimp and human sequences. They occur equally in repeated and nonrepeated sequences, as detected by repeatmasker (http://ftp.genome.washington.edu/RM/RepeatMasker.html). PMID:12368483

  18. 75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... Environmental Health (NCEH) for processing. DNA samples from these specimens are being made available to the... and control of selected diseases; (3) to monitor trends in risk behaviors and environmental exposures... present the results of this project? (C). Data Dictionary: Includes (1) NCHS Restricted Data Dictionary (2...

  19. Identification of breast cancer DNA methylation markers optimized for fine-needle aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Dawei; Lewis, Cheryl M; Sarode, Venetia; Chen, Min; Ma, Xiaotu; Lazorwitz, Aaron M; Rao, Roshni; Leitch, Marilyn; Moldrem, Amy; Andrews, Valerie; Gazdar, Adi; Euhus, David

    2013-12-01

    Random periareolar fine-needle aspiration (RP-FNA) is increasingly used in trials of breast cancer prevention for biomarker assessments. DNA methylation markers may have value as surrogate endpoint biomarkers, but this requires identification of biologically relevant markers suitable for paucicellular, lymphocyte-contaminated clinical samples. Unbiased whole-genome 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AZA)-induced gene expression assays, followed by several phases of qualitative and quantitative methylation-specific PCR (MSP) testing, were used to identify novel breast cancer DNA methylation markers optimized for clinical FNA samples. The initial 5AZA experiment identified 453 genes whose expression was potentially regulated by promoter region methylation. Informatics filters excluded 273 genes unlikely to yield useful DNA methylation markers. MSP assays were designed for 271 of the remaining genes and, ultimately, 33 genes were identified that were differentially methylated in clinical breast cancer samples, as compared with benign RP-FNA samples, and never methylated in lymphocytes. A subset of these markers was validated by quantitative multiplex MSP in extended clinical sample sets. Using a novel permutation method for analysis of quantitative methylation data, PSAT1, GNE, CPNE8, and CXCL14 were found to correlate strongly with specific clinical and pathologic features of breast cancer. In general, our approach identified markers methylated in a smaller subpopulation of tumor cells than those identified in published methylation array studies. Clinically relevant DNA methylation markers were identified using a 5AZA-induced gene expression approach. These breast cancer-relevant, FNA-optimized DNA methylation markers may have value as surrogate endpoint biomarkers in RP-FNA studies. ©2013 AACR.

  20. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eduardoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp. Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS of (multiplex PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less, and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples, and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2 as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15 up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS

  1. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardoff, Mayra; Xavier, Catarina; Strobl, Christina; Casas-Vargas, Andrea; Parson, Walther

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR) is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS) protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp). Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) of (multiplex) PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC) methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less), and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples), and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2) as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15) up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS method for

  2. Freezing fecal samples prior to DNA extraction affects the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio determined by downstream quantitative PCR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Bergström, Anders; Licht, Tine Rask

    Freezing stool samples prior to DNA extraction and downstream analysis is widely used in metagenomic studies of the human microbiota but may affect the inferred community composition. In this study DNA was extracted either directly or following freeze storage of three homogenized human fecal...... samples using three different extraction methods. No consistent differences were observed in DNA yields between extractions on fresh and frozen samples, however differences were observed between extraction methods. Quantitative PCR analysis was subsequently performed on all DNA samples using six different...

  3. Freezing fecal samples prior to DNA extraction affects the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio determined by downstream quantitative PCR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Bergström, Anders; Licht, Tine Rask

    2012-01-01

    Freezing stool samples prior to DNA extraction and downstream analysis is widely used in metagenomic studies of the human microbiota but may affect the inferred community composition. In this study, DNA was extracted either directly or following freeze storage of three homogenized human fecal...... samples using three different extraction methods. No consistent differences were observed in DNA yields between extractions on fresh and frozen samples; however, differences were observed between extraction methods. Quantitative PCR analysis was subsequently performed on all DNA samples using six...

  4. On-Chip integration of sample pretreatment and Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brivio, Monica; Snakenborg, Detlef; Søgaard, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a modular lab-on-a-chip system for integrated sample pre-treatment (PT) by magnetophoresis and DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It consists of a polymer-based microfluidic chip mounted on a custom-made thermocycler (Figure 1) and includes a simple...... and efficient method for switching the liquid flow between the PT and PCR chamber. Purification of human genomic DNA from EDTA-treated blood and multiplex PCR were successfully carried out on-chip using the developed lab-on-a-chip system....

  5. Correcting for Sample Contamination in Genotype Calling of DNA Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, Matthew; Jun, Goo; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Boehnke, Michael; Kang, Hyun Min

    2015-08-06

    DNA sample contamination is a frequent problem in DNA sequencing studies and can result in genotyping errors and reduced power for association testing. We recently described methods to identify within-species DNA sample contamination based on sequencing read data, showed that our methods can reliably detect and estimate contamination levels as low as 1%, and suggested strategies to identify and remove contaminated samples from sequencing studies. Here we propose methods to model contamination during genotype calling as an alternative to removal of contaminated samples from further analyses. We compare our contamination-adjusted calls to calls that ignore contamination and to calls based on uncontaminated data. We demonstrate that, for moderate contamination levels (5%-20%), contamination-adjusted calls eliminate 48%-77% of the genotyping errors. For lower levels of contamination, our contamination correction methods produce genotypes nearly as accurate as those based on uncontaminated data. Our contamination correction methods are useful generally, but are particularly helpful for sample contamination levels from 2% to 20%. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Establishment of a method of anonymization of DNA samples in genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuo; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kato, Naoya; Imai, Yasushi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nagai, Ryozo; Omata, Masao

    2003-01-01

    As the number of the genetic studies has rapidly increased in recent years, there has been growing concern that the privacy of the participants in such studies can be invaded unless effective measures are adopted to protect confidentiality. It is crucial for the scientific community to establish a method to anonymize DNA samples so that the public will trust genetic researchers. Here, we present a reliable and practical method of making DNA samples used in the genetic research anonymous. It assures complete anonymity by coding samples and personal information twice. Since it does not require equipment, such as bar-code readers or a software package, its cost is nominal compared with the laboratory costs. All institutions engaged in genetic research may wish to take measures such as the one described here to ensure the privacy and confidentiality of the participants in their genetic studies.

  7. Majority of divergence between closely related DNA samples is due to indels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Roy J.; Rowen, Lee; Williams, John; Cameron, R. Andrew

    2003-01-01

    It was recently shown that indels are responsible for more than twice as many unmatched nucleotides as are base substitutions between samples of chimpanzee and human DNA. A larger sample has now been examined and the result is similar. The number of indels is ≈1/12th of the number of base substitutions and the average length of the indels is 36 nt, including indels up to 10 kb. The ratio (Ru) of unpaired nucleotides attributable to indels to those attributable to substitutions is 3.0 for this 2 million-nt chimp DNA sample compared with human. There is similar evidence of a large value of Ru for sea urchins from the polymorphism of a sample of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus DNA (Ru = 3–4). Other work indicates that similarly, per nucleotide affected, large differences are seen for indels in the DNA polymorphism of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Ru = 51). For the insect Drosophila melanogaster a high value of Ru (4.5) has been determined. For the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the polymorphism data are incomplete but high values of Ru are likely. Comparison of two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 shows a preponderance of indels. Because these six examples are from very distant systematic groups the implication is that in general, for alignments of closely related DNA, indels are responsible for many more unmatched nucleotides than are base substitutions. Human genetic evidence suggests that indels are a major source of gene defects, indicating that indels are a significant source of evolutionary change. PMID:12672966

  8. Study of DNA damage with a new system for irradiation of samples in a nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, Maritza R; Milian, Felix M; Deppman, Airton; Coelho, Paulo R P

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we report results of a quantitative analysis of the effects of neutrons on DNA, and, specifically, the production of simple and double breaks of plasmid DNA in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of free-radical scavengers. The radiation damage to DNA was evaluated by electrophoresis through agarose gels. The neutron and gamma doses were measured separately with thermoluminescent detectors. In this work, we have also demonstrated usefulness of a new system for positioning and removing samples in channel BH#3 of the IEA-R1 reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (Brazil) without necessity of interrupting the reactor operation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term storage of samples for flow cytometric DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindeløv, L L; Christensen, I J; Keiding, N

    1983-01-01

    A simple procedure for long-term storage of cells for flow cytometric DNA analysis was developed and tested. The cells were stored as single cells or fine-needle aspirates suspended in a citrate buffer with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or as small blocks of tissue from solid tumors. The cells were...... the capacity of our flow cytometer. The method was a prerequisite for developing an accurate standardization procedure for DNA content determination....... stored for up to one year by freezing at -80 degrees C. Statistical analysis of the results showed no change in the fractions of cells in the cell cycle phases as determined by deconvolution of the DNA-histograms. It was found that in addition to the intrinsic sample variation from the parameter...

  10. Development of a real-time PCR to detect Demodex canis DNA in different tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Ivan; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga; Bardagí, Mar; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís

    2011-02-01

    The present study reports the development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Demodex canis DNA on different tissue samples. The technique amplifies a 166 bp of D. canis chitin synthase gene (AB 080667) and it has been successfully tested on hairs extracted with their roots and on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded skin biopsies. The real-time PCR amplified on the hairs of all 14 dogs with a firm diagnosis of demodicosis and consistently failed to amplify on negative controls. Eleven of 12 skin biopsies with a morphologic diagnosis of canine demodicosis were also positive. Sampling hairs on two skin points (lateral face and interdigital skin), D. canis DNA was detected on nine of 51 healthy dogs (17.6%) a much higher percentage than previously reported with microscopic studies. Furthermore, it is foreseen that if the number of samples were increased, the percentage of positive dogs would probably also grow. Moreover, in four of the six dogs with demodicosis, the samples taken from non-lesioned skin were positive. This finding, if confirmed in further studies, suggests that demodicosis is a generalized phenomenon in canine skin, due to proliferation of local mite populations, even though macroscopic lesions only appear in certain areas. The real-time PCR technique to detect D. canis DNA described in this work is a useful tool to advance our understanding of canine demodicosis.

  11. Extraction and quantification of phosphorus derived from DNA and lipids in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskova, Julia V; Rydin, Emil; Sjöberg, Per J R

    2013-10-15

    Understanding the flux and turnover of phosphorus (P) in the environment is important due to the key role P plays in eutrophication and in the ambition to find cost-effective measures to mitigate it. Orthophosphate diesters, including DNA and phospholipids (PLs), represent a potentially degradable P pool that could support future primary production and eutrophication. In this study, extraction techniques were optimized and combined with colorimetric determination of extracted P to provide a selective quantification method for DNA-P and PL-P in agricultural soil, sediment and composted manure. The proposed method is rapid and reproducible with an RSD of DNA and PL standards, was over 95% for both DNA and PLs. The method can be used for the determination of the pool size of the two organic P fractions. Results show that DNA-P comprises 3.0% by weight of the total P (TP) content in the studied soil, 10.4% in the sediment and 8.4% in the compost samples. The values for PL-P are 0.5%, 6.0% and 1.7% for soil, sediment and compost, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental DNA from seawater samples correlate with trawl catches of Subarctic, deepwater fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Møller, Peter Rask; Sigsgaard, Eva Egelyng

    2016-01-01

    Remote polar and deepwater fish faunas are under pressure from ongoing climate change and increasing fishing effort. However, these fish communities are difficult to monitor for logistic and financial reasons. Currently, monitoring of marine fishes largely relies on invasive techniques such as bo......Remote polar and deepwater fish faunas are under pressure from ongoing climate change and increasing fishing effort. However, these fish communities are difficult to monitor for logistic and financial reasons. Currently, monitoring of marine fishes largely relies on invasive techniques...... such as bottom trawling, and on official reporting of global catches, which can be unreliable. Thus, there is need for alternative and non-invasive techniques for qualitative and quantitative oceanic fish surveys. Here we report environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding of seawater samples from continental slope...... depths in Southwest Greenland. We collected seawater samples at depths of 188-918 m and compared seawater eDNA to catch data from trawling. We used Illumina sequencing of PCR products to demonstrate that eDNA reads show equivalence to fishing catch data obtained from trawling. Twenty-six families were...

  13. DTM: Deformable Template Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyungtae; Kwon, Heesung; Robinson, Ryan M.; Nothwang, William D.

    2016-01-01

    A novel template matching algorithm that can incorporate the concept of deformable parts, is presented in this paper. Unlike the deformable part model (DPM) employed in object recognition, the proposed template-matching approach called Deformable Template Matching (DTM) does not require a training step. Instead, deformation is achieved by a set of predefined basic rules (e.g. the left sub-patch cannot pass across the right patch). Experimental evaluation of this new method using the PASCAL VO...

  14. Rectification of artificial molecular recombination with the use of high fidelity enzyme in the amplification of 16S rDNA sequences from Stool sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Nema

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliance on routinely used taq polymerases for amplification may generate spurious sequences, especially in metagenomic studies utilizing complex mixtures of various DNA templates. Use of high fidelity enzymes and verification of the sequences using various software tools before submission to the databases ensures better quality and confidence.

  15. Automated digital microfluidic sample preparation for next-generation DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanyoup; Bartsch, Michael S; Renzi, Ronald F; He, Jim; Van de Vreugde, James L; Claudnic, Mark R; Patel, Kamlesh D

    2011-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is a promising tool for identifying and characterizing unknown pathogens, but its usefulness in time-critical biodefense and public health applications is currently limited by the lack of fast, efficient, and reliable automated DNA sample preparation methods. To address this limitation, we are developing a digital microfluidic (DMF) platform to function as a fluid distribution hub, enabling the integration of multiple subsystem modules into an automated NGS library sample preparation system. A novel capillary interface enables highly repeatable transfer of liquid between the DMF device and the external fluidic modules, allowing both continuous-flow and droplet-based sample manipulations to be performed in one integrated system. Here, we highlight the utility of the DMF hub platform and capillary interface for automating two key operations in the NGS sample preparation workflow. Using an in-line contactless conductivity detector in conjunction with the capillary interface, we demonstrate closed-loop automated fraction collection of target analytes from a continuous-flow sample stream into droplets on the DMF device. Buffer exchange and sample cleanup, the most repeated steps in NGS library preparation, are also demonstrated on the DMF platform using a magnetic bead assay and achieving an average DNA recovery efficiency of 80%±4.8%. Copyright © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequencing the hypervariable regions of human mitochondrial DNA using massively parallel sequencing: Enhanced data acquisition for DNA samples encountered in forensic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carey; Peters, Dixie; Warshauer, David; King, Jonathan; Budowle, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA testing is a useful tool in the analysis of forensic biological evidence. In cases where nuclear DNA is damaged or limited in quantity, the higher copy number of mitochondrial genomes available in a sample can provide information about the source of a sample. Currently, Sanger-type sequencing (STS) is the primary method to develop mitochondrial DNA profiles. This method is laborious and time consuming. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) can increase the amount of information obtained from mitochondrial DNA samples while improving turnaround time by decreasing the numbers of manipulations and more so by exploiting high throughput analyses to obtain interpretable results. In this study 18 buccal swabs, three different tissue samples from five individuals, and four bones samples from casework were sequenced at hypervariable regions I and II using STS and MPS. Sample enrichment for STS and MPS was PCR-based. Library preparation for MPS was performed using Nextera® XT DNA Sample Preparation Kit and sequencing was performed on the MiSeq™ (Illumina, Inc.). MPS yielded full concordance of base calls with STS results, and the newer methodology was able to resolve length heteroplasmy in homopolymeric regions. This study demonstrates short amplicon MPS of mitochondrial DNA is feasible, can provide information not possible with STS, and lays the groundwork for development of a whole genome sequencing strategy for degraded samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vertebrate DNA in fecal samples from bonobos and gorillas: evidence for meat consumption or artefact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hofreiter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deciphering the behavioral repertoire of great apes is a challenge for several reasons. First, due to their elusive behavior in dense forest environments, great ape populations are often difficult to observe. Second, members of the genus Pan are known to display a great variety in their behavioral repertoire; thus, observations from one population are not necessarily representative for other populations. For example, bonobos (Pan paniscus are generally believed to consume almost no vertebrate prey. However, recent observations show that at least some bonobo populations may consume vertebrate prey more commonly than previously believed. We investigated the extent of their meat consumption using PCR amplification of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA segments from DNA extracted from bonobo feces. As a control we also attempted PCR amplifications from gorilla feces, a species assumed to be strictly herbivorous. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found evidence for consumption of a variety of mammalian species in about 16% of the samples investigated. Moreover, 40% of the positive DNA amplifications originated from arboreal monkeys. However, we also found duiker and monkey mtDNA in the gorilla feces, albeit in somewhat lower percentages. Notably, the DNA sequences isolated from the two ape species fit best to the species living in the respective regions. This result suggests that the sequences are of regional origin and do not represent laboratory contaminants. CONCLUSIONS: Our results allow at least three possible and mutually not exclusive conclusions. First, all results may represent contamination of the feces by vertebrate DNA from the local environment. Thus, studies investigating a species' diet from feces DNA may be unreliable due to the low copy number of DNA originating from diet items. Second, there is some inherent difference between the bonobo and gorilla feces, with only the later ones being contaminated. Third, similar to bonobos, for

  18. Vertebrate DNA in Fecal Samples from Bonobos and Gorillas: Evidence for Meat Consumption or Artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreiter, Michael; Kreuz, Eva; Eriksson, Jonas; Schubert, Grit; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2010-01-01

    Background Deciphering the behavioral repertoire of great apes is a challenge for several reasons. First, due to their elusive behavior in dense forest environments, great ape populations are often difficult to observe. Second, members of the genus Pan are known to display a great variety in their behavioral repertoire; thus, observations from one population are not necessarily representative for other populations. For example, bonobos (Pan paniscus) are generally believed to consume almost no vertebrate prey. However, recent observations show that at least some bonobo populations may consume vertebrate prey more commonly than previously believed. We investigated the extent of their meat consumption using PCR amplification of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segments from DNA extracted from bonobo feces. As a control we also attempted PCR amplifications from gorilla feces, a species assumed to be strictly herbivorous. Principal Findings We found evidence for consumption of a variety of mammalian species in about 16% of the samples investigated. Moreover, 40% of the positive DNA amplifications originated from arboreal monkeys. However, we also found duiker and monkey mtDNA in the gorilla feces, albeit in somewhat lower percentages. Notably, the DNA sequences isolated from the two ape species fit best to the species living in the respective regions. This result suggests that the sequences are of regional origin and do not represent laboratory contaminants. Conclusions Our results allow at least three possible and mutually not exclusive conclusions. First, all results may represent contamination of the feces by vertebrate DNA from the local environment. Thus, studies investigating a species' diet from feces DNA may be unreliable due to the low copy number of DNA originating from diet items. Second, there is some inherent difference between the bonobo and gorilla feces, with only the later ones being contaminated. Third, similar to bonobos, for which the

  19. Comparison of DNA extraction methods from small samples of newborn screening cards suitable for retrospective perinatal viral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Gai L; Highet, Amanda R; Gibson, Catherine S; Goldwater, Paul N; O'Callaghan, Michael E; Alvino, Emily R; MacLennan, Alastair H

    2011-04-01

    Reliable detection of viral DNA in stored newborn screening cards (NSC) would give important insight into possible silent infection during pregnancy and around birth. We sought a DNA extraction method with sufficient sensitivity to detect low copy numbers of viral DNA from small punch samples of NSC. Blank NSC were spotted with seronegative EDTA-blood and seropositive EBV EDTA-blood. DNA was extracted with commercial and noncommercial DNA extraction methods and quantified on a spectrofluorometer using a PicoGreen dsDNA quantification kit. Serial dilutions of purified viral DNA controls determined the sensitivity of the amplification protocol, and seropositive EBV EDTA-blood amplified by nested PCR (nPCR) validated the DNA extraction methods. There were considerable differences between the commercial and noncommercial DNA extraction methods (P=0.014; P=0.016). Commercial kits compared favorably, but the QIamp DNA micro kit with an added forensic filter step was marginally more sensitive. The mean DNA yield from this method was 3 ng/μl. The limit of detection was 10 viral genome copies in a 50-μl reaction. EBV nPCR detection in neat and 1:10 diluted DNA extracts could be replicated reliably. We conclude that the QIamp Micro DNA extraction method with the added forensic spin-filter step was suitable for retrospective DNA viral assays from NSC.

  20. LAMPhimerus: A novel LAMP assay for detecting Amphimerus sp. DNA in human stool samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Cevallos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amphimeriasis is a fish-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Amphimerus spp. that has recently been reported as endemic in the tropical Pacific side of Ecuador with a high prevalence in humans and domestic animals. The diagnosis is based on the stool examination to identify parasite eggs, but it lacks sensitivity. Additionally, the morphology of the eggs may be confounded with other liver and intestinal flukes. No immunological or molecular methods have been developed to date. New diagnostic techniques for specific and sensitive detection of Amphimerus spp. DNA in clinical samples are needed.A LAMP targeting a sequence of the Amphimerus sp. internal transcribed spacer 2 region was designed. Amphimerus sp. DNA was obtained from adult worms recovered from animals and used to optimize the molecular assays. Conventional PCR was performed using outer primers F3-B3 to verify the proper amplification of the Amphimerus sp. DNA target sequence. LAMP was optimized using different reaction mixtures and temperatures, and it was finally set up as LAMPhimerus. The specificity and sensitivity of both PCR and LAMP were evaluated. The detection limit was 1 pg of genomic DNA. Field testing was done using 44 human stool samples collected from localities where fluke is endemic. Twenty-five samples were microscopy positive for Amphimerus sp. eggs detection. In molecular testing, PCR F3-B3 was ineffective when DNA from fecal samples was used. When testing all human stool samples included in our study, the diagnostic parameters for the sensitivity and specificity were calculated for our LAMPhimerus assay, which were 76.67% and 80.77%, respectively.We have developed and evaluated, for the first time, a specific and sensitive LAMP assay for detecting Amphimerus sp. in human stool samples. The procedure has been named LAMPhimerus method and has the potential to be adapted for field diagnosis and disease surveillance in amphimeriasis-endemic areas. Future large

  1. Nanoparticle sensor for label free detection of swine DNA in mixed biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M E; Hashim, U [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INNE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Lot 104-108, Tingkat 1, Block A, Taman Pertiwi Indah, Jalan Kangar-Alor Star, Seriab, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Mustafa, S; Che Man, Y B; Yusop, M H M [Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Bari, M F [School of Materials Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Seriab 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Islam, Kh N [Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hasan, M F, E-mail: uda@unimap.edu.my [Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-05-13

    We used 40 {+-} 5 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as colorimetric sensor to visually detect swine-specific conserved sequence and nucleotide mismatch in PCR-amplified and non-amplified mitochondrial DNA mixtures to authenticate species. Colloidal GNPs changed color from pinkish-red to gray-purple in 2 mM PBS. Visually observed results were clearly reflected by the dramatic reduction of surface plasmon resonance peak at 530 nm and the appearance of new features in the 620-800 nm regions in their absorption spectra. The particles were stabilized against salt-induced aggregation upon the adsorption of single-stranded DNA. The PCR products, without any additional processing, were hybridized with a 17-base probe prior to exposure to GNPs. At a critical annealing temperature (55 {sup 0}C) that differentiated matched and mismatched base pairing, the probe was hybridized to pig PCR product and dehybridized from the deer product. The dehybridized probe stuck to GNPs to prevent them from salt-induced aggregation and retained their characteristic red color. Hybridization of a 27-nucleotide probe to swine mitochondrial DNA identified them in pork-venison, pork-shad and venison-shad binary admixtures, eliminating the need of PCR amplification. Thus the assay was applied to authenticate species both in PCR-amplified and non-amplified heterogeneous biological samples. The results were determined visually and validated by absorption spectroscopy. The entire assay (hybridization plus visual detection) was performed in less than 10 min. The LOD (for genomic DNA) of the assay was 6 {mu}g ml{sup -1} swine DNA in mixed meat samples. We believe the assay can be applied for species assignment in food analysis, mismatch detection in genetic screening and homology studies between closely related species.

  2. Nanoparticle sensor for label free detection of swine DNA in mixed biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. E.; Hashim, U.; Mustafa, S.; Che Man, Y. B.; Yusop, M. H. M.; Bari, M. F.; Islam, Kh N.; Hasan, M. F.

    2011-05-01

    We used 40 ± 5 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as colorimetric sensor to visually detect swine-specific conserved sequence and nucleotide mismatch in PCR-amplified and non-amplified mitochondrial DNA mixtures to authenticate species. Colloidal GNPs changed color from pinkish-red to gray-purple in 2 mM PBS. Visually observed results were clearly reflected by the dramatic reduction of surface plasmon resonance peak at 530 nm and the appearance of new features in the 620-800 nm regions in their absorption spectra. The particles were stabilized against salt-induced aggregation upon the adsorption of single-stranded DNA. The PCR products, without any additional processing, were hybridized with a 17-base probe prior to exposure to GNPs. At a critical annealing temperature (55 °C) that differentiated matched and mismatched base pairing, the probe was hybridized to pig PCR product and dehybridized from the deer product. The dehybridized probe stuck to GNPs to prevent them from salt-induced aggregation and retained their characteristic red color. Hybridization of a 27-nucleotide probe to swine mitochondrial DNA identified them in pork-venison, pork-shad and venison-shad binary admixtures, eliminating the need of PCR amplification. Thus the assay was applied to authenticate species both in PCR-amplified and non-amplified heterogeneous biological samples. The results were determined visually and validated by absorption spectroscopy. The entire assay (hybridization plus visual detection) was performed in less than 10 min. The LOD (for genomic DNA) of the assay was 6 µg ml - 1 swine DNA in mixed meat samples. We believe the assay can be applied for species assignment in food analysis, mismatch detection in genetic screening and homology studies between closely related species.

  3. High-quality genomic DNA extraction from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples deparaffinized using mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianghai; Kennedy, Stephen H; Svarovsky, Therese; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kemnitz, Joseph W; Xu, Anlong; Zondervan, Krina T

    2009-12-15

    Extracting DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue remains a challenge, despite numerous attempts to develop a more effective method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) success rates with DNA extracted using current methods remain low. We extracted DNA from 140 long-term archived FFPE samples using a simple but effective deparaffinization method, removing the wax with mineral oil, and a commercially available DNA extraction kit. DNA quality was subsequently tested in a genotyping experiment with 14 microsatellite markers. High-quality DNA was obtained with a mean PCR success rate of 97% (range: 88-100%) across markers. The results suggested that DNA extracted using this novel method is likely to be suitable for genetic studies involving DNA fragments <200 bp.

  4. Small Sample Whole-Genome Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, C A; Nguyen, C P; Wheeler, E K; Sorensen, K J; Arroyo, E S; Vrankovich, G P; Christian, A T

    2005-09-20

    Many challenges arise when trying to amplify and analyze human samples collected in the field due to limitations in sample quantity, and contamination of the starting material. Tests such as DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial typing require a certain sample size and are carried out in large volume reactions; in cases where insufficient sample is present whole genome amplification (WGA) can be used. WGA allows very small quantities of DNA to be amplified in a way that enables subsequent DNA-based tests to be performed. A limiting step to WGA is sample preparation. To minimize the necessary sample size, we have developed two modifications of WGA: the first allows for an increase in amplified product from small, nanoscale, purified samples with the use of carrier DNA while the second is a single-step method for cleaning and amplifying samples all in one column. Conventional DNA cleanup involves binding the DNA to silica, washing away impurities, and then releasing the DNA for subsequent testing. We have eliminated losses associated with incomplete sample release, thereby decreasing the required amount of starting template for DNA testing. Both techniques address the limitations of sample size by providing ample copies of genomic samples. Carrier DNA, included in our WGA reactions, can be used when amplifying samples with the standard purification method, or can be used in conjunction with our single-step DNA purification technique to potentially further decrease the amount of starting sample necessary for future forensic DNA-based assays.

  5. Evaluation of sample stability and automated DNA extraction for fetal sex determination using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Elena; Rueda, Laura; Cañadas, M Paz; Fuster, Carme; Cirigliano, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The detection of paternally inherited sequences in maternal plasma, such as the SRY gene for fetal sexing or RHD for fetal blood group genotyping, is becoming part of daily routine in diagnostic laboratories. Due to the low percentage of fetal DNA, it is crucial to ensure sample stability and the efficiency of DNA extraction. We evaluated blood stability at 4°C for at least 24 hours and automated DNA extraction, for fetal sex determination in maternal plasma. A total of 158 blood samples were collected, using EDTA-K tubes, from women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy. Samples were kept at 4°C for at least 24 hours before processing. An automated DNA extraction was evaluated, and its efficiency was compared with a standard manual procedure. The SRY marker was used to quantify cfDNA by real-time PCR. Although lower cfDNA amounts were obtained by automated DNA extraction (mean 107,35 GE/mL versus 259,43 GE/mL), the SRY sequence was successfully detected in all 108 samples from pregnancies with male fetuses. We successfully evaluated the suitability of standard blood tubes for the collection of maternal blood and assessed samples to be suitable for analysis at least 24 hours later. This would allow shipping to a central reference laboratory almost from anywhere in Europe.

  6. Evaluation of Sample Stability and Automated DNA Extraction for Fetal Sex Determination Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ordoñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The detection of paternally inherited sequences in maternal plasma, such as the SRY gene for fetal sexing or RHD for fetal blood group genotyping, is becoming part of daily routine in diagnostic laboratories. Due to the low percentage of fetal DNA, it is crucial to ensure sample stability and the efficiency of DNA extraction. We evaluated blood stability at 4°C for at least 24 hours and automated DNA extraction, for fetal sex determination in maternal plasma. Methods. A total of 158 blood samples were collected, using EDTA-K tubes, from women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy. Samples were kept at 4°C for at least 24 hours before processing. An automated DNA extraction was evaluated, and its efficiency was compared with a standard manual procedure. The SRY marker was used to quantify cfDNA by real-time PCR. Results. Although lower cfDNA amounts were obtained by automated DNA extraction (mean 107,35 GE/mL versus 259,43 GE/mL, the SRY sequence was successfully detected in all 108 samples from pregnancies with male fetuses. Conclusion. We successfully evaluated the suitability of standard blood tubes for the collection of maternal blood and assessed samples to be suitable for analysis at least 24 hours later. This would allow shipping to a central reference laboratory almost from anywhere in Europe.

  7. Sample Preservation, DNA or RNA Extraction and Data Analysis for High-Throughput Phytoplankton Community Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mäki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton is the basis for aquatic food webs and mirrors the water quality. Conventionally, phytoplankton analysis has been done using time consuming and partly subjective microscopic observations, but next generation sequencing (NGS technologies provide promising potential for rapid automated examination of environmental samples. Because many phytoplankton species have tough cell walls, methods for cell lysis and DNA or RNA isolation need to be efficient to allow unbiased nucleic acid retrieval. Here, we analyzed how two phytoplankton preservation methods, three commercial DNA extraction kits and their improvements, three RNA extraction methods, and two data analysis procedures affected the results of the NGS analysis. A mock community was pooled from phytoplankton species with variation in nucleus size and cell wall hardness. Although the study showed potential for studying Lugol-preserved sample collections, it demonstrated critical challenges in the DNA-based phytoplankton analysis in overall. The 18S rRNA gene sequencing output was highly affected by the variation in the rRNA gene copy numbers per cell, while sample preservation and nucleic acid extraction methods formed another source of variation. At the top, sequence-specific variation in the data quality introduced unexpected bioinformatics bias when the sliding-window method was used for the quality trimming of the Ion Torrent data. While DNA-based analyses did not correlate with biomasses or cell numbers of the mock community, rRNA-based analyses were less affected by different RNA extraction procedures and had better match with the biomasses, dry weight and carbon contents, and are therefore recommended for quantitative phytoplankton analyses.

  8. DNA barcoding and surveillance sampling strategies for Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrup, Lara E; Laban, Swathi; Purse, Bethan V; Reddy, Yarabolu Krishnamohan; Reddy, Yella Narasimha; Byregowda, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa; Kumar, Naveen; Purushotham, Kondappa Muniramaiah; Kowalli, Shrikant; Prasad, Minakshi; Prasad, Gaya; Bettis, Alison A; De Keyser, Rien; Logan, James; Garros, Claire; Gopurenko, David; Bellis, Glenn; Labuschagne, Karien; Mathieu, Bruno; Carpenter, Simon

    2016-08-22

    Culicoides spp. biting midges transmit bluetongue virus (BTV), the aetiological agent of bluetongue (BT), an economically important disease of ruminants. In southern India, hyperendemic outbreaks of BT exert high cost to subsistence farmers in the region, impacting on sheep production. Effective Culicoides spp. monitoring methods coupled with accurate species identification can accelerate responses for minimising BT outbreaks. Here, we assessed the utility of sampling methods and DNA barcoding for detection and identification of Culicoides spp. in southern India, in order to provide an informed basis for future monitoring of their populations in the region. Culicoides spp. collected from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka were used to construct a framework for future morphological identification in surveillance, based on sequence comparison of the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene and achieving quality standards defined by the Barcode of Life initiative. Pairwise catches of Culicoides spp. were compared in diversity and abundance between green (570 nm) and ultraviolet (UV) (390 nm) light emitting diode (LED) suction traps at a single site in Chennai, Tamil Nadu over 20 nights of sampling in November 2013. DNA barcode sequences of Culicoides spp. were mostly congruent both with existing DNA barcode data from other countries and with morphological identification of major vector species. However, sequence differences symptomatic of cryptic species diversity were present in some groups which require further investigation. While the diversity of species collected by the UV LED Center for Disease Control (CDC) trap did not significantly vary from that collected by the green LED CDC trap, the UV CDC significantly outperformed the green LED CDC trap with regard to the number of Culicoides individuals collected. Morphological identification of the majority of potential vector species of Culicoides spp. samples within southern India appears

  9. A Simple, Inexpensive and Safe Method for DNA Extraction of Frigid and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of blood genomicDNAis one of the main approaches for clinical and molecular biology studies. Although several methods have been developed for extraction of blood genomic DNA, most of these methods consume long time and use expensive chemicals such as proteinase K and toxic organic solvent such as phenol and chloroform. The objective of this study was to developed easy and safe method forDNAextraction from clotted and frozen whole blood. This method has many advantages: time reducing, using inexpensive materials, without phenol and chloroform, achieving of high molecular weight and good quality genomicDNA.Materials and Methods: DNA extraction was performed by two methods (new and phenol-chloroform method. Then quantity and quality parameters were evaluated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, Nano drop analysis and efficiency of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.Results: Extracted DNA from 500μL of blood samples were 457.7ng/μl and 212ng/μL and their purity (OD260/OD280 were 1.8 and 1.81 for new recommended and phenol–chloroform methods respectively. The PCR results indicated that D16S539 and CSF1PO loci were amplified.Conclusion: These results shown that this method is simple, fast, safe and most economical.

  10. Comparative analysis of five DNA isolation protocols and three drying methods for leaves samples of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Severo da Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish a DNA isolation protocol Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez., able to obtain samples of high yield and quality for use in genomic analysis. A commercial kit and four classical methods of DNA extraction were tested, including three cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB-based and one sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-based methods. Three drying methods for leaves samples were also evaluated including drying at room temperature (RT, in an oven at 40ºC (S40, and in a microwave oven (FMO. The DNA solutions obtained from different types of leaves samples using the five protocols were assessed in terms of cost, execution time, and quality and yield of extracted DNA. The commercial kit did not extract DNA with sufficient quantity or quality for successful PCR reactions. Among the classic methods, only the protocols of Dellaporta and of Khanuja yielded DNA extractions for all three types of foliar samples that resulted in successful PCR reactions and subsequent enzyme restriction assays. Based on the evaluated variables, the most appropriate DNA extraction method for Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez. was that of Dellaporta, regardless of the method used to dry the samples. The selected method has a relatively low cost and total execution time. Moreover, the quality and quantity of DNA extracted using this method was sufficient for DNA sequence amplification using PCR reactions and to get restriction fragments.

  11. Developmental validation of the Quantifiler(®) HP and Trio Kits for human DNA quantification in forensic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Allison; Wootton, Sharon Chao; Mulero, Julio J; Brzoska, Pius M; Langit, Emanuel; Green, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The quantification of human genomic DNA is a necessary first step in the DNA casework sample analysis workflow. DNA quantification determines optimal sample input amounts for subsequent STR (short tandem repeat) genotyping procedures, as well as being a useful screening tool to identify samples most likely to provide probative genotypic evidence. To better mesh with the capabilities of newest-generation STR analysis assays, the Quantifiler(®) HP and Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA Quantification Kits were designed for greater detection sensitivity and more robust performance with samples that contain PCR inhibitors or degraded DNA. The new DNA quantification kits use multiplex TaqMan(®) assay-based fluorescent probe technology to simultaneously quantify up to three human genomic targets, allowing samples to be assessed for total human DNA, male contributor (i.e., Y-chromosome) DNA, as well as a determination of DNA degradation state. The Quantifiler HP and Trio Kits use multiple-copy loci to allow for significantly improved sensitivity compared to earlier-generation kits that employ single-copy target loci. The kits' improved performance provides better predictive ability for results with downstream, newest-generation STR assays, and their shortened time-to-result allows more efficient integration into the forensic casework analysis workflow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mutants of Taq DNA polymerase resistant to PCR inhibitors allow DNA amplification from whole blood and crude soil samples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kermekchiev, Milko B; Kirilova, Lyubka I; Vail, Erika E; Barnes, Wayne M

    2009-01-01

    .... We show that the effect of these inhibitors is primarily upon Taq DNA polymerase, since mutational alteration of the polymerase can overcome the inhibition to the extent that no DNA purification is now required...

  13. Effect of DNA Extraction Methods and Sampling Techniques on the Apparent Structure of Cow and Sheep Rumen Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Kittelmann, Sandra; Miri, Vahideh Heidarian; Zethof, Michael; Noel, Samantha J.; Waghorn, Garry C.; Janssen, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However, comparison of data

  14. Improved reproducibility in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis for PAXgene-fixed samples compared with restored formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gitte Brinch; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Tost, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Formalin fixation has been the standard method for conservation of clinical specimens for decades. However, a major drawback is the high degradation of nucleic acids, which complicates its use in genome-wide analyses. Unbiased identification of biomarkers, however, requires genome-wide studies, precluding the use of the valuable archives of specimens with long-term follow-up data. Therefore, restoration protocols for DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples have been developed, although they are cost-intensive and time-consuming. An alternative to FFPE and snap-freezing is the PAXgene Tissue System, developed for simultaneous preservation of morphology, proteins, and nucleic acids. In the current study, we compared the performance of DNA from either PAXgene or formalin-fixed tissues to snap-frozen material for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis demonstrated that the methylation profile in PAXgene-fixed tissues showed, in comparison with restored FFPE samples, a higher concordance with the profile detected in frozen samples. We demonstrate, for the first time, that DNA from PAXgene conserved tissue performs better compared with restored FFPE DNA in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. In addition, DNA from PAXgene tissue can be directly used on the array without prior restoration, rendering the analytical process significantly more time- and cost-effective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An efficient and sensitive method for preparing cDNA libraries from scarce biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Catherine H; Veksler-Lublinsky, Isana; Ambros, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The preparation and high-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries from samples of small RNA is a powerful tool to quantify known small RNAs (such as microRNAs) and to discover novel RNA species. Interest in identifying the small RNA repertoire present in tissues and in biofluids has grown substantially with the findings that small RNAs can serve as indicators of biological conditions and disease states. Here we describe a novel and straightforward method to clone cDNA libraries from small quantities of input RNA. This method permits the generation of cDNA libraries from sub-picogram quantities of RNA robustly, efficiently and reproducibly. We demonstrate that the method provides a significant improvement in sensitivity compared to previous cloning methods while maintaining reproducible identification of diverse small RNA species. This method should have widespread applications in a variety of contexts, including biomarker discovery from scarce samples of human tissue or body fluids. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. ABO genotyping of suspects from sperm DNA isolated from postcoital samples in sex crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, M; Shiono, H

    1996-03-01

    In sexual assaults against women, one key to identifying the suspect is ABO phenotyping or the typing of other polymorphic markers of the seminal fluid in the victim's vagina. However, ABO phenotyping is frequently unsuccessful, since mixtures of fluids cannot be separated to be subjected to conventional methods for the detection of antibody or antigen material. We therefore studied ABO blood group genotyping of sperm DNA isolated from contaminating vaginal fluid by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Seminal samples of genotypes OO, AO, BO and AB were experimentally mixed with vaginal fluid (OO, AO, BO and AB), and were successfully separated and genotyped by this method. In practice, we also separated and genotyped the seminal DNA of suspects from contaminated postcoital vaginal fluid obtained in 4 sexual assaults. These forensic samples were easily separated and completely genotyped. This reliable ABO genotyping method by PCR-RFLP, using separated sperm DNA, should be of value in forensic identification in sexual assaults.

  17. A probe-based quantitative PCR assay for detecting Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in fish tissue and environmental DNA water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Patrick; Sepulveda, Adam; Martin, Renee; Hopper, Lacey

    2017-01-01

    A probe-based quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to detect Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which causes proliferative kidney disease in salmonid fish, in kidney tissue and environmental DNA (eDNA) water samples. The limits of detection and quantification were 7 and 100 DNA copies for calibration standards and T. bryosalmonae was reliably detected down to 100 copies in tissue and eDNA samples. The assay presented here is a highly sensitive and quantitative tool for detecting T. bryosalmonae with potential applications for tissue diagnostics and environmental detection.

  18. A modular method for the extraction of DNA and RNA, and the separation of DNA pools from diverse environmental sample types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Mark A.; Torti, Andrea; Eickenbusch, Philip; Michaud, Alexander B.; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2015-01-01

    A method for the extraction of nucleic acids from a wide range of environmental samples was developed. This method consists of several modules, which can be individually modified to maximize yields in extractions of DNA and RNA or separations of DNA pools. Modules were designed based on elaborate tests, in which permutations of all nucleic acid extraction steps were compared. The final modular protocol is suitable for extractions from igneous rock, air, water, and sediments. Sediments range from high-biomass, organic rich coastal samples to samples from the most oligotrophic region of the world's oceans and the deepest borehole ever studied by scientific ocean drilling. Extraction yields of DNA and RNA are higher than with widely used commercial kits, indicating an advantage to optimizing extraction procedures to match specific sample characteristics. The ability to separate soluble extracellular DNA pools without cell lysis from intracellular and particle-complexed DNA pools may enable new insights into the cycling and preservation of DNA in environmental samples in the future. A general protocol is outlined, along with recommendations for optimizing this general protocol for specific sample types and research goals. PMID:26042110

  19. Mechanism of inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase and human DNA polymerases alpha, beta, and gamma by the 5'-triphosphates of carbovir, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2',3'-dideoxyguanosine and 3'-deoxythymidine. A novel RNA template for the evaluation of antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, W B; White, E L; Shaddix, S C; Ross, L J; Buckheit, R W; Germany, J M; Secrist, J A; Vince, R; Shannon, W M

    1991-01-25

    Carbovir (the carbocyclic analog of 2'-3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine) is a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Assays were developed to assess the mechanism of inhibition by the 5'-triphosphate of carbovir of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase using either RNA or DNA templates that contain all four natural nucleotides. Carbovir-TP was a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase using either template with Ki values similar to that observed by AZT-TP, ddGTP, and ddTTP. The kinetic constants for incorporation of these nucleotide analogs into DNA by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase using either template were similar to the values seen for their respective natural nucleotides. In addition, the incorporation of either carbovir-TP or AZT-TP in the presence of dGTP or dTTP, respectively, indicated that the mechanism of inhibition by these two nucleotide analogs was due to their incorporation into the DNA resulting in chain termination. Carbovir-TP was not a potent inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha, beta, or gamma, or DNA primase. Given the potent activity of carbovir-TP against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its lack of activity against human DNA polymerases, we believe that further evaluation of this compound as a potential drug for the treatment of HIV-1 infection is warranted.

  20. Improved age determination of blood and teeth samples using a selected set of DNA methylation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, Bram; Kamalandua, Aubeline; Zapico, Sara C; Van de Voorde, Wim; Decorte, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation from DNA methylation markers has seen an exponential growth of interest, not in the least from forensic scientists. The current published assays, however, can still be improved by lowering the number of markers in the assay and by providing more accurate models to predict chronological age. From the published literature we selected 4 age-associated genes (ASPA, PDE4C, ELOVL2, and EDARADD) and determined CpG methylation levels from 206 blood samples of both deceased and living individuals (age range: 0-91 years). This data was subsequently used to compare prediction accuracy with both linear and non-linear regression models. A quadratic regression model in which the methylation levels of ELOVL2 were squared showed the highest accuracy with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age of 3.75 years and an adjusted R(2) of 0.95. No difference in accuracy was observed for samples obtained either from living and deceased individuals or between the 2 genders. In addition, 29 teeth from different individuals (age range: 19-70 years) were analyzed using the same set of markers resulting in a MAD of 4.86 years and an adjusted R(2) of 0.74. Cross validation of the results obtained from blood samples demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of the assay. In conclusion, the set of 4 CpG DNA methylation markers is capable of producing highly accurate age predictions for blood samples from deceased and living individuals.

  1. A DNA pooling based system to detect Escherichia coli virulence factors in fecal and wastewater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz María Chacón, J; Lizeth Taylor, C; Carmen Valiente, A; Irene Alvarado, P; Ximena Cortés, B

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a useful tool for simple and timely detection of the most important virulent varieties of Escherichia coli is indispensable. To this end, bacterial DNA pools which had previously been categorized were obtained from isolated colonies as well as selected in terms of utilized phenotype; the pools were assessed by two PCR Multiplex for the detection of virulent E. coli eaeA, bfpA, stx1, stx2, ipaH, ST, LT, and aatA genes, with the 16S gene used as DNA control. The system was validated with 66 fecal samples and 44 wastewater samples. At least one positive isolate was detected by a virulent gene among the 20 that were screened. The analysis of fecal samples from children younger than 6 years of age detected frequencies of 25% LT positive strains, 8.3% eae, 8.3% bfpA, 16.7% ipaH, as well as 12.5 % aatA and ST. On the other hand, wastewater samples revealed frequencies of 25.7% eaeA positive, 30.3% stx1, 15.1% LT and 19.7% aatA. This study is an initial step toward carrying out epidemiological field research that will reveal the presence of these bacterial varieties. PMID:24031959

  2. Optimized testing for C. trachomatis DNA in synovial fluid samples in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freise, J; Bernau, I; Meier, S; Zeidler, H; Kuipers, J G

    2015-11-01

    No standardized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is available for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. tr.) in synovial fluid (SF) for diagnostic use in clinical practice. This study tested the performance of two optimized molecular biology methods, to determine which is best suited for detecting C. tr. in SF clinical samples from patients with various rheumatologic diseases. Two DNA extraction methods, i.e., (1) alkaline lysis and (2) QIAEX II Gel Extraction Kit® + cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), and C. tr.-omp1-152 bp PCR were tested in SF samples from a total of 329 patients with the following diagnoses: reactive arthritis (ReA; n = 10, 4 patients had posturethritic ReA), undifferentiated arthritis (UA; n = 66), rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 169), psoriatic arthritis (PSA; n = 12), and osteoarthritis (OA) n = 72. In SF samples, C. tr.-omp1-152 bp PCR in combination with alkaline lysis DNA extraction allowed detection of more C. tr.-positive samples: 3/10 (30%) ReA patients (all with posturethritic ReA) and 20/66 (38%) UA patients were positive, compared to the 0/10 (0%) patients with ReA and 1/66 (2%) with UA detected using the QIAEX II Gel Extraction Kit® + CTAB. Moreover, 2/12 (17%) SF samples from PSA patients tested positive with alkaline lysis. All samples from patients with OA and RA tested negative. Alkaline lysis in combination with C. tr.-omp1-152 bp PCR emerged as the most sensitive method for identification of C. tr. in clinical SF samples.

  3. Sample processing and cDNA preparation for microbial metatranscriptomics in complex soil communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, Lilia C; Schenk, Peer M

    2013-01-01

    Soil presents one of the most complex environments for microbial communities as it provides many microhabitats that allow coexistence of thousands of species with important ecosystem functions. These include biomass and nutrient cycling, mineralization, and detoxification. Culture-independent DNA-based methods, such as metagenomics, have revealed operational taxonomic units that suggest a high diversity of microbial species and associated functions in soil. An emerging but technically challenging area to profile the functions of microorganisms and their activities is mRNA-based metatranscriptomics. Here, we describe issues and important considerations of soil sample processing and cDNA preparation for metatranscriptomics from bacteria and archaea and provide a set of methods that can be used in the required experimental steps. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of PCR by components of food samples, microbial diagnostic assays and DNA-extraction solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, L; Nørskov, P; Holmstrøm, K; Rasmussen, O F

    1992-09-01

    We have tested the influence on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of a large number of compounds found in food, in media used for selective propagation of food-borne pathogens or in DNA-extraction methods. PCR was found to be sensitive to large volumes of complex food samples containing high amounts of fat and protein, however, an extraction procedure based on treatment with hot NaOH/SDS reduced the effect significantly. Some culture media (Fraser, MLEB, MRB and Rappaport) interfered with the analysis and for most of the media it was possible to assign the inhibitory effect to one or more individual components. Several compounds (detergents, lysozyme, NaOH, alcohols, EDGA, EGTA) used in DNA extraction procedures were found to have some inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effects need to be taken into consideration when designing new tests.

  5. Comparison of Five Commercial DNA Extraction Kits for the Recovery of Francisella Tularensis DNA from Spiked Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    DNA Stool Mini kit, Epicentre SoilMasterTM DNA extraction kit, MoBio UltraCleanTM kit, or the MoBio PowerMaxTM soil DNA isolation kit according... extraction and purification of microbial DNA from sediments. J Microbiol Methods 1987;7: 57–66. [19] Smalla K, Creswell N, Mendonca-Hagler L, Wolters A, van...Herrick JB, Silva MC, Ghiorse WC, Madsen EL. Quantitative cell lysis of indigenous microorganisms and rapid extraction of microbial DNA from sediment. Appl

  6. Analysis of fingerprint samples, testing various conditions, for forensic DNA identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Lana; Wurmbach, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Fingerprints can be of tremendous value for forensic biology, since they can be collected from a wide variety of evident types, such as handles of weapons, tools collected in criminal cases, and objects with no apparent staining. DNA obtained from fingerprints varies greatly in quality and quantity, which ultimately affects the quality of the resulting STR profiles. Additional difficulties can arise when fingerprint samples show mixed STR profiles due to the handling of multiple persons. After applying a tested protocol for sample collection (swabbing with 5% Triton X-100), DNA extraction (using an enzyme that works at elevated temperatures), and PCR amplification (AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® using 31cycles) extensive analysis was performed to better understand the challenges inherent to fingerprint samples, with the ultimate goal of developing valuable profiles (≥50% complete). The impact of time on deposited fingerprints was investigated, revealing that while the quality of profiles deteriorated, full STR profiles could still be obtained from samples after 40days of storage at room temperature. By comparing the STR profiles from fingerprints of the dominant versus the non-dominant hand, we found a slightly better quality from the non-dominant hand, which was not always significant. Substrates seem to have greater effects on fingerprints. Tests on glass, plastic, paper and metal (US Quarter dollar, made of Cu and Ni), common substrates in offices and homes, showed best results for glass, followed by plastic and paper, while almost no profiles were obtained from a Quarter dollar. Important for forensic casework, we also assessed three-person mixtures of touched fingerprint samples. Unlike routinely used approaches for sampling evidence, the surface of an object (bottle) was sectioned into six equal parts and separate samples were taken from each section. The samples were processed separately for DNA extraction and STR amplification. The results included a few single

  7. Establishing a novel automated magnetic bead-based method for the extraction of DNA from a variety of forensic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Sebastian; Neumann, Jan; Zierdt, Holger; Gébel, Gabriella; Röscheisen, Christiane

    2012-09-01

    Automated systems have been increasingly utilized for DNA extraction by many forensic laboratories to handle growing numbers of forensic casework samples while minimizing the risk of human errors and assuring high reproducibility. The step towards automation however is not easy: The automated extraction method has to be very versatile to reliably prepare high yields of pure genomic DNA from a broad variety of sample types on different carrier materials. To prevent possible cross-contamination of samples or the loss of DNA, the components of the kit have to be designed in a way that allows for the automated handling of the samples with no manual intervention necessary. DNA extraction using paramagnetic particles coated with a DNA-binding surface is predestined for an automated approach. For this study, we tested different DNA extraction kits using DNA-binding paramagnetic particles with regard to DNA yield and handling by a Freedom EVO(®)150 extraction robot (Tecan) equipped with a Te-MagS magnetic separator. Among others, the extraction kits tested were the ChargeSwitch(®)Forensic DNA Purification Kit (Invitrogen), the PrepFiler™Automated Forensic DNA Extraction Kit (Applied Biosystems) and NucleoMag™96 Trace (Macherey-Nagel). After an extensive test phase, we established a novel magnetic bead extraction method based upon the NucleoMag™ extraction kit (Macherey-Nagel). The new method is readily automatable and produces high yields of DNA from different sample types (blood, saliva, sperm, contact stains) on various substrates (filter paper, swabs, cigarette butts) with no evidence of a loss of magnetic beads or sample cross-contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mendelian breeding units versus standard sampling strategies: mitochondrial DNA variation in southwest Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a sampling strategy based on Mendelian Breeding Units (MBUs, representing an interbreeding group of individuals sharing a common gene pool. The identification of MBUs is crucial for case-control experimental design in association studies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible existence of bias in terms of genetic variability and haplogroup frequencies in the MBU sample, due to severe sample selection. In order to reach this goal, the MBU sampling strategy was compared to a standard selection of individuals according to their surname and place of birth. We analysed mitochondrial DNA variation (first hypervariable segment and coding region in unrelated healthy subjects from two different areas of Sardinia: the area around the town of Cabras and the western Campidano area. No statistically significant differences were observed when the two sampling methods were compared, indicating that the stringent sample selection needed to establish a MBU does not alter original genetic variability and haplogroup distribution. Therefore, the MBU sampling strategy can be considered a useful tool in association studies of complex traits.

  9. Polymorphism discovery and allele frequency estimation using high-throughput DNA sequencing of target-enriched pooled DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullen Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central role of the somatotrophic axis in animal post-natal growth, development and fertility is well established. Therefore, the identification of genetic variants affecting quantitative traits within this axis is an attractive goal. However, large sample numbers are a pre-requisite for the identification of genetic variants underlying complex traits and although technologies are improving rapidly, high-throughput sequencing of large numbers of complete individual genomes remains prohibitively expensive. Therefore using a pooled DNA approach coupled with target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing, the aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and estimate allele frequency differences across 83 candidate genes of the somatotrophic axis, in 150 Holstein-Friesian dairy bulls divided into two groups divergent for genetic merit for fertility. Results In total, 4,135 SNPs and 893 indels were identified during the resequencing of the 83 candidate genes. Nineteen percent (n = 952 of variants were located within 5' and 3' UTRs. Seventy-two percent (n = 3,612 were intronic and 9% (n = 464 were exonic, including 65 indels and 236 SNPs resulting in non-synonymous substitutions (NSS. Significant (P ® MassARRAY. No significant differences (P > 0.1 were observed between the two methods for any of the 43 SNPs across both pools (i.e., 86 tests in total. Conclusions The results of the current study support previous findings of the use of DNA sample pooling and high-throughput sequencing as a viable strategy for polymorphism discovery and allele frequency estimation. Using this approach we have characterised the genetic variation within genes of the somatotrophic axis and related pathways, central to mammalian post-natal growth and development and subsequent lactogenesis and fertility. We have identified a large number of variants segregating at significantly different frequencies between cattle groups divergent for calving

  10. Comparison of two DNA extraction protocols from leave samples of Cotinus coggygria, Citrus sinensis and Genus juglans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, F; Minaei Chenar, H; Amiri, H; Omodipour, S; Shirbande Ghods, F; Kahrizi, D; Sohrabi, M; Ghorbani, T; Kazemi, E

    2017-02-28

    High quality DNA is essential for molecular research. Secondary metabolites can affect the quantity and quality DNA. In current research two DNA isolation methods including CTAB and Delaporta (protocols 1 & 2 respectively) were applied in three leave samples from Cotinus coggygria, Citrus sinensis and Genus juglans that their leaves are rich of secondary metabolites. We successfully isolated DNA from C. coggygria, C. sinensis and Genus Juglans using the two protocols described above. Good quality DNA was isolated from C. coggygria, C. sinensis and Genus Juglans using protocol 1, while protocol 2 failed to produce usable DNA from these sources. The highest amount of DNA (1.3-1.6) was obtained from them using protocol 1. As we discovered, procedure 1 may work better for plants with secondary metabolites.

  11. Demonstration of Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii DNA in soil samples collected from Dinosaur National Monument, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Suzanne M; Carlson, Erin L; Fisher, Frederick S; Pappagianis, Demosthenes

    2014-08-01

    Soil samples were collected in 2006 from Dinosaur National Monument (DNM), Utah, the site of an outbreak of coccidioidomycosis in 2001. DNA was isolated from two soil samples, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified Coccidioides DNA present in both samples. Ribosomal RNA genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region PCR products were sequenced. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms indicated that the DNA from sample SS06RH was that of Coccidioides immitis, while the DNA from sample SS06UM was C. posadasii. This is the first report to directly demonstrate Coccidioides in soils from DNM and the first to report the presence of both C. immitis and C. posadasii in the same geographic location. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. S-template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Bhagchandani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently introduced Yen angle and W angle suggest the use of center of premaxilla (M and mandibular symphysis (G as landmarks for assessing sagittal jaw base discrepancies. These landmarks have been considered to be more stable than traditionally used points A and B. This article is an attempt to develop a simple tool that will enable the clinician to identify the centers of premaxilla and mandibular symphysis and hence the name Simplified template, i.e., S-template. This tool would aid the orthodontist in locating the centroids of maxilla and mandibular symphysis more easily and accurately than prefabricated templates.

  13. DNA interaction, anti-proliferative effect of copper oxide nanocolloids prepared from metallosurfactant based microemulsions acting as precursor, template and reducing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Dogra, Varsha; Kumar, Rajeev; Kumar, Sandeep; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Singhal, Nitin Kumar

    2018-01-15

    In the present study, we have synthesized mixed cuprous/copper oxide nanosuspensions by metallosurfactant based microemulsion technique. Three metallosurfactants were synthesized which includes two non-ionic double chained metallosurfactants with C 12 , C 16 chains with coordinated copper i.e. Cudda and Cuhexa, respectively. Another cationic double chained metallosurfactant with loosely bound metal (Cuctac) was also prepared. The prepared metallocomplexes were characterized using FTIR, elemental analysis, and NMR. The effect of the position of metallosurfactant in microemulsion on the fabrication and properties of nanosuspensions was elucidated. In this method, no external reducing agent and capping agent were added and tween 80 acted both as reducing and stabilizing agent for the nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and it was observed that mixed copper and cuprous oxide particles are present in colloidal suspension for all the three studied metallosurfactants. The kinetics of formation of mixed copper/cuprous oxide nanosuspensions (Ns) and their stability was estimated using Uv-visible spectroscopy. Further, the binding and interactions of copper nanosuspensions with calf Thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were assessed using Uv-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism and gel electrophoresis. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of the Cu Ns was checked using DPPH assay. The role of positive charge on nanoparticles as evaluated from Zeta potential was responsible for DNA affinity. The DNA conformational changes in the presence of nanosuspensions and relevant scavengers were investigated. Further, the anti-proliferative activity of copper Ns was assessed using HeLa cells and Cuhexa derived Ns were proved to be active with highest activity at a low concentration and were nontoxic towards normal cell lines. In summary, this work demonstrates a softer approach for the synthesis of copper nanosuspensions with a size range of 2-5 nm and evaluated the role

  14. The importance of Guthrie cards and other medical samples for the direct matching of disaster victims using DNA profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, D; Benton, L; Morenos, L; Beyer, J; Spiden, M; Stock, A

    2011-02-25

    The identification of disaster victims through the use of DNA analysis is an integral part of any Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) response, regardless of the scale and nature of the disaster. As part of the DVI response to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Disaster, DNA analysis was performed to assist in the identification of victims through kinship (familial matching to relatives) or direct (self source sample) matching of DNA profiles. Although most of the DNA identifications achieved were to reference samples from relatives, there were a number of DNA identifications (12) made through direct matching. Guthrie cards, which have been collected in Australia over the past 30 years, were used to provide direct reference samples. Of the 236 ante-mortem (AM) samples received, 21 were Guthrie cards and one was a biopsy specimen; all yielding complete DNA profiles when genotyped. This publication describes the use of such Biobanks and medical specimens as a sample source for the recovery of good quality DNA for comparisons to post-mortem (PM) samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP: revisiting the efficacy of sample preparation, sonication, quantification of sheared DNA, and analysis via PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela D Schoppee Bortz

    Full Text Available The "quantitative" ChIP, a tool commonly used to study protein-DNA interactions in cells and tissue, is a difficult assay often plagued with technical error. We present, herein, the process required to merge multiple protocols into a quick, reliable and easy method and an approach to accurately quantify ChIP DNA prior to performing PCR. We demonstrate that high intensity sonication for at least 30 min is required for full cellular disruption and maximum DNA recovery because ChIP lysis buffers fail to lyse formaldehyde-fixed cells. In addition, extracting ChIP DNA with chelex-100 yields samples that are too dilute for evaluation of shearing efficiency or quantification via nanospectrophotometry. However, DNA extracted from the Mock-ChIP supernatant via the phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCIA method can be used to evaluate DNA shearing efficiency and used as the standard in a fluorescence-based microplate assay. This enabled accurate quantification of DNA in chelex-extracted ChIP samples and normalization to total DNA concentration prior to performing real-time PCR (rtPCR. Thus, a quick ChIP assay that can be completed in nine bench hours over two days has been validated along with a rapid, accurate and repeatable way to quantify ChIP DNA. The resulting rtPCR data more accurately depicts treatment effects on protein-DNA interactions of interest.

  16. Scalable DNA-Based Magnetic Nanoparticle Agglutination Assay for Bacterial Detection in Patient Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezger, Anja; Fock, Jeppe; Antunes, Paula; Østerberg, Frederik W; Boisen, Anja; Nilsson, Mats; Hansen, Mikkel F; Ahlford, Annika; Donolato, Marco

    2015-07-28

    We demonstrate a nanoparticle-based assay for the detection of bacteria causing urinary tract infections in patient samples with a total assay time of 4 h. This time is significantly shorter than the current gold standard, plate culture, which can take several days depending on the pathogen. The assay is based on padlock probe recognition followed by two cycles of rolling circle amplification (RCA) to form DNA coils corresponding to the target bacterial DNA. The readout of the RCA products is based on optomagnetic measurements of the specific agglutination of DNA-bound magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using low-cost optoelectronic components from Blu-ray drives. We implement a detection approach, which relies on the monomerization of the RCA products, the use of the monomers to link and agglutinate two populations of MNPs functionalized with universal nontarget specific detection probes and on the introduction of a magnetic incubation scheme. This enables multiplex detection of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at clinically relevant concentrations, demonstrating a factor of 30 improvement in sensitivity compared to previous MNP-based detection schemes. Thanks to the universal probes, the same set of functionalized MNPs can be used to read out products from a multitude of RCA targets, making the approach truly scalable for parallel detection of multiple bacteria in a future integrated point of care molecular diagnostics system.

  17. Particle integrity, sampling, and application of a DNA-tagged tracer for aerosol transport studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeser, Cynthia Jeanne [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2017-07-21

    formulations of two different food-grade sugars (maltodextrin and erythritol) to humidity as high as 66% had no significant effect on the DNA label’s degradation or the particle’s aerodynamic diameter, confirming particle stability under such conditions. In summary, confirmation of the DNATrax particles’ size and label integrity under variable conditions combined with experiment multiplexing and high resolution sampling provides a powerful experimental design for modeling aerosol transport through occupied indoor and outdoor locations.

  18. Multi-template polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kalle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PCR is a formidable and potent technology that serves as an indispensable tool in a wide range of biological disciplines. However, due to the ease of use and often lack of rigorous standards many PCR applications can lead to highly variable, inaccurate, and ultimately meaningless results. Thus, rigorous method validation must precede its broad adoption to any new application. Multi-template samples possess particular features, which make their PCR analysis prone to artifacts and biases: multiple homologous templates present in copy numbers that vary within several orders of magnitude. Such conditions are a breeding ground for chimeras and heteroduplexes. Differences in template amplification efficiencies and template competition for reaction compounds undermine correct preservation of the original template ratio. In addition, the presence of inhibitors aggravates all of the above-mentioned problems. Inhibitors might also have ambivalent effects on the different templates within the same sample. Yet, no standard approaches exist for monitoring inhibitory effects in multitemplate PCR, which is crucial for establishing compatibility between samples.

  19. Insight into the processes behind the contamination of degraded human teeth and bone samples with exogenous sources of DNA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.T.P.; Willerslev, A.J.H.E.; Turner-Walker, G.; Collins, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    A principal problem facing human DNA studies that use old and degraded remains is contamination from other sources of human DNA. In this study we have attempted to contaminate deliberately bones and teeth sampled from a medieval collection excavated in Trondheim, Norway, in order to investigate this

  20. Monitoring of noble, signal and narrow-clawed crayfish using environmental DNA from freshwater samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Agersnap

    Full Text Available For several hundred years freshwater crayfish (Crustacea-Decapoda-Astacidea have played an important ecological, cultural and culinary role in Scandinavia. However, many native populations of noble crayfish Astacus astacus have faced major declines during the last century, largely resulting from human assisted expansion of non-indigenous signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus that carry and transmit the crayfish plague pathogen. In Denmark, also the non-indigenous narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus has expanded due to anthropogenic activities. Knowledge about crayfish distribution and early detection of non-indigenous and invasive species are crucial elements in successful conservation of indigenous crayfish. The use of environmental DNA (eDNA extracted from water samples is a promising new tool for early and non-invasive detection of species in aquatic environments. In the present study, we have developed and tested quantitative PCR (qPCR assays for species-specific detection and quantification of the three above mentioned crayfish species on the basis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtDNA-CO1, including separate assays for two clades of A. leptodactylus. The limit of detection (LOD was experimentally established as 5 copies/PCR with two different approaches, and the limit of quantification (LOQ were determined to 5 and 10 copies/PCR, respectively, depending on chosen approach. The assays detected crayfish in natural freshwater ecosystems with known populations of all three species, and show promising potentials for future monitoring of A. astacus, P. leniusculus and A. leptodactylus. However, the assays need further validation with data 1 comparing traditional and eDNA based estimates of abundance, and 2 representing a broader geographical range for the involved crayfish species.

  1. A modular method for the extraction of DNA and RNA, and the separation of DNA pools from diverse environmental sample types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lever, Mark; Torti, Andrea; Eickenbusch, Philip

    2015-01-01

    's oceans and the deepest borehole ever studied by scientific ocean drilling. Extraction yields of DNA and RNA are higher than with widely used commercial kits, indicating an advantage to optimizing extraction procedures to match specific sample characteristics. The ability to separate soluble extracellular......A method for the extraction of nucleic acids from a wide range of environmental samples was developed. This method consists of several modules, which can be individually modified to maximize yields in extractions of DNA and RNA or separations of DNA pools. Modules were designed based on elaborate...... tests, in which permutations of all nucleic acid extraction steps were compared. The final modular protocol is suitable for extractions from igneous rock, air, water, and sediments. Sediments range from high-biomass, organic rich coastal samples to samples from the most oligotrophic region of the world...

  2. A fast template periodogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This proceedings contribution presents a novel, non-linear extension to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram that allows periodograms to be generated for arbitrary signal shapes. Such periodograms are already known as “template periodograms” or “periodic matched filters,” but current implementations are computationally inefficient. The “fast template periodogram” presented here improves existing techniques by a factor of ∼a few for small test cases (O(10 observations, and over three orders of magnitude for lightcurves containing O(104 observations. The fast template periodogram scales asymptotically as O(HNf log HNf + H4Nf, where H denotes the number of harmonics required to adequately approximate the template and Nf is the number of trial frequencies. Existing implementations scale as O(NobsNf, where Nobs is the number of observations in the lightcurve. An open source Python implementation is available on GitHub.

  3. A fast template periodogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John; VanderPlas, Jake; Hartman, Joel; Bakos, Gáspár

    2017-09-01

    This proceedings contribution presents a novel, non-linear extension to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram that allows periodograms to be generated for arbitrary signal shapes. Such periodograms are already known as "template periodograms" or "periodic matched filters," but current implementations are computationally inefficient. The "fast template periodogram" presented here improves existing techniques by a factor of ˜a few for small test cases (O(10) observations), and over three orders of magnitude for lightcurves containing O(104) observations. The fast template periodogram scales asymptotically as O(HNf log HNf + H4Nf), where H denotes the number of harmonics required to adequately approximate the template and Nf is the number of trial frequencies. Existing implementations scale as O(NobsNf), where Nobs is the number of observations in the lightcurve. An open source Python implementation is available on GitHub.

  4. Rapid, sensitive and cost effective method for isolation of viral DNA from feacal samples of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savi.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for viral DNA extraction using chelex resin was developed. The method used was eco-friendly and cost effective compared to other methods such as phenol chloroform method which use health hazardous organic reagents. Further, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR based detection of canine parvovirus (CPV using primers from conserved region of VP2 gene was developed. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of reaction, nested PCR was designed. PCR reaction was optimized to amplify 747bp product of VP2 gene. The assay can be completed in few hours and doesn’t need hazardous chemicals. Thus, the sample preparation using chelating resin along with nested PCR seems to be a sensitive, specific and practical method for the detection of CPV in diarrhoeal feacal samples. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 105-106

  5. Effects of sampling conditions on DNA-based estimates of American black bear abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    DNA-based capture-mark-recapture techniques are commonly used to estimate American black bear (Ursus americanus) population abundance (N). Although the technique is well established, many questions remain regarding study design. In particular, relationships among N, capture probability of heterogeneity mixtures A and B (pA and pB, respectively, or p, collectively), the proportion of each mixture (π), number of capture occasions (k), and probability of obtaining reliable estimates of N are not fully understood. We investigated these relationships using 1) an empirical dataset of DNA samples for which true N was unknown and 2) simulated datasets with known properties that represented a broader array of sampling conditions. For the empirical data analysis, we used the full closed population with heterogeneity data type in Program MARK to estimate N for a black bear population in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. We systematically reduced the number of those samples used in the analysis to evaluate the effect that changes in capture probabilities may have on parameter estimates. Model-averaged N for females and males were 161 (95% CI = 114–272) and 100 (95% CI = 74–167), respectively (pooled N = 261, 95% CI = 192–419), and the average weekly p was 0.09 for females and 0.12 for males. When we reduced the number of samples of the empirical data, support for heterogeneity models decreased. For the simulation analysis, we generated capture data with individual heterogeneity covering a range of sampling conditions commonly encountered in DNA-based capture-mark-recapture studies and examined the relationships between those conditions and accuracy (i.e., probability of obtaining an estimated N that is within 20% of true N), coverage (i.e., probability that 95% confidence interval includes true N), and precision (i.e., probability of obtaining a coefficient of variation ≤20%) of estimates using logistic regression. The capture probability

  6. DNA sampling from eggshells and microsatellite genotyping in rare tropical birds: Case study on Brazilian Merganser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Augusta Maia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study shows that sampling maternal DNA from hatched and abandoned eggshells is a viable noninvasive strategy for studying the genetics of rare or endangered tropical birds, as exemplified here by the Brazilian Merganser (Mergus octosetaceus. Eighteen microsatellites were isolated from enriched libraries and nine heterologous loci from related species were tested. Seven loci were amplified successfully, with five of them being polymorphic. These loci exhibited amplicons ranging from 110 to 254 bp for 132 samples, with 60 from eggshells and 72 from blood or muscle samples. The number of alleles for M. octosetaceus ranged from one to six (mean = 3.71, which is low compared to M. merganser (1-15 alleles, a ‘least concern’ species. Genetic diversity did not differ significantly between noninvasive and invasive samples (Z(u = 0.31, p = 0.37. Thus, noninvasive sampling, as demonstrated here with eggshells, provides an efficient means to assess genetic diversity in tropical birds without the need to capture and handle them.

  7. Feline mitochondrial DNA sampling for forensic analysis: when enough is enough!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Robert A; Alhaddad, Hasan; Alves, Paulo C; Randi, Ettore; Waly, Nashwa E; Lyons, Leslie A

    2015-05-01

    Pet hair has a demonstrated value in resolving legal issues. Cat hair is chronically shed and it is difficult to leave a home with cats without some level of secondary transfer. The power of cat hair as an evidentiary resource may be underused because representative genetic databases are not available for exclusionary purposes. Mitochondrial control region databases are highly valuable for hair analyses and have been developed for the cat. In a representative worldwide data set, 83% of domestic cat mitotypes belong to one of twelve major types. Of the remaining 17%, 7.5% are unique within the published 1394 sample database. The current research evaluates the sample size necessary to establish a representative population for forensic comparison of the mitochondrial control region for the domestic cat. For most worldwide populations, randomly sampling 50 unrelated local individuals will achieve saturation at 95%. The 99% saturation is achieved by randomly sampling 60-170 cats, depending on the numbers of mitotypes available in the population at large. Likely due to the recent domestication of the cat and minimal localized population substructure, fewer cats are needed to meet mitochondria DNA control region database practical saturation than for humans or dogs. Coupled with the available worldwide feline control region database of nearly 1400 cats, minimal local sampling will be required to establish an appropriate comparative representative database and achieve significant exclusionary power. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular evidence of Orthopoxvirus DNA in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lara Ambrosio Leal; de Freitas Almeida, Gabriel Magno; Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

    2017-02-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is responsible for outbreaks in Brazil and has immense potential as an emerging virus. VACV can be found naturally circulating in India, Pakistan and South America, where it causes infections characterised by exanthematic lesions in buffaloes, cattle and humans. The transmission cycle of Brazilian VACV has still not been fully characterised; one of the most important gaps in knowledge being the role of wild animals. Capybaras, which are restricted to the Americas, are the world's largest rodents and have peculiar characteristics that make them possible candidates for being part of a natural VACV reservoir. Here, we developed a method for detecting orthopoxvirus DNA in capybara stool samples, and have described for the first time the detection of orthopoxvirus DNA in capybaras samples from three different regions in Brazil. These findings strongly suggest that capybaras might be involved in the natural transmission cycle of VACV and furthermore represent a public health problem, when associated with Brazilian bovine vaccinia outbreaks. This makes infected animals an important factor to be considered when predicting and managing Brazilian VACV outbreaks.

  9. Amplifiability of mitochondrial, microsatellite and amelogenin DNA loci from fecal samples of red brocket deer Mazama americana (Cetartiodactyla, Cervidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M L; Duarte, J M B

    2013-01-16

    We tried to amplify mitochondrial, microsatellite and amelogenin loci in DNA from fecal samples of a wild Mazama americana population. Fifty-two deer fecal samples were collected from a 600-ha seasonal semideciduous forest fragment in a subtropical region of Brazil (21°20'S, 47°17'W), with the help of a detection dog; then, stored in ethanol and georeferenced. Among these samples 16 were classified as "fresh" and 36 as "non-fresh". DNA was extracted using the QIAamp(®) DNA Stool Mini Kit. Mitochondrial loci were amplified in 49 of the 52 samples. Five microsatellite loci were amplified by PCR; success in amplification varied according to locus size and sample age. Successful amplifications were achieved in 10/16 of the fresh and in 13/36 of the non-fresh samples; a negative correlation (R = -0.82) was found between successful amplification and locus size. Amplification of the amelogenin locus was successful in 22 of the 52 samples. The difficulty of amplifying nuclear loci in DNA samples extracted from feces collected in the field was evident. Some methodological improvements, including collecting fresh samples, selecting primers for shorter loci and quantifying the extracted DNA by real-time PCR, are suggested to increase amplification success in future studies.

  10. Comparative study of methods for DNA preparation from olive oil samples to identify cultivar SSR alleles in commercial oil samples: possible forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Catherine; Claux, Delphine; Metton, Isabelle; Skorski, Gilbert; Bervillé, André

    2004-02-11

    Virgin olive oil is made from diverse cultivars either mixed or single. Those ensure different tastes and typicity, and these may be also enhanced by the region of production of cultivars. The different olive oil labels correspond to their chemical composition and acidity. Labels also may correspond to a protected origin indication, and thus, such oils contain a given composition in cultivars. To verify the main cultivars used at the source of an olive oil sample, our method is based on DNA technology. DNA is present in all olive oil samples and even in refined oil, but the quantity may depend on the oil processing technology and oil conservation conditions. Thus, several supports were used to retain DNA checking different techniques (silica extraction, hydroxyapatite, magnetic beads, and spun column) to prepare DNA from variable amounts of oil. At this stage, it was usable for amplification through PCR technology and especially with the magnetic beads, and further purification processes were checked. Finally, the final method used magnetic beads. DNA is released from beads in a buffer. Once purified, we showed that it did not contain compounds inhibiting PCR amplification using SSR primers. Aliquot dilution fractions of this solution were successfully routinely used through PCR with different SSR primer sets. This enables confident detection of eventual alien alleles in oil samples. First applied to virgin oil samples of known composition, either single cultivars or mixtures of them, the method was verified working on commercial virgin oil samples using bottles bought in supermarkets. Last, we defined a protocol starting from 2 x 40 mL virgin olive oil, and DNA was prepared routinely in about 5 h. It was convenient to genotype together several loci per sample to check whether alleles were in accordance with those of expected cultivars. Thus, forensic applications of our method are expected. However, the method needs further improvement to work on all oil samples.

  11. An effective method to purify Plasmodium falciparum DNA directly from clinical blood samples for whole genome high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Auburn

    Full Text Available Highly parallel sequencing technologies permit cost-effective whole genome sequencing of hundreds of Plasmodium parasites. The ability to sequence clinical Plasmodium samples, extracted directly from patient blood without a culture step, presents a unique opportunity to sample the diversity of "natural" parasite populations in high resolution clinical and epidemiological studies. A major challenge to sequencing clinical Plasmodium samples is the abundance of human DNA, which may substantially reduce the yield of Plasmodium sequence. We tested a range of human white blood cell (WBC depletion methods on P. falciparum-infected patient samples in search of a method displaying an optimal balance of WBC-removal efficacy, cost, simplicity, and applicability to low resource settings. In the first of a two-part study, combinations of three different WBC depletion methods were tested on 43 patient blood samples in Mali. A two-step combination of Lymphoprep plus Plasmodipur best fitted our requirements, although moderate variability was observed in human DNA quantity. This approach was further assessed in a larger sample of 76 patients from Burkina Faso. WBC-removal efficacy remained high (70% samples and lower variation was observed in human DNA quantities. In order to assess the Plasmodium sequence yield at different human DNA proportions, 59 samples with up to 60% human DNA contamination were sequenced on the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform. An average ~40-fold coverage of the genome was observed per lane for samples with ≤ 30% human DNA. Even in low resource settings, using a simple two-step combination of Lymphoprep plus Plasmodipur, over 70% of clinical sample preparations should exhibit sufficiently low human DNA quantities to enable ~40-fold sequence coverage of the P. falciparum genome using a single lane on the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform. This approach should greatly facilitate large-scale clinical and epidemiologic studies of P

  12. Potential application of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for extraction of bacterial genomic DNA from contaminated food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Semanti; Chatterjee, Saptarshi; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Sarkar, Keka

    2013-03-15

    Isolation of high-molecular-weight DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications. Owing to the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors, there is a scarcity of suitable protocols for PCR-ready DNA extraction from food and natural environments. The conventional chemical methods of DNA extraction are time consuming and laborious and the yield is very low. Thus the aim of this research was to develop a simple, rapid, cost-effective method of genomic DNA extraction from food (milk and fruit juice) and environmental (pond water) samples and to detect bacterial contaminants present in those samples. This approach is efficient for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from all the studied samples. Herein super paramagnetic bare iron oxide nanoparticles were implemented for bacterial genomic DNA isolation. The method was also compared to the conventional phenol-chloroform method in the context of quality, quantity and timing process. This method took only half an hour or less to obtain high-molecular-weight purified DNA from minimum bacterial contamination. Additionally, the method was directly compatible to PCR amplification. The problem of availability of suitable generalized methods for DNA isolation from various samples including food and environmental has been solved by a nanobiotechnological approach that may prove to be extremely useful in biotechnological applications. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Reef-associated crustacean fauna: biodiversity estimates using semi-quantitative sampling and DNA barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, L.; Knowlton, N.; Paulay, G.; Meyer, C.

    2009-12-01

    The cryptofauna associated with coral reefs accounts for a major part of the biodiversity in these ecosystems but has been largely overlooked in biodiversity estimates because the organisms are hard to collect and identify. We combine a semi-quantitative sampling design and a DNA barcoding approach to provide metrics for the diversity of reef-associated crustacean. Twenty-two similar-sized dead heads of Pocillopora were sampled at 10 m depth from five central Pacific Ocean localities (four atolls in the Northern Line Islands and in Moorea, French Polynesia). All crustaceans were removed, and partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I was sequenced from 403 individuals, yielding 135 distinct taxa using a species-level criterion of 5% similarity. Most crustacean species were rare; 44% of the OTUs were represented by a single individual, and an additional 33% were represented by several specimens found only in one of the five localities. The Northern Line Islands and Moorea shared only 11 OTUs. Total numbers estimated by species richness statistics (Chao1 and ACE) suggest at least 90 species of crustaceans in Moorea and 150 in the Northern Line Islands for this habitat type. However, rarefaction curves for each region failed to approach an asymptote, and Chao1 and ACE estimators did not stabilize after sampling eight heads in Moorea, so even these diversity figures are underestimates. Nevertheless, even this modest sampling effort from a very limited habitat resulted in surprisingly high species numbers.

  14. International Study to Evaluate PCR Methods for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijman, Alejandro G.; Bisio, Margarita; Orellana, Liliana; Sued, Mariela; Duffy, Tomás; Mejia Jaramillo, Ana M.; Cura, Carolina; Auter, Frederic; Veron, Vincent; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Hijar, Gisely; Zulantay, Inés; Lucero, Raúl Horacio; Velazquez, Elsa; Tellez, Tatiana; Sanchez Leon, Zunilda; Galvão, Lucia; Nolder, Debbie; Monje Rumi, María; Levi, José E.; Ramirez, Juan D.; Zorrilla, Pilar; Flores, María; Jercic, Maria I.; Crisante, Gladys; Añez, Néstor; De Castro, Ana M.; Gonzalez, Clara I.; Acosta Viana, Karla; Yachelini, Pedro; Torrico, Faustino; Robello, Carlos; Diosque, Patricio; Triana Chavez, Omar; Aznar, Christine; Russomando, Graciela; Büscher, Philippe; Assal, Azzedine; Guhl, Felipe; Sosa Estani, Sergio; DaSilva, Alexandre; Britto, Constança; Luquetti, Alejandro; Ladzins, Janis

    2011-01-01

    Background A century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation. Methodology/Findings An international collaborative study was launched by expert PCR laboratories from 16 countries. Currently used strategies were challenged against serial dilutions of purified DNA from stocks representing T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) I, IV and VI (set A), human blood spiked with parasite cells (set B) and Guanidine Hidrochloride-EDTA blood samples from 32 seropositive and 10 seronegative patients from Southern Cone countries (set C). Forty eight PCR tests were reported for set A and 44 for sets B and C; 28 targeted minicircle DNA (kDNA), 13 satellite DNA (Sat-DNA) and the remainder low copy number sequences. In set A, commercial master mixes and Sat-DNA Real Time PCR showed better specificity, but kDNA-PCR was more sensitive to detect DTU I DNA. In set B, commercial DNA extraction kits presented better specificity than solvent extraction protocols. Sat-DNA PCR tests had higher specificity, with sensitivities of 0.05–0.5 parasites/mL whereas specific kDNA tests detected 5.10−3 par/mL. Sixteen specific and coherent methods had a Good Performance in both sets A and B (10 fg/µl of DNA from all stocks, 5 par/mL spiked blood). The median values of sensitivities, specificities and accuracies obtained in testing the Set C samples with the 16 tests determined to be good performing by analyzing Sets A and B samples varied considerably. Out of them, four methods depicted the best performing parameters in all three sets of samples, detecting at least 10 fg/µl for each DNA stock, 0.5 par/mL and a sensitivity between 83.3–94.4%, specificity of 85–95

  15. International study to evaluate PCR methods for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from Chagas disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro G Schijman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An international collaborative study was launched by expert PCR laboratories from 16 countries. Currently used strategies were challenged against serial dilutions of purified DNA from stocks representing T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU I, IV and VI (set A, human blood spiked with parasite cells (set B and Guanidine Hidrochloride-EDTA blood samples from 32 seropositive and 10 seronegative patients from Southern Cone countries (set C. Forty eight PCR tests were reported for set A and 44 for sets B and C; 28 targeted minicircle DNA (kDNA, 13 satellite DNA (Sat-DNA and the remainder low copy number sequences. In set A, commercial master mixes and Sat-DNA Real Time PCR showed better specificity, but kDNA-PCR was more sensitive to detect DTU I DNA. In set B, commercial DNA extraction kits presented better specificity than solvent extraction protocols. Sat-DNA PCR tests had higher specificity, with sensitivities of 0.05-0.5 parasites/mL whereas specific kDNA tests detected 5.10(-3 par/mL. Sixteen specific and coherent methods had a Good Performance in both sets A and B (10 fg/µl of DNA from all stocks, 5 par/mL spiked blood. The median values of sensitivities, specificities and accuracies obtained in testing the Set C samples with the 16 tests determined to be good performing by analyzing Sets A and B samples varied considerably. Out of them, four methods depicted the best performing parameters in all three sets of samples, detecting at least 10 fg/µl for each DNA stock, 0.5 par/mL and a sensitivity between 83.3-94.4%, specificity of 85

  16. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR – effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žel Jana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR is the technique of choice for nucleic acid quantification. In the field of detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs quantification of biotech products may be required to fulfil legislative requirements. However, successful quantification depends crucially on the quality of the sample DNA analyzed. Methods for GMO detection are generally validated on certified reference materials that are in the form of powdered grain material, while detection in routine laboratories must be performed on a wide variety of sample matrixes. Due to food processing, the DNA in sample matrixes can be present in low amounts and also degraded. In addition, molecules of plant origin or from other sources that affect PCR amplification of samples will influence the reliability of the quantification. Further, the wide variety of sample matrixes presents a challenge for detection laboratories. The extraction method must ensure high yield and quality of the DNA obtained and must be carefully selected, since even components of DNA extraction solutions can influence PCR reactions. GMO quantification is based on a standard curve, therefore similarity of PCR efficiency for the sample and standard reference material is a prerequisite for exact quantification. Little information on the performance of real-time PCR on samples of different matrixes is available. Results Five commonly used DNA extraction techniques were compared and their suitability for quantitative analysis was assessed. The effect of sample matrix on nucleic acid quantification was assessed by comparing 4 maize and 4 soybean matrixes. In addition 205 maize and soybean samples from routine analysis were analyzed for PCR efficiency to assess variability of PCR performance within each sample matrix. Together with the amount of DNA needed for reliable quantification, PCR efficiency is the crucial parameter determining the reliability of quantitative results, therefore it was

  17. A PCR-based approach to assess genomic DNA contamination in RNA: Application to rat RNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Bhaja K; Singh, Manjeet; Huang, Nicholas; Pelletier, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    Genomic DNA (gDNA) contamination of RNA samples can lead to inaccurate measurement of gene expression by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We describe an easily adoptable PCR-based method where gDNA contamination in RNA samples is assessed by comparing the amplification of intronic and exonic sequences from a housekeeping gene. Although this alternative assay was developed for rat RNA samples, it could be easily adapted to other species. As a proof of concept, we assessed the effects of detectable gDNA contamination levels on the expression of a few genes that illustrate the importance of RNA quality in acquiring reliable data. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterizing the temporal dynamics of human papillomavirus DNA detectability using short-interval sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Hsun; Cummings, Derek A T; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Gravitt, Patti E; Brotman, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    Variable detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA can result in misclassification of infection status, but the extent of misclassification has not been quantitatively evaluated. In 2005-2007, 33 women of ages 22 to 53 years self-collected vaginal swabs twice per week for 16 consecutive weeks. Each of the 955 swabs collected was tested for 37 HPV types/subtypes. Assuming that a woman's underlying infection status did not change over the short study period, biases in prevalence estimates obtained from single versus multiple swabs were calculated. Using event history analysis methods, time to recurrent gain and loss of at least one HPV type was determined, separately. Baseline any-type and high risk-type HPV prevalence was 60.6% and 24.2%, respectively. Cumulative any-HPV and high-risk HPV prevalence over the 16-week period was 84.8% and 60.6%, separately. Overall, there were 319 events of detection and 313 events of loss of detection. Median times to a recurrent detection and loss of detection were 11 and seven days, respectively. Neither vaginal sex nor condom use during follow-up was associated with recurrent viral detection or loss of detection. Assuming the cumulative 16-week prevalence reflects the true prevalence of infection, the baseline any-HPV prevalence underestimated infection status by 24.2%, with a bootstrapped mean of 20.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.9%-29.6%]. These findings suggest that a substantial proportion of HPV-infected women are misclassified as being uninfected when using a single-time DNA measurement. Short-term variation in detectable HPV DNA needs to be considered while interpreting the natural history of infections using single samples collected at long intervals.

  19. [Polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system: effect of methods for isolating DNA from samples of cerebrospinal fluid on results of the reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołab, Elzbieta; Waloch, Maria

    2002-01-01

    We examined influence of the method of isolation of DNA from cerebrospinal fluid samples on results of PCR in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system. Three different protocols of DNA isolation were used for DNA extraction from 360 samples made of cerebrospinal fluid spiked with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii: thermic, enzymatic and enzymatic-filtering. Purified DNA samples were tested by PCR with primers T15 and T16 designed for the B1 gene of the parasite. Enzymatic method of DNA isolation appeared most effective allowing detection of T. gondii DNA in 50% of samples containing single parasite cell.

  20. Differentiation Borrelia Species in Environmental Samples with High-Resolution DNA Melting Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodecka, Beata; Skotarczak, Bogumiła

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato includes at least 20 species in the world, and half of these are found in Europe. The usefulness of high resolution melting (HRM) analysis of DNA denaturation curves has been assessed for differentiation of Borrelia species. HRM protocol for Borrelia species was used to examine the 77 DNA extracts selected from earlier studies with the use of three different molecular markers: flaB, rplL, and groEL. The studies revealed that the best marker is the groEL gene, which enables identification of 8 Borrelia species, including B. miyamotoi from the relapsing fever borreliae group and 7 of B. burgdorferi s.l. complex (B. garinii, B, afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s., B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. bissetii, B. spielmanii). The HRM method, when compared with other PCR variants with regard to the reduced time of analysis, is an alternative for the procedures used in the molecular diagnostics of borreliosis including testing of blood samples or saved Ixodes ticks for the presence and genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi after biting a patient.

  1. Developmental toxicity and DNA damage from exposure to parking lot runoff retention pond samples in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Meryl D; Kwok, Kevin W H; Brandon, Jennifer A; Warren, Isaac H; Ryde, Ian T; Cooper, Ellen M; Hinton, David E; Rittschof, Daniel; Meyer, Joel N

    2014-08-01

    Parking lot runoff retention ponds (PLRRP) receive significant chemical input, but the biological effects of parking lot runoff are not well understood. We used the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model to study the toxicity of water and sediment samples from a PLRRP in Morehead City, NC. Medaka exposed in ovo to a dilution series of PLRRP water had increased odds of death before hatching, but not teratogenesis or delayed hatching. Next, we adapted a long-amplicon quantitative PCR (LA-QPCR) assay for DNA damage for use with the Japanese medaka. We employed LA-QPCR to test the hypotheses that PLRRP water and sediments would cause nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage with and without full-spectrum, natural solar radiation. Fluoranthene with and without natural sunlight was a positive control for phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced DNA damage. Fluoranthene exposure did not result in detectable DNA damage by itself, but in combination with sunlight caused significant DNA damage to both genomes. PLRRP samples caused DNA damage to both genomes, and this was not increased by sunlight exposure, suggesting the DNA damage was unlikely the result of PAH phototoxicity. We report for the first time that PLRRP-associated pollutants cause both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, and that fluoranthene-mediated phototoxicity results in similar levels of damage to the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. These effects may be especially significant in sensitive marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Insights into biodiversity sampling strategies for freshwater microinvertebrate faunas through bioblitz campaigns and DNA barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Biodiversity surveys have long depended on traditional methods of taxonomy to inform sampling protocols and to determine when a representative sample of a given species pool of interest has been obtained. Questions remain as to how to design appropriate sampling efforts to accurately estimate total biodiversity. Here we consider the biodiversity of freshwater ostracods (crustacean class Ostracoda) from the region of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Through an analysis of observed species richness and complementarity, accumulation curves, and richness estimators, we conduct an a posteriori analysis of five bioblitz-style collection strategies that differed in terms of total duration, number of sites, protocol flexibility to heterogeneous habitats, sorting of specimens for analysis, and primary purpose of collection. We used DNA barcoding to group specimens into molecular operational taxonomic units for comparison. Results Forty-eight provisional species were identified through genetic divergences, up from the 30 species previously known and documented in literature from the Churchill region. We found differential sampling efficiency among the five strategies, with liberal sorting of specimens for molecular analysis, protocol flexibility (and particularly a focus on covering diverse microhabitats), and a taxon-specific focus to collection having strong influences on garnering more accurate species richness estimates. Conclusions Our findings have implications for the successful design of future biodiversity surveys and citizen-science collection projects, which are becoming increasingly popular and have been shown to produce reliable results for a variety of taxa despite relying on largely untrained collectors. We propose that efficiency of biodiversity surveys can be increased by non-experts deliberately selecting diverse microhabitats; by conducting two rounds of molecular analysis, with the numbers of samples processed during round two informed by the

  3. Biometric Template Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nagar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.

  4. A DNA based method to detect the grapevine root-rotting fungus Roesleria subterranea in soil and root samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Neuhauser

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Roesleria subterranea causes root rot in grapevine and fruit trees. The fungus has long been underestimated as a weak parasite, but during the last years it has been reported to cause severe damages in German vineyards. Direct, observation-based detection of the parasite is time consuming and destructive, as large parts of the rootstocks have to be uprooted and screened for the tiny, stipitate, hypogeous ascomata of R. subterranea. To facilitate rapid detection in vineyards, protocols to extract DNA from soil samples and grapevine roots, and R.-subterranea-specific PCR primers were designed. Twelve DNA-extraction protocols for soil samples were tested in small-scale experiments, and selected parameters were optimised. A protocol based on ball-mill homogenization, DNA extraction with SDS, skim milk, chloroform, and isopropanol, and subsequent purifi cation of the raw extracts with PVPP-spin-columns was most effective. This DNA extraction protocol was found to be suitable for a wide range of soil-types including clay, loam and humic-rich soils. For DNA extraction from grapevine roots a CTAB-based protocol was more reliable for various grapevine rootstock varieties. Roesleria-subterranea-specific primers for the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region were developed and tested for their specifi city to DNA extracts from eleven R. subterranea strains isolated from grapevine and fruit trees. No cross reactions were detected with DNA extracts from 44 different species of fungi isolated from vineyard soils. The sensitivity of the species-specifi c primers in combination with the DNA extraction method for soil was high: as little as 100 fg μl-1 R.-subterranea-DNA was suffi cient for a detection in soil samples and plant material. Given that specifi c primers are available, the presented method will also allow quick and large-scale testing for other root pathogens.

  5. Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detection in Urine and Cervical Samples Using High-Risk HPV DNA Testing in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Surapan Khunamornpong; Jongkolnee Settakorn; Kornkanok Sukpan; Suree Lekawanvijit; Narisara Katruang; Sumalee Siriaunkgul

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in urine samples compared to that of cervical sample testing in Northern Thailand. Methods. Paired urine and cervical samples were collected during the follow-up of women with a previous positive HPV test. HPV testing was performed using the Cobas 4800 HPV Test. Linear Array assay was used for genotyping in selected cases. Results. Paired urine and cervical samples were obtained from 168 women. Of 123 p...

  6. Reduction of DNA contamination in RNA samples for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using selective precipitation by compaction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez-Lingerfelt, Mariaclara; Fox, George E; Willson, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    An important problem in measurement of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is DNA contamination, which can produce artifactually increased mRNA concentration. Current methods to eliminate contaminating DNA can compromise the integrity of the RNA, are time-consuming, and/or are hazardous. We present a rapid, nuclease-free, and cost-effective method of eliminating contaminating DNA in RNA samples using selective precipitation by compaction agents. Compaction agents are cationic molecules that bind to double-stranded nucleic acids, driven by electrostatic interactions and steric complementarity. The effectiveness and DNA selectivity of six compaction agents were investigated: trivalent spermidine, Triquat A, and Triquat 7; tetravalent spermine and Quatro-quat; and hexavalent Quatro-diquat. Effectiveness was measured initially by supernatant UV absorbance after precipitation of salmon sperm DNA. Effectiveness and selectivity were then investigated using differences in RT-PCR C(t) values with synthetic mixtures of human genomic DNA and total RNA and with total RNA isolated from cells. With 500 microM spermidine or Triquat A, the supernatant DNA could not be detected up to 40 cycles of PCR (C(t)12.6), whereas the C(t) for the mRNA was increased by only five cycles. Therefore, spermidine and Triquat A each show strong DNA selectivity and could be used to eliminate contaminating DNA in measurements of mRNA.

  7. Reduction of DNA Contamination in RNA Samples for RT-PCR using Selective Precipitation by Compaction Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez-Lingerfelt, Mariaclara; Fox, George E.; Willson, Richard C.

    2017-01-01

    An important problem in measurement of mRNA levels by RT-PCR is DNA contamination, which can produce artifactually increased mRNA concentration. Current methods to eliminate contaminating DNA can compromise the integrity of the RNA, are time-consuming, or are hazardous. We present a rapid, nuclease-free, and cost-effective method of eliminating contaminating DNA in RNA samples using selective precipitation by compaction agents. Compaction agents are cationic molecules which bind to double-stranded nucleic acids, driven by electrostatic interactions and steric complimentarity. The effectiveness and DNA-selectivity of six compaction agents were investigated: trivalent spermidine, Triquat A, and Triquat 7; tetravalent spermine and Quatro-quat; and hexavalent Quatro-diquat. Effectiveness was measured initially by supernatant UV absorbance after precipitation of salmon sperm DNA. Effectiveness and selectivity were then investigated using differences in RT-PCR Ct values with synthetic mixtures of human genomic DNA and total RNA, and with total RNA isolated from cells. With 500 μM of spermidine or Triquat A, the supernatant DNA could not be detected up to 40 cycles of PCR (Ct ≥12.6) while the Ct for the mRNA was increased by only 5 cycles. Therefore, spermidine and Triquat A each show strong DNA-selectivity and could be used to eliminate contaminating DNA in measurements of mRNA. PMID:18831957

  8. High-throughput sample-to-answer detection of DNA/RNA in crude samples within functionalized micro-pipette tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Jidong; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Jiashu; Chen, Yiping; Zhang, Lu; Zheng, Chunsheng; Gao, Wenna; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-15

    We develop a micro-pipette tip-based nucleic acid test (MTNT) for high-throughput sample-to-answer detection of both DNA and RNA from crude samples including cells, bacteria, and solid plants, without the need of sample pretreatment and complex operation. MTNT consists of micro-pipette tips and embedded solid phase nucleic acid extraction membranes, and fully integrates the functions of nucleic acid extraction from crude samples, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of nucleic acids, and visual readout of assays. The total assaying time for DNA or RNA from a variety of crude samples ranges from 90 to 160 min. The limit of detection (LOD) of MTNT is 2 copies of plasmids containing the target nucleic acid fragments of Ebola virus, and 8 CFU of Escherichia coli carrying Ebola virus-derived plasmids. MTNT can also detect CK-19 mRNA from as few as 2 cancer cells without complicated procedures such as RNA extraction and purification. We further demonstrate MTNT in a high-throughput format using an eight-channel pipette and a homemade mini-heater, with a maximum throughput of 40 samples. Compared with other point-of-care (POC) nucleic acid tests (NAT), MTNT could assay both DNA and RNA directly from liquid (cells/bacteria/blood) or solid (plant) samples in a straightforward, sensitive, high-throughput, and containment-free manner, suggesting a considerable promise for low-cost and POC NAT in remote areas.

  9. Effects of 16S rDNA sampling on estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Allen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic trees can reveal the origins of endosymbiotic lineages of bacteria and detect patterns of co-evolution with their hosts. Although taxon sampling can greatly affect phylogenetic and co-evolutionary inference, most hypotheses of endosymbiont relationships are based on few available bacterial sequences. Here we examined how different sampling strategies of Gammaproteobacteria sequences affect estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in parasitic sucking lice (Insecta: Phthirapatera: Anoplura. We estimated the number of louse endosymbiont lineages using both newly obtained and previously sequenced 16S rDNA bacterial sequences and more than 42,000 16S rDNA sequences from other Gammaproteobacteria. We also performed parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping experiments to examine the effects of phylogenetic error and uncertainty on these estimates. Sampling of 16S rDNA sequences affects the estimates of endosymbiont diversity in sucking lice until we reach a threshold of genetic diversity, the size of which depends on the sampling strategy. Sampling by maximizing the diversity of 16S rDNA sequences is more efficient than randomly sampling available 16S rDNA sequences. Although simulation results validate estimates of multiple endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice, the bootstrap results suggest that the precise number of endosymbiont origins is still uncertain.

  10. Development of a Novel Self-Enclosed Sample Preparation Device for DNA/RNA Isolation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Mehta, Satish K.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern biology techniques present potentials for a wide range of molecular, cellular, and biochemistry applications in space, including detection of infectious pathogens and environmental contaminations, monitoring of drug-resistant microbial and dangerous mutations, identification of new phenotypes of microbial and new life species. However, one of the major technological blockades in enabling these technologies in space is a lack of devices for sample preparation in the space environment. To overcome such an obstacle, we constructed a prototype of a DNA/RNA isolation device based on our novel designs documented in the NASA New Technology Reporting System (MSC-24811-1/3-1). This device is self-enclosed and pipette free, purposely designed for use in the absence of gravity. Our design can also be modified easily for preparing samples in space for other applications, such as flowcytometry, immunostaining, cell separation, sample purification and separation according to its size and charges, sample chemical labeling, and sample purification. The prototype of our DNA/RNA isolation device was tested for efficiencies of DNA and RNA isolation from various cell types for PCR analysis. The purity and integrity of purified DNA and RNA were determined as well. Results showed that our developed DNA/RNA isolation device offers similar efficiency and quality in comparison to the samples prepared using the standard protocol in the laboratory.

  11. Fishing in the Water: Effect of Sampled Water Volume on Environmental DNA-Based Detection of Macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mächler, Elvira; Deiner, Kristy; Spahn, Fabienne; Altermatt, Florian

    2016-01-05

    Accurate detection of organisms is crucial for the effective management of threatened and invasive species because false detections directly affect the implementation of management actions. The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) as a species detection tool is in a rapid development stage; however, concerns about accurate detections using eDNA have been raised. We evaluated the effect of sampled water volume (0.25 to 2 L) on the detection rate for three macroinvertebrate species. Additionally, we tested (depending on the sampled water volume) what amount of total extracted DNA should be screened to reduce uncertainty in detections. We found that all three species were detected in all volumes of water. Surprisingly, however, only one species had a positive relationship between an increased sample volume and an increase in the detection rate. We conclude that the optimal sample volume might depend on the species-habitat combination and should be tested for the system where management actions are warranted. Nevertheless, we minimally recommend sampling water volumes of 1 L and screening at least 14 μL of extracted eDNA for each sample to reduce uncertainty in detections when studying macroinvertebrates in rivers and using our molecular workflow.

  12. Magnetic bead capture eliminates PCR inhibitors in samples collected from the airborne environment, permitting detection of Pneumocystis carinii DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, N; Dillon, H K; Vermund, S H; Unnasch, T R

    2001-01-01

    PCR detection methods are useful in studies of organisms not amenable to culture. Inhibitors in environmental samples can interfere with such assays. We describe a magnetic bead DNA capture protocol that removes inhibitors from outdoor air samples, maintaining the sensitivity of a 16S Pneumocystis carinii mitochondrial rRNA gene-based PCR.

  13. Joomla! 3 template essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Frankowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Using this hands-on, step-by step tutorial filled with practical examples, the readers will be able to create beautiful templates and themes for your websites that will make them stand out from others.This book is written for all of you who wish to create your own unique templates for Joomla! 3.x. This book can be used by Joomla! administrators or visual designers (with no programming experience) or those of you who are used to working with common web developer tools like HTML/CSS editors for coding purposes. You would need basic knowledge of Joomla! and some knowledge of CSS and HTML.

  14. Insights into the processes behind the contamination of degraded human teeth and bone samples with exogenous sources of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M. T. P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Willerslev, E.

    2006-01-01

    A principal problem facing human DNA studies that use old and degraded remains is contamination from other sources of human DNA. In this study we have attempted to contaminate deliberately bones and teeth sampled from a medieval collection excavated in Trondheim, Norway, in order to investigate...... to lambda=254nm ultraviolet light, prior to DNA extraction and analysis for evidence of the persistence of the contaminant. The results support previous speculation that bone is more susceptible to water-borne sources of contaminant DNA, although both bone and teeth are readily contaminated...... and are difficult to decontaminate using the tested protocol. We believe that this is largely due to the porous nature of bone and teeth facilitating the deep penetration of the contaminant DNA. To simulate a more realistic handling situation, 27 further teeth were directly handled and washed, then decontaminated...

  15. SPIDIA-DNA: An External Quality Assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for DNA-based analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malentacchi, F.; Pazzagli, M.; Simi, L.; Orlando, C.; Wyrich, R.; Hartmann, C.C.; Verderio, P.; Pizzamiglio, S.; Ciniselli, C.M.; Tichopád, Aleš; Kubista, Mikael; Gelmini, S.

    -, č. 424 (2013), s. 274-286 ISSN 0009-8981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Pre-analytical phase * DNA quality * Blood samples Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.764, year: 2013

  16. Impact of DNA extraction, sample dilution, and reagent contamination on 16S rRNA gene sequencing of human feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Mejía, Eliana P; de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, Jacobo; Escobar, Juan S

    2018-01-01

    Culture-independent methods have granted the possibility to study microbial diversity in great detail, but technical issues pose a threat to the accuracy of new findings. Biases introduced during DNA extraction can result in erroneous representations of the microbial community, particularly in samples with low microbial biomass. We evaluated the DNA extraction method, initial sample biomass, and reagent contamination on the assessment of the human gut microbiota. Fecal samples of 200 mg were subjected to 1:10 serial dilutions; total DNA was obtained using two commercial kits and the microbiota assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. In addition, we sequenced multiple technical controls. The two kits were efficient in extracting DNA from samples with as low as 2 mg of feces. However, in instances of lower biomass, only one kit performed well. The number of reads from negative controls was negligible. Both DNA extraction kits allowed inferring microbial consortia with similar membership but different abundances. Furthermore, we found differences in the taxonomic profile of the microbial community. Unexpectedly, the effect of sample dilution was moderate and did not introduce severe bias into the microbial inference. Indeed, the microbiota inferred from fecal samples was distinguishable from that of negative controls. In most cases, samples as low as 2 mg did not result in a dissimilar representation of the microbial community compared with the undiluted sample. Our results indicate that the gut microbiota inference is not much affected by contamination with laboratory reagents but largely impacted by the protocol to extract DNA.

  17. Inferring separate parental admixture components in unknown DNA samples using autosomal SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Daniel J M; Weale, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    The identification of ancestral admixture proportions for human DNA samples has recently had success in forensic cases. Current methods infer admixture proportions for the target sample, but not for their parents, which provides an additional layer of information that may aid certain forensic investigations. We describe new maximum likelihood methods (LEAPFrOG and LEAPFrOG Expectation Maximisation), for inferring both an individual's admixture proportions and the admixture proportions possessed by the unobserved parents, with respect to two or more source populations, using single-nucleotide polymorphism data typed only in the target individual. This is achieved by examining the increase in heterozygosity in the offspring of parents who are from different populations or who represent different mixtures from a number of source populations. We validated the methods via simulation; combining chromosomes from different Hapmap Phase III population samples to emulate first-generation admixture. Performance was strong for individuals with mixed African/European (YRI/CEU) ancestry, but poor for mixed Japanese/Chinese (JPT/CHB) ancestry, reflecting the difficulty in distinguishing closely related source populations. A total of 11 African-American trios were used to compare the parental admixture inferred from their own genotypes against that inferred purely from their offspring genotypes. We examined the performance of 34 ancestry informative markers from a multiplex kit for ancestry inference. Simulations showed that estimates were unreliable when parents had similar admixture, suggesting more markers are needed. Our results demonstrate that ancestral backgrounds of case samples and their parents are obtainable to aid in forensic investigations, provided that high-throughput methods are adopted by the forensic community.

  18. Determination of DNA profiling of siwak and toothbrush samples used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Alfadaly

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Siwak contains enough quantity of DNA, and retained good DNA profiling; and when compared to toothbrushes, siwak is a reasonable source of DNA profiling when found at the scene of crime. In addition, time of storage up to 4 months had no or little effects on results.

  19. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2014-07-27

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  20. Further evaluation of an updated PCR assay for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni DNA in human stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana I; Marques, Letícia H S; Enk, Martin J; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Z; Rabello, Ana

    2009-12-01

    A previously reported sensitive PCR assay for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni DNA was updated and evaluated. Changes in the DNA extraction method, including the use of a worldwide available commercial kit and the inclusion of additional quality control measures, increased the robustness of the test, as confirmed by the analysis of 67 faecal samples from an endemic area in Brazil. The PCR assay is at hand as a proven, reliable diagnostic test for the control of schistosomiasis in specific settings.

  1. Five commercial DNA extraction systems tested and compared on a stool sample collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Søren; de Boer, Richard F; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M D; Olsen, Katharina E P

    2011-03-01

    In this study, 5 different commercial DNA extraction systems were tested on a stool sample collection containing 81 clinical stool specimens that were culture-positive for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, or Clostridium difficile. The purified DNAs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) directed toward the relevant organisms. The results showed that conventional PCR combined with the extraction systems BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), Bugs'n Beads (Genpoint, Oslo, Norway), ChargeSwitch (Invitrogen, Paisley, UK), QIAamp Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen), and 2 protocols (generic and Specific A) for EasyMag (BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) were able to identify 89%, 62%, 85%, 88%, 85%, and 91%, respectively, of the pathogens originally identified by conventional culture-based methods. When TaqMan PCR was combined with the EasyMag Specific A protocol, 99% of the samples were correctly identified. The results demonstrate that the extraction efficiencies can vary significantly among different extraction systems, careful optimization may have a significant positive effect, and the use of sensitive and specific detection methods like TaqMan PCR is an ideal choice for this type of analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Freezing fecal samples prior to DNA extraction affects the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio determined by downstream quantitative PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Bergström, Anders; Licht, Tine Rask

    2012-04-01

    Freezing stool samples prior to DNA extraction and downstream analysis is widely used in metagenomic studies of the human microbiota but may affect the inferred community composition. In this study, DNA was extracted either directly or following freeze storage of three homogenized human fecal samples using three different extraction methods. No consistent differences were observed in DNA yields between extractions on fresh and frozen samples; however, differences were observed between extraction methods. Quantitative PCR analysis was subsequently performed on all DNA samples using six different primer pairs targeting 16S rRNA genes of significant bacterial groups, and the community composition was evaluated by comparing specific ratios of the calculated abundances. In seven of nine cases, the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene ratio was significantly higher in fecal samples that had been frozen compared to identical samples that had not. This effect was further supported by qPCR analysis of bacterial groups within these two phyla. The results demonstrate that storage conditions of fecal samples may adversely affect the determined Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, which is a frequently used biomarker in gut microbiology. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatitis B virus DNA stability in plasma samples under short-term storage at 42°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.W. de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the stability of hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA in plasma samples stored at 42°C for external quality assessment (EQA panels of viral load. To assess the stability of plasma samples containing different concentrations of HBV DNA, serial dilutions of HBV-infected samples with a viral load of 6.40 log(10 IU/mL were made to yield viral loads of 5, 4, and 3 log(10 IU/mL. These were incubated at 42°C for up to 7 days and then frozen at -70°C. Viral load testing for HBV DNA was performed for all samples using COBAS¯ AmpliPrep/COBAS¯ TaqMan¯ HBV Test (v.2.0, Roche, Switzerland. Results were compared with fresh frozen plasma samples as a benchmark to establish acceptable measurements on the days following sample collection. Although the results of this study demonstrated a decrease in HBV DNA viral load ranging from 0.005 to 0.30 log(10 IU/mL after storage at 42°C for up to 7 days, these values did not exceed 0.5 log(10, which is the estimated intra-assay variation for molecular tests. Thus, the insignificant decrease in viral load suggests that shipment of HBV in plasma samples at temperatures of up to 42°C is permissible if they are frozen within 7 days.

  4. Public involvement in pharmacogenomics research: a national survey on patients' attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research and the willingness to donate DNA samples to a DNA bank in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eriko; Sakurada, Tomoya; Ueda, Shiro; Satoh, Nobunori

    2011-05-01

    To assess the attitude of Japanese patients towards pharmacogenomics research and a DNA bank for identifying genomic markers associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and their willingness to donate DNA samples, we conducted a survey of 550 male and female patients. The majority of the respondents showed a positive attitude towards pharmacogenomics research (87.6%) and a DNA bank (75.1%). The willingness to donate DNA samples when experiencing severe ADRs (55.8%) was higher than when taking medications (40.4%). Positive attitudes towards a DNA bank and organ donation were significantly associated with an increased willingness to donate. Though the level of positive attitude in the patient population was higher than that in the general public in our former study (81.0 and 70.4%, respectively), the level of the willingness of patients to donate was 40.4% when taking medications and 55.8% when experiencing severe ADRs which was lower than that of the general public in our former study (45.3 and 61.7%). The results suggested that the level of true willingness in the patient population was lower than that of the general public considering the fictitious situation presented to the public (to suppose that they were patients receiving medication). It is important to assess the willingness of patients who are true potential donors, not the general public.

  5. Public involvement in pharmacogenomics research: a national survey on public attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research and the willingness to donate DNA samples to a DNA bank in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eriko; Satoh, Nobunori

    2009-11-01

    To assess the attitudes of the Japanese general public towards pharmacogenomics research and a DNA bank for identifying genomic markers associated with ADRs and their willingness to donate DNA samples, we conducted a national survey for 1,103 Japanese adults from the general public, not a patient population. The response rate was 36.8%. The majority of the respondents showed a positive attitude towards pharmacogenomics research (81.0%) and a DNA bank (70.4%). Considering fictitious clinical situations such as taking medications and experiencing ADRs, the willingness to donate DNA samples when experiencing ADRs (61.7%) was higher than when taking medications (45.3%). Older generations were significantly associated with a decreased willingness to donate (OR = 0.45, CI 0.28-0.72 in 50s. OR = 0.49, CI: 0.31-0.77 in 60s). Positive attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research, a DNA bank, blood/bone marrow/organ donation were significantly associated with an increased willingness. However, the respondents had the following concerns regarding a DNA bank: the confidentiality of their personal information, the manner by which research results were utilized and simply the use of their own DNA for research. In order to attain public understanding to overcome these concerns, a process of public awareness should be put into place to emphasize the beneficial aspects of identifying genomic markers associated with ADRs and to address these concerns raised in our study. Further study is needed to assess the willingness of actual patients taking medications in real situations, since the respondents in our study were from the general public, not a patient population, and their willingness was assessed on the condition of assuming that they were patients taking medications.

  6. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  7. The Cadastral Template Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Steudler, Daniel; Williamson, Ian P.

    2004-01-01

      While many country reports have been compiled in the area of land administration over the last decade, there has not much attention been given to the basic cadastral issues. As a result, one of the objectives of Working Group 3 ?Cadastre? of the PCGIAP is the establishment of a cadastral template...

  8. A series of template plasmids for Escherichia coli genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Shalini S; Reshamwala, Shamlan M S; Lali, Arvind M

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic engineering strategies often employ multi-copy episomal vectors to overexpress genes. However, chromosome-based overexpression is preferred as it avoids the use of selective pressure and reduces metabolic burden on the cell. We have constructed a series of template plasmids for λ Red-mediated Escherichia coli genome engineering. The template plasmids allow construction of genome integrating cassettes that can be used to integrate single copies of DNA sequences at predetermined sites or replace promoter regions. The constructed cassettes provide flexibility in terms of expression levels achieved and antibiotics used for selection, as well as allowing construction of marker-free strains. The modular design of the template plasmids allows replacement of genetic parts to construct new templates. Gene integration and promoter replacement using the template plasmids are illustrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Co-assortment in integron-associated gene cassette assemblages in environmental DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Carolyn A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that integron-associated gene cassettes exist largely in tandem arrays of variable size, ranging from antibiotic resistance arrays of three to five cassettes up to arrays of more than 100 cassettes associated with the vibrios. Further, the ecology of the integron/gene cassette system has been investigated by showing that very many different cassettes are present in even small environmental samples. In this study, we seek to extend the ecological perspective on the integron/gene cassette system by investigating the way in which this diverse cassette metagenome is apportioned amongst prokaryote lineages in a natural environment. Results We used a combination of PCR-based techniques applied to environmental DNA samples and ecological analytical techniques to establish co-assortment within cassette populations, then establishing the relationship between this co-assortment and genomic structures. We then assessed the distribution of gene cassettes within the environment and found that the majority of gene cassettes existed in large co-assorting groups. Conclusions Our results suggested that the gene cassette diversity of a relatively pristine sampling environment was structured into co-assorting groups, predominantly containing large numbers of cassettes per group. These co-assorting groups consisted of different gene cassettes in stoichiometric relationship. Conservatively, we then attributed co-assorting cassettes to the gene cassette complements of single prokaryote lineages and by implication, to large integron-associated arrays. The prevalence of large arrays in the environment raises new questions about the assembly, maintenance and utility of large cassette arrays in prokaryote populations.

  10. Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in complex soil and air samples using next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Be

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy.

  11. Selection and application of ssDNA aptamers to detect active TB from sputum samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia S Rotherham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the enormous global burden of tuberculosis (TB, conventional approaches to diagnosis continue to rely on tests that have major drawbacks. The improvement of TB diagnostics relies, not only on good biomarkers, but also upon accurate detection methodologies. The 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10 and the 6-kDa early secreted antigen target (ESAT-6 are potent T-cell antigens that are recognised by over 70% of TB patients. Aptamers, a novel sensitive and specific class of detection molecules, has hitherto, not been raised to these relatively TB-specific antigens. METHODS: DNA aptamers that bind to the CFP-10.ESAT-6 heterodimer were isolated. To assess their affinity and specificity to the heterodimer, aptamers were screened using an enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA. One suitable aptamer was evaluated by ELONA using sputum samples obtained from 20 TB patients and 48 control patients (those with latent TB infection, symptomatic non TB patients, and healthy laboratory volunteers. Culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb served as the reference standard. Accuracy and cut-points were evaluated using ROC curve analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-four out of the 66 aptamers that were isolated bound significantly (p<0.05 to the CFP-10.ESAT-6 heterodimer and six were further evaluated. Their dissociation constant (K(D values were in the nanomolar range. One aptamer, designated CSIR 2.11, was evaluated using sputum samples. CSIR 2.11 had sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 68.75% using Youden's index and 35% and 95%, respectively, using a rule-in cut-point. CONCLUSION: This preliminary proof-of-concept study suggests that a diagnosis of active TB using anti-CFP-10.ESAT-6 aptamers applied to human sputum samples is feasible.

  12. Selection and Application of ssDNA Aptamers to Detect Active TB from Sputum Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotherham, Lia S.; Maserumule, Charlotte; Dheda, Keertan; Theron, Jacques; Khati, Makobetsa

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the enormous global burden of tuberculosis (TB), conventional approaches to diagnosis continue to rely on tests that have major drawbacks. The improvement of TB diagnostics relies, not only on good biomarkers, but also upon accurate detection methodologies. The 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10) and the 6-kDa early secreted antigen target (ESAT-6) are potent T-cell antigens that are recognised by over 70% of TB patients. Aptamers, a novel sensitive and specific class of detection molecules, has hitherto, not been raised to these relatively TB-specific antigens. Methods DNA aptamers that bind to the CFP-10.ESAT-6 heterodimer were isolated. To assess their affinity and specificity to the heterodimer, aptamers were screened using an enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA). One suitable aptamer was evaluated by ELONA using sputum samples obtained from 20 TB patients and 48 control patients (those with latent TB infection, symptomatic non TB patients, and healthy laboratory volunteers). Culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) served as the reference standard. Accuracy and cut-points were evaluated using ROC curve analysis. Results Twenty-four out of the 66 aptamers that were isolated bound significantly (pCFP-10.ESAT-6 heterodimer and six were further evaluated. Their dissociation constant (KD) values were in the nanomolar range. One aptamer, designated CSIR 2.11, was evaluated using sputum samples. CSIR 2.11 had sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 68.75% using Youden’s index and 35% and 95%, respectively, using a rule-in cut-point. Conclusion This preliminary proof-of-concept study suggests that a diagnosis of active TB using anti-CFP-10.ESAT-6 aptamers applied to human sputum samples is feasible. PMID:23056492

  13. Co-assortment in integron-associated gene cassette assemblages in environmental DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Carolyn A; Andrew, Nigel R

    2010-08-10

    It has been shown that integron-associated gene cassettes exist largely in tandem arrays of variable size, ranging from antibiotic resistance arrays of three to five cassettes up to arrays of more than 100 cassettes associated with the vibrios. Further, the ecology of the integron/gene cassette system has been investigated by showing that very many different cassettes are present in even small environmental samples. In this study, we seek to extend the ecological perspective on the integron/gene cassette system by investigating the way in which this diverse cassette metagenome is apportioned amongst prokaryote lineages in a natural environment. We used a combination of PCR-based techniques applied to environmental DNA samples and ecological analytical techniques to establish co-assortment within cassette populations, then establishing the relationship between this co-assortment and genomic structures. We then assessed the distribution of gene cassettes within the environment and found that the majority of gene cassettes existed in large co-assorting groups. Our results suggested that the gene cassette diversity of a relatively pristine sampling environment was structured into co-assorting groups, predominantly containing large numbers of cassettes per group. These co-assorting groups consisted of different gene cassettes in stoichiometric relationship. Conservatively, we then attributed co-assorting cassettes to the gene cassette complements of single prokaryote lineages and by implication, to large integron-associated arrays. The prevalence of large arrays in the environment raises new questions about the assembly, maintenance and utility of large cassette arrays in prokaryote populations.

  14. Development and validation of a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method to identify endangered species in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; Staats, Martijn; Hagelaar, Rico; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid; Costessi, Adalberto; Duijsings, Danny; Rechenmann, François; Gaspar, Frédéric B; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Birck, Matthew; Burns, Malcolm; Haynes, Edward; Hochegger, Rupert; Klingl, Alexander; Lundberg, Lisa; Natale, Chiara; Niekamp, Hauke; Perri, Elena; Barbante, Alessandra; Rosec, Jean-Philippe; Seyfarth, Ralf; Sovová, Tereza; Van Moorleghem, Christoff; van Ruth, Saskia; Peelen, Tamara; Kok, Esther

    2017-10-01

    DNA metabarcoding provides great potential for species identification in complex samples such as food supplements and traditional medicines. Such a method would aid Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) enforcement officers to combat wildlife crime by preventing illegal trade of endangered plant and animal species. The objective of this research was to develop a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method for forensic wildlife species identification and to evaluate the applicability and reproducibility of this approach across different laboratories. A DNA metabarcoding method was developed that makes use of 12 DNA barcode markers that have demonstrated universal applicability across a wide range of plant and animal taxa and that facilitate the identification of species in samples containing degraded DNA. The DNA metabarcoding method was developed based on Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing of well-defined experimental mixtures, for which a bioinformatics pipeline with user-friendly web-interface was developed. The performance of the DNA metabarcoding method was assessed in an international validation trial by 16 laboratories, in which the method was found to be highly reproducible and sensitive enough to identify species present in a mixture at 1% dry weight content. The advanced multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method assessed in this study provides reliable and detailed data on the composition of complex food products, including information on the presence of CITES-listed species. The method can provide improved resolution for species identification, while verifying species with multiple DNA barcodes contributes to an enhanced quality assurance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Comparison of proteases in DNA extraction via quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychner, Alison M; Lebo, Roberta J; Elkins, Kelly M

    2015-06-01

    We compared four proteases in the QIAamp DNA Investigator Kit (Qiagen) to extract DNA for use in multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The aim was to evaluate alternate proteases for improved DNA recovery as compared with proteinase K for forensic, biochemical research, genetic paternity and immigration, and molecular diagnostic purposes. The Quantifiler Kit TaqMan quantitative PCR assay was used to measure the recovery of DNA from human blood, semen, buccal cells, breastmilk, and earwax in addition to low-template samples, including diluted samples, computer keyboard swabs, chewing gum, and cigarette butts. All methods yielded amplifiable DNA from all samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA yield and quality of saliva samples and suitability for large-scale epidemiological studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koni, A C; Scott, R A; Wang, G; Bailey, M E S; Peplies, J; Bammann, K; Pitsiladis, Y P

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate two saliva collection methods for DNA yield and quality as applied to a large, integrated, multicentre, European project involving the collection of biological material from children. Cross-sectional multicentre comparative study in young children. Saliva samples were collected from 14,019 children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study. This involved either the collection of 2 ml of saliva from children who were able to spit, or using a sponge to collect whole saliva and buccal mucosal cells from the inside of the mouth of younger children unable to spit. Samples were assembled centrally in each participating centre and subsequently despatched for DNA extraction and biobanking to the University of Glasgow. A subgroup of 4678 samples (∼33% of sampled individuals) were chosen for DNA extraction before genotyping. The whole-saliva collection method resulted in a higher DNA yield than the sponge collection method (mean±s.d.; saliva: 20.95±2.35 μg, sponge: 9.13±2.25 μg; Psaliva collection method compared with the assisted sponge collection. However, both collection methods provided DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for large-scale genetic epidemiological studies.

  17. Quality assessment of DNA sequence data: autopsy of a mis-sequenced mtDNA population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelt, H-J; Kivisild, T

    2006-05-01

    Published DNA data sets constitute a body of sequencing results resting in silico that are supposed to reflect the variation of (once) living cells. In cases where the DNA variation reported is suspected to be fraught with artefacts, an autopsy of the full body of data is needed to clarify the amount and causes of mis-sequencing. In this paper we elaborate on strategies that allow a clear-cut identification of the problems in severely flawed mtDNA data. This approach is applied, by way of example, to a data set of HVS-I sequences from the Caucasus, published by Nasidze & Stoneking in 2001. These data bear numerous ambiguous nucleotide positions and suffer from an even higher number of phantom mutations, indicating that severe biochemical problems adversely influenced those sequencing results at the time. Furthermore, systematic omission of sequences with a long C-stretch (incurred by a transition at position 16189) must have severely biased the data set. Since no complete correction of these data has appeared to date, this example of mis-sequencing necessitates circumstantial evidence that is bullet-proof.

  18. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Shara Carol [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices

  19. Femur, rib, and tooth sample collection for DNA analysis in disaster victim identification (DVI) : a method to minimize contamination risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westen, Antoinette A; Gerretsen, Reza R R; Maat, George J R

    2008-01-01

    Although much literature is available on DNA extraction from tissue samples to obtain the best possible genotyping results, to the best of our knowledge no written recommendations exist on how to excise or extract bone and tooth samples from a victim to facilitate this. Because the possibility of cross-contamination is high, especially when excising numerous samples under disaster conditions, it is important to minimize this risk and to keep samples in optimum condition. In this paper a standard operating procedure is proposed for collection of femur, rib, and tooth samples to aid victim identification both after mass disasters and in (single) forensic investigations.

  20. Self-sampling for human papillomavirus DNA detection: a preliminary study of compliance and feasibility in BOLIVIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surriabre, Pedro; Allende, Gustavo; Prado, Marcela; Cáceres, Leyddy; Bellot, Diego; Torrico, Andrea; Ustariz, Karina; Rojas, Shirley; Barriga, Jaime; Calle, Pamela; Villarroel, Ligia; Yañez, Rosse Mary; Baay, Marc; Rodriguez, Patricia; Fontaine, Véronique

    2017-12-22

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in Bolivia are among the highest in Latin America. This investigation aims to evaluate the possibility of using simple devices, e.g. a cotton swab and a glass slide, for self-sampling in order to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by PCR in cervico-vaginal cells. In the first phase of our study we evaluated the use of a glass slide as a transport medium for cervical cells. A physician took paired-cervical samples from 235 women. One sample was transported in Easyfix® solution and the other sample was smeared over a glass slide. Both were further analyzed and compared for human DNA recovery and HPV detection. A kappa value was determined to evaluate the agreement between the HPV DNA detection rates. In the second phase of the study, 222 women from the urban, peri-urban and rural regions of Cochabamba were requested to perform self-sampling using the following devices: a cotton swab combined with a glass slide, and a vaginal tampon. Women gave their opinion about the self-sampling technique. Finally, the agreement for high risk-HPV detection between self- and physician-collected samples was performed in 201 samples in order to evaluate the self-sampling technique. Firstly, the comparison between Easyfix® solution and the glass slide to transport clinical samples gave a good agreement for HPV DNA detection (κ = 0.71, 95% CI 0.60-0.81). Secondly, self-sampling, especially with cotton swab combined with glass slide, would generally be preferred over clinician sampling for a screening program based on HPV detection. Finally, we showed a good agreement between self- and physician collected samples for high risk-HPV detection (κ = 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.88). Simple devices such as a cotton swab and a glass slide can be used to perform self-sampling and HPV DNA detection. Furthermore, most Bolivian women preferred self-sampling over clinician-sampling for cervical cancer screening.

  1. New procedure for recovering extra- and intracellular DNA from marine sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a ubiquitous biological compound in aquatic sediment and soil. Despite major methodological advances, analysis of DNA from sediment is still technically challenging, not just because of the co-elution of inhibitory substances, but also due to co-elution of extracellular DNA, which potentially leads to an overestimate of the actual diversity. Previous studies suggested that eDNA might play an important role in biogeochemical element cycling, horizontal gene transfer and stabilization of biofilm structures. Several protocols based on the precipitation of eDNA e.g. with CTAB and ethanol have already been published. However, using these methods we did not succeed in quantifying very low amounts of eDNA (e.g. applications like PCR can be performed. To evaluate the new extraction method two sediments with rather opposing composition were analyzed. Sediment from the South Pacific Gyre, the most oligotrophic oceanic region on earth and organic-rich Baltic Sea sediment (Northern Germany) were processed. Using this new procedure high purity genomic iDNA and eDNA with a molecular size range between 20 bp and 50k bp can be simultaneously recovered even from very oligotrophic sediment with very low cell abundances. The main fraction of recovered eDNA was suitable for downstream applications like PCR and had a molecular size that indicates minimal shearing. Despite about two decades of research many questions about deep subsurface life remain unanswered. The fact that microbes can be found even in deep oligotrophic marine sediment raises the fundamental questions of the types and availability of substrates and their biogeochemical cycling. This is the first study that provides evidence that eDNA is an important potential substrate for microorganisms in the deep biosphere. Also, our results show a link between cell counts and eDNA content, indicating that the eDNA pool in the investigated sediment consist mainly of microbial DNA. Comparative sequence

  2. Back to basics: an evaluation of NaOH and alternative rapid DNA extraction protocols for DNA barcoding, genotyping, and disease diagnostics from fungal and oomycete samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundson, Todd W; Eyre, Catherine A; Hayden, Katherine M; Dhillon, Jaskirn; Garbelotto, Matteo M

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity, high diversity and often-cryptic manifestations of fungi and oomycetes frequently necessitate molecular tools for detecting and identifying them in the environment. In applications including DNA barcoding, pathogen detection from plant samples, and genotyping for population genetics and epidemiology, rapid and dependable DNA extraction methods scalable from one to hundreds of samples are desirable. We evaluated several rapid extraction methods (NaOH, Rapid one-step extraction (ROSE), Chelex 100, proteinase K) for their ability to obtain DNA of quantity and quality suitable for the following applications: PCR amplification of the multicopy barcoding locus ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 from various fungal cultures and sporocarps; single-copy microsatellite amplification from cultures of the phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora ramorum; probe-based P. ramorum detection from leaves. Several methods were effective for most of the applications, with NaOH extraction favored in terms of success rate, cost, speed and simplicity. Frozen dilutions of ROSE and NaOH extracts maintained PCR viability for over 32 months. DNA from rapid extractions performed poorly compared to CTAB/phenol-chloroform extracts for TaqMan diagnostics from tanoak leaves, suggesting that incomplete removal of PCR inhibitors is an issue for sensitive diagnostic procedures, especially from plants with recalcitrant leaf chemistry. NaOH extracts exhibited lower yield and size than CTAB/phenol-chloroform extracts; however, NaOH extraction facilitated obtaining clean sequence data from sporocarps contaminated by other fungi, perhaps due to dilution resulting from low DNA yield. We conclude that conventional extractions are often unnecessary for routine DNA sequencing or genotyping of fungi and oomycetes, and recommend simpler strategies where source materials and intended applications warrant such use. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Visual detection of Brucella in bovine biological samples using DNA-activated gold nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Pal

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a bacterial disease, which, although affecting cattle primarily, has been associated with human infections, making its detection an important challenge. The existing gold standard diagnosis relies on the culture of bacteria which is a lengthy and costly process, taking up to 45 days. New technologies based on molecular diagnosis have been proposed, either through dip-stick, immunological assays, which have limited specificity, or using nucleic acid tests, which enable to identify the pathogen, but are impractical for use in the field, where most of the reservoir cases are located. Here we demonstrate a new test based on hybridization assays with metal nanoparticles, which, upon detection of a specific pathogen-derived DNA sequence, yield a visual colour change. We characterise the components used in the assay with a range of analytical techniques and show sensitivities down to 1000 cfu/ml for the detection of Brucella. Finally, we demonstrate that the assay works in a range of bovine samples including semen, milk and urine, opening up the potential for its use in the field, in low-resource settings.

  4. Detection of adenovirus DNA in clinical samples by SYBR Green real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Kohdera, Urara; Kino, Minoru; Haruta, Tsunekazu; Nukuzuma, Syoichi; Suga, Tomoko; Akiyoshi, Kyoko; Ito, Masahiro; Suga, Shigeru; Komada, Yoshihiro

    2005-06-01

    Adenoviruses are associated with a variety of diseases including upper respiratory tract infections, acute conjunctivitis, cystitis and gastroenteritis. Adenoviruses can also cause fatal disseminated infections in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation. Measurement of adenovirus load in clinical samples from localized adenovirus infections or disseminated adenovirus infections may provide important information for analyzing the pathogenesis of various adenovirus infections. The purpose of the present study was to develop and optimize a highly sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect a wide range of adenoviruses and to detect adenovirus DNA in clinical samples from immunocompetent children. Clinical samples of throat swabs and blood were collected from 111 patients suspected of having adenovirus infection. The copy number of adenovirus DNA was measured by real-time PCR assay. SYBR Green real-time PCR assay is able to detect 10-10(6) copies of standard adenovirus DNA per run. Adenovirus DNA was detected in all culture-positive samples serotyped as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 11. Viral loads on throat swabs from immunocompetent children with adenovirus infection ranged from 10(5) to 10(11) copies/mL. Adenovirus DNA was detected in 60% of blood samples and copy number ranged from 10(3) to 10(5) copies/mL. SYBR Green real-time PCR is a useful quantitative tool for analysis of adenovirus DNA. The present results for immunocompetent children with adenovirus infections provided basic data for comparison with data obtained from immunocompromised patients.

  5. Upscaled CTAB-Based DNA Extraction and Real-Time PCR Assays for Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum DNA in Plant Material with Reduced Sampling Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Karlovsky

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (Gibberella zeae Schwein. Petch. and F. culmorum W.G. Smith are major mycotoxin producers in small-grain cereals afflicted with Fusarium head blight (FHB. Real-time PCR (qPCR is the method of choice for species-specific, quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant tissue. We demonstrated that increasing the amount of plant material used for DNA extraction to 0.5-1.0 g considerably reduced sampling error and improved the reproducibility of DNA yield. The costs of DNA extraction at different scales and with different methods (commercial kits versus cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based protocol and qPCR systems (doubly labeled hybridization probes versus SYBR Green were compared. A cost-effective protocol for the quantification of F. graminearum and F. culmorum DNA in wheat grain and maize stalk debris based on DNA extraction from 0.5-1.0 g material and real-time PCR with SYBR Green fluorescence detection was developed.

  6. Upscaled CTAB-based DNA extraction and real-time PCR assays for Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum DNA in plant material with reduced sampling error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandfass, Christoph; Karlovsky, Petr

    2008-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (Gibberella zeae Schwein. Petch.) and F. culmorum W.G. Smith are major mycotoxin producers in small-grain cereals afflicted with Fusarium head blight (FHB). Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for species-specific, quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant tissue. We demonstrated that increasing the amount of plant material used for DNA extraction to 0.5-1.0 g considerably reduced sampling error and improved the reproducibility of DNA yield. The costs of DNA extraction at different scales and with different methods (commercial kits versus cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based protocol) and qPCR systems (doubly labeled hybridization probes versus SYBR Green) were compared. A cost-effective protocol for the quantification of F. graminearum and F. culmorum DNA in wheat grain and maize stalk debris based on DNA extraction from 0.5-1.0 g material and real-time PCR with SYBR Green fluorescence detection was developed.

  7. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  8. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  9. NLG vs. Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, E R

    1995-01-01

    One of the most important questions in applied NLG is what benefits (or `value-added', in business-speak) NLG technology offers over template-based approaches. Despite the importance of this question to the applied NLG community, however, it has not been discussed much in the research NLG community, which I think is a pity. In this paper, I try to summarize the issues involved and recap current thinking on this topic. My goal is not to answer this question (I don't think we know enough to be able to do so), but rather to increase the visibility of this issue in the research community, in the hope of getting some input and ideas on this very important question. I conclude with a list of specific research areas I would like to see more work in, because I think they would increase the `value-added' of NLG over templates.

  10. Interest of human papillomavirus DNA quantification and genotyping in paired cervical and urine samples to detect cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducancelle, A; Legrand, M C; Pivert, A; Veillon, P; Le Guillou-Guillemette, H; De Brux, M A; Beby-Defaux, A; Agius, G; Hantz, S; Alain, S; Catala, L; Descamps, P; Postec, E; Caly, H; Charles-Pétillon, F; Labrousse, F; Lunel, F; Payan, C

    2014-08-01

    Cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Conventional human papillomavirus (HPV) testing requires cervical sampling. However, vaginal and urine self-sampling methods are more acceptable for patients and result in increased participation when they are available in screening programs. In this context, we have developed a non-invasive screening method via the detection of HPV DNA in urine samples. To compare HPV viral loads and genotypes in paired cervical and urine samples, and to assess correlation between virological and cytological results in women seeking gynecological consultation. Paired urine and cervical specimens were collected and analyzed from 230 of 245 women participating in the previously described prospective PapU study. HPV DNA detection and quantification were performed using a real-time PCR method with short fragment PCR primers. Genotyping was carried out using the INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping assay. The prevalence of HPV in the 230 paired urine and cervical smear samples was 42 and 49 %, respectively. Overall agreement for HPV positivity and negativity between the paired samples was 90 % (κ = 0.80). High HPV viral load in both cervical and urine samples was associated with cytological abnormalities. HPV-positive women were mostly infected with HR-HPV types. The agreement between high- and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) detection in both samples was 97 % (κ = 0.95 for HR-HPV and κ = 0.97 for LR-HPV). High concordance rates for HPV-DNA quantification and high/low-risk HPV genotyping in paired urine/cervical samples suggest that urinary HPV DNA testing could be useful for cervical lesion screening.

  11. Sampling the potential energy surface of a DNA duplex damaged by a food carcinogen: Force field parameterization by ab initio quantum calculations and conformational searching using molecular mechanics computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang

    1999-07-01

    The heterocyclic amine 2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4, 5-f) quinoline (IQ) is one of a number of carcinogens found in barbecued meat and fish. It induces tumors in mammals and is probably involved in human carcinogenesis, because of great exposure to such food carcinogens. IQ is biochemically activated to a derivative which reacts with DNA to form a covalent adduct. This adduct may deform the DNA and consequently cause a mutation. which may initiate carcinogenesis. To understand this cancer initiating event, it is necessary to obtain atomic resolution structures of the damaged DNA. No such structures are available experimentally due to synthesis difficulties. Therefore, we employ extensive molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations for this purpose. The major IQ-DNA adduct in the specific DNA sequence d(5'G1G2C G3CCA3') - d(5'TGGCGCC3') with IQ modified at G3 is studied. The d(5'G1G2C G3CC3') sequence has recently been shown to be a hot-spot for mutations when IQ modification is at G3. Although this sequence is prone to -2 deletions via a ``slippage mechanism'' even when unmodified, a key question is why IQ increases the mutation frequency of the unmodified DNA by about 104 fold. Is there a structural feature imposed by IQ that is responsible? The molecular mechanics and dynamics program AMBER for nucleic acids with the latest force field was chosen for this work. This force field has been demonstrated to reproduce well the B-DNA structure. However, some parameters, the partial charges, bond lengths and angles, dihedral parameters of the modified residue, are not available in the AMBER database. We parameterized the force field using high level ab initio quantum calculations. We created 800 starting conformations which uniformly sampled in combination at 18° intervals three torsion angles that govern the IQ-DNA orientations, and energy minimized them. The most important structures are abnormal; the IQ damaged guanine is rotated out of its standard B-DNA

  12. Templating mesoporous zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Kustova, Marina

    2008-01-01

    phase. It is shown that the available templating approaches are quite versatile, and accordingly, it is possible to produce a very wide range of hierarchical zeolite materials. The resulting zeolite materials, featuring noncrystallographic mesopores in addition to the crystallographic micropores......, exhibit significantly enhanced diffusional properties in comparison with purely microporous zeolite materials. These enhanced mass transport properties have been shown in several cases to result in significantly improved catalytic properties in a range of important reactions....

  13. Extracellular DNA in cord blood plasma and applications in cord blood banking for sample identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Maria S; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Stevens, Cladd E; Rubinstein, Pablo

    2009-08-01

    Human cord blood (CB) units donated for transplantation require testing for various markers in blood and plasma aliquots. Although the identity link between the CB unit and the labeled aliquots with the same identifiers can be confirmed by HLA-DNA assays, these methods have not been used for CB plasma. We have previously reported that viral DNA sequences are present in the CB plasma of carrier babies and now hypothesize that human genomic DNA may also be present in CB plasma. The aim of the study was to determine whether human genomic DNA is also present in CB plasma in quality and quantity able to support human genetic identification by short tandem repeat analysis (STR). The presence of extracellular DNA (EC-DNA) in CB and adult peripheral blood plasma was confirmed by HLA-DR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR of Alu (SB2) genes. High concentrations were seen in CB plasma (0.131 ng/mL vs. adult 0.005 ng/mL; p plasma aliquots could be established. This study demonstrates that infant-derived EC-DNA is present in CB plasma and provides a useful tool for the unambiguous confirmation of plasma aliquot identity, as routinely used in CB banking, by the use of a sensitive and highly accurate DNA assay.

  14. Forensic Analysis of Canine DNA Samples in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Tobin M.; Bradley, Sharonda Q.; Fekete, Brenda L.; Millard, Julie T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in canine genomics have allowed the development of highly distinguishing methods of analysis for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify hypervariable regions of DNA from dog hair and saliva…

  15. Learning probabilistic document template models via interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadullin, Ildus; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan

    2013-03-01

    Document aesthetics measures are key to automated document composition. Recently we presented a probabilistic document model (PDM) which is a micro-model for document aesthetics based on a probabilistic modeling of designer choice in document design. The PDM model comes with efficient layout synthesis algorithms once the aesthetic model is defined. A key element of this approach is an aesthetic prior on the parameters of a template encoding aesthetic preferences for template parameters. Parameters of the prior were required to be chosen empirically by designers. In this work we show how probabilistic template models (and hence the PDM cost function) can be learnt directly by observing a designer making design choices in composing sample documents. From such training data our learning approach can learn a quality measure that can mimic some of the design tradeoffs a designer makes in practice.

  16. Simultaneous assessment of the macrobiome and microbiome in a bulk sample of tropical arthropods through DNA metasystematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Joel; Shokralla, Shadi; Porter, Teresita M.; King, Ian; van Konynenburg, Steven; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Conventional assessments of ecosystem sample composition are based on morphology-based or DNA barcode identification of individuals. Both approaches are costly and time-consuming, especially when applied to the large number of specimens and taxa commonly included in ecological investigations. Next-generation sequencing approaches can overcome the bottleneck of individual specimen isolation and identification by simultaneously sequencing specimens of all taxa in a bulk mixture. Here we apply multiple parallel amplification primers, multiple DNA barcode markers, 454-pyrosequencing, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing to the same sample to maximize recovery of the arthropod macrobiome and the bacterial and other microbial microbiome of a bulk arthropod sample. We validate this method with a complex sample containing 1,066 morphologically distinguishable arthropods from a tropical terrestrial ecosystem with high taxonomic diversity. Multiamplicon next-generation DNA barcoding was able to recover sequences corresponding to 91% of the distinguishable individuals in a bulk environmental sample, as well as many species present as undistinguishable tissue. 454-pyrosequencing was able to recover 10 more families of arthropods and 30 more species than did conventional Sanger sequencing of each individual specimen. The use of other loci (16S and 18S ribosomal DNA gene regions) also added the detection of species of microbes associated with these terrestrial arthropods. This method greatly decreases the time and money necessary to perform DNA-based comparisons of biodiversity among ecosystem samples. This methodology opens the door to much cheaper and increased capacity for ecological and evolutionary studies applicable to a wide range of socio-economic issues, as well as a basic understanding of how the world works. PMID:24808136

  17. Translesion DNA Synthesis by Human DNA Polymerase ? on Templates Containing a Pyrimidopurinone Deoxyguanosine Adduct, 3-(2?-Deoxy-?-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido-[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one?

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Jennifer B.; Eoff, Robert L.; Kozekova, Albena; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    M1dG (3-(2?-deoxy-?-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one) lesions are mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cells, leading to base substitutions (mostly M1dG to dT and M1dG to dA) and frameshift mutations. M1dG is produced endogenously through the reaction of peroxidation products, base propenal or malondialdehyde, with deoxyguanosine residues in DNA. The mutagenicity of M1dG in Escherichia coli is dependent on the SOS response, specifically the umuC and umuD gene products,...

  18. Comparison of different methods for extraction and purification of human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from serum samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.; Nadzirah, Sh.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    The affectability and unwavering quality of PCR for indicative and research purposes require effective fair systems of extraction and sanitization of nucleic acids. One of the real impediments of PCR-based tests is the hindrance of the enhancement procedure by substances exhibit in clinical examples. This examination considers distinctive techniques for extraction and cleaning of viral DNA from serum tests in view of recuperation productivity as far as yield of DNA and rate recouped immaculateness of removed DNA, and rate of restraint. The best extraction strategies were the phenol/chloroform strategy and the silica gel extraction methodology for serum tests, individually. Considering DNA immaculateness, extraction technique by utilizing the phenol/chloroform strategy delivered the most tasteful results in serum tests contrasted with the silica gel, separately. The nearness of inhibitors was overcome by all DNA extraction strategies in serum tests, as confirm by semiquantitative PCR enhancement.

  19. Upscaled CTAB-Based DNA Extraction and Real-Time PCR Assays for Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum DNA in Plant Material with Reduced Sampling Error

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Karlovsky; Christoph Brandfass

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (Gibberella zeae Schwein. Petch.) and F. culmorum W.G. Smith are major mycotoxin producers in small-grain cereals afflicted with Fusarium head blight (FHB). Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for species-specific, quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant tissue. We demonstrated that increasing the amount of plant material used for DNA extraction to 0.5-1.0 g considerably reduced sampling error and improved the reproducibility of ...

  20. Development and validation of a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method to identify endangered species in complex samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J.; Staats, Martijn; Hagelaar, Rico; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M.; Prins, Theo W.; Scholtens, Ingrid; Costessi, Adalberto; Duijsings, Danny; Rechenmann, François; Gaspar, Frédéric B.; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Birck, Matthew; Burns, Malcolm; Haynes, Edward; Hochegger, Rupert; Klingl, Alexander; Lundberg, Lisa; Natale, Chiara; Niekamp, Hauke; Perri, Elena; Barbante, Alessandra; Rosec, Jean Philippe; Seyfarth, Ralf; Sovova, Tereza; Moorleghem, Van Christoff; Ruth, van Saskia; Peelen, Tamara; Kok, Esther

    2017-01-01

    DNA metabarcoding provides great potential for species identification in complex samples such as food supplements and traditional medicines. Such a method would aid Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) enforcement officers to combat wildlife crime

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Marker EST00083 Is Not Associated with High vs. Average IQ in a German Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moises, Hans W.; Yang, Liu; Kohnke, Michael; Vetter, Peter; Neppert, Jurgen; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Tested the association of a mitochondrial DNA marker (EST00083) with high IQ in a sample of 47 German adults with high IQ scores and 77 adults with IQs estimated at lower than 110. Results do not support the hypothesis that high IQ is associated with this marker. (SLD)

  2. Microsatellite DNA reveals population genetic differentiation among sprat (Sprattus sprattus) sampled throughout the Northeast Atlantic, including Norwegian fjords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, Kevin A.; Skaala, Øystein; Limborg, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Glover, K. A., Skaala, Ø., Limborg, M., Kvamme, C., and Torstensen, E. Microsatellite DNA reveals population genetic differentiation among sprat (Sprattus sprattus) sampled throughout the Northeast Atlantic, including Norwegian fjords. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: 2145–2151. Sprat (Sprat...... display population genetic differentiation throughout the Northeast Atlantic, and there may be limited connectivity between Norwegian fjord and sea-going populations....

  3. Frequent detection of K-ras mutation in stool samples of colorectal carcinoma patients after improved DNA extraction: comparison with tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Susumu; Taniguchi, Tetsushi; Kainuma, Osamu; Hara, Tsuyosi; Ochiai, Takenori

    2002-06-01

    Fecal occult blood testing is widely used in the clinical screening of colorectal tumors. However, this method has so frequent false-positive results that more accurate screening-strategy should be established. Although the molecular screening using K-ras gene mutation in stools has been attempted to improve the results, the low rate of DNA extraction from stools leaves this measurement under utility value. In this study, we investigated whether or not our applied DNA extraction method from stools could produce enough DNA for the molecular screening of colorectal tumors by K-ras gene mutations in stools. We applied cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solution to improve human DNA extraction from stools and a mutant-allele-sensitive amplification (MASA) method to detect K-ras mutation within codon 12. We were able to confirm the stool DNA by identifying K-ras fragments in all the 20 patients. Tissue K-ras mutation was identified in 4 (2 cancers and 2 adenomas) of 20 patients. Stool K-ras mutations were found in 6 patients, 3 tissue K-ras mutation positive patients (2 cancers and an adenoma) and 3 tissue K-ras mutation negative patients. These results indicate that it is possible to extract enough DNA from human stool samples of all patients with colorectal tumors for K-ras mutation studies. K-ras mutations are more frequently detected in stools than in resected colorectal tumors. This study indicates that K-ras mutation screening in stools for colorectal cancer may include not only a primary colorectal cancer but also precancerous lesions in all parts of a gastrointestinal tract.

  4. In vitro transcription of a torsionally constrained template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas; Nielsen, Peter E

    2002-01-01

    of torsionally constrained DNA by free RNAP. We asked whether or not a newly synthesized RNA chain would limit transcription elongation. For this purpose we developed a method to immobilize covalently closed circular DNA to streptavidin-coated beads via a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-biotin conjugate in principle...... mimicking a SAR/MAR attachment. We used this construct as a torsionally constrained template for transcription of the beta-lactamase gene by Escherichia coli RNAP and found that RNA synthesis displays similar characteristics in terms of rate of elongation whether or not the template is torsionally...... constrained. We conclude that transcription of a natural bacterial gene may proceed with high efficiency despite the fact that newly synthesized RNA is entangled around the template in the narrow confines of torsionally constrained supercoiled DNA....

  5. Microbial Degradation of Forensic Samples of Biological Origin: Potential Threat to Human DNA Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Hirak Ranjan; Das, Surajit

    2017-12-06

    Forensic biology is a sub-discipline of biological science with an amalgam of other branches of science used in the criminal justice system. Any nucleated cell/tissue harbouring DNA, either live or dead, can be used as forensic exhibits, a source of investigation through DNA typing. These biological materials of human origin are rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, trace elements as well as water and, thus, provide a virtuous milieu for the growth of microbes. The obstinate microbial growth augments the degradation process and is amplified with the passage of time and improper storage of the biological materials. Degradation of these biological materials carriages a huge challenge in the downstream processes of forensic DNA typing technique, such as short tandem repeats (STR) DNA typing. Microbial degradation yields improper or no PCR amplification, heterozygous peak imbalance, DNA contamination from non-human sources, degradation of DNA by microbial by-products, etc. Consequently, the most precise STR DNA typing technique is nullified and definite opinion can be hardly given with degraded forensic exhibits. Thus, suitable precautionary measures should be taken for proper storage and processing of the biological exhibits to minimize their decaying process by micro-organisms.

  6. Quantifying RNA and DNA in planktonic organisms with SYBR Green II and nucleases. Part B. Quantification in natural samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Berdalet

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extraction procedures for RNA and DNA in crude extracts of natural microplankton samples are developed. The methodology is compatible with the fluorometric assay of RNA and DNA developed by Berdalet et al. (2005. Mechanical cell disruption using a manual tissue grinder is combined with chemical extraction using 0.5% sarcosine and 0.5 mM EDTA in 5 mM Tris, pH 8.0, to release the nucleic acid. The new extraction and assay procedure is used to estimate the RNA/DNA ratios of fish larvae and natural microplankton communities maintained in the laboratory under different nutritional conditions. In the two experiments, the RNA/DNA ratios were related to the nutrient availability of the organisms. The level of sensitivity of the method is experimentally set at ca. 40 ng of RNA and 10 ng DNA in the 1 ml assay, which corresponds to a minimum biomass requirement of ca. 400 ng ml-1 protein or 3 µg ml-1 dry weight. The precision, estimated at different steps of the procedure, had an overall coefficient of variation of ?10%. The new approach provides RNA/DNA ratios comparable with those obtained with ethidium bromide.

  7. Inherent bacterial DNA contamination of extraction and sequencing reagents may affect interpretation of microbiota in low bacterial biomass samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassing, Angela; Dowd, Scot E; Galandiuk, Susan; Davis, Brian; Chiodini, Rodrick J

    2016-01-01

    The advent and use of highly sensitive molecular biology techniques to explore the microbiota and microbiome in environmental and tissue samples have detected the presence of contaminating microbial DNA within reagents. These microbial DNA contaminants may distort taxonomic distributions and relative frequencies in microbial datasets, as well as contribute to erroneous interpretations and identifications. We herein report on the occurrence of bacterial DNA contamination within commonly used DNA extraction kits and PCR reagents and the effect of these contaminates on data interpretation. When compared to previous reports, we identified an additional 88 bacterial genera as potential contaminants of molecular biology grade reagents, bringing the total number of known contaminating microbes to 181 genera. Many of the contaminants detected are considered normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and the environment and are often indistinguishable from those genuinely present in the sample. Laboratories working on bacterial populations need to define contaminants present in all extraction kits and reagents used in the processing of DNA. Any unusual and/or unexpected findings need to be viewed as possible contamination as opposed to unique findings.

  8. Optimization of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the detection of Leishmania DNA in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Ibrahim; Kirstein, Oscar D; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon

    2016-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), one of the most important neglected tropical diseases, is caused by Leishmania donovani eukaryotic protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, the disease is prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, East Africa and Brazil. VL can be diagnosed by PCR amplifying ITS1 and/or kDNA genes. The current study involved the optimization of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of Leishmania DNA in human blood or tissue samples. Three LAMP systems were developed; in two of those the primers were designed based on shared regions of the ITS1 gene among different Leishmania species, while the primers for the third LAMP system were derived from a newly identified repeated region in the Leishmania genome. The LAMP tests were shown to be sufficiently sensitive to detect 0.1pg of DNA from most Leishmania species. The green nucleic acid stain SYTO16, was used here for the first time to allow real-time monitoring of LAMP amplification. The advantage of real time-LAMP using SYTO 16 over end-point LAMP product detection is discussed. The efficacy of the real time-LAMP tests for detecting Leishmania DNA in dried blood samples from volunteers living in endemic areas, was compared with that of qRT-kDNA PCR. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Commercial DNA extraction kits impact observed microbial community composition in permafrost samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Layton, Alice C; Lau, Maggie C Y; Chauhan, Archana; Cheng, Karen R; Meyers, Arthur J; Murphy, Jasity R; Rogers, Alexandra W; Saarunya, Geetha S; Williams, Daniel E; Pfiffner, Susan M; Biggerstaff, John P; Stackhouse, Brandon T; Phelps, Tommy J; Whyte, Lyle; Sayler, Gary S; Onstott, Tullis C

    2014-01-01

    The total community genomic DNA (gDNA) from permafrost was extracted using four commercial DNA extraction kits. The gDNAs were compared using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes and bacterial diversity analyses obtained via 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA (V3 region) amplified in single or nested PCR. The FastDNA(®) SPIN (FDS) Kit provided the highest gDNA yields and 16S rRNA gene concentrations, followed by MoBio PowerSoil(®) (PS) and MoBio PowerLyzer™ (PL) kits. The lowest gDNA yields and 16S rRNA gene concentrations were from the Meta-G-Nome™ (MGN) DNA Isolation Kit. Bacterial phyla identified in all DNA extracts were similar to that found in other soils and were dominated by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria, and Acidobacteria. Weighted UniFrac and statistical analyses indicated that bacterial community compositions derived from FDS, PS, and PL extracts were similar to each other. However, the bacterial community structure from the MGN extracts differed from other kits exhibiting higher proportions of easily lysed β- and γ-Proteobacteria and lower proportions of Actinobacteria and Methylocystaceae important in carbon cycling. These results indicate that gDNA yields differ between the extraction kits, but reproducible bacterial community structure analysis may be accomplished using gDNAs from the three bead-beating lysis extraction kits. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Incubation Time and Vitamin E Supplementation on Sperm Motility, Viability and DNA Fragmentation in Asthenoteratozoospermic Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Ghafarizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: In Asthenoteratozoospermic‎ men, low motility, defected DNA and highly oxidative stress in ‎sperm ‎‎cause ‎poor‎ assisted reproductive techniques (ART outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Vitamin E (Vit E, as a potent antioxidant, on sperm motility, viability and DNA integrity at different times of in vitro incubation (after 2, 4 and 6-h to improve asthenoteratozoospermic semen samples for ART. Materials and Methods: Asthenoteratozoospermic semen samples of 50 volunteers were collected and examined. Each sample was divided into two groups of control and vitamin E (2mM and kept in the 37 °C and 6 % CO2 for 2, 4 and 6 hours. After this incubation, sperm motility, viability and sperm DNA fragmentation (SCD were evaluated in each group. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement of ANOVA and T-test. The means were considered significantly different at p<0.05. Results:Significant decrease in total and progressive motility and viability as well as significant increase in sperm DNA damage (after 6h of incubation were found in control group vs. the control group before incubation (p<0.05. The sperm motility and viability was significantly higher in vitamin E group compared to untreated control group (p<0.05. Our results also showed that DNA fragmentation significantly was lower after 6h of vitamin E treatment (p<0.05. Conclusion: In vitro supplementation of vitamin E in asthenoteratozoospermia semen samples may protect spermatozoa from maltreatment effect of ROS during sperm sampling via keeping enzymatic and antioxidant process in optimum condition.

  11. DNA-encoded chemistry: enabling the deeper sampling of chemical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, Robert A; Dumelin, Christoph E; Keefe, Anthony D

    2017-02-01

    DNA-encoded chemical library technologies are increasingly being adopted in drug discovery for hit and lead generation. DNA-encoded chemistry enables the exploration of chemical spaces four to five orders of magnitude more deeply than is achievable by traditional high-throughput screening methods. Operation of this technology requires developing a range of capabilities including aqueous synthetic chemistry, building block acquisition, oligonucleotide conjugation, large-scale molecular biological transformations, selection methodologies, PCR, sequencing, sequence data analysis and the analysis of large chemistry spaces. This Review provides an overview of the development and applications of DNA-encoded chemistry, highlighting the challenges and future directions for the use of this technology.

  12. Sampling strategy and potential utility of indels for DNA barcoding of closely related plant species: a case study in taxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Provan, Jim; Gao, Lian-Ming; Li, De-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Although DNA barcoding has become a useful tool for species identification and biodiversity surveys in plant sciences, there remains little consensus concerning appropriate sampling strategies and the treatment of indels. To address these two issues, we sampled 39 populations for nine Taxus species across their entire ranges, with two to three individuals per population randomly sampled. We sequenced one core DNA barcode (matK) and three supplementary regions (trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF and ITS) for all samples to test the effects of sampling design and the utility of indels. Our results suggested that increasing sampling within-population did not change the clustering of individuals, and that meant within-population P-distances were zero for most populations in all regions. Based on the markers tested here, comparison of methods either including or excluding indels indicated that discrimination and nodal support of monophyletic groups were significantly increased when indels were included. Thus we concluded that one individual per population was adequate to represent the within-population variation in these species for DNA barcoding, and that intra-specific sampling was best focused on representing the entire ranges of certain taxa. We also found that indels occurring in the chloroplast trnL-trnF and trnH-psbA regions were informative to differentiate among for closely related taxa barcoding, and we proposed that indel-coding methods should be considered for use in future for closed related plant species DNA barcoding projects on or below generic level.

  13. Evaluating ethanol-based sample preservation to facilitate use of DNA barcoding in routine freshwater biomonitoring programs using benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Stein

    Full Text Available Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential to enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biomonitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. Using higher volumes or concentrations of ethanol, requirements for shorter holding times, or the need to include additional filtering may increase cost and logistical constraints to existing biomonitoring programs. To address this issue we evaluated the efficacy of various ethanol-based sample preservation methods at maintaining DNA integrity. We evaluated a series of methods that were minimally modified from typical field protocols in order to identify an approach that can be readily incorporated into existing monitoring programs. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from a minimally disturbed stream in southern California, USA and subjected to one of six preservation treatments. Ten individuals from five taxa were selected from each treatment and processed to produce DNA barcodes from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI. On average, we obtained successful COI sequences (i.e. either full or partial barcodes for between 93-99% of all specimens across all six treatments. As long as samples were initially preserved in 95% ethanol, successful sequencing of COI barcodes was not affected by a low dilution ratio of 2∶1, transfer to 70% ethanol, presence of abundant organic matter, or holding times of up to six months. Barcoding success varied by taxa, with Leptohyphidae (Ephemeroptera producing the lowest barcode success rate, most likely due to poor PCR primer efficiency. Differential barcoding success rates have the potential to introduce spurious results. However, routine preservation methods can largely be used without adverse effects on DNA integrity.

  14. Further evaluation of an updated PCR assay for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni DNA in human stool samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana I Gomes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A previously reported sensitive PCR assay for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni DNA was updated and evaluated. Changes in the DNA extraction method, including the use of a worldwide available commercial kit and the inclusion of additional quality control measures, increased the robustness of the test, as confirmed by the analysis of 67 faecal samples from an endemic area in Brazil. The PCR assay is at hand as a proven, reliable diagnostic test for the control of schistosomiasis in specific settings.

  15. Elimination of unaltered DNA in mixed clinical samples via nuclease-assisted minor-allele enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chen; Liu, Yibin; Fontana, Rachel; Makrigiorgos, Alexander; Mamon, Harvey; Kulke, Matthew H.; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike

    2016-01-01

    Presence of excess unaltered, wild-type (WT) DNA providing no information of biological or clinical value often masks rare alterations containing diagnostic or therapeutic clues in cancer, prenatal diagnosis, infectious diseases or organ transplantation. With the surge of high-throughput technologies there is a growing demand for removing unaltered DNA over large pools-of-sequences. Here we present nuclease-assisted minor-allele enrichment with probe-overlap (NaME-PrO), a single-step approach...

  16. Analytical template protection performance and maximum key size given a Gaussian-modeled biometric source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; Breebaart, Jeroen; Buhan, I.R.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Vijaya Kumar, B.V.K.; Prabhakar, Salil; Ross, Arun A.

    2010-01-01

    Template protection techniques are used within biometric systems in order to protect the stored biometric template against privacy and security threats. A great portion of template protection techniques are based on extracting a key from or binding a key to a biometric sample. The achieved

  17. Pitfall of the Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation within template protection and a remedy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; de Groot, K.T.J.; Chen, C.; Breebaart, J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2009-01-01

    One of the requirements of a biometric template protection system is that the protected template ideally should not leak any information about the biometric sample or its derivatives. In the literature, several proposed template protection techniques are based on binary vectors. Hence, they require

  18. The examination of ancient DNA: guidelines on precautions, controls, and sample processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz, M.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The young discipline of palaeogenetics has developed into a successful and expectant field of archaeobiological research within the last decade. Palaeogenetic investigation (e.g. PCR, DNA sequencing of ancient specimens is, however, susceptible to falsification by the presence of contamination from more recent times. Contamination which can lead to amplification of non-authentic sequences is known to stem from several sources: (i human biomolecules derived from the persons performing the genetic experiments, perhaps also from the archeologists and other persons who have previously handled the specimens or (ii edaphic DNA sequences derived primarily from bacterial or fungal growth upon the specimen. A third source of contamination can arise from (iii substances used for conservation of specimens. Here we give advice on the correct processing of prehistoric bone samples when further molecular biological examination is required. Along with the demonstration of necessary precautions and working conditions, we further explain how an unequivocal DNA contamination monitoring is performed.

    La paleogenética se ha convertido en los últimos años en una disciplina coronada de éxito que ofrece grandes expectativas para el desarrollo de la investigación arqueobiológica. No obstante, la investigación paleogenética (p. ej: PCR, secuenciación del ADN de especímenes antiguos es susceptible de ser falsificada por la presencia de una contaminación más reciente. Actualmente sabemos que la contaminación que provoca la amplificación de secuencias ''no auténticas" procede de las siguientes fuentes: (i las biomoléculas humanas provienen de la persona que realiza el experimento genético o incluso también del arqueólogo u otras personas que previamente hayan tenido contacto con el espécimen; (ii de secuencias de ADN edáficas derivadas básicamente del crecimiento bacterial o fúngico en el seno del espécimen. La tercera fuente de contaminaci

  19. Application of chemometric tools for automatic classification and profile extraction of DNA samples in forensic tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera Bustamante, Isneri; Silva Mata, Francisco; Hernández González, Noslen; González Gazapo, Ricardo; Palau, Juan; Ferreira, Marcia M Castro

    2007-07-09

    In this paper a method for the automatic DNA spots classification and extraction of profiles associated in DNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is presented and it integrates the use of image processing techniques and chemometrics tools. A software which implements this method was developed; for feature extraction a combination of a PCA analysis and a C4.5 decision tree were used. To obtain good results in the profile extraction only DNA spots are useful; therefore, it was necessary to solve a two-class classification problem among DNA spots and no-DNA spots. In order to perform the classification process with high velocity, effectiveness and robustness, comparative classification studies among support vector machine (SVM), K-NN and PLS-DA classifiers were made. The best results obtained with the SVM classifier demonstrated the advantages attributed to it in the literature as a two-class classifier. A Sequential Cluster Leader Algorithm and another one developed for the restoration of pattern missing spots were needed to conclude the profiles extraction step. The experimental results show that this method has a very effective computational behavior and effectiveness, and provide a very useful tool to decrease the time and increase the quality of the specialist responses.

  20. Comparison of American Fisheries Society (AFS) standard fish sampling techniques and environmental DNA for characterizing fish communities in a large reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Christina R.; Bonar, Scott A.; Amberg, Jon J.; Ladell, Bridget; Rees, Christopher B.; Stewart, William T.; Gill, Curtis J.; Cantrell, Chris; Robinson, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Recently, methods involving examination of environmental DNA (eDNA) have shown promise for characterizing fish species presence and distribution in waterbodies. We evaluated the use of eDNA for standard fish monitoring surveys in a large reservoir. Specifically, we compared the presence, relative abundance, biomass, and relative percent composition of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides and Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum measured through eDNA methods and established American Fisheries Society standard sampling methods for Theodore Roosevelt Lake, Arizona. Catches at electrofishing and gillnetting sites were compared with eDNA water samples at sites, within spatial strata, and over the entire reservoir. Gizzard Shad were detected at a higher percentage of sites with eDNA methods than with boat electrofishing in both spring and fall. In contrast, spring and fall gillnetting detected Gizzard Shad at more sites than eDNA. Boat electrofishing and gillnetting detected Largemouth Bass at more sites than eDNA; the exception was fall gillnetting, for which the number of sites of Largemouth Bass detection was equal to that for eDNA. We observed no relationship between relative abundance and biomass of Largemouth Bass and Gizzard Shad measured by established methods and eDNA copies at individual sites or lake sections. Reservoirwide catch composition for Largemouth Bass and Gizzard Shad (numbers and total weight [g] of fish) as determined through a combination of gear types (boat electrofishing plus gillnetting) was similar to the proportion of total eDNA copies from each species in spring and fall field sampling. However, no similarity existed between proportions of fish caught via spring and fall boat electrofishing and the proportion of total eDNA copies from each species. Our study suggests that eDNA field sampling protocols, filtration, DNA extraction, primer design, and DNA sequencing methods need further refinement and testing before incorporation into standard

  1. Evaluating the prevalence of DNA mixtures found in fingernail samples from victims and suspects in homicide cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurit, Bublil; Anat, Gast; Michal, Shenfeld; Lilach, Front; Maya, Freund

    2011-11-01

    An important aspect of homicide investigations is the identification of the persons that had the last contact with the victim prior to death. Violent crimes are frequently characterized by a struggle between the victim and the perpetrator where biological material can be expected to be exchanged between them. Forensic DNA typing enables the generation of genetic profiles by extraction and amplification of cellular material found under fingernails. The evidential value of these samples may be critical if the secondary contributor found in a DNA mixture, can be matched with a potential suspect, or through a DNA database search. The amount of biological material transferred under the fingernails during "casual" activities is not sufficient to genotype reportable mixtures. This may not be the case with homicide victims that may have struggled and died under violent circumstances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of DNA mixtures found under the fingernails of both victims and suspected perpetrators of violent deaths. We present a retrospective study of 137 DNA profiles genotyped from fingernail samples of homicide victims and suspects, collected at the Israeli National Center of Forensic Medicine. The majority of the samples produced single source profiles (n=107, 78%) that matched those of the donor's. DNA mixtures (n=30, 22%) were found in increased frequency among victims (n=25/100, 25%) compared to suspects (n=5/37, 13.5%). Mixtures were sub-divided into high level (n=15, 50%), low level (n=9, 30%) and residual (n=6, 20%), according to the number of the foreign contributors' alleles. Thus, this distinctive group of homicide victims was found to express both elevated frequency of DNA mixtures together with highly informative value of the secondary foreign profiles, as compared to other studied populations. These findings support an important aspect for the criminal investigation in murder cases, where a struggle may have ensued and the

  2. Comparison of several methods for the extraction of DNA from potatoes and potato-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna S; Maxwell, Philip W; De Boer, Solke H

    2005-12-28

    Eight methods were compared for the extraction of DNA from raw potato tubers, and nine methods were evaluated for the extraction of DNA from dehydrated potato slices, potato flakes, potato flour, potato starch, and two ready-to-eat potato snack foods. Extracts were assessed for yield using a fluorescence-based DNA quantification assay. Real-time amplification of an endogenous gene, sucrose synthase (sus), was used to assess extract and template quality. A CTAB-based method extracted the highest DNA yields from the tuber material. An in-house method, which utilized the Kingfisher magnetic particle processor, yielded the highest template quality from the tubers. For most of the tuber samples, the Kingfisher and CTAB methods recovered the highest levels of amplifiable sus. DNA yields for potato-derived foods generally decreased with the extent that the product had been processed. The methods that utilized the magnetic particle processor delivered the highest template quality from one of the snack products that was particularly high in fat. For most of the remaining processed products, the levels of amplifiable target DNA recovered were roughly correlated with total DNA recovery, indicating that overall yield had greater influence over sus amplification than template quality. The Wizard method was generally the best method for the extraction of DNA from most of the potato-derived foods.

  3. Comparing reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation in semen samples of unexplained infertile and healthy fertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Zahra; Vatannejad, Akram; Doosti, Mahmood; Zabihzadeh, Sara; Haddadi, Mahnaz; Bajelan, Leila; Rashidi, Batool; Amanpour, Saeid

    2017-11-15

    Male factor infertility has increased to more than 40% during the last decade. About 30% of these couples are diagnosed with unexplained infertility. In fact, reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially superoxide anion (O2-·) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), play a crucial role in regulation of physiological and pathological processes in spermatozoa. Moreover, since the diagnosis of unexplained infertility just through semen analysis is a matter of much controversy; we aimed to evaluate the levels of ROS and sperm DNA fragmentation in the semen samples of unexplained infertile and fertile control couples. The semen samples of 28 unexplained infertile couples and 30 fertile control couples were analyzed according to WHO criteria. The intracellular levels of H2O2 and O2-· were detected by flow cytometry with 2',7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate and Dihydroethidium, respectively, and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by sperm chromatin dispersion test. In unexplained infertile group, sperm motility and normal morphology were significantly lower than the control. The levels of sperm H2O2, O2-·, and DNA fragmentation were significantly higher in unexplained infertile men compared to fertile. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the level of H2O2 and sperm DNA fragmentation in the unexplained infertile group. Besides, reduced sperm motility in the unexplained infertile group was significantly correlated with elevated levels of ROS. The higher levels of intracellular ROS and DNA fragmentation in the semen samples of unexplained infertile couples and their causes might be considered as an important factor related to diagnosis and treatment of the unexplained infertile couples.

  4. Comparison of two methods of bacterial DNA extraction from human fecal samples contaminated with Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Jun; Kurosaki, Morito; Kawakami, Yuta; Kashimoto, Takashi; Tsunomori, Yoshie; Sato, Koji; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Keiji; Watahiki, Masanori; Shima, Tomoko; Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Etoh, Yoshiki; Horikawa, Kazumi; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoichi; Shirabe, Komei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 2 methods of DNA extraction were evaluated for use in conjunction with the screening system Rapid Foodborne Bacterial Screening 24 (RFBS24), which employs multiplex real-time SYBR Green polymerase chain reaction (SG-PCR) and can simultaneously detect 24 target genes of foodborne pathogens in fecal DNA samples. The QIAamp DNA Stool mini kit (Qkit) and Ultra Clean Fecal DNA Isolation Kit (Ukit) were used for bacterial DNA extraction from fecal samples artificially inoculated with Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni. SG-PCR and simplex real-time quantitative PCR (S-qPCR) analyses revealed higher copy numbers (8-234 times) of DNA in samples obtained using Ukit compared with those obtained using Qkit, resulting in lower cycle threshold values for the Ukit samples of the 4 bacteria on SG-PCR analysis. Fecal DNA samples from patients infected during foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella and Campylobacter were also prepared by Qkit and Ukit methods and subjected to RFBS24 analyses. Higher numbers of RFBS24 bacterial target genes were detected in DNA samples obtained using Ukit compared with those obtained using Qkit. Thus, the higher DNA extraction efficiency of the Ukit method compared with Qkit renders the former more useful in achieving improved detection rates of these 4 bacteria in fecal samples using SG-PCR.

  5. Simultaneous Single-Molecule Force and Fluorescence Sampling of DNA Nanostructure Conformations Using Magnetic Tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerich, Felix E; Swoboda, Marko; Kauert, Dominik J; Grieb, M Svea; Hahn, Steffen; Schwarz, Friedrich W; Seidel, Ralf; Schlierf, Michael

    2016-01-13

    We present a hybrid single-molecule technique combining magnetic tweezers and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Through applying external forces to a paramagnetic sphere, we induce conformational changes in DNA nanostructures, which are detected in two output channels simultaneously. First, by tracking a magnetic bead with high spatial and temporal resolution, we observe overall DNA length changes along the force axis. Second, the measured FRET efficiency between two fluorescent probes monitors local conformational changes. The synchronized orthogonal readout in different observation channels will facilitate deciphering the complex mechanisms of biomolecular machines.

  6. Monitoring of human herpesviruses-6 and -7 DNA in saliva samples during the acute and convalescent phases of exanthem subitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuki; Namba, Hikaru; Torigoe, Sadayoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Yamashita, Nobuko; Ogawa, Hirohito; Morishima, Tsuneo; Yamada, Masao

    2017-04-01

    The amounts of the DNAs of human herpesviruses-6 (HHV-6) and -7 (HHV-7) in saliva samples were monitored during the acute and convalescent phases of exanthem subitum (ES) to elucidate the kinetics of virus shedding after ES. A total of 247 saliva samples were collected from 17 children (5 males and 12 females: 8-31 months old at onset). The monitoring period ranged from 152 to 721 days after onset, and in 15 children it was longer than 1 year. Among the 17 cases, 16 were attributed to HHV-6B, while a single case was attributed to HHV-7. Detection rates and average amounts of HHV-6 DNA in saliva samples after ES attributed to HHV-6B were low in the acute phase, increased to the maximum in the convalescent phase at 3-7 months, and then decreased. In addition, to investigate the source of infection, saliva samples from the older siblings (age 3-9 years) and parents of ES patients and children with a history of ES were also examined. The detection rate of HHV-6 DNA in saliva samples from 3- to 9-year-old children was significantly higher than the rate in adult saliva samples. Taken together, these findings suggest that the saliva of children in the convalescent phase of ES might be a more likely source of HHV-6 infection than that of adults. J. Med. Virol. 89:696-702, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Deformable Template Model, with Special Reference to Elliptical Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Pedersen, Jan; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2002-01-01

    This paper suggests a high-level continuous image model for planar star-shaped objects. Under this model, a planar object is a stochastic deformation of a star-shaped template. The residual process, describing the difference between the radius-vector function of the template and the object...

  8. [Critical Study of the last jurisprudence of the Supreme Court on requirements and guarantees regarding DNA sampling from suspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoyos Sancho, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    A critical study will be made of recent jurisprudence of Spanish Supreme Court in relation to the principal requirements that current legislation establishes for so-called "DNA testing", specially in connection with the rules on lawful evidence. In particular, the various hypotheses and circumstances that might concur in the collection of tissue samples from the suspect will be analyzed, as well as questions relating to the need, or otherwise, of legal assistance during such an act.

  9. An Improved Method for High Quality Metagenomics DNA Extraction from Human and Environmental Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bag, Satyabrata; Saha, Bipasa; Mehta, Ojasvi

    2016-01-01

    methodologies and the supremacy of our method was confirmed. Maximum recovery of genomic DNA in the absence of substantial amount of impurities made the method convenient for nucleic acid extraction. The nucleic acids obtained using this method are suitable for different downstream applications. This improved...

  10. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: A study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin McKelvey; Michael Young; W. L. Knotek; K. J. Carim; T. M. Wilcox; T. M. Padgett-Stewart; Michael Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing,...

  11. DNA sequencing validation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae nucleic acid tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin Hang; Vigliotti, Veronica S; Pappu, Suri

    2008-06-01

    DNA sequencing was used to confirm Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae nucleic acids in endocervical swab samples. DNA in residues of the samples with positive results by 2 commercial kits was subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The nested PCR amplicons were used as templates for direct automated DNA sequencing. A 40-base signature sequence was sufficient to achieve unequivocal validation of C trachomatis cryptic plasmid and gonococcal opa gene DNA. DNA with a signature sequence specific for C trachomatis was identified in all 14 samples and for N gonorrhoeae in all 13 samples with positive results by the commercial kits for these 2 microbes. In a low-prevalence population, PCR retesting of 289 samples with initial negative results by a non-nucleic acid amplification assay revealed 3 samples positive for C trachomatis and 2 samples positive for N gonorrhoeae that were missed by the commercial kit. DNA sequencing is a useful tool in validating molecular diagnostics.

  12. The effect of dilution and the use of a post-extraction nucleic acid purification column on the accuracy, precision, and inhibition of environmental DNA samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, Anna M.; Spear, Stephen F.; Pierson, Todd W.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of environmental DNA (eDNA) is an increasingly common method for detecting presence and assessing relative abundance of rare or elusive species in aquatic systems via the isolation of DNA from environmental samples and the amplification of species-specific sequences using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Co-extracted substances that inhibit qPCR can lead to inaccurate results and subsequent misinterpretation about a species’ status in the tested system. We tested three treatments (5-fold and 10-fold dilutions, and spin-column purification) for reducing qPCR inhibition from 21 partially and fully inhibited eDNA samples collected from coastal plain wetlands and mountain headwater streams in the southeastern USA. All treatments reduced the concentration of DNA in the samples. However, column purified samples retained the greatest sensitivity. For stream samples, all three treatments effectively reduced qPCR inhibition. However, for wetland samples, the 5-fold dilution was less effective than other treatments. Quantitative PCR results for column purified samples were more precise than the 5-fold and 10-fold dilutions by 2.2× and 3.7×, respectively. Column purified samples consistently underestimated qPCR-based DNA concentrations by approximately 25%, whereas the directional bias in qPCR-based DNA concentration estimates differed between stream and wetland samples for both dilution treatments. While the directional bias of qPCR-based DNA concentration estimates differed among treatments and locations, the magnitude of inaccuracy did not. Our results suggest that 10-fold dilution and column purification effectively reduce qPCR inhibition in mountain headwater stream and coastal plain wetland eDNA samples, and if applied to all samples in a study, column purification may provide the most accurate relative qPCR-based DNA concentrations estimates while retaining the greatest assay sensitivity.

  13. Preferential access to genetic information from endogenous hominin ancient DNA and accurate quantitative SNP-typing via SPEX

    OpenAIRE

    Brotherton, Paul; Sanchez, Juan J.; Cooper, Alan; Endicott, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of targeted genetic loci from ancient, forensic and clinical samples is usually built upon polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated sequence data. However, many studies have shown that PCR amplification from poor-quality DNA templates can create sequence artefacts at significant levels. With hominin (human and other hominid) samples, the pervasive presence of highly PCR-amplifiable human DNA contaminants in the vast majority of samples can lead to the creation of recombinant hyb...

  14. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  15. New optimized DNA extraction protocol for fingerprints deposited on a special self-adhesive security seal and other latent samples used for human identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Julieta; Leder, Monika; Jaureguiberry, Stella M; Brem, Gottfried; Boselli, Gabriel O

    2011-09-01

    Obtaining complete short tandem repeat (STR) profiles from fingerprints containing minimal amounts of DNA, using standard extraction techniques, can be difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new kit, Fingerprint DNA Finder (FDF Kit), recently launched for the extraction of DNA and STR profiling from fingerprints placed on a special device known as Self-Adhesive Security Seal Sticker(®) and other latent fingerprints on forensic evidentiary material like metallic guns. The DNA extraction system is based on a reversal of the silica principle, and all the potential inhibiting substances are retained on the surface of a special adsorbent, while nucleic acids are not bound and remain in solution dramatically improving DNA recovery. DNA yield was quite variable among the samples tested, rendering in most of the cases (>90%) complete STR profiles, free of PCR inhibitors, and devoid of artifacts. Even samples with DNA amount below 100 pg could be successfully analyzed. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Micro-RNA quantification using DNA polymerase and pyrophosphate quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsiang-Ping; Hsiao, Yi-Ling; Pan, Hung-Yin; Huang, Chih-Hung; Hou, Shao-Yi

    2011-12-15

    A rapid quantification method for micro-RNA based on DNA polymerase activity and pyrophosphate quantification has been developed. The tested micro-RNA serves as the primer, unlike the DNA primer in all DNA sequencing methods, and the DNA probe serves as the template for DNA replication. After the DNA synthesis, the pyrophosphate detection and quantification indicate the existence and quantity of the tested miRNA. Five femtomoles of the synthetic RNA could be detected. In 20-100 μg RNA samples purified from SiHa cells, the measurement was done using the proposed assay in which hsa-miR-16 and hsa-miR-21 are 0.34 fmol/μg RNA and 0.71 fmol/μg RNA, respectively. This simple and inexpensive assay takes less than 5 min after total RNA purification and preparation. The quantification is not affected by the pre-miRNA which cannot serve as the primer for the DNA synthesis in this assay. This assay is general for the detection of the target RNA or DNA with a known matched DNA template probe, which could be widely used for detection of small RNA, messenger RNA, RNA viruses, and DNA. Therefore, the method could be widely used in RNA and DNA assays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Localized Template-Driven Functionalization of Nanoparticles by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowak, Piotr; Saggiomo, Vittorio; Salehian, Fatemeh; Colomb-Delsuc, Mathieu; Han, Yang; Otto, Sijbren

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a method for the localized functionalization of gold nanoparticles using imine-based dynamic combinatorial chemistry. By using DNA templates, amines were grafted on the aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles only if and where the nanoparticles interacted with the template molecules.

  18. DNA aggregation and cleavage in CGE induced by high electric field in aqueous solution accompanying electrokinetic sample injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoxue; Mori, Satomi; Xu, Zhongqi; Hayakawa, Shinjiro; Hirokawa, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of peak area decrease due to high injection voltage (Vinj , e.g. 10-30 kV, 200-600 V/cm in the 50 cm capillary) was found in the analysis of very dilute DNA fragments (electrokinetic supercharging-CGE. The possibility of DNA cleavage in aqueous solution was suggested, in addition to the aggregation phenomenon that is already known. The analysis of intentionally voltage-affected fragments (at 200 V/cm) also showed decreased peak areas depending on the time of the voltage being applied. Computer simulation suggested that a high electric field (a few kV/cm or more) could be generated partly between the electrode and the capillary end during electrokinetic injection (EKI) process. After thorough experimental verification, it was found that the factors affecting the damage during EKI were the magnitude of electric field, the distance between tips of electrode and capillary (De/c ), sample concentration and traveling time during EKI in sample vials. Furthermore, these factors are correlating with each other. A low conductivity of diluted sample would cause a high electric field (over a few hundred volts per centimeter), while the longer De/c results in a longer traveling time during EKI, which may cause a larger degree of damage (aggregation and cleavage) on the DNA fragments. As an important practical implication of this study, when the dilute DNA fragments (sub mg/L) are to be analyzed by CGE using EKI, injection voltage should be kept as low as possible. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Identification of the Mislabeled Breast Cancer Samples by Mitochondrial DNA Haplotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The task to identify whether an archival malignant tumor specimen had been mislabeled or interchanged is a challenging one for forensic genetics. The nuclear DNA (nDNA markers were affected by the aberration of tumor cells, so they were not suitable for personal identification when the tumor tissues were tested. In this study, we focused on a new solution - mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphism (mtSNP haplotyping by a multiplex SNaPshot assay. To validate our strategy of haplotyping with 25 mtSNPs, we analyzed 15 pairs of cancerous/healthy tissues taken from patients with ductal breast carcinoma. The haplotypes of all the fifteen breast cancer tissues were matched with their paired breast tissues. The heteroplasmy at 2 sites, 14783A/G and 16519C/T was observed in one breast tissue, which indicated a mixture of related mitochondrial haplotypes. However, only one haplotype was retained in the paired breast cancer tissue, which could be considered the result of proliferation of tumor subclone. The allele drop-out and allele drop-in were observed when 39 STRs and 20 tri-allelic SNPs of nDNA were applied. Compared to nDNA markers applied, 25 mtSNPs were more stable without interference from aberrance of breast cancer. Also, two cases were presented where the investigation of haplotype with 25 mtSNPs was used to prove the origin of biopsy specimen with breast cancer. The mislabeling of biopsy specimen with breast cancer could be certified in one case but could not be supported in the other case. We highlight the importance of stability of mtSNP haplotype in breast cancer. It was implied that our multiplex SNaPshot assay with 25 mtSNPs was a useful strategy to identify mislabeled breast cancer specimen.

  20. Fragmentation of contaminant and endogenous DNA in ancient samples determined by shotgun sequencing; prospects for human palaeogenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc García-Garcerà

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the successful retrieval of genomes from past remains, the prospects for human palaeogenomics remain unclear because of the difficulty of distinguishing contaminant from endogenous DNA sequences. Previous sequence data generated on high-throughput sequencing platforms indicate that fragmentation of ancient DNA sequences is a characteristic trait primarily arising due to depurination processes that create abasic sites leading to DNA breaks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS FINDINGS: To investigate whether this pattern is present in ancient remains from a temperate environment, we have 454-FLX pyrosequenced different samples dated between 5,500 and 49,000 years ago: a bone from an extinct goat (Myotragus balearicus that was treated with a depurinating agent (bleach, an Iberian lynx bone not subjected to any treatment, a human Neolithic sample from Barcelona (Spain, and a Neandertal sample from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain. The efficiency of retrieval of endogenous sequences is below 1% in all cases. We have used the non-human samples to identify human sequences (0.35 and 1.4%, respectively, that we positively know are contaminants. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that bleach treatment appears to create a depurination-associated fragmentation pattern in resulting contaminant sequences that is indistinguishable from previously described endogenous sequences. Furthermore, the nucleotide composition pattern observed in 5' and 3' ends of contaminant sequences is much more complex than the flat pattern previously described in some Neandertal contaminants. Although much research on samples with known contaminant histories is needed, our results suggest that endogenous and contaminant sequences cannot be distinguished by the fragmentation pattern alone.

  1. Fragmentation of contaminant and endogenous DNA in ancient samples determined by shotgun sequencing; prospects for human palaeogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garcerà, Marc; Gigli, Elena; Sanchez-Quinto, Federico; Ramirez, Oscar; Calafell, Francesc; Civit, Sergi; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Despite the successful retrieval of genomes from past remains, the prospects for human palaeogenomics remain unclear because of the difficulty of distinguishing contaminant from endogenous DNA sequences. Previous sequence data generated on high-throughput sequencing platforms indicate that fragmentation of ancient DNA sequences is a characteristic trait primarily arising due to depurination processes that create abasic sites leading to DNA breaks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS FINDINGS: To investigate whether this pattern is present in ancient remains from a temperate environment, we have 454-FLX pyrosequenced different samples dated between 5,500 and 49,000 years ago: a bone from an extinct goat (Myotragus balearicus) that was treated with a depurinating agent (bleach), an Iberian lynx bone not subjected to any treatment, a human Neolithic sample from Barcelona (Spain), and a Neandertal sample from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain). The efficiency of retrieval of endogenous sequences is below 1% in all cases. We have used the non-human samples to identify human sequences (0.35 and 1.4%, respectively), that we positively know are contaminants. We observed that bleach treatment appears to create a depurination-associated fragmentation pattern in resulting contaminant sequences that is indistinguishable from previously described endogenous sequences. Furthermore, the nucleotide composition pattern observed in 5' and 3' ends of contaminant sequences is much more complex than the flat pattern previously described in some Neandertal contaminants. Although much research on samples with known contaminant histories is needed, our results suggest that endogenous and contaminant sequences cannot be distinguished by the fragmentation pattern alone.

  2. Evaluation of PCR, DNA hybridization and immunomagnetic separation - PCR for detection of Burkholderia mallei in artificially inoculated environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwyn, S; Kumar, S; Agarwal, G S; Rai, G P

    2010-06-01

    Glanders is highly contagious disease of equines, caused by Burkholderia mallei. The disease though rare, can be transmitted to humans. Here, we report a strategy for rapid detection of B. mallei from environmental samples. Different bacteriological media were evaluated and brain heart infusion broth medium with selective supplements (BHIB-SS) of penicillin (200 U/ml) and crystal violet (1:10,00000) was found to support the maximum growth of B. mallei even in the presence of other bacteria like Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a DNA hybridization method was standardized for 823 bp specific dNA sequence of B. mallei. To enable the quicker and direct enrichment of B. mallei bacteria from environmental samples, an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method was also standardized. Water, husk, grass and gram samples were artificially contaminated by B. mallei bacteria and after enrichment of B. mallei in BHIB-SS, detection was carried out by PCR and DNA hybridization. PCR was found to be a better method of the two with a detection limit of 10(4)-10(6) CFU/ml (6 h enrichment in BHIB-SS) in water and other particulate matrices. Detection by PCR in the above samples without enrichment in BHIBSS was carried out following IMS where the detection limit was about 1-2 log higher than PCR following enrichment in BHIB-SS. We recommend PCR for 823 bp for detection of B. mallei from environmental samples either following enrichment in BHIB-SS or IMS. IMS-PCR method may be preferred in situations where numbers of B. mallei bacteria are expected to be high and results are required in short time.

  3. Effects of DNA mass on multiple displacement whole genome amplification and genotyping performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Kashif A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome amplification (WGA promises to eliminate practical molecular genetic analysis limitations associated with genomic DNA (gDNA quantity. We evaluated the performance of multiple displacement amplification (MDA WGA using gDNA extracted from lymphoblastoid cell lines (N = 27 with a range of starting gDNA input of 1–200 ng into the WGA reaction. Yield and composition analysis of whole genome amplified DNA (wgaDNA was performed using three DNA quantification methods (OD, PicoGreen® and RT-PCR. Two panels of N = 15 STR (using the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® panel and N = 49 SNP (TaqMan® genotyping assays were performed on each gDNA and wgaDNA sample in duplicate. gDNA and wgaDNA masses of 1, 4 and 20 ng were used in the SNP assays to evaluate the effects of DNA mass on SNP genotyping assay performance. A total of N = 6,880 STR and N = 56,448 SNP genotype attempts provided adequate power to detect differences in STR and SNP genotyping performance between gDNA and wgaDNA, and among wgaDNA produced from a range of gDNA templates inputs. Results The proportion of double-stranded wgaDNA and human-specific PCR amplifiable wgaDNA increased with increased gDNA input into the WGA reaction. Increased amounts of gDNA input into the WGA reaction improved wgaDNA genotyping performance. Genotype completion or genotype concordance rates of wgaDNA produced from all gDNA input levels were observed to be reduced compared to gDNA, although the reduction was not always statistically significant. Reduced wgaDNA genotyping performance was primarily due to the increased variance of allelic amplification, resulting in loss of heterozygosity or increased undetermined genotypes. MDA WGA produces wgaDNA from no template control samples; such samples exhibited substantial false-positive genotyping rates. Conclusion The amount of gDNA input into the MDA WGA reaction is a critical determinant of genotyping performance of wgaDNA. At least 10 ng of

  4. Natural biopolymers : novel templates for the synthesis of nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonal Padalkar; J.R. Capadona; S.J. Rowan; C. Weder; Yu-Ho Won; Lia A. Stanciu; Robert J. Moon

    2010-01-01

    Biological systems such as proteins, viruses, and DNA have been most often reported to be used as templates for the synthesis of functional nanomaterials, but